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Sample records for terminal hair growth

  1. Degree of facial and body terminal hair growth in unselected black and white women: toward a populational definition of hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeUgarte, Catherine Marin; Woods, K S; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Azziz, Ricardo

    2006-04-01

    Hirsutism (i.e. facial and body terminal hair growth in a male-like pattern in women) is the principal clinical sign of hyperandrogenism, although its definition remains unclear. The purposes of the present study were to define 1) the degree of facial and body terminal hair, as assessed by the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score, in unselected women from the general population; 2) the effect of race (Black and White) on the same; and 3) the normative cutoff values. We conducted a prospective observational study at a tertiary academic medical center. Participants included 633 unselected White (n = 283) and Black (n = 350) women presenting for a preemployment physical exam. Interventions included history and physical examination. Terminal body hair growth was assessed using the mFG scoring system; nine body areas were scored from 0-4 for terminal hair growth distribution. The mFG scores were not normally distributed; although cluster analysis failed to identify a natural cutoff value or clustering of the population, principal component and univariate analyses denoted two nearly distinct clusters that occurred above and below an mFG value of 2, with the bulk of the scores below. Overall, an mFG score of at least 3 was observed in 22.1% of all subjects (i.e. the upper quartile); of these subjects, 69.3% complained of being hirsute, compared with 15.8% of women with an mFG score below this value, and similar to the proportion of women with an mFG score of at least 8 who considered themselves to be hirsute (70.0%). Overall, there were no significant differences between Black and White women. Our data indicate that the prevalence and degree of facial and body terminal hair growth, as assessed by the mFG score, is similar in Black and White women and that an mFG of at least 3 signals the population of women whose hair growth falls out of the norm.

  2. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  3. Topical Valproate Solution for Hair Growth

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    Anil Kakunje

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Valproate is used regularly in the treatment of various seizure disorders, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis and off label in many other conditions. Alopecia or hair loss is cosmetic side effect of oral valproate administration. Hair loss with valproate is diffused, non-scarring and dose related. A large number of drugs may interfere with the hair cycle and produce hair loss. We have only a few drugs like Minoxidil, Finasteride used for hair regeneration and both have its own side effects and limitations. In contrast to oral ingestions of valproate causing hair loss, early experiments with topical Valproic acid cream showed hair regeneration. Valproic acid cream is currently unavailable in the market, alternatively, we do have valproate and divalproex solutions available in various strengths which have a potential to be used topically for hair regeneration. The side effects and cost of topical valproate solution could be much less than the available options in the market. Valproate solution topically has the potential to be used for hair growth.

  4. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

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    Xiaoyu Gao

    Full Text Available Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  5. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hair Growth Promotant Activity of Petroleum Ether Root Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on hair growth in female Wistar rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were used for the hair growth promotion studies. They were divided into three groups(n = 6) and their dorsal skin was completely denuded to completely remove hair. Paraffin oil (control), 2 ...

  7. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  8. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  9. Development and Evaluation of Herbal Formulations for Hair Growth

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    Lipi Purwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair formulation of Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae, Bacopa, monnieri (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae in various concentrations in the form of herbal oil were studied for their hair growth activity. Each drug was tested for their hair growth activity in a concentration range for 1-10% separately. Based on these results mixture of crude drugs Murraya koeniigi, leaf (Rutaceae, Bacopa monnieri, leaf (Scrophulariaceae, Trigonella foenumgraecum (Leguminosae, Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae were prepared in varying concentration in the form of herbal hair oil by three different oils preparation techniques and were tested for hair growth activity. The result revealed that the hair growth activity of each drug was found proportional to the concentration range tested. Similarly higher concentrations of drug in the formulation were found to have higher hair growth activities. But looking towards the formulation viscosity the maximum concentration of combined drug was found to be 30% at their maximum level. The formulation containing 7.5% of each drug used for the study and showed excellent hair growth activity with standard (2% minoxidil ethanolic solution by an enlargement of follicular size and prolongation of the anagen phase. It holds the promise of potent herbal alternative for minoxidil. Excellent results of hair growth were seen in formulation prepared by cloth pouch decoction method of oils preparation technique.

  10. A function for Rac1 in the terminal differentiation and pigmentation of hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Kristina; Klatte, Jennifer; Pofahl, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    in the regulation of terminal hair follicle differentiation. To address this, we have expressed a constitutively active mutant of Rac1, L61Rac1, only in the basal epidermal layer and outer root sheath of mice possessing an epidermis-specific deletion of endogenous Rac1, which experience severe hair loss......The small GTPase Rac1 is ubiquitously expressed in proliferating and differentiating layers of the epidermis and hair follicles. Previously, Rac1 was shown to regulate stem cell behaviour in these compartments. We have asked whether Rac1 has, in addition, a specific, stem-cell-independent function....... The resulting 'rescue' mice exhibited a hair coat throughout their lives. Therefore, expression of Rac1 activity in the keratin-14-positive compartment of the skin is sufficient for the formation of hair follicles and hair in normal quantities. The quality of hair formed in rescue mice was, however, not normal...

  11. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gold thread implantation promotes hair growth in human and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Yong-Soon; Yun, Jun-Won; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Thread-embedding therapy has been widely applied for cosmetic purposes such as wrinkle reduction and skin tightening. Particularly, gold thread was reported to support connective tissue regeneration, but, its role in hair biology remains largely unknown due to lack of investigation. When we implanted gold thread and Happy Lift™ in human patient for facial lifting, we unexpectedly found an increase of hair regrowth in spite of no use of hair growth medications. When embedded into the depilated...

  13. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency. PMID:25584150

  14. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

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    Dongliang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  15. Gold thread implantation promotes hair growth in human and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwon, Euna; Kim, Woo-Ho; Park, Jin-Sung; Lee, Yong-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Thread-embedding therapy has been widely applied for cosmetic purposes such as wrinkle reduction and skin tightening. Particularly, gold thread was reported to support connective tissue regeneration, but, its role in hair biology remains largely unknown due to lack of investigation. When we implanted gold thread and Happy Lift™ in human patient for facial lifting, we unexpectedly found an increase of hair regrowth in spite of no use of hair growth medications. When embedded into the depilated dorsal skin of mice, gold thread or polyglycolic acid (PGA) thread, similarly to 5% minoxidil, significantly increased the number of hair follicles on day 14 after implantation. And, hair re-growth promotion in the gold threadimplanted mice were significantly higher than that in PGA thread group on day 11 after depilation. In particular, the skin tissue of gold thread-implanted mice showed stronger PCNA staining and higher collagen density compared with control mice. These results indicate that gold thread implantation can be an effective way to promote hair re-growth although further confirmatory study is needed for more information on therapeutic mechanisms and long-term safety. PMID:29399026

  16. Enhancing hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by a combination of fractional CO2 laser therapy and hair growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Zhuo, Fenglin; Li, Linfeng

    2017-11-01

    Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO 2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed. Global photographs and dermoscopy assessments were performed at the baseline and 4 months after first treatment. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in hair-follicle phase and hair-shaft diameter. Twenty-seven participants completed the 4-month treatment schedule. One patient was lost. Mean hair density increased from 114 ± 27 to 143 ± 25/cm 2 (P laser combined with hair growth factors may serve as an alternative treatment for MAA in individuals unwilling/unable to undergo medical or surgical treatment.

  17. Light Wavelength Correlation on the Effect of Hair Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    The use of laser light as a bio stimulator at certain wavelength is a new development in laser photonics and become an acceptable tool in medical therapy. It based on low power and low energy laser light. The effect of biological cells behaviour to low power laser light stimulates various studies in many areas such as for medical and cosmetic applications. This paper discusses some results of low power laser light that is used for stimulating the hair growth of skinned mouse by using an optically expanded low power laser light. The study indicates that the red light laser provide a significant growth of mouse hair with exposure duration of two hours daily for 24 consecutive days. Apart from that the green laser light is also used in this study; however result shows no significant influence to the growth of mouse hair in this light wavelength. (author)

  18. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  19. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

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    Jae Young Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05, and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p<0.05. MXD (3% and DA-5512 (1%, 5% significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs versus the controls (each p<0.05. The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p<0.05. In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  20. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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    Nahyun Choi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs. We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF, and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C. Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration.

  1. Minoxidil Promotes Hair Growth through Stimulation of Growth Factor Release from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nahyun; Shin, Soyoung; Song, Sun U.; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil directly promotes hair growth via the stimulation of dermal papilla (DP) and epithelial cells. Alternatively, there is little evidence for indirect promotion of hair growth via stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We investigated whether minoxidil stimulates ASCs and if increased growth factor secretion by ASCs facilitates minoxidil-induced hair growth. Telogen-to-anagen induction was examined in mice. Cultured DP cells and vibrissae hair follicle organ cultures were used to further examine the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of minoxidil-treated ASCs accelerated telogen-to-anagen transition in mice, and increased hair weight at day 14 post-injection. Minoxidil did not alter ASC proliferation, but increased migration and tube formation. Minoxidil also increased the secretion of growth factors from ASCs, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C). Minoxidil increased extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, and concomitant upregulation of PD-ECGF and PDGF-C mRNA levels were attenuated by an ERK inhibitor. Subcutaneous injection of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C enhanced anagen induction in mice, and both CXCL1 and PDGF-C increased hair length in ex vivo organ culture. Treatment with CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C also increased the proliferation index in DP cells. Finally, topical application of CXCL1, PD-ECGF, or PDGF-C with 2% minoxidil enhanced anagen induction when compared to minoxidil alone. Minoxidil stimulates ASC motility and increases paracrine growth factor signaling. Minoxidil-stimulated secretion of growth factors by ASCs may enhance hair growth by promoting DP proliferation. Therefore, minoxidil can be used as an ASC preconditioning agent for hair regeneration. PMID:29495622

  2. A new path in defining light parameters for hair growth: Discovery and modulation of photoreceptors in human hair follicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscone, Serena; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Raafs, Bianca; Bikker, Jan W; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Farjo, Nilofer; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2017-09-01

    Though devices for hair growth based on low levels of light have shown encouraging results, further improvements of their efficacy is impeded by a lack of knowledge on the exact molecular targets that mediate physiological response in skin and hair follicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of selected light-sensitive receptors in the human hair follicle and to study the impact of UV-free blue light on hair growth ex vivo. The expression of Opsin receptors in human skin and hair follicles has been characterized using RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence approaches. The functional significance of Opsin 3 was assessed by silencing its expression in the hair follicle cells followed by a transcriptomic profiling. Proprietary LED-based devices emitting two discrete visible wavelengths were used to access the effects of selected optical parameters on hair growth ex vivo and outer root sheath cells in vitro. The expression of OPN2 (Rhodopsin) and OPN3 (Panopsin, Encephalopsin) was detected in the distinct compartments of skin and anagen hair follicle. Treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of blue light with 453 nm central wavelength significantly prolonged anagen phase in hair follicles ex vivo that was correlated with sustained proliferation in the light-treated samples. In contrast, hair follicle treatment with 3.2 J/cm 2 of 689 nm light (red light) did not significantly affect hair growth ex vivo. Silencing of OPN3 in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells resulted in the altered expression of genes involved in the control of proliferation and apoptosis, and abrogated stimulatory effects of blue light (3.2 J/cm 2 ; 453 nm) on proliferation in the outer root sheath cells. We provide the first evidence that (i) OPN2 and OPN3 are expressed in human hair follicle, and (ii) A 453 nm blue light at low radiant exposure exerts a positive effect on hair growth ex vivo, potentially via interaction with OPN3. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:705-718, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  3. Distribution of epidermal growth factor receptors in rat tissues during embryonic skin development, hair formation, and the adult hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Couchman, J R

    1984-01-01

    on the binding distribution of [125I]EGF, representing the tissue localization of available EGF receptors, during embryonic rat skin development including hair follicle formation and the adult hair growth cycle. At 16 days embryonic development a relatively low receptor density is seen over all the epidermal...... condensates marking the first stage of hair follicle development. This restricted and temporary loss of EGF receptors above these specialized mesenchymal condensates implies a role for the EGF receptor and possibly EGF or an EGF-like ligand in stimulating the epithelial downgrowth required for hair follicle...... development. In the anagen hair bulb, receptors for EGF are detected over the outer root sheath and the epithelial cell layers at the base of the follicle and show a correlation with the areas of epithelial proliferation in the hair bulb. During the catagen and telogen phases of the hair cycle, receptors...

  4. Growth hormone treatment in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: effects on growth and the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Burgt, C.J.A.M. van der; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe growth retardation and impaired immunity. We studied the effects of growth hormone treatment on growth parameters and the immune system in four children with CHH. The

  5. Role of peptide growth factors in the rhythm of change hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents current data on the role growth factors play in hair physiology. Based on a review of literature, the authors described the role growth factors play for initiating, suppressing the growth and differentiating hair follicles. According to them, each morphologic development stage of hair follicles is characterized by its own factor expression pattern. Referring to experimental and clinical studies, the authors describe the role some growth factors play for mechanisms promoting the development of androgynous and focal alopecia.

  6. Hair Zinc Level Analysis and Correlative Micronutrients in Children Presenting with Malnutrition and Poor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tae Hwan; Lee, Jin; Kim, Yong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. Methods Hair mineral analyses were performed in...

  7. The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyoung Kang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3β level, β-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of β-catenin pathway, and the 5α-reductase inhibition.

  8. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  9. Characterisation of cell cycle arrest and terminal differentiation in a maximally proliferative human epithelial tissue: Lessons from the human hair follicle matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Brunken, Lars; Peake, Michael; Shahmalak, Asim; Chaves, Asuncion; Poblet, Enrique; Ceballos, Laura; Gandarillas, Alberto; Paus, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21 CIP1 , p27 KIP1 and p57 KIP2 ) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression. K85 expression coincided with loss or reduction in cell cycle activity markers, including in situ DNA synthesis (EdU incorporation), Ki-67, phospho-histone H3 and cyclins A and B1, affirming a post-mitotic state of pre-cortical HF keratinocytes. Expression of CIP/KIP proteins was found abundantly within the proliferative hair matrix, concomitant with a role in cell cycle checkpoint control. p21 CIP1 , p27 KIP1 and cyclin E persisted within post-mitotic keratinocytes of the pre-cortex, whereas p57 KIP2 protein decreased but became nuclear. These data imply a supportive role for CIP/KIP proteins in maintaining proliferative arrest, differentiation and anti-apoptotic pathways, promoting continuous hair bulb growth and hair shaft formation in anagen VI. Moreover, post-mitotic hair matrix regions contained cells with enlarged nuclei, and DNA in situ hybridisation showed cells that were >2N in the pre-cortex. This suggests that CIP/KIP proteins might counterbalance cyclin E to control further rounds of DNA replication in a cell population that has a propensity to become tetraploid. These data shed new light on the in situ-biography of human hair matrix keratinocytes on their path of active cell cycling, arrest and terminal differentiation, and showcase the human HF as an excellent, clinically

  10. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is why some people with eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia lose their hair: The body isn't getting enough protein, vitamins, and minerals to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if ...

  11. Comparison of – Mixture and Minoxidil on Hair Growth Promoting Effect in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Soo Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlgae have traditionally been used for promotion of hair growth. Use of hair regrowth drugs, such as minoxidil, is limited due to side effects. The aim of this study was to examine a mixture of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida (L-U mixture on hair growth and to compare the promoting effect of hair growth by a 3% minoxidil and a L-U mixture.MethodsTo evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity, saline, 50% ethanol, 3% minoxidil, and the L-U mixture were applied 2 times a day for a total of 14 days on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice after depilation. Analysis was determined by using a high-resolution hair analysis system, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and H&E staining.ResultsOn day 14, the hair growth effect of the L-U mixture was the same as that of the 3% minoxidil treatment. The L-U mixture significantly (P<0.05 stimulated hair growth-promoting genes, as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and insulin-like growth factor -1. Increase of VEGF was observed in the L-U mixture group compared with minoxidil and the negative control. In contrast, the L-U mixture suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1, which is the hair loss-related gene. In histological examination in the L-U mixture and minoxidil groups, the induction of an anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of control groups.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the L-U mixture can promote hair growth in mice, similar to the effect from minoxidil, and suggests that there is potential application for hair loss treatments.

  12. Modelling hair follicle growth dynamics as an excitable medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Murray

    Full Text Available The hair follicle system represents a tractable model for the study of stem cell behaviour in regenerative adult epithelial tissue. However, although there are numerous spatial scales of observation (molecular, cellular, follicle and multi follicle, it is not yet clear what mechanisms underpin the follicle growth cycle. In this study we seek to address this problem by describing how the growth dynamics of a large population of follicles can be treated as a classical excitable medium. Defining caricature interactions at the molecular scale and treating a single follicle as a functional unit, a minimal model is proposed in which the follicle growth cycle is an emergent phenomenon. Expressions are derived, in terms of parameters representing molecular regulation, for the time spent in the different functional phases of the cycle, a formalism that allows the model to be directly compared with a previous cellular automaton model and experimental measurements made at the single follicle scale. A multi follicle model is constructed and numerical simulations are used to demonstrate excellent qualitative agreement with a range of experimental observations. Notably, the excitable medium equations exhibit a wider family of solutions than the previous work and we demonstrate how parameter changes representing altered molecular regulation can explain perturbed patterns in Wnt over-expression and BMP down-regulation mouse models. Further experimental scenarios that could be used to test the fundamental premise of the model are suggested. The key conclusion from our work is that positive and negative regulatory interactions between activators and inhibitors can give rise to a range of experimentally observed phenomena at the follicle and multi follicle spatial scales and, as such, could represent a core mechanism underlying hair follicle growth.

  13. Colorimetry provides a rapid objective measurement of de novo hair growth rate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzung, Tien-Yi; Yang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Yung-Chang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Depilated mice have been used as a test platform for hair growth-regulating agents. However, currently available assessment tools for hair growth in mice are less than ideal. Tristimulus colorimetry of the fur color of depilated agouti, albino, and black mice with L*, a*, and b* values were performed daily until the full growth of pelage. Using light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation (650 and 890 nm) with a daily dose of 3.5 J/cm(2) as hair growth regulators, the hair growth rates observed by the global assessment were compared with those derived from colorimetry. In contrast to a* and b* values, L* values changed more drastically over time in the anagen phase regardless of fur color. Unlike the inhibitory effect of 650 nm irradiation, LED of 890 nm promoted de novo hair regrowth in mice. The difference in hair growth rates detected by colorimetry paralleled the observation made by the global assessment. The L* value of fur color obtained by tristimulus colorimetry was a sensitive yet quantitative indicator of de novo hair growth, and could be used to project the hair growth rate in mice.

  14. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Cornu cervi pantotrichum Pharmacopuncture Solution Facilitate Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Yong Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP has been widely used in Korean and China, as an anti-fatigue, anti-aging, and tonic agent to enhance the functions of the reproductive and the immune systems. Because CCP has various growth factors that play important roles in the development of hair follicles, we examined whether CCP pharmacopuncture solution (CCPPS was capable of promoting hair growth in an animal model. Methods: One day after hair depilation, CCPPS were topically applied to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 15 days. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using macro- and microscopic observations. Dorsal skin tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7 were examined by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was also conducted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expression of FGF-7. Results: CCPPS induced more active hair growth than normal saline. Histologic analysis showed enlargement of the dermal papilla, elongation of the hair shaft, and expansion of hair thickness in CCPPS treated mice, indicating that CCPPS effectively induced the development of anagen. CCPPS treatment markedly increased the expressions of BrdU and PCNA in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, CCPPS up regulated the expression of FGF-7, which plays an important role in the development of hair follicles. Conclusion: These results reveal that CCPPS facilitates hair re-growth by proliferation of hair follicular cells and up-regulation of FGF-7 and suggest that CCPPS can potentially be applied as an alternative treatment for patients with alopecia.

  16. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst), as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu) and Escherichia coli (Eco). Root hair lengths were measured after 24 and 48h of direct exposure to each bacterial strain. Several Arabidopsis mutants with impaired responses to pathogens, impaired ethylene perception and defects in the exocyst vesicle tethering complex that is involved in secretion were also analysed. Arabidopsis seedling roots infected with Psm or Pst responded similarly to when infected with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; root hair growth was stimulated and primary root growth was inhibited. Other plant- and soil-adapted bacteria induced similar root hair responses. The most compromised root hair growth stimulation response was found for the knockout mutants exo70A1 and ein2. The single immune pathways dependent on salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and PAD4 are not directly involved in root hair growth stimulation; however, in the mutual cross-talk with ethylene, they indirectly modify the extent of the stimulation of root hair growth. The Flg22 peptide does not initiate root hair stimulation as intact bacteria do, but pretreatment with Flg22 prior to Psm inoculation abolished root hair growth stimulation in an FLS2 receptor kinase-dependent manner. These early response phenomena are not associated with changes in auxin levels, as monitored with the pDR5::GUS auxin reporter. Early stimulation of root hair growth is an effect of an unidentified component of living plant pathogenic bacteria. The root

  17. Repeated Microneedle Stimulation Induces Enhanced Hair Growth in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Seob; Jeong, Kwan Ho; Kim, Jung Eun; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Beom Joon; Kang, Hoon

    2016-10-01

    Microneedle is a method that creates transdermal microchannels across the stratum corneum barrier layer of skin. No previous study showed a therapeutic effect of microneedle itself on hair growth by wounding. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of repeated microwound formed by microneedle on hair growth and hair growth-related genes in a murine model. A disk microneedle roller was applied to each group of mice five times a week for three weeks. First, to identify the optimal length and cycle, microneedles of lengths of 0.15 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1 mm and cycles of 3, 6, 10, and 13 cycles were applied. Second, the effect of hair growth and hair-growth-related genes such as Wnt3a, β-catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Wnt10b was observed using optimized microneedle. Outcomes were observed using visual inspection, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. We found that the optimal length and cycle of microneedle treatment on hair growth was 0.25 mm/10 cycles and 0.5 mm/10 cycles. Repeated microneedle stimulation promoted hair growth, and it also induced the enhanced expression of Wnt3a, β-catenin, VEGF, and Wnt10b. Our study provides evidence that microneedle stimulation can induce hair growth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and VEGF. Combined with the drug delivery effect, we believe that microneedle stimulation could lead to new approaches for alopecia.

  18. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  19. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  20. Platelet-rich plasma, the ultimate secret for youthful skin elixir and hair growth triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    2017-09-08

    The clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is based on the increase in the concentration of growth factors that are released from alpha-granule of the concentrated platelets and in the secretion of proteins which are able to capitalize on the healing process at the cellular level. It has been invented to restore the natural beauty by starting the natural rejuvenation process of the skin and aiming to make it function as a younger one and to keep the skin youthful and maintain it. Besides that, it is also emerged to include hairs as a new injectable procedure to enable stimulating hair growth locally and topically; preventing its fall; improving hair shaft, hair stem, and its caliber; increasing its shine, vitality, and pliability; and declining hair splitting and breakage. Thus, youth is in your blood as it has a magical power imposed in the platelet factors. There is, however, no standardization of the techniques besides insufficient description of the adopted procedures. Not long, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has surfaced strongly in diverse medical specialties including plastic, wound healing and diabetic ulcers, orthopedic, trauma, ocular surgery, dry eye for eyelid injection, urology for urinary incontinence, sexual wellness, cutaneous surgery, sport medicine, dentistry and dermatology, and aesthetic applications. PRP proved to promote wound healing and aid in facelift, volumetric skin, skin rejuvenation, regeneration, and reconstruction; improve wrinkling; stimulate hair growth; increase hair follicle viability and its survival rate; prevent apoptosis; increase and prolong the anagen hair growth stage; and delay the progression to catagen hair cycle stage with increased density in hair loss and hair transplantation. The aims of this extensive review were to cover all PRP application aspects that are carried out in aesthetic dermatology and to assess the literature on platelet-rich plasma outcomes on main aesthetic practices of general

  1. Growing evidence of the beneficial effects of a marine protein-based dietary supplement for treating hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S

    2018-04-01

    Hair loss is a common condition among women with a range of causes including nutritional deficiencies. To review the clinical data supporting the use of an oral marine supplement designed to promote hair growth. Adult women with temporary thinning hair. Following an initial pilot study, five randomized, double-blind studies assessed the effectiveness of the oral marine supplement for promoting hair growth. Each study was approved by one or more institutional review boards. Together, these studies demonstrated the ability of oral marine supplements to increase the growth of terminal and vellus hairs, increase the diameter of terminal and vellus hairs, and decrease hair loss. This product is beneficial for men as well as women. A dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other natural ingredients can safely and effectively promote hair growth and decrease hair shedding in women and men with thinning hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  3. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  4. Promotive Effect of Topical Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on Hair Growth in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aldhalimi, Muhsin A.; Hadi, Najah R.; Ghafil, Fadaa A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Mino...

  5. A novel Atoh1 "self-terminating" mouse model reveals the necessity of proper Atoh1 level and duration for hair cell differentiation and viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Pan

    Full Text Available Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1 is a bHLH transcription factor essential for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Targeted expression of Atoh1 at various stages in development can result in hair cell differentiation in the ear. However, the level and duration of Atoh1 expression required for proper hair cell differentiation and maintenance remain unknown. We generated an Atoh1 conditional knockout (CKO mouse line using Tg(Atoh1-cre, in which the cre expression is driven by an Atoh1 enhancer element that is regulated by Atoh1 protein to "self-terminate" its expression. The mutant mice show transient, limited expression of Atoh1 in all hair cells in the ear. In the organ of Corti, reduction and delayed deletion of Atoh1 result in progressive loss of almost all the inner hair cells and the majority of the outer hair cells within three weeks after birth. The remaining cells express hair cell marker Myo7a and attract nerve fibers, but do not differentiate normal stereocilia bundles. Some Myo7a-positive cells persist in the cochlea into adult stages in the position of outer hair cells, flanked by a single row of pillar cells and two to three rows of disorganized Deiters cells. Gene expression analyses of Atoh1, Barhl1 and Pou4f3, genes required for survival and maturation of hair cells, reveal earlier and higher expression levels in the inner compared to the outer hair cells. Our data show that Atoh1 is crucial for hair cell mechanotransduction development, viability, and maintenance and also suggest that Atoh1 expression level and duration may play a role in inner vs. outer hair cell development. These genetically engineered Atoh1 CKO mice provide a novel model for establishing critical conditions needed to regenerate viable and functional hair cells with Atoh1 therapy.

  6. Mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Auxiliadora Molina de Almeida Teixeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the body composition and the mineral requirements for growth of wool and hair lambs. A total of 34 castrated lambs with an initial body weight (BW of 19.9±0.8 kg were used; 17 of these lambs were of the genotype Ideal × Ile de France and 17 were Santa Inês. Ten lambs (5 of each genotype were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to establish their initial body composition. The remaining lambs were assigned to one of three diets (40% roughage and 60% concentrate, 60% roughage and 40% concentrate, or 80% roughage and 20% concentrate in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. All of the diets were provided ad libitum. When the group under 40% roughage and 60% concentrate reached 35 kg BW, all of the animals were slaughtered. Linear regressions were used to determine the relationship between the shrunk BW and the empty body weight (EBW for each genotype. These equations were compared and revealed differences between the genotypes. The allometric equations were calculated using the relationship between the amount of minerals and the EBW. The equations of a given mineral for each genotype were compared to verify if they were statistically different. The equations for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium differed between genotypes. The same equations were used to estimate the major body mineral composition per kilogram of EBW. The net requirement for gain of the fleece-free Ideal × Ile de France lambs ranged from 7.77 to 6.80 g Ca, 4.54 to 4.14 g P, 0.30 to 0.27 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.84 to 0.76 g Na per kg BW gain, and the requirements of the Santa Inês animals ranged from 9.57 to 8.37 g Ca, 5.39 to 4.91 g P, 0.36 to 0.33 g Mg, 1.18 to 1.07 g K and 0.90 to 0.81 g Na per kg BW gain for the lambs weighting 20 to 35 kg. Santa Inês lambs showed higher requirements for Ca, P, Mg and Na.

  7. Bee Venom Promotes Hair Growth in Association with Inhibiting 5α-Reductase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seeun; Erdogan, Sedef; Hwang, Dahyun; Hwang, Seonwook; Han, Eun Hye; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia is an important issue that can occur in people of all ages. Recent studies show that bee venom can be used to treat certain diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgia, and multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of bee venom on alopecia, which was measured by applying bee venom (0.001, 0.005, 0.01%) or minoxidil (2%) as a positive control to the dorsal skin of female C57BL/6 mice for 19 d. Growth factors responsible for hair growth were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis using mice skins and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Bee venom promoted hair growth and inhibited transition from the anagen to catagen phase. In both anagen phase mice and dexamethasone-induced catagen phase mice, hair growth was increased dose dependently compared with controls. Bee venom inhibited the expression of SRD5A2, which encodes a type II 5α-reductase that plays a major role in the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, bee venom stimulated proliferation of hDPCs and several growth factors (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and 7) in bee venom-treated hDPCs dose dependently compared with the control group. In conclusion, bee venom is a potentially potent 5α-reductase inhibitor and hair growth promoter.

  8. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to

  9. The influence of sulfur and hair growth on stable isotope diet estimates for grizzly bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Mowat

    bears were growing new hair. The salmon diet fraction increased with later hair collection dates, as expected if samples were from the year of sampling because salmon began to arrive in mid-summer. Bears that ate salmon had shorter hair and δ15N and δ34S values declined with hair length, also suggesting some hair samples were grown the year of sampling. To be sure to capture an entire hair growth period, samples must be collected in late fall. Early spring samples are also likely to be from the previous year but the date when hair begins to grow appears to vary. Choosing the longest hair available should increase the chance the hair was grown during the previous year and, maximize the period for which diet is measured.

  10. The influence of sulfur and hair growth on stable isotope diet estimates for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Garth; Curtis, P Jeff; Lafferty, Diana J R

    2017-01-01

    growing new hair. The salmon diet fraction increased with later hair collection dates, as expected if samples were from the year of sampling because salmon began to arrive in mid-summer. Bears that ate salmon had shorter hair and δ15N and δ34S values declined with hair length, also suggesting some hair samples were grown the year of sampling. To be sure to capture an entire hair growth period, samples must be collected in late fall. Early spring samples are also likely to be from the previous year but the date when hair begins to grow appears to vary. Choosing the longest hair available should increase the chance the hair was grown during the previous year and, maximize the period for which diet is measured.

  11. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  12. Comparison of the effects of 665 nm low level diode Laser Hat versus and a combination of 665 nm and 808nm low level diode Laser Scanner of hair growth in androgenic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikbin, Behrooz; Khodamrdi, Zeinab; Kholoosi, Leila; Akhgri, Mohammad Reza; Haj Abbasi, Majid; Hajabbasi, Mojgan; Razzaghi, Zahra; Akbarpour, Samaneh

    2017-05-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia. 90 patients (18 to 70 years) with androgenic alopecia were randomized into three groups. The first group (n=30) received 655 nm red light using laser hat, the second group (n=30) received 655 nm red laser plus 808 nm infrared laser using a laser scanner of hair growth device (with the patent number: 77733) and the third group (n=30) received no laser as the control group. Patients in laser scanner group had better results and showed a higher increase in terminal hair density compared with laser hat group (mean of 9.61 versus 9.16 per cm 2 ). We found significant decrease in terminal hair density from baseline in control group (mean -1.8 per cm 2 , plaser scanner of the hair growth group compared with laser hat and the control group. The study showed that treatment with new laser devise had a promising result without any observable adverse effects.

  13. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p alopecia. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Hair cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...

