WorldWideScience

Sample records for term temperature records

  1. Long-term herbarium records reveal temperature-dependent changes in flowering phenology in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Isaac W.; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, a growing body of evidence has emerged indicating that the relationship between flowering phenology and climate may differ throughout various portions of the growing season. These differences have resulted in long-term changes in flowering synchrony that may alter the quantity and diversity of pollinator attention to many species, as well as altering food availability to pollenivorous and nectarivorous animal species. However, long-term multi-season records of past flowering timing have primarily focused on temperate environments. In contrast, changes in flowering phenology within humid subtropical environments such as the southeastern USA remain poorly documented. This research uses herbarium-based methods to examine changes in flowering time across 19,328 samples of spring-, summer-, and autumn-flowering plants in the southeastern USA from the years 1951 to 2009. In this study, species that flower near the onset of the growing season were found to advance under increasing mean March temperatures (-3.391 days/°C, p = 0.022). No long-term advances in early spring flowering or spring temperature were detected during this period, corroborating previous phenological assessments for the southeastern USA. However, late spring through mid-summer flowering exhibited delays in response to higher February temperatures (over 0.1.85 days/°C, p ≤ 0.041 in all cases). Thus, it appears that flowering synchrony may undergo significant restructuring in response to warming spring temperatures, even in humid subtropical environments.

  2. Direct effects of temperature on forest nitrogen cycling revealed through analysis of long-term watershed records

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.N. Jack Brookshire; Stefan Gerber; Jackson R. Webster; James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank

    2010-01-01

    The microbial conversion of organic nitrogen (N) to plant available forms is a critical determinant of plant growth and carbon sequestration in forests worldwide. In temperate zones, microbial activity is coupled to variations in temperature, yet at the ecosystem level, microbial N mineralization seems to play a minor role in determining patterns of N loss. Rather, N...

  3. EOP TDRs (Temperature-Depth-Recordings) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature-depth-recorders (TDRs) were attached to commercial longline and research Cobb trawl gear to obtain absolute depth and temperature measurement during...

  4. The impact of inter-annual variability of annual cycle on long-term persistence of surface air temperature in long historical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qimin; Nian, Da; Fu, Zuntao

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies in the literature show that the annual cycle of surface air temperature (SAT) is changing in both amplitude and phase, and the SAT departures from the annual cycle are long-term correlated. However, the classical definition of temperature anomalies is based on the assumption that the annual cycle is constant, which contradicts the fact of changing annual cycle. How to quantify the impact of the changing annual cycle on the long-term correlation of temperature anomaly variability still remains open. In this paper, a recently developed data adaptive analysis tool, the nonlinear mode decomposition (NMD), is used to extract and remove time-varying annual cycle to reach the new defined temperature anomalies in which time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been considered. By means of detrended fluctuation analysis, the impact induced by inter-annual variability from the time-dependent amplitude of annual cycle has been quantified on the estimation of long-term correlation of long historical temperature anomalies in Europe. The results show that the classical climatology annual cycle is supposed to lack inter-annual fluctuation which will lead to a maximum artificial deviation centering around 600 days. This maximum artificial deviation is crucial to defining the scaling range and estimating the long-term persistence exponent accurately. Selecting different scaling range could lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the long-term persistence exponent. By using NMD method to extract the inter-annual fluctuations of annual cycle, this artificial crossover can be weakened to extend a wider scaling range with fewer uncertainties.

  5. Jens Esmark's Christiania (Oslo) meteorological observations 1816-1838: the first long-term continuous temperature record from the Norwegian capital homogenized and analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestmark, Geir; Nordli, Øyvind

    2016-11-01

    In 2010 we rediscovered the complete set of meteorological observation protocols made by Jens Esmark (1762-1839) during his years of residence in the Norwegian capital of Oslo (then Christiania). From 1 January 1816 to 25 January 1839, Esmark at his house in Øvre Voldgate in the morning, early afternoon and late evening recorded air temperature with state-of-the-art thermometers. He also noted air pressure, cloud cover, precipitation and wind directions, and experimented with rain gauges and hygrometers. From 1818 to the end of 1838 he twice a month provided weather tables to the official newspaper Den Norske Rigstidende, and thus acquired a semi-official status as the first Norwegian state meteorologist. This paper evaluates the quality of Esmark's temperature observations and presents new metadata, new homogenization and analysis of monthly means. Three significant shifts in the measurement series were detected, and suitable corrections are proposed. The air temperature in Oslo during this period is shown to exhibit a slow rise from 1816 towards 1825, followed by a slighter fall again towards 1838.

  6. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the

  7. Long-term monitoring on a closed-conduit volcano: A 25 year long time-series of temperatures recorded at La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy), ranging from 250 °C to 520 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole Serena

    2017-10-01

    The longest record of temperature data from an active volcano in southern Italy is presented. The dataset comes from continuous monitoring of fumarole temperatures from the La Fossa cone of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands) running from 1991 to 2016. The discussion includes an empirical approach, based on a large number of direct measurements. At Vulcano Island, geochemical monitoring of the uprising fluids allows detection of the surface effects of perturbation in the state variables of the buried hydrothermal and magmatic systems. The presented datasets show that fumaroles' changing temperatures, which are related to surface heat flow, are useful indicators. Over the past 25 years, the combined effects of runoff and chemo-physical alterations were negligible on the output temperature of the earliest monitored fumaroles. The maximum recorded variation was 298 °C (measured in the ground very close to the steaming vents, at a depth of 0.5 m). Repetition of output temperature values occurred after 19 years in the same position; the time variations suggest a cyclic characteristic, although more years are needed to register the complete cyclic modulation. A combination of minor cyclical variations has also been registered in the fumarole output. The minor cycles appeared in this long series of data after 1995, and they can be interpreted as one of the surface effects of temporary departures from a stationary state assumed for the system feeding the La Fossa area. In this sector of the Mediterranean area, the steady state pressure field, as well as the steady state temperature gradients, can be perturbed either by magmatism or by seismo-tectonic processes related to regional dynamics. This long-term monitoring allowed comparisons of many temperature subsets with other validated geochemical and geophysical data series and highlighted common source mechanisms accounting for endogenous processes. Changes in the magma source and/or seismo-tectonic activity have been the primary

  8. Estimating trends in the global mean temperature record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppick, Andrew; Moyer, Elisabeth J.; Stein, Michael L.

    2017-06-01

    Given uncertainties in physical theory and numerical climate simulations, the historical temperature record is often used as a source of empirical information about climate change. Many historical trend analyses appear to de-emphasize physical and statistical assumptions: examples include regression models that treat time rather than radiative forcing as the relevant covariate, and time series methods that account for internal variability in nonparametric rather than parametric ways. However, given a limited data record and the presence of internal variability, estimating radiatively forced temperature trends in the historical record necessarily requires some assumptions. Ostensibly empirical methods can also involve an inherent conflict in assumptions: they require data records that are short enough for naive trend models to be applicable, but long enough for long-timescale internal variability to be accounted for. In the context of global mean temperatures, empirical methods that appear to de-emphasize assumptions can therefore produce misleading inferences, because the trend over the twentieth century is complex and the scale of temporal correlation is long relative to the length of the data record. We illustrate here how a simple but physically motivated trend model can provide better-fitting and more broadly applicable trend estimates and can allow for a wider array of questions to be addressed. In particular, the model allows one to distinguish, within a single statistical framework, between uncertainties in the shorter-term vs. longer-term response to radiative forcing, with implications not only on historical trends but also on uncertainties in future projections. We also investigate the consequence on inferred uncertainties of the choice of a statistical description of internal variability. While nonparametric methods may seem to avoid making explicit assumptions, we demonstrate how even misspecified parametric statistical methods, if attuned to the

  9. Long-term bird study records Arctic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    Alaska's summer of 2005 was the second warmest on record there, with a record retreat of arctic pack ice. As Alaskan temperatures gradually increase, artic birds, such as the black guillemots of Cooper Island, near Barrow, Alaska, are experiencing drastic habitat changes. Though these small black and white birds—the subjects of a long-term study of climate change—fared better this year than they have in the recent past (due to local cool conditions), they are nonetheless struggling to adapt as their artic island summer home becomes subarctic.George Divokyan ornithologist at the Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, discovered the Cooper Island colony of guillemots in the early 1970s and has spent every summer since 1975 there studying these birds. He presented his latest research during a 3 November talk in Washington, D.C.

  10. Attributing Changing Rates of Temperature Record Breaking to Anthropogenic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew D.

    2017-11-01

    Record-breaking temperatures attract attention from the media, so understanding how and why the rate of record breaking is changing may be useful in communicating the effects of climate change. A simple methodology designed for estimating the anthropogenic influence on rates of record breaking in a given time series is proposed here. The frequency of hot and cold record-breaking temperature occurrences is shown to be changing due to the anthropogenic influence on the climate. Using ensembles of model simulations with and without human-induced forcings, it is demonstrated that the effect of climate change on global record-breaking temperatures can be detected as far back as the 1930s. On local scales, a climate change signal is detected more recently at most locations. The anthropogenic influence on the increased occurrence of hot record-breaking temperatures is clearer than it is for the decreased occurrence of cold records. The approach proposed here could be applied in rapid attribution studies of record extremes to quantify the influence of climate change on the rate of record breaking in addition to the climate anomaly being studied. This application is demonstrated for the global temperature record of 2016 and the Central England temperature record in 2014.

  11. Entanglement temperature with Gauss–Bonnet term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shesansu Sekhar Pal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We compute the entanglement temperature using the first law-like of thermodynamics, ΔE=TentΔSEE, up to Gauss–Bonnet term in the Jacobson–Myers entropy functional in any arbitrary spacetime dimension. The computation is done when the entangling region is the geometry of a slab. We also show that such a Gauss–Bonnet term, which becomes a total derivative, when the co-dimension two hypersurface is four dimensional, does not contribute to the finite term in the entanglement entropy. We observe that the Weyl-squared term does not contribute to the entanglement entropy. It is important to note that the calculations are performed when the entangling region is very small and the energy is calculated using the normal Hamiltonian.

  12. Did European temperatures in 1540 exceed present-day records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Vogel, Martha M.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Pfister, Christian; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2017-04-01

    There is strong evidence that the year 1540 was exceptionally dry and warm in Central Europe. Here we infer 1540 summer temperatures from the number of dry days (NDDs) in spring (March-May) and summer (June-August) in 1540 derived from historical documentary evidence published elsewhere, and compare our estimates with present-day temperatures. We translate the NDD values into temperature distributions using a linear relationship between modeled temperature and NDD from a 3000 year pre-industrial control simulation with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Our results show medium confidence that summer mean temperatures (T JJA) and maximum temperatures (TXx) in Central Europe in 1540 were warmer than the respective present-day mean summer temperatures (assessed between 1966-2015). The model-based reconstruction suggests further that with a probability of 40%-70%, the highest daily temperatures in 1540 were even warmer than in 2003, while there is at most a 20% probability that the 1540 mean summer temperature was warmer than that of 2003 in Central Europe. As with other state-of-the-art analyses, the uncertainty of the reconstructed 1540 summer weather in this study is considerable, for instance as extrapolation is required because 1540-like events are not captured by the employed Earth system model (ESM), and neither by other ESMs. However, in addition to paleoclimatological approaches we introduce here an independent methodology to estimate 1540 temperatures, and contribute consequently to a reduced overall uncertainty in the analysis of this event. The characterization of such events and the related climate system functioning is particularly relevant in the context of global warming and the corresponding increase of extreme heat wave magnitude and occurrence frequency. Orth, R., M.M. Vogel, J. Luterbacher, C. Pfister, and S.I. Seneviratne, (2016): Did European temperatures in 1540 exceed present-day records? Env. Res. Lett., 11, 114021, doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/11/114021

  13. Identification of Units and Other Terms in Czech Medical Records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvára Jr., Karel; Kašpar, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), s. 78-82 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : natural language processing * healthcare documentation * medical reports * EHR * finite-state machine * regular expression Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/en/ejbi/article/61-en-identification-of-units-and-other-terms-in-czech-medical-records.html

  14. Late Pleistocene temperature history of Southeast Africa: A TEX(86) temperature record from Lake Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, M.; Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a TEX86-derived surface water temperaturerecord for LakeMalawi that provides the first continuous continental record of temperature variability in the continental tropics spanning the past ∼ 74 kyr with millennial-scale resolution. Average temperature during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5A

  15. Trends and associated uncertainty in the global mean temperature record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppick, A. N.; Moyer, E. J.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-01

    Physical models suggest that the Earth's mean temperature warms in response to changing CO2 concentrations (and hence increased radiative forcing); given physical uncertainties in this relationship, the historical temperature record is a source of empirical information about global warming. A persistent thread in many analyses of the historical temperature record, however, is the reliance on methods that appear to deemphasize both physical and statistical assumptions. Examples include regression models that treat time rather than radiative forcing as the relevant covariate, and time series methods that account for natural variability in nonparametric rather than parametric ways. We show here that methods that deemphasize assumptions can limit the scope of analysis and can lead to misleading inferences, particularly in the setting considered where the data record is relatively short and the scale of temporal correlation is relatively long. A proposed model that is simple but physically informed provides a more reliable estimate of trends and allows a broader array of questions to be addressed. In accounting for uncertainty, we also illustrate how parametric statistical models that are attuned to the important characteristics of natural variability can be more reliable than ostensibly more flexible approaches.

  16. Increasing temperature exacerbated Classic Maya conflict over the long term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, W. Christopher; Campbell, David; Collard, Mark

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on conflict is an important but controversial topic. One issue that needs to be resolved is whether or not climate change exacerbates conflict over the long term. With this in mind, we investigated the relationship between climate change and conflict among Classic Maya polities over a period of several hundred years (363-888 CE). We compiled a list of conflicts recorded on dated monuments, and then located published temperature and rainfall records for the region. Subsequently, we used a recently developed time-series method to investigate the impact of the climatic variables on the frequency of conflict while controlling for trends in monument number. We found that there was a substantial increase in conflict in the approximately 500 years covered by the dataset. This increase could not be explained by change in the amount of rainfall. In contrast, the increase was strongly associated with an increase in summer temperature. These finding have implications not only for Classic Maya history but also for the debate about the likely effects of contemporary climate change.

  17. Records, record linkage, and the identification of long term environmental hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheson, E. D.

    1978-11-15

    Long-term effects of toxic substances in man which have been recognized so far have been noticed because they have involved gross relative risks, or bizarre effects, or have been stumbled upon by chance or because of special circumstances. These facts and some recent epidemiological evidence together suggest that a systematic approach with more precise methods and data would almost certainly reveal the effects of many more toxic substances, particularly in workers exposed in manufacturing industry. Additional ways are suggested in which record linkage techniques might be used to identify substances with long-term toxic effects. Obstacles to further progress in the field of monitoring for long-term hazards in man are: lack of a public policy dealing with confidentiality and informed consent in the use of identifiable personal records, which balances the needs of bona fide research workers with proper safeguards for the privacy of the individual, and lack of resources to improve the quality, accessibility and organization of the appropriate data. (PCS)

  18. An alternative method to record rising temperatures during dental implant site preparation: a preliminary study using bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Laurito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overheating is constantly mentioned as a risk factor for bone necrosis that could compromise the dental implant primary stability. Uncontrolled thermal injury can result in a fibrous tissue, interpositioned at the implant-bone interface, compromising the long-term prognosis. The methods used to record temperature rise include either direct recording by thermocouple instruments or indirect estimating by infrared thermography. This preliminary study was carried out using bovine bone and a different method of temperatures rising estimation is presented. Two different types of drills were tested using fluoroptic thermometer and the effectiveness of this alternative temperature recording method was evaluated.

  19. Global Trend Analysis of Multi-decade Soil Temperature Records Show Soils Resistant to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S. D.; Jennings, K.

    2017-12-01

    Soil temperature is an important determinant of many subterranean ecological processes including plant growth, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. Soils are expected to warm in response to increasing global surface temperatures; however, despite the importance of soil temperature to ecosystem processes, less attention has been given to examining changes in soil temperature over time. We collected long-term (> 20 years) soil temperature records from approximately 50 sites globally, many with multiple depths (5 - 100 cm), and examined temperature trends over the last few decades. For each site and depth we calculated annual summer means and conducted non-parametric Mann Kendall trend and Sen slope analysis to assess changes in summer soil temperature over the length of each time series. The mean summer soil temperature trend across all sites and depths was not significantly different than zero (mean = 0.004 °C year-1 ± 0.033 SD), suggesting that soils have not warmed over the observation period. Of the subset of sites that exhibit significant increases in temperature over time, site location, depth of measurement, time series length, and neither start nor end date seem to be related to trend strength. These results provide evidence that the thermal regime of soils may have a stronger buffering capacity than expected, having important implications for the global carbon cycle and feedbacks to climate change.

  20. Developing a Data Record of Lower Troposphere Temperature Profiles for Diurnal Land-Atmosphere Coupling Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Li, D.

    2017-12-01

    The lower troposphere, including the planetary boundary layer, is strongly influenced by the land surface at diurnal scales. However, investigations of diurnal land-atmosphere coupling are significantly hindered by the lack of profile measurements that resolve the diurnal cycle. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing a decade-long (from 2007 to 2016) data record of diurnal temperature profiles in the lower troposphere (from the surface to about 4 km above the surface), which is based on the Aircrafts Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) meteorological observations. We first identify the number of profiles within an hour for each airport over the CONUS. At each airport, only data that passed at least level-1 quality check are retained. 40 airports out of 275 are then selected, which have data for more than 12 hours per day. These selected airports are mainly located along the east and west coasts, as expected. Because the data are recorded at irregular heights, we resample each profile in the lowest 4 km or so to pre-defined vertical coordinates. These temperature profiles are further bias-corrected by comparing to collocated radiosonde observations. This consistent data record of diurnal temperature profiles in the lower troposphere can be also used for regional climatology research, short-term weather forecasts, and numerical model evaluation.

  1. Long-term adherence to a local guideline on postoperative body temperature measurement: mixed methods analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Knops, Anouk M.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Goossens, Astrid; Legemate, Dink A.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Aim To find out whether a successful multifaceted implementation approach of a local evidence-based guideline on postoperative body temperature measurements (BTM) was persistent over time, and which factors influenced long-term adherence. Methods Mixed methods analysis. Patient records were

  2. Topological terms induced by finite temperature and density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210)

    1986-01-01

    In (3+1)-dimensional finite-temperature and -density SU(2) gauge theories with left-handed fermions, the three-dimensional Chern-Simons term (topological mass) can be induced by radiative corrections. This result is derived by use of a family's index theorem which also implies that in many other quantum field theories various additional lower-dimensional topological terms can be induced. In the high-temperature limit these terms dominate the partition function, which suggests applications to early-Universe cosmology

  3. Chern-Simons term at finite density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisakyan, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Solganik, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Chern-Simons topological term dynamical generation in the effective action is obtained at arbitrary finite density and temperature. By using the proper time method and perturbation theory it is shown that at zero temperature μ 2 = m 2 is the crucial point for Chern-Simons term. So when μ 2 2 , μ influence disappears and we get the usual Chern-Simons term. On the other hand, when μ 2 > m 2 , the Chern-Simons term vanishes because of nonzero density of background fermions. In particular for massless case parity anomaly is absent at any finite density or temperature. This result holds in any odd dimension both in Abelian and in non-Abelian cases

  4. Influence of Temperature and Mechanical Scratch on the Recorded Magnetization Stability of Longitudinal and Perpendicular Recording Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Katsumasa; Tobari, Kousuke; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    Stability of recorded magnetization of hard disk drive (HDD) is influenced by external environments, such as temperature and magnetic field. Small scratches are frequently formed on HDD medium surface upon contacts with the magnetic head. The influences of temperature and mechanical scratch on the magnetization structure stability are investigated for longitudinal and perpendicular recording media by using a magnetic force microscope. PMR media remained almost unchanged up to about 300 deg. C for the area with no scratches, whereas the areas near and under mechanical scratches started to change around 250 deg. C. The magnetization structure of LMR media started to change at about 100 degrees lower temperature under mechanical scratches when compared with no scratch areas. A quantitative analysis of magnetization structure variation is carried out by measuring the recorded magnetization strength difference estimated from the MFM images observed for a same sample area before and after exposing the sample to different temperatures.

  5. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Atmospheric Layer Temperatures, Version 3.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atmospheric Layer Temperature Climate Data Record (CDR) dataset is a monthly analysis of the tropospheric and stratospheric data using temperature sounding...

  6. BASE Temperature Data Record (TDR) from the SSM/I and SSMIS Sensors, CSU Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BASE Temperature Data Record (TDR) dataset from Colorado State University (CSU) is a collection of the raw unprocessed antenna temperature data that has been...

  7. Engineering: Liquid metal pumped at a record temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinou, Konstantina

    2017-10-01

    Although liquid metals are effective fluids for heat transfer, pumping them at high temperatures is limited by their corrosiveness to solid metals. A clever pump design addresses this challenge using only ceramics. See Article p.199

  8. Long-term periodicities in the sunspot record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    Sunspot records are systematically maintained, with the knowledge that an 11 year average period exists since about 1850. Thus, the sunspot record of highest quality and considered to be the most reliable is that of cycle eight through the present. On the basis of cycles 8 through 20, various combinations of sine curves were used to approximate the observed R sub MAX values (where R sub MAX is the smoothed sunspot number at cycle maximum). It is found that a three component sinusoidal function, having an 11 cycle and a 2 cycle variation on a 90 cycle periodicity, yields computed R sub MAX values which fit, reasonably well, observed R sub MAX values for the modern sunspot cycles. Extrapolation of the empirical functions forward in time allows for the projection of values of R sub MAX for cycles 21 and 22. For cycle 21, the function projects a value of 157.3, very close to the actually observed value of 164.5. For cycle 22, the function projects a value of about 107. Linear regressions applied to cycle 22 indicate a long-period cycle (cycle duration 132 months). An extensive bibliography on techniques used to estimate the time dependent behavior of sunspot cycles is provided

  9. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  10. Analysis of microseismic signals and temperature recordings for rock slope stability investigations in high mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Occhiena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The permafrost degradation is a probable cause for the increase of rock instabilities and rock falls observed in recent years in high mountain areas, particularly in the Alpine region. The phenomenon causes the thaw of the ice filling rock discontinuities; the water deriving from it subsequently freezes again inducing stresses in the rock mass that may lead, in the long term, to rock falls. To investigate these processes, a monitoring system composed by geophones and thermometers was installed in 2007 at the Carrel hut (3829 m a.s.l., Matterhorn, NW Alps. In 2010, in the framework of the Interreg 2007–2013 Alcotra project no. 56 MASSA, the monitoring system has been empowered and renovated in order to meet project needs.

    In this paper, the data recorded by this renewed system between 6 October 2010 and 5 October 2011 are presented and 329 selected microseismic events are analysed. The data processing has concerned the classification of the recorded signals, the analysis of their distribution in time and the identification of the most important trace characteristics in time and frequency domain. The interpretation of the results has evidenced a possible correlation between the temperature trend and the event occurrence.

    The research is still in progress and the data recording and interpretation are planned for a longer period to better investigate the spatial-temporal distribution of microseismic activity in the rock mass, with specific attention to the relation of microseismic activity with temperatures. The overall goal is to verify the possibility to set up an effective monitoring system for investigating the stability of a rock mass under permafrost conditions, in order to supply the researchers with useful data to better understand the relationship between temperature and rock mass stability and, possibly, the technicians with a valid tool for decision-making.