  15. Why care about linear hair growth rates (LHGR)? a study using in vivo imaging and computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) in unaffected male controls and men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The words "hair growth" frequently encompass many aspects other than just growth. Report on a validation method for precise non-invasive measurement of thickness together with linear hair growth rates of individual hair fibres. To verify the possible correlation between thickness and linear growth rate of scalp hair in male pattern hair loss as compared with healthy male controls. To document the process of validation of hair growth measurement from in vivo image capturing and manual processing, followed by computer assisted image analysis. We analysed 179 paired images obtained with the contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram method with exogen collection (CE-PTG-EC) in 13 healthy male controls and in 87 men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL). There was a global positive correlation between thickness and growth rate (ANOVA; phairs from controls. Finally, the growth rate recorded in the more severe patterns was significantly (ANOVA; P ≤ 0.001) reduced compared with equally thick hair from less severely affected MPHL or controls subjects. Reduced growth rate, together with thinning and shortening of the anagen phase duration in MPHL might contribute together to the global impression of decreased hair volume on the top of the head. Amongst other structural and functional parameters characterizing hair follicle regression, linear hair growth rate warrants further investigation, as it may be relevant in terms of self-perception of hair coverage, quantitative diagnosis and prognostic factor of the therapeutic response.

  16. The amazing miniorgan: Hair follicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiler Çelik Özenci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal–mesodermal interactions. Hair follicles form during embryonic development and, after birth, undergo recurrent cycling of growth (anagen, apoptosis-driven regression (catagen, and relative quiescence (telogen. As a functional mini-organ, the hair follicle develops in an environment with dynamic and alternating changes of diverse molecular signals. Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on genetically engineered mouse models with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation and significant advances have been made toward the identification of key signaling pathways and the regulatory genes involved. In this review, the basic concepts of hair follicle, a mini-complex organ, biology will be presented and its importance in clinical applications will be summarized.

  17. Glutamatergic modulation of synaptic-like vesicle recycling in mechanosensory lanceolate nerve terminals of mammalian hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Robert W; Cahusac, Peter M B; Graca, Anna; Kain, Nakul; Shenton, Fiona; Singh, Paramjeet; Njå, Arild; Simon, Anna; Watson, Sonia; Slater, Clarke R; Bewick, Guy S

    2013-05-15

    Our aim in the present study was to determine whether a glutamatergic modulatory system involving synaptic-like vesicles (SLVs) is present in the lanceolate ending of the mouse and rat hair follicle and, if so, to assess its similarity to that of the rat muscle spindle annulospiral ending we have described previously. Both types of endings are formed by the peripheral sensory terminals of primary mechanosensory dorsal root ganglion cells, so the presence of such a system in the lanceolate ending would provide support for our hypothesis that it is a general property of fundamental importance to the regulation of the responsiveness of the broad class of primary mechanosensory endings. We show not only that an SLV-based system is present in lanceolate endings, but also that there are clear parallels between its operation in the two types of mechanosensory endings. In particular, we demonstrate that, as in the muscle spindle: (i) FM1-43 labels the sensory terminals of the lanceolate ending, rather than the closely associated accessory (glial) cells; (ii) the dye enters and leaves the terminals primarily by SLV recycling; (iii) the dye does not block the electrical response to mechanical stimulation, in contrast to its effect on the hair cell and dorsal root ganglion cells in culture; (iv) SLV recycling is Ca(2+) sensitive; and (v) the sensory terminals are enriched in glutamate. Thus, in the lanceolate sensory ending SLV recycling is itself regulated, at least in part, by glutamate acting through a phospholipase D-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor.

  18. Hair growth promoting effect of white wax and policosanol from white wax on the mouse model of testosterone-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-di; Feng, Ying; Ma, Li-Yi; Li, Xian; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC 50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  20. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF‑7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-06-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin‑induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)‑7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF‑5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin‑like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF‑7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth.

  1. Microemulsion Formulation of Combination of Virgin Coconut Oil and Rice Bran Oil for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wira Noviana Suhery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on micro emulsion formulation of combination of virgin coconut oil (VCO and rice bran oil (RBO as a hair growth promoter has been done. The purpose of this study was to formulate and produce the best formula that is physically stable and optimally promoting the hair growth by varying the content of VCO and RBO in the form of micro emulsions. These dosage formulations were prepared in three formulas using 45% tween 80 as surfactants and 20% glycerin as co surfactant i.e.: F,I containing a combination of VCO and RBO 1:1; FII (1:2 and FIII (2:1. Physical evaluation of the preparation was carried out for 8 weeks of storage which included organoleptic examination, pH, homogeneity, density, globule particle size, phase freeze thaw, and rabbit hair growth activity test for 18 days. Based on the results of the evaluation, it was found that the FI, FII and FIII micro emulsion formulations were physically stable for 8 weeks of storage with a pH ranging from 6.7 to 7.0, density of 1.085-1.088 g/mL, average globul particle size of FI (34.6 nm , FII (54 nm and FIII (68.8 nm. The best formulas is FIII for hair growth length of 1.26 cm for 18 days.

  2. Hair cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.

  3. Efficacy of topical tofacitinib in promoting hair growth in non-scarring alopecia: possible mechanism via VEGF induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meephansan, Jitlada; Thummakriengkrai, J; Ponnikorn, S; Yingmema, W; Deenonpoe, R; Suchonwanit, P

    2017-11-01

    Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor that promotes hair growth; however, the efficacy and mechanism of this effect are not yet understood. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of topical tofacitinib on hair growth in mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided equally into four groups and treated topically with tofacitinib, minoxidil, or vehicle once daily for 21 days. Weekly photographs were taken to determine the area and rate of hair growth, and tissue samples were collected for histopathological evaluation. mRNA and protein expression of anagen-maintaining growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), were determined via RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Tofacitinib-treated mice exhibited more hair regrowth than either minoxidil-treated or control mice did between day 7 and 21 (P tofacitinib also promoted more rapid hair growth rate than topical minoxidil or control did (P tofacitinib-treated group. Hair follicles in the minoxidil- and vehicle-treated groups were more often classified as catagen and anagen. VEGF mRNA and protein expression in the tofacitinib-treated group was significantly greater than those in the other groups (P tofacitinib-treated mice. Topical tofacitinib is effective in promoting hair growth, and the possible mechanism involves increased VEGF levels and lowered inflammation. This study will help develop a new therapeutic option for non-scarring alopecia.

  4. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  5. Reciprocal synapses between outer hair cells and their afferent terminals: evidence for a local neural network in the mammalian cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiers, Fabio A; Nadol, Joseph B; Liberman, M Charles

    2008-12-01

    Cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) serve both as sensory receptors and biological motors. Their sensory function is poorly understood because their afferent innervation, the type-II spiral ganglion cell, has small unmyelinated axons and constitutes only 5% of the cochlear nerve. Reciprocal synapses between OHCs and their type-II terminals, consisting of paired afferent and efferent specialization, have been described in the primate cochlea. Here, we use serial and semi-serial-section transmission electron microscopy to quantify the nature and number of synaptic interactions in the OHC area of adult cats. Reciprocal synapses were found in all OHC rows and all cochlear frequency regions. They were more common among third-row OHCs and in the apical half of the cochlea, where 86% of synapses were reciprocal. The relative frequency of reciprocal synapses was unchanged following surgical transection of the olivocochlear bundle in one cat, confirming that reciprocal synapses were not formed by efferent fibers. In the normal ear, axo-dendritic synapses between olivocochlear terminals and type-II terminals and/or dendrites were as common as synapses between olivocochlear terminals and OHCs, especially in the first row, where, on average, almost 30 such synapses were seen in the region under a single OHC. The results suggest that a complex local neuronal circuitry in the OHC area, formed by the dendrites of type-II neurons and modulated by the olivocochlear system, may be a fundamental property of the mammalian cochlea, rather than a curiosity of the primate ear. This network may mediate local feedback control of, and bidirectional communication among, OHCs throughout the cochlear spiral.

  6. Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Luis A.; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A.; Norberg, Scott M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment. PMID:22440736

  7. Promotive Effect of Minoxidil Combined with All-trans Retinoic Acid (tretinoin) on Human Hair Growth in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Oh, Youn Jin; Han, Ji Hyun; Lee, Se Rah; Chung, Jin Ho; Eun, Hee Chul

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil induces hair growth in male pattern baldness and prolongs the anagen phase. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been reported to act synergistically with minoxidil in vivo: they can enhance more dense hair regrowth than either compound alone. We evaluated the effect of minoxidil combined with ATRA on hair growth in vitro. The effect of co-treatment of minoxidil and ATRA on hair growth was studied in hair follicle organ culture. In cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the expressions of Erk, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, P53 and P21 were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Minoxidil plus ATRA additively promoted hair growth in vitro, compared with minoxidil alone. In addition, minoxidil plus ATRA elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, but decreased the expressions of P53 and P21 more effectively than by minoxidil alone. Our results suggest that minoxidil plus ATRA would additively enhance hair growth by mediating dual functions: 1) the prolongation of cell survival by activating the Erk and Akt signaling pathways, and 2) the prevention of apoptosis of DPCs and epithelial cells by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and downregulating the expressions of P53 and P21. PMID:17449938

  8. Human platelet lysate versus minoxidil stimulates hair growth by activating anagen promoting signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastan, Maryam; Najafzadeh, Nowruz; Abedelahi, Ali; Sarvi, Mohammadreza; Niapour, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Minoxidil and human platelet lysate (HPL) are commonly used to treat patients with hair loss. However, the roles of HPL versus minoxidil in hair follicle biology largely remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that bulge and dermal papilla (DP) cells may express specific genes, including Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin after exposure to minoxidil or HPL. The mouse hair follicles were isolated on day 10 after depilation and bulge or DP regions were dissected. The bulge and DP cells were cultured for 14days in DMEM/F12 medium. Then, the cells were treated with 100μM minoxidil and 10% HPL for 10 days. Nuclear morphology was identified using DAPi staining. Reverse transcriptase and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis were also performed to examine the expression of Kras, Erk, Akt, Shh and β-catenin mRNA levels in the treated bulge and DP regions after organ culture. Here, we found that minoxidil influences bulge and DP cell survival (Pminoxidil treatment in both bulge and DP cells. HPL mediated Erk upregulation in both bulge and DP cells (Pminoxidil-treated bulge cells. In contrast, the expression of β-cateinin and Shh in the DP cells was not meaningfully increased after treatment with HPL. Our results suggest that minoxidil and HPL can promote hair growth by activating the main anagen inducing signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Olt

    Full Text Available Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  10. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Forty-seven females (18-60 years old, Fitzpatrick I-IV, and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P alopecia at a rate similar to that observed in males using the same parameters. © 2014 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of biophysical skin parameters and assessment of hair growth in patients with acne treated with isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmieć, Małgorzata L; Pajor, Anna; Broniarczyk-Dyła, Grażyna

    2013-12-01

    Treatment of the severe forms of acne vulgaris remains a challenge. Isotretinoin is a drug often used in these cases. Retinoids affect the mechanisms that play a role in the pathogenesis of acne, reduce the production of sebum and sizes of the sebaceous glands. However, isotretinoin appears to have undesirable side effects in the skin, mucous membranes and hair. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE EFFECT OF ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT WITH ISOTRETINOIN ON BIOPHYSICAL SKIN PARAMETERS: skin sebum and stratum corneum hydration levels, transepidermal water loss values, pH, erythema and hair growth parameters: total number, density and proportion of anagen hair. THE STUDY INCLUDED THIRTY PATIENTS WITH ACNE TYPES: papulopustular, conglobata and phlegmonosa. Patients were treated with isotretinoin at a dose of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg/day for a period of 4-7 months. The measurements of skin biophysical parameters were performed before and after the treatment using Sebumeter SM815, Corneometer CM825, Tewameter TM300, MX Mexameter MX18 and Skin-pH-Meter PH908. Hair growth parameters were evaluated with FotoFinder Dermoscope using the TrichoScan Professional V3.0.8.76 software. The results of biophysical skin parameter measurements after the treatment showed a reduction in the severity of seborrhea. However, the skin was dry, which confirmed a lowered degree of stratum corneum hydration and an increase in transepidermal water loss values. Moreover, severity of erythema, an increase in pH value, and variations in selected hair growth parameters: decrease in total count, density and proportion of anagen hair were demonstrated. The reduction in the skin sebum levels was observed after the treatment. There was dryness of the skin, which was confirmed by biophysical skin parameter measurements. Changes in the hair growth parameters showed telogen effluvium hair loss.

  12. Hair follicle growth by stromal vascular fraction-enhanced adipose transplantation in baldness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Meza D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available David Perez-Meza,1 Craig Ziering,2 Marcos Sforza,3 Ganesh Krishnan,4 Edward Ball,5 Eric Daniels6 1Ziering Medical, Marbella, Spain; 2Ziering Medical, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3The Hospital Group, Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, 4Ziering Medical, Birmingham, 5Ziering Medical, London, UK; 6Kerastem Technologies, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Great interest remains in finding new and emerging therapies for the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss. The autologous fat grafting technique is >100 years old, with a recent and dramatic increase in clinical experience over the past 10–15 years. Recently, in 2001, Zuk et al published the presence of adipose-derived stem cells, and abundant research has shown that adipose is a complex, biological active, and important tissue. Festa et al, in 2011, reported that adipocyte lineage cells support the stem cell niche and help drive the complex hair growth cycle. Adipose-derived regenerative cells (also known as stromal vascular fraction [SVF] is a heterogeneous group of noncultured cells that can be reliably extracted from adipose by using automated systems, and these cells work largely by paracrine mechanisms to support adipocyte viability. While, today, autologous fat is transplanted primarily for esthetic and reconstructive volume, surgeons have previously reported positive skin and hair changes posttransplantation. This follicular regenerative approach is intriguing and raises the possibility that one can drive or restore the hair cycle in male and female pattern baldness by stimulating the niche with autologous fat enriched with SVF. In this first of a kind patient series, the authors report on the safety, tolerability, and quantitative, as well as photographic changes, in a group of patients with early genetic alopecia treated with subcutaneous scalp injection of enriched adipose tissue. The findings suggest that scalp stem cell-enriched fat grafting may represent a promising alternative approach to

  13. Hair growth-promoting effect of Aconiti Ciliare Tuber extract mediated by the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Phil-June; Moon, Byoung-San; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Na; Kim, Ah-Reum; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Park, Won-Seok; Choi, Kang-Yell; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2012-11-02

    The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in hair follicle morphogenesis by stimulating bulge stem cells. This study was to obtain the activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway from natural products and to determine whether this activator can induce anagen hair growth in mice. To identify materials that activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, 800 natural product extracts were screened using pTOPFlash assay and neural progenitor cell (NPC) differentiation assay. A selected extract was further tested for its effects on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human immortalized dermal papilla cell (iDPC) and the proliferation in iDPC and immortalized rat vibrissa DPC (RvDP). Finally, hair growth-promoting effects were evaluated in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Aconiti Ciliare Tuber (ACT) extract was one of the most active materials in both pTOPFlash and NPC differentiation assays. It promoted the differentiation of NPC cells even under proliferation-stimulating conditions (basic fibroblast growth factor: bFGF). It also increased ALP activity and proliferation of iDPC in dose-dependent manners, and it stimulated the induction of the anagen hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results suggest that ACT extract activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by enhancing β-catenin transcription and has the potential to promote the induction of hair growth via activation of the stem cell activity of the dermal papilla cells. This is the first report indicating benefits of ACT extract in hair loss prevention by triggering the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and induction of the anagen hair growth in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Red Deer Antler Extract Accelerates Hair Growth by Stimulating Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Full-thickness Wound Healing Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiHong Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate and evaluate the effects of red deer antlers on hair growth in the full-thickness wound healing model, Sprague-Dawley rats were given incision wounds through the full thickness of their dorsal skin and deer antler was applied for 40 days. At specified intervals thereafter (4, 8, 16, 32 and 40 days, the animals were sacrificed and the wound site skins were excised, processed, and sectioned. At post-injury days 16, 32 and 40, longer and more active new hair appeared around the healing wound of antler-treated skin. Histological studies showed that the antler extract markedly increases the depth, size, and number of hair follicles. Expression of IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the expression of IGF-I (days 16, 32, and 40 was obviously up-regulated in antler-treated skins compared to control skins. Similar results were seen in the ELISA analysis to quantify the IGF-I expression. These results support the notion that wound healing can cause hair growth by enhancing the expression of IGF-I. Deer antler extract appears to have the potential to promote hair growth and could be used in hair growth products.

  15. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in hair growth-promoting effect of 655-nm red light and LED in in vitro culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Le; Liu, Ben; Chen, Xianyan; Chen, Haiyan; Deng, Wenjia; Yang, Changsheng; Ji, Bin; Wan, Miaojian

    2018-04-01

    Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in hair follicle morphogenesis and hair growth. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth in numerous clinical studies, in which 655-nm red light was found to be most effective and practical for stimulating hair growth. We evaluated whether 655-nm red light + light-emitting diode (LED) could promote human hair growth by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling. An in vitro culture of human hair follicles (HFs) was irradiated with different intensities of 655-nm red light + LED, 21 h7 (an inhibitor of β-catenin), or both. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to assess the expression of β-catenin, GSK3β, p-GSK3β, and Lef1 in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The 655-nm red light + LED not only enhanced hair shaft elongation, but also reduced catagen transition in human hair follicle organ culture, with the greatest effectiveness observed at 5 min (0.839 J/cm 2 ). Additionally, 655-nm red light + LED enhanced the expression of β-catenin, p-GSK3β, and Lef1, signaling molecules of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, in the hair matrix. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in hair growth-promoting effect of 655-nm red light and LED in vitro and therefore may serve as an alternative therapeutic option for alopecia.

  16. Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity): a unique model to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, R; Ben-Amitai, D; Laron, Z

    2004-01-01

    Classical Laron syndrome is a recessive disease of primary insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency and primary growth hormone insensitivity. Affected children have, among other defects, sparse hair growth and frontal recessions. The hair is thin and easy to pluck. Young adults have various degrees of alopecia, more pronounced in males. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of primary IGF-1 deficiency on hair structure. The study sample included 11 patients with Laron syndrome--5 children (2 untreated) and 6 adults (5 untreated). Hairs were examined by light and electron microscopy. The most significant structured defect, pili torti et canaliculi, was found in 2 young, untreated patients. Grooving, tapered hair and trichorrhexis nodosa were found in the remainder. IGF-1-treated patients had either none or significantly fewer pathological changes compared to the untreated patients. This is the first documentation of the role of primary IGF-1 deficiency on hair structure in human beings. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. "Cold" X5 Hairlaser™ used to treat male androgenic alopecia and hair growth: an uncontrolled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Han, David; Madigan, Margaret A; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R

    2014-02-24

    Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources. For this feasibility study, the population was composed of males between the ages of 20 and 60 years who have been experiencing active hair loss within the last 12 months and the diagnosis of AGA. They also had a Norwood-Hamilton classification of 3, 3A, 3 V, 4, 4A, or 5 for the hair thinning patterns and skin type I, II, III, or IV on the Fitzpatrick skin type scale. This two-arm randomized, parallel group study design employed stratifying randomization to balance treatment assignment within three investigational centers with at least 2 subjects enrolled in each Fitzpatrick skin type. A statistically significant positive trend in hair growth was observed from this pilot study, to evaluate the efficacy of the novel cold X5 hairlaser device for treating male androgenic alopecia. From the repeated measures analysis of variance, difference in mean hair counts over time was statistically significant (F = 7.70; p-value laser hair devices requires intensive further investigation. NCT02067260.

  18. “Cold” X5 Hairlaser™ used to treat male androgenic alopecia and hair growth: an uncontrolled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources. Methods For this feasibility study, the population was composed of males between the ages of 20 and 60 years who have been experiencing active hair loss within the last 12 months and the diagnosis of AGA. They also had a Norwood-Hamilton classification of 3, 3A, 3 V, 4, 4A, or 5 for the hair thinning patterns and skin type I, II, III, or IV on the Fitzpatrick skin type scale. This two-arm randomized, parallel group study design employed stratifying randomization to balance treatment assignment within three investigational centers with at least 2 subjects enrolled in each Fitzpatrick skin type. Results A statistically significant positive trend in hair growth was observed from this pilot study, to evaluate the efficacy of the novel cold X5 hairlaser device for treating male androgenic alopecia. From the repeated measures analysis of variance, difference in mean hair counts over time was statistically significant (F = 7.70; p-value laser hair devices requires intensive further investigation. Trial registration NCT02067260 PMID:24559020

  19. The growth of human scalp hair mediated by visible red light laser and LED sources in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Bodian, Adam B; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Fernandez-Obregon, Adolfo; Kazmirek, Eric R

    2013-10-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to promote hair growth. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on males with androgenic alopecia. Forty-four males (18-48 yo, Fitzpatrick I-IV, Hamilton-Norwood IIa-V) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a "TOPHAT655" unit containing 21, 5 mW lasers (655 ± 5 nm), and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67.3 J/cm(2) irradiance/25 minute treatment), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm(2) photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Forty-one patients completed the study (22 active, 19 placebo). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 162.7 ± 95.9 (N = 22) in placebo and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22) and active groups respectively (P = 0.426). Post Treatment hair counts were 162.4 ± 62.5 (N = 19) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.0161). A 39% percent hair increase was demonstrated (28.4 ± 46.2 placebo, N = 19; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.001) Deleting one placebo group subject with a very high baseline count and a very large decrease, resulted in baseline hair counts of 151.1 ± 81.0 (N = 21) and 142.0 ± 73.0 (N = 22), respectively (P = 0.680). Post treatment hair counts were 158.2 ± 61.5 (N = 18) and 228.7 ± 102.8 (N = 22) (P = 0.011), resulting in a 35% percent increase in hair growth (32.3 ± 44.2, placebo, N = 18; 67.2 ± 33.4, active, N = 22) (P = 0.003). LLLT of the scalp at 655 nm significantly improved hair counts in males with androgenetic alopecia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals

  20. STAT5 Activation in the Dermal Papilla Is Important for Hair Follicle Growth Phase Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Julien M D; Roy, Edwige; Ellis, Jonathan J; Francois, Mathias; Brooks, Andrew J; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-09-01

    Hair follicles are skin appendages that undergo periods of growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and rest (telogen) regulated by their mesenchymal component, the dermal papilla (DP). On the basis of the reports of its specific expression in the DP, we investigated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5) activation during hair development and cycling. STAT5 activation in the DP began in late catagen, reaching a peak in early anagen before disappearing for the rest of the cycle. This was confirmed by the expression profile of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2, a STAT5 target in the DP. This pattern of expression starts after the first postnatal hair cycle. Quantification of hair cycling using the Flash canonical Wnt signaling in vivo bioluminescence reporter found that conditional knockout of STAT5A/B in the DP targeted through Cre-recombinase under the control of the Sox18 promoter resulted in delayed anagen entry compared with control. Microarray analysis of STAT5 deletion versus control revealed key changes in tumor necrosis factor-α, Wnt, and fibroblast growth factor ligands, known for their role in inducing anagen entry. We conclude that STAT5 activation acts as a mesenchymal switch to trigger natural anagen entry in postdevelopmental hair follicle cycling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Jaisabai, Jiraporn; Luangtoomma, Nantakarn; Waranuch, Neti; Khorana, Nantaka; Wisuitiprot, Wudtichai; Scholfield, C Norman; Champachaisri, Katechan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-02-15

    Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. C. aeruginosa essential oil (CA-oil) formulated as a lotion is an efficacious and safe inhibitor of axillary hair growth. This trial was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 10 weeks, intervention in 60 women (18-23 years) and 2 weeks washout with axillary hair length was the primary end-point. Bioactive-enriched essential oil of C. aeruginosa was formulated with a base lotion. All participants were pre-challenged with lotions by 4-h patch irritation tests to exclude skin reactions. Participants were randomly allocated to use either 1 or 5%w/w CA-oil lotion on one axilla and base-lotion (placebo) to the other for 10 weeks followed by placebo in both axillae for 2 weeks. Every week, the axillae were photographed to measure hair lengths, shaved, and roll-on applicators containing appropriate lotion replaced. Also, skin melanin by spectrophotometry and hair density were measured. From weeks 5-11 of trial, 1 and 5%w/w CA-oil retarded growth by 13 ± 1.5% and 16 ± 0.9% respectively, while placebo was ineffective. CA-oil had no influence on hair density. Both concentrations of CA-oil rapidly and equally effectively brightened skin within 3 weeks which persisted 2 weeks after treatment ceased while placebo darkened the skin. Adherence appeared good as judged by consistency of lotion consumption and between axillae. Participants were satisfied with the treatment and reported reduced hairiness, freedom from any discomforts, but product odour attracted some negative comment. No adverse reactions ascribed to CA-oil were detected or reported. This study points to a safe and efficacious dual action on retarding hair-growth and skin lightening by CA-oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  3. Ingrown Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrown hair Overview An ingrown hair occurs when a shaved or tweezed hair grows back into the skin. It can cause inflammation, pain and tiny bumps in the area where the hair was removed. Ingrown hair is a common condition ...

  4. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  5. Differential correlations between maternal hair levels of tobacco and alcohol with fetal growth restriction clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Sally; Malmqvist, Ebba; Almeida, Laura; Gratacos, Eduard; Gomez Roig, Maria Dolores

    2018-08-01

    Maternal exposure to tobacco and alcohol is a known cause, among others, for fetal growth restriction (FGR). Clinically, FGR can be subclassified into two forms: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA), based on the severity of the growth retardation, and abnormal uterine artery Doppler or cerebro-placental ratio. This study aimed at investigating any differential correlation between maternal exposures to these toxins with the two clinical forms of FGR. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted in Barcelona, Spain. Sixty-four FGR subjects, who were further subclassified into IUGR (n = 36) and SGA (n = 28), and 89 subjects matched appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA), were included. The levels of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol exposure, respectively, were assessed in the maternal hair in the third trimester. Our analysis showed 65% of the pregnant women consumed alcohol, 25% smoked, and 19% did both. The odds ratios (ORs) of IUGR were 21 times versus 14 times for being SGA with maternal heavy smoking, while with alcohol consumption the ORs for IUGR were 22 times versus 37 times for the SGA group. The differential correlations between these toxins with the two subtypes of FGR suggest different mechanisms influencing fetal weight. Our alarming data of alcohol consumption during pregnancy should be considered for further confirmation among Spanish women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  7. Effect of growth pressure on the synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and their growth termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangeun; Song, Wooseok; Kim, Yooseok; Song, Inkyung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Su Il; Jang, Sung Won; Parkl, Chong-Yun

    2014-07-01

    When vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD), their structural features such as height and density can be determined by TCVD growth conditions. In this study we investigated the effect of growth pressure on the structural features of VACNTs. Changes in growth pressure significantly affected the height, density, and crystalinity of synthesized VACNTs. In addition, we suggest that the growth termination of VACNTs could be due to the lack of carbon feedstock supply to the center of the VACNT film induced by the pressure-dependent adsorption of amorphous carbon at the edge of the VACNT film. In addition, the field emission characteristics of the VACNT film were carried out. The turn-on voltage of the VACNT film was 1.62 V/microm and the field enhancement factor (beta) was 2478. These results provide useful information for practical applications of VACNTs, such as field emission display and X-ray source.

  8. A Microarray-Based Analysis Reveals that a Short Photoperiod Promotes Hair Growth in the Arbas Cashmere Goat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    Full Text Available Many animals exhibit different behaviors in different seasons. The photoperiod can have effects on migration, breeding, fur growth, and other processes. The cyclic growth of the fur and feathers of some species of mammals and birds, respectively, is stimulated by the photoperiod as a result of hormone-dependent regulation of the nervous system. To further examine this phenomenon, we evaluated the Arbas Cashmere goat (Capra hircus, a species that is often used in this type of research. The goats were exposed to an experimentally controlled short photoperiod to study the regulation of cyclic cashmere growth. Exposure to a short photoperiod extended the anagen phase of the Cashmere goat hair follicle to increase cashmere production. Assessments of tissue sections indicated that the short photoperiod significantly induced cashmere growth. This conclusion was supported by a comparison of the differences in gene expression between the short photoperiod and natural conditions using gene chip technology. Using the gene chip data, we identified genes that showed altered expression under the short photoperiod compared to natural conditions, and these genes were found to be involved in the biological processes of hair follicle growth, structural composition of the hair follicle, and the morphogenesis of the surrounding skin appendages. Knowledge about differences in the expression of these genes as well as their functions and periodic regulation patterns increases our understanding of Cashmere goat hair follicle growth. This study also provides preliminary data that may be useful for the development of an artificial method to improve cashmere production by controlling the light cycle, which has practical significance for livestock breeding.

  9. 3-Deoxysappanchalcone Promotes Proliferation of Human Hair Follicle Dermal Papilla Cells and Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice by Modulating WNT/β-Catenin and STAT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Choi, Hyung Chul; Lee, In-Chul; Yuk, Dong Yeon; Lee, Hyosung; Choi, Bu Young

    2016-01-01

    3-Deoxysappanchalcone (3-DSC) has been reported to possess anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-DSC on the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HDPCs) and mouse hair growth in vivo. A real-time cell analyzer system, luciferase assay, Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed to measure the biochemical changes occurring in HDPCs in response to 3-DSC treatment. The effect of 3-DSC on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice was also examined. 3-DSC promoted the proliferation of HDPCs, similar to Tofacitinib, an inhibitor of janus-activated kinase (JAK). 3-DSC promoted phosphorylation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of the T-cell factor. In addition, 3-DSC potentiated interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced phosphorylation and subsequent transactivation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), thereby increasing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the contrary, 3-DSC attenuated STAT6 mRNA expression and IL4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in HDPCs. Finally, we observed that topical application of 3-DSC promoted the anagen phase of hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. 3-DSC stimulates hair growth possibly by inducing proliferation of follicular dermal papilla cells via modulation of WNT/β-catenin and STAT signaling. PMID:27795451

  10. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient......A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth...... vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration...

  11. Usefulness of TrichoScan professional in the evaluation of hair loss in females. Report of 180 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, V; Martín, J M; Sánchez, R; Ortega, C; Ricart, J M

    2011-09-01

    TrichoScan Professional is a computerized program used for digital measurement of hair growth and hair loss. The aim of our study was to undertake an evaluation with TrichoScan Professional of female patients consulting at our hospitals for hair loss. The purpose of our study was to determine whether TrichoScan was able to identify differences in hair parameters that would correlate with the pattern of alopecia or according to the age of the patients evaluated. One hundred-eighty women that consulted consecutively for loss of hair were included. Patients were aged between 8 and 85 years (mean age 36 years). Data including age, the number of hairs, hair density per square centimetre, anagen and telogen percentage and percentage of terminal and miniaturized hair were analysed. Results observed with TrichoScan were as below: number of hairs (mean 154.9; range 34-316). Hair density per square centimetre (mean 239; range 52-486). Hair in anagen phase (mean 62.4%; range 9-93%). Hair in telogen phase (mean 37.4%; range 7-91%). Terminal hair (mean 95.2%; range 82-100%). Vellus hair (mean 4.7%; range 0-17%). Pearson's correlation test was used to measure the strength of the association of age with the rest of parameters. The statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between age and both the number of hairs and the hair density per square centimetre. However, no significant correlation between age and rest of the parameters was observed. TrichoScan Professional may help to quantify hair density and in our sample, this was the only parameter showing a significant decrease according to age in various types of alopecia affecting the females. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  13. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  14. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  15. HSL Attenuates the Follicular Oxidative Stress and Enhances the Hair Growth in ob/ob Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Minematsu, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We demonstrated enhanced hair regeneration following topical administration of N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL in ob/ob mice. The ob/ob mice showed delayed hair regeneration (more than 6 wk after depilation, which rapidly induced transition to anagen in the hair cycle in wild-type mice. Vehicle and HSL solutions were applied to the depilated dorsal skin of ob/ob mice. The depilated skin of the HSL-treated mice was fully covered with hair, whereas no macroscopic alteration was observed in vehicle-treated group by the fourth week after depilation. Oxidative stress was drastically decreased and the expression of the antioxidative enzymes PON1 and PON3 was increased in the HSL-treated skin with highly proliferative anagen follicles. These results suggest that HSL is a candidate therapeutic agent for alopecia in metabolic syndrome.