  11. Sensor System for Long-term Recording of Photovoltaic (PV) IV-curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    The purpose of this paper is to present a recording system for long-term investigation of PV panel dynamics under partial shading conditions. The system is intended to be a low-cost system deployable for stand-alone field use and long-term data recording at PV-plants. Passing clouds will affect...

  12. Short-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Grottoli, Andréa G

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of

  13. Long-term high temperature strength of 316FR steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    As low-carbon medium-nitrogen type 316 stainless steel (316FR) was selected as a primary candidate for main structural material of a next fast reactor plant in Japan, its long-term high-temperature strength gains much interest from many organizations involved in design activities of the plant. Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), as a research organization for electric power industry in Japan, has been conducting a multi-year project under the sponsorship of Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) for studying the long-term high temperature strength of this steel. Data obtained by various strength tests, including short-time tensile, fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue tests for this steel are given in this paper. The results of study on creep-fatigue life prediction methods are also presented. It was found that modified ductility exhaustion method previously proposed by the author has satisfactory accuracy in creep-fatigue life estimation

  14. Predicting long-term temperature increase for time-dependent SAR levels with a single short-term temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluccio, Giuseppe; Bruno, Mary; Collins, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    Present a novel method for rapid prediction of temperature in vivo for a series of pulse sequences with differing levels and distributions of specific energy absorption rate (SAR). After the temperature response to a brief period of heating is characterized, a rapid estimate of temperature during a series of periods at different heating levels is made using a linear heat equation and impulse-response (IR) concepts. Here the initial characterization and long-term prediction for a complete spine exam are made with the Pennes' bioheat equation where, at first, core body temperature is allowed to increase and local perfusion is not. Then corrections through time allowing variation in local perfusion are introduced. The fast IR-based method predicted maximum temperature increase within 1% of that with a full finite difference simulation, but required less than 3.5% of the computation time. Even higher accelerations are possible depending on the time step size chosen, with loss in temporal resolution. Correction for temperature-dependent perfusion requires negligible additional time and can be adjusted to be more or less conservative than the corresponding finite difference simulation. With appropriate methods, it is possible to rapidly predict temperature increase throughout the body for actual MR examinations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Electronic Medical Record and Quality Ratings of Long Term Care Facilities Long-Term Care Facility Characteristics and Reasons and Barriers for Adoption of Electronic Medical Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Cheryl Andrea

    2013-01-01

    With the growing elderly population, compounded by the retirement of the babyboomers, the need for long-term care (LTC) facilities is expected to grow. An area of great concern for those that are seeking a home for their family member is the quality of care provided by the nursing home to the residents. Electronic medical records (EMR) are often…

  16. The Relationship Between Radiative Forcing and Temperature. What Do Statistical Analyses of the Instrumental Temperature Record Measure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Kauppi, H.; Stock, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing statistical estimates for the long-run temperature effect of doubled CO2 with those generated by climate models begs the question, is the long-run temperature effect of doubled CO2 that is estimated from the instrumental temperature record using statistical techniques consistent with the transient climate response, the equilibrium climate sensitivity, or the effective climate sensitivity. Here, we attempt to answer the question, what do statistical analyses of the observational record measure, by using these same statistical techniques to estimate the temperature effect of a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide from seventeen simulations run for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 2 (CMIP2). The results indicate that the temperature effect estimated by the statistical methodology is consistent with the transient climate response and that this consistency is relatively unaffected by sample size or the increase in radiative forcing in the sample

  17. Stable isotopes and their relationship to temperature and precipitation as recorded in low latitude ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.G.; Davis, M.E.; Pin-Nan, Lin

    2002-01-01

    The potential of stable isotopic ratios ( 18 O/ 16 O and 2 H/ 1 H) in mid to low latitude glaciers as modern tools for paleoclimate reconstruction is reviewed. The isotopic composition of precipitation should be viewed not only as a powerful proxy indicator of climate, but also as an additional parameter for understanding climate-induced changes in the water cycle, on both regional and global scales. To interpret quantitatively the ice core isotopic records, the response of the isotopic composition of precipitation to long-term fluctuations of key climatic parameters (temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity) over a given area should be known. Furthermore, it is important to establish the transfer functions that relate the climate-induced changes of the isotopic composition of precipitation to the isotope record preserved in the glacier. The factors that govern the values of stable isotopes in snowfall are enigmatic and as yet no satisfactory model has been developed to link them directly with any one meteorological or oceanographic factor. This is particularly problematic in the high altitude glaciers in the tropics, where complications are present due not only to continental effects, but also to altitude effects and convective air mass instability, particularly in the monsoon climates of the tropics. This paper presents long and short-term perspectives of isotopic composition variations in ice cores spanning the last 25,000 years from the mid- to low-latitude glaciers. The isotopic records will also be examined as a function of the altitude of the individual coring sites which ranges from 5325 meters to 7200 meters. On the short, term isotopic records from ice cores from the Andes of South America, the Tibetan Plateau and Kilimanjaro in Africa through the year 2000 will be presented. All the tropical glaciers for which data exist are disappearing, and these sites show isotopic enrichment in the 20th century that suggests that large scale low latitude

  18. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature - WHOI, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Ocean Surface Bundle (OSB) Climate Data Record (CDR) consist of three parts: sea surface temperature, near-surface atmospheric properties, and heat fluxes....

  19. NOAA Fundamental Climate Data Record (CDR) of AMSU-B and MHS Brightness Temperature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) brightness temperature (Tb) in "window...

  20. Simultaneous in vivo recording of local brain temperature and electrophysiological signals with a novel neural probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z.; Csernai, M.; Kocsis, K.; Horváth, Á. C.; Pongrácz, A.; Barthó, P.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Temperature is an important factor for neural function both in normal and pathological states, nevertheless, simultaneous monitoring of local brain temperature and neuronal activity has not yet been undertaken. Approach. In our work, we propose an implantable, calibrated multimodal biosensor that facilitates the complex investigation of thermal changes in both cortical and deep brain regions, which records multiunit activity of neuronal populations in mice. The fabricated neural probe contains four electrical recording sites and a platinum temperature sensor filament integrated on the same probe shaft within a distance of 30 µm from the closest recording site. The feasibility of the simultaneous functionality is presented in in vivo studies. The probe was tested in the thalamus of anesthetized mice while manipulating the core temperature of the animals. Main results. We obtained multiunit and local field recordings along with measurement of local brain temperature with accuracy of 0.14 °C. Brain temperature generally followed core body temperature, but also showed superimposed fluctuations corresponding to epochs of increased local neural activity. With the application of higher currents, we increased the local temperature by several degrees without observable tissue damage between 34-39 °C. Significance. The proposed multifunctional tool is envisioned to broaden our knowledge on the role of the thermal modulation of neuronal activity in both cortical and deeper brain regions.

  1. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, Clara; Bertrand, Nathalie; Gauvain, Danielle; Terlain, Anne [Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Materiaux dans leur Environnement, CEA/Saclay - 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel [CIRIMAT UMR 5085, ENSIACET-INPT, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2004-07-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  2. Model for low temperature oxidation during long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgranges, Clara; Bertrand, Nathalie; Gauvain, Danielle; Terlain, Anne; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode during about one century. The metal lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies performed in the frame of the COCON program. An advanced model based on the description of elementary mechanisms involved in scale growth at low temperatures, like partial interfacial control of the oxidation kinetics and/or grain boundary diffusion, is developed in order to increase the reliability of the long term extrapolations deduced from basic models developed from short time experiments. Since only few experimental data on dry oxidation are available in the temperature range of interest, experiments have also been performed to evaluate the relevant input parameters for models like grain size of oxide scale, considering iron as simplified material. (authors)

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in American Samoa from 2012 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2010 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Marianas Archipelago from 2011 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  7. Towards Improved Understanding of Drought and Drought Impacts from Long Term Earth Observation Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; Wang, S.; Liu, J.; Hadwen, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a complex natural disaster, which often emerges slowly, but can occur at various time scales and have impacts that are not well understood. Long term observations of drought intensity and frequency are often quantified from precipitation and temperature based indices or modelled estimates of soil water storage. The maturity of satellite based observations has created the potential to enhance the understanding of drought and drought impacts, particularly in regions where traditional data sets are limited by remoteness or inaccessibility, and where drought processes are not well-quantified by models. Long term global satellite data records now provide observations of key hydrological variables, including evaporation modelled from thermal sensors, soil moisture from microwave sensors, ground water from gravity sensors and vegetation condition that can be modelled from optical sensors. This study examined trends in drought frequency, intensity and duration over diverse ecoregions in Canada, including agricultural, grassland, forested and wetland areas. Trends in drought were obtained from the Canadian Drought Monitor as well as meteorological based indices from weather stations, and evaluated against satellite derived information on evaporative stress (Anderson et al. 2011), soil moisture (Champagne et al. 2015), terrestrial water storage (Wang and Li 2016) and vegetation condition (Davidson et al. 2009). Data sets were evaluated to determine differences in how different sensors characterize the hydrology and impacts of drought events from 2003 to 2016. Preliminary results show how different hydrological observations can provide unique information that can tie causes of drought (water shortages resulting from precipitation, lack of moisture storage or evaporative stress) to impacts (vegetation condition) that hold the potential to improve the understanding and classification of drought events.

  8. Long-term European temperature variations between 1525 and the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term European temperature records are analyzed between 1525 and the present. It is found that the warmest periods occurred around the middle of this century, whereas the coldest periods generally occurred around the middle and the end of the last century. Urban warming may have occurred in the 19th century, causing urban areas to warm relative to rural areas and smaller towns between 1800 and 1900. The magnitude of natural climatic variability was determined. Trends were calculated for various time intervals. There was general warming between late 19th century and the present, but general cooling between the late 18th century and late 19th century. In some longer-term records, there was cooling between the 16th and the late 19th century. The largest warming occurred in the 1900s and in the 1930s. There has been a pronounced seasonal variation in trends of the last 200 years, with warming being centered in late fall to early spring, whereas the summer half of the year either did not warm or even cooled. European temperatures in the last decades are significantly above longer-term averages. However, they are much below estimates of modeled greenhouse warming which might have occurred in the last decades. Those differences cannot plausibly be explained by natural climatic variability. 43 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Reconstruction of spatio-temporal temperature from sparse historical records using robust probabilistic principal component regression

    OpenAIRE

    Tipton, John; Hooten, Mevin; Goring, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Scientific records of temperature and precipitation have been kept for several hundred years, but for many areas, only a shorter record exists. To understand climate change, there is a need for rigorous statistical reconstructions of the paleoclimate using proxy data. Paleoclimate proxy data are often sparse, noisy, indirect measurements of the climate process of interest, making each proxy uniquely challenging to model statistically. We reconstruct spatially explicit temper...

  10. Long-term pitch memory for music recordings is related to auditory working memory precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon Lm; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2018-04-01

    Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch. Afterward, participants were asked to judge the pitch of well-known music recordings, which either had or had not been shifted in pitch. We found that performance on the pitch working memory task was significantly related to performance in the pitch memory task using well-known recordings, even when controlling for overall musical experience and familiarity with each recording. In Experiment 2, we replicated these findings in a separate group of participants while additionally controlling for fluid intelligence and non-pitch-based components of auditory working memory. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that participants could not accurately judge the pitch of unfamiliar recordings, suggesting that our method of pitch shifting did not result in unwanted acoustic cues that could have aided participants in Experiments 1 and 2. These results, taken together, suggest that the ability to maintain pitch information in working memory might lead to more accurate long-term pitch memory.

  11. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Records: Maintaining Access to the Knowledge - 13122

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, John; Gueretta, Jeanie; McKinney, Ruth; Anglim, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of DOE's strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. In the area of environmental legacy management, records management is crucial to the protection of health, environmental, and legal interests of the Department and the public. LM is responsible for maintaining long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) records in performance of its mission. Maintaining access to the knowledge contained in these record collections is one of LM's primary responsibilities. To fulfill this responsibility, LM established a consolidated records management facility, the LM Business Center (LMBC), to house physical media records and electronic records. A new electronic record keeping system (ERKS) was needed to replace an obsolete system while helping to ensure LM is able to meet ongoing responsibilities to maintain access to knowledge and control the life cycle management of records. (authors)

  12. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Records: Maintaining Access to the Knowledge - 13122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, John; Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, 99 Research Park Road Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); McKinney, Ruth; Anglim, Cliff [Source One Management, Inc. (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of DOE's strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. In the area of environmental legacy management, records management is crucial to the protection of health, environmental, and legal interests of the Department and the public. LM is responsible for maintaining long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) records in performance of its mission. Maintaining access to the knowledge contained in these record collections is one of LM's primary responsibilities. To fulfill this responsibility, LM established a consolidated records management facility, the LM Business Center (LMBC), to house physical media records and electronic records. A new electronic record keeping system (ERKS) was needed to replace an obsolete system while helping to ensure LM is able to meet ongoing responsibilities to maintain access to knowledge and control the life cycle management of records. (authors)

  13. Solid State Track Recorder fission rate measurements at high neutron fluence and high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.; Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.

    1985-01-01

    Solid State Track Recorder (SSTR) techniques have been used to measure 239-Pu, 235-U, and 237-Np fission rates for total neutron fluences approaching 5 x 10 17 n/cm 2 at temperatures in the range 680 to 830 0 F. Natural quartz crystal SSTRs were used to withstand the high temperature environment and ultra low-mass fissionable deposits of the three isotopes were required to yield scannable track densities at the high neutron fluences. The results of these high temperature, high neutron fluence measurements are reported

  14. Device for the measurement and recording of the vertical temperature gradient close to the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassany, J. Ph.; Cottignies, S.

    1963-01-01

    The temperature measurement device described in this note is made of 2 series of 15 copper-constantan thermocouples each, disposed along a mast at 5 m and 20 m from the ground, respectively. Thermocouples are protected against direct sunlight and connected to a recorder

  15. Notation of Depression in Case Records of Older Adults in Community Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Enola K.

    2008-01-01

    Although significant numbers of social service clients experience mental health problems, virtually no research has examined the responsiveness of social service agencies to mental disorder. This article examines the extent to which client depression is reflected in records of a public social service agency, community long-term care (CLTC).…

  16. Axillary Temperature, as Recorded by the iThermonitor WT701, Well Represents Core Temperature in Adults Having Noncardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lijian; Huang, Yuguang; Mao, Guangmei; Sessler, Daniel I

    2018-03-01

    Core temperature can be accurately measured from the esophagus or nasopharynx during general anesthesia, but neither site is suitable for neuraxial anesthesia. We therefore determined the precision and accuracy of a novel wireless axillary thermometer, the iThermonitor, to determine its suitability for use during neuraxial anesthesia and in other patients who are not intubated. We enrolled 80 adults having upper abdominal surgery with endotracheal intubation. Intraoperative core temperature was measured in distal esophagus and was estimated at the axilla with a wireless iThermonitor WT701 (Raiing Medical, Boston MA) at 5-minute intervals. Pairs of axillary and reference distal esophageal temperatures were compared and summarized using linear regression and repeated-measured Bland-Altman methods. We a priori determined that the iThermonitor would have clinically acceptable accuracy if most estimates were within ±0.5°C of the esophageal reference, and suitable precision if the limits of agreement were within ±0.5°C. There were 3339 sets of paired temperatures. Axillary and esophageal temperatures were similar, with a mean difference (esophageal minus axillary) of only 0.14°C ± 0.26°C (standard deviation). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow, with the estimated upper limit at 0.66°C and the lower limit at -0.38°C, thus ±0.52°C, indicating good agreement across the range of mean temperatures from 34.9°C to 38.1°C. The absolute difference was within 0.5°C in 91% of the measurements (95% confidence interval, 88%-93%). Axillary temperature, as recorded by the iThermonitor WT701, well represents core temperature in adults having noncardiac surgery and thus appears suitable for clinical use.

  17. Analysis of Long-Term Temperature Variations in the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakappa, Pradeepa Hoskeri; Mahabala, Chakrapani

    2015-01-01

    Body temperature is a continuous physiological variable. In normal healthy adults, oral temperature is estimated to vary between 36.1°C and 37.2°C. Fever is a complex host response to many external and internal agents and is a potential contributor to many clinical conditions. Despite being one of the foremost vital signs, temperature and its analysis and variations during many pathological conditions has yet to be examined in detail using mathematical techniques. Classical fever patterns based on recordings obtained every 8-12 h have been developed. However, such patterns do not provide meaningful information in diagnosing diseases. Because fever is a host response, it is likely that there could be a unique response to specific etiologies. Continuous long-term temperature monitoring and pattern analysis using specific analytical methods developed in engineering and physics could aid in revealing unique fever responses of hosts and in different clinical conditions. Furthermore, such analysis can potentially be used as a novel diagnostic tool and to study the effect of pharmaceutical agents and other therapeutic protocols. Thus, the goal of our article is to present a comprehensive review of the recent relevant literature and analyze the current state of research regarding temperature variations in the human body.

  18. Long-term biatrial recordings in post-operative atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, M; Graffigna, A; Sinelli, S; Pallaoro, G; Nollo, G; Ravelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication of cardiac surgery, its pathophysiology remains unclear. The study of post-operative AF demands for the recording of cardiac electrical activity in correspondence of AF onset and progression. Long-term recordings in post-surgery patients could provide this information, but, to date, have been limited to surface signals, which precludes a characterization of the arrhythmic triggers and substrate. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of a continuous long-term recording of atrial electrical activities from the right and left atria in post-surgery patients. Local atrial epicardial electrograms are acquired by positioning temporary pacing wires in the right and left atria at the end of the intervention, while three day recordings are obtained by a digital holter recorder, adapted to epicardial signal features. The capability of the system to map local atrial activity and the possibility to obtain quantitative information on atrial rate and synchronization from the processed epicardial signals are proven in representative examples. The quantitative description of local atrial properties opens new perspective in the investigation of post-surgery AF.

  19. U-Pb thermochronology of the lower crust: producing a long-term record of craton thermal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Mahan, K. H.; Perron, T.; Schoene, B.; Dudas, F. O.

    2010-12-01

    The EarthScope initiative is focused on providing an enhanced view of the North American lithosphere and the present day stress field of the North American continent. Of key interest is the interaction between convecting asthenosphere and the conducting lithospheric mantle that underlie the continents, especially the cold ‘keels’ that underlie Archean domains. Cratonic regions are in general characterized by minimal erosion and or sediment accumulation. The Integration of seismic tomography, and mantle xenolith studies reveal a keel of seismically fast and relatively buoyant and viscous mantle; physical properties that are intimately linked with the long-term stability and topographic expression of the region. Missing from this model of the continental lithosphere is the 4th dimension--time--and along with it our understanding of the long-term evolution of these stable continental interiors. Here we present a thermal record from the North American craton using U-Pb thermochronology of lower crustal xenoliths. The use of temperature sensitive dates on lower crustal samples can produce a unique time-temperature record for a well-insulated and slowly cooling lithosphere. The base of the crust is insulated enough to remain unperturbed by any plausible changes to surface topography, yet unlike the subadjacent lithospheric mantle, contains accessory phases amenable to U-Pb dating (rutile, apatite, titanite). With near steady state temperatures in the lower crust between 400-600 °C, U-Pb thermochronometers with similar average closure temperatures for Pb are perfectly suited to record the long-term cooling of the lithosphere. Xenoliths from multiple depths, and across the craton yield time-temperature paths produced from U-Pb thermochronometers that record extremely slow cooling (<0.25 °C/Ma) over time scales of billions of years. Combining these data with numerical thermal modeling allow constraints to be placed on the dominant heat transfer mechanisms operating

  20. Resource specialists lead local insect community turnover associated with temperature - analysis of an 18-year full-seasonal record of moths and beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    role of resource specialization in explaining the compositional and phenological responses of insect communities to local temperature increases. We propose that resource specialists in particular are affected by local temperature increase, leading to the distinct temperature-mediated turnover seen...... opportunity for predictions about responses of resource specialists, and long-term time series are essential in revealing these responses. Here, we investigate temperature-related changes in local insect communities, using a sampling site with more than a quarter-million records from two decades (1992...

  1. A chironomid-based record of temperature variability during the past 4000 years in northern China and its possible societal implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haipeng; Chen, Jianhui; Zhang, Shengda; Zhang, David D.; Wang, Zongli; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Shengqian; Wang, Shijin; Kang, Shichang; Chen, Fahu

    2018-03-01

    Long-term, high-resolution temperature records which combine an unambiguous proxy and precise dating are rare in China. In addition, the societal implications of past temperature change on a regional scale have not been sufficiently assessed. Here, based on the modern relationship between chironomids and temperature, we use fossil chironomid assemblages in a precisely dated sediment core from Gonghai Lake to explore temperature variability during the past 4000 years in northern China. Subsequently, we address the possible regional societal implications of temperature change through a statistical analysis of the occurrence of wars. Our results show the following. (1) The mean annual temperature (TANN) was relatively high during 4000-2700 cal yr BP, decreased gradually during 2700-1270 cal yr BP and then fluctuated during the last 1270 years. (2) A cold event in the Period of Disunity, the Sui-Tang Warm Period (STWP), the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) can all be recognized in the paleotemperature record, as well as in many other temperature reconstructions in China. This suggests that our chironomid-inferred temperature record for the Gonghai Lake region is representative. (3) Local wars in Shanxi Province, documented in the historical literature during the past 2700 years, are statistically significantly correlated with changes in temperature, and the relationship is a good example of the potential societal implications of temperature change on a regional scale.

  2. Abrupt Greenland Ice Sheet runoff and sea water temperature changes since 1821, recorded by coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenos, N.; Hoey, T.; Bedford, J.; Claverie, T.; Fallick, A. E.; Lamb, C. M.; Nienow, P. W.; O'Neill, S.; Shepherd, I.; Thormar, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) contains the largest store of fresh water in the northern hemisphere, equivalent to ~7.4m of eustatic sea level rise, but its impacts on current, past and future sea level, ocean circulation and European climate are poorly understood. Previous estimates of GrIS melt, from 26 years of satellite observations and temperature driven melt-models over 48 years, show a trend of increasing melt. There are however no runoff data of comparable duration with which to validate temperature-based runoff models, or relationships between the spatial extent of melt and runoff. Further, longer runoff records that extend GrIS melt records to centennial timescales will enable recently observed trends to be put into a better historical context. We measured Mg/Ca, δ18O and structural cell size in annual growth bands of red coralline algae to reconstruct: (1) near surface sea water temperature; and, (2) melt/runoff from the GrIS. (1) Temperature: we reconstructed the longest (1821-2009) sub-annual resolution record of water temperature in Disko Bugt (western Greenland) showing an abrupt change in temperature oscillation patterns during the 1920s which may be attributable to the interaction between atmospheric temperature and mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbrae glacier. (2) GrIS runoff: using samples from distal parts of Søndre Strømfjord we produced the first reconstruction of decadal (1939-2002) GrIS runoff. We observed significant negative relationships between historic runoff, relative salinity and marine summer temperature. Our reconstruction shows a trend of increasing reconstructed runoff since the mid 1980s. In situ summer marine temperatures followed a similar trend. We suggest that since 1939 atmospheric temperatures have been important in forcing runoff. Subject to locating in situ coralline algae samples, these methods can be applied across hundreds to thousands of years. These results show that our technique has significant potential to enhance

  3. Gift-giving and network structure in rural China: utilizing long-term spontaneous gift records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure.

  4. Long term persistence in the sea surface temperature fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Monetti, Roberto A.; Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin

    2002-01-01

    We study the temporal correlations in the sea surface temperature (SST) fluctuations around the seasonal mean values in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. We apply a method that systematically overcome possible trends in the data. We find that the SST persistence, characterized by the correlation $C(s)$ of temperature fluctuations separated by a time period $s$, displays two different regimes. In the short-time regime which extends up to roughly 10 months, the temperature fluctuations display a...

  5. Surgical implantation of temperature-sensitive transmitters and data-loggers to record body temperature in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Johnston, S D; Beard, L; Nicholson, V; Lisle, A; Gaughan, J; Larkin, R; Theilemann, P; Mckinnon, A; Ellis, W

    2016-01-01

    Under predicted climate change scenarios, koala distribution in Australia is expected to be adversely affected. Recent studies have attempted to identify suitable habitat, based on models of bioclimatic regions, but to more accurately reflect the thermal tolerance and behavioural adaptations of the various regional populations, the koala's response to periods of heat stress will need to be investigated at the individual animal level. To explore the safety and suitability of temperature-sensitive intra-abdominal implants for monitoring core body temperature in the koala. A temperature-sensitive radio transmitter and thermal iButton data-logger, waxed together as a package, were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of four captive koalas. In one animal the implant was tethered and in the other three, it was left free-floating. After 3 months, the implants were removed and all four koalas recovered without complications. The tethering of the package in the one koala resulted in minor inflammation and adhesion, so this practice was subsequently abandoned. The free-floating deployments were complication-free and revealed a diurnal body temperature rhythm, with daily ranges of 0.4-2.8°C. The minimum recorded body temperature was 34.2°C and the maximum was 37.7°C. The difference in the readings obtained from the transmitters and iButtons never exceeded 0.3°C. The suitability of the surgical approach was confirmed, from both the animal welfare and data collection points of view. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Embedded Ultrathin Cluster Electrodes for Long-Term Recordings in Deep Brain Centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Etemadi

    Full Text Available Neural interfaces which allow long-term recordings in deep brain structures in awake freely moving animals have the potential of becoming highly valuable tools in neuroscience. However, the recording quality usually deteriorates over time, probably at least partly due to tissue reactions caused by injuries during implantation, and subsequently micro-forces due to a lack of mechanical compliance between the tissue and neural interface. To address this challenge, we developed a gelatin embedded neural interface comprising highly flexible electrodes and evaluated its long term recording properties. Bundles of ultrathin parylene C coated platinum electrodes (N = 29 were embedded in a hard gelatin based matrix shaped like a needle, and coated with Kollicoat™ to retard dissolution of gelatin during the implantation. The implantation parameters were established in an in vitro model of the brain (0.5% agarose. Following a craniotomy in the anesthetized rat, the gelatin embedded electrodes were stereotactically inserted to a pre-target position, and after gelatin dissolution the electrodes were further advanced and spread out in the area of the subthalamic nucleus (STN. The performance of the implanted electrodes was evaluated under anesthesia, during 8 weeks. Apart from an increase in the median-noise level during the first 4 weeks, the electrode impedance and signal-to-noise ratio of single-units remained stable throughout the experiment. Histological postmortem analysis confirmed implantation in the area of STN in most animals. In conclusion, by combining novel biocompatible implantation techniques and ultra-flexible electrodes, long-term neuronal recordings from deep brain structures with no significant deterioration of electrode function were achieved.

  7. Temperature and mineral dust variability recorded in two low-accumulation Alpine ice cores over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Erhardt, Tobias; Spaulding, Nicole; Hoffmann, Helene; Fischer, Hubertus; Mayewski, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Among ice core drilling sites in the European Alps, Colle Gnifetti (CG) is the only non-temperate glacier to offer climate records dating back at least 1000 years. This unique long-term archive is the result of an exceptionally low net accumulation driven by wind erosion and rapid annual layer thinning. However, the full exploitation of the CG time series has been hampered by considerable dating uncertainties and the seasonal summer bias in snow preservation. Using a new core drilled in 2013 we extend annual layer counting, for the first time at CG, over the last 1000 years and add additional constraints to the resulting age scale from radiocarbon dating. Based on this improved age scale, and using a multi-core approach with a neighbouring ice core, we explore the time series of stable water isotopes and the mineral dust proxies Ca2+ and insoluble particles. Also in our latest ice core we face the already known limitation to the quantitative use of the stable isotope variability based on a high and potentially non-stationary isotope/temperature sensitivity at CG. Decadal trends in Ca2+ reveal substantial agreement with instrumental temperature and are explored here as a potential site-specific supplement to the isotope-based temperature reconstruction. The observed coupling between temperature and Ca2+ trends likely results from snow preservation effects and the advection of dust-rich air masses coinciding with warm temperatures. We find that if calibrated against instrumental data, the Ca2+-based temperature reconstruction is in robust agreement with the latest proxy-based summer temperature reconstruction, including a Little Ice Age cold period as well as a medieval climate anomaly. Part of the medieval climate period around AD 1100-1200 clearly stands out through an increased occurrence of dust events, potentially resulting from a relative increase in meridional flow and/or dry conditions over the Mediterranean.

  8. Temperature and mineral dust variability recorded in two low-accumulation Alpine ice cores over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohleber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among ice core drilling sites in the European Alps, Colle Gnifetti (CG is the only non-temperate glacier to offer climate records dating back at least 1000 years. This unique long-term archive is the result of an exceptionally low net accumulation driven by wind erosion and rapid annual layer thinning. However, the full exploitation of the CG time series has been hampered by considerable dating uncertainties and the seasonal summer bias in snow preservation. Using a new core drilled in 2013 we extend annual layer counting, for the first time at CG, over the last 1000 years and add additional constraints to the resulting age scale from radiocarbon dating. Based on this improved age scale, and using a multi-core approach with a neighbouring ice core, we explore the time series of stable water isotopes and the mineral dust proxies Ca2+ and insoluble particles. Also in our latest ice core we face the already known limitation to the quantitative use of the stable isotope variability based on a high and potentially non-stationary isotope/temperature sensitivity at CG. Decadal trends in Ca2+ reveal substantial agreement with instrumental temperature and are explored here as a potential site-specific supplement to the isotope-based temperature reconstruction. The observed coupling between temperature and Ca2+ trends likely results from snow preservation effects and the advection of dust-rich air masses coinciding with warm temperatures. We find that if calibrated against instrumental data, the Ca2+-based temperature reconstruction is in robust agreement with the latest proxy-based summer temperature reconstruction, including a Little Ice Age cold period as well as a medieval climate anomaly. Part of the medieval climate period around AD 1100–1200 clearly stands out through an increased occurrence of dust events, potentially resulting from a relative increase in meridional flow and/or dry conditions over the Mediterranean.

  9. Summer temperatures in the Canadian Rockies during the last millennium: a revised record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckman, B.H. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Geography, London, Ontario (Canada); Wilson, R.J.S. [Edinburgh University, School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    We present a significant update to a millennial summer temperature reconstruction (1073-1983) that was originally published in 1997. Utilising new tree-ring data (predominantly Picea engelmannii), the reconstruction is not only better replicated, but has been extended (950-1994) and is now more regionally representative. Calibration and verification statistics were improved, with the new model explaining 53% of May-August maximum temperature variation compared to the original (39% of April-August mean temperatures). The maximum latewood density data, which are weighted more strongly in the regression model than ringwidth, were processed using regional curve standardisation to capture potential centennial to millennial scale variability. The reconstruction shows warm intervals, comparable to twentieth century values, for the first half of the eleventh century, the late 1300s and early 1400s. The bulk of the record, however, is below the 1901-1980 normals, with prolonged cool periods from 1200 to 1350 and from 1450 to the late 19th century. The most extreme cool period is observed to be in the 1690s. These reconstructed cool periods compare well with known regional records of glacier advances between 1150 and the 1300s, possibly in the early 1500s, early 1700s and 1800s. Evidence is also presented of the influence of solar activity and volcanic events on summer temperature in the Canadian Rockies over the last 1,000 years. Although this reconstruction is regional in scope, it compares well at multi-decadal to centennial scales with Northern Hemisphere temperature proxies and at millennial scales with reconstructions that were also processed to capture longer timescale variability. This coherence suggests that this series is globally important for the assessment of natural temperature variability over the last 1,000 years. (orig.)

  10. Unsupervised ensemble ranking of terms in electronic health record notes based on their importance to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Allowing patients to access their own electronic health record (EHR) notes through online patient portals has the potential to improve patient-centered care. However, EHR notes contain abundant medical jargon that can be difficult for patients to comprehend. One way to help patients is to reduce information overload and help them focus on medical terms that matter most to them. Targeted education can then be developed to improve patient EHR comprehension and the quality of care. The aim of this work was to develop FIT (Finding Important Terms for patients), an unsupervised natural language processing (NLP) system that ranks medical terms in EHR notes based on their importance to patients. We built FIT on a new unsupervised ensemble ranking model derived from the biased random walk algorithm to combine heterogeneous information resources for ranking candidate terms from each EHR note. Specifically, FIT integrates four single views (rankers) for term importance: patient use of medical concepts, document-level term salience, word co-occurrence based term relatedness, and topic coherence. It also incorporates partial information of term importance as conveyed by terms' unfamiliarity levels and semantic types. We evaluated FIT on 90 expert-annotated EHR notes and used the four single-view rankers as baselines. In addition, we implemented three benchmark unsupervised ensemble ranking methods as strong baselines. FIT achieved 0.885 AUC-ROC for ranking candidate terms from EHR notes to identify important terms. When including term identification, the performance of FIT for identifying important terms from EHR notes was 0.813 AUC-ROC. Both performance scores significantly exceeded the corresponding scores from the four single rankers (P<0.001). FIT also outperformed the three ensemble rankers for most metrics. Its performance is relatively insensitive to its parameter. FIT can automatically identify EHR terms important to patients. It may help develop future interventions

  11. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-09-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity ( T) and storativity ( S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  12. How will we ensure the long-term sea ice data record continues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.; Kaleschke, L.

    2017-12-01

    The multi-channel satellite passive microwave record has been of enormous benefit to the science community and society at large since the late 1970s. Starting with the launch of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multi-Channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) in October 1978, and continuing with the launch of a series of Special Sensor Microwave Imagers (SSM/Is) in June 1987 by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), places previously difficult to monitor year-round, such as the polar regions, came to light. Together these sensors have provided nearly 4 decades of climate data records on the state of sea ice cover over the ocean and snow on land. This data has also been used to map melt extent on the large ice sheets, timing of snow melt onset over land and sea ice. Application also extend well beyond the polar regions, mapping important climate variables, such as soil moisture content, oceanic wind speed, rainfall, water vapor, cloud liquid water and total precipitable water. Today the current SSMIS operational satellite (F18) is 7 years old and there is no follow-on mission planned by the DMSP. With the end of the SSMI family of Sensors, will the polar regions once again be in the dark? Other sensors that may contribute to the long-term data record include the JAXA AMSR2 (5 years old as of May 2017), the Chinese Fen-Yung-3 and the Russian Meteor-N2. Scatterometry and L-band radiometry from SMOS and NASA's SMOS may also provide some potential means of extending the sea ice extent data record, as well as future sensors by the DoD, JAXA and ESA. However, this will require considerable effort to intercalibrate the different sensors to ensure consistency in the long-term data record. Differences in measurement approach, frequency and spatial resolution make this a non-trivial matter. The passive microwave sea ice extent data record is one of the longest and most consistent climate data records available. It provides daily monitoring of one of the most striking changes in

  13. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales

  14. Long-term record of top-of-atmosphere albedo generated from AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) albedo is a fundamental component of Earth's energy budget. Previously, long-term accurate TOA albedo products did not exist due to the lack of stable broadband observations. With a new albedo estimation methodology based on multispectral observations, TOA albedo since 1981 has been retrieved using data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which provides the longest record of satellite observations across the globe. To develop the long-term TOA albedo record, the instantaneous TOA albedo was calculated by the direct estimation method, which was built on training data pairs from coincident AVHRR TOA reflectance and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) TOA albedo. The instantaneous TOA albedo was then converted to daily mean and monthly mean albedo based on the diurnal curves from geostationary satellites. The TOA albedo results (AVHRR-TAL) were compared with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) flux products for 2007. The monthly mean AVHRR-TAL agreed well with the CERES products, with a root mean square difference (RMSD) of 0.032 and a bias of 0.013. In addition, AVHRR-TAL showed similar seasonal variations to those seen in the CERES products. Further analysis on long-term time series showed good consistency between the two datasets (R2 > 0.95 and relative RMSD < 4%) from 2000 to 2015. Although some calibration issues remain to be solved, our datasets show the potential ability to observe the global TOA albedo from 1981 to the present.

  15. A Temperature and Monsoon Record Derived from Environmental Tracers in the Groundwater of Northwest India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, M.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.; Schneider, T. [Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Deshpande, R. D.; Gupta, S. K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)

    2013-07-15

    A quantitative palaeoclimate record was derived from the aquifer system of the cambay Basin, gujarat, India, a region characterised by a semi arid, monsoon dominated climate. Stable isotopes generally increase with flow distance and {sup 14}C age, whereas noble gas temperatures (NGTs) show a decline with age, amounting to a difference of {approx}3.5{sup o}C between Holocene and last glacial samples. The paper focuses on the Holocene covariation of the climate proxies. Stable isotopes and excess air show consistent variations, confirming their interpretation as proxies for palaeohumidity. A group of early to mid Holocene samples depleted in stable isotopes and enriched in excess air indicates a phase of strong monsoon during the Holocene climate optimum. This is followed by a drying trend in the second half of the Holocene, and more humid conditions in the youngest part of the record. A temporary rise of NGT in the dry late Holocene may reflect a change in the soil temperature-air temperature relationship. (author)

  16. Bayesian neural network modeling of tree-ring temperature variability record from the Western Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Tiwari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique based on the Bayesian neural network (BNN theory is developed and employed to model the temperature variation record from the Western Himalayas. In order to estimate an a posteriori probability function, the BNN is trained with the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC/Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulations algorithm. The efficacy of the new algorithm is tested on the well known chaotic, first order autoregressive (AR and random models and then applied to model the temperature variation record decoded from the tree-ring widths of the Western Himalayas for the period spanning over 1226–2000 AD. For modeling the actual tree-ring temperature data, optimum network parameters are chosen appropriately and then cross-validation test is performed to ensure the generalization skill of the network on the new data set. Finally, prediction result based on the BNN model is compared with the conventional artificial neural network (ANN and the AR linear models results. The comparative results show that the BNN based analysis makes better prediction than the ANN and the AR models. The new BNN modeling approach provides a viable tool for climate studies and could also be exploited for modeling other kinds of environmental data.

  17. Rodent model for assessing the long term safety and performance of peripheral nerve recording electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Patel, Kunal; Welle, Cristin

    2017-02-01

    Objective. In the US alone, there are approximately 185 000 cases of limb amputation annually, which can reduce the quality of life for those individuals. Current prosthesis technology could be improved by access to signals from the nervous system for intuitive prosthesis control. After amputation, residual peripheral nerves continue to convey motor signals and electrical stimulation of these nerves can elicit sensory percepts. However, current technology for extracting information directly from peripheral nerves has limited chronic reliability, and novel approaches must be vetted to ensure safe long-term use. The present study aims to optimize methods to establish a test platform using rodent model to assess the long term safety and performance of electrode interfaces implanted in the peripheral nerves. Approach. Floating Microelectrode Arrays (FMA, Microprobes for Life Sciences) were implanted into the rodent sciatic nerve. Weekly in vivo recordings and impedance measurements were performed in animals to assess performance and physical integrity of electrodes. Motor (walking track analysis) and sensory (Von Frey) function tests were used to assess change in nerve function due to the implant. Following the terminal recording session, the nerve was explanted and the health of axons, myelin and surrounding tissues were assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The explanted electrodes were visualized under high magnification using scanning electrode microscopy (SEM) to observe any physical damage. Main results. Recordings of axonal action potentials demonstrated notable session-to-session variability. Impedance of the electrodes increased upon implantation and displayed relative stability until electrode failure. Initial deficits in motor function recovered by 2 weeks, while sensory deficits persisted through 6 weeks of assessment. The primary cause of failure was identified as lead wire breakage in all of animals. IHC indicated myelinated and unmyelinated axons

  18. Enhanced-Resolution Satellite Microwave Brightness Temperature Records for Mapping Boreal-Arctic Landscape Freeze-Thaw Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Du, J.; Kimball, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The landscape freeze-thaw (FT) status derived from satellite microwave remote sensing is closely linked to vegetation phenology and productivity, surface energy exchange, evapotranspiration, snow/ice melt dynamics, and trace gas fluxes over land areas affected by seasonally frozen temperatures. A long-term global satellite microwave Earth System Data Record of daily landscape freeze-thaw status (FT-ESDR) was developed using similar calibrated 37GHz, vertically-polarized (V-pol) brightness temperatures (Tb) from SMMR, SSM/I, and SSMIS sensors. The FT-ESDR shows mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 90.3 and 84.3 % for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative surface air temperature (SAT) measurement based FT estimates from global weather stations. However, the coarse FT-ESDR gridding (25-km) is insufficient to distinguish finer scale FT heterogeneity. In this study, we tested alternative finer scale FT estimates derived from two enhanced polar-grid (3.125-km and 6-km resolution), 36.5 GHz V-pol Tb records derived from calibrated AMSR-E and AMSR2 sensor observations. The daily FT estimates are derived using a modified seasonal threshold algorithm that classifies daily Tb variations in relation to grid cell-wise FT thresholds calibrated using ERA-Interim reanalysis based SAT, downscaled using a digital terrain map and estimated temperature lapse rates. The resulting polar-grid FT records for a selected study year (2004) show mean annual spatial classification accuracies of 90.1% (84.2%) and 93.1% (85.8%) for respective PM (AM) 3.125km and 6-km Tb retrievals relative to in situ SAT measurement based FT estimates from regional weather stations. Areas with enhanced FT accuracy include water-land boundaries and mountainous terrain. Differences in FT patterns and relative accuracy obtained from the enhanced grid Tb records were attributed to several factors, including different noise contributions from underlying Tb processing and spatial mismatches between Tb

  19. Room temperature microwave-assisted recording on 500-Gbpsi-class perpendicular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Y.; Ishida, N.; Soeno, Y.; Sekiguchi, K.

    2012-10-01

    Microwave-assisted recording on a 500-Gbpsi-class perpendicular medium was experimentally demonstrated at room temperature. Magnetization reversal under a radio-frequency magnetic field was measured by an electrically shorted coplanar waveguide, which enabled us to evaluate the change in the medium's ferromagnetic resonance spectrum. A frequency-dependent reduction in the switching field was clearly observed in response to a microwave impulse 50 ns in duration. A significant reduction of up to 30% in the coercive field was achieved by applying a microwave impulse with an amplitude of 25 dBm and a frequency of 15 GHz.

  20. Temperature and precipitation records from stalagmites grown under disequilibrium conditions: A model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlinghaus, C.; Scholz, D.; Mangini, A.

    2009-04-01

    records of the stalagmites, which were obtained by three independent model runs, follow a general trend over the whole growth period and reveal good correlations within certain time-frames. This is a promising first result of the model. In addition the calculated temperatures are robust to small variations of the input variables, giving confidence in the algorithm of the model and for further temperature reconstructions from kinetically grown stalagmites. Literature Dreybrodt, W., 1999. Chemical kinetics, speleothem growth and climate. Boreas 28, 347 -356. Kaufmann, G., Dreybrodt, W. , 2004. Stalagmite growth and palaeo-climate: an inverse approach. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 224, 529 - 545. Kilian, R., Biester, H., Behrmann, J., Baeza, O., Fesq-Martin, M., Hohner, M., Schimpf, D., Friedmann, A., Mangini, A., 2006: Millennium-scale volcanic impact on a superhumid and pristine ecosystem, Geology, 34: 609 - 612. Mühlinghaus, C., Scholz, D., Mangini, A., 2007. Modelling stalagmite growth and ^13C as a function of drip interval and temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 2780 - 2790. Mühlinghaus, C.; Scholz, D., Mangini, A., 2008a. Temperature and precipitation records from stalagmites grown under disequilibrium conditions: A first approach. Advances in speleothem research, PAGES News, 16 Mühlinghaus, C., Scholz, D., Mangini, A., 2008b. Fractionation of stable isotopes in stalagmites under disequilibrium conditions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Submitted. Schimpf, D., 2005. Datierung und Interpretation der Kohlenstoff- und Sauerstoffsotopie zweier holozäner Stalagmiten aus dem Süden Chiles (Patagonien). Master's thesis, Ruprecht-Karls- University, Heidelberg. Schimpf, D., Kilian, R., Mangini, A., Spötl, C., Kronz, A., in prep. Evaluation of chemical, isotopic and detrital proxies of a high-resolution stalagmite record from the southernmost Chilean Andes (53˚ S) Scholz, D., Mühlinghaus, C., Mangini, A., 2008. Modelling the evolution of ^13C and

  1. Seemingly divergent sea surface temperature proxy records in the central Mediterranean during the last deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-A. Sicre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperatures (SSTs were reconstructed over the last 25 000 yr using alkenone paleothermometry and planktonic foraminifera assemblages from two cores of the central Mediterranean Sea: the MD04-2797 core (Siculo–Tunisian channel and the MD90-917 core (South Adriatic Sea. Comparison of the centennial scale structure of the two temperature signals during the last deglaciation period reveals significant differences in timing and amplitude. We suggest that seasonal changes likely account for seemingly proxy record divergences during abrupt transitions from glacial to interglacial climates and for the apparent short duration of the Younger Dryas (YD depicted by the alkenone time series, a feature that has already been stressed in earlier studies on the Mediterranean deglaciation.

  2. Nonstationary modeling of a long record of rainfall and temperature over Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Smith, James A.; Napolitano, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    A long record (1862-2004) of seasonal rainfall and temperature from the Rome observatory of Collegio Romano are modeled in a nonstationary framework by means of the Generalized Additive Models in Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Modeling analyses are used to characterize nonstationarities in rainfall and related climate variables. It is shown that the GAMLSS models are able to represent the magnitude and spread in the seasonal time series with parameters which are a smooth function of time. Covariate analyses highlight the role of seasonal and interannual variability of large-scale climate forcing, as reflected in three teleconnection indexes (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Mediterranean Index), for modeling seasonal rainfall and temperature over Rome. In particular, the North Atlantic Oscillation is a significant predictor during the winter, while the Mediterranean Index is a significant predictor for almost all seasons.