  16. Simultaneous effects of tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) on local hair growth promotion and systemic absorption of topically applied minoxidil in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Ho; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Wu, An-Bang; Lin, Keng-Ping; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2005-12-08

    In this study, topical minoxidil solutions supplemented with TPGS in cosolvent systems of various compositions consisting of water, alcohol, and polyethylene glycol 400 were designed to evaluate the efficacy of promoting hair growth after topical application and the safety in terms of the amount of minoxidil absorbed through the skin into the circulation using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The commercial product of 2% Regaine) was used as the positive control. The role, which sulfotransferase activity plays in hair growth with treatment using minoxidil, was determined as well. The results revealed that the addition of 0.5% TPGS was able to enhance the proliferation of hair, but an increase in the amount of TPGS to 2% led to deterioration in the enhancement of hair growth. At the higher added amount (2.0%) of TPGS, the promotion of hair growth was slightly reduced for both cosolvent formulations F1 (100% water) and F3 (100% PEG 400), whereas it was reduced to a greater extent for the cosolvent formulations F8-F10. In comparison, the influences of cosolvent compositions with TPGS amounts of 0.0 and 2.0% on the promotion of hair growth were similar. On the contrary, variability in the promotion of hair growth by different solvent formulations was minimal when the added amount of TPGS was 0.5%. In general, a relationship between hair growth and sulfotransferase activities after topical application of 2% Regaine and minoxidil formulations containing various amounts of TPGS was not demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of minoxidil with 2% Regaine were found to be greater than those of 2% minoxidil in those cosolvent formulations containing various amounts of TPGS, while showing insignificant differences among those 10 cosolvent formulations with a fixed amount of TPGS. A tendency for the plasma concentration of minoxidil to increase after the topical administration of minoxidil formulations containing the higher amount of TPGS (2%) was noted.

  17. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  18. Visible-to-near IR quantum dot-based hypermulticolor high-content screening of herbal medicines for the efficacy monitoring of hair growth promotion and hair loss inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Lim, Chaeyun; Lee, Jun Young; Im, Kyung Ran; Yoon, Kyung-Sup; Song, Joon Myong

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing interest in alopecia prevention strategies, as the number of alopecia patients is increasing. We examine the efficacy of herbal medicine for hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition in two cell lines via Western blot and high-content screening (HCS). Nine herbal extracts were obtained from three different herbal medicine mixtures using 3 different extraction methods. Five target proteins-IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), TGF-β2 (transforming growth factor-β2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), DKK-1 (Dickkopf-1), and Wnt5α-were observed for the assessment of hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition efficacy. The efficacies of nine extracts were compared with minoxidil as control. Efficacy was defined as a rise in the expression levels of IGF-1, VEGF, and Wnt5α but a decrease in DKK-1 and TGF-β2. Intracellular concurrent imaging of these proteins was successfully achieved using HCS, employing visible-to-near infrared probing based on quantum-antibody conjugates and hypermulticolor imaging.

  19. Effectiveness of a Layer-by-Layer Microbubbles-Based Delivery System for Applying Minoxidil to Enhance Hair Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Lu, Ying-Jui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hang-Kang; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is a conventional drug for treating androgenetic alopecia, preventing hair loss, and promoting hair growth. The solubility of Mx has been improved using chemical enhancement methods to increase its skin permeability over the long term. This study created a new ultrasound (US) contrast agent-albumin-shelled microbubbles (MBs) that absorb chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) and Mx-and combined it with sonication by US energy in the water phase to enhance hair growth while shortening the treatment period. COL and Mx grafted with MBs (mean diameter of 1480 nm) were synthesized into self-assembled complexes of COL-MBs and Mx-COL-MBs that had mean diameters of 4150 and 4500 nm, respectively. The US was applied at 3 W/cm(2) for 1 min, and combined with Mx-COL-MBs containing 0.3% Mx. The diffusion of Mx through the dialysis membrane from Mx-COL-MB during US (US+Mx-COL-MB) was more rapid at pH 4 than at pH 7.4, which is favorable given that the environment of the scalp is mildly acidic (pH=4.5-5.5). In Franz diffusion experiments performed in vitro, the release rates at 18 hours in the US+Mx-COL-MBs and US+MBs+Mx groups resulted in 2.3 and 1.7 times the penetration and deposition, respectively, of Mx relative to the group with Mx alone. During 21 days treatment in animal experiments, the growth rates at days 10 and 14 in the US+Mx-COL-MBs group increased by 22.6% and 64.7%, respectively, and there were clear significant differences (p<0.05) between the US+Mx-COL-MBs group and the other four groups. The use of US+Mx-COL-MB in the water phase can increased the effects of Mx so as to shorten the telogen phase, and also increase both the diameter of keratinized hair shafts and the size of hair follicles without causing skin damage.

  20. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  1. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gentile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System. For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2, whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2 were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex. Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  2. The effect of plasma rich in growth factors combined with follicular unit extraction surgery for the treatment of hair loss: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Roge M; Pino, Ander; Martinez-Andres, Asunción; Molina, Consuelo; Martinez, Ana María; Martinez, Nahikari; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2017-10-26

    Hair transplant surgery using follicular unit extraction technique (FUE) is a common surgical procedure for the treatment of severe hair loss. Blood-derived autologous growth factors have also proved to promote hair regeneration in patients with different types of alopecia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) technology as an adjuvant therapy for FUE surgery in hair loss affected patients. The biologic potential of PRGF was firstly in vitro evaluated over follicular germinal matrix and dermal papilla cells. Afterward, fifteen patients were subjected to routine FUE procedure while 15 patients underwent FUE+PRGF therapy. PRGF group included intradermal injections of growth factors and follicular transfer unit (FTU) preservation in an autologous fibrin clot. Postsurgical patient satisfaction and clinical improvement were evaluated, and PRGF or saline-preserved hair grafts were histomorphometrically analyzed. Follicular cell proliferation and migration was induced after autologous growth factors treatment. PRGF-preserved FTUs presented higher bioactivity signals and improved integrity of perifollicular structures and extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and elastic fibers. PRGF not only reduced the postsurgical crust healing and hair fixation period, but also decreased the inflammatory pain and itching sensation. This preliminary data demonstrate that PRGF is able to minimize the postsurgical follicle loss and potentiate the performance of grafted hairs. The fibrin clot not only acts as a protective barrier against environmental factors, but also provides a biologically active scaffold that induces resident cell proliferation and maintains an optimal integrity of the grafted hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  4. Relationship termination in emerging adulthood: Coping strategies as predictors of posttraumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zgaga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship termination happens relatively often in emerging adulthood but is nevertheless as distressing then as it is later in life. We examined the relationship between coping strategies and posttraumatic growth in a sample of 260 emerging adults whose heterosexual romantic relationships were terminated at most two years before participating in the study. Participants completed The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, The COPE Inventory and Emotion Approach Coping scale. For the purposes of the study we also conceptualized a new coping inventory, related specifically to coping with relationship termination. While controlling for gender and age the coping strategies explained 34 % of variability in posttraumatic growth. Statistically significant predictors of posttraumatic growth were problem-oriented coping strategies, coping strategies, oriented towards emotions and other people, acceptance and positive self-motivation as well as coping strategies that allow some distancing from the stressor. Results indicate that posttraumatic growth is related to problem-oriented and also to emotion-oriented coping strategies, which is reasonable since relationship termination is a stressor that cannot be eliminated. It is important that an individual who is facing it can cope well with the unpleasant emotions deriving from relationship termination.

  5. Safety and efficacy analysis of liposomal insulin-like growth factor-1 in a fluid gel formulation for hair-loss treatment in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R F; Azzalis, L A; Feder, D; Perazzo, F F; Pereira, E C; Junqueira, V B C; Rocha, K C; Machado, C D'A; Paschoal, F C; Gnann, L A; Fonseca, F L A

    2012-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has shown some interesting results in studies examining its use as a hair-loss treatment. IGF-1 works by regulating cellular proliferation and migration during the development of hair follicles. Hepatotoxicity and myelotoxicity were evaluated in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) after topical application of the liquid gel vehicle (placebo), 1% IGF-1 or 3% IGF-1. No significant difference in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase was found between the control and treated groups. ELISA did not shown any increase in the plasma level of IGF-1. A haematopoietic niche was found, but it was not associated with myelotoxicity. Efficacy was determined by dermatoscopy analysis of hair density and microscopy analysis of hair diameter, with hair found to be thicker and with more rapid growth in the 3% group than in either the 1% group or the control group. These results strongly suggest that liposomal IGF-1 in a liquid gel formulation is a safe and efficient treatment for hair loss. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth. Iron is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “reduction of excessive hair loss”. The target population proposed by the applicant is non-menopausal women, aged between 19 and 49...... years, presenting with excessive hair loss. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal hair growth is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant identified a total of five observational studies and one review as pertinent to the claim. The narrative review contained no primary data. In two...... status and hair loss while a third study showed an association between low iron status and hair loss. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two observational studies showed no relationship of iron status with hair loss and that one observational study showed an association. The Panel...

  8. Early Arabidopsis root hair growth stimulation by pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas syringae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pečenková, Tamara; Janda, Martin; Ortmannová, Jitka; Hajná, Vladimíra; Stehlíková, Zuzana; Žárský, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2017), s. 437-446 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14886S; GA ČR GA14-09685S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis * dde2/ein2/pad4/sid2 * exocyst * Flg22 * Pseudomonas * Root hair * vesicle trafficking Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  9. The Insect Growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen Terminates Egg Diapause in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi S Suman

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species that transmits chikungunya and dengue. This species overwinters as diapausing eggs in temperate climates. Early diapause termination may be a beneficial strategy for winter mosquito control; however, a mechanism to terminate the diapause process using chemicals is not known. We tested the hypothesis that a hormonal imbalance caused by the administration of juvenile hormone analog would terminate egg diapause in A. albopictus. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on all developmental stages to identify a susceptible stage for diapause termination. We found that pyriproxyfen treatment of mosquito eggs terminated embryonic diapause. The highest rates of diapause termination were recorded in newly deposited (78.9% and fully embryonated (74.7% eggs at 0.1 and 1 ppm, respectively. Hatching was completed earlier in newly deposited eggs (25-30 days compared to fully embryonated eggs (71-80 days. The combined mortality from premature diapause termination and ovicidal activity was 98.2% in newly deposited and >98.9% in fully embryonated eggs at 1 ppm. The control diapause eggs did not hatch under diapausing conditions. Pyriproxyfen exposure to larvae, pupae and adults did not prevent the females from ovipositing diapausing eggs. There was no effect of pyriproxyfen on diapausing egg embryonic developmental time. We also observed mortality in diapausing eggs laid by females exposed to pyriproxyfen immediately after blood feeding. There was no mortality in eggs laid by females that survived larval and pupal exposures. In conclusion, diapausing eggs were the more susceptible to pyriproxyfen diapause termination compared to other life stages. This is the first report of diapause termination in A. albopictus with a juvenile hormone analog. We believe our findings will be useful in developing a new control strategy against overwintering mosquito populations.

  10. Drug-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  11. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  12. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jong Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5 were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of

  13. Productive response of hair ewes crossed with Damara and Dorper and growth of their lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salinas-Rios

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Profitability of sheep production depends on the reproductive response of ewes and growth of their lambs, which can be improved through the ram genotype. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive response of Blackbelly (Bb, Pelibuey (Pb, Katahdin (Kat and Dorper (Dor ewes crossed with Damara (Dam and Dor rams and the growth of their offspring. To measure percentage of single and multiple lambings (MLP, 234 Bb, Pb, Kat and Dor ewes were used. To measure lamb growth, the offspring of 86 Bb x Pb (BbPb ewes and 73 Kat x Dor (KatDOR ewes were used. Four Dor x BbPb, six Dam x BbPb and six Dam x KatDor lambs were slaughtered for carcass assessment. MLP was analyzed with the CATMOD procedure considering the factors age and breed. Lamb growth data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure, and those of carcass characteristics with the GLM procedure of SAS, using weight at slaughter as covariable. MLP was higher (P0.05 by effect of ram breed. It is concluded that Bb ewes are more prolific than Dor ewes; male lambs of Dam rams had post-weaning growth response and carcass yield similar to those of Dor rams, although the female lambs of Dor rams were heavier than those of Dam rams.

  14. A RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor spatially regulates growth in root hair cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carol, R.J.; Takeda, S.; Linstead, P.; Durrant, M.C.; Toupalová, Hana; Derbyshire, P.; Drea, S.; Žárský, Viktor; Dolan, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 438, č. 7070 (2005), s. 1013-1016 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/02/1461 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NADPH OXIDASE * MEDICAGO-TRUNCATULA * TIP GROWTH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.273, year: 2005

  15. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  16. Androgenic alopecia and dutasteride in hair mesotherapy: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela B Busanello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (AGA is the most common cause of patterned hair loss in predisposed men and women. AGA is a multifactorial and polygenetic condition, affecting up to 80% of men and 40-50% of women during life. AGA is characterized by a gradual reduction of the anagen and increase in telagen phase, leading to a progressive follicle miniaturization. As a consequence, terminal hairs are converted into vellus hairs decreasing hair density. The pathophysiology of AGA is heterogeneous and highly complex. A diverse combination of genetical factors, endocrine abnormalities, circulating androgens, drugs, diet and microinflammation in hair follicles of each individual are related to this condition. However, it is well known that androgens are the major modulators of male AGA but their specific action on female AGA is still under debate. Circulating testosterone is converted by 5a-reductase in 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT in the periphery, a decrease of anagen phase occur, anticipating catagen phase in a complex process involving apoptosis as probably microinflammation. In AGA treatment, mesotherapy is being used with 5a-reductase inhibitors, especially dutasteride, injected directly on scalp. Thus, this updated review summarized the injectable use of dutasteride based on data available on PubMed until March 2017. Dutasteride, a second-generation inhibitor of 5a-reductase is more potent than finasteride due to the capability of inhibit types 1 and 2 of the enzyme. The efficacy and safety of hair mesotherapy with dutasteride were reported by distinct groups and the best results were achieved when this compound was used in combination with other substances, increasing hair growth. This result could be explained by the multifactorial pathophysiology of AGA, involving hair follicle sensitivity to DHT and microinflammation. Therefore, a multi-therapeutic approach seems to be more effective in AGA management. In conclusion, more studies are needed to

  17. Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2013-02-09

    Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss.

  18. The diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels in children with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Song, Xueqing; Xia, Jiyi; Li, Jing; Jia, Peng; Chen, Pengyuan; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor in children with heart failure. Methods and results Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor was determined in 61 children, including 41 children with heart failure, 20 children without heart failure, and 30 healthy volunteers. The correlations between plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels and clinical parameters were investigated. Moreover, the diagnostic value of N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels was evaluated. Compared with healthy volunteers and children without heart failure, plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor levels were significantly elevated in those with heart failure (p0.05), but it obviously improved the ability of diagnosing heart failure in children, as demonstrated by the integrated discrimination improvement (6.2%, p=0.013) and net re-classification improvement (13.2%, p=0.017) indices. Plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor is a promising diagnostic biomarker for heart failure in children.

  19. SHP2 regulates chondrocyte terminal differentiation, growth plate architecture and skeletal cell fates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot E Bowen

    Full Text Available Loss of PTPN11/SHP2 in mice or in human metachondromatosis (MC patients causes benign cartilage tumors on the bone surface (exostoses and within bones (enchondromas. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cartilage tumor formation, we investigated the role of SHP2 in the specification, maturation and organization of chondrocytes. Firstly, we studied chondrocyte maturation by performing RNA-seq on primary chondrocyte pellet cultures. We found that SHP2 depletion, or inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway, delays the terminal differentiation of chondrocytes from the early-hypertrophic to the late-hypertrophic stage. Secondly, we studied chondrocyte maturation and organization in mice with a mosaic postnatal inactivation of Ptpn11 in chondrocytes. We found that the vertebral growth plates of these mice have expanded domains of early-hypertrophic chondrocytes that have not yet terminally differentiated, and their enchondroma-like lesions arise from chondrocytes displaced from the growth plate due to a disruption in the organization of maturation and ossification zones. Furthermore, we observed that lesions from human MC patients also display disorganized chondrocyte maturation zones. Next, we found that inactivation of Ptpn11 in Fsp1-Cre-expressing fibroblasts induces exostosis-like outgrowths, suggesting that loss of SHP2 in cells on the bone surface and at bone-ligament attachment sites induces ectopic chondrogenesis. Finally, we performed lineage tracing to show that exostoses and enchondromas in mice likely contain mixtures of wild-type and SHP2-deficient chondrocytes. Together, these data indicate that in patients with MC, who are heterozygous for inherited PTPN11 loss-of-function mutations, second-hit mutations in PTPN11 can induce enchondromas by disrupting the organization and delaying the terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes, and can induce exostoses by causing ectopic chondrogenesis of cells on the bone surface. Furthermore, the

  20. Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells plasticity augments scar-free skin wound healing with hair growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Sabapathy

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a promising candidate for cell-based transplantation and regenerative medicine therapies. Thus in the present study Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (WJ-MSCs have been derived from extra embryonic umbilical cord matrix following removal of both arteries and vein. Also, to overcome the clinical limitations posed by fetal bovine serum (FBS supplementation because of xenogeneic origin of FBS, usual FBS cell culture supplement has been replaced with human platelet lysate (HPL. Apart from general characteristic features of bone marrow-derived MSCs, wharton jelly-derived MSCs have the ability to maintain phenotypic attributes, cell growth kinetics, cell cycle pattern, in vitro multilineage differentiation plasticity, apoptotic pattern, normal karyotype-like intrinsic mesenchymal stem cell properties in long-term in vitro cultures. Moreover, the WJ-MSCs exhibited the in vitro multilineage differentiation capacity by giving rise to differentiated cells of not only mesodermal lineage but also to the cells of ectodermal and endodermal lineage. Also, WJ-MSC did not present any aberrant cell state upon in vivo transplantation in SCID mice and in vitro soft agar assays. The immunomodulatory potential assessed by gene expression levels of immunomodulatory factors upon exposure to inflammatory cytokines in the fetal WJ-MSCs was relatively higher compared to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs. WJ-MSCs seeded on decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold transplantation on the skin injury of SCID mice model demonstrates that combination of WJ-MSCs and decellularized amniotic membrane scaffold exhibited significantly better wound-healing capabilities, having reduced scar formation with hair growth and improved biomechanical properties of regenerated skin compared to WJ-MSCs alone. Further, our experimental data indicate that indocyanin green (ICG at optimal concentration can be resourcefully used for labeling of stem cells

  1. Ginsenoside F2 reduces hair loss by controlling apoptosis through the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage activating protein and transforming growth factor-β pathways in a dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Son; Lee, Don-Gil; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Turdalievich; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to test whether ginsenoside F2 can reduce hair loss by influencing sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway of apoptosis in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated hair cells and in a DHT-induced hair loss model in mice. Results for ginsenoside F2 were compared with finasteride. DHT inhibits proliferation of hair cells and induces androgenetic alopecia and was shown to activate an apoptosis signal pathway both in vitro and in vivo. The cell-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group. Western blot analysis showed that ginsenoside F2 decreased expression of TGF-β2 related factors involved in hair loss. The present study suggested a hair loss related pathway by changing SCAP related apoptosis pathway, which has been known to control cholesterol metabolism. SCAP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and caspase-12 expression in the ginsenoside F2-treated group were decreased compared to the DHT and finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were also prepared by injection with DHT and then treated with ginsenoside F2 or finasteride. Hair growth rate, density, thickness measurements and tissue histotological analysis in these groups suggested that ginsenoside F2 suppressed hair cell apoptosis and premature entry to catagen more effectively than finasteride. Our results indicated that ginsenoside F2 decreased the expression of TGF-β2 and SCAP proteins, which have been suggested to be involved in apoptosis and entry into catagen. This study provides evidence those factors in the SCAP pathway could be targets for hair loss prevention drugs.

  2. Hair Growth Promoting and Anticancer Effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1 Inhibitors Isolated from Different Parts of Alpinia zerumbet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Taira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1 is an emerging target for the treatment of hair loss (alopecia and cancer; therefore, the search for PAK1 blockers to treat these PAK1-dependent disorders has received much attention. In this study, we evaluated the anti-alopecia and anticancer effects of PAK1 inhibitors isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia in cell culture. The bioactive compounds isolated from alpinia were found to markedly promote hair cell growth. Kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide (KOG and labdadiene, two of the isolated compounds, increased the proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells by approximately 117%–180% and 132%–226%, respectively, at 10–100 μM. MTD (2,5-bis(1E,3E,5E-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl-2,5-dihydrofuran and TMOQ ((E-2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yloctahydro-1H-quinolizine showed growth-promoting activity around 164% and 139% at 10 μM, respectively. The hair cell proliferation induced by these compounds was significantly higher than that of minoxidil, a commercially available treatment for hair loss. Furthermore, the isolated compounds from alpinia exhibited anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC50 in the range of 67–99 μM. Regarding the mechanism underlying their action, we hypothesized that the anti-alopecia and anticancer activities of these compounds could be attributed to the inhibition of the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

  3. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  4. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  5. Modified energetics and growth kinetics on H-terminated GaAs (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Díez-Merino, L.; Tejedor, P.; Lorbek, S.; Hlawacek, G.; Teichert, C.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen modification of the surface energy of GaAs (110) epilayers, grown at high temperatures from molecular beams of Ga and As 4 , has been investigated by friction force microscopy (FFM). The reduction of the friction force observed with longer exposures to the H beam has been correlated with the lowering of the surface energy originated by the progressive de-relaxation of the GaAs (110) surface occurring upon H chemisorption. Our results indicate that the H-terminated GaAs (110) epilayers are more stable than the As-stabilized ones, with the minimum surface energy value of 31 meV/Å 2 measured for the fully hydrogenated surface. A significant reduction of the Ga diffusion length on the H-terminated surface irrespective of H coverage has been calculated from the FFM data, consistent with the layer-by-layer growth mode and the greater As incorporation coefficient determined from real-time reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies. Arsenic incorporation through direct dissociative chemisorption of single As 4 molecules mediated by H on the GaAs (110) surface has been proposed as the most likely explanation for the changes in surface kinetics observed

  6. Modified energetics and growth kinetics on H-terminated GaAs (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiana, B. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Benedicto, M.; Díez-Merino, L.; Tejedor, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorbek, S.; Hlawacek, G.; Teichert, C. [Institut für Physik, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz Josef St., 18A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2013-10-28

    Atomic hydrogen modification of the surface energy of GaAs (110) epilayers, grown at high temperatures from molecular beams of Ga and As{sub 4}, has been investigated by friction force microscopy (FFM). The reduction of the friction force observed with longer exposures to the H beam has been correlated with the lowering of the surface energy originated by the progressive de-relaxation of the GaAs (110) surface occurring upon H chemisorption. Our results indicate that the H-terminated GaAs (110) epilayers are more stable than the As-stabilized ones, with the minimum surface energy value of 31 meV/Å{sup 2} measured for the fully hydrogenated surface. A significant reduction of the Ga diffusion length on the H-terminated surface irrespective of H coverage has been calculated from the FFM data, consistent with the layer-by-layer growth mode and the greater As incorporation coefficient determined from real-time reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies. Arsenic incorporation through direct dissociative chemisorption of single As{sub 4} molecules mediated by H on the GaAs (110) surface has been proposed as the most likely explanation for the changes in surface kinetics observed.

  7. Valproic acid induces hair regeneration in murine model and activates alkaline phosphatase activity in human dermal papilla cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA, a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo.Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX, a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl(2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice.Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth.

  8. A Premature Termination of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transcription in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihene Elloumi-Mseddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our success in producing an active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase in Escherichia coli encouraged us to express the full-length receptor in the same host. Despite its large size, we were successful at producing the full-length EGFR protein fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST that was detected by Western blot analysis. Moreover, we obtained a majoritarian truncated GST-EGFR form detectable by gel electrophoresis and Western blot. This truncated protein was purified and confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to belong to the N-terminal extracellular region of the EGFR fused to GST. Northern blot analysis showed two transcripts suggesting the occurrence of a transcriptional arrest.

  9. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes applied through seed-priming influence early germination, root hair, growth and yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Kaur, Simranjeet; Dharamvir, Keya; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav

    2018-06-01

    Reports of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) incorporated into plants have indicated better yield and productivity, yet the phenomena need in-depth understanding especially when agricultural crops are tested. We primed wheat seeds with MWCNTs to understand the effects on germination, growth, anatomy, physiology and yield. This study, carried out in field conditions, is a step forward over the previous reports. Early germination, excessive root hair, denser stomata and larger root length result in faster growth and higher yield of wheat plants. Denser root hair facilitated the uptake of both water and essential minerals such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which boosted the crop yield by significantly improving grain yield per plant from 1.53 to 2.5 g, a 63% increase. Increase in cell elongation by 80% was recorded, while xylem and phloem sizes dilated to almost 83% and 85% of control, thus enhancing their capacity to conduct water and nutrients. Augmented growth of MWCNT-primed wheat, enhancement in grain number, biomass, stomatal density, xylem-phloem size, epidermal cells, and water uptake is observed while finding no DNA damage. This opens up an entirely new aspect to using cost-effective nanomaterials (the MWCNTs were produced in-house) for enhancing the performance of crop plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Fluorine-induced apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in human hair follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-hui; Li, Xiao-li; Yang, Zhuang-qun; Xu, Min

    2010-12-01

    Fluoride is an essential trace element for human body; however, exposure to high amounts of fluoride has been documented to be correlated with an increasing risk of hair loss. To date, little is known about the mechanism(s) of how fluoride affects hair follicles. Here, we demonstrated that middle (1.0 mmol/L) and high (10.0 mmol/L) concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) significantly inhibited hair follicle elongation in vitro, but low NaF (0.1 mmol/L) showed little influence. Moreover, treatment with high levels of NaF resulted in a marked increase in terminal dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in the outer layer of the outer root sheath, the dermal sheath, and the lower bulb matrix surrounding dermal papilla. Furthermore, the enhanced apoptosis was coupled with an increased oxidative stress manifested as higher malondialdehyde content. Additionally, the presence of selenium considerably antagonized the effects of middle NaF on hair follicles, with regard to either the suppression of hair growth or the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. In conclusion, exposure to high levels of fluoride compromises hair follicle growth and accelerate cell apoptosis in vitro. The toxicity of fluoride can be reduced by selenium, at least partially via the suppression of intracellular oxidative stress.

  11. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium, alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  13. Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Natsuki; Kato, Mariko; Tomioka, Rie; Kurata, Rie; Fukao, Yoichiro; Aoyama, Takashi; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2014-04-01

    The plasma membrane-associated Ca(2+)-binding protein-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the growth of root hair tips. Several transgenic lines that overexpress the 23 residue N-terminal domain of this protein under the control of the root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 promoter lack root hairs completely. The role of root hairs under normal and stress conditions was examined in one of these root hair-less lines (NR23). Compared with the wild type, NR23 showed a 47% reduction in water absorption, decreased drought tolerance, and a lower ability to adapt to heat. Growth of NR23 was suppressed in media deficient in phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, copper, or potassium. Also, the content of an individual mineral in NR23 grown in normal medium, or in medium lacking a specific mineral, was relatively low. In wild-type plants, the primary and lateral roots produce numerous root hairs that become elongated under phosphate-deficient conditions; NR23 did not produce root hairs. Although several isoforms of the plasma membrane phosphate transporters including PHT1;1-PHT1;6 were markedly induced after growth in phosphate-deficient medium, the levels induced in NR23 were less than half those observed in the wild type. In phosphate-deficient medium, the amounts of acid phosphatase, malate, and citrate secreted from NR23 roots were 38, 9, and 16% of the levels secreted from wild-type roots. The present results suggest that root hairs play significant roles in the absorption of water and several minerals, secretion of acid phosphatase(s) and organic acids, and in penetration of the primary roots into gels.

  14. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  15. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  16. Ultraviolet B preconditioning enhances the hair growth-promoting effects of adipose-derived stem cells via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun-Mi; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Kwack, Mi Hee; Yoon, Insoo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia induces the survival and regenerative potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), but there are tremendous needs to find alternative methods for ASC preconditioning. Therefore, this work investigated: (1) the ability of low-dose ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation to stimulate the survival, migration, and tube-forming activity of ASCs in vitro; (2) the ability of UVB preconditioning to enhance the hair growth-promoting capacity of ASCs in vivo; and (3) the mechanism of action for ASC stimulation by UVB. Although high-dose UVB decreased the proliferation of ASCs, low-dose (10 or 20 mJ/cm(2)) treatment increased their survival, migration, and tube-forming activity. In addition, low-dose UVB upregulated the expression of ASC-derived growth factors, and a culture medium conditioned by UVB-irradiated ASCs increased the proliferation of dermal papilla and outer root sheet cells. Notably, injection of UVB-preconditioned ASCs into C(3)H/HeN mice significantly induced the telogen-to-anagen transition and increased new hair weight in vivo. UVB treatment significantly increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured ASCs, and inhibition of ROS generation by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) significantly attenuated UVB-induced ASC stimulation. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) expression was induced in ASCs by UVB irradiation, and Nox4 silencing by small interfering RNA, like DPI, significantly reduced UVB-induced ROS generation. These results suggest that the primary involvement of ROS generation in UVB-mediated ASC stimulation occurs via the Nox4 enzyme. This is the first indication that a low dose of UVB radiation and/or the control of ROS generation could potentially be incorporated into a novel ASC preconditioning method for hair regeneration.

  17. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  18. Human Scalp Hair Follicles Are Both a Target and a Source of Prolactin, which Serves as an Autocrine and/or Paracrine Promoter of Apoptosis-Driven Hair Follicle Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:16507890

  19. Human scalp hair follicles are both a target and a source of prolactin, which serves as an autocrine and/or paracrine promoter of apoptosis-driven hair follicle regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

    2006-03-01

    The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyper-prolactinemia.