  3. Changes in record-breaking temperature events in China and projections for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hanqing; Liu, Chun; Lu, Yanyu; He, Dongyan; Tian, Hong

    2017-06-01

    As global warming intensifies, more record-breaking (RB) temperature events are reported in many places around the world where temperatures are higher than ever before http://cn.bing.com/dict/search?q=.&FORM=BDVSP6&mkt=zh-cn. The RB temperatures have caused severe impacts on ecosystems and human society. Here, we address changes in RB temperature events occurring over China in the past (1961-2014) as well as future projections (2006-2100) using observational data and the newly available simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The number of RB events has a significant multi-decadal variability in China, and the intensity expresses a strong decrease from 1961 to 2014. However, more frequent RB events occurred in mid-eastern and northeastern China over last 30 years (1981-2010). Comparisons with observational data indicate multi-model ensemble (MME) simulations from the CMIP5 model perform well in simulating RB events for the historical run period (1961-2005). CMIP5 MME shows a relatively larger uncertainty for the change in intensity. From 2051 to 2100, fewer RB events are projected to occur in most parts of China according to RCP 2.6 scenarios. Over the longer period from 2006 to 2100, a remarkable increase is expected for the entire country according to RCP 8.5 scenarios and the maximum numbers of RB events increase by approximately 600 per year at end of twenty-first century.

  4. Nineteenth Century Long-Term Instrumental Records, Examples From the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, C. J.

    2001-12-01

    Early instrumental records in the United States, defined as those operating before 1892 which is regarded the period prior to the modern climate record, provide a longer perspective of climatic variability at decadal and interannual timescales. Such reconstructions also provide a means of verification for other proxy data. This paper provides a American perspective of historical climatic research, emphasizing the urgent need to properly evaluate data quality and provide necessary corrections to make them compatible with the modern record. Different fixed observation times, different practices of weather instrument exposures, and statistical methods for calibration are the main issues in applying corrections and conducting proper climatic interpretations. I illustrate several examples on methodologies of this historical climatic research, focusing on the following in the Southeastern United States: daily reconstructed temperature time-series centered on Charleston SC and Natchez MS back to the late eighteenth century, and precipitation frequency reconstructions during the antebellum period for the Gulf Coast and coastal Southeast Atlantic states. Results indicate several prominent extremes unprecedented as compared to the modern record, such as the widespread warm winter of 1827-28, and the severe cold winters of 1856 and 1857. The reconstructions also yield important information concerning responses to past ENSO events, the PNA, NAO, and the PDO, particularly when compared with instrumental data from other regions. A high potential also exists for applying the climate reconstructions to assess historical climatic impacts on society in the Southeast, such as to understand climatic linkages to famous case studies of Yellow Fever epidemics and severe drought.

  5. Automatic Threshold Determination for a Local Approach of Change Detection in Long-Term Signal Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hewson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CUSUM (cumulative sum is a well-known method that can be used to detect changes in a signal when the parameters of this signal are known. This paper presents an adaptation of the CUSUM-based change detection algorithms to long-term signal recordings where the various hypotheses contained in the signal are unknown. The starting point of the work was the dynamic cumulative sum (DCS algorithm, previously developed for application to long-term electromyography (EMG recordings. DCS has been improved in two ways. The first was a new procedure to estimate the distribution parameters to ensure the respect of the detectability property. The second was the definition of two separate, automatically determined thresholds. One of them (lower threshold acted to stop the estimation process, the other one (upper threshold was applied to the detection function. The automatic determination of the thresholds was based on the Kullback-Leibler distance which gives information about the distance between the detected segments (events. Tests on simulated data demonstrated the efficiency of these improvements of the DCS algorithm.

  6. Long-term stability of intracortical recordings using perforated and arrayed Parylene sheath electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Seth A.; Kim, Brian J.; Kuo, Jonathan T. W.; Lee, Curtis D.; Meng, Ellis; Pikov, Victor

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Acquisition of reliable and robust neural recordings with intracortical neural probes is a persistent challenge in the field of neuroprosthetics. We developed a multielectrode array technology to address chronic intracortical recording reliability and present in vivo recording results. Approach. The 2 × 2 Parylene sheath electrode array (PSEA) was microfabricated and constructed from only Parylene C and platinum. The probe includes a novel three-dimensional sheath structure, perforations, and bioactive coatings that improve tissue integration and manage immune response. Coatings were applied using a sequential dip-coating method that provided coverage over the entire probe surface and interior of the sheath structure. A sharp probe tip taper facilitated insertion with minimal trauma. Fabricated probes were subject to examination by optical and electron microscopy and electrochemical testing prior to implantation. Main results. 1 × 2 arrays were successfully fabricated on wafer and then packaged together to produce 2 × 2 arrays. Then, probes having electrode sites with adequate electrochemical properties were selected. A subset of arrays was treated with bioactive coatings to encourage neuronal growth and suppress inflammation and another subset of arrays was implanted in conjunction with a virally mediated expression of Caveolin-1. Arrays were attached to a custom-made insertion shuttle to facilitate precise insertion into the rat motor cortex. Stable electrophysiological recordings were obtained during the period of implantation up to 12 months. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cortical tissue around individual probes indicated a strong correlation between the electrophysiological performance of the probes and histologically observable proximity of neurons and dendritic sprouting. Significance. The PSEA demonstrates the scalability of sheath electrode technology and provides higher electrode count and density to access a greater volume for recording

  7. Long-term elevated temperature leaching of solid waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.; Levine, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term soxhlet leaching of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials was initiated to elucidate leaching behavior of complex wasteforms. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20 month period. Maxima and minima were observed in the leaching rates of all components studied with the minima coinciding. The data suggested several mechanistic features which are described, but they did not conform with reported simple leaching mechanisms

  8. Inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Kevin T; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosing the processes that threaten species persistence is critical for recovery planning and risk forecasting. Dominant threats are typically inferred by experts on the basis of a patchwork of informal methods. Transparent, quantitative diagnostic tools would contribute much-needed consistency, objectivity, and rigor to the process of diagnosing anthropogenic threats. Long-term census records, available for an increasingly large and diverse set of taxa, may exhibit characteristic signatures of specific threatening processes and thereby provide information for threat diagnosis. We developed a flexible Bayesian framework for diagnosing threats on the basis of long-term census records and diverse ancillary sources of information. We tested this framework with simulated data from artificial populations subjected to varying degrees of exploitation and habitat loss and several real-world abundance time series for which threatening processes are relatively well understood: bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) (exploitation) and Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) and Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis) (habitat loss). Our method correctly identified the process driving population decline for over 90% of time series simulated under moderate to severe threat scenarios. Successful identification of threats approached 100% for severe exploitation and habitat loss scenarios. Our method identified threats less successfully when threatening processes were weak and when populations were simultaneously affected by multiple threats. Our method selected the presumed true threat model for all real-world case studies, although results were somewhat ambiguous in the case of the Eurasian Skylark. In the latter case, incorporation of an ancillary source of information (records of land-use change) increased the weight assigned to the presumed true model from 70% to 92%, illustrating the value of the proposed framework in bringing diverse sources of

  9. Statistical methods for change-point detection in surface temperature records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, A. L.; Possolo, A.; Zhang, N. F.

    2013-09-01

    We describe several statistical methods to detect possible change-points in a time series of values of surface temperature measured at a meteorological station, and to assess the statistical significance of such changes, taking into account the natural variability of the measured values, and the autocorrelations between them. These methods serve to determine whether the record may suffer from biases unrelated to the climate signal, hence whether there may be a need for adjustments as considered by M. J. Menne and C. N. Williams (2009) "Homogenization of Temperature Series via Pairwise Comparisons", Journal of Climate 22 (7), 1700-1717. We also review methods to characterize patterns of seasonality (seasonal decomposition using monthly medians or robust local regression), and explain the role they play in the imputation of missing values, and in enabling robust decompositions of the measured values into a seasonal component, a possible climate signal, and a station-specific remainder. The methods for change-point detection that we describe include statistical process control, wavelet multi-resolution analysis, adaptive weights smoothing, and a Bayesian procedure, all of which are applicable to single station records.

  10. A terrestrial Pliocene-Pleistocene temperature record from North-Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing Crampton Flood, Emily; Peterse, Francien; Munsterman, Dirk; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    The Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) (ca 3.3 to 3.0 Ma) is the most recent geological interval that serves as an appropriate analogue to our current climate for two main reasons. Firstly, atmospheric CO2 levels were similar (400 - 450 ppmv) to present day levels. Secondly, continental configurations during the Pliocene were largely similar to the present day. The MPWP is especially interesting regarding future climate predictions as global temperatures were roughly 2 - 3 °C warmer than present, indicating that current climate may not yet be in equilibrium. Reconstructions of MPWP sea surface temperatures (SSTs) indicate SSTs were warmer than present, particularly at high latitudes (ΔSST = 2 - 6 °C). However, continental temperatures for this interval remain poorly constrained due to a lack of trustworthy proxies, and scarcity of terrestrial sedimentary archives. Here we analysed branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) in a sediment core from the Netherlands to reconstruct continental mean air temperatures (MAT) in North-Western Europe during the Early Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene. BrGDGTs are membrane lipids of organisms living predominantly in soils whose relative distributions relate with the temperature and pH of the soil in which they are biosynthesized. BrGDGTs can be delivered to coastal marine sediments by fluvially transported soil material. Due to the coastal position of the sample site, land-sea climate correlations can be studied by analysing temperature-sensitive marine biomarkers, i.e. alkenones and long chain diols, in the same sediment, and subsequently applying the Uk37', TEX86, and long chain diol index (LDI) paleothermometers. The obtained MAT record can be divided into four main events: two small 'glacial' events, the MPWP, and the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation marking the onset of the Pleistocene, the latter being characterized by unstable and fluctuating temperatures. The glacial periods have been tentatively assigned according to the De Schepper

  11. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... for Climate (ARC) dataset and with in situ observations. A dynamical bias correction scheme adjusts the Pathfinder observations toward the ARC and in situ observations. Largest Pathfinder-ARC differences are found in the summer months, when the Pathfinder observations are up to 0.4 °C colder than the ARC...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years...

  12. Validation of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of the surface temperature is critical to understanding and forecasting Arctic climate change; as surface temperature integrates changes in the surface energy budget. The sea-ice surface temperature (IST has been measured with optical and thermal infrared sensors for many years. With the IST Environmental Data Record (EDR available from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites; we can continue to monitor and investigate Arctic climate change. This work examines the quality of the VIIRS IST EDR. Validation is performed through comparisons with multiple datasets; including NASA IceBridge measurements; air temperature from Arctic drifting ice buoys; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS IST; MODIS IST simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO; and surface air temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Results show biases of −0.34; −0.12; 0.16; −3.20; and −3.41 K compared to an aircraft-mounted downward-looking pyrometer; MODIS; MODIS SNO; drifting buoy; and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis; respectively; root-mean-square errors of 0.98; 1.02; 0.95; 4.89; and 6.94 K; and root-mean-square errors with the bias removed of 0.92; 1.01; 0.94; 3.70; and 6.04 K. Based on the IceBridge and MODIS results; the VIIRS IST uncertainty (RMSE meets or exceeds the JPSS system requirement of 1.0 K. The product can therefore be considered useful for meteorological and climatological applications.

  13. Corresponding long-term shifts in stream temperature and invasive fish migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Erin L.; Johnson, Nicholas; Pangle, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    By investigating historic trapping records of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) throughout tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes, we found that upstream spawning migration timing was highly correlated with stream temperatures over large spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, several streams in our study exceeded a critical spring thermal threshold (i.e., 15°C) and experienced peak spawning migration up to 30 days earlier since the 1980s, whereas others were relatively unchanged. Streams exhibiting warming trends and earlier migration were spatially clustered and generally found on the leeward side of the Great Lakes where the lakes most affect local climate. These findings highlight that all streams are not equally impacted by climate change and represent, to our knowledge, the first observation linking long-term changes in stream temperatures to shifts in migration timing of an invasive fish. Earlier sea lamprey migration in Great Lakes tributaries may improve young of the year growth and survival, but not limit their spatial distribution, making sea lamprey control more challenging.

  14. The LRO Diviner Foundation Dataset: A Comprehensive Temperature Record of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Nash, E.; Aye, K. M.; Williams, J. P.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Sullivan, M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been systematically mapping the thermal state of the Moon at a mean rate of >1400 observations/second since July 2009. Diviner measures solar reflectance and infrared radiance in 9 spectral channels with bandpasses from 0.3 - 400 μm. With more than 5 years of continuous data, complete spatial coverage of the lunar surface is achieved multiple times and coverage of local solar time enables the diurnal curve to be well-resolved for a given subsolar point. The Diviner Foundation Dataset (FDS) represents a coordinated effort to recalibrate raw data to improve quality, and produce a definitive and comprehensive set of products for use by the lunar science community. We present the contents and organization of the FDS, background on the enhanced processing pipeline, show how it is retrieved from NASA's Planetary Data System, and demonstrate its use with common mapping & analysis tools. The FDS comprises level 1 Reduced Data Records (RDRs) and level 2/3 Gridded Data Records (GDRs). We produce new RDRs using improved calibration algorithms that remove instrument artifacts and improve accuracy of measured radiance, particularly for polar data in permanently shadowed regions. GDRs are built using a per-orbit gridding scheme, and data are sourced from a database constructed by modeling the effective field-of-view for each observation. Notable gridded products available for lunar science include: 1) Globally mapped brightness temperatures for all channels in tiled cylindrical and polar stereographic map projections, 2) Global hourly temperature snapshots - maps of bolometric temperature binned into 1 hour intervals of local time, 3) Topographic products (elevation, slope and azimuth) for each map tile, that represent the terrain model used to process the data, and 4) Accompanying gridded maps of auxiliary quantities such as emission angle, local solar time, error etc…, for filtering

  15. Long-term ice phenology records from eastern–central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Takács

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A dataset of annual freshwater ice phenology was compiled for the largest river (Danube and the largest lake (Lake Balaton in eastern–central Europe, extending regular river and lake ice monitoring data through the use of historical observations and documentary records dating back to AD 1774 and AD 1885, respectively. What becomes clear is that the dates of the first appearance of ice and freeze-up have shifted, arriving 12–30 and 4–13 days later, respectively, per 100 years. Break-up and ice-off have shifted to earlier dates by 7–13 and 9–27 days/100 years, except on Lake Balaton, where the date of break-up has not changed significantly. The datasets represent a resource for (paleoclimatological research thanks to the strong, physically determined link between water and air temperature and the occurrence of freshwater ice phenomena. The derived centennial records of freshwater cryophenology for the Danube and Balaton are readily available for detailed analysis of the temporal trends, large-scale spatial comparison, or other climatological purposes. The derived dataset is publicly available via PANGAEA at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881056.

  16. Long-term ice phenology records from eastern-central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Kern, Zoltán; Pásztor, László

    2018-03-01

    A dataset of annual freshwater ice phenology was compiled for the largest river (Danube) and the largest lake (Lake Balaton) in eastern-central Europe, extending regular river and lake ice monitoring data through the use of historical observations and documentary records dating back to AD 1774 and AD 1885, respectively. What becomes clear is that the dates of the first appearance of ice and freeze-up have shifted, arriving 12-30 and 4-13 days later, respectively, per 100 years. Break-up and ice-off have shifted to earlier dates by 7-13 and 9-27 days/100 years, except on Lake Balaton, where the date of break-up has not changed significantly. The datasets represent a resource for (paleo)climatological research thanks to the strong, physically determined link between water and air temperature and the occurrence of freshwater ice phenomena. The derived centennial records of freshwater cryophenology for the Danube and Balaton are readily available for detailed analysis of the temporal trends, large-scale spatial comparison, or other climatological purposes. The derived dataset is publicly available via PANGAEA at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881056" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881056.

  17. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Land Surface Temperature (LST) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  18. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)-A Brightness Temperature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) for Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) brightness temperature in "window channels". The data cover a time period from...

  19. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of SSM/I and SSMIS Microwave Brightness Temperatures, CSU Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) from Colorado State University (CSU) contains brightness temperatures that have been improved and quality-controlled over the...

  20. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Concentration and Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) and Ice Surface Temperature (IST) from the Visible...

  1. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of SSM/I and SSMIS Microwave Brightness Temperatures, RSS Version 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Version 7 NOAA Fundamental Climate Data Record (CDR) from Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) contains brightness temperatures that have been inter-calibrated and...

  2. Long-term temperature monitoring at the biological community site on the Nankai accretionary prism off Kii Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Yamano, M.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Nankai subduction zone off Kii Peninsula is one of the most intensively surveyed areas for studies on the seismogenic zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys carried out in this area revealed the existence of splay faults that branched from the subduction zone plate boundary [Park et al., 2002]. Along the splay faults, reversal of reflection polarity was observed, indicating elevated pore fluid pressure along the faults. Cold seepages with biological communities were discovered along a seafloor outcrop of one of the splay faults through submersible observations. Long-term temperature monitoring at a biological community site along the outcrop revealed high heat flow carried by upward fluid flow (>180 mW/m2) [Goto et al., 2003]. Toki et al. [2004] estimated upward fluid flow rates of 40-200 cm/yr from chloride distribution of interstitial water extracted from sediments in and around biological community sites along the outcrop. These observation results suggest upward fluid flow along the splay fault. In order to investigate hydrological nature of the splay fault, we conducted long-term temperature monitoring again in the same cold seepage site where Goto et al. [2003] carried out long-term temperature monitoring. In this presentation, we present results of the temperature monitoring and estimate heat flow carried by upward fluid flow from the temperature records. In this long-term temperature monitoring, we used stand-alone heat flow meter (SAHF), a probe-type sediment temperature recorder. Two SAHFs (SAHF-3 and SAHF-4) were used in this study. SAHF-4 was inserted into a bacterial mat, within several meters of which the previous long-term temperature monitoring was conducted. SAHF-3 was penetrated into ordinary sediment near the bacterial mat. The sub-bottom temperature records were obtained for 8 months. The subsurface temperatures oscillated reflecting bottom- water temperature variation (BTV). For sub-bottom temperatures measured with SAHF-3 (outside of

  3. Short-term memory functions of the human fetus recorded with magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotilainen, Minna; Kujala, Anu; Hotakainen, Merja; Parkkonen, Lauri; Taulu, Samu; Simola, Juha; Nenonen, Jukka; Karjalainen, Matti; Näätänen, Risto

    2005-01-19

    Studies in fetuses and in prematurely born infants show that auditory discriminative skills are present prior to birth. The magnetic fields generated by the fetal brain activity pass the maternal tissues and, despite their weakness, can be detected externally using MEG. Recent studies on the auditory evoked magnetic responses show that the fetal brain responds to sound onset. In contrast, higher-level auditory skills, such as those involving discriminative and memory functions, were not so far studied in fetuses with MEG. Here we show that fetal responses related to discriminating sounds can be recorded, implicating that the auditory change-detection system is functional. These results open new views to developmental neuroscience by enabling one to determine the sensory capabilities as well as the extent and accuracy of the short-term memory system of the fetus, and, further, to follow the development of these crucial processes.

  4. Modelling impacts of atmospheric deposition and temperature on long-term DOC trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicka, K; Rowe, E C; Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; E I Vanguelova; Wade, A J; J M Clark

    2017-02-01

    It is increasingly recognised that widespread and substantial increases in Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in remote surface, and soil, waters in recent decades are linked to declining acid deposition. Effects of rising pH and declining ionic strength on DOC solubility have been proposed as potential dominant mechanisms. However, since DOC in these systems is derived mainly from recently-fixed carbon, and since organic matter decomposition rates are considered sensitive to temperature, uncertainty persists over the extent to which other drivers that could influence DOC production. Such potential drivers include fertilisation by nitrogen (N) and global warming. We therefore ran the dynamic soil chemistry model MADOC for a range of UK soils, for which time series data are available, to consider the likely relative importance of decreased deposition of sulphate and chloride, accumulation of reactive N, and higher temperatures, on soil DOC production in different soils. Modelled patterns of DOC change generally agreed favourably with measurements collated over 10-20years, but differed markedly between sites. While the acidifying effect of sulphur deposition appeared to be the predominant control on the observed soil water DOC trends in all the soils considered other than a blanket peat, the model suggested that over the long term, the effects of nitrogen deposition on N-limited soils may have been sufficient to raise the "acid recovery DOC baseline" significantly. In contrast, reductions in non-marine chloride deposition and effects of long term warming appeared to have been relatively unimportant. The suggestion that future DOC concentrations might exceed preindustrial levels as a consequence of nitrogen pollution has important implications for drinking water catchment management and the setting and pursuit of appropriate restoration targets, but findings still require validation from reliable centennial-scale proxy records, such as those being developed

  5. Observations of long-term tide-gauge records for indications of accelerated sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornitz, V.; Solow, A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term tide-gauge records have been examined for indications of accelerated sea-level rise. An initial evaluation of 21 records was made, using least-squares linear regression. Four of the longest records were selected for more formal statistical analysis. The regional-mean sea-level curve for west-central Europe displays an upswing after 1900. However, individual stations vary considerably over short distances. Results from other regions are less conclusive. Application of univariate and multivariate techniques to the four longest records yields strong evidence for the presence of a non-global, nonlinear component. However, the three longest European records show some common nonlinear features, implying the presence of a regional component. There is some weak statistical evidence for a common changepoint around 1895 in the long-term European records, particularly for Amsterdam and Brest

  6. A protocol improves GP recording of long-term sickness absence risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Paul; Hogervorst, Wouter; ter Riet, Gerben; van Dijk, Frank

    2008-06-01

    If general practitioners (GPs) were better informed about patients' risks of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), they could incorporate these risk assessments into their patient management plans and cooperate more with occupational physicians to prevent LTSA. To evaluate the effectiveness of a protocol helping GPs in recording risks of LTSA and in co-operating with occupational physicians (OPs). Twenty-six GPs (co-operating in four groups) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, participated in a controlled intervention study. Fourteen GPs were the protocol-supported intervention group and twelve GPs were the reference group. Outcome measures were consultations containing work-related information, information about two risk factors for LTSA, referrals to OPs and contacts of OPs with GPs and patients. Outcomes were identified through an electronic search in the GPs' information systems. Entries containing information were independently scored by two investigators. The proportions of patients with consultations documenting LTSA-pertinent items were compared between the groups, accounting for differences at baseline. There was no increase in consultations containing work-related information. Recording of risk factor information increased in the intervention group; the difference was 4.5% [95% CI 1.5-7.6] and 1.8% (95% CI -0.8 to 4.4) for the two risk factors. The referral rate to the OP increased by 2.9% (95% CI 1.2-4.5). There was no effect on contacts of OPs with GPs or with patients. Protocol-supported consultations may lead to a modest increase in information regarding two risk factors for LTSA in GPs' electronic records and to more referrals to OPs.

  7. Long Term Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition at NOAA - Driving Science with 60 Year-old Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's Global Monitoring Division and its precursor organizations have provided some of the longest real-time records of the trends and distributions of climatically relevant substances in the atmosphere, some going back for 60 years (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd). The focus of these measurements has been on obtaining reliable records of global trends and distributions of these substances, but the experimental design and use of measurements have advanced over time with evolving scientific questions. Today, and into this century, scientific questions continue to progress and the observing systems that address them will need to progress accordingly. Long-term, ground based observing systems in NOAA's Global Monitoring Division focus largely on three sets of questions, two of which align with WCRP grand challenges. These are Carbon Cycle System Feedbacks, Trends in Surface Radiation and Cloud Distributions, and Recovery of Stratospheric Ozone. The data collected and analyzed help us understand radiative forcing, climate sensitivity, air quality, climate modification, renewable energy options, and arctic processes, and they are useful for verifying model output and satellite retrievals. Regional information will become increasingly important for mitigating and adapting to climate change, and this information must be accurate, precise, and without bias. NOAA, with its long-standing networks and its role in providing calibrations for partnering organizations, is well positioned to provide the linkages necessary to assure that regional measurements are comparable. This presentation will identify major, climate-relevant findings that have come from NOAA's networks in the past and will address the long-term monitoring needs to support decision-making over coming decades as society begins to seriously address climate change.

  8. Temporary-tattoo for long-term high fidelity biopotential recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareket, Lilach; Inzelberg, Lilah; Rand, David; David-Pur, Moshe; Rabinovich, David; Brandes, Barak; Hanein, Yael

    2016-05-01

    Electromyography is a non-invasive method widely used to map muscle activation. For decades, it was commonly accepted that dry metallic electrodes establish poor electrode-skin contact, making them impractical for skin electromyography applications. Gelled electrodes are therefore the standard in electromyography with their use confined, almost entirely, to laboratory settings. Here we present novel dry electrodes, exhibiting outstanding electromyography recording along with excellent user comfort. The electrodes were realized using screen-printing of carbon ink on a soft support. The conformity of the electrodes helps establish direct contact with the skin, making the use of a gel superfluous. Plasma polymerized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was used to enhance the impedance of the electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed an increase in electrode capacitance by a factor of up to 100 in wet conditions. Impedance measurements show a reduction factor of 10 in electrode impedance on human skin. The suitability of the electrodes for long-term electromyography recordings from the hand and from the face is demonstrated. The presented electrodes are ideally-suited for many applications, such as brain-machine interfacing, muscle diagnostics, post-injury rehabilitation, and gaming.

  9. Temporary-tattoo for long-term high fidelity biopotential recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareket, Lilach; Inzelberg, Lilah; Rand, David; David-Pur, Moshe; Rabinovich, David; Brandes, Barak; Hanein, Yael

    2016-05-12

    Electromyography is a non-invasive method widely used to map muscle activation. For decades, it was commonly accepted that dry metallic electrodes establish poor electrode-skin contact, making them impractical for skin electromyography applications. Gelled electrodes are therefore the standard in electromyography with their use confined, almost entirely, to laboratory settings. Here we present novel dry electrodes, exhibiting outstanding electromyography recording along with excellent user comfort. The electrodes were realized using screen-printing of carbon ink on a soft support. The conformity of the electrodes helps establish direct contact with the skin, making the use of a gel superfluous. Plasma polymerized 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was used to enhance the impedance of the electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements revealed an increase in electrode capacitance by a factor of up to 100 in wet conditions. Impedance measurements show a reduction factor of 10 in electrode impedance on human skin. The suitability of the electrodes for long-term electromyography recordings from the hand and from the face is demonstrated. The presented electrodes are ideally-suited for many applications, such as brain-machine interfacing, muscle diagnostics, post-injury rehabilitation, and gaming.

  10. Molecular records of continental air temperature and monsoon precipitation variability in East Asia spanning the past 130,000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterse, F.; Martínez-García, A.; Zhou, B.; Beets, C.J.; Prins, M.A.; Zheng, H.; Eglinton, T.I.

    2014-01-01

    Our current understanding of past changes in East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation intensity derives from several loess–paleosol sequences and oxygen isotope (δ18O) records of well-dated stalagmites. Although temperature is generally presumed to have had minimal impact on EASM records, past

  11. Flexible Measurement of Bioluminescent Reporters Using an Automated Longitudinal Luciferase Imaging Gas- and Temperature-optimized Recorder (ALLIGATOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Priya; Hoyle, Nathaniel P; O'Neill, John S

    2017-12-13

    Luciferase-based reporters of cellular gene expression are in widespread use for both longitudinal and end-point assays of biological activity. In circadian rhythms research, for example, clock gene fusions with firefly luciferase give rise to robust rhythms in cellular bioluminescence that persist over many days. Technical limitations associated with photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or conventional microscopy-based methods for bioluminescence quantification have typically demanded that cells and tissues be maintained under quite non-physiological conditions during recording, with a trade-off between sensitivity and throughput. Here, we report a refinement of prior methods that allows long-term bioluminescence imaging with high sensitivity and throughput which supports a broad range of culture conditions, including variable gas and humidity control, and that accepts many different tissue culture plates and dishes. This automated longitudinal luciferase imaging gas- and temperature-optimized recorder (ALLIGATOR) also allows the observation of spatial variations in luciferase expression across a cell monolayer or tissue, which cannot readily be observed by traditional methods. We highlight how the ALLIGATOR provides vastly increased flexibility for the detection of luciferase activity when compared with existing methods.

  12. Deciphering long-term records of natural variability and human impact as recorded in lake sediments: a palaeolimnological puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Keely; Schillereff, Daniel; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie

    2017-01-01

    that is particularly acute when considering management options for aquatic ecosystems. The duration and timing of human impacts on lake systems varies geographically, with some regions of the world (such as Africa and South America) having a longer legacy of human impact than others (e.g., New Zealand). A wide array...... of techniques (biological, chemical, physical and statistical) is available to palaeolimnologists to allow the deciphering of complex sedimentary records. Lake sediments are an important archive of how drivers have changed through time, and how these impacts manifest in lake systems. With a paucity of ‘real...

  13. Impact of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on deriving anthropogenic warming rates from the instrumental temperature record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, G.R.; Dolman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The instrumental surface air temperature record has been used in several statistical studies to assess the relative role of natural and anthropogenic drivers of climate change. The results of those studies varied considerably, with anthropogenic temperature trends over the past 25-30 years suggested

  14. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  15. Long-term records and modelling of acidification, recovery and liming at Lake Hovvatn, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindar, A. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Grimstad (Norway); Wright, R.F. [Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    Scenarios for acidification in Europe have shown that large parts of southern Norway will be negatively impacted by sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions in the future. Long-term data of acidification and recovery as well as the effects of a liming program at Lake Store Hovvatn were presented in this paper, along with data collected from Lake Lille Hovvatn as unlimed reference. Water samples from the lakes were collected 5 times annually from varying depths. Total organic carbon was measured after wet chemical oxidation by infrared detection. Acidification hindcasts and forecasts for the period 1870-2050 were conducted with the dynamic model MAGIC, which simulated soil solution and surface water chemistry to predict average concentrations of the major ions. The model showed good agreement with major changes in water chemistry observed over the past 30 years, as well simulating pH and concentrations of inorganic aluminium (Al). The data were evaluated in terms of the prospects for the re-establishment of a self-sustaining brown trout population. All liming efforts at Lake Store Hovvatn resulted in improvements in water quality. However, the stocked fish showed excellent survival and growth rates after liming but no natural recruitment, which suggested that fish eggs at shallow depths under ice cover are a sensitive biological indicator. Continuous records of pH revealed serious difficulties in maintaining adequate water quality at shallow depths in winter. While various liming techniques were discussed, it was concluded that the problem of surface water acidification in southern Norway is not solved, and a long-term strategy is called for. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. An Atmospheric Tape Recorder: The Imprint of Tropical Tropopause Temperatures on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Philip W.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; McIntyre, Michael E.; Carr, Ewan S.; Gille, John C.; Holton, James R.; Kinnersley, Jonathan S.; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Russell, James M., III; Waters, Joe W.

    1996-01-01

    We describe observations of tropical stratospheric water vapor q that show clear evidence of large-scale upward advection of the signal from annual fluctuations in the effective 'entry mixing ratio' q(sub E) of air entering the tropical stratosphere. In other words, air is 'marked,' on emergence above the highest cloud tops, like a signal recorded on an upward moving magnetic tape. We define q(sub E) as the mean water vapor mixing ratio, at the tropical tropopause, of air that will subsequently rise and enter the stratospheric 'overworld' at about 400 K. The observations show a systematic phase lag, increasing with altitude, between the annual cycle in q(sub E) and the annual cycle in q at higher altitudes. The observed phase lag agrees with the phase lag calculated assuming advection by the transformed Eulerian-mean vertical velocity of a q(sub E) crudely estimated from 100-hPa temperatures, which we use as a convenient proxy for tropopause temperatures. The phase agreement confirms the overall robustness of the calculation and strongly supports the tape recorder hypothesis. Establishing a quantitative link between q(sub E) and observed tropopause temperatures, however, proves difficult because the process of marking the tape depends subtly on both small- and large-scale processes. The tape speed, or large-scale upward advection speed, has a substantial annual variation and a smaller variation due to the quasi-biennial oscillation, which delays or accelerates the arrival of the signal by a month or two in the middle stratosphere. As the tape moves upward, the signal is attenuated with an e-folding time of about 7 to 9 months between 100 and 50 hPa and about 15 to 18 months between 50 and 20 hPa, constraining possible orders of magnitude both of vertical diffusion K(sub z) and of rates of mixing in from the extratropics. For instance, if there were no mixing in, then K(sub z) would be in the range 0.03-0.09 m(exp 2)/s; this is an upper bound on K(sub z).

  17. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and Marine Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analyses of precipitation preserved in glacial ice cores provide a unique opportunity to study changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and ocean surface conditions through time. In this study, we aim to investigate changes in both the physical and biological parameters of the north-central Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea over the twentieth century using the deuterium excess (d-excess) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from the Mt. Hunter ice cores drilled in Denali National Park, Alaska. These parallel, 208 m-long ice cores were drilled to bedrock during the 2013 field season on the Mt. Hunter plateau (63° N, 151° W, 3,900 m above sea level) by a collaborative research team consisting of members from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores were sampled on a continuous melter system at Dartmouth College and analyzed for the concentrations major ions (Dionex IC) and trace metals (Element2 ICPMS), and for stable water isotope ratios (Picarro). The depth-age scale has been accurately dated to 400 AD using annual layer counting of several chemical species and further validated using known historical volcanic eruptions and the Cesium-137 spike associated with nuclear weapons testing in 1963. We use HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling to identify likely source areas of moisture and aerosol MSA being transported to the core site. Satellite imagery allows for a direct comparison between chlorophyll a concentrations in these source areas and MSA concentrations in the core record. Preliminary analysis of chlorophyll a and MSA concentrations, both derived almost exclusively from marine biota, suggest that the Mt. Hunter ice cores reflect changes in North Pacific and Bering Sea marine primary productivity. Analysis of the water isotope and MSA data in conjunction with climate reanalysis products shows significant correlations (psea surface temperatures in the Bering Sea and North Central Pacific. These findings, coupled with

  18. Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: the extended Svalbard Airport temperature series, 1898–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Nordli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the few long instrumental records available for the Arctic is the Svalbard Airport composite series that hitherto began in 1911, with observations made on Spitsbergen, the largest island in the Svalbard Archipelago. This record has now been extended to 1898 with the inclusion of observations made by hunting and scientific expeditions. Temperature has been observed almost continuously in Svalbard since 1898, although at different sites. It has therefore been possible to create one composite series for Svalbard Airport covering the period 1898–2012, and this valuable new record is presented here. The series reveals large temperature variability on Spitsbergen, with the early 20th century warming as one striking feature: an abrupt change from the cold 1910s to the local maxima of the 1930s and 1950s. With the inclusion of the new data it is possible to show that the 1910s were colder than the years at the start of the series. From the 1960s, temperatures have increased, so the present temperature level is significantly higher than at any earlier period in the instrumental history. For the entire period, and for all seasons, there are positive, statistically significant trends. Regarding the annual mean, the total trend is 2.6°C/century, whereas the largest trend is in spring, at 3.9°C/century. In Europe, it is the Svalbard Archipelago that has experienced the greatest temperature increase during the latest three decades. The composite series may be downloaded from the home page of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and should be used with reference to the present article.

  19. Long-term neural recordings using MEMS based moveable microelectrodes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Jackson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical requirements of the emerging class of neural prosthetic devices is to maintain good quality neural recordings over long time periods. We report here a novel (Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems based technology that can move microelectrodes in the event of deterioration in neural signal to sample a new set of neurons. Microscale electro-thermal actuators are used to controllably move microelectrodes post-implantation in steps of approximately 9 µm. In this study, a total of 12 moveable microelectrode chips were individually implanted in adult rats. Two of the 12 moveable microelectrode chips were not moved over a period of 3 weeks and were treated as control experiments. During the first three weeks of implantation, moving the microelectrodes led to an improvement in the average SNR from 14.61 ± 5.21 dB before movement to 18.13 ± 4.99 dB after movement across all microelectrodes and all days. However, the average RMS values of noise amplitudes were similar at 2.98 ± 1.22 µV and 3.01 ± 1.16 µV before and after microelectrode movement. Beyond three weeks, the primary observed failure mode was biological rejection of the PMMA (dental cement based skull mount resulting in the device loosening and eventually falling from the skull. Additionally, the average SNR for functioning devices beyond three weeks was 11.88 ± 2.02 dB before microelectrode movement and was significantly different (p<0.01 from the average SNR of 13.34 ± 0.919 dB after movement. The results of this study demonstrate that MEMS based technologies can move microelectrodes in rodent brains in long-term experiments resulting in improvements in signal quality. Further improvements in packaging and surgical techniques will potentially enable movable microelectrodes to record cortical neuronal activity in chronic experiments.

  20. International Mechanisms to Support Records, Knowledge and Memory Preservation Over the Short and Medium Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Thierry; Andresz, Sylvain; Reaud, Cynthia; Dumont, Jean-Noel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this analysis is to investigate the potential usefulness of mechanisms that have international influence, scope or support and are based on international cooperation, for the preservation of records, knowledge and memory (RK and M) about radioactive waste in the short and medium term. Eleven international mechanisms set up through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC) were analysed following two main objectives: identifying the key characteristics of the organisations coordinating the international mechanisms and analysing the contribution of those mechanisms to the preservation of records, memory and knowledge. This analysis points out that the link with international organisations provides international mechanisms with important technical and administrative support as well as with fora for dialogue. The voluntary involvement of contracting parties to join the individual mechanisms for a common goal and their declaration of adhesion to the objectives constitute the driving force of various international conventions. Nevertheless, the efficacy of these mechanisms can be limited in case of conflict. Most of these mechanisms are based on the recognition of individual and societal rights for protection issues, and entail that each contracting party assumes the mechanism's responsibilities. The mechanisms provide a platform for establishing an 'evolving' convention. The prime objective of the conventions examined in this document lies on economic development, while the international mechanisms associated with them also emphasise the necessity to take into account societal and environmental issues. The link with more general frameworks allows the mobilisation of regular funds. Beyond the funds, it is important to mention that the efficiency also relies on the capacity of the various

  1. Long-term creep modeling of wood using time temperature superposition principle

    OpenAIRE

    Gamalath, Sandhya Samarasinghe

    1991-01-01

    Long-term creep and recovery models (master curves) were developed from short-term data using the time temperature superposition principle (TTSP) for kiln-dried southern pine loaded in compression parallel-to-grain and exposed to constant environmental conditions (~70°F, ~9%EMC). Short-term accelerated creep (17 hour) and recovery (35 hour) data were collected for each specimen at a range of temperature (70°F-150°F) and constant moisture condition of 9%. The compressive stra...

  2. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) at selected coral reef locations across the Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  3. Deriving a sea surface temperature record suitable for climate change research from the along-track scanning radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Saunders, R. W.; Rayner, N. A.; Kent, E. C.; Old, C. P.; Berry, D.; Birks, A. R.; Blackmore, T.; Corlett, G. K.; Embury, O.; Jay, V. L.; Kennedy, J.; Mutlow, C. T.; Nightingale, T. J.; O'Carroll, A. G.; Pritchard, M. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Tett, S.

    We describe the approach to be adopted for a major new initiative to derive a homogeneous record of sea surface temperature for 1991 2007 from the observations of the series of three along-track scanning radiometers (ATSRs). This initiative is called (A)RC: (Advanced) ATSR Re-analysis for Climate. The main objectives are to reduce regional biases in retrieved sea surface temperature (SST) to less than 0.1 K for all global oceans, while creating a very homogenous record that is stable in time to within 0.05 K decade-1, with maximum independence of the record from existing analyses of SST used in climate change research. If these stringent targets are achieved, this record will enable significantly improved estimates of surface temperature trends and variability of sufficient quality to advance questions of climate change attribution, climate sensitivity and historical reconstruction of surface temperature changes. The approach includes development of new, consistent estimators for SST for each of the ATSRs, and detailed analysis of overlap periods. Novel aspects of the approach include generation of multiple versions of the record using alternative channel sets and cloud detection techniques, to assess for the first time the effect of such choices. There will be extensive effort in quality control, validation and analysis of the impact on climate SST data sets. Evidence for the plausibility of the 0.1 K target for systematic error is reviewed, as is the need for alternative cloud screening methods in this context.

  4. A record review of reported musculoskeletal pain in an Ontario long term care facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphreys B Kim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal (MSK pain is one of the leading causes of chronic health problems in people over 65 years of age. Studies suggest that a high prevalence of older adults suffer from MSK pain (65% to 80% and back pain (36% to 40%. The objectives of this study were: 1. To investigate the period prevalence of MSK pain and associated subgroups in residents of a long-term care (LTC facility. 2. To describe clinical features associated with back pain in this population. 3. To identify associations between variables such as age, gender, cognitive status, ambulatory status, analgesic use, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis with back pain in a long-term care facility. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted using a purposive sampling approach of residents' clinical charts from a LTC home in Toronto, Canada. All medical records for LTC residents from January 2003 until March 2005 were eligible for review. However, facility admissions of less than 6 months were excluded from the study to allow for an adequate time period for patient medical assessments and pain reporting/charting to have been completed. Clinical data was abstracted on a standardized form. Variables were chosen based on the literature and their suggested association with back pain and analyzed via multivariate logistic regression. Results 140 (56% charts were selected and reviewed. Sixty-nine percent of the selected residents were female with an average age of 83.7 years (51–101. Residents in the sample had a period pain prevalence of 64% (n = 89 with a 40% prevalence (n = 55 of MSK pain. Of those with a charted report of pain, 6% (n = 5 had head pain, 2% (n = 2 neck pain, 21% (n = 19 back pain, 33% (n = 29 extremity pain and 38% (n = 34 had non-descriptive/unidentified pain complaint. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that osteoporosis was the only significant association with back pain from the variables studied (P = 0.001. Conclusion

  5. Utilizing Crochet to Showcase Temporal Patterns in Temperature Records from One Location and to Spark a Climate Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists that seek to show temperature changes over time will typically select a line graph as the tool for data communication. However, one non-traditional way to showcase variations in data can be through an artistic visualization created with yarn. For several years, amateur and professional artisans have been using needlework (crocheting/knitting) to represent weather/climate records in scarves and blankets, sharing their work in online communities. Since the Sky Scarf project in 2011, a temporal record of data represented in yarn can include precipitation/snowfall to the air quality index. Here is an example of how crochet is being utilized to show maximum air temperature records over time for one location. Maximum daily temperature values have been collected for January through April in Philadelphia in fifty-year intervals (1917, 1967, 2017). This four-month interval was selected to match with the location and timing of a university's spring semester, as the target audience for this particular visualization is undergraduate students. Instead of trying to read differences in temperature across line graphs plotted for each year, three mini-temperature tapestries have been crocheted. A temperature scale has been developed with rainbow colors of yarn, where the purple and blue represent the coldest temperatures, and the orange and red represent the warmest temperatures. By using the same yarn temperature scale across the three mini-tapestries, the increase in daily maximum temperature in Philadelphia for a set time period can quickly and easily be observed. This form of science art, when presented to students, generates a series of questions, stories and predictions of a scientific and personal nature that are not typically part of a climate science instructional unit.

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in American Samoa from 2012-04-08 to 2013-04-03 (NCEI Accession 0162220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in American Samoa from 2012-03-21 to 2015-03-25 (NCEI Accession 0162246)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Marianas Archipelago from 2011-04-09 to 2014-05-06 (NCEI Accession 0162244)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Temperature Data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2013-07-13 to 2016-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0162216)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  10. Short-term PV/T module temperature prediction based on PCA-RBF neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiyong; Zhao, Zhendong; Li, Yisheng; Xiao, Jing; Tang, Yunfeng

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the non-linearity and large inertia of temperature control in PV/T system, short-term temperature prediction of PV/T module is proposed, to make the PV/T system controller run forward according to the short-term forecasting situation to optimize control effect. Based on the analysis of the correlation between PV/T module temperature and meteorological factors, and the temperature of adjacent time series, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is used to pre-process the original input sample data. Combined with the RBF neural network theory, the simulation results show that the PCA method makes the prediction accuracy of the network model higher and the generalization performance stronger than that of the RBF neural network without the main component extraction.

  11. Impact of Electronic Health Records on Long-Term Care Facilities: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Mileski, Michael; Vijaykumar, Alekhya Ganta; Viswanathan, Sneha Vishnampet; Suskandla, Ujwala; Chidambaram, Yazhini

    2017-09-29

    Long-term care (LTC) facilities are an important part of the health care industry, providing care to the fastest-growing group of the population. However, the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) in LTC facilities lags behind other areas of the health care industry. One of the reasons for the lack of widespread adoption in the United States is that LTC facilities are not eligible for incentives under the Meaningful Use program. Implementation of an EHR system in an LTC facility can potentially enhance the quality of care, provided it is appropriately implemented, used, and maintained. Unfortunately, the lag in adoption of the EHR in LTC creates a paucity of literature on the benefits of EHR implementation in LTC facilities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the potential benefits of implementing an EHR system in LTC facilities. The study also aims to identify the common conditions and EHR features that received favorable remarks from providers and the discrepancies that needed improvement to build up momentum across LTC settings in adopting this technology. The authors conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), and MEDLINE databases. Papers were analyzed by multiple referees to filter out studies not germane to our research objective. A final sample of 28 papers was selected to be included in the systematic review. Results of this systematic review conclude that EHRs show significant improvement in the management of documentation in LTC facilities and enhanced quality outcomes. Approximately 43% (12/28) of the papers reported a mixed impact of EHRs on the management of documentation, and 33% (9/28) of papers reported positive quality outcomes using EHRs. Surprisingly, very few papers demonstrated an impact on patient satisfaction, physician satisfaction, the length of stay, and productivity using EHRs. Overall, implementation of EHRs has been found to be effective in the few LTC

  12. Long-Term Memory: A Natural Mechanism for the Clustering of Extreme Events and Anomalous Residual Times in Climate Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, Armin; Eichner, Jan F.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2005-01-01

    We study the statistics of the return intervals between extreme events above a certain threshold in long-term persistent records. We find that the long-term memory leads (i)to a stretched exponential distribution of the return intervals, (ii)to a pronounced clustering of extreme events, and (iii)to an anomalous behavior of the mean residual time to the next event that depends on the history and increases with the elapsed time in a counterintuitive way. We present an analytical scaling approach and demonstrate that all these features can be seen in long climate records. The phenomena should also occur in heartbeat records, Internet traffic, and stock market volatility and have to be taken into account for an efficient risk evaluation.

  13. Long-term sea surface temperature baselines - time series, spatial covariation and implications for biological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Schiedek, D.