  20. A toddler with hair fascination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Patricia; Needlman, Robert D; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    Joseph is a 24-months old boy referred by his pediatrician because of an "obsession" with pulling and eating hair. When Joseph was 14 months old, he enjoyed touching and twirling his mother's long hair. She observed that it seemed to provide comfort to him. At 18 months, he initiated pulling out and eating his own hair, twirling his mother's hair around his thumb and then sucking on it. Currently, he searches the carpet or a hard floor and looks for hair to eat. The identical behavior is observed at daycare. Joseph's teacher commented, "He pulled hair from a girl who has the longest hair of all the children. We try to distract him from this habit, but he is not distracted for long." Less frequently, Joseph has also eaten sand, chalk, and crayons at daycare. Joseph's mother describes him as a "happy and outgoing" child who interacts with his peers and has a best friend at the daycare. There have not been recent changes or stressful events in his life. Joseph separates from his mother with ease and he sleeps comfortably through the night in his own bed. There have been no episodes of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or constipation. Strands of hair are occasionally seen in the stool. Prenatal and perinatal history was unremarkable. Joseph was breast-fed for 11 months, described as an "easy" baby, achieved motor, social, and language developmental milestones at the usual time, and has been in excellent health. He lives with his mother and maternal grandparents; the biological father has never been involved in his care. At 20 months, Joseph's pediatrician suggested cutting his hair. After several haircuts, Joseph stopped pulling his own hair. However, he continued to search the floor for hair. Hemoglobin and a blood lead level were normal. Joseph appeared pleasant and friendly with normal growth parameters and facial features. He was sitting comfortably on his mother's lap, sucking on his thumb. Social interactions with his mother were appropriate and reciprocal. He

  1. Improved growth velocity of a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH) without growth hormone deficiency by low-dose growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Kei; Takishima, Shigeru; Morioka, Chikako; Nishioka, Masato; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Aoki, Yoko; Shimohira, Masayuki; Kashimada, Kenichi; Morio, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH; OMIM 607721) is caused by a heterozygous c.4A>G mutation in SHOC2. Most cases exhibit both growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and growth hormone insensitivity (GHI) and thus require a high dose of growth hormone (GH) therapy (e.g., 35-40 µg/kg/day). We report on a genetically diagnosed NS/LAH patient manifesting severe short stature (-3.85 SDs) with low serum level of IGF1, 30 ng/ml. The peak levels of GH stimulation tests were within the normal range, and GHI was not observed in the IGF1 generation test. However, with low-dose GH therapy (25 µg/kg/day) for two years, IGF1 level and height were remarkably improved (IGF1: 117 ng/ml, height SDs: -2.20 SDs). Further, catch-up of motor development and improvement of the proportion of extending limbs to trunk were observed (the Developmental Quotient score increased from 68 to 98 points, and the relative sitting height ratio decreased from 0.62 to 0.57). Our results suggest that endocrinological causes for short stature are variable in NS/LAH and that GH therapy should be considered as a possible treatment for delayed development in NS/LAH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spilde

    Full Text Available Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios, which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  3. DFsn collaborates with Highwire to down-regulate the Wallenda/DLK kinase and restrain synaptic terminal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiAntonio Aaron

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growth of new synapses shapes the initial formation and subsequent rearrangement of neural circuitry. Genetic studies have demonstrated that the ubiquitin ligase Highwire restrains synaptic terminal growth by down-regulating the MAP kinase kinase kinase Wallenda/dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. To investigate the mechanism of Highwire action, we have identified DFsn as a binding partner of Highwire and characterized the roles of DFsn in synapse development, synaptic transmission, and the regulation of Wallenda/DLK kinase abundance. Results We identified DFsn as an F-box protein that binds to the RING-domain ubiquitin ligase Highwire and that can localize to the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Loss-of-function mutants for DFsn have a phenotype that is very similar to highwire mutants – there is a dramatic overgrowth of synaptic termini, with a large increase in the number of synaptic boutons and branches. In addition, synaptic transmission is impaired in DFsn mutants. Genetic interactions between DFsn and highwire mutants indicate that DFsn and Highwire collaborate to restrain synaptic terminal growth. Finally, DFsn regulates the levels of the Wallenda/DLK kinase, and wallenda is necessary for DFsn-dependent synaptic terminal overgrowth. Conclusion The F-box protein DFsn binds the ubiquitin ligase Highwire and is required to down-regulate the levels of the Wallenda/DLK kinase and restrain synaptic terminal growth. We propose that DFsn and Highwire participate in an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin ligase complex whose substrates regulate the structure and function of synapses.

  4. Interventions for female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Schoones, Jan

    2016-05-26

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), or androgenic alopecia, is the most common type of hair loss affecting women. It is characterised by progressive shortening of the duration of the growth phase of the hair with successive hair cycles, and progressive follicular miniaturisation with conversion of terminal to vellus hair follicles (terminal hairs are thicker and longer, while vellus hairs are soft, fine, and short). The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. Hair loss can have a serious psychological impact on women. To determine the efficacy and safety of the available options for the treatment of female pattern hair loss in women. We updated our searches of the following databases to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1872), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), PubMed (from 1947), and Web of Science (from 1945). We also searched five trial registries and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies. We included randomised controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of interventions for FPHL in women. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality, extracted data and carried out analyses. We included 47 trials, with 5290 participants, of which 25 trials were new to this update. Only five trials were at 'low risk of bias', 26 were at 'unclear risk', and 16 were at 'high risk of bias'.The included trials evaluated a wide range of interventions, and 17 studies evaluated minoxidil. Pooled data from six studies indicated that a greater proportion of participants (157/593) treated with minoxidil (2% and one study with 1%) reported a moderate to marked increase in their hair regrowth when compared with placebo (77/555) (risk ratio (RR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51 to 2.47; moderate quality evidence). These results were confirmed by the investigator-rated assessments in seven studies with 1181

  5. The utility of estimating population-level trajectories of terminal wellbeing decline within a growth mixture modelling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R A; Byles, J; Magliano, D J; Mitchell, P; Anstey, K J

    2015-03-01

    Mortality-related decline has been identified across multiple domains of human functioning, including mental health and wellbeing. The current study utilised a growth mixture modelling framework to establish whether a single population-level trajectory best describes mortality-related changes in both wellbeing and mental health, or whether subpopulations report quite different mortality-related changes. Participants were older-aged (M = 69.59 years; SD = 8.08 years) deceased females (N = 1,862) from the dynamic analyses to optimise ageing (DYNOPTA) project. Growth mixture models analysed participants' responses on measures of mental health and wellbeing for up to 16 years from death. Multi-level models confirmed overall terminal decline and terminal drop in both mental health and wellbeing. However, modelling data from the same participants within a latent class growth mixture framework indicated that most participants reported stability in mental health (90.3 %) and wellbeing (89.0 %) in the years preceding death. Whilst confirming other population-level analyses which support terminal decline and drop hypotheses in both mental health and wellbeing, we subsequently identified that most of this effect is driven by a small, but significant minority of the population. Instead, most individuals report stable levels of mental health and wellbeing in the years preceding death.

  6. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    10, hair decreased from average 21.26 ± 5.72 mm to 4.50 ± 0.83 mm. On the sheared side a hair growth of 26 mm was observed during the first two weeks, increasing to 40 mm for the next two weeks and at the end of 28 days there was still a significant difference (Z= -3.195; P= 0.001 for the non sheared hair (19.42 ± 7.33 mm and sheared hair (11.15 ± 3.23 mm. Such procedure was done by the beginning of August, still winter time. Using the blade size 30, sheared hair had an average of 4.76 ± 1.1 mm. A 24 mm hair growth was observed for the first two weeks and 20 mm for the next two weeks, decreasing its growth speed to 9 mm and after 57 days no significant difference was observed between sheared side (11.47 ± 5.61 mm and non sheared side (14.78 ± 8.06 mm, Z= -1.915; P= 0.055. Second cut was performed by  the beginning of October, spring time, period where there is a change of hair in European cattle  from winter season (thin and long hair to summer season (thick and short hair, starting on spring time. In this work we could observe the fast growing of hair when cut was done in winter time and the closer to the skin the better the benefits to the animals, as heat tolerance and fewer tick infestations. If shearing is done in spring time, it must be every 45-50 days.

  7. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  8. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  9. Interferon alfa and ribavirin induced hair changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, S.; Taj, A.; Muhamud, T.H.; Iqbal, Z.; Yaqub, F.

    2007-01-01

    Combination therapy of Interferon alfa and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C has well documented cutaneous adverse effects. Most interesting of these has been reported on hair physiology. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse effects involving hair in patients receiving combination of interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Division of Medicine Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Thirty Eight patients who completed treatment with interferon alfa (3 MIU subcutaneously thrice weekly) and 1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 weeks were enrolled in this single-center study. The patient's response and examination finding particularly regarding involvement of hair was noted on a Proforma. Thirty Two out of thirty eight (84%) patients noted adverse effects involving hair. The most frequent was diffuse hair loss and occurred in 27 patients (71%). Hypertrichosis of eyelashes (trichomegaly) and eyebrows (synophyrs) was observed in 18 (47%) and 16 (42%) patients respectively. Graying of hair was noted in 4 patients (11%), while discoloration of moustache hair was seen in 2 patients (5%). Epilation at the site of subcutaneous injection was noted in 10 patients (26%). Alopecia areata was reported in 2 patients (5%). It is concluded that adverse effects involving hair are frequent and varied (hair loss to excess hair growth) during combination therapy with Interferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. (author)

  10. Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used

  11. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  12. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drugs of Abuse in Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Bryn; Cuypers, Eva; Porta, Tiffany; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Heeren, Ron M A

    2017-01-01

    Hair testing is a powerful tool routinely used for the detection of drugs of abuse. The analysis of hair is highly advantageous as it can provide prolonged drug detectability versus that in biological fluids and chronological information about drug intake based on the average growth of hair. However, current methodology requires large amounts of hair samples and involves complex time-consuming sample preparation followed by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry imaging is increasingly being used for the analysis of single hair samples, as it provides more accurate and visual chronological information in single hair samples.Here, two methods for the preparation of single hair samples for mass spectrometry imaging are presented.The first uses an in-house built cutting apparatus to prepare longitudinal sections, the second is a method for embedding and cryo-sectioning hair samples in order to prepare cross-sections all along the hair sample.

  13. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of [125I]epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.R.; Mycock, C.; Smith, C.G.; Couchman, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although the intracellular ultrastructural processing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor have been described in cell culture systems, very few studies have examined this phenomenon in intact tissues. We have examined the ultrastructural and biochemical handling of [ 125 I]EGF in the epidermis and hair follicle bulb of intact, viable, 3- to 5-day-old rat skin the EGF receptor distribution of which has already been documented and in which EGF has been shown to be biologically active. After incubation of explants with 10 nM [ 125 I]EGF for 2.5 h at 25 degrees or 37 degrees C, radiolabel was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei. Sodium azide inhibited internalization of label, whereas a series of lysosomal inhibitors (chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide) caused a slight increase in silver grains associated with lysosomal vesicles and a decrease in nuclear label. Biochemical analysis indicated that greater than 35% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded [ 125 I]EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared [ 125 I]EGF was found to be covalently cross-linked with low efficiency to a protein having the molecular weight of the EGF receptor. These data are discussed in the light of the effects of EGF on epithelial cell proliferation in skin

  14. Barley root hair growth and morphology in soil, sand, and water solution media and relationship with nickel toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanqing; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2016-08-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare (Doyce), was grown in the 3 media of soil, hydroponic sand solution (sand), and hydroponic water solution (water) culture at the same environmental conditions for 4 d. Barley roots were scanned, and root morphology was analyzed. Plants grown in the 3 media had different root morphology and nickel (Ni) toxicity response. Root elongations and total root lengths followed the sequence soil > sand > water. Plants grown in water culture were more sensitive to Ni toxicity and had greater root hair length than those from soil and sand cultures, which increased root surface area. The unit root surface area as root surface area per centimeter of length of root followed the sequence water > sand > soil and was found to be related with root elongation. Including the unit root surface area, the difference in root elongation and 50% effective concentration were diminished, and percentage of root elongations can be improved with a root mean square error approximately 10% for plants grown in different media. Because the unit root surface area of plants in sand culture is closer to that in soil culture, the sand culture method, not water culture, is recommended for toxicity parameter estimation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2125-2133. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways

  16. Hair transplantation: Standard guidelines of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Narendra

    2008-03-01

    that proper hair growth can be expected after about 9 months after transplantation. Preoperative laboratory studies to be performed include Hb%, blood counts including platelet count, bleeding and clotting time (or prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, blood chemistry profile including sugar. Methods : Follicular unit hair transplantation is the gold standard method of hair transplantation; it preserves the natural architecture of the hair units and gives natural results. Mini-micro-grafting is a method hair transplantation involving randomly assorted groups of hairs, with out consideration of their natural configuration of follicular units, under loupe or naked eye examination. Mini-grafts consist of 4-5-6 hairs while micro-grafts consist of 1-3 hairs. Punch gives ugly cosmetically unacceptable results and should no longer be used. Patient Selection : Hair transplantation can be performed in any person with pattern hair loss, with good donor area, in good general health and reasonable expectations. Caution should be exercised in, very young patients whose early alopecia is still evolving, patients with Norwood grade VI or VII with poor density, patients with unrealistic expectations, and patients with significant systemic health problems. Medical therapy: Most patients will need concurrent medical treatment since the process of pattern hair loss is progressive and may affect the remaining hairs. Manpower : Hair transplantation is a team effort. Particularly, performing large sessions, needs a well trained team of trained assistants. Anesthesia: 2% lignocaine with adrenaline is generally used for anesthesia; tumescent technique is preferred. Bupivacaine has been used by some authors in view of its prolonged duration of action. Donor dissection : Strip dissection by single blade is recommended for donor area. Steromicroscopic dissection is recommended for dissection of hair units in follicular unit transplantation; mini-micro-grafting does not need

  17. Hair Loss: Common Causes and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T Grant; Slomiany, W Paul; Allison, Robert

    2017-09-15

    Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.

  18. Carboxy terminal peptide of type I procollagen and epidermal growth factor in patients with different viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lihong; Gong Shoujun; Li Guangming; Li Yebing; Xu Bin

    2001-01-01

    The author observed the serum levels of carboxy terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the patients with viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. The serum PICP and EGF were detected in 164 cases by RIA. The results indicated that two indexes increased significantly in patients with severe chronic hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis and post hepatitis cirrhosis compared with normal control (P 0.05). The results showed that detection of serum PICP and EGF may be valuable diagnostic markers to assess the degree of liver inflammation and fibrosis in viral liver diseases

  19. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  20. HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: A randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Matt; Charles, Glenn; Heyman, Eugene; Michaels, David

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and oedema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissue and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost 40 years since the invention of lasers. The HairMax LaserComb is a hand-held Class 3R lower level laser therapy device that contains a single laser module that emulates 9 beams at a wavelength of 655 nm (+/-5%). The device uses a technique of parting the user's hair by combs that are attached to the device. This improves delivery of distributed laser light to the scalp. The combs are designed so that each of the teeth on the combs aligns with a laser beam. By aligning the teeth with the laser beams, the hair can be parted and the laser energy delivered to the scalp of the user without obstruction by the individual hairs on the scalp. The primary aim of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the promotion of hair growth and in the cessation of hair loss in males diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre, 26-week trial randomized male patients with Norwood-Hamilton classes IIa-V AGA to treatment with the HairMax LaserComb or the sham device (2 : 1). The sham device used in the study was identical to the active device except that the laser light was replaced by a non-active incandescent light source. Of the 110 patients who completed the study, subjects in the HairMax LaserComb treatment group exhibited a significantly greater increase in mean terminal hair density than subjects in the sham device group (p laser phototherapy device for the treatment of AGA in males.

  1. Posttraumatic growth following pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality: the predictive role of coping strategies and perinatal grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2017-09-01

    Research about termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) suggests that it is a traumatic event with potential negative psychological consequences. However, evidence also indicates that following traumatic events individuals may experience growth. Although TFA's negative psychological outcomes are well documented, little is known of the potential for growth following this event. Therefore, the study's objectives were to measure posttraumatic growth (PTG) post-TFA, examine the relationship between PTG, perinatal grief and coping, and determine the predictors of PTG. An online, retrospective survey was conducted with 161 women. Eligible participants were women over 18 who had undergone TFA. Participants were recruited from a support organisation. They completed the Brief COPE, Short Perinatal Grief Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Data were analysed using regression analyses. Moderate levels of PTG were observed for "relating to others," "personal strengths" and "appreciation of life." "Positive reframing" was a significant predictor of PTG. Despite using mainly "adaptive" coping strategies, women's grief levels were high. "Adaptive" coping strategies such as, "positive reframing" are relevant to TFA. They may act as protective factors against distress and as foundations for growth, implicating that interventions such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, which aim to reframe women's experience, may be beneficial.

  2. Hair transplantation in alopecia androgenetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurinderjit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients suffering from male pattern baldness were given 3 to 4 sittings of hair transplantation at an interval of about 4 to 6 weeks each. They included 46 patients of type III baldness, 23 patients of type III (vertex baldness, and 31 patients of type IV baldness. It needed 3 sittings in type III as well as type III (vertex patients, whereas type IV patients needed 4 sittings for cosmetically acceptable results. Sixty percent patients of type III (including type III vertex showed excellent results; whereas 24 percent patients showed good response. Thirty-four percent patients of type IV got excellent cosmetic appearance; whereas, good results could be obtained in 17 percent patients. The reasons for poor results in certain patients were poor density of hair at donor sites and poor growth of hair in some of the transplanted plugs.

  3. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  4. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with growth hormone disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertension and subsequent congestive heart failure. Impairment of cardiac function has also been associated with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) have emerged as strong diagnostic and prognostic risk...

  5. Atomic control of substrate termination and heteroepitaxial growth of SrTiO sub 3 /LaAlO sub 3 films

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D W; Choi, C; Lim, K D; Noh, T W; Lee, D R; Park, J H; Lee, K B

    2000-01-01

    The roles of substrate termination in the growth behaviors of SrTiO sub 3 (STO) films were investigated. With heat treatment and an atomic layer deposition technique, LaAlO sub 3 (LAO) substrates with two kinds of terminations, i.e., LaO- and AlO sub 2 -terminated ones, could be prepared. On top of them STO films were grown by using laser molecular beam epitaxy. In the case of the STO/LaO-LAO film, a transition from layer-by-layer growth to island growth was observed after growth of about 10 monolayers (ML). On the other hand, the STO/AlO sub 2 -LAO film could be grown in a layer-by-layer mode with a flat surface up to 40 ML. We suggest that defects induced by charge compensation influence the strain states and the physical properties of oxide heterostructures significantly.

  6. Thyroid hormone modulates the development of cholinergic terminal fields in the rat forebrain: relation to nerve growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J D; Butcher, L L; Woolf, N J

    1991-04-24

    Hyperthyroidism, induced in rat pups by the daily intraperitoneal administration of 1 microgram/g body weight triiodothyronine, facilitated the development of ChAT fiber plexuses in brain regions innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, leading to an earlier and increased expression of cholinergic markers in those fibers in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. A similar enhancement was seen in the caudate-putamen complex. This histochemical profile was correlated with an accelerated appearance of ChAT-positive telencephalic puncta, as well as with a larger total number of cholinergic terminals expressed, which persisted throughout the eight postnatal week, the longest time examined in the present study. Hypothyroidism was produced in rat pups by adding 0.5% propylthiouracil to the dams' diet beginning the day after birth. This dietary manipulation resulted in the diminished expression of ChAT in forebrain fibers and terminals. Hypothyroid treatment also reduced the quantity of ChAT puncta present during postnatal weeks 2 and 3, and, from week 4 and continuing through week 6, the number of ChAT-positive terminals in the telencephalic regions examined was actually less than the amount extant during the former developmental epoch. Immunostaining for nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-R), which is associated almost exclusively with ChAT-positive somata and fibers in the basal forebrain, demonstrated a different time course of postnatal development. Forebrain fibers and terminals demonstrating NGF-R were maximally visualized 1 week postnatally, a time at which these same neuronal elements evinced minimal ChAT-like immunopositivity. Thereafter and correlated with increased immunoreactivity for ChAT, fine details of NGF-R stained fibers were observed less frequently. Although propylthiouracil administration decreased NGF-R immunodensity, no alteration in the development of that receptor was observed as a function of triiodothyronine treatment. Cholinergic

  7. Taking Care of Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  8. Influence of Protein and Energy Level in Finishing Diets for Feedlot Hair Lambs: Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Ríos-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight Pelibuey×Katahdin male intact lambs (23.87±2.84 kg were used in an 84-d feeding trial, with six pens per treatment in a 2×2 factorial design arrangement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interaction of two dietary energy levels (3.05 and 2.83 Mcal/kg ME and two dietary protein levels (17.5% and 14.5% on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass traits. The dietary treatments used were: i High protein-high energy (HP-HE; ii High protein-low energy (HP-LE; iii Low protein-high energy (LP-HE, and iv Low protein-low energy (LP-LE. With a high-energy level, dry matter intake (DMI values were 6.1% lower in the low-protein diets, while with low-energy, the DMI values did not differ between the dietary protein levels. Energy levels did not influence the final weight and average daily gain (ADG, but resulted in lower DMI values and higher gain efficiencies. No effects of protein level were detected on growth performance. The observed dietary net energy (NE ratio and observed DMI were closer than expected in all treatments and were not affected by the different treatments. There was an interaction (p2.80 Mcal/kg ME. Providing a level of protein above 14.5% does not improves growth-performance, dietary energetics or carcass dressing percentage.

  9. Idiopathic hirsutism: excessive bodily and facial hair in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    Hirsutism is the excessive and increased bodily and facial hair growth in women in locations where hair is normally minimal or absent. It refers to the growth of hair in a pattern normally occurring only in men, and therefore primarily raises psychological, cosmetic and social concerns. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH), where the cause of excessive hair growth is unknown, is considered to be the most common form of hirsutism. It is suspected that this type of hirsutism may be familial, as there is often a family history of the condition. Women with IH will generally have normal menses and normal levels of testosterone. There are many treatment modalities that fall into two broad groups: medical and mechanical treatment. An example of a medical treatment is when an agent is used, which interferes with the synthesis of androgen at the ovarian or adrenal level, or by inhibiting the effect of androgen at the receptor level. An example of a mechanical treatment is laser hair removal, where the hair follicle is destroyed; however, much depends on the on the skill of the treating practitioner, laser type, laser spot size, skin type, hair colour, and the stage at which the hair follicles were during their hair growth cycle, and the delivered wavelength. Laser offers the fastest method of hair loss. Other mechanical treatments include electrolysis, depilatory creams, plucking and waxing. This article presents a general overview of IH, including a definition, diagnostic measures, clinical manifestations, normal and abnormal physiology, and treatment options.

  10. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  11. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  12. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  13. Viking Age Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of hair in the Viking Age. The article draws on medieval Icelandic and Scandinavian texts for interpretation. Further information is taken from pictoral representations of viking hair styles and decoration, hairdressing artefacts, figurines and actual remains of hair.

  14. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in this ... head are in the resting phase. What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ...

  15. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  16. Size and composition-controlled fabrication of VO2 nanocrystals by terminated cluster growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Slack, Jonathan

    2013-05-14

    A physical vapor deposition-based route for the fabrication of VO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated, consisting of reactive sputtering and vapor condensation at elevated pressures. The oxidation of vanadium atoms is an efficient heterogeneous nucleation method, leading to high nanoparticle throughtput. Fine control of the nanoparticle size and composition is obtained. Post growth annealing leads to crystalline VO2 nanoparticles with optimum thermocromic and plasmonic properties.

  17. The effect of sulphur-terminated GaAs substrates on the MOVPE growth of CuGaS{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, P.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)]. E-mail: pearl.berndt@nmmu.ac.za; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Branch, M.S. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Kirmse, H. [Institute of Physics, Chair of Crystallography, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Neumann, W. [Institute of Physics, Chair of Crystallography, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Weber, J. [Institute for Applied Physics-Semiconductor Physics, University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2007-05-31

    In this study, various CuGaS{sub 2} layers were grown on GaAs (001) substrates using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, for the purpose of studying the effect of sulphur-termination of the substrate on layer quality. The resultant films were investigated using X-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron microscopy, with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy providing additional insights into crystallite growth on the control substrates. This paper will demonstrate that sulphur-termination limits substrate degradation. In the absence of sulphur-termination, atypical three-dimensional MOVPE growth is observed, with epitaxial crystallites varying in size from 10 nm to 200 nm. Substrate degradation inhibits lateral growth at the interface resulting in amorphous regions, cavities, and epitaxial crystallites demonstrating overgrowth into mushroom-like structures.

  18. The effect of sulphur-terminated GaAs substrates on the MOVPE growth of CuGaS2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, P.R.; Botha, J.R.; Branch, M.S.; Leitch, A.W.R.; Kirmse, H.; Neumann, W.; Weber, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, various CuGaS 2 layers were grown on GaAs (001) substrates using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, for the purpose of studying the effect of sulphur-termination of the substrate on layer quality. The resultant films were investigated using X-ray diffractometry, and transmission electron microscopy, with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy providing additional insights into crystallite growth on the control substrates. This paper will demonstrate that sulphur-termination limits substrate degradation. In the absence of sulphur-termination, atypical three-dimensional MOVPE growth is observed, with epitaxial crystallites varying in size from 10 nm to 200 nm. Substrate degradation inhibits lateral growth at the interface resulting in amorphous regions, cavities, and epitaxial crystallites demonstrating overgrowth into mushroom-like structures

  19. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  20. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  2. Characterization of X-linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XL-HED) Hair and Sweat Gland Phenotypes Using Phototrichogram Analysis and Live Confocal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle B.; Goodwin, Alice F.; Landan, Maya; Seidel, Kerstin; Tran, Dong-Kha; Hogue, Jacob; Chavez, Miquella; Fete, Mary; Yu, Wenli; Hussein, Tarek; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Jheon, Andrew H.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED), which encompasses a large group of syndromes that share several phenotypic features such as missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XL-HED) is associated with mutations in ectodysplasin (EDA1). Hypohidrosis due to hypoplastic sweat glands and thin, sparse hair are phenotypic features that significantly affect the daily lives of XL-HED individuals and therefore require systematic analysis. We sought to determine the quality of life of individuals with XL-HED and to quantify sweat duct and hair phenotypes using confocal imaging, pilocarpine iontophoresis, and phototrichogram analysis. Using these highly sensitive and non-invasive techniques, we demonstrated that 11/12 XL-HED individuals presented with a complete absence of sweat ducts and that none produced sweat. We determined that the thin hair phenotype observed in XL-HED was due to multiple factors, such as fewer terminal hairs with decreased thickness and slower growth rate, as well as fewer follicular units and fewer hairs per unit. The precise characterization of XL-HED phenotypes using sensitive and non-invasive techniques presented in our study will improve upon larger genotype-phenotype studies and in the assessment of future therapies in XL-HED. PMID:23687000

  3. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A comparative in vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of extracts and an isolate from petroleum ether extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Patel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the inhibitory effect of Stigmast-5-en-3-O-glucopyranosidetriacetate-51-ol (SGTA, an isolate from petroleum ether extract of Cuscuta reflexa and performed comparative study of petroleum ether extract (PTE, ethanolic extract (ETE and SGTA on hair growth activity in androgenic alopecia rat model. Alopecia induced in albino rats by testosterone administration subcutaneously for 21 days. Finasteride solution was applied topically served as standard. In vitro experiment to study the effect of extracts and isolate on activity of 5α-reductase enzyme and comparing with finasteride. In vivo experiment showed that rat follicular density and anagen/telogen (A/T ratio were increased in the PTE, ETE and SGTA treated group when compared to a control group. Skin histological results shown that the PTE, ETE and SGTA treated group had an increase in number and shape of the hair follicles and increase in the follicle anagen/telogen ratio when compared to the finasteride and control group. The result indicated that the ethanolic, petroleum ether extract and isolate of petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa found useful in the treatment of androgen-induced alopecia in the experimental animal. In summary, SGTA and extract control the apoptosis of hair cells and retarded the testosterone induce alopecia and therefore be a natural product with much impending for use as a treatment for androgenic alopecia.

  5. Hair loss in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment.

  6. Efferent control of the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castellano-Muñoz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells in the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line systems respond to mechanical stimulation and transmit information to afferent nerve fibers. The sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction is modulated by the efferent pathway, whose activity usually reduces the responsiveness of hair cells. The basis of this effect remains unknown.We employed immunocytological, electrophysiological, and micromechanical approaches to characterize the anatomy of efferent innervation and the effect of efferent activity on the electrical and mechanical properties of hair cells in the bullfrog's sacculus. We found that efferent fibers form extensive synaptic terminals on all macular and extramacular hair cells. Macular hair cells expressing the Ca(2+-buffering protein calretinin contain half as many synaptic ribbons and are innervated by twice as many efferent terminals as calretinin-negative hair cells. Efferent activity elicits inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in hair cells and thus inhibits their electrical resonance. In hair cells that exhibit spiking activity, efferent stimulation suppresses the generation of action potentials. Finally, efferent activity triggers a displacement of the hair bundle's resting position.The hair cells of the bullfrog's sacculus receive a rich efferent innervation with the heaviest projection to calretinin-containing cells. Stimulation of efferent axons desensitizes the hair cells and suppresses their spiking activity. Although efferent activation influences mechanoelectrical transduction, the mechanical effects on hair bundles are inconsistent.

  7. Hair cosmetics and camouflage technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahide Eriş Eken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.

  8. Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield. We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years ...

  9. Unravelling hair follicle-adipocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Horsley, Valerie

    2012-11-01

    Here, we explore the established and potential roles for intradermal adipose tissue in communication with hair follicle biology. The hair follicle delves deep into the rich dermal macroenvironment as it grows to maturity where it is surrounded by large lipid-filled adipocytes. Intradermal adipocytes regenerate with faster kinetics than other adipose tissue depots and in parallel with the hair cycle, suggesting an interplay exists between hair follicle cells and adipocytes. While adipocytes have well-established roles in metabolism and energy storage, until recently, they were overlooked as niche cells that provide important growth signals to neighbouring skin cells. We discuss recent data supporting adipocytes as niche cells for the skin and skin pathologies that may be related to alterations in skin adipose tissue defects. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Drugs and hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mansi; Harrison, Shannon; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a common complaint, both in men and women, and use of prescription medications is widespread. When there is a temporal association between the onset of hair loss and commencement of a medication, the medication is commonly thought to have caused the hair loss. However, hair loss and in particular telogen effluvium may occur in response to a number of triggers including fever, hemorrhage, severe illness, stress, and childbirth, and a thorough exclusion of these potential confounders is necessary before the hair loss can be blamed on the medication. Certain medications are known to cause hair loss by a variety of mechanisms including anagen arrest, telogen effluvium, or accentuation of androgenetic alopecia by androgens. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  12. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  13. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Zampini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  14. Eps8 regulates hair bundle length and functional maturation of mammalian auditory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Rüttiger, Lukas; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Furness, David N; Waldhaus, Jörg; Xiong, Hao; Hackney, Carole M; Holley, Matthew C; Offenhauser, Nina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Knipper, Marlies; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated with hair bundle development and function and are known to cause deafness in mice and humans when mutated. The growth of the stereociliar actin core is dynamically regulated at the actin filament barbed ends in the stereociliary tip. We show that Eps8, a protein with actin binding, bundling, and barbed-end capping activities in other systems, is a novel component of the hair bundle. Eps8 is localized predominantly at the tip of the stereocilia and is essential for their normal elongation and function. Moreover, we have found that Eps8 knockout mice are profoundly deaf and that IHCs, but not OHCs, fail to mature into fully functional sensory receptors. We propose that Eps8 directly regulates stereocilia growth in hair cells and also plays a crucial role in the physiological maturation of mammalian cochlear IHCs. Together, our results indicate that Eps8 is critical in coordinating the development and functionality of mammalian auditory hair cells.

  15. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Thinning hair and hair loss: Could it be female pattern hair loss? Female pattern hair loss: Without treatment, female ... can I tell if I have female pattern hair loss? It’s best to make an appointment to ...

  16. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  17. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  18. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. On the growth of native oxides on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces in dark and under illumination with light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Zinine, A.; Bankras, R.G.; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2006-01-01

    After a cleaning procedure, a silicon surface can be terminated by Si-OH groups which results in a high chemical activity. As it is accepted, after removing the wet-chemically grown oxide layer using an HF solution, the surface becomes terminated with Si-H groups. This results in a chemically stable

  20. Hair Loss Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective. METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth. RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments. DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694..

  1. Optical hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  2. Structure of the afferent terminals in terminal ganglion of a cricket and persistent homology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Brown

    Full Text Available We use topological data analysis to investigate the three dimensional spatial structure of the locus of afferent neuron terminals in crickets Acheta domesticus. Each afferent neuron innervates a filiform hair positioned on a cercus: a protruding appendage at the rear of the animal. The hairs transduce air motion to the neuron signal that is used by a cricket to respond to the environment. We stratify the hairs (and the corresponding afferent terminals into classes depending on hair length, along with position. Our analysis uncovers significant structure in the relative position of these terminal classes and suggests the functional relevance of this structure. Our method is very robust to the presence of significant experimental and developmental noise. It can be used to analyze a wide range of other point cloud data sets.

  3. Segmental Analysis of Chlorprothixene and Desmethylchlorprothixene in Postmortem Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Kamilla Nyborg; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Wicktor, Petra; Banner, Jytte; Linnet, Kristian

    2018-06-26

    Analysis of drugs in hair differs from their analysis in other tissues due to the extended detection window, as well as the opportunity that segmental hair analysis offers for the detection of changes in drug intake over time. The antipsychotic drug chlorprothixene is widely used, but few reports exist on chlorprothixene concentrations in hair. In this study, we analyzed hair segments from 20 deceased psychiatric patients who had undergone chronic chlorprothixene treatment, and we report hair concentrations of chlorprothixene and its metabolite desmethylchlorprothixene. Three to six 1-cm long segments were analyzed per individual, corresponding to ~3-6 months of hair growth before death, depending on the length of the hair. We used a previously published and fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the hair analysis. The 10th-90th percentiles of chlorprothixene and desmethylchlorprothixene concentrations in all hair segments were 0.05-0.84 ng/mg and 0.06-0.89 ng/mg, respectively, with medians of 0.21 and 0.24 ng/mg, and means of 0.38 and 0.43 ng/mg. The estimated daily dosages ranged from 28 mg/day to 417 mg/day. We found a significant positive correlation between the concentration in hair and the estimated daily doses for both chlorprothixene (P = 0.0016, slope = 0.0044 [ng/mg hair]/[mg/day]) and the metabolite desmethylchlorprothixene (P = 0.0074). Concentrations generally decreased throughout the hair shaft from proximal to distal segments, with an average reduction in concentration from segment 1 to segment 3 of 24% for all cases, indicating that most of the individuals had been compliant with their treatment. We have provided some guidance regarding reference levels for chlorprothixene and desmethylchlorprothixene concentrations in hair from patients undergoing long-term chlorprothixene treatment.

  4. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  5. Topical adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Nagashima, T; Hanzawa, N; Ishino, A; Nakazawa, Y; Ogo, M; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2015-12-01

    Hair thickness is more important than hair density in the appearance of baldness in male with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Adenosine improves hair loss by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hair growth efficacy and safety of topical adenosine in men with AGA. A lotion containing either adenosine or niacinamide was administered to the scalps of 102 Japanese men twice daily for 6 months in a double-blind, randomized study. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists who assessed the quality of the hair and by calculating the percentages of vellus-like and thick hairs among the vertex hairs, as well as hair density. Adenosine was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to niacinamide in terms of global improvement of AGA, increase in the percentage of thick hairs (at least 60 μm) and self-assessment of hair thickness by the study participants. No causal adverse event due to the adenosine lotion was observed. These data indicate that adenosine increases thick hair ratio in Japanese men with AGA, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  7. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2: contributions of the C-terminal domain to insulin-like growth factor-1 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Megan M; Jameson, Mark J; Eaton, Erin M; Rosenzweig, Steven A

    2006-03-01

    Signaling by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been implicated in the promotion and aggressiveness of breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers. The IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) represent a class of natural IGF antagonists that bind to and sequester IGF-1/2 from the IGF-1R, making them attractive candidates as therapeutics for cancer prevention and control. Recombinant human IGFBP-2 significantly attenuated IGF-1-stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation with coaddition of 20 or 100 nM IGFBP-2 (50 or 80% inhibition, respectively). We previously identified IGF-1 contact sites both upstream and downstream of the CWCV motif (residues 247-250) in human IGFBP-2 (J Biol Chem 276:2880-2889, 2001). To further test their contributions to IGFBP-2 function, the single tryptophan in human IGFBP-2, Trp-248, was selectively cleaved with 2-(2'nitrophenylsulfenyl)-3-methyl-3 bromoindolenine (BNPS-skatole) and the BNPS-skatole products IGFBP-2(1-248) and IGFBP-2(249-289) as well as IGFBP-2(1-190) were expressed as glutathione S-transferase-fusion proteins and purified. Based on competition binding analysis, deletion of residues 249 to 289 caused an approximately 20-fold decrease in IGF-1 binding affinity (IGFBP-2 EC50 = 0.35 nM and IGFBP-2(1-248) = 7 nM). Removal of the remainder of the C-terminal domain had no further effect on affinity (IGFBP-2(1-190) EC50 = 9.2 nM). In kinetic assays, IGFBP-2(1-248) and IGFBP-2(1-190) exhibited more rapid association and dissociation rates than full-length IGFBP-2. These results confirm that regions upstream and downstream of the CWCV motif participate in IGF-1 binding. They further support the development of full-length IGFBP-2 as a cancer therapeutic.

  8. [Illness and death of the violin virtuoso Nicolò Paganini--interpretation based on new hair investigations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijewski, Harald; Beck, Jens; Reus, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The violin virtuoso Paganini died at Nice in 1840 after a long, severe illness. It is undisputed that Paganini was treated with mercury for suspected syphilis and lost all his teeth in 1828 because of that treatment. In the comprehensive literature published on this topic, most authors assume that the terminal complaints and his death were caused by tuberculosis. On the other hand, the hypothesis that he may have died from mercury poisoning was rejected, because there was no information available supporting this assumption. The authors performed morphological investigations using light microscopy and raster electron microscopy (REM). The examined hairs corresponded to a growth phase of > 1 year and < 3 years before death. Structural damage to the hairs indicate heavy metal intoxication in that phase of life; compatible results were supplied by the complex investigations using ICP mass spectrometry and TXRF, which revealed high concentrations of mercury. Using ICP-MS, the mean value for mercury found in the hair sample was 15.4 microg/g with a standard deviation of 0.7 microg/g. The values obtained when investigating segments of single hairs showed high dispersion, but overlapped with the values from the area investigated using ICP-MS. Information not yet considered in the literature support the diagnosis of syphilis and provide a complete and unambiguous explanation for Paganini's death on the basis of the mercury concentrations found.

  9. Visualization of living terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes of growth plate cartilage in situ by differential interference contrast microscopy and time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, C E; Turgai, J; Wilsman, N J

    1990-09-01

    The functional unit within the growth plate consists of a column of chondrocytes that passes through a sequence of phases including proliferation, hypertrophy, and death. It is important to our understanding of the biology of the growth plate to determine if distal hypertrophic cells are viable, highly differentiated cells with the potential of actively controlling terminal events of endochondral ossification prior to their death at the chondro-osseous junction. This study for the first time reports on the visualization of living hypertrophic chondrocytes in situ, including the terminal hypertrophic chondrocyte. Chondrocytes in growth plate explants are visualized using rectified differential interference contrast microscopy. We record and measure, using time-lapse cinematography, the rate of movement of subcellular organelles at the limit of resolution of this light microscopy system. Control experiments to assess viability of hypertrophic chondrocytes include coincubating organ cultures with the intravital dye fluorescein diacetate to assess the integrity of the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic esterases. In this system, all hypertrophic chondrocytes, including the very terminal chondrocyte, exist as rounded, fully hydrated cells. By the criteria of intravital dye staining and organelle movement, distal hypertrophic chondrocytes are identical to chondrocytes in the proliferative and early hypertrophic cell zones.

  10. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  12. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of [125I]epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, M R; Mycock, C; Smith, C G

    1987-01-01

    was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei......% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded [125I]EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared [125I]EGF was found to be covalently cross...

  13. The role of neprilysin in regulating the hair cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Morisaki

    Full Text Available In most mammals, each hair follicle undergoes a cyclic process of growing, regressing and resting phases (anagen, catagen, telogen, respectively called the hair cycle. Various biological factors have been reported to regulate or to synchronize with the hair cycle. Some factors involved in the extracellular matrix, which is a major component of skin tissue, are also thought to regulate the hair cycle. We have focused on an enzyme that degrades elastin, which is associated with skin elasticity. Since our previous study identified skin fibroblast elastase as neprilysin (NEP, we examined the fluctuation of NEP enzyme activity and its expression during the synchronized hair cycle of rats. NEP activity in the skin was elevated at early anagen, and decreased during catagen to telogen. The expression of NEP mRNA and protein levels was modulated similarly. Immunostaining showed changes in NEP localization throughout the hair cycle, from the follicular epithelium during early anagen to the dermal papilla during catagen. To determine whether NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle, we used a specific inhibitor of NEP (NPLT. NPLT was applied topically daily to the dorsal skin of C3H mice, which had been depilated in advance. Mice treated with NPLT had significantly suppressed hair growth. These data suggest that NEP plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle by its increased expression and activity in the follicular epithelium during early anagen.

  14. Enhancement of cell wall protein SRPP expression during emergent root hair development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Takada, Natsuki; Sato, Ryosuke; Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2017-10-03

    SRPP is a protein expressed in seeds and root hairs and is significantly induced in root hairs under phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. Root hairs in the knockout mutant srpp-1 display defects, i.e., suppression of cell growth and cell death. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of SRPP during cell elongation of root hairs and compared the transcript levels in several mutants with short root hairs. The mRNA level was increased in wild-type plants and decreased in mutants with short root hairs. Induction of SRPP expression by Pi starvation occurred one or two days later than induction of Pi-deficient sensitive genes, such as PHT1 and PHF1. These results indicate that the expression of SRPP is coordinated with root hair elongation. We hypothesize that SRPP is essential for structural robustness of the cell walls of root hairs.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to capsaicin and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID 2039, 2041, 2042), increase in carbohydrate oxidation (ID 2040), and contribution to normal hair growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to capsaicin and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight, increase in carbohydrate oxidation, and contribution to normal hair growth. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...

  16. Differentiation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Verhagen, H; Wirtz, P; Vermorken, A J

    1984-01-01

    The morphology of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes, cultured on the bovine eye lens capsule, is studied by light and electron microscopy. The hair follicle keratinocytes in the stratified cultures are characterized by the presence of numerous tonofilaments, desmosomes and lysosomes and by the presence of glycogen accumulations. The cells in the upper layers develop a cornified envelope. Moreover, an incomplete basal lamina is found between the capsule and the basal cells. However, some features of epidermal keratinocytes in vivo, such as keratohyalin granules and stratum corneum formation, are absent. Analysis of the polypeptides by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also reveals differences between the cultured hair follicle cells and epidermis, whilst the patterns of cultured cells and hair follicle sheaths are similar. The morphological and protein biosynthetic aspects of terminal differentiation of the keratinocytes in vitro are correlated. These results are discussed in the light of the findings with cultured epidermal keratinocytes, reported in the literature.

  17. Efficacy and safety of a low-level laser device in the treatment of male and female pattern hair loss: a multicenter, randomized, sham device-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Joaquin J; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Bergfeld, Wilma; Hordinsky, Maria; Hickman, Janet G; Hamblin, Michael R; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-04-01

    lasercomb-treated female subjects, 7-beam lasercomb-treated male subjects, and 9- and 12-beam lasercomb-treated male subjects, respectively, compared with 2.8 (phair density was independent of the age and sex of the subject and the lasercomb model. Additionally, a higher percentage of lasercomb-treated subjects reported overall improvement of hair loss condition and thickness and fullness of hair in self-assessment, compared with sham-treated subjects. No serious adverse events were reported in any subject receiving the lasercomb in any of the four trials. We observed a statistically significant difference in the increase in terminal hair density between lasercomb- and sham-treated subjects. No serious adverse events were reported. Our results suggest that low-level laser treatment may be an effective option to treat pattern hair loss in both men and women. Additional studies should be considered to determine the long-term effects of low-level laser treatment on hair growth and maintenance, and to optimize laser modality.

  18. Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  20. Hair analysis using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongkou.

    1983-10-01

    A simple new technique for examining single hair strands to obtain linear mass densities, longitudinal profiles and transverse distribution of each trace element is described. It is primarily based upon the PIXE technique, in combination with proton back- scattering. The three main components of this technique are: 1) An accurate way of using an interpolation method to evaluate the magnitude of the correction factor accounting for the proton energy loss and X-ray absorption in the bulk of the hair is formulated; 2) A simple method to qualitatively determine the transverse distribution of each trace element in a hair is in- troduced and proved to be effective; 3) Proton back-scattering is proved to be capable of providing an ideal linear measure of the geometric hair diameter, one of the most important parameters in quantifying the results of PIXE measurements in mass concentrations. Using the technique, a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands is also described. (Author)

  1. Body hair transplant: An additional source of donor hair in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poswal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (pattern baldness is a condition in which there is androgen mediated progressive miniaturization and loss of hair follicles in a genetically susceptible individual. A 47-year-old male patient with advanced degree of hair loss (Norwood 6 category wanted to go for full hair restoration surgery. Due to the limited availability of donor hair in the scalp, a small session with 700-chest hair was performed. On follow-up at eight months it was observed that chest hair grew and formed a cosmetically acceptable forelock.

  2. Growth hormone receptor C-terminal domains required for growth hormone-induced intracellular free Ca2+ oscillations and gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Bouchelouche, P; Allevato, G

    1995-01-01

    of varying frequency and amplitude. GH-induced transcription of the serine protease inhibitor 2.1 gene required the same C-terminal 52-amino acid domain of the receptor as for Ca2+ signaling. Mutation of the four proline residues in the conserved box 1 region of the GHR, which is responsible for binding...

  3. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Telek, A.; Biro, T.; Debrecen Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Hair follicle (HF) is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on the composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available concerning the distribution of elements in human hair follicle with various growth and cycling phases. In this study [1] we provided detailed quantitative elemental distribution of organ-cultured hair follicle in anagen and catagen growth phases using ion microscopy in order to reach a better understanding of the function, development, and cyclic activity of the hair follicle. The microprobe analysis was carried out at the scanning ion microprobe facilities at the ATOMKI Debrecen, and at the Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia, using combined STIM and PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. Human anagen hair follicles were isolated from skin obtained from females undergoing face-lift surgery. Cultured anagen HFs were treated by either vehicle or by 10 μM capsaicin for 5 days. Elemental distributions and absolute concentrations were determined along 5 capsaicin treated (catagen), and 4 control (anagen) hair follicles. The investigated length varied between 1.5 and 2 mm. Average elemental concentration values of the whole sample and the different morphological parts were also determined. Concentrations for most of the elements were found to be the same in the corresponding parts of the anagen and the catagen hair follicles. However, significant differences were observed in the Ca concentration between the anagen and catagen HFs. With respect to the distribution of Ca, in anagen (control) HFs, the following concentrations were measured (given in μg/g dry weight): dermal papilla, ∼500; matrix of the bulb, 1000-1500; outer/ inner

  4. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Begum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclipta alba (L. Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq. F. Maek (Asiasari radix, and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly P>0.001 than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs. The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss.

  5. The interpretation of hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Flanagan, Robert J

    2018-02-01

    Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing. We searched the PubMed database for papers published 2010-2016 using the terms "hair" and "drug" and "decontamination", the terms "hair" and "drug" and "contamination", the terms "hair" and "drug-facilitated crime", the terms "hair" and "ethyl glucuronide", and the terms "hair", "drug testing" and "analysis". Study of the reference lists of the 46 relevant papers identified 25 further relevant citations, giving a total of 71 citations. Hair samples: Drugs, drug metabolites and/or decomposition products may arise not only from deliberate drug administration, but also via deposition from a contaminated atmosphere if drug(s) have been smoked or otherwise vaporized in a confined area, transfer from contaminated surfaces via food/fingers, etc., and transfer from sweat and other secretions after a single large exposure, which could include anesthesia. Excretion in sweat of endogenous analytes such as γ-hydroxybutyric acid is a potential confounder if its use is to be investigated. Cosmetic procedures such as bleaching or heat treatment of hair may remove analytes prior to sample collection. Hair color and texture, the area of the head the sample is taken from, the growth rate of individual hairs, and how the sample has been stored, may also affect the interpretation of results. Toxicological analysis: Immunoassay results alone do not provide reliable evidence on which to base judicial decisions. Gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  6. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pulling Biting, chewing or eating pulled-out hair Playing with pulled-out hair or rubbing it across ... of trichotillomania: Family history. Genetics may play a role in the development of trichotillomania, and the disorder ...

  7. Hair follicle proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    that are present in the epithelial and stromal compartments of hair follicles. However, the transmembrane proteoglycan syndecan may be important in follicle morphogenesis, both with respect to the epithelium and dermal papilla cells. Syndecan may possess both heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains, interacts...... basement membranes, including those surrounding the epithelial compartment of hair follicles. Additionally, and quite unlike the dermis, the dermal papilla is enriched in basement-membrane components, especially a chondroitin 6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan, BM-CSPG. The function of this proteoglycan...... is not known, but developmental studies indicate that it may have a role in stabilizing basement membranes. In the hair cycle, BM-CSPG decreases through catagen and is virtually absent from the telogen papilla. One or more heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, are also present in papilla...

  8. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  9. Germacrone and sesquiterpene-enriched extracts from Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. increase skin penetration of minoxidil, a hair growth promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Waranuch, Neti; Tangsumranjit, Anothai; Khorana, Nantaka; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2018-02-01

    Minoxidil is approved for topical treatment of androgenic alopecia but hampered by poor cutaneous absorption. Recently, the randomized control trial showed that hair loss treatment of minoxidil was improved by co-application of the anti-androgen, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extract. Here, we aimed to show that the apparent synergism arises from improved cutaneous penetration of minoxidil by bioactive compound, germacrone or C. aeruginosa (as an n-hexane extract, or essential oil). The partition coefficient of germacrone was determined by HPLC. Skin penetration was measured ex vivo on Franz diffusion cells using full thickness human foreskin as membranes. The receiver solution was sampled hourly for 8 h after which the skin was removed, the stratum corneum separated, and minoxidil assayed in this and in the remaining viable skin layer by HPLC. Skin penetration of minoxidil with 0.2 and 2% extract was increased ~ 4-fold (accumulated amount in receiver + skin viable layer after 8 h). Furthermore, germacrone enhanced minoxidil flux by ~ 10-fold and C. aeruginosa essential oil by ~ 20-fold. This work suggests three clinical consequences: (i) minoxidil efficacy is promoted, (ii) lower doses of minoxidil suffice, and (iii) C. aeruginosa extract/essential oil or germacrone can supplement treatment outcomes by acting as anti-androgen, thereby introducing a more effective topical treatment strategy for androgenic alopecia.

  10. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  11. Water Use Efficiency and Water Deficit Tolerance Indices in Terminal Growth Stages in Promising Bread Wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazeri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During growth stages of wheat, anthesis and grain filling periods are the most susceptible to drought. Wheat cultivars that are more tolerant to terminal drought are more suitable to Mediterranean conditions. To increase water use efficiency, the target environment should be taken into account, because one trait might be effective in an environment but ineffective in another environment. In general, some traits like early vigour and root absorbtion capacity are so important in water deficient conditions. In recent years, increasing grain yield was due to increasing grain numbers. Although both the source and sink is considered as the limitation factors in increasing grain yield in old cultivars, even in the new cultivars sink seems to be more important. In fact, phenological adjustment adapted with seasonal precipitation pattern can improve water use efficiency in drought conditions. Suitable flowering time is the most important trait that is correlated with increasing water use efficiency in drought conditions. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the level of drought tolerance in promising bread wheat lines, a split plot arrangements using randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out in 2008-09 and 2009-10 growing seasons at Torogh Agricultural Research Field Station, Mashhad. in. water limited conditions at three levels Optimum moisture conditions (L1, removal irrigation and using rain shelter from milky grain stage to maturity (L2, removal irrigation and using rainshelter from anthesis to maturity (L3 were assigned to main plots. Ten bread wheat lines include suitable for cold and dry regions (V1: (Toos, V2: (C-81-10, V3: (pishgam, V4: (C-84-4, V5: (C-84-8, V6: (C-D-85-15, V7: (C-D-85-9, V8: (C-D-84-5502, V9: (C-D-85-5502 and V10: (C-85-6 were randomized in sub-plots. Stress susceptibility index (SSI, stress tolerance index (STI and tolerance (TOL were calculated using following equations: D = 1

  12. The N-terminal cleavage of chondromodulin-I in growth-plate cartilage at the hypertrophic and calcified zones during bone development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenori Miura

    Full Text Available Chondromodulin-I (ChM-I is a 20-25 kDa anti-angiogenic glycoprotein in cartilage matrix. In the present study, we identified a novel 14-kDa species of ChM-I by immunoblotting, and purified it by immunoprecipitation with a newly raised monoclonal antibody against ChM-I. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it was an N-terminal truncated form of ChM-I generated by the proteolytic cleavage at Asp37-Asp38. This 14-kDa ChM-I was shown by the modified Boyden chamber assay to have very little inhibitory activity on the VEGF-A-induced migration of vascular endothelial cells in contrast to the intact 20-25 kDa form of ChM-I (ID50 = 8 nM. Immunohistochemistry suggested that 20-25 kDa ChM-I was exclusively localized in the avascular zones, i.e. the resting, proliferating, and prehypertrophic zones, of the cartilaginous molds of developing long bone, whereas the 14-kDa form of ChM-I was found in hypertrophic and calcified zones. Immunoblotting demonstrated that mature growth-plate chondrocytes isolated from rat costal cartilage actively secrete ChM-I almost exclusively as the intact 20-25 kDa form into the medium in primary culture. Taken together, our results suggest that intact 20-25 kDa ChM-I is stored as a component of extracellular matrix in the avascular cartilage zones, but it is inactivated by a single N-terminal proteolytic cleavage in the hypertrophic zone of growth-plate cartilage.

  13. Influence of Paclobutrazol (PP333) and Sridiamin (Human hair-derived aminoacid mixture) on growth and quality of Tomato PKM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suja, S.; Anusuya, N.

    2018-03-01

    Tomato is one of the most popular vegetable in subtropics and tropics. Plant growth regulators have potential for manipulating growth of many agricultural crops. Among the plant growth retardants, paclobutrazol (PP333) has been reported to exert profound effects on improving the yield of certain vegetables. Aminoacids are essential prerequisite for plant growth. Sridiamin a natural blend of 17 essential L-aminoacids, fortified with vitamins ensuring better crop growth and higher productivity. Therefore the present study was designed with 5mg and 10 mg concentration of PP333 as soil drench and a foliar spray of sridiamin of 0.5% and 1% concentration as individual and as combined treatment improved the yield and quality of tomato PKM1. Various biometric parameters, along with chlorophyll, starch, aminoacid and protein content were analysed in the leaves. In fruit analysis like titrable acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, lycopene, total sugars, macronutrients and micronutrients were analysed.

  14. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  15. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  16. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  17. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  18. Diversification of Root Hair Development Genes in Vascular Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Shi, Xinhui; Wang, Wenjia; Ryu, Kook Hui; Schiefelbein, John

    2017-07-01

    The molecular genetic program for root hair development has been studied intensively in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). To understand the extent to which this program might operate in other plants, we conducted a large-scale comparative analysis of root hair development genes from diverse vascular plants, including eudicots, monocots, and a lycophyte. Combining phylogenetics and transcriptomics, we discovered conservation of a core set of root hair genes across all vascular plants, which may derive from an ancient program for unidirectional cell growth coopted for root hair development during vascular plant evolution. Interestingly, we also discovered preferential diversification in the structure and expression of root hair development genes, relative to other root hair- and root-expressed genes, among these species. These differences enabled the definition of sets of genes and gene functions that were acquired or lost in specific lineages during vascular plant evolution. In particular, we found substantial divergence in the structure and expression of genes used for root hair patterning, suggesting that the Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory mechanism is not shared by other species. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive view of gene expression in a single plant cell type across multiple species. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Effectively Prevents Apoptosis Induced Hair Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Polygonum multiflorum against hair loss has been widely recognized. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG is the main component of Polygonum multiflorum; however, its role in hair regeneration has not been established. To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of TSG, depilated C57BL/6J mice were topically treated with normal saline, TSG, Pifithrin-α, Minoxidil for 2 weeks. In this study, we identified that p53, Caspase-3, Active Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 were obviously upregulated in the skin of human and mice with hair loss by western blot analysis. Depilated mice treated with TSG showed markedly hair regrowth. TUNEL+ cells were also reduced in mice with TSG. These changes were accompanied with inhibition of Fas, p53, Bax, Active Caspase-3, and Procaspase-9 activities. These results demonstrated that TSG exerts great hair regrowth effect on hair loss, which was probably mediated by inhibition of p53, Fas, and Bax induced apoptosis.

  20. The 133-kDa N-terminal domain enables myosin 15 to maintain mechanotransducing stereocilia and is essential for hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Indzhykulian, Artur A; Mustapha, Mirna; Riordan, Gavin P; Dolan, David F; Friedman, Thomas B; Belyantseva, Inna A; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Camper, Sally A; Bird, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    The precise assembly of inner ear hair cell stereocilia into rows of increasing height is critical for mechanotransduction and the sense of hearing. Yet, how the lengths of actin-based stereocilia are regulated remains poorly understood. Mutations of the molecular motor myosin 15 stunt stereocilia growth and cause deafness. We found that hair cells express two isoforms of myosin 15 that differ by inclusion of an 133-kDa N-terminal domain, and that these isoforms can selectively traffic to different stereocilia rows. Using an isoform-specific knockout mouse, we show that hair cells expressing only the small isoform remarkably develop normal stereocilia bundles. However, a critical subset of stereocilia with active mechanotransducer channels subsequently retracts. The larger isoform with the 133-kDa N-terminal domain traffics to these specialized stereocilia and prevents disassembly of their actin core. Our results show that myosin 15 isoforms can navigate between functionally distinct classes of stereocilia, and are independently required to assemble and then maintain the intricate hair bundle architecture. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08627.001 PMID:26302205

  1. Application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) to detection of trace elements, heavy metals and radioisotopes in scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Yildirim; Benderli, Cihan

    2010-01-01

    Trace element analysis of human hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during the growth period. it was evaluated the potential of human hair to indicate exposure or nutritional status over time by analysing trace element profiles in single strands of human hair. By using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), it was achieved profiles of 43 elements in single strands of human hair. It was shown that trace element analysis along single strands of human hair can yield information about essential and toxic elements and for some elements, can be correlated with seasonal changes in diet and exposure. The information obtained from the trace element profiles of human hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker

  2. Growth Termination and Multiple Nucleation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Evidenced by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lili; He, Maoshuai; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2017-01-01

    and successive growth of additional SWCNTs on Co catalyst particles supported on MgO by means of environmental transmission electron microscopy. Such in situ observations reveal the plethora of solid carbon formations at the local scale while it is happening and thereby elucidate the multitude of configurations...

  3. Usage of veterinary therapeutic antimicrobials in Denmark, Norway and Sweden following termination of antimicrobial growth promoter use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grave, K.; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Odensvik, K.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were phased out in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1998-1999, 1995 and 1986, respectively. The annual usage of therapeutic antimicrobials in animals in Denmark almost doubled during the period when AGPs were phased out (1988-1999) and in the subsequent 2 years....

  4. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair microscopy including hair abnormalities as a part of genodermatosis and, infections and infestations affecting the hair are highlighted.

  5. Myeloblastic leukemia cells conditionally blocked by myc-estrogen receptor chimeric transgenes for terminal differentiation coupled to growth arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumaran, M; Liebermann, D; Hoffman-Liebermann, B

    1993-05-01

    Conditional mutants of the myeloblastic leukemic M1 cell line, expressing the chimeric mycer transgene, have been established. It is shown that M1 mycer cells, like M1, undergo terminal differentiation coupled to growth arrest and programmed cell death (apoptosis) after treatment with the physiologic differentiation inducer interleukin-6. However, when beta-estradiol is included in the culture medium, M1 mycer cells respond to differentiation inducers like M1 myc cell lines, where the differentiation program is blocked at an intermediate stage. By manipulating the function of the mycer transgene product, it is shown that there is a 10-hour window during myeloid differentiation, from 30 to 40 hours after the addition of the differentiation inducer, when the terminal differentiation program switches from being dependent on c-myc suppression to becoming c-myc suppression independent, where activation of c-myc has no apparent effect on mature macrophages. M1 mycer cell lines provide a powerful tool to increase our understanding of the role of c-myc in normal myelopoiesis and in leukemogenesis, also providing a strategy to clone c-myc target genes.

  6. Fractional photothermolysis laser treatment of male pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Hye In; Lee, Jin Woong; Lim, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Won Serk

    2011-01-01

    Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL). A variety of laser and light sources have been used for the treatment of MPHL. To understand the effects of a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser on the hair cycle in an alopecia mouse model and to study the clinical effects of the same laser used as treatment for MPHL. Irradiation was applied to the shaved skin of C3H/HeN mice using various energy and density settings and varied irradiation intervals. In a clinical pilot study involving human subjects, 20 participants were treated over five sessions at 2-week intervals. A fractional photothermolysis laser was used at the energy of 5 mJ and a total density of 300 spots/cm(2). In the animal study, the hair stimulation effects were dependent upon the energy level, density, and irradiation interval. The anagen conversion of hair and the increase in Wnt 5a, β-catenin signals were observed. In the human pilot study, incremental improvements in hair density and growth rate were observed. This pilot study showed that a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser might induce hair growth, but more intensive studies are required to clarify the clinical applications of this treatment. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  7. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  8. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  9. Peri/nuclear localization of intact insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and a distinct carboxyl-terminal IGFBP-2 fragment in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflich, A.; Reisinger, R.; Schuett, B.S.; Elmlinger, M.W.; Russo, V.C.; Vargas, G.A.; Jehle, P.M.; Lahm, H.; Renner-Mueller, I.; Wolf, E.

    2004-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) as one of the most important IGFBPs has never been assessed in the intracellular compartment in vivo. Since there is evidence for novel intracellular functions of distinct IGFBPs, we investigated the presence of IGFBP-2 inside the cell. In peri/nuclear fractions of various tissues isolated from IGFBP-2 transgenic and non-transgenic mice we were able to show the presence of intact IGFBP-2. In addition, we demonstrate the presence of a highly conserved carboxyl-terminal IGFBP-2 fragment in the peri/nuclear fraction by using different peptide-induced antibodies. In pancreatic sections, confocal microscopy revealed the presence of IGFBP-2 on the nuclear surface but not within the nucleus. Our findings suggest novel functions of intact IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-2 fragments within the cell

  10. Serial cultivation of human scalp hair follicle keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the serial cultivation of adult human hair follicle keratinocytes. Plucked scalp hair follicles, placed on bovine eye lens capsules as a growth substrate, give rise to quickly expanding colonies within a few days. After trypsinization, the cells are replated with irradiated 3T3 cells as 'feeders'. Using this combination of techniques the keratinocytes can be subcultured up to four times. In this way about 10(7) keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. Moreover, the technique enables cryogenic storage of the cells, allowing for instance, convenient transportation. Subcultured hair follicle keratinocytes can be plated on glass coverslips. This allows immunofluorescence studies. The keratin cytoskeletons visualized using an antiserum against human keratin.

  11. Complex Regulation of Prolyl-4-Hydroxylases Impacts Root Hair Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Ricardi, Martiniano M; Poulsen, Christian Peter

    2015-01-01

    Root hairs are single cells that develop by tip growth, a process shared with pollen tubes, axons, and fungal hyphae. However, structural plant cell walls impose constraints to accomplish tip growth. In addition to polysaccharides, plant cell walls are composed of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins......5, and to a lesser extent P4H2 and P4H13, are pivotal for root hair tip growth. Second, we demonstrate that P4H5 has in vitro preferred specificity for EXT substrates rather than for other HRGPs. Third, by P4H promoter and protein swapping approaches, we show that P4H2 and P4H13 have interchangeable...... peptidyl-proline hydroxylation on EXTs, and possibly in other HRGPs, is required for proper cell wall self-assembly and hence root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana....

  12. Diffuse hair loss in an adult female: Approach to diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Telogen effluvium (TE is the most common cause of diffuse hair loss in adult females. TE, along with female pattern hair loss (FPHL and chronic telogen effluvium (CTE, accounts for the majority of diffuse alopecia cases. Abrupt, rapid, generalized shedding of normal club hairs, 2-3 months after a triggering event like parturition, high fever, major surgery, etc. indicates TE, while gradual diffuse hair loss with thinning of central scalp/widening of central parting line/frontotemporal recession indicates FPHL. Excessive, alarming diffuse shedding coming from a normal looking head with plenty of hairs and without an obvious cause is the hallmark of CTE, which is a distinct entity different from TE and FPHL. Apart from complete blood count and routine urine examination, levels of serum ferritin and T3, T4, and TSH should be checked in all cases of diffuse hair loss without a discernable cause, as iron deficiency and thyroid hormone disorders are the two common conditions often associated with diffuse hair loss, and most of the time, there are no apparent clinical features to suggest them. CTE is often confused with FPHL and can be reliably differentiated from it through biopsy which shows a normal histology in CTE and miniaturization with significant reduction of terminal to vellus hair ratio (T:V < 4:1 in FPHL. Repeated assurance, support, and explanation that the condition represents excessive shedding and not the actual loss of hairs, and it does not lead to baldness, are the guiding principles toward management of TE as well as CTE. TE is self limited and resolves in 3-6 months if the trigger is removed or treated, while the prognosis of CTE is less certain and may take 3-10 years for spontaneous resolution. Topical minoxidil 2% with or without antiandrogens, finestride, hair prosthesis, hair cosmetics, and hair surgery are the therapeutically available options for FPHL management.