    2007-01-01

    to 2 years. These differences suggest that spatial variations in physical oceanographic phenomena and sampling heterogeneities associated with opportunistic sampling could affect perceptions of biological responses to temperature fluctuations. The documentation that the coastally measured temperatures...... questions at large spatial scales, such as the response of species distributions and phenologies to climate change. In this study we investigate the spatial synchrony of long-term sea surface temperatures in the North Sea-Baltic Sea region as measured daily at four coastal sites (Marsdiep, Netherlands...... at coastal sites co-varied strongly with each other and with opportunistically measured offshore temperatures despite separation distances between measuring locations of 20-1200 km. This covariance is probably due to the influence of large-scale atmospheric processes on regional temperatures...

  14. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. Participants 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Main outcome measures Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. Results In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (–0.021°C for every decade, Ptemperature (eg, hypothyroidism: –0.013°C, P=0.01) or higher temperature (eg, cancer: 0.020, Pbody mass index: 0.002 per m/kg2, Ptemperature variation. Despite this, unexplained temperature variation was a significant predictor of subsequent mortality: controlling for all measured factors, an increase of 0.149°C (1 SD of individual temperature in the data) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Conclusions Individuals’ baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. PMID:29237616

  15. Quantitative summer temperature reconstruction derived from a combined biogenic Si and chironomid record from varved sediments of Lake Silvaplana (south-eastern Swiss Alps) back to AD 1177

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, M.; Grosjean, M.; Larocque-Tobler, I.; Schwikowski, M.; Blass, A.; Sturm, M.

    2010-09-01

    High-resolution quantitative temperature records are needed for placing the recent warming into the context of long-term natural climate variability. In this study we present a quantitative high-resolution (9-year) summer (June-August) temperature reconstruction back to AD 1177 for the south-eastern Swiss Alps. This region is a good predictor for summer temperatures in large parts of western and central Europe. Our reconstruction is based on a combination of the high-frequency component of annually resolved biogenic silica (bSi flux) data and the low-frequency component of decadal chironomid-inferred temperatures from annually laminated well dated sediments (varves) from proglacial Lake Silvaplana, eastern Swiss Alps. For the calibration (period AD 1760-1949) we assess systematically the effects of six different regression methods (Type I regressions: Inverse Regression IR, Inverse Prediction IP, Generalised Least Squares GLS; Type II regressions: Major Axis MA, Ranged Major Axis RMA and Standard Major Axis SMA) with regard to the predicted amplitude and the calibration statistics such as root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP), reduction of error (RE) and coefficient of efficiency (CE). We found a trade-off in the regression model choice between a good representation of the amplitude and good calibration statistics. The band-pass filtered bSi flux record is in close agreement both in the structure and the amplitude with two fully independent reconstructions spanning back to AD 1500 and AD 1177, respectively. All known pulses of negative volcanic forcing are represented as cold anomalies in the bSi flux record. Volcanic pulses combined with low solar activity (Spörer and Maunder Minimum) are seen as particularly cold episodes around AD 1460 and AD 1690. The combined chironomid and bSi flux temperature record (RMSEP = 0.57 °C) is in good agreement with the glacier history of the Alps. The warmest (AD 1190) and coldest decades (17th century; 1680-1700) of our

  16. Long-term, high frequency in situ measurements of intertidal mussel bed temperatures using biomimetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Brian; Choi, Francis; Matzelle, Allison; Torossian, Jessica L.; Morello, Scott L.; Mislan, K.A.S.; Yamane, Lauren; Strickland, Denise; Szathmary, P. Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E.; Tockstein, Alyson; Hilbish, Thomas J.; Burrows, Michael T.; Power, Anne Marie; Gosling, Elizabeth; Mieszkowska, Nova; Harley, Christopher D.G.; Nishizaki, Michael; Carrington, Emily; Menge, Bruce; Petes, Laura; Foley, Melissa M.; Johnson, Angela; Poole, Megan; Noble, Mae M.; Richmond, Erin L.; Robart, Matt; Robinson, Jonathan; Sapp, Jerod; Sones, Jackie; Broitman, Bernardo R.; Denny, Mark W.; Mach, Katharine J.; Miller, Luke P.; O’Donnell, Michael; Ross, Philip; Hofmann, Gretchen E.; Zippay, Mackenzie; Blanchette, Carol; Macfarlan, J.A.; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio; Ruttenberg, Benjamin; Peña Mejía, Carlos E.; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Lathlean, Justin; Monaco, Cristián J.; Nicastro, Katy R.; Zardi, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics of intertidal mussels at 71 sites worldwide, from 1998-present. Loggers recorded temperatures at 10–30 min intervals nearly continuously at multiple intertidal elevations. Comparisons against direct measurements of mussel tissue temperature indicated errors of ~2.0–2.5 °C, during daily fluctuations that often exceeded 15°–20 °C. Geographic patterns in thermal stress based on biomimetic logger measurements were generally far more complex than anticipated based only on ‘habitat-level’ measurements of air or sea surface temperature. This unique data set provides an opportunity to link physiological measurements with spatially- and temporally-explicit field observations of body temperature. PMID:27727238

  17. Influence of the design temperature on long-term safety of a salt dome repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhmann, D.; Brenner, J.; Storck, R.

    1993-03-01

    All studies made so far within the framwork of the mixed concept system analysis proceeded from a design temperature of the mine structure of 200 C. The concept based on a design temperature of 150 C was aimed at studying whether it made sense to maintain lower temperatures, if necessary. Deterministic and probabilistic calculations were made in order to determine the influence of the lower design temperature on long-term safety. The calculations were based on concept A of Joint Borehole and Gallery Storage. Assuming reference values of the input parameters, the deterministic calculations do not produce any radionuclide release from the mine structure. If, however, one assumes a lower rate for rock convergence, radionuclides are released at maximum dose rates of about 3.10 -5 Sv/a. Even a larger volume of limited brine inclusions may lead to radionuclide releases, in that case with dose commitments of the order of magnitude of 1.10 -5 Sv/a. The probabilistic calculations show that a design temperature of 150 C for long-term safety is less favourable than a higher design temperature. The share of simulations in the probabilistic calculations with a radionuclide release, and the expected value of dose commitment, are almost double as high as in the concept based on 200 C design temperature. Thus a higher design temperature is preferable with regard to the long-term safety of a salt repository. The most important parameters concerning dose commitment are the volume of limited brine inclusions, the convergence rate, and the permeability of barriers and backfilling rock. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Long-term cyclicities in Phanerozoic sea-level sedimentary record and their potential drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Slah; Laskar, Jacques; Haq, Bilal U.; Galbrun, Bruno; Hara, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    Cyclic sedimentation has varied at several timescales and this variability has been geologically well documented at Milankovitch timescales, controlled in part by climatically (insolation) driven sea-level changes. At the longer (tens of Myr) timescales connection between astronomical parameters and sedimentation via cyclic solar-system motions within the Milky Way has also been proposed, but this hypothesis remains controversial because of the lack of long geological records. In addition, the absence of a meaningful physical mechanism that could explain the connection between climate and astronomy at these longer timescales led to the more plausible explanation of plate motions as the main driver of climate and sedimentation through changes in ocean and continent mass distribution on Earth. Here we statistically show a prominent and persistent 36 Myr sedimentary cyclicity superimposed on two megacycles ( 250 Myr) in a relatively well-constrained sea-level (SL) record of the past 542 Myr (Phanerozoic eon). We also show two other significant 9.3 and 91 Myr periodicities, but with lower amplitudes. The 9.3 Myr cyclicity was previously attributed to long-period Milankovitch band based on the Cenozoic record. However, the 91 Myr cyclicity has never been observed before in the geologic record. The 250 Myr cyclicity was attributed to the Wilson tectonic (supercontinent) cycle. The 36 Myr periodicity, also detected for the first time in SL record, has previously been ascribed either to tectonics or to astronomical cyclicity. Given the possible link between amplitudes of the 36 and 250 Myr cyclicities in SL record and the potential that these periodicities fall into the frequency band of solar system motions, we suggest an astronomical origin, and model these periodicities as originating from the path of the solar system in the Milky Way as vertical and radial periods that modulate the flux of cosmic rays on Earth. Our finding of the 36 Myr SL cyclicity lends credibility

  19. Fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in the western Atlantic coral Siderastrea siderea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Roberts, Kelsey E.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Richey, Julie N.

    2017-01-01

    Massive corals provide a useful archive of environmental variability, but careful testing of geochemical proxies in corals is necessary to validate the relationship between each proxy and environmental parameter throughout the full range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. Here we use samples from a coral-growth study to test the hypothesis that Sr/Ca in the coral Siderastrea siderea accurately records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the subtropics (Florida, USA) along 350 km of reef tract. We test calcification rate, measured via buoyant weight, and linear extension (LE) rate, estimated with Alizarin Red-S staining, as predictors of variance in the Sr/Ca records of 39 individual S. siderea corals grown at four outer-reef locations next to in-situ temperature loggers during two, year-long periods. We found that corals with calcification rates corals that passed this quality control step, the Sr/Ca-SST proxy performed well in estimating mean annual temperature across three sites spanning 350 km of the Florida reef tract. However, there was some evidence that extreme temperature stress in 2010 (cold snap) and 2011 (SST above coral-bleaching threshold) may have caused the corals not to record the temperature extremes. Known stress events could be avoided during modern calibrations of paleoproxies.Plain Language SummaryCoral skeletons are used to decipher past environmental conditions in the ocean because they live for centuries and produce annual growth bands much like tree rings. Along with measuring coral growth rates in the past, coral skeletons can be chemically sampled to get even more detailed information, like past seawater temperatures. In this study we tested the validity of the strontium-to-calcium (Sr/Ca) temperature proxy in the Massive Starlet Coral (Siderastrea siderea) by sampling 39 corals that were grown in the ocean right next to instruments recording underwater temperature. We found that, as long as corals with very slow growth

  20. Effects of long-term high temperature exposure on the microstructure of Haynes alloy 230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veverkova, J.; Strang, A.; Atkinson, H.V. [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering; Marchant, G.R. [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Haynes Alloy 230 was specifically designed to have excellent long-term thermal stability and resistance to the precipitation of damaging phases. This paper describes in detail studies on the effects of long-term high temperature exposure on the hardness, microstructural changes and tensile properties of thermally exposed samples of Haynes Alloy 230. The samples from the 2mm thick sheet material have been investigated using X-Ray diffraction and advanced electron microscopy techniques (FEGSEM, TEM etc.). The evolution of the precipitating phases was monitored across a wide range of temperatures (from 500 C to 1170 C) and durations (from 24 hours up to 30000 hours) and several key phases have been identified. In addition to the primary W-rich carbide and the precipitation of Cr-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, a new brittle phase/carbide was observed within the microstructure at the highest exposure temperatures (above 930 C). (orig.)

  1. A simple device for long-term radar cross section recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ruoskanen, Jukka; Peltonen, Jouni

    2009-05-01

    A sample and hold circuit with settable delay can be used for recording of radar echo amplitude variations having time scales up to 100 s at the selected range bin in systems utilizing short rf pulses. The design is based on two integrated circuits and gives 1% uncertainty for 70 ns pulses. The key benefit is a real-time display of lengthy amplitude variations because the sample rate is defined by the radar pulse repetition frequency. Additionally we get a reduction in file size at least by the inverse of the radar's duty cycle. Examples of 10 and 100 s recordings with a Ka-band short pulse radar are described.

  2. A 900-year pollen-inferred temperature and effective moisture record from varved Lake Mina, west-central Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Cumming, Brian F.; Smol, John P.

    2008-04-01

    Drought is endemic to the North American Great Plains, causing severe economic consequences. However, instrumental climate data only exist from ca AD 1890, and limited tree-ring, paleolimnological, archeological and eolian records document the last two millennia. To address this lack of monitoring and paleoclimatic data, the pollen preserved in the varved sediments of Lake Mina, Minnesota, on the northeastern border of the Great Plains, were analyzed. May and February mean monthly temperatures and "annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration" were reconstructed at a 4-year resolution using a pre-settlement pollen-climate calibration set. The period of the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) (AD 1500-1870) was colder than the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (AD 1100-1500) in west-central Minnesota. Winter temperatures in the LIA declined more than summer ones. The pollen record suggests that the LIA occurred in three phases: an initial cold phase from AD 1505 to AD 1575, a warmer phase, and then a very cold phase from AD 1625 to AD 1775. There were severe droughts detected in the Lake Mina record from AD 1660 to AD 1710 and AD 1300 to AD 1400, suggesting that high-resolution pollen records can detect events previously defined from the tree-ring records. This latter century-scale drought is concurrent with the widely reported "AD 1250-1400 mega-drought", which exceeds the severity of 20th century droughts.

  3. A Predictive Model to Classify Undifferentiated Fever Cases Based on Twenty-Four-Hour Continuous Tympanic Temperature Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa H. Dakappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of undifferentiated fever is a major challenging task to the physician which often remains undiagnosed and delays the treatment. The aim of the study was to record and analyze a 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature and evaluate its utility in the diagnosis of undifferentiated fevers. This was an observational study conducted in the Kasturba Medical College and Hospitals, Mangaluru, India. A total of ninety-six (n=96 patients were presented with undifferentiated fever. Their tympanic temperature was recorded continuously for 24 hours. Temperature data were preprocessed and various signal characteristic features were extracted and trained in classification machine learning algorithms using MATLAB software. The quadratic support vector machine algorithm yielded an overall accuracy of 71.9% in differentiating the fevers into four major categories, namely, tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases. The area under ROC curve for tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases was found to be 0.961, 0.801, 0.815, and 0.818, respectively. Good agreement was observed [kappa = 0.618 (p<0.001, 95% CI (0.498–0.737] between the actual diagnosis of cases and the quadratic support vector machine learning algorithm. The 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature recording with supervised machine learning algorithm appears to be a promising noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool.

  4. Long-term variations of fumarole temperatures on Vulcano Island (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Serena Diliberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fumarole temperatures are the ultimate results of many processes that are encountered by deep fluids during their passage to the surface. Here, the time variations of high-temperature fumaroles acquired by continuous monitoring are presented, to show the effects of the forces that act on the system. Data acquired by continuous monitoring of fumaroles and the time relationships with the different parameters related to the activity of the volcanic system are discussed. From 1998 to 2010, the temperature and compositional changes of fumarolic gases were monitored at the same time as variations in the number of volcano-seismic events, which indicate frequent variations of energy release (heat and mass flow, and seismic strain release. Geochemical modeling applied to the volcanic system of Vulcano Island suggests that the overall expansion of magmatic gas through the fractured system is an almost iso-enthalpic process at depth, which shifts to an adiabatic process at shallow depth, where the rock permeability increases. Thus, the time variations of the fumarole temperatures reflect various physical variations of the system that can either occur at depth or close to the surface. The temperature monitoring performed in the fumarolic area of La Fossa Cone showed short-term effects related to rain events, and negligible effects related to other external agents (ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. At the same time, the long-term monitoring highlighted some mean-term and long-term variations. These last are the main characters observed in the time-series, and they both appear to be related to endogenous forces that perturb the equilibrium of this complex geochemical system.

  5. Individual differences in normal body temperature: longitudinal big data analysis of patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Samra, Jasmeet K; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2017-12-13

    To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. Observational cohort study. Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors. Baseline temperatures were correlated with demographics, medical comorbidities, vital signs, and subsequent one year mortality. In a diverse cohort of 35 488 patients (mean age 52.9 years, 64% women, 41% non-white race) with 243 506 temperature measurements, mean temperature was 36.6°C (95% range 35.7-37.3°C, 99% range 35.3-37.7°C). Several demographic factors were linked to individual level temperature, with older people the coolest (-0.021°C for every decade, Pdata) was linked to 8.4% higher one year mortality (P=0.014). Individuals' baseline temperatures showed meaningful variation that was not due solely to measurement error or environmental factors. Baseline temperatures correlated with demographics, comorbid conditions, and physiology, but these factors explained only a small part of individual temperature variation. Unexplained variation in baseline temperature, however, strongly predicted mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Short-Term City Electric Load Forecasting with Considering Temperature Effects: An Improved ARIMAX Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herui Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term electric load is significantly affected by weather, especially the temperature effects in summer. External factors can result in mutation structures in load data. Under the influence of the external temperature factors, city electric load cannot be easily forecasted as usual. This research analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily temperature in city. An improved ARIMAX model is proposed in this paper to deal with the mutation data structures. It is found that information amount of the improved ARIMAX model is smaller than that of the classic method and its relative error is less than AR, ARMA and Sigmoid-Function ANN models. The forecasting results are more accurately fitted. This improved model is highly valuable when dealing with mutation data structure in the field of load forecasting. And it is also an effective technique in forecasting electric load with temperature effects.

  7. Sea Surface Temperature Records from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlow, C. T.; Smith, D. L.; Delderfield, J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.

    2006-12-01

    's Envisat platform. AATSR has been largely funded by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in recognition of the need to provide continuity of the ATSR sea surface temperature (SST) data record for climate studies. Overlaps of the ATSR-1 and ATSR-2 missions, and subsequently ATSR-2 and AATSR have allowed cross- calibration between the sensors. A continuous archive of over 15 years of SST data from the ATSR instruments is being prepared and due for release in 2007. Further sensors based on the ATSR concept are being planned to continue this high quality dataset. Data will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of these novel sensors and the high quality of the data sets that are produced.

  8. Paris and its long-term temperature goal: First steps on a long road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a means to achieve its long-term temperature goal, the Paris Agreement put in place a system of regularly updated country pledges alternating with global stocktaking exercises that assess progress towards achieving the Paris goals. By now, the vast majority of countries have submitted their intended actions (also known as Nationally Determined Contributions - NDCs). This begs the question what these amount to and whether they are in line with the agreement`s long-term temperature goal. A structured sensitivity analysis of the emissions implications of the Paris pledges has been carried out, showing that the ambiguity and imprecision of the NDCs leaves open a wide range of possible outcomes by 2030. This range has important implications for the feasibility and cost of pathways that attempt to limit warming to the temperature goals of the Agreement. We identify salient steps to reduce the overall uncertainty, and explore the minimum requirements that have to be met for integrated energy-economy-land models to still find options to stay within the temperature limits of the Paris Agreement. These requirements come under the form of near-term emissions reductions, and assumptions about the deployment of carbon-dioxide removal technologies in the second half of the century.

  9. Calibration Uncertainty in Ocean Color Satellite Sensors and Trends in Long-term Environmental Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Franz, Bryan A.; Del Castillo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Launched in late 2011, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft is being evaluated by NASA to determine whether this sensor can continue the ocean color data record established through the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). To this end, Goddard Space Flight Center generated evaluation ocean color data products using calibration techniques and algorithms established by NASA during the SeaWiFS and MODIS missions. The calibration trending was subjected to some initial sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Here we present an introductory assessment of how the NASA-produced time series of ocean color is influenced by uncertainty in trending instrument response over time. The results help quantify the uncertainty in measuring regional and global biospheric trends in the ocean using satellite remote sensing, which better define the roles of such records in climate research.

  10. Test plan for long-term, low-temperature oxidation of spent fuel, Series 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.

    1986-06-01

    Preliminary studies indicated the need for more spent fuel oxidation data in order to determine the probable behavior of spent fuel in a tuff repository. Long-term, low-temperature testing was recommended in a comprehensive technical approach to: (1) confirm the findings of the short-term thermogravimetric analyses scoping experiments; (2) evaluate the effects of variables such as burnup, atmospheric moisture and fuel type on the oxidation rate; and (3) extend the oxidation data base ot representative repository temperatures and better define the temperature dependence of the operative oxidation mechanisms. This document presents the Series 1 test plan to study, on a large number of samples, the effects of atmospheric moisture and temperature on oxidation rate and phase formation. Tests will run for up to two years, use characterized fragmented, and pulverized fuel samples, cover a temperature range of 110 0 C to 175 0 C and be conducted with an atmospheric moisture content rangeing from 0 C to approx. 80 0 C dew point. After testing, the samples will be examined and made available for leaching testing

  11. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) sensors onboard nine polar orbiting satellites...

  12. Northern European summer temperature variations over the Common Era from integrated tree-ring density records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esper, J.; Düthorn, E.; Krusic, P. J.; Timonen, M.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2014), s. 487-494 ISSN 0267-8179 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dendrochronology * Finland * late holocene * Sweden * temperature reconstruction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.357, year: 2014

  13. NOAA Climate Data Record for Mean Layer Temperature (Upper Troposphere & Lower Stratosphere) from UCAR, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Temperatures of Troposphere / Stratosphere (TTS) (AMSU channel 7 and MSU channel 3) CDR is generated by using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  14. NOAA Climate Data Record for Mean Layer Temperature (Lower Stratosphere) from UCAR, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Temperatures in the Lower Stratosphere (TLS) (AMSU channel 9 and MSU channel 4) CDR is generated by using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  15. Testing the fidelity of the Sr/Ca proxy in recording ocean temperature in a western Atlantic coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, I. B.; Roberts, K.; Flannery, J. A.; Richey, J. N.; Morrison, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Massive corals provide a useful archive of environmental variability, but careful testing of geochemical proxies in corals is necessary to validate the relationship between each proxy and environmental parameter throughout the full range of conditions experienced by the recording organisms. Here we use samples from a field-based coral-growth study to test the hypothesis that Sr/Ca in the coral Siderastrea siderea accurately records sea-surface temperature (SST) in the subtropics (Florida, USA) along 350 km of reef tract. We test calcification rate, measured via buoyant weight, and linear extension (LE) rate, estimated with Alizarin Red-S staining, as predictors of variance in the Sr/Ca records of 39 individual S. siderea corals grown at four outer-reef locations next to in-situ temperature loggers during two, year-long periods. We found that corals with calcification rates less than 1.7 mg cm-2 d-1 or LE rates less than 1.7 mm yr-1 returned spuriously high Sr/Ca values, leading to a cold bias in Sr/Ca-based SST estimates. The threshold-type response curves suggest that LE rate can be used as a quality-control indicator during sample and microdrill-path selection when using long cores for SST paleoreconstruction. For our corals that passed this quality control step, the Sr/Ca-SST proxy performed well in estimating mean annual SST across three sites spanning 350 km of the Florida reef tract. However, there was some evidence that extreme temperature stress in 2010 (cold snap) and 2011 (SST above coral-bleaching threshold) may have caused the corals not to record the temperature extremes. Known stress events could be avoided during modern calibrations of paleoproxies.

  16. Big Jump of Record Warm Global Mean Surface Temperature in 2014-2016 Related to Unusually Large Oceanic Heat Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianjun; Overpeck, Jonathan; Peyser, Cheryl; Stouffer, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    A 0.24°C jump of record warm global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the past three consecutive record-breaking years (2014-2016) was highly unusual and largely a consequence of an El Niño that released unusually large amounts of ocean heat from the subsurface layer of the northwestern tropical Pacific. This heat had built up since the 1990s mainly due to greenhouse-gas (GHG) forcing and possible remote oceanic effects. Model simulations and projections suggest that the fundamental cause, and robust predictor of large record-breaking events of GMST in the 21st century, is GHG forcing rather than internal climate variability alone. Such events will increase in frequency, magnitude, and duration, as well as impact, in the future unless GHG forcing is reduced.