  13. Systemic causes of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard L; Garibyan, Lilit; Kimball, Alexandra B; Drake, Lynn A

    2016-09-01

    Hair loss is both a common chief complaint by patients and a clinical challenge for physicians, especially general practitioners, yet few dermatological problems yield as much patient satisfaction when resolved as hair loss. The diagnosis is often attributed to androgen-related hair loss, while other causes, some of which are life-threatening but treatable, are overlooked. We searched for relevant literature on hair loss and supported these findings with our clinical experience to identify seven major systemic etiologies of hair loss, ranging from infectious agents to consumption of unsafe supplements. Many causes are only described in the literature through case studies, though some original articles and meta-analyses are available. Careful history taking, proper examination techniques, and judicious use of laboratory tests are essential to reach at the correct diagnosis in a cost-effective manner when performing patient work-up. Such methodical evaluation of hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction. Key messages Hair loss is a common chief complaint and a difficult challenge for both general practitioners and dermatology consultants. We identified seven major categories of systemic hair loss etiology and present a framework for their clinical evaluation. A methodical approach to hair loss can result in the appropriate treatment plan and provide significant patient satisfaction.

  14. Effect of JNK inhibitor SP600125 on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaoyang; Wang, Xu; Li, Wenyan; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins are a subgroup of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. They play a complex role in cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Here, we report a novel role of JNK signalling in hair cell regeneration. We eliminated hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish larvae using neomycin followed by JNK inhibition with SP600125. JNK inhibition strongly decreased the number of regenerated hair cells in response to neomycin damage. These changes were associated with reduced proliferation. JNK inhibition also increased cleaved caspase-3 activity and induced apoptosis in regenerating neuromasts. Finally, JNK inhibition with SP600125 decreased the expression of genes related to Wnt. Over-activation of the Wnt signalling pathway partly rescued the hair cell regeneration defects induced by JNK inhibition. Together, our findings provide novel insights into the function of JNK and show that JNK inhibition blocks hair cell regeneration by controlling the Wnt signalling pathway. PMID:27438150

  15. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  16. Adrenal steroid hormone concentrations in dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) before and during treatment with melatonin and mitotane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Linda A; Hnilica, Keith A; Oliver, Jack W

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate intermediate adrenal steroid hormones (ISH) in neutered dogs with hair cycle arrest (Alopecia X) during treatment with melatonin, and to see if hair re-growth is associated with sex hormone concentrations within the normal ranges. Twenty-nine neutered, euthyroid, and normo-cortisolemic dogs were enrolled in the study (23 Pomeranians, three keeshonds, two miniature poodles, and one Siberian husky). Coat assessment and an ACTH stimulation test were performed pre-treatment and approximately every 4 months for a year post treatment. Melatonin was administered initially at 3-6 mg, every 12 h. Based on clinical progression, each dog was continued on the current dose of melatonin, given an increased dose of melatonin or changed to mitotane. Partial to complete hair re-growth occurred in 14/23 Pomeranians, and partial re-growth in 3/3 keeshond and 1/2 poodle dogs. A Siberian husky dog failed to re-grow hair. Fifteen dogs had partial hair re-growth at the first re-evaluation. Melatonin dosage was increased in eight dogs but only one had improved hair re-growth. On mitotane treatment, partial to complete hair re-growth was seen in 4/6 dogs and no re-growth in 2/6 dogs. No significant decrease in sex hormone concentrations were seen during melatonin or mitotane treatment. Concentrations of ISH in dogs with hair re-growth did not differ significantly from pre-treatment values. At the completion of the study, androstenedione, progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were still above reference ranges in 21, 64 and 36%, respectively, of dogs with partial to complete hair re-growth. In conclusion, 62% of dogs had partial to complete hair re-growth. However, not all dogs with hair re-growth had concentrations of ISH within the normal range.

  17. Melatonin mitigates neomycin-induced hair cell injury in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyoung Ho; Rah, Yoon Chan; Hwang, Kyu Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Cha, Jae Hyung; Choi, June

    2017-10-01

    Ototoxicity due to medications, such as aminoglycosides, is irreversible, and free radicals in the inner ear are assumed to play a major role. Because melatonin has an antioxidant property, we hypothesize that it might mitigate hair cell injury by aminoglycosides. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether melatonin has an alleviative effect on neomycin-induced hair cell injury in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Various concentrations of melatonin were administered to 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish treated with 125 μM neomycin for 1 h. Surviving hair cells within four neuromasts were compared with that of a control group. Apoptosis was assessed via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. The changes of ultrastructure were confirmed using a scanning electron microscope. Melatonin alleviated neomycin-induced hair cell injury in neuromasts (neomycin + melatonin 100 μM: 13.88 ± 0.91 cells, neomycin only: 7.85 ± 0.90 cells; n = 10, p melatonin for 1 h in SEM findings. Melatonin is effective in alleviating aminoglycoside-induced hair cell injury in zebrafish. The results of this study demonstrated that melatonin has the potential to reduce apoptosis induced by aminoglycosides in zebrafish.

  18. Transmembrane signalling at the epidermal growth factor receptor. Positive regulation by the C-terminal phosphotyrosine residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, M; Pandiella, A; Helin, K

    1991-01-01

    a positive role in the regulation of transmembrane signalling at the EGF receptor. The stepwise decrease in signal generation observed in single, double and triple point mutants suggest that the role of phosphotyrosine residues is not in the participation in specific amino acid sequences, but rather...... in the double and the triple mutants. In the latter mutant, expression of the EGF-receptor-activated lipolytic enzyme phospholipase C gamma was unchanged, whereas its tyrosine phosphorylation induced by the growth factor was lowered to approx. 25% of that in the controls. In all of the cell clones employed......, the accumulation of inositol phosphates induced by treatment with fetal calf serum varied only slightly, whereas the same effect induced by EGF was consistently lowered in those lines expressing mutated receptors. This decrease was moderate for those receptors missing only the distal tyrosine (point and deletion...

  19. The biological activity of the human epidermal growth factor receptor is positively regulated by its C-terminal tyrosines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Velu, T; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    mutants in the full length receptor. EGF-dependent transforming ability of the single point mutants is similar to that of the wild type, while that of double mutants is decreased and an even lower activity is present in the triple mutant. In each bioassay, including EGF-dependent focal transformation...... biologically. The EGF-R kinase activity is affected by tyrosine substitution since in vitro phosphorylation of exogenous substrates is reduced in the double and triple mutants. Autophosphorylation, in vivo and in vitro, is also reduced, but not totally abolished in the triple point mutant and Dc123 indicating......The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) C-terminus contains three conserved tyrosines (Y-1068, Y-1148, Y-1173) which are phosphorylated upon EGF activation. To clarify the functional role of these tyrosines, each has been mutated to phenylalanine and studied as single, double and triple...

  20. Temporal diet changes recorded by stable isotopes in Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, R N; Goto, M; Izumiyama, S; Yoh, M; Ogura, N; Hayashi, H

    2005-03-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were measured in hair samples of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) inhabiting the Northern Japanese Alps (NJA) (n = 20) and the periphery of Nagano City (NC) (n = 6), in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The hair of NJA bears, which did not have access to anthropogenic foods, showed lower values of d13C and d15N than that of NC bears which had access to garbage and corn fields, especially during the summer. These results reflect somewhat differing diets between the NJA and NC bears. We attempted to assess the feeding history during the hair growth cycle using the growth section analysis method. Each hair sample had been cut into 3?mm lengths from root to tip, labeled, and analyzed along the hair growth. We measured the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of each 3?mm length of hair sample from one NC bear which had been killed while raiding a corn field. The sections showed wide ranges of isotope ratios, from -23.2% to -14.6% for delta13C, and from 0.3% to 4.6% for delta15N. It was shown that the diet of this bear shifted dramatically from principally C3 plants to more C4 plants and to foods of animal origin. An analysis of the whole hair reflects just the average feeding habit during hair growth, but the present method can trace its diet history. This method can contribute to obtain precise ecological information of wildlife.

  1. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  2. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  4. Quantitative assessment of growing hair counts, thickness and colour during and after treatments with a low-fluence, home-device laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, D; Barbet-Pfeilsticker, M; Beerwerth, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At-home laser and intense pulsed-light hair removal continues to grow in popularity and availability. A relatively limited body of evidence is available on the course of hair growth during and after low-fluence laser usage. OBJECTIVES: To assess growing hair counts, thickness and colo...

  5. Melatonin increases anagen hair rate in women with androgenetic alopecia or diffuse alopecia: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Burmeister, G; Schmidt, H W; Elsner, P

    2004-02-01

    In addition to the well-known hormonal influences of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on the hair cycle, melatonin has been reported to have a beneficial effect on hair growth in animals. The effect of melatonin on hair growth in humans has not been investigated so far. To examine whether topically applied melatonin influences anagen and telogen hair rate in women with androgenetic or diffuse hair loss. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 40 women suffering from diffuse alopecia or androgenetic alopecia. A 0.1% melatonin or a placebo solution was applied on the scalp once daily for 6 months and trichograms were performed to assess anagen and telogen hair rate. To monitor effects of treatment on physiological melatonin levels, blood samples were taken over the whole study period. Melatonin led to a significantly increased anagen hair rate in occipital hair in women with androgenetic hair loss compared with placebo (n=12; P=0.012). For frontal hair, melatonin gave a significant increase in the group with diffuse alopecia (n=28; P=0.046). The occipital hair samples of patients with diffuse alopecia and the frontal hair counts of those with androgenetic alopecia also showed an increase of anagen hair, but differences were not significant. Plasma melatonin levels increased under treatment with melatonin, but did not exceed the physiological night peak. To the authors' knowledge, this pilot study is the first to show that topically applied melatonin might influence hair growth in humans in vivo. The mode of action is not known, but the effect might result from an induction of anagen phase.

  6. Cadherin-23 may be dynamic in hair bundles of the model sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ciao Tang

    Full Text Available Cadherin 23 (CDH23, a component of tip links in hair cells of vertebrate animals, is essential to mechanotransduction by hair cells in the inner ear. A homolog of CDH23 occurs in hair bundles of sea anemones. Anemone hair bundles are located on the tentacles where they detect the swimming movements of nearby prey. The anemone CDH23 is predicted to be a large polypeptide featuring a short exoplasmic C-terminal domain that is unique to sea anemones. Experimentally masking this domain with antibodies or mimicking this domain with free peptide rapidly disrupts mechanotransduction and morphology of anemone hair bundles. The loss of normal morphology is accompanied, or followed by a decrease in F-actin in stereocilia of the hair bundles. These effects were observed at very low concentrations of the reagents, 0.1-10 nM, and within minutes of exposure. The results presented herein suggest that: (1 the interaction between CDH23 and molecular partners on stereocilia of hair bundles is dynamic and; (2 the interaction is crucial for normal mechanotransduction and morphology of hair bundles.

  7. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  9. Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.

    2010-02-01

    In previous in vitro investigations, it was demonstrated that caffeine is able to stimulate the hair growth. Therefore, a penetration of caffeine into the hair follicle is necessary. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to investigate the penetration and storage of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles. It was shown that a 2-min contact time of the shampoo with the skin was enough to accumulate significant parts of the shampoo in the hair follicles. A penetration of the shampoo up to a depth of approx. 200 μm could be detected, which represents the detection limit of the LSM. At this depth, the close network of the blood capillaries surrounding the hair follicles commences. Even after 24 h, the substance was still detectable in the hair follicles. This demonstrates the long-term reservoir function of the hair follicles for topically applied substances such as caffeine.

  10. Hair and stress: A pilot study of hair and cytokine balance alteration in healthy young women under major exam stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M J Peters

    Full Text Available Mouse models show that experimental stress mimicking prolonged life-stress exposure enhances neurogenic inflammation, induces adaptive immunity cytokine-imbalance characterized by a shift to Type 1 T-helper cell cytokines and increases apoptosis of epithelial cells. This affects hair growth in otherwise healthy animals. In this study, we investigate whether a prolonged naturalistic life-stress exposure affects cytokine balance and hair parameters in healthy humans. 33 (18 exam, 15 comparison female medical students with comparable sociobiological status were analyzed during a stressful final examination period, at three points in time (T 12 weeks apart. T1 was before start of the learning period, T2 between the three-day written exam and an oral examination, and T3 after a 12 week rest and recovery from the stress of the examination period. Assessments included: self-reported distress and coping strategies (Perceived Stress Questionnaire [PSQ], Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress [TICS], COPE, cytokines in supernatants of stimulated peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs, and trichogram (hair cycle and pigmentation analysis. Comparison between students participating in the final medical exam at T2 and non-exam students, revealed significantly higher stress perception in exam students. Time-wise comparison revealed that stress level, TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and hair parameters changed significantly from T1 to T2 in the exam group, but not the control. However, no group differences were found for cytokine balance or hair parameters at T2. The study concludes that in humans, naturalistic stress, as perceived during participation in a major medical exam, has the potential to shift the immune response to TH1 and transiently hamper hair growth, but these changes stay within a physiological range. Findings are instructive for patients suffering from hair loss in times of high stress. Replication in larger and more diverse sample

  11. Serenoa repens extracts promote hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-L; Gao, Y-H; Yang, J-Q; Li, J-B; Gao, J

    2018-06-01

    Plenty of plant extracts have been used for treating hair loss. This study aims to investigate the effects of liposterolic extracts of Serenoa repens (LSESr) on hair cell growth and regeneration of hair, and clarify the associated mechanisms. Human keratinocyte cells (HACAT) were cultured, incubated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and treated with LSESr. Cell viability was examined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hair loss C57BL/6 mouse model was established by inducing with DHT. Hair growth, density, and thickness were evaluated. Back skin samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) assay. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax), cleaved caspase 3 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) were examined using Western blot assay. LSESr treatment significantly increased HACAT cell viabilities compared to DHT-only treated cells (p<0.05). LSESr treatment post injection of DHT significantly converted skin color from pink to gray and increased hair density, weight and thickness compared to DHT-only treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response. LSESr treatment significantly decreased TGF-β2 and cleaved caspase 3 expression of hair loss mouse models compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly enhanced Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). Meanwhile, effects of LSESr were substantial even achieving to the potential of finasteride. LSESr promoted the hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  12. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Disposition of radiolabelled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II and their N-terminal truncated variants in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yuzuru; Murphy, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    Serum half life, tissue uptake and urinary excretion of N-terminal truncated IGF variants and their intact precursors were compared to see whether the variants regulate the bioavailability of those growth factors. IGF-I, des(1-3) IGF-I, IGF-II and des(1-6) IGF-II were labeled with 125 I and intravenously administered to SD rats. Blood from femoral artery and urine from implanted bladder catheter were collected at appropriate intervals until sacrifice of animals at 2 hr after administration. Tissues were dissected out and all of these samples were measured for their radioactivity with a gamma counter. The half lives of des(1-3) IGF-I, IGF-I, des(1-6) IGF-II and IGF-II were 20.5, 228.3, 21.3 and 181.7 min, respectively. Maximal accumulation of all peptides was found in the kidney. 125 I-IGF-I and -II showed the following distribution pattern; levels were higher in the kidney>pancreas>small intestine>liver>duodenum>stomach>lung>spleen>heart>large intestine>testis>brain>skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle, kidney and testis showed a preferential uptake of the variants. Urinary excretion of the variants were much greater. Thus the variants were more rapidly cleared from circulation. The physiological significance of tissue distribution of 4 peptides remains to be further investigated. (K.H.)

  14. Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue Missing Strands? Dealing with Hair Loss En español Send us your comments Hair loss is often associated with men and aging, but ... or their treatments, and many other things cause hair loss. The most common type of hair loss is ...

  15. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  16. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  17. Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activity of analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) with C-terminal agmatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarandi, M; Csernus, V; Bokser, L; Bajusz, S; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1990-12-01

    In the search for more active analogs of human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH), 37 new compounds were synthesized by solid phase methodology, purified, and tested biologically. Most of the analogs contained a sequence of 27 amino acids and N-terminal desaminotyrosine (Dat) and C-terminal agmatine (Agm), which are not amino acids. In addition to Dat in position 1 and Agm in position 29, the majority of the analogs had Ala15 and Nle27 substitutions and one or more additional L- or D-amino acid modifications. [Dat1, Ala15, Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-2-51) was the most active analog. Its in vitro GH-releasing potency was 10.5 times higher than that of GH-RH(1-29)NH2 and in the i.v. in vivo assay, MZ-2-51 was 4-5 times more active than the standard. After s.c. administration to rats. MZ-2-51 showed an activity 34 times higher at 15 min and 179 times greater at 30 min than GH-RH(1-29)NH2 and also displayed a prolonged activity. D-Tyr10, D-Lys12, and D-Lys21 homologs of MZ-2-51 also showed enhanced activities. Thus, [Dat1, D-Tyr10, Ala15, Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-2-159), [Dat1, D-Lys12, Ala15, Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)AGM (MZ-2-57), and [Dat1, Ala15, D-Lys21, Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-2-75) were 4-6 times more active in vitro than GH-RH(1-29)NH2. In vivo, after i.v. administration, analog MZ-2-75 was equipotent and analogs MZ-2-159 and MZ-2-57 about twice as potent as the standard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Sabina Goluch-Koniuszy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic’s and hairdresser’s treatments.

  19. The Effect of Autologous Activated Platelet Rich Plasma (AA-PRP Injection on Pattern Hair Loss: Clinical and Histomorphometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cervelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of AA-PRP injections for pattern hair loss. AA-PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients’ scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were given for each patient, with intervals of 1 month. The endpoints were hair re-growth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki-67 evaluation. At the end of the 3 cycles of treatment, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 18.0 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 27.7 ( number of hairs/cm2 compared with baseline values. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles two weeks after the last AA-PRP treatment compared to baseline value (P<0.05. We also observed an increase of Ki67+ keratinocytes of epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared to baseline (P<0.05.

  20. Delay of hair regrowth in mice as a possible biological dosimeter on the skin in cases of over-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessho, Y.; Kusama, T.

    1993-01-01

    In cases of partial body over-exposure, the dose estimation is often impossible without considerable error. The dose-effect relationship on the delay of hair regrowth and reduction in hair length of mice after irradiation were examined to investigate the possibility of hair growth as a biological dosimeter. Hairs on the dorsum skin of mice were shaved. Shaved areas were irradiated with a Sr-90/Y-90 β-ray source in the early anagen or midanagen stage of the hair cycle. Skin doses were from 0.5 Gy to 10 Gy. The time of hair regrowth and the length of hair was examined with the scaling loupe. The delay of hair regrowth was dose dependent, fitting the L-Q function. Reduction in hair length was less dose dependent. These findings were supported by the histological observations of mitosis and pycnosis in hair matrix cells. Dose estimation functions were derived from the dose-effect relationship curves. Hair regrowth delay is thought to be a sensitive biological dosimeter which can be applied as early as a few days after over-exposure. (4 figs.)

  1. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  2. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  3. Hair-Thread Tourniquet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Gokcen

    2016-01-01

    Two month-old male infant was brought to the emergency service with the complaint of fever, uneasiness, and swelling on 4th-5th toes of right foot.  Apparent swelling, rubescence and increase in heat were seen and a constrictive band was observed to surround proximal phalanges of both toes in the physical examination of the patient (Figure 1.  A hair was found on the constrictive band surrounding both toes. The hair was removed by means of forceps. Oral antibiotic was administered to the patient. The patient was treated successfully by not letting a necrosis develop on the toes. It should be remembered that hair-thread tourniquet syndrome may be observed in the infant patients applying to the hospital with the complaints of unexplained fever and uneasiness. Figure 1: Appearance of the toes right after the hair was removed. Arrows show the constrictive band. 

  4. Growth models of coexisting p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases on an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface studied by noncontact atomic force microscopy at 78 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan Jun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kinoshita, Yukinori; Wen, Huanfei; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Ma, Zong Min; Nomura, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental study of coexisting p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases on an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface by noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) at 78 K. Ball models of the growth processes of coexisting p(2 × 1)/c(6 × 2) phases on a terrace and near a step are proposed. We found that the p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases are grown from the super Cu atoms on both sides of O–Cu–O rows of an atomic spacing. In this paper, we summarize our investigations of an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface by NC-AFM employing O- and Cu-terminated tips. Also, we state several problems and issues for future investigation. (paper)

  5. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to spermidine and contribution to normal hair growth (ID 1705) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to spermidine and contribution to normal hair growth. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders...

  7. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss. © 2011 DERMAPRO Co Ltd. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. White piedra of scalp hair by Trichosporon inkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Kriplani, Dimple; Miskeen, Autar Kishen; Patel, Bharti; Torsekar, Raghunandan Govind

    2011-01-01

    White piedra is a rare fungal infection of hair and is reported to be all the more rare on scalp. Trichosporon inkin is usually associated with white piedra of pubic hair. We report a case of white piedra of scalp hair caused by T. inkin. This is the first case reported from India and the fifth case reported worldwide. A 50-year-old Muslim female presented with white knots over scalp hair. Diagnosis of Trichosporon was made by examining KOH mounts of epilated hair and Lactophenol Cotton Blue preparations of the growth in culture. Automated mini-API test (for biochemical profiles) and Electronmicroscopy studies (for cell wall structures) helped in identification of the species. Mini-API test was also positive for Cryptococcus curvatus which could be due to similarity in biochemical and physiological properties of the two species. Absence of C. curvatus on culture further supports this view. Topical antifungal therapy resulted in clinical clearance within 2 months. Higher incidence of scalp white piedra is observed in Muslim females; contributing factor being the custom of using a veil, leading to higher humidity and limited sunlight exposure.

  9. Strategic technology alliance termination : an empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Duysters, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    There is growing consensus that overall alliance termination rates are high. However, despite this track record of termination and despite unsurpassed growth rates of strategic technology alliances, little is known about the reasons for their termination. Typically strategic alliances have been

  10. Dynamical Formation of Kerr Black Holes with Synchronized Hair: An Analytic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen

    2017-12-29

    East and Pretorius have successfully evolved, using fully nonlinear numerical simulations, the superradiant instability of the Kerr black hole (BH) triggered by a massive, complex vector field. Evolutions terminate in stationary states of a vector field condensate synchronized with a rotating BH horizon. We show that these end points are fundamental states of Kerr BHs with synchronized Proca hair. Motivated by the "experimental data" from these simulations, we suggest a universal (i.e., field-spin independent), analytic model for the subset of BHs with synchronized hair that possess a quasi-Kerr horizon, applicable in the weak hair regime. Comparing this model with fully nonlinear numerical solutions of BHs with a synchronized scalar or Proca hair, we show that the model is accurate for hairy BHs that may emerge dynamically from superradiance, whose domain we identify.

  11. Non-invasive method distinguishes chronic telogen effluvium from mild female pattern hair loss: clinicopathological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Caroline; Teixeira, Fernanda; Ferraro, Daniela A; Soares, Tania C B; Moraes, Aparecida M; Cintra, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    The distinction between chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is important because of their different prognosis and treatment. Non-invasive methods have been described to be useful in differentiating FPHL from CTE. This prospective study investigated the use of the washing method to differentiate CTE from mild FPHL. Twenty patients with CTE and 17 with FPHL were recruited and followed for 18 months. The diagnosis was established through clinical, laboratory, and histological studies. The patients were asked to abstain from washing their hair for 5 days and then shampoo and collect all hair shed in the process. Hair shafts were then counted and divided into two groups: up to 3 cm in length or longer. In the CTE group, the mean hair count was high (438), and in all cases, hairs comprised hairs, the higher was the density of terminal follicles seen histologically. The CTE group presented a greater number of patients with serum iron values <70 μg/dl. Ferritin levels ranged from 6.98 to 128.33, average of 66.65 (CTE), and 16.5-304.8, average of 114.97 ng/ml (FPHL), but no significant differences were found. The washing test can be useful to avoid biopsy procedures. Iron serum levels are possibly an additional parameter that may improve CTE diagnosis if combined with an earlier test. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  13. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank [Langenhagen, DE; Allais, Arnaud [Hannover, DE; Mirebeau, Pierre [Villebon sur Yvette, FR; Ganhungu, Francois [Vieux-Reng, FR; Lallouet, Nicolas [Saint Martin Boulogne, FR

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  14. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for treatment of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  16. Automatic hair detection in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian, Pauline; Dehais, Christophe; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour....... The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters (color and texture) for the image considered. Finally, those parameters drive a pixel-wise segmentation technique that yields the desired (complete) hair region. We demonstrate the applicability of our method on several real images....

  17. Genetic variation at hair length candidate genes in elephants and the extinct woolly mammoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisdale Michele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, the living elephants are unusual among mammals in being sparsely covered with hair. Relative to extant elephants, the extinct woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, had a dense hair cover and extremely long hair, which likely were adaptations to its subarctic habitat. The fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5 gene affects hair length in a diverse set of mammalian species. Mutations in FGF5 lead to recessive long hair phenotypes in mice, dogs, and cats; and the gene has been implicated in hair length variation in rabbits. Thus, FGF5 represents a leading candidate gene for the phenotypic differences in hair length notable between extant elephants and the woolly mammoth. We therefore sequenced the three exons (except for the 3' UTR and a portion of the promoter of FGF5 from the living elephantid species (Asian, African savanna and African forest elephants and, using protocols for ancient DNA, from a woolly mammoth. Results Between the extant elephants and the mammoth, two single base substitutions were observed in FGF5, neither of which alters the amino acid sequence. Modeling of the protein structure suggests that the elephantid proteins fold similarly to the human FGF5 protein. Bioinformatics analyses and DNA sequencing of another locus that has been implicated in hair cover in humans, type I hair keratin pseudogene (KRTHAP1, also yielded negative results. Interestingly, KRTHAP1 is a pseudogene in elephantids as in humans (although fully functional in non-human primates. Conclusion The data suggest that the coding sequence of the FGF5 gene is not the critical determinant of hair length differences among elephantids. The results are discussed in the context of hairlessness among mammals and in terms of the potential impact of large body size, subarctic conditions, and an aquatic ancestor on hair cover in the Proboscidea.

  18. The effect of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, W-S

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of hair loss in women, and its prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and social withdrawal. A variety of laser and light sources have been tried for treatment of hair loss, and some success has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in treatment of female pattern hair loss. Twenty eight ethnic South Korean patients with varying degrees of FPHL were enrolled in the study. Patients received ten treatments with a 1550 nm fractional Er:Glass Laser (Mosaic, Lutronic Co., Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) at 2-weeks intervals using the same parameters (5-10 mm tip, 6 mJ pulse energy, 800 spot/cm(2) density, static mode). Phototrichogram and global photographs were taken at baseline and at the end of laser treatment, and analysed for changes in hair density and hair shaft diameter. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists using a 7-point scale. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. All adverse effects were reported during the study. Twenty seven patients completed a 5-month schedule of laser treatment. One patient was excluded during treatment due to occurrence of alopecia areata. At the initial visit, mean hair density was 100 ± 14/cm(2) , and mean hair thickness was 58 ± 12 μm. After 5 months of laser treatment, hair density showed a marked increase to 157 ± 28/cm(2) (P laser treatment; however, these resolved within 2 h. A 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser irradiation may be an effective and safe treatment option for women with female pattern hair loss. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Efficiency analysis of container ports and terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades the steady growth of seaborne trade has resulted in the increase of container ships, container ports and their terminals. The structure of the shipping market is, moreover, continuously evolving. On the carrier side, shipping companies form consortia and alliances; on the port side, global terminal operators and dedicated container terminals are emerging. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of container ports and terminals and to study...

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma and polydeoxyribonucleotide on female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kang, Jin-Soo; Kim, Do-Young; Oh, Sang Ho; Cho, Sung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) exerts positive therapeutic effects on hair thickness and density in patients with pattern hair loss. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-perifollicular autologous PRP and polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injections in treating female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Twenty FPHL patients were treated with a single session of PRP injection, followed by 12 sessions of PDRN intra-perifollicular injection, along the scalp at weekly intervals. Additionally, another 20 FPHL patients were treated with 12 sessions of PDRN injection only. Meanwhile, one half of the backs of two rabbits was injected with the PRP preparation, while the other half was injected with phosphate buffered saline as a control. Tissue samples from the rabbits were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Compared with baseline values, patients treated with PRP and PDRN injections exhibited clinical improvement in mean hair counts (23.2 ± 15.5%; p hair thickness (16.8 ± 10.8%; p hair counts (17.9 ± 13.2%; p hair thickness (13.5 ± 10.7%; p hair thickness than treatment with PDRN therapy alone (p = 0.031), but not in hair counts (p > 0.05). The pilot animal study revealed significant up-regulation of WNT, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor expression in rabbit skin treated with the PRP preparation, compared with control skin. In conclusion, intra-perifollicular injections of autologous PRP and/or PDRN generate improvements in hair thickness and density in FPHL patients. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  1. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  2. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  3. Intercellular K⁺ accumulation depolarizes Type I vestibular hair cells and their associated afferent nerve calyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D; Zampini, V; Tavazzani, E; Magistretti, J; Russo, G; Prigioni, I; Masetto, S

    2012-12-27

    Mammalian vestibular organs contain two types of sensory receptors, named Type I and Type II hair cells. While Type II hair cells are contacted by several small afferent nerve terminals, the basolateral surface of Type I hair cells is almost entirely enveloped by a single large afferent nerve terminal, called calyx. Moreover Type I, but not Type II hair cells, express a low-voltage-activated outward K(+) current, I(K,L), which is responsible for their much lower input resistance (Rm) at rest as compared to Type II hair cells. The functional meaning of I(K,L) and associated calyx is still enigmatic. By combining the patch-clamp whole-cell technique with the mouse whole crista preparation, we have recorded the current- and voltage responses of in situ hair cells. Outward K(+) current activation resulted in K(+) accumulation around Type I hair cells, since it induced a rightward shift of the K(+) reversal potential the magnitude of which depended on the amplitude and duration of K(+) current flow. Since this phenomenon was never observed for Type II hair cells, we ascribed it to the presence of a residual calyx limiting K(+) efflux from the synaptic cleft. Intercellular K(+) accumulation added a slow (τ>100ms) depolarizing component to the cell voltage response. In a few cases we were able to record from the calyx and found evidence for intercellular K(+) accumulation as well. The resulting depolarization could trigger a discharge of action potentials in the afferent nerve fiber. Present results support a model where pre- and postsynaptic depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation cooperates with neurotransmitter exocytosis in sustaining afferent transmission arising from Type I hair cells. While vesicular transmission together with the low Rm of Type I hair cells appears best suited for signaling fast head movements, depolarization produced by intercellular K(+) accumulation could enhance signal transmission during slow head movements. Copyright

  4. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: diagnosis and treatment modalities--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair may be a source of concern for patients when there is a change in its texture, amount, or thickness. It can present in women as androgenic alopecia also called female pattern baldness, and in men as adrogenic alopecia, also called male pattern baldness. Thinning/rarefaction affecting the vertex is a progressive condition, and hair loss in women has been interpreted and classified differently from that in men. The Ludwig classification for women's hair loss seems to be the most accepted assessment, which will be outlined in this review, along with the hair growth cycle that encompasses anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen.

  5. Hormones in infant rhesus monkeys' (Macaca mulatta) hair at birth provide a window into the fetal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele; Hedman, Curtis; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-04-01

    It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair was growing. Taking advantage of this finding, our study utilized hair at birth to investigate if maternal parity affected fetal hormone exposure during late gestation. Hair was collected from primiparous and multiparous mother and infant monkeys at birth and used to determine steroid hormones embedded in hair while the infant was in utero. A high-pressure liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry technique was refined, which enabled the simultaneous measurement of eight hormones. Hormone concentrations were dramatically higher in neonatal compared to maternal hair, reflecting extended fetal exposure as the first hair was growing. Further, hair cortisone was higher in primiparous mothers and infants when compared to the multiparous dyads. This research demonstrates that infant hair can be used to track fetal hormone exposure and a panel of steroid hormones can be quantified from hair specimens. Given the utility in nonhuman primates, this approach can be translated to a clinical setting with human infants.

  6. Concentration of plutonium in hair following intravenous injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Cacic, C.G.; Oldham, R.D.; Larsen, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of plutonium has been determined along the length of the hair of a female subject who received 11.1 kBq (0.3 μCi) of 239 Pu by intravenous injection in 1945. The subject succumbed to her preexisting illness 518 days post-injection. The growth rate of hair given for females in ICRP is 0.36 mm/day, and so a half-length of 43 +- 9 mm corresponds to a half-time of 120 +- 25 days. However, since plutonium was found in the most distal portion of the hair, an average growth rate of at least 280 mm/518 days, or 0.54 mm/ day is indicated for this individual. This value yields a half-time of 80 +- 20 days for the long-lived component of plutonium concentration in the hair and therefore also in the blood. This half-time is in excellent agreement with that of 88 +- 13 days found for the plutonium injection cases

  7. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

  8. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safvet Ors, MD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions:. This report details 6 patients who experienced abatement of migraine headache symptoms following hair transplantation. The positive effects of hair transplantation on migraine headache and potential mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  9. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  10. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  11. Elution behaviors of elements from the hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Junko; Fukushima, Ichiro; Imahori, Akira

    1981-01-01

    The elution of the neutron activated elements out of hair soaked in some organic solvents and EDTA solution was studied. Soakage of the hair sample, which was washed with water and acetone in advance as IAEA's proposal, in ether and acetone for 30 minutes each resulted in no elution of Hg, Zn, Co and Se. Elution of Zn and Co from the powdered hair sample soaked in 0.1 M EDTA solution was rapid, while Zn did not elute out from the cut hair (2 -- 3 mm length) on the same condition. Hg, Se and Au were not eluted out by 0.1 M EDTA solution in the both case of cut hair and of powdered hair. Br was removed by 0.1 M EDTA solution from the cut hair and from the powdered hair with equal ease. (author)

  12. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy

  13. Management of hair loss diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Ohyama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for alopecia areata (AA. An accurate diagnosis is indispensable to optimize treatment. Dry dermoscopy represents new diagnostic techniques, which could enable the differentiation of barely indistinguishable alopecias, e.g. AA and trichotillomania. An organized scalp biopsy adopting both vertical and transverse sectioning approaches also provides a deep insight into the pathophysiology of ongoing alopecias. Among various treatments for AA, intraregional corticosteroid and contact immunotherapy have been recognized as first-line therapies. However, some AA cases are refractory to both treatments. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of pulse corticosteroid therapy or the combination of oral psoralen ultraviolet A therapy and systemic corticosteroids for severe AA. Previous clinical observations have suggested the potential role of antihistamines as supportive medications for AA. Experimental evaluation using AA model mice further supports their effectiveness in AA treatment. Finasteride opens up new possibilities for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. For androgenetic alopecia patients refractory to finasteride, the combination of finasteride with topical minoxidil or the administration of dutasteride, another 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, may provide better outcomes. Scarring alopecia is the most difficult form of hair loss disorder to treat. The bulge stem cell area is destroyed by unnecessary immune reactions with resultant permanent loss of hair follicle structures in scarring alopecia. Currently, treatment options for

  14. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Appenzeller

    Full Text Available Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals.

  16. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D; Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11-29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  17. Therapeutic potential of stem cells in auditory hair cell repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Hata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of acquired hearing loss is very high. About 10% of the total population and more than one third of the population over 65 years suffer from debilitating hearing loss. The most common type of hearing loss in adults is idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL. In the majority of cases, ISSHL is permanent and typically associated with loss of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti. Following the loss of sensory hair cells, the auditory neurons undergo secondary degeneration. Sensory hair cells and auditory neurons do not regenerate throughout life, and loss of these cells is irreversible and cumulative. However, recent advances in stem cell biology have gained hope that stem cell therapy comes closer to regenerating sensory hair cells in humans. A major advance in the prospects for the use of stem cells to restore normal hearing comes with the recent discovery that hair cells can be generated ex vivo from embryonic stem (ES cells, adult inner ear stem cells and neural stem cells. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that stem cells can promote damaged cell repair in part by secreting diffusible molecules such as growth factors. These results suggest that stem-cell-based treatment regimens can be applicable to the damaged inner ear as future clinical applications.Previously we have established an animal model of cochlear ischemia in gerbils and showed progressive hair cell loss up to 4 days after ischemia. Auditory brain stem response (ABR recordings have demonstrated that this gerbil model displays severe deafness just after cochlear ischemia and gradually recovers thereafter. These pathological findings and clinical manifestations are reminiscent of ISSHL in humans. In this study, we have shown the effectiveness of stem cell therapy by using this animal model of ISSHL.

  18. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. The hair of the Prophet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explore the politics of (in)visibility in Islam by discussing the affective presence and agency of relics - in this case a single hair of the Prophet Muhammad. The relic is obviously not the Prophet, but it is also not-not the Prophet, as the hair is filled with the baraka (blessings......) of the Prophet and thereby seems to confirm Sir James Frazer’s thesis of ‘sympathetic magic’ where part and wholes are forever connected. Based on a study of the Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Saifi tariqa, this paper set out to ‘follow the hair’ in different settings in Denmark, Norway and Pakistan in order to discuss...

  20. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Serially cultured keratinocytes from human scalp hair follicles: a tool for cytogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, P J; Roelofs, H M; Jansen, B A; Vermorken, A J

    1983-01-01

    Keratinocytes originating from adult human hair follicles, the most convenient biopsy tissue, can be serially cultured using a combination of two techniques. Primary cultures are established using plucked scalp hair follicles and the bovine eye lens capsule as a growth substrate. Subsequently, cells from these cultures are serially cultivated in the presence of irradiated 3T3 cells as feeders. By this combination of techniques many keratinocytes can be generated from one single hair follicle. These cultures, appropriately treated with colchicine, can provide an adequate number of metaphases suitable for chromosome studies.

  2. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  3. The Current Status of Microscopical Hair Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F. Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation leads to three conclusions: (1 microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2 the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3 forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court’s Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  4. An Explicit Structural Model of Root Hair and Soil Interactions Parameterised by Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Samuel David; Zygalakis, Konstantinos C; Roose, Tiina

    2017-12-01

    The rhizosphere is a zone of fundamental importance for understanding the dynamics of nutrient acquisition by plant roots. The canonical difficulty of experimentally investigating the rhizosphere led long ago to the adoption of mathematical models, the most sophisticated of which now incorporate explicit representations of root hairs and rhizosphere soil. Mathematical upscaling regimes, such as homogenisation, offer the possibility of incorporating into larger-scale models the important mechanistic processes occurring at the rhizosphere scale. However, we lack concrete descriptions of all the features required to fully parameterise models at the rhizosphere scale. By combining synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SRXCT) and a novel root growth assay, we derive a three-dimensional description of rhizosphere soil structure suitable for use in multi-scale modelling frameworks. We describe an approach to mitigate sub-optimal root hair detection via structural root hair growth modelling. The growth model is explicitly parameterised with SRXCT data and simulates three-dimensional root hair ideotypes in silico, which are suitable for both ideotypic analysis and parameterisation of 3D geometry in mathematical models. The study considers different hypothetical conditions governing root hair interactions with soil matrices, with their respective effects on hair morphology being compared between idealised and image-derived soil/root geometries. The studies in idealised geometries suggest that packing arrangement of soil affects hair tortuosity more than the particle diameter. Results in field-derived soil suggest that hair access to poorly mobile nutrients is particularly sensitive to the physical interaction between the growing hairs and the phase of the soil in which soil water is present (i.e. the hydrated textural phase). The general trends in fluid-coincident hair length with distance from the root, and their dependence on hair/soil interaction mechanisms, are

  5. Distinct roles of Eps8 in the maturation of cochlear and vestibular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavazzani, Elisa; Spaiardi, Paolo; Zampini, Valeria; Contini, Donatella; Manca, Marco; Russo, Giancarlo; Prigioni, Ivo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2016-07-22

    Several genetic mutations affecting the development and function of mammalian hair cells have been shown to cause deafness but not vestibular defects, most likely because vestibular deficits are sometimes centrally compensated. The study of hair cell physiology is thus a powerful direct approach to ascertain the functional status of the vestibular end organs. Deletion of Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), a gene involved in actin remodeling, has been shown to cause deafness in mice. While both inner and outer hair cells from Eps8 knockout (KO) mice showed abnormally short stereocilia, inner hair cells (IHCs) also failed to acquire mature-type ion channels. Despite the fact that Eps8 is also expressed in vestibular hair cells, Eps8 KO mice show no vestibular deficits. In the present study we have investigated the properties of vestibular Type I and Type II hair cells in Eps8-KO mice and compared them to those of cochlear IHCs. In the absence of Eps8, vestibular hair cells show normally long kinocilia, significantly shorter stereocilia and a normal pattern of basolateral voltage-dependent ion channels. We have also found that while vestibular hair cells from Eps8 KO mice show normal voltage responses to injected sinusoidal currents, which were used to mimic the mechanoelectrical transducer current, IHCs lose their ability to synchronize their responses to the stimulus. We conclude that the absence of Eps8 produces a weaker phenotype in vestibular hair cells compared to cochlear IHCs, since it affects the hair bundle morphology but not the basolateral membrane currents. This difference is likely to explain the absence of obvious vestibular dysfunction in Eps8 KO mice. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Conversations and the Development of the Hair Follicle and Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Pamela Jo; Takebe, Naoko; Ivy, S. Percy

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the anatomy and development of fetal and adult hair follicles and molecular study of the major embryonic pathways that regulate the hair follicle have led to exciting discoveries concerning the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). These studies have shed light on the major roles of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling and its interactions with the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in BCC development. New work, for example, explores a link between Shh signaling and IGF...

  7. Investigation of metal elements in cataract patients using hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Manjula; Nath Verma, Vishwa

    2008-01-01

    This investigation is confined to the study of hair samples from cataract victims. Hair mineral analysis is an analytical test, which measures the mineral content of the hair. The main purpose of this research is to make a relationship between the deposition of metals (listed above) and that of human cataract. This research is carried out on the basis to check for the imbalance of these metals deposited in the human body. These hair samples underwent normal acid digestion and atomic absorption for each metal was taken. As a result the concentrations of these metals were further analyzed to make a proper justification of the various metals that was assessed lead, zinc, magnesium and iron said to be the most predominant in relation to the other metals that was analyzed. The deposition of these metals in high concentration does not necessary mean that they are not the main reason for the development of human cataract.The sampled hair, obtained by cutting the first inch and one-half growth closest to the scalp at the nape of the neck or other part of the body. Testing is then performed using highly sophisticated detection equipment such Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to achieve the most accurate precise results. These elements were analyzed using a Varian 20 plus Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Approximately 0.1 g of the hair sample was placed at the bottom of a 250 ml round bottom flask which was attached to a reflux condenser. The sample was digested with 4 ml H2 SO4 (98%) and 4 ml HNO3 (69%) on moderate heat for approximately 30 minutes or until the hair was completely dissolved to a yellow solution. 3 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were then added and the mixture was heated for 30 minutes to clear the solution. Various metals such as lead, zinc, copper, cadmium, magnesium, iron, chromium and cobalt were tested for in the hair sample of cataract patients using atomic absorption spectrometry. (Author)

  8. Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and terminal duct lobular unit involution of the breast: a cross-sectional study of women with benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Hisani N; Sherman, Mark E; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Figueroa, Jonine D; Khodr, Zeina G; Falk, Roni T; Pollak, Michael; Patel, Deesha A; Palakal, Maya M; Linville, Laura; Papathomas, Daphne; Geller, Berta; Vacek, Pamela M; Weaver, Donald L; Chicoine, Rachael; Shepherd, John; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Wang, Jeff; Fan, Bo; Malkov, Serghei; Herschorn, Sally; Hewitt, Stephen M; Brinton, Louise A; Gierach, Gretchen L

    2016-02-18

    Terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) are the primary structures from which breast cancers and their precursors arise. Decreased age-related TDLU involution and elevated mammographic density are both correlated and independently associated with increased breast cancer risk, suggesting that these characteristics of breast parenchyma might be linked to a common factor. Given data suggesting that increased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) factors are related to reduced TDLU involution and increased mammographic density, we assessed these relationships using validated quantitative methods in a cross-sectional study of women with benign breast disease. Serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratios were measured in 228 women, ages 40-64, who underwent diagnostic breast biopsies yielding benign diagnoses at University of Vermont affiliated centers. Biopsies were assessed for three separate measures inversely related to TDLU involution: numbers of TDLUs per unit of tissue area ("TDLU count"), median TDLU diameter ("TDLU span"), and number of acini per TDLU ("acini count"). Regression models, stratified by menopausal status and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to assess the associations of TDLU count, median TDLU span and median acini count per TDLU with tertiles of circulating IGFs. Given that mammographic density is associated with both IGF levels and breast cancer risk, we also stratified these associations by mammographic density. Higher IGF-I levels among postmenopausal women and an elevated IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratio among all women were associated with higher TDLU counts, a marker of decreased lobular involution (P-trend = 0.009 and breast cancer risk. If confirmed in prospective studies with cancer endpoints, these data may suggest that evaluation of IGF signaling and its downstream effects may have value for risk prediction and suggest strategies for breast cancer chemoprevention through inhibition of the IGF system.

  9. Biomimetic aquatic hair sensors design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izadi, N.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2008-01-01

    “Touch in distance��? is a term that has been used to describe function of lateral line of the fish as well as other aquatic animals that use mechanoreceptor hairs to discern spatial information about their immediate environment. In this work we address the requirements for fabrication technology of

  10. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuder Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α 0.70 in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA. The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

  11. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  12. A precise automatic system for the hair assessment in hair-care diagnosis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, H

    2015-11-01

    One emerging subject in medical image processing is to quantitatively assess the health and the properties of cranial hairs, including density, diameter, length, level of oiliness, and others. This information helps hair specialists with making a more accurate diagnosis and the therapy required. We develop a practical hair counting algorithm. This analytic system calculates the number of hairs on a scalp using a digital microscope camera, providing accurate information for both the hair specialist and the patient. Our proposed hair counting algorithm is substantially more accurate than the Hough-based one, and is robust to curls, oily scalp, noise-corruption, and overlapping hairs, under various levels of illumination. Rather than manually counting the hairs on a person's scalp, the proposed system determines the density, diameter, length, and level of oiliness of the hairs. We propose an automated system for counting the amount of hairs in the microscopy images. To reduce the effect of bright spots, we develop a robust morphological algorithm for color to smooth out the color and preserve the fidelity of the hair. Then, we utilize a modified Hough transform algorithm to detect the different hair lengths and to reduce any false detection due to noise. Our proposed system enables us to look at curved hairs as multiple pieces of straight lines. To avoid missing hairs when the thinning process is applied, we use edge information to discover any hidden or overlapping hairs. Finally, we employ a mutually associative regression method to label a group of line segments into a meaningful 'hair'. We demonstrated a novel approach for accurately computing the number of hairs, and successfully solved the three main obstacles in automated hair counting, including (i) oily and moist hairs, (ii) wavy and curly hairs, and (iii) under-estimation of the number of hairs occurs when hairs cross and occlude each other. The framework of this paper can be seen as the first step toward

  13. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Rosen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.

  14. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  15. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Q Dinh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Quan Q Dinh, Rodney SinclairDepartment of Dermatology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.Keywords: female pattern hair loss, androgenetic alopecia

  16. Incorporation of trace elements into hair structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limic, N.; Valkovic, V.

    1985-01-01

    Examining blood and urine provides an immense insight into human diseases. It is natural to hope that the hair studies will be added routinely to the examinations. Human head hair is a recording filament which can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over a long period of time. The idea of hair analysis is very inviting, because hair is easily samples, shipped and analyzed. In this paper the authors propose a method for the determination of some diffusion parameters from experimental data on the distribution of trace element concentrations in hair and then a method for the determination of the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb. The authors' model of hair structure with respect to diffusion is based on the supposition of cross-sectional homogeneity as well as the longitudinal homogeneity of hair. This supposition implies nonisotropic diffusion in hair which is described by two diffusion constants. Diffusion constants can be determined by experiment on wetting hair in solvents or by measurements of natural contamination of hair in air. The first type of experiments can be arranged in various ways to separate radial diffusion from the longitudinal one and, consequently, to determine two diffusion constants from various sets of experiments. The authors' aim is to consider only radial diffusion in hair and to determine the radial diffusion constants of Se, Zn and Pb

  17. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  18. The use of human hair as biodosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Çam, S.; Polat, M.; Seyhan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5–50 Gy) and high doses (75–750 Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021–2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔH pp : 0.522–0.744 mT). In all samples, the linear dose–response curves at low doses saturated after ∼300 Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44 h in black hair, 41 h in blonde and brown hairs, 35 h in dyed black hair and in 17 h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. - Highlights: • Applied electron spin resonance spectroscopy to human hair used in biodosimetry. • Showed the limitations of hair samples using as a biological dosimeter. • Provided more systematic information on radiation-induced radicals in hair. • Found at least 3 different contributions in the RIS. That is the major finding of this work

  19. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  20. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  1. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  2. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  3. A Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cynatine HNS on Hair and Nail Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Beer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n=25 received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500 mg plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n=25 received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. Results. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Conclusion. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22.

  4. Segmental hair mercury evaluation of a single family along the Upper Madeira Basin, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boischio Ana Amélia Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution (MeHg up the aquatic food chains in the Amazonian ecosystems has been a major concern in environmental health. Riverside people (ribeirinhos along the Upper Madeira river are heavy fish eaters. Hair is the best biomarker for MeHg exposure. By assuming a constant hair growth rate, it is possible to evaluate a temporal profile of Hg exposure over the recent defined past. In this paper we present the segmental total hair Hg concentrations from a single family from which some of the 10 persons investigated had high hair Hg concentrations (peak of 339 ppm. We also presented the hair MeHg content from 4 out of the 10 family members investigated. There was a wide variation in total hair Hg concentrations (8 to 339 ppm among these individuals, who were mostly sharing their meals; there was also a wide variation in total Hg concentrations in the same individual over time (136 to 274 ppm. Hg speciation showed a mean and standard deviation in the MeHg content of 62% and 6%, respectively. The wide variation in total hair Hg concentration strongly indicated that it is possible to mitigate critical Hg exposure levels by conducting a fish advisory.

  5. Possible biological dosimeters in skin and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The hair follicle, when producing hair, contains rapidly proliferating cells, some of which are very sensitive to radiation. These can be detected by studying the incidence of dead or dying (apoptotic) cells which reach peak yields 12 h after irradiation. The yield of apoptotic cells in the follicle has been studied after various doses. The response is dose-dependent and sensitive down to levels of a few cGy. Any reduction in cell production resulting from mitotic delay or cell death might be expressed as a reduction in the width of the hair. This has been studied and the abnormality referred to as dysplasia of the hair. The fraction of dysplastic hairs is strongly dose dependent over the range 2-10 Gy. More detailed studies using higher magnification and numerous measurements of hair width should make this end-point an even more sensitive assay for radiation exposure. Preliminary measurements on the average width at a critical point along the length of the hair illustrate that doses between 1.0 and 1.5 Gy can be detected. The width of the hair is dose dependent. The length of the affected region of the hair is also probably dose dependent. Estimates for the full reduction in volume of hair should increase the sensitivity further. (orig./MG)

  6. Effect of a novel low-energy pulsed-light device for home-use hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alster, Tina S; Tanzi, Elizabeth L

    2009-03-01

    Removal of unwanted hair is the most popular skin treatment worldwide. Over the past decade, various lasers and light sources for epilation have been advocated for use in an office setting, although most people continue to treat unwanted hair with a variety of temporary physical methods (e.g., waxing, shaving) in a home setting, presumably due to cost and convenience factors. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a low-energy pulsed-light device intended for home-use hair removal. Twenty women (skin phototypes I-IV) with dark terminal hair in nonfacial sites (axilla, forearms, inguinal region, legs) self-administered three treatments at 2-week intervals using a handheld intense-pulsed-light device. Matched untreated skin sites were also studied. Hair counts and clinical photographs were obtained pretreatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the third treatment. Side effects and patient satisfaction scores were recorded. All patients showed a positive clinical response to treatment, with reduction of unwanted hair. No reduction of hair was noted in untreated matched areas. Hair counts were reduced 37.8% to 53.6% 6 months after the three treatments. Skin region influenced clinical response, with lower legs exhibiting greater hair reduction than arms and inguinal and axillary areas. Mild erythema was experienced in 25% of patients, but no other side effects or complications were encountered. Patient satisfaction scores were high, with all patients stating that they would purchase the device for future home use. CONCLUSIONS Low-energy pulsed light can be applied safely and effectively for at-home hair removal in a variety of nonfacial locations and skin phototypes I-IV.

  7. The topical penta-peptide Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser increases the proportion of thick hair in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Takeda, Shunsuke; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Tsuruda, Akinori; Shibata, Hideaki; Ito, Tomoko; Komatsu, Nobuyuki; Terai, Keiko; Oka, Syuichi

    2016-06-01

    A penta-peptide, Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser (GPIGS), promotes proliferation of mouse hair keratinocytes and accelerates hair growth in mice. This study focused on the ability of the peptide to promote human hair growth. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and organ cultures of human hair follicle as in vitro systems. The lotions with and without the penta-peptide were administered to 22 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 4 months in a double-blind and randomized clinical study. The penta-peptide significantly stimulated the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 2.3 μm (P baldness (P = 0.020) when blinded reviewers graded photographs of the participants according to a standardized baldness scale. No adverse dermatological effects due to treatment were noted during this clinical study. This penta-peptide promotes proliferation of human hair keratinocytes and hair shaft elongation of human hair follicles, in vitro. This peptide increases thick hair ratio in vivo, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Immunocosmeceuticals: An emerging trend in repairing human hair damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is one of the most important portions for beauty care and in recent years grooming and cosmetic treatment of hair has drastically risen. Substantially, it may deteriorate and weaken the hair by modification of keratin protein. This makes the hair dry, brittle and split vend occurs due to loss of hair strength and the damage further increases with cosmetic treatments. The various poor ingredients are being used for repairing which have extremely poor compatibility with hair. Now the hair care products can be introduced with an active ingredient comprising a yolk derived anti-hair antibody immunoglobin obtained from egg of chickens immunized with damaged hair as antigen. This immuno-cosmeceuticals can repair the hair damage and imparts flexibility and smoothness to the hair. These effects are not lost by the ordinary shampooing. This article focuses on the characteristic of human hair, its damaging processes and the effects of immuno-cosmeceuticals for repairing the hair damage.

  9. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating hair as a predictor of blood mercury: the influence of ontogenetic phase and life history in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H.; McHuron, Elizabeth A.; Kennedy, Stephanie N.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Castellini, J. Margaret; O'Hara, Todd M.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomonitoring of pinnipeds increasingly utilizes nonlethally collected tissues such as hair and blood. The relationship between total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in these tissues is not well understood for marine mammals, but it can be important for interpretation of tissue concentrations with respect to ecotoxicology and biomonitoring. We examined [THg] in blood and hair in multiple age classes of four pinniped species. For each species, we used paired blood and hair samples to quantify the ability of [THg] in hair to predict [THg] in blood at the time of sampling and examined the influence of varying ontogenetic phases and life history of the sampled animals. Overall, we found that the relationship between [THg] in hair and blood was affected by factors including age class, weaning status, growth, and the time difference between hair growth and sample collection. Hair [THg] was moderately to strongly predictive of current blood [THg] for adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), whereas hair [THg] was poorly predictive or not predictive (different times of year) of blood [THg] for adult northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Within species, except for very young pups, hair [THg] was a weaker predictor of blood [THg] for prereproductive animals than for adults likely due to growth, variability in foraging behavior, and transitions between ontogenetic phases. Our results indicate that the relationship between hair [THg] and blood [THg] in pinnipeds is variable and that ontogenetic phase and life history should be considered when interpreting [THg] in these tissues.

  11. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  12. Allelic heterogeneity of FGF5 mutations causes the long-hair phenotype in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, C; Mömke, S; Philipp, U; Distl, O

    2013-08-01

    Hitherto, the only known mutant gene leading to the long-hair phenotype in mammals is the fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5). In many dog breeds, the previously discovered FGF5:p.Cys95Phe mutation appeared completely concordant with the long-hair phenotype, but for some breeds, the long-hair phenotype could not be resolved. First, we studied the role of the FGF5:p.Cys95Phe and FGF5:g.145_150dupACCAGC mutations in 268 dogs descending from 27 breeds and seven wolves. As these mutations did not explain all the long-hair phenotypes, all exons and their neighbouring regions of FGF5 were re-sequenced. We detected three novel mutations in the coding sequence and one novel non-coding splice-site mutation in FGF5 associated with the long-hair phenotype. The FGF5:p.Ala193Val polymorphism was perfectly consistent with long hair in Akitas and probably in Siberian huskies, too. Dogs of the long-hair breed Samoyed were either homozygous or compound heterozygous for the FGF5:p.Ala193Val or the FGF5:p.Cys95Phe polymorphisms respectively. The two newly detected polymorphisms FGF5:c.559_560dupGG and FGF5:g.8193T>A and the known mutation FGF5:p.Cys95Phe explained the long-hair phenotype of all Afghan hounds analysed. An FGF5:c.556_571del16 mutation was found in one longhaired Eurasier. All long-hair-associated mutations follow a recessive mode of inheritance, and allelic heterogeneity was a common finding in breeds other than Akita. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. State of the art in hair analysis for detection of drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Balikova, Marie A

    2006-08-01

    Hair differs from other materials used for toxicological analysis because of its unique ability to serve as a long-term storage of foreign substances with respect to the temporal appearance in blood. Over the last 20 years, hair testing has gained increasing attention and recognition for the retrospective investigation of chronic drug abuse as well as intentional or unintentional poisoning. In this paper, we review the physiological basics of hair growth, mechanisms of substance incorporation, analytical methods, result interpretation and practical applications of hair analysis for drugs and other organic substances. Improved chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques with increased selectivity and sensitivity and new methods of sample preparation have improved detection limits from the ng/mg range to below pg/mg. These technical advances have substantially enhanced the ability to detect numerous drugs and other poisons in hair. For example, it was possible to detect previous administration of a single very low dose in drug-facilitated crimes. In addition to its potential application in large scale workplace drug testing and driving ability examination, hair analysis is also used for detection of gestational drug exposure, cases of criminal liability of drug addicts, diagnosis of chronic intoxication and in postmortem toxicology. Hair has only limited relevance in therapy compliance control. Fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair have proven to be suitable markers for alcohol abuse. Hair analysis for drugs is, however, not a simple routine procedure and needs substantial guidelines throughout the testing process, i.e., from sample collection to results interpretation.

  14. The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, S.A.; Chatt, A.

    1994-01-01

    Scalp hair has been recognized as a tissue which incorporates elements into its structure during the growth process, after which it becomes separated from the continual metabolic activity of the body. It has many advantages for being used as an indicator for screening population groups exposed to environmental pollutants. Such usage is not free from criticisms. Sometimes the so-called ''normal ranges'' of trace elements in hair quoted in the literature can be wide. Various factors can influence the trace element content of hair. In this report we have attempted to summarize the available literature on the levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, selenium and chromium in human scalp hair. (author). 135 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    , to be replaced by synthesis of other components including type I and III collagens. It seems likely therefore that the dermal papilla cells in vivo synthesize a basement membrane type of extracellular matrix, although a contribution from epithelial, and in some cases capillary endothelial, cells cannot be ruled......Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  16. Controversy: Is there a role for adjuvants in the management of male pattern hair loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrasingh J Rajput

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hair loss are seeking treatment at a younger age and during earlier stages. Not all need hair transplants. Because of the lack of assured management and the fear of side-effects, patients are turning to ineffective alternative remedies from self-claimed experts. In this report, we discuss the available treatment options and how best they can be used in combination to produce satisfactory results. The traditional approach consists of administration of drugs such as minoxidil and finasteride. We propose a hypothesis that nutritional supplements, 2% ketoconazole shampoo and low-level laser therapy along with finasteride 1 mg used once in 3 days with 2% minoxidil used everyday, given in a cyclical medicine program may be useful to manage hair loss and achieve new hair growth. The scientific rationale for such an approach is explained. The need for further studies to establish the efficacy of the regime is stressed upon.

  17. Sequence analysis of the canine mitochondrial DNA control region from shed hair samples in criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, C; Berger, B; Parson, W

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, evidence from domestic dogs has increasingly been analyzed by forensic DNA testing. Especially, canine hairs have proved most suitable and practical due to the high rate of hair transfer occurring between dogs and humans. Starting with the description of a contamination-free sample handling procedure, we give a detailed workflow for sequencing hypervariable segments (HVS) of the mtDNA control region from canine evidence. After the hair material is lysed and the DNA extracted by Phenol/Chloroform, the amplification and sequencing strategy comprises the HVS I and II of the canine control region and is optimized for DNA of medium-to-low quality and quantity. The sequencing procedure is based on the Sanger Big-dye deoxy-terminator method and the separation of the sequencing reaction products is performed on a conventional multicolor fluorescence detection capillary electrophoresis platform. Finally, software-aided base calling and sequence interpretation are addressed exemplarily.

  18. Diagnosis of Hair Loss: Clinical features of common causes of hair loss

    OpenAIRE

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias.

  19. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  1. Hormonal therapy in female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brough

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.

  2. The Safety and Efficacy of a Sustainable Marine Extract for the Treatment of Thinning Hair: A Summary of New Clinical Research and Results from a Panel Discussion on the Problem of Thinning Hair and Current Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S; Holland, Mark; Bucay, Vivian W; Roberts, Wendy E; Waldorf, Heidi A; Dayan, Steven H

    2015-09-01

    Alopecia and thinning hair are highly prevalent conditions affecting a large proportion of men and women. Diffused hair loss is often more difficult to diagnose in women, mostly due to over-reliance on the assumption of hormonal influences, and it is commonly treated with a multi-therapy approach. Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of a nutraceutical supplement to provide essential nutrients that aid in stimulating existing hair growth and reducing hair shedding. The supplement Viviscal® contains a proprietary blend of proteins, lipids, and glycosaminoglycans derived from sustainable marine sources. We present here a summary of studies that have examined the safety and efficacy of this nutraceutical; as well as discussions on hair loss and current therapies from a recently convened expert panel in dermatology and plastic surgery.

  3. Loose anagen hair syndrome with diffuse woolly hair phenotype: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshdeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS is an underestimated cause of noncicatricial alopecia among children, manifesting as thin, sparse or fine hair. We report a case of LAHS clinically presenting as diffuse woolly hair, an association rarely described in the literature. In addition, we review the clinical as well as genetic link between these two enigmatic hair disorders and hypothesize that both may be associated in a yet unknown manner.

  4. [When hair starts to fall out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Quenan, Sandrine

    2018-03-28

    Hair loss causes physical and psychological distress and represents a common motive of consultation both in general practice and dermatology. Causes of hair loss are highly diverse and can lead to a challenging diagnosis, which can delay its management. Knowledge of the main causes and their different mechanisms are thus necessary in order to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main causes of hair loss in order to improve its diagnosis and management.