  17. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  18. Consideration of emergency source terms for pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Liu; Jun, Zhao; Jiejuan, Tong; Jianzhu, Cao

    2009-01-01

    Being the last barrier in the nuclear power plant defense-in-depth strategy, emergency planning (EP) is an integrated project. One of the key elements in this process is emergency source terms selection. Emergency Source terms for light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) have been introduced in many technical documents, and advanced NPP emergency planning is attracting attention recently. Commercial practices of advanced NPP are undergoing in the world, pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant is under construction in China which is considered as a representative of advanced NPP. The paper tries to find some pieces of suggestion from our investigation. The discussion of advanced NPP EP will be summarized first, and then the characteristics of pebble-bed HTGR relating to EP will be described. Finally, PSA insights on emergency source terms selection and current pebble-bed HTGR emergency source terms suggestions are proposed

  19. Global temperature definition affects achievement of long-term climate goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; Cowtan, Kevin; Millar, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    The Paris Agreement on climate change aims to limit ‘global average temperature’ rise to ‘well below 2 °C’ but reported temperature depends on choices about how to blend air and water temperature data, handle changes in sea ice and account for regions with missing data. Here we use CMIP5 climate model simulations to estimate how these choices affect reported warming and carbon budgets consistent with the Paris Agreement. By the 2090s, under a low-emissions scenario, modelled global near-surface air temperature rise is 15% higher (5%–95% range 6%–21%) than that estimated by an approach similar to the HadCRUT4 observational record. The difference reduces to 8% with global data coverage, or 4% with additional removal of a bias associated with changing sea-ice cover. Comparison of observational datasets with different data sources or infilling techniques supports our model results regarding incomplete coverage. From high-emission simulations, we find that a HadCRUT4 like definition means higher carbon budgets and later exceedance of temperature thresholds, relative to global near-surface air temperature. 2 °C warming is delayed by seven years on average, to 2048 (2035–2060), and CO2 emissions budget for a >50% chance of <2 °C warming increases by 67 GtC (246 GtCO2).

  20. Resource specialists lead local insect community turnover associated with temperature - analysis of an 18-year full-seasonal record of moths and beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Pedersen, Jan; Riis-Nielsen, Torben; Jonko, Krzysztof; Słowińska, Iwona; Rahbek, Carsten; Karsholt, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Insect responses to recent climate change are well documented, but the role of resource specialization in determining species vulnerability remains poorly understood. Uncovering local ecological effects of temperature change with high-quality, standardized data provides an important first opportunity for predictions about responses of resource specialists, and long-term time series are essential in revealing these responses. Here, we investigate temperature-related changes in local insect communities, using a sampling site with more than a quarter-million records from two decades (1992-2009) of full-season, quantitative light trapping of 1543 species of moths and beetles. We investigated annual as well as long-term changes in fauna composition, abundance and phenology in a climate-related context using species temperature affinities and local temperature data. Finally, we explored these local changes in the context of dietary specialization. Across both moths and beetles, temperature affinity of specialists increased through net gain of hot-dwelling species and net loss of cold-dwelling species. The climate-related composition of generalists remained constant over time. We observed an increase in species richness of both groups. Furthermore, we observed divergent phenological responses between cold- and hot-dwelling species, advancing and delaying their relative abundance, respectively. Phenological advances were particularly pronounced in cold-adapted specialists. Our results suggest an important role of resource specialization in explaining the compositional and phenological responses of insect communities to local temperature increases. We propose that resource specialists in particular are affected by local temperature increase, leading to the distinct temperature-mediated turnover seen for this group. We suggest that the observed increase in species number could have been facilitated by dissimilar utilization of an expanded growing season by cold- and hot

  1. Water temperature data from Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) deployed at coral reef sites in Batangas, Philippines from 2012-03-13 to 2015-05-28 (NCEI Accession 0163746)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data were collected by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) deployed at fixed climate survey...

  2. High Arctic Holocene temperature record from the Agassiz ice cap and Greenland ice sheet evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S; Fisher, David A; Milne, Glenn A; Vinther, Bo M; Tarasov, Lev; Huybrechts, Philippe; Lacelle, Denis; Main, Brittany; Zheng, James; Bourgeois, Jocelyne; Dyke, Arthur S

    2017-06-06

    We present a revised and extended high Arctic air temperature reconstruction from a single proxy that spans the past ∼12,000 y (up to 2009 CE). Our reconstruction from the Agassiz ice cap (Ellesmere Island, Canada) indicates an earlier and warmer Holocene thermal maximum with early Holocene temperatures that are 4-5 °C warmer compared with a previous reconstruction, and regularly exceed contemporary values for a period of ∼3,000 y. Our results show that air temperatures in this region are now at their warmest in the past 6,800-7,800 y, and that the recent rate of temperature change is unprecedented over the entire Holocene. The warmer early Holocene inferred from the Agassiz ice core leads to an estimated ∼1 km of ice thinning in northwest Greenland during the early Holocene using the Camp Century ice core. Ice modeling results show that this large thinning is consistent with our air temperature reconstruction. The modeling results also demonstrate the broader significance of the enhanced warming, with a retreat of the northern ice margin behind its present position in the mid Holocene and a ∼25% increase in total Greenland ice sheet mass loss (∼1.4 m sea-level equivalent) during the last deglaciation, both of which have implications for interpreting geodetic measurements of land uplift and gravity changes in northern Greenland.

  3. A protocol improves GP recording of long-term sickness absence risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Paul C. M.; Hogervorst, Wouter; ter Riet, Gerben; van Dijk, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background If general practitioners (GPs) were better informed about patients' risks of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), they could incorporate these risk assessments into their patient management plans and cooperate more with occupational physicians to prevent LTSA. Aim To evaluate the

  4. The relationship of long term global temperature change and human fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Harry; Andrews, Howard F; Fisch, Karen S; Golden, Robert; Liberson, Gary; Olsson, Carl A

    2003-07-01

    According to the United Nations, global fertility has declined in the last century as reflected by a decline in birth rates. The earth's surface air temperature has increased considerably and is referred to as global warming. Since changes in temperature are well known to influence fertility we sought to determine if a statistical relationship exists between long-term changes in global air temperatures and birth rates. The most complete and reliable birth rate data in the 20th century was available in 19 industrialized countries. Using bivariate and multiple regression analysis, we compared yearly birth rates from these countries to global air temperatures from 1900 to 1994.A common pattern of change in birth rates was noted for the 19 industrialized countries studied. In general, birth rates declined markedly throughout the century except during the baby boom period of approximately 1940 to 1964. An inverse relationship was found between changes in global temperatures and birth rates in all 19 countries. Controlling for the linear yearly decline in birth rates over time, this relationship remained statistically significant for all the 19 countries in aggregate and in seven countries individually (phuman fertility may have been influenced by change in environmental temperatures.

  5. Long-term seismicity of the Reykjanes Ridge (North Atlantic) recorded by a regional hydrophone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goslin, Jean; Lourenço, Nuno; Dziak, Robert P.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Haxel, Joe; Luis, Joaquim

    2005-08-01

    The seismicity of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge was recorded by two hydrophone networks moored in the sound fixing and ranging (SOFAR) channel, on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, north and south of the Azores. During its period of operation (05/2002-09/2003), the northern `SIRENA' network, deployed between latitudes 40° 20'N and 50° 30'N, recorded acoustic signals generated by 809 earthquakes on the hotspot-influenced Reykjanes Ridge. This activity was distributed between five spatio-temporal event clusters, each initiated by a moderate-to-large magnitude (4.0-5.6 M) earthquake. The rate of earthquake occurrence within the initial portion of the largest sequence (which began on 2002 October 6) is described adequately by a modified Omori law aftershock model. Although this is consistent with triggering by tectonic processes, none of the Reykjanes Ridge sequences are dominated by a single large-magnitude earthquake, and they appear to be of relatively short duration (0.35-4.5 d) when compared to previously described mid-ocean ridge aftershock sequences. The occurrence of several near-equal magnitude events distributed throughout each sequence is inconsistent with the simple relaxation of mainshock-induced stresses and may reflect the involvement of magmatic or fluid processes along this deep (>2000 m) section of the Reykjanes Ridge.

  6. Data Acquisition for Low-Temperature Geothermal Well Tests and Long-Term Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1992-03-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  7. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  8. Long term evolution of temperature in the venus upper atmosphere at the evening and morning terminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, P.; Sornig, M.; Wischnewski, C.; Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Herrmann, M.; Sonnabend, G.; Stangier, T.; Wiegand, M.; Pätzold, M.; Mahieux, A.; Vandaele, A. C.; Piccialli, A.; Montmessin, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper contains a comprehensive dataset of long-term observations between 2009 and 2015 at the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere providing temperature values at different locations of the morning and evening side of the terminator of Venus. Temperature information is obtained by line-resolved spectroscopy of Doppler broadened CO2 transitions features. Results are restricted to a pressure level of 1 μbar, ∼110 km altitude due the nature of the addressed non-LTE CO2 emission line at 10 μm. The required high spectral resolution of the instrumentation is provided by the ground-based spectrometers THIS (University of Cologne) and HIPWAC (NASA GSFC). For the first time upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere temperatures at the Venusian terminator derived from IR-het spectroscopy between 2009 and 2015 are investigated in order to clarify the local-time dependences, latitudinal dependences and the long-term trend. Measured temperatures were distributed in the range between 140 K and 240 K, with mean values equal to 199 K ± 17 K for the morning side of the terminator and 195 K ± 19 K for the evening side of the terminator. Within the uncertainty no difference between the averaged morning and evening terminator side temperature is found. In addition, no strong latitudinal dependency is observed at these near terminator local times. In contrast IR-het data from 2009 show a strong latitudinal dependency at noon, with a temperature difference of around 60 K between the equatorial and polar region (Sonnabend et al., 2012). Accord with the instruments of the Venus Express mission a northern-southern hemispherical symmetry is observed (Mahieux et al., 2012; Piccialli et al., 2015). The data shows no consistent long-term temperature trend throughout the six years of observation, but a variability in the order of tens of Kelvin for the different observing runs representing a time step of few month to two years. This is about the same order of magnitude as the variability

  9. Dual temperature effects on oxygen isotopic ratio of shallow-water coral skeleton: Consequences on seasonal and interannual records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2009-04-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratio from coral skeleton is regarded for a long time as promising climate archives at seasonal scale. Although in isotopic disequilibrium relative to seawater, it is supposed to obey to the isotope thermometer. Indeed, coral oxygen isotopic records are strongly temperature dependent, but d18O-temperature calibrations derived from different corals are highly variable. The isotope thermometer assumption does not take into account vital effects due to biogenic origin of the mineral. Corals are animals living in symbiosis with algae (zooxanthellae). Interactions between symbiont photosynthesis and coral skeleton carbonation have been abundantly observed but they remain poorly understood and the effects of photosynthesis on coral growth and skeleton oxygen ratio are ignored. Coral cultured under two light conditions enabled to relate metabolic parameters and oxygen isotopic variability with photosynthetic activity. By examining responses provided by each colony they revealed that photosynthesis significantly affected d18O, by an opposite sense compared with the sole temperature influence. Since temperature and light changes are associated during seasonal variations, this complicates the interpretation of seasonal record. Additionally, this complexity is amplified because photosynthetic activity is also directly impacted by temperature variability. Thus, the annual isotopic amplitude due to the "physical" temperature influence is partly compensated through photosynthesis. Similar opposite effect is also shown by extension rate of the cultured colonies. First, we will examine and quantify consequences of photosynthesis on growth rate and oxygen isotopic signature, from cultured corals. Second, we will consider the consequences of this vital effect on data series, at seasonal and interannual time scales.

  10. Effects of short-term variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christian; Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Brakebusch, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Effects of the short-term temporal variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in northern high-latitude regions have been investigated. For this, a process-oriented land surface model has been driven using an artificially manipulated climate dataset. Short-term climate variability mainly impacts snow depth, and the thermal diffusivity of lichens and bryophytes. These impacts of climate variability on insulating surface layers together substantially alter the heat exchange between atmosphere and soil. As a result, soil temperature is 0.1 to 0.8 °C higher when climate variability is reduced. Earth system models project warming of the Arctic region but also increasing variability of meteorological variables and more often extreme meteorological events. Therefore, our results show that projected future increases in permafrost temperature and active-layer thickness in response to climate change will be lower (i) when taking into account future changes in short-term variability of meteorological variables and (ii) when representing dynamic snow and lichen and bryophyte functions in land surface models.

  11. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (Ptemperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  12. Short-term acclimation to warmer temperatures accelerates leaf carbon exchange processes across plant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2017-11-01

    While temperature responses of photosynthesis and plant respiration are known to acclimate over time in many species, few studies have been designed to directly compare process-level differences in acclimation capacity among plant types. We assessed short-term (7 day) temperature acclimation of the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V cmax ), the maximum rate of electron transport (J max ), the maximum rate of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase carboxylation (V pmax ), and foliar dark respiration (R d ) in 22 plant species that varied in lifespan (annual and perennial), photosynthetic pathway (C 3 and C 4 ), and climate of origin (tropical and nontropical) grown under fertilized, well-watered conditions. In general, acclimation to warmer temperatures increased the rate of each process. The relative increase in different photosynthetic processes varied by plant type, with C 3 species tending to preferentially accelerate CO 2 -limited photosynthetic processes and respiration and C 4 species tending to preferentially accelerate light-limited photosynthetic processes under warmer conditions. R d acclimation to warmer temperatures caused a reduction in temperature sensitivity that resulted in slower rates at high leaf temperatures. R d acclimation was similar across plant types. These results suggest that temperature acclimation of the biochemical processes that underlie plant carbon exchange is common across different plant types, but that acclimation to warmer temperatures tends to have a relatively greater positive effect on the processes most limiting to carbon assimilation, which differ by plant type. The acclimation responses observed here suggest that warmer conditions should lead to increased rates of carbon assimilation when water and nutrients are not limiting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Long-term monitoring of temperature in the subsoil using Fiber Optic Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Kusnahadi; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Gance, Julien; Marc, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring changes in soil water content in the vadose zone of soils is a great importance for various hydrological, agronomical, ecological and environmental studies. By using soil temperature measurements with Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS), we can indirectly document soil water changes at high spatial and temporal frequency. In this research, we installed an observatory of soil temperature on a representative black marl slope of the long-term Draix-Bléone hydrological observatory (South French Alps, Réseau de Basins-Versants / RBV). A 350 m long reinforced fiber optic cable was buried at 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 m of depths and installed at the soil surface. The total length of the monitored profile is 60 m, and it three different soil units consisting of argillaceous weathered black marls, silty colluvium under grass and silty colluvium under forest. Soil temperature is measured every 6 minutes at a spatial resolution of 0.50 m using a double-ended configuration. Both passive and active (heating of the FO) is used to document soil water changes. We present the analysis of a period of 6 months of temperature measurements (January-July 2016). Changes in soil temperature at various temporal scales (rainfall event, season) and for the three units are discussed. These changes indicate different processes of water infiltration at different velocities in relation to the presence of roots and the soil permeability. We further test several inversion strategies to estimate soil water content from the thermal diffusivity of the soils using simple and more complex thermal models. Some limitations of using this indirect technique for long-term monitoring are also presented. The work is supported by the research project HYDROSLIDE and the large infrastructure project CRITEX funded by the French Research Agency (ANR).

  14. The continuous plankton recorder survey: A long-term, basin-scale oceanic time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John C.; Hunt, Harold G.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1920s, before the advent of echo sounders, fishery biologists were greatly concerned with assisting the fisherman to locate schools of pelagic fish. One of the approaches they developed was to relate the distribution of the planktonic food organisms to the presence of the schools of predators such as herring (Clupea harengus). The British planktologist, Alister Hardy, who had already carried out extensive studies on the feeding preferences of herring (Hardy, 1926a), initiated a program to examine the fishermen's contention that herring schools avoided 'green', i.e., phytoplankton-rich, water but could be correlated with high concentrations of zooplankton. This practical program was centered on the use of a specially developed instrument, the 'Plankton Indicator', designed to be used by the fisherman to assist in the search for suitable waters. It had limited success in its main aim but, as a collecting device, it embodied several profoundly important features. It was a simple instrument which was robust enough to be deployed and recovered by the crew of commercial vessels (in this case fishing vessels) while they were underway. The Indicator however, was no more than a high speed net which integrated the plankton over the area of sampling, but Hardy had also become interested in describing the patchiness of planktonic populations. He thus developed the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) where he substituted the fixed filter screen of the Indicator by a continually moving length of silk mesh. The screen traversed at constant speed across the path of the incoming water and the trapped organisms were retained in place by sandwiching beneath an additional second mesh screen. Thus, knowing the speed of the towing vessel and the shooting and hauling positions, the spatial patterns of the plankton could be determined. Hardy took the first CPR to the Antarctic where he used it in the Southern Atlantic (Hardy, 1926b) and later deployed it in the North Sea to make

  15. Heat balance structure of canopies at extreme precipitation in view of long-term records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnowska, J.; Gąsiorek, E.; Łabędzki, L.; Musiał, E.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing frequency of extreme weather conditions is attributed to the global variations in climate. Heat balance of substrate is one of the processes affecting the climate. Variations of heat balance in spring wheat during the growing seasons (April-August) and in potatoes during the growing seasons (May-September) with maximal and minimal precipitation are confronted here with long term changes of the balance. Two regions Wroclaw-Swojec (1964-2000) and Bydgoszcz (1945-2003) were involved in the study [pl

  16. Long-term storage life of light source modules by temperature cycling accelerated life test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Ningning; Tan Manqing; Li Ping; Jiao Jian; Guo Xiaofeng; Guo Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Light source modules are the most crucial and fragile devices that affect the life and reliability of the interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). While the light emitting chips were stable in most cases, the module packaging proved to be less satisfactory. In long-term storage or the working environment, the ambient temperature changes constantly and thus the packaging and coupling performance of light source modules are more likely to degrade slowly due to different materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion in the bonding interface. A constant temperature accelerated life test cannot evaluate the impact of temperature variation on the performance of a module package, so the temperature cycling accelerated life test was studied. The main failure mechanism affecting light source modules is package failure due to solder fatigue failure including a fiber coupling shift, loss of cooling efficiency and thermal resistor degradation, so the Norris-Landzberg model was used to model solder fatigue life and determine the activation energy related to solder fatigue failure mechanism. By analyzing the test data, activation energy was determined and then the mean life of light source modules in different storage environments with a continuously changing temperature was simulated, which has provided direct reference data for the storage life prediction of IFOG. (semiconductor devices)

  17. Long-Term Trend Analysis of Precipitation and Air Temperature for Kentucky, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsubhra Chattopadhyay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Variation in quantities such as precipitation and temperature is often assessed by detecting and characterizing trends in available meteorological data. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term trends in annual precipitation and mean annual air temperature for the state of Kentucky. Non-parametric statistical tests were applied to homogenized and (as needed pre-whitened annual series of precipitation and mean air temperature during 1950–2010. Significant trends in annual precipitation were detected (both positive, averaging 4.1 mm/year for only two of the 60 precipitation-homogenous weather stations (Calloway and Carlisle counties in rural western Kentucky. Only three of the 42 temperature-homogenous stations demonstrated trends (all positive, averaging 0.01 °C/year in mean annual temperature: Calloway County, Allen County in southern-central Kentucky, and urbanized Jefferson County in northern-central Kentucky. In view of the locations of the stations demonstrating positive trends, similar work in adjacent states will be required to better understand the processes responsible for those trends and to properly place them in their larger context, if any.

  18. 360 year temperature and precipitation record for the Pasco Basin derived from tree-ring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, J.P.; Fritts, H.C.

    1986-08-01

    Dendroclimatology, the study of past climatic variations by means of tree-ring analysis, is used to produce estimates of seasonal and annual temperature and precipitation from the 17th through 20th centuries. In this study these estimates, reconstructions, are derived in five different ways for regions that each include the Pasco Basin of south central Washington. The best of five sets of results were selected, based on the verification of the reconstructions with independent instrumental data. The reconstructed annual temperature of the Pasco Basin for the last three centuries was on the average 0.17 degrees Fahrenheit higher and had a standard deviation which was 4% larger than for the 20th century. The greatest reconstructed difference in the average temperature was in winter and the greatest reconstructed difference in the variance (standard deviation) was reconstructed in autumn. The average annual precipitation reconstructed for 1602 to 1900 was 0.32 inches higher than it has been in the 20th century. The change in average and standard deviation of reconstructed precipitation was greatest in autumn. Both the seasonal and annual reconstructions for temperature and precipitation exhibit large and persistent variations from the mean which are often most pronounced in the 17th century. Droughts were more common starting with the last half of the 17th century, with values that sometimes exceeded the 20th-century maximum amounts and duration. While there are some similarities among the four seasons and two variables, many differences between the seasonal reconstructions exist. 28 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  19. The smallest Gliders in the Ocean- Temperature Recordings from Pteropods using SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keul, N.; Orland, I. J.; Valley, J. W.; Kozdon, R.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2016-02-01

    During the last few decades, the development, refinement and application of geochemical methods have lead to the establishment of new proxies to estimate global change. The oxygen isotope composition of carbonate shells formed by marine organisms is a widely used proxy for past ocean temperatures. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a high spatial-resolution in situ technique, allowing oxygen isotope measurements on very small samples (down to 3 μm spot size). Pteropods are pelagic mollusks, producing shells made out of aragonite, which is more soluble than calcite in seawater, making them one of the first responders to climate change. They calcify closely at the aragonite- seawater equilibrium and are therefor ideal candidates to reconstruct temperatures based on their d18O. The oxygen isotopic composition of pteropod shells from sediment traps, net tows and a culture study from the Fram Strait will be presented. Specimens travelled in the Westspitsbergen Current prior to sinking into the sediment. During this transport specimens continue to grow, sequentially adding aragonite to the shell. We show that when using traditional (whole shell) δ18O measurements, the isotopic signatures of whole shells reflect the latitudinal gradient. Combining this with SIMS-derived δ18O measurements on individual shell parts, however, reveals that this is only half the story: Comparing δ18O of earlier (produced further South) and later shell parts (produced further North) shows that pteropods calcify in sequentially shallower water depths, overriding the latitudinal South to North temperature gradient. Combining traditional and novel δ18O measurements can potentially not only allow the reconstruction of temperature/ global warming, but also to assess ecological key parameters, such as habitat depth, at the same time.

  20. Evidence for cosmic ray modulation in temperature records from the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, E. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Dept. de Geofisica; Federal do Pampa Univ., Cacapava do Sul (Brazil); Pacca, I.G. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Dept. de Geofisica; Pereira-Filho, A.J. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Atmosfericas; Rampelloto, P.H. [Federal do Pampa Univ., Sao Gabriel (Brazil); Rigozo, N.R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil). Div. de Geofisica Espacial

    2013-11-01

    Possible direct or indirect climatic effects related to solar variability and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were investigated in the southern Brazil region by means of the annual mean temperatures from four weather stations 2 degrees of latitude apart over the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) region. Four maximum temperature peaks are evident at all stations in 1940, 1958, 1977 and 2002. A spectral analysis indicates the occurrence of periodicities between 2 and 7 yr, most likely associated with ENSO, and periodicities of approximately 11 and 22 yr, normally associated with solar variability. Cross-wavelet analysis indicated that the signal associated with the 22 yr solar magnetic cycle was more persistent in the last decades, while the 11 yr sunspot cycle and ENSO periodicities were intermittent. Phase-angle analysis revealed that temperature variations and the 22 yr solar cycle were in anti-phase near the SAMA center. Results show an indirect indication of possible relationships between the variability of galactic cosmic rays and climate change on a regional scale.