  5. A curious case of the necklace hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Samipa Samir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monilethrix is a rare autosomal dominant inheritable hair shaft defect with variable penetrance. The diagnosis is confirmed by the characteristic beaded appearance of the hair under light microscopy which occurs due to defective keratinization. We hereby describe a case of monilethrix syndrome with keratotic follicular papules, moniliform hair, and koilonychias in an 8-year-old Indian female child. A rare association of trichorrhexis nodosa was also noted in our case.

  6. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  7. Up-to-date Clinical Trials of Hair Regeneration Using Conditioned Media of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Male and Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Won, Chong Hyun; Chung, Woon-Kyung; Park, Byung-Soon

    2017-01-01

    The primary roles of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are to maintain the stem cell niche, facilitate recovery after injury, and ensure healthy aging and the homeostasis of organ and tissues. MSCs have recently emerged as a new therapeutic option for hair loss. Since adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are the most accessible sources of MSCs, ADSCbased hair regeneration is investigated. Besides replacing degenerated cells in affected organs, ADSCs exhibit their beneficial effects through the paracrine actions of various cytokines and growth factors. Several laboratory experiments and animal studies have shown that ADSC-related proteins can stimulate hair growth. In addition, we introduce our clinical pilot studies using conditioned media of ADSCs for pattern hair loss in men and women. We believe that conditioned media of ADSCs represents a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for hair loss. We also discuss practical therapeutic challenges and the direction of future research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhao

    Full Text Available Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+-ATPase isoform 2 to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

  9. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: clinical connotation diagnosis and differential diagnosis--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair can become a source of concern when there is a change in its texture, number, and thinning. Although female pattern baldness is common, it has received little attention compared with male pattern baldness. Thinning that affects the vertex is insidious and progressive. Hair loss in women has accordingly been interpreted and classified differently than that in men. The Ludwig scale is the most accepted classification. The gross anatomy and the general microanatomy of the hair follicle, including that of the anagen, catagen, and telogen phase, are presented. The hair growth cycle, encompassing anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen, is also discussed to address pattern hair loss in women and provide therapeutic options that are currently available.

  11. Array based characterization of a terminal deletion involving chromosome subband 15q26.2: an emerging syndrome associated with growth retardation, cardiac defects and developmental delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkhem Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtelomeric regions are gene rich and deletions in these chromosomal segments have been demonstrated to account for approximately 2.5% of patients displaying mental retardation with or without association of dysmorphic features. However, cases that report de novo terminal deletions on chromosome arm 15q are rare. Methods In this study we present the first example of a detailed molecular genetic mapping of a de novo deletion in involving 15q26.2-qter, caused by the formation of a dicentric chromosome 15, using metaphase FISH and tiling resolution (32 k genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH. Results After an initial characterization of the dicentric chromosome by metaphase FISH, array CGH analysis mapped the terminal deletion to encompass a 6.48 megabase (Mb region, ranging from 93.86–100.34 Mb on chromosome 15. Conclusion In conclusion, we present an additional case to the growing family of reported cases with 15q26-deletion, thoroughly characterized at the molecular cytogenetic level. In the deleted regions, four candidate genes responsible for the phenotype of the patient could be delineated: IGFR1, MEF2A, CHSY1, and TM2D3. Further characterization of additional patients harboring similar 15q-aberrations might hopefully in the future lead to the description of a clear cut clinically recognizable syndrome.

  12. Macroenvironmental regulation of hair cycling and collective regenerative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2014-01-01

    The hair follicle (HF) regeneration paradigm provides a unique opportunity for studying the collective behavior of stem cells in living animals. Activation of HF stem cells depends on the core inhibitory BMP and activating WNT signals operating within the HF microenvironment. Additionally, HFs receive multilayered signaling inputs from the extrafollicular macroenvironment, which includes dermis, adipocytes, neighboring HFs, hormones, and external stimuli. These activators/inhibitors are integrated across multiple stem-cell niches to produce dynamic hair growth patterns. Because of their pigmentation, these patterns can be easily studied on live shaved animals. Comparing to autonomous regeneration of one HF, populations of HFs display coupled decision making, allowing for more robust and adaptable regenerative behavior to occur collectively. The generic cellular automata model used to simulate coordinated HF cycling here can be extended to study population-level behavior of other complex biological systems made of cycling elements.

  13. The Effect of One Session Low Level Laser Therapy of Extracted Follicular Units on the Outcome of Hair Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaie, Seyed Mehdi; Berenji Ardestani, Hoda; Azizjalali, Mir Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Photobiostimulation with low level laser (LLL) has been used in medicine for a long time and its effects have been shown in many diseases. Some studies have evaluated the effect of LLL on androgenic alopecia. One of the most important limitations of the use of LLL in the treatment of alopecia is the requirement for multiple sessions, which is hardly accepted by patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irradiation of extracted follicular hair units by LLL on the outcome of hair transplantation. We enrolled 10 patients with androgenic alopecia and after screening tests for infections and other diseases, we extracted hair follicular units. The hair units were divided in two groups. One group was irradiated by LLL 20 minutes before transplantation (660 nm, 80 Hz, 100 mW) and the other one was used as control. The containing plates were labeled as A and B and sent to the operation room. The surgeon was unaware of the therapy assigned to the plates and transplanted them randomly on the right or left side of the head. One hundred follicular units on each sides of the scalp were transplanted symmetrically. The follicles on both sides were evaluated at 3 and 6 months of transplantation for hair growth rate by another physician, blinded to the treatment assigned to each side. Ten patient with androgenic alopecia and mean (SD) age of 31.5 (6.6) years (range 25-45 years) completed the study. All patients had 100% hair growth at 3 and 6 months follow-up except one who had hair growth of 20% at three months of transplantation, which changed to 100% at sixth months. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding hair growth (P > 0.8). One session of LLL irradiation has no significant effect on the outcome of transplanted hair follicles. Studies with larger sample size are needed to draw a definite conclusion.

  14. Functional anatomy of the hair follicle: The Secondary Hair Germ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2018-07-01

    The secondary hair germ (SHG)-a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF)-is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signalling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen subphase. The SHG is comprised of two functionally distinct cell populations. Its lower portion (originating from lower HF cells that survived catagen) forms all ascending HF layers, while the upper SHG (formed by bulge-derived cells) builds up the ORS. The predetermination of SHG cells to a specific morphogenetic fate contradicts their attribution to the "stem cell" category and supports SHG designation as a "germinative" or a "founder" cell population. The mechanisms of this predetermination driving transition of the SHG from "refractory" to the "competent" state during the telogen remain unknown. Functionally, the SHG serves as a barrier, protecting the quiescent bulge stem cell niche from the extensive follicular papilla/SHG signalling milieu. The formation of the SHG is a prerequisite for efficient "precommitment" of these cells and provides for easier sensing and a faster response to anagen-inducing signals. In general, the formation of the SHG is an evolutionary adaptation, which allowed the ancestors of modern Muridae to acquire a specific, highly synchronized pattern of hair cycling. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. "Castor Oil" - The Culprit of Acute Hair Felting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduri, V Ramya; Vedachalam, Ahalya; Kiruthika, S

    2017-01-01

    Acute hair felting is a rare disorder of scalp hair. In this condition, the hair becomes twisted, entangled as a hard stony mass resembling a bird's nest. Sudden hair matting has been reported earlier in the literature after vigorous use of chemical and herbal shampoos. Plica polonica is a patchy area of hair matting occurring in due course of time in neglected hair or underlying psychiatric illness. This case is interesting as the whole scalp hair matted immediately after using coconut oil and castor oil following washing. Growing long hair and taking oil bath are cultural and religious customs in South India. The high viscosity of castor oil and long hair had contributed to sudden felting of hair. This disorder of hair is irreversible and the hair should be cut off. Acute nature of this disorder will result in a serious psychological impact on the patient and the family.

  17. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  18. A role for CSLD3 during cell-wall synthesis in apical plasma membranes of tip-growing root-hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungjin; Szumlanski, Amy L; Gu, Fangwei; Guo, Feng; Nielsen, Erik

    2011-07-17

    In plants, cell shape is defined by the cell wall, and changes in cell shape and size are dictated by modification of existing cell walls and deposition of newly synthesized cell-wall material. In root hairs, expansion occurs by a process called tip growth, which is shared by root hairs, pollen tubes and fungal hyphae. We show that cellulose-like polysaccharides are present in root-hair tips, and de novo synthesis of these polysaccharides is required for tip growth. We also find that eYFP-CSLD3 proteins, but not CESA cellulose synthases, localize to a polarized plasma-membrane domain in root hairs. Using biochemical methods and genetic complementation of a csld3 mutant with a chimaeric CSLD3 protein containing a CESA6 catalytic domain, we provide evidence that CSLD3 represents a distinct (1→4)-β-glucan synthase activity in apical plasma membranes during tip growth in root-hair cells.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 5% Foam in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Men With Androgenic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Terrence C; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men, characterized by hair miniaturization, hairline recession, and vertex balding. It affects approximately 50% of men, negatively affecting self-esteem and sociability. Topical minoxidil formulations are approved up to a 5% concentration for men, but patient adherence to treatment is challenged by gradual results that may be perceived as a lack of initial benefit. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 5% minoxidil foam used in combination with a novel botanical hair solution was evaluated in a 12-week, multicenter, single-arm, open label study in 56 subjects with mild to moderate AGA. Assessments included investigator ratings of improvement and subject self-ratings of satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in scalp hair coverage and perception of overall treatment benefit in as early as 4 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings were significant for improved hair growth and hair appearance in as few as 4 weeks (P<.05). The regimen was well tolerated, and subjects indicated a high degree of satisfaction. Investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this novel regimen provide clinicians with an effective treatment option for AGA that also provides a high level of patient satisfaction, which may help promote patient adherence to long-term treatment.

  20. Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hair Shaft Abnormality in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rahmatpour Rokni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Hair is an ectodermal structure, and its formation is regulated by master genes important in embryology. Hair shaft consists of three major regions: the medulla, cortex and cuticle. Hair shaft abnormality will divide structural hair abnormalities into two broad categories - those associated with increased hair fragility and those not associated with increased hair fragility. We conducted a review study to assess hair shaft abnormality in children. Materials and Methods We conducted a review of all papers published on hair shaft abnormalities. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar on papers publish from 1990 to 2016. The search terms were: hair shaft abnormality, Hair loss, Hair fragility. All abstracts and full text English-language articles were studied. Results While common developmental and structural features are shared in hair follicles and hair shafts. Anomalies of the hair shaft are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. Conclusion Although hair has no vital function, it may serve as an indicator for human health. Clinical and morphological hair abnormalities can be clues to specific complex disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities can be inherited or acquired, can reflect a local problem or a systemic disease.

  2. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

  3. Changing trends in hair restoration surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia is an important and common cause for baldness. Despite recent advances, the drug therapy of this condition remains unsatisfactory. Surgical hair restoration is the only permanent method of treating this condition. Introduction of recent techniques such as follicular unit transplantation have improved the cosmetic results and patient satisfaction. This article discusses the latest trends in hair restoration surgery.

  4. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  5. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  6. Sorption of radiocalcium on human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovic, M.; Pilecka, N.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption of 45 Ca on hair from a 45 CaCl 2 solution (2.5x10 -3 mol l -1 ) was studied. The calcium amounts sorbed in 1 min to 5 h range between 0.8 and 7.2% with respect to the originally present calcium in hair. (author) 3 refs

  7. Biophysics of Hair Cell Sensory Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Horst, Johannes; van Dijk, Pim; van Netten, Sietse

    1993-01-01

    The last decade revealed to auditory researchers that hair cells can not only detect and process mechanical energy, but are also able to produce it. Thanks to the active hair cell, ears can produce otoacoustic emissions. This book gives the newest insights into the biophysics and physiology of

  8. Hair Loss Following The Topiramate Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ghafoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetics, hormone profiles and other physiologic factors can cause hair loss. Medication induced hair loss is an occasional side effect of many psychopharmaceuticals. It can reduce medication compliance if not discovered and treated. We present a 18 year old female with migraine headache who developed hair loss after 3 months of receiving topiramate treatment. CASE REPORT: 18 year old female had been suffering from headache visited in psychiatric clinic. She agreed to a treatment with topiramate (50mg per day for Migraine headache. 3 months later, the patient complained of significant hair loss. Topiramate tapered to 25 mg/day and stopped. Hair loss stopped after topiramate withdrawal. Two weeks after reintroduction of topiramate, hair loss developed again. The medication was stopped and hair loss stopped again. CONCLUSION: Topiramate can cause hair loss. Although the condition is not life-threatening, a decrease in medication compliance can cause recurrence of the underlying disease. It is necessary to ask the patient at visits about it.

  9. Association Between Human Hair Loss and the Expression Levels of Nucleolin, Nucleophosmin, and UBTF Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Sener; Eroz, Recep; Dogan, Hasan; Erdem, Haktan Bagis; Sahin, Ibrahim; Kara, Murat; Engin, Ragip Ismail; Turkez, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions, also known as argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions, are associated with ribosomal genes. The main function of the nucleolus is the rapid production of ribosomal subunits, a process that must be highly regulated to provide the appropriate levels for cellular proliferation and cell growth. There are no studies in the literature addressing the expression and function of nucleolar component proteins, including nucleophosmin, nucleolin and the upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF), in human follicular hair cells. Nineteen healthy males who had normal and sufficient hair follicles on the back of the head, but exhibited hair loss on the frontal/vertex portions of the head and 14 healthy males without hair loss were included in the current study. Gene expression levels were measured by relative quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. In the individuals suffering from alopecia, the total expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF were lower in normal sites than in hair loss sites. Strong expression level correlations were detected between: nucleophosmin and nucleolin; nucleophosmin and UBTF, and nucleolin and UBTF for both groups. There was an association between human hair loss and the expression levels of nucleolin, nucleophosmin, and UBTF genes.

  10. Hair transplantation for the the treatment of post-irradiation alopecia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolasinski, J.; Kolenda, M.; Skowronek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck tumours and of leukaemia often necessitates radiotherapy. However; permanent alopecia in the scalp exposed to irradiation is a common problem. One of the effective methods of treatment of post-irradiation alopecia is hair transplantation. Over a period of 18 years 42 patients were treated at the Hair Clinic Poznan for post-irradiation alopecia. Due to the presence of numerous lesions in the donor and recipient scalp areas many modifications were introduced into alopecia correction. The treatment assured good cosmetic effects, free of the risk of complications. Scalps from occipital areas do not go bald when transferred to scalp areas affected by balding. On the contrary - they retain original properties, thus resulting in hair re-growth. Hair follicle transplantation is usually applied for the correction of androgenic alopecia in men and women although it may also be applied in post-trauma and post-irradiation alopecia treatment. Hair regrowth in radiotherapy patients occurs later than in androgenic alopecia patients. This phenomenon is caused by blood supply deficits in the recipient area. Autogenic hair follicle transplantation is a treatment of choice in the correction of post-irradiation alopecia, while the good cosmetic effects considerably improve the patients' quality of life. (author)

  11. Moyamoya syndrome in a patient with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Moon-Yeon; Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2015-03-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair is one of the RASopathies characterized by Noonan syndrome-like features with unique ectodermal abnormalities. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the SHOC2 gene. We encountered a patient with moyamoya syndrome associated with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair presenting with transient ischemic attacks. A 6-year-old girl was diagnosed with Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair because of profound short stature and ectodermal anomalies such as sparse and easily pluckable hair. A heterozygous mutation of c.4A>G (p.S2G) in the SHOC2 gene was identified, and recombinant human growth hormone therapy was initiated at 8 years of age. At age 10, she manifested recurrent left hemiplegia. Moreover, cerebrovascular imaging revealed occlusion or narrowing of both internal carotid arteries and both middle cerebral arteries with distal moyamoya-like vessels. She is treated with aspirin and calcium channel blocker. We describe the first case of Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair associated with moyamoya syndrome, although it has been reported to be associated with a few cases of other RASopathies, including Noonan, cardiofaciocutaneous, and Costello syndromes. This report emphasizes the associations between cerebrovascular anomalies and Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Juxtamembrane and carboxy-terminal domains of Arabidopsis PRK2 are critical for ROP-induced growth in pollen tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polarized growth of pollen tubes is a critical step for successful reproduction in angiosperms and is controlled by ROP GTPases. Spatiotemporal activation of ROP (Rho GTPases of plants) necessitates a complex and sophisticated regulatory system, in which guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RopGEFs)...

  13. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouji, Yukiteru; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-01-01

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis

  14. Hair as an alternative matrix in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Faria, Juliana; Carvalho, Félix; Pedro, Madalena; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Alternative matrices are steadily gaining recognition as biological samples for toxicological analyses. Hair presents many advantages over traditional matrices, such as urine and blood, since it provides retrospective information regarding drug exposure, can distinguish between chronic and acute or recent drug use by segmental analysis, is easy to obtain, and has considerable stability for long periods of time. For this reason, it has been employed in a wide variety of contexts, namely to evaluate workplace drug exposure, drug-facilitated sexual assault, pre-natal drug exposure, anti-doping control, pharmacological monitoring and alcohol abuse. In this article, issues concerning hair structure, collection, storage and analysis are reviewed. The mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair are briefly discussed. Analytical techniques for simultaneous drug quantification in hair are addressed. Finally, representative examples of drug quantification using hair are summarized, emphasizing its potentialities and limitations as an alternative biological matrix for toxicological analyses.

  15. Clinical Features and Management of Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Shiasi Arani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare hereditary cause of short stature. The aim of this study was to familiarize physicians with this rare but important disease. Evidence Acquisition: This article is a narrative review of the scientific literature to inform about clinical features and management of Cartilage-hair hypoplasia. A systematic search identified 127 papers include original and review articles and case reports. Results: Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia characterized by short-limb dwarfism associated with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. The inheritance is autosomal recessive. Other findings include hair hypoplasia, anemia, immunodeficiency, propensity to infections, gastrointestinal disorders (Hirschsprung disease, anal stenosis, esophageal atresia and malabsorption, defective spermatogenesis, increased risk of malignancies and higher rate of mortality. Immunodeficiency in cartilage-hair hypoplasia may be an isolated B-cell or isolated T-cell immunodeficiency or combined B and T-cell immunodeficiency; however, severe combined immunodeficiency is rare. There is no known treatment for hair hypoplasia. Growth hormone was used with conflicting results for short stature in children with Cartilage-hair hypoplasia. Skeletal problems must be managed with physiotherapy and appropriate orthopedic interventions. Hirschsprung disease, anal stenosis and esophageal atresia should be surgically corrected. Patients with severe hypoplastic anemia require repeated transfusions. Bone marrow transplantation may be required for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency or severe persistent hypoplastic anemia. Treatment with G-CSF is useful for neutropenia. Patients should be monitored closely for developing malignancy such as skin neoplasms, lymphomas and leukemias. Conclusions: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is an important hereditary disease with different medical aspects. The high rate of consanguineous marriages in Iran necessitates considering CHH in any

  16. Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene......-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative...... hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus...

  17. What is the use of elephant hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

  18. Dynamic Wnt5a expression in murine hair follicle cycle and its inhibitory effects on follicular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, De-Ren; Lv, Zhong-Fa; Qiao, Gang

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the dynamic expression of Wnt family member 5A (Wingless-type MMTV integration Wnt site family, member 5a) in murine hair cycle and its inhibitory effects on follicle in vivo. Situ hybridization in full-thickness skin was used to observe the change of mouse protein expression in different growth stages, and Ad-Wnt5a was injected after defeathering to observe the hair follicle growth in vivo. The Wnt5a mRNA was expressed at birth, and was firstly increased then decreased along with the progress of the hair cycle. It reached the peak in advanced stage of growth cycle (P<0.05). Rhoa and β-catenin expression levels were significantly decreased in three groups. Rac2 expression was significantly up-regulated, and the expression level of Wnt5a, Shh and Frizzled2 was increased, but less significantly than group 2. The expression of Wnt5a mRNA is consistent with change of murine follicle cycle, and has obvious inhibitory effects on the growth of hair follicle in vivo, indicating that it is antagonistic to Wnts pathway and interferes the growth of follicle together. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 2% Solution in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss/Androgenic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Amy; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), also known as female androgenic alopecia, affects over 21 million women in the United States with devastating effects on self-esteem and psychosocial functioning. Topical minoxidil 2% and 5% formulations are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for FPHL. The length of time it typically takes to observe the benefits is a challenge for many patients, and may affect adherence to treatment. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 2% minoxidil solution used in combination with the botanical hair solution for 12 weeks in 54 subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Assessments included investigator and subject ratings of improvement and subject satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in hair growth and overall treatment benefits in as early as 6 weeks (Pminoxidil treatment adherence.

  20. Ultra-large scale synthesis of high electrochemical performance SnO{sub 2} quantum dots within 5 min at room temperature following a growth self-termination mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Hongtao, E-mail: htcui@ytu.edu.cn; Xue, Junying; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Minmin

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} quantum dots were prepared at an ultra-large scale at room temperature within 5 min. • The grinding of SnCl{sub 2}⋅2H{sub 2}O and ammonium persulphate with morpholine produces quantum dots. • The reactions were self-terminated through the rapid consumption of water. • The obtained SnO{sub 2} quantum dots own high electrochemical performance. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2} quantum dots are prepared at an ultra-large scale by a productive synthetic procedure without using any organic ligand. The grinding of solid mixture of SnCl{sub 2}⋅2H{sub 2}O and ammonium persulphate with morpholine in a mortar at room temperature produces 1.2 nm SnO{sub 2} quantum dots within 5 min. The formation of SnO{sub 2} is initiated by the reaction between tin ions and hydroxyl groups generated from hydrolysis of morpholine in the released hydrate water from SnCl{sub 2}⋅2H{sub 2}O. It is considered that as water is rapidly consumed by the hydrolysis reaction of morpholine, the growth process of particles is self-terminated immediately after their transitory period of nucleation and growth. As a result of simple procedure and high toleration to scaling up of preparation, at least 50 g of SnO{sub 2} quantum dots can be produced in one batch in our laboratory. The as prepared quantum dots present high electrochemical performance due to the effective faradaic reaction and the alternative trapping of electrons and holes.

  1. Tissue-engineered skin preserving the potential of epithelial cells to differentiate into hair after grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Danielle; Cuffley, Kristine; Paquet, Claudie; Germain, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue-engineered skin produced in vitro was able to sustain growth of hair follicles in vitro and after grafting. Different tissues were designed. Dissociated newborn mouse keratinocytes or newborn mouse hair buds (HBs) were added onto dermal constructs consisting of a tissue-engineered cell-derived matrix elaborated from either newborn mouse or adult human fibroblasts cultured with ascorbic acid. After 7-21 days of maturation at the air-liquid interface, no hair was noticed in vitro. Epidermal differentiation was observed in all tissue-engineered skin. However, human fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (hD) promoted a thicker epidermis than mouse fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (mD). In association with mD, HBs developed epithelial cyst-like inclusions presenting outer root sheath-like attributes. In contrast, epidermoid cyst-like inclusions lined by a stratified squamous epithelium were present in tissues composed of HBs and hD. After grafting, pilo-sebaceous units formed and hair grew in skin elaborated from HBs cultured 10-26 days submerged in culture medium in association with mD. However, the number of normal hair follicles decreased with longer culture time. This hair-forming capacity after grafting was not observed in tissues composed of hD overlaid with HBs. These results demonstrate that epithelial stem cells can be kept in vitro in a permissive tissue-engineered dermal environment without losing their potential to induce hair growth after grafting.

  2. Serum and Hair Mineral Levels in Children with Failure to Thrive According to the Type of Feeding Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated serum and hair mineral and trace element levels as well as levels of other nutritional factors affecting growth and appetite in young children with non-organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) based on the presence or types of feeding difficulty (FD). Between August 2012 and July 2015, 136 children less than 6 years of age with NOFTT were included. FD was diagnosed based on Wolfson criteria and divided into subtypes according to Chatoor's classification. Clinical data were reviewed, and serum and hair mineral levels were measured. Of all assessed serum and hair minerals, only hair sulfur contents differed significantly between subjects with and without infantile anorexia (39,392 ± 2211 vs. 40,332 ± 2551 μg/g, P = 0.034). There were no differences in serum and hair mineral levels between children with and without sensory food aversion. Hair copper contents were significantly lower in children with FD of reciprocity (12.3 ± 6.0 vs. 22.4 ± 25.1 μg/g, P = 0.049). While hair zinc contents were also lower, the difference was not statistically significant (49.2 ± 26.8 vs. 70.6 ± 41.0 μg/g, P = 0.055). Only hair manganese contents were significantly lower in children with posttraumatic FD (0.12 ± 0.04 vs. 0.26 ± 0.73 μg/g, P = 0.037). In conclusion, there were no differences in most serum and hair mineral levels in children with NOFTT, except for relatively lower hair levels of sulfur, copper and possibly zinc, and manganese in infantile anorexia, reciprocity, and posttraumatic types of FD, respectively.

  3. Evaluation of drug incorporation into hair segments and nails by enantiomeric analysis following controlled single MDMA intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Milena M; Steuer, Andrea E; Hysek, Cédric M; Liechti, Matthias E; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Incorporation rates of the enantiomers of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) into hair and nails were investigated after controlled administration. Fifteen subjects without MDMA use received two doses of 125 mg of MDMA. Hair, nail scrapings, and nail clippings were collected 9-77 days after the last administration (median 20 days). Hair samples were analyzed in segments of 1- to 2-cm length. After chiral derivatization with N-(2,4-dinitro-5-fluorophenyl)-L-valinamide, MDMA and MDA diastereomers were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations in hair segments corresponded to the time of MDMA intake. They ranged from 101 to 3200 pg/mg and 71 to 860 pg/mg for R- and S-MDMA, and from 3.2 to 116 pg/mg and 4.4 to 108 pg/mg for R- and S-MDA, respectively. MDMA and MDA concentrations in nail scrapings and clippings were significantly lower than in hair samples. There was no significant difference between enantiomeric ratios of R/S-MDMA and R/S-MDA in hair and nail samples (medians 2.2-2.4 for MDMA and 0.85-0.95 for MDA). Metabolite ratios of MDA to MDMA were in the same range in hair and nail samples (medians 0.044-0.055). Our study demonstrates that administration of two representative doses of MDMA was detected in the hair segments corresponding to the time of intake based on average hair growth rates. MDMA was detected in all nail samples regardless of time passed after intake. Comparable R/S ratios in hair and nail samples may indicate that incorporation mechanisms into both matrices are comparable.

  4. A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Svetlana V

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy.

  5. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  6. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica increases hair inductive property through inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in three-dimensional spheroid cultured human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong Min; An, Sungkwan; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Kim, Young Sam; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Bae, Seunghee

    2017-12-01

    Dermal papilla (DP) is a pivotal part of hair follicle, and the smaller size of the DP is related with the hair loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) on hair growth inductive property on 3D spheroid cultured human DP cells (HDP cells). Significantly increased effect of TECA on cell viability was only shown in 3D sphered HPD cells, not in 2D cultured HDP cells. Also, TECA treatment increased the sphere size of HDP cells. The luciferase activity of STAT reporter genes and the expression of STAT-targeted genes, SOCS1 and SOCS3, were significantly decreased. Also, TECA treatment increased the expression of the hair growth-related signature genes in 3D sphered HDP cells. Furthermore, TECA led to downregulation of the level of phosphorylated STAT proteins in 3D sphered HDP cells. Overall, TECA activates the potential of hair inductive capacity in HDP cells.

  7. Adhesive force of a single gecko foot-hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, Kellar; Liang, Yiching A.; Hsieh, S. Tonia; Zesch, Wolfgang; Chan, Wai Pang; Kenny, Thomas W.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2000-06-01

    Geckos are exceptional in their ability to climb rapidly up smooth vertical surfaces. Microscopy has shown that a gecko's foot has nearly five hundred thousand keratinous hairs or setae. Each 30-130µm long seta is only one-tenth the diameter of a human hair and contains hundreds of projections terminating in 0.2-0.5µm spatula-shaped structures. After nearly a century of anatomical description, here we report the first direct measurements of single setal force by using a two-dimensional micro-electro-mechanical systems force sensor and a wire as a force gauge. Measurements revealed that a seta is ten times more effective at adhesion than predicted from maximal estimates on whole animals. Adhesive force values support the hypothesis that individual seta operate by van der Waals forces. The gecko's peculiar behaviour of toe uncurling and peeling led us to discover two aspects of setal function which increase their effectiveness. A unique macroscopic orientation and preloading of the seta increased attachment force 600-fold above that of frictional measurements of the material. Suitably orientated setae reduced the forces necessary to peel the toe by simply detaching above a critical angle with the substratum.

  8. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Classifications of patterned hair loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles.

  10. Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra

    OpenAIRE

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-01-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  11. Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-10-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  12. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  13. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed.......p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed....

  14. Arsenic in hair by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1990, Blanche Kiser Moore was tried in the state of North Carolina for the murder, by arsenic poisoning, of a former boyfriend of hers (RCR), found guilty of first-degree murder by the jury, and sentenced to death. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), with gamma-ray spectrometry, was carried out on sectioned hair samples from six possible poisoning victims of hers, by the authors, and the results presented at the trial by VPG. Details of the sample preparations, the numerical results obtained, and their interpretation are presented. Also presented are difficulties involved involved in such analysis, and discussion of the fast-neutron interferences caused by Se and Br. (author) 6 refs.; 6 figs

  15. Confirming a Role for α9nAChRs and SK Potassium Channels in Type II Hair Cells of the Turtle Posterior Crista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Xu Parks

    2017-11-01

    -sensitive responses were reversibly blocked by the α9nAChR antagonists ICS, strychnine, and methyllycaconitine as well as the SK antagonists apamin and UCL1684. Intact efferent terminals in the split-epithelial preparation spontaneously released ACh that also activated α9*nAChRs/SK in type II hair cells. These release events were accelerated with high-potassium external solution and all events were blocked by strychnine, ICS, methyllycaconitine, and apamin. These findings provide direct evidence that activation of α9*nAChR/SK in turtle type II hair cells underlies efferent-mediated inhibition of bouton afferents.

  16. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Castro Faria, L.V. de; Paschoa, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle. (orig.)

  17. Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1987-01-01

    The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair.

  18. Penile hair tourniquet resulting in hypospadias failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux E Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile hair tourniquet (PHT is a painless form of penile ischemia, typically seen in toddlers with long-haired mothers, caused by entanglement of hair on the balano-prepucial sulcus, normally associated with circumcision. Its association with hypospadias has been reported only once. A school-aged boy admitted for surgery to treat hypospadias failure was incidentally detected to have PHT and severe hourglass deformity of the penis. Urethral anastomosis and glanuloplasty were done after removal of the constricting ring, without complications. Normal erections were reported during follow up. Treatment may involve urethral reconstruction and penile reimplantation in extreme cases.

  19. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Castro Faria, L.V. de; Paschoa, A.S.

    1979-06-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and x-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.(Author) [pt

  20. Global ecology and the human hair composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, L.I.; Kist, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    As an example of the mapping of human hair composition, the territory of Uzbekistan was chosen. The data and the maps obtained were compared with the environmental situation and medical statistics. World maps were drawn on the basis of various authors' data. The possibility of using human hair for radioactivity studies is discussed on the basis of data obtained in the Chernobyl area. The proposed scheme of human hair analysis may be used for world mapping for chemical elements, radionuclides, pesticides, dioxides, PCBs, etc., either to picture the global situation or as a health status on the level of populations. (author) 27 refs. 8 figs; 1 tab

  1. kosh Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kpdt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kewr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kiso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kpga Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kbkw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. ktcl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. pgwt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kpsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kbih Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kart Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kilm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kpne Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kabi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. ptpn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kblf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. panc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kpbi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kgdv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kcmx Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. paor Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  20. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination......Most firms are involved in a number of customer relationships that drain the firm's resources. However, many firms are hesitant to address this problem. This paper investigates customer relationship termination at the organizational level. We develop and analyze the organizational dimensions...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...