  1. Stable isotope record of Eemian seasonal temperature from MIS 5e tufa stromatolite; Somme Basin, Northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowski, J.; Andrews, J.; Antoine, P.; Marca-Bell, A.

    2013-03-01

    In many modern to sub-fossil deposits tufa formations, very well crystallised deposits called stromatolites are preserved. These are often strongly laminated deposits, the laminae linked to seasonal climatic and environmental variations. Where found in fossil tufas such deposits have huge potential as high resolution archives of Pleistocene climate. One of the first investigations of this type has been performed on a 2.5 cm-radius stromatolite from the Eemian sequence of Caours (Somme Basin, Northern France), where precise observations in thin section have been combined with intra-lamina δ18O and δ13C analyses. Independent interpretations of petrographical and geochemical data are strongly coherent and demonstrate a clear seasonal signal. Moreover, as δ18O is temperature dependent, we have quantified likely maximum water temperature variations between summer and winter at Caours. A small mismatch between the δ18O derived temperature values and the typical modern range is observed, which may reflect a real difference between modern and Eemian temperature seasonality. This study supports previous investigations performed on a laminated tufa from central Greece and clearly confirms the potential of tufa stromatolites as records of seasonal climatic information and for the quantification of riverine water temperature variations.

  2. Finding Important Terms for Patients in Their Electronic Health Records: A Learning-to-Rank Approach Using Expert Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiaping; Yu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Many health organizations allow patients to access their own electronic health record (EHR) notes through online patient portals as a way to enhance patient-centered care. However, EHR notes are typically long and contain abundant medical jargon that can be difficult for patients to understand. In addition, many medical terms in patients’ notes are not directly related to their health care needs. One way to help patients better comprehend their own notes is to reduce information overload and help them focus on medical terms that matter most to them. Interventions can then be developed by giving them targeted education to improve their EHR comprehension and the quality of care. Objective We aimed to develop a supervised natural language processing (NLP) system called Finding impOrtant medical Concepts most Useful to patientS (FOCUS) that automatically identifies and ranks medical terms in EHR notes based on their importance to the patients. Methods First, we built an expert-annotated corpus. For each EHR note, 2 physicians independently identified medical terms important to the patient. Using the physicians’ agreement as the gold standard, we developed and evaluated FOCUS. FOCUS first identifies candidate terms from each EHR note using MetaMap and then ranks the terms using a support vector machine-based learn-to-rank algorithm. We explored rich learning features, including distributed word representation, Unified Medical Language System semantic type, topic features, and features derived from consumer health vocabulary. We compared FOCUS with 2 strong baseline NLP systems. Results Physicians annotated 90 EHR notes and identified a mean of 9 (SD 5) important terms per note. The Cohen’s kappa annotation agreement was .51. The 10-fold cross-validation results show that FOCUS achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.940 for ranking candidate terms from EHR notes to identify important terms. When including term

  3. Thermal regime of a continental permafrost associated gas hydrate occurrence a continuous temperature profile record after drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninges, J.; Huenges, E.; Mallik Working Group

    2003-04-01

    Both the size and the distribution of natural methane hydrate occurrences, as well as the release of gaseous methane through the dissociation of methane hydrate, are affected by the subsurface pressure and temperature conditions. During a field experiment, which was carried out in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada, within the framework of the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program*, the variation of temperature within three 40 m spaced, 1200 m deep wells was measured deploying the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology. An innovative experimental design for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of temperature along boreholes was developed and successfully applied under extreme arctic conditions. A special feature is the placement of the fibre-optic sensor cable inside the cement annulus between the casing and the wall of the borehole. Temperature profiles were recorded with a sampling interval of 0.25 m and 5 min, and temperatures can be determined with a resolution of 0.3 °C. The observed variation of temperature over time shows the decay of the thermal disturbances caused by the drilling and construction of the wells. An excellent indicator for the location of the base of the ice-bonded permafrost layer, which stands out as a result of the latent heat of the frozen pore fluid, is a sharp rise in temperature at 604 m depth during the period of equilibration. A similar effect can be detected in the depth interval between 1105 m and 1110 m, which is interpreted as an indicator for the depth to the base of the methane hydrate stability zone. Nine months after the completion of the wells the measured borehole temperatures are close to equilibrium. The mean temperature gradient rises from 9.4 K/km inside the permafrost to 25.4 K/km in the ice-free sediment layers underneath. The zone of the gas hydrate occurrences between 900 m and 1100 m shows distinct variations of the geothermal gradient, which locally rises up to 40 K/km. At the lower

  4. Validation of a Climate-Data Record of the "Clear-Kky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Box, Jason E.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperatures on the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied on the ground, using automatic weather station (AWS) data from the Greenland-Climate Network (GC-Net), and from analysis of satellite sensor data. Using Advanced Very High Frequency Radiometer (AVHRR) weekly surface temperature maps, warming of the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented since 1981. We extended and refined this record using higher-resolution Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from March 2000 to the present. We developed a daily and monthly climate-data record (CDR) of the "clear-sky" surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using an ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm developed for use with MODIS data. Validation of this CDR is ongoing. MODIS Terra swath data are projected onto a polar stereographic grid at 6.25-km resolution to develop binary, gridded daily and mean-monthly 1ST maps. Each monthly map also has a color-coded image map that is available to download. Also included with the monthly maps is an accompanying map showing number of days in the month that were used to calculate the mean-monthly 1ST. This is important because no 1ST decision is made by the algorithm for cells that are considered cloudy by the internal cloud mask, so a sufficient number of days must be available to produce a mean 1ST for each grid cell. Validation of the CDR consists of several facets: 1) comparisons between ISTs and in-situ measurements; 2) comparisons between ISTs and AWS data; and 3) comparisons of ISTs with surface temperatures derived from other satellite instruments such as the Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Previous work shows that Terra MODIS ISTs are about 3 C lower than in-situ temperatures measured at Summit Camp, during the winter of 2008-09 under clear skies. In this work we begin to compare surface temperatures derived from AWS data with ISTs from the MODIS CDR. The

  5. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, Regina; Breitner, Susanne; Kraus, William E.; Hauser, Elizabeth; Shah, Svati; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Devlin, Robert; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Neas, Lucas; Cascio, Wayne; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Objectives: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabolites related to cardiovascular disease. Methods: Concentrations of 45 acylcarnitines, 15 amino acids, ketone bodies and total free fatty acids were available in 2869 participants from the CATHeterization GENetics cohort recruited at the Duke University Cardiac Catheterization Clinic (Durham, NC) between 2001 and 2007. Ten metabolites were selected based on quality criteria and cluster analysis. Daily averages of meteorological variables were obtained from the North American Regional Reanalysis project. Immediate, lagged, and cumulative temperature effects on metabolite concentrations were analyzed using (piecewise) linear regression models. Results: Linear temperature effects were found for glycine, C16-OH:C14:1-DC, and aspartic acid/asparagine. A 5 °C increase in temperature was associated with a 1.8% [95%-confidence interval: 0.3%; 3.3%] increase in glycine (5-day average), a 3.2% [0.1%; 6.3%] increase in C16-OH:C14:1-DC (lag of four days), and a −1.4% [−2.4%; −0.3%] decrease in aspartic acid/asparagine (lag of two days). Non-linear temperature effects were observed for alanine and total ketone bodies with breakpoint of 4 °C and 20 °C, respectively. Both a 5 °C decrease in temperature on colder days (<4 °C)and a 5 °C increase in temperature on warmer days (≥4 °C) were associated with a four day delayed increase in alanine by 6.6% [11.7; 1.8%] and 1.9% [0.3%; 3.4%], respectively. For ketone bodies we found immediate (0-day lag) increases of 4.2% [−0.5%; 9.1%] and 12.3% [0.1%; 26.0%] associated with 5 °C decreases on colder (<20 °C) days and 5 °C increases on warmer days (≥20 °C), respectively. Conclusions: We observed multiple effects of air temperature on

  6. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, Regina, E-mail: regina.hampel@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Breitner, Susanne [Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Kraus, William E. [School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701 (United States); Hauser, Elizabeth [School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701 (United States); Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, 300 North Duke Street, Durham, NC 27701 (United States); Cooperative Studies Program Epidemiology Center-Durham, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC 27701 (United States); Shah, Svati [School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701 (United States); Ward-Caviness, Cavin K. [Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Devlin, Robert; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Neas, Lucas; Cascio, Wayne [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Durham, NC 27709 (United States); Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra [Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Background: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Objectives: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabolites related to cardiovascular disease. Methods: Concentrations of 45 acylcarnitines, 15 amino acids, ketone bodies and total free fatty acids were available in 2869 participants from the CATHeterization GENetics cohort recruited at the Duke University Cardiac Catheterization Clinic (Durham, NC) between 2001 and 2007. Ten metabolites were selected based on quality criteria and cluster analysis. Daily averages of meteorological variables were obtained from the North American Regional Reanalysis project. Immediate, lagged, and cumulative temperature effects on metabolite concentrations were analyzed using (piecewise) linear regression models. Results: Linear temperature effects were found for glycine, C16-OH:C14:1-DC, and aspartic acid/asparagine. A 5 °C increase in temperature was associated with a 1.8% [95%-confidence interval: 0.3%; 3.3%] increase in glycine (5-day average), a 3.2% [0.1%; 6.3%] increase in C16-OH:C14:1-DC (lag of four days), and a −1.4% [−2.4%; −0.3%] decrease in aspartic acid/asparagine (lag of two days). Non-linear temperature effects were observed for alanine and total ketone bodies with breakpoint of 4 °C and 20 °C, respectively. Both a 5 °C decrease in temperature on colder days (<4 °C)and a 5 °C increase in temperature on warmer days (≥4 °C) were associated with a four day delayed increase in alanine by 6.6% [11.7; 1.8%] and 1.9% [0.3%; 3.4%], respectively. For ketone bodies we found immediate (0-day lag) increases of 4.2% [−0.5%; 9.1%] and 12.3% [0.1%; 26.0%] associated with 5 °C decreases on colder (<20 °C) days and 5 °C increases on warmer days (≥20 °C), respectively. Conclusions: We observed multiple effects of air temperature on

  7. Influence of writing and reading intertrack interferences in terms of bit aspect ratio in shingled magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuhara, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Masato; Nakamura, Yasuaki; Osawa, Hisashi; Muraoka, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the writing and reading intertrack interferences (ITIs) in terms of bit aspect ratio (BAR) in shingled magnetic recording by computer simulation using a read/write model which consists of a writing process based on Stoner-Wohlfarth switching asteroid by a one-side shielded isosceles triangular write head and a reading process by an around shielded read head for a discrete Voronoi medium model. The results show that BAR should be 3 to reduce the influence of writing and reading ITIs, media noise, and additive white Gaussian noise in an assumed areal density of 4.61Tbpsi.

  8. Evaluating privacy-preserving record linkage using cryptographic long-term keys and multibit trees on large medical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian P; Borgs, Christian; Randall, Sean M; Schnell, Rainer

    2017-06-08

    Integrating medical data using databases from different sources by record linkage is a powerful technique increasingly used in medical research. Under many jurisdictions, unique personal identifiers needed for linking the records are unavailable. Since sensitive attributes, such as names, have to be used instead, privacy regulations usually demand encrypting these identifiers. The corresponding set of techniques for privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) has received widespread attention. One recent method is based on Bloom filters. Due to superior resilience against cryptographic attacks, composite Bloom filters (cryptographic long-term keys, CLKs) are considered best practice for privacy in PPRL. Real-world performance of these techniques using large-scale data is unknown up to now. Using a large subset of Australian hospital admission data, we tested the performance of an innovative PPRL technique (CLKs using multibit trees) against a gold-standard derived from clear-text probabilistic record linkage. Linkage time and linkage quality (recall, precision and F-measure) were evaluated. Clear text probabilistic linkage resulted in marginally higher precision and recall than CLKs. PPRL required more computing time but 5 million records could still be de-duplicated within one day. However, the PPRL approach required fine tuning of parameters. We argue that increased privacy of PPRL comes with the price of small losses in precision and recall and a large increase in computational burden and setup time. These costs seem to be acceptable in most applied settings, but they have to be considered in the decision to apply PPRL. Further research on the optimal automatic choice of parameters is needed.

  9. Temperature induced decoupling of enzymatic hydrolysis and carbon remineralization in long-term incubations of Arctic and temperate sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Steen, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    explored the temperature sensitivity of enzymatic hydrolysis and its connection to subsequent steps in anoxic organic carbon degradation in long-term incubations of sediments from the Arctic and the North Sea. These sediments were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 24 months at temperatures of 0, 10......, and 20 ºC. The short-term temperature response of the active microbial community was tested in temperature gradient block incubations. The temperature optimum of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, as measured with a polysaccharide (chondroitin sulfate), differed between Arctic and temperate habitats...

  10. Natural and anthropogenic ocean noise recorded at long-term and temporary observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Metz, Dirk; Watts, Anthony B.; Geissler, Wolfram

    2017-04-01

    Most people worldwide would assume that the oceans are silent. However, a number of natural phenomenon's like ocean waves, wind, lightening, ice noise, earthquakes, and submarine volcanic activity contributes to the ambient ocean noise. During their evolution, marine animals like fish and mammals have adopted in many ways to the acoustic properties of the sea. Yet in recent decades, anthropogenic and hence manmade ocean noise level has risen profoundly. Due to extreme reliance of fish and mammals on underwater sounds for basic life functions, including searching for food or mate and the absence of any mechanism to safeguard them against it, underwater noise pollution may disrupt marine life. The primary sources of low-frequency anthropogenic noise include sounds associated with shipping, military operations, oil and gas exploration and production, and even research activities. Some scientists suggest that today virtually no marine environment is without any noise pollution. Thus, all marine life forms that rely heavily on the integrity of their acoustic habitat may have to adapt to new conditions. Of greatest concern for whales are low-frequency sounds that travel long distances in the ocean. Ship propellers and motors, for instance, produce sound at low frequencies, as do natural and manmade seismic activity. These profound, loud noises reverberate in the deep ocean and can effectively mask or block vital whale communication. However, in general very little is known about the world-wide distribution of ambient ocean noise. Thus, on a global scale and considering the vast areas of the world's oceans, we know virtually nothing about noise levels in different parts of the oceans and how anthropogenic noise contributes to ambient noise. Here, we use hydrophone recordings from the UN's Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty organization (CTBTO) and ocean-bottom seismometers to provide an assessment of noise in all major basins, including the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian

  11. Validation of a Climate-Data Record of the "Clear-Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Box, Jason E.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperatures on the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied on the ground, using automatic weather station (AWS) data from the Greenland-Climate Network (GC-Net), and from analysis of satellite sensor data. Using Advanced Very High Frequency Radiometer (AVHRR) weekly surface temperature maps, warming of the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented since 1981. We extended and refined this record using higher-resolution Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from March 2000 to the present. We developed a daily and monthly climate-data record (CDR) of the "clear-sky" surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using an ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm developed for use with MODIS data. Validation of this CDR is ongoing. MODIS Terra swath data are projected onto a polar stereographic grid at 6.25-km resolution to develop binary, gridded daily and mean-monthly 1ST maps. Each monthly map also has a color-coded image map that is available to download. Also included with the monthly maps is an accompanying map showing number of days in the month that were used to calculate the mean-monthly 1ST. This is important because no 1ST decision is made by the algorithm for cells that are considered cloudy by the internal cloud mask, so a sufficient number of days must be available to produce a mean 1ST for each grid cell. Validation of the CDR consists of several facets: 1) comparisons between ISTs and in-situ measurements; 2) comparisons between ISTs and AWS data; and 3) comparisons of ISTs with surface temperatures derived from other satellite instruments such as the Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Previous work shows that Terra MODIS ISTs are about 3 C lower than in-situ temperatures measured at Summit Camp, during the winter of 2008-09 under clear skies. In this work we begin to compare surface temperatures derived from AWS data with ISTs from the MODIS CDR.

  12. Ramifications of a potential gap in passive microwave data for the long-term sea ice climate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W.; Stewart, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    will also discuss potential contingency plans, such as using operational sea ice charts, to fill any gaps. This would allow the record to continue, but the consistency of the time series will be degraded because the ice charts use human analysis and differing sources, amounts and quality of input data, which makes them sub-optimal for long-term climate records.

  13. Monitoring And Recording Data For Solar Radiation Temperature And Charging Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Bhone Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A data logger based on 8051 microcontroller has been implemented in this project to measure the solar radiation temperature and charging current. Development of a low-cost data logger can easily be made and easily be used to convert the analog signal of physical parameters of various test or other purposes of engineering. By using a suitable program code it can be used to read the value digitally with a PC. Our aim is to provide with a module and a software package when installed in a computer one can remotely acquire and monitor several numbers of the same or different types of signals sequentially at a time. Signals obtained from various sensors have been effectively conditioned. Now interfacing these signals using ADC with the Bluetooth module port of a computer satisfies the very goal of data acquisition. Proposed system provides better performance and has low cost versatile portable.

  14. Creation of Single Chain of Nanoscale Skyrmion Bubbles with Record-high Temperature Stability in a Geometrically Confined Nanostripe

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Guizhou; Gong, Chen; Ding, Bei; Wang, Yue; Li, Hang; Liu, Enke; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Yao, Yuan; Wu, Guangheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Wang, Wenhong

    2018-01-01

    Nanoscale topologically nontrivial spin textures, such as magnetic skyrmions, have been identified as promising candidates for the transport and storage of information for spintronic applications, notably magnetic racetrack memory devices. The design and realization of a single skyrmion chain at room temperature (RT) and above in the low-dimensional nanostructures are of great importance for future practical applications. Here, we report the creation of a single skyrmion bubble chain in a geometrically confined Fe3Sn2 nanostripe with a width comparable to the featured size of a skyrmion bubble. Systematic investigations on the thermal stability have revealed that the single chain of skyrmion bubbles can keep stable at temperatures varying from RT up to a record-high temperature of 630 K. This extreme stability can be ascribed to the weak temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropy and the formation of edge states at the boundaries of the nanostripes. The realization of the highly stable skyrmion bubble chain in a geometrically confined nanostructure is a very important step toward the application of skyrmion-based spintronic devices.

  15. Creation of Single Chain of Nanoscale Skyrmion Bubbles with Record-high Temperature Stability in a Geometrically Confined Nanostripe

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng

    2018-01-04

    Nanoscale topologically nontrivial spin textures, such as magnetic skyrmions, have been identified as promising candidates for the transport and storage of information for spintronic applications, notably magnetic racetrack memory devices. The design and realization of a single skyrmion chain at room temperature (RT) and above in the low-dimensional nanostructures are of great importance for future practical applications. Here, we report the creation of a single skyrmion bubble chain in a geometrically confined Fe3Sn2 nanostripe with a width comparable to the featured size of a skyrmion bubble. Systematic investigations on the thermal stability have revealed that the single chain of skyrmion bubbles can keep stable at temperatures varying from RT up to a record-high temperature of 630 K. This extreme stability can be ascribed to the weak temperature-dependent magnetic anisotropy and the formation of edge states at the boundaries of the nanostripes. The realization of the highly stable skyrmion bubble chain in a geometrically confined nanostructure is a very important step toward the application of skyrmion-based spintronic devices.

  16. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear-Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo E.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a climate-data record (CDR) of "clear-sky" ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The CDR provides daily and monthly-mean IST from March 2000 through December 2010 on a polar stereographic projection at a resolution of 6.25 km. The CDR is amenable to extension into the future using Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data. Regional "clear-sky" surface temperature increases since the early 1980s in the Arctic, measured using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared data, range from 0.57 +/- 0.02 to 0.72 +/- 0.1 c per decade. Arctic warming has important implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet is already near O C during the melt season, and is thus vulnerable to rapid melting if temperatures continue to increase. An increase in melting of the ice sheet would accelerate sea-level rise, an issue affecting potentially billions of people worldwide. The IST CDR will provide a convenient data set for modelers and for climatologists to track changes of the surface temperature of the ice sheet as a whole and of the individual drainage basins on the ice sheet. The daily and monthly maps will provide information on surface melt as well as "clear-sky" temperature. The CDR will be further validated by comparing results with automatic-weather station data and with satellite-derived surface-temperature products.

  17. High-temperature MEMS Heater Platforms: Long-term Performance of Metal and Semiconductor Heater Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Doll

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined thermal heater platforms offer low electrical power consumptionand high modulation speed, i.e. properties which are advantageous for realizing non-dispersive infrared (NDIR gas- and liquid monitoring systems. In this paper, we report oninvestigations on silicon-on-insulator (SOI based infrared (IR emitter devices heated byemploying different kinds of metallic and semiconductor heater materials. Our resultsclearly reveal the superior high-temperature performance of semiconductor over metallicheater materials. Long-term stable emitter operation in the vicinity of 1300 K could beattained using heavily antimony-doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Sb heater elements.

  18. A Long-Term and Reproducible Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration Data Record for Climate Studies and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G.; Meier, W. N.; Scott, D. J.; Savoie, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term, consistent, and reproducible satellite-based passive microwave sea ice concentration climate data record (CDR) is available for climate studies, monitoring, and model validation with an initial operation capability (IOC). The daily and monthly sea ice concentration data are on the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) polar stereographic grid with nominal 25 km × 25 km grid cells in both the Southern and Northern Hemisphere polar regions from 9 July 1987 to 31 December 2007. The data files are available in the NetCDF data format at http://nsidc.org/data/g02202.html and archived by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the satellite climate data record program (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdr/operationalcdrs.html). The description and basic characteristics of the NOAA/NSIDC passive microwave sea ice concentration CDR are presented here. The CDR provides similar spatial and temporal variability as the heritage products to the user communities with the additional documentation, traceability, and reproducibility that meet current standards and guidelines for climate data records. The data set, along with detailed data processing steps and error source information, can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5B56GN3.

  19. Long term variations of chlorine-36 input signal to groundwater as recorded in deep unsaturated zones, south-east Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal La Salle, C.; Herczeg, A.L.; Leaney, F.W.; Fifield, L.K.; Cresswell, R.G.; Kellet, J.

    1997-01-01

    The use of chlorine-36 is increasing in hydrology as its long half-life (3x10 5 a), allows useful long-term investigations into groundwater systems. Because chloride is very hydrophillic, the chlorine-36 signal should not be affected by geochemical processes in most aquatic systems. Nevertheless, over long periods of time, the chlorine-36 input to groundwater systems may vary due to factors such as: changes of production of chlorine-36 and/or changes of its distribution in the atmosphere. For instance the production of chlorine-36 might be governed by long-term terrestrial magnetic dipole strength variations as suggested for other radiogenic isotopes. Variations of the input signal of chlorine-36 should be recorded in pore waters of deep unsaturated zones. In this system, the time scale is approximated by the cumulative chloride content with depth assuming a constant input of chloride. Long-term records of chloride and chlorine-36 in two deep unsaturated-zone profiles, situated in the semi-arid Murray Basin in Australia, are presented. The two profiles record periods of approximately 20±1 to 27±2 ka and 100±5 to 220±10 ka respectively. The range of variation of the recorded time at each site is related to the estimated range of chloride deposition rate. The recharge rates are constant in both profiles with values approximating 0.4 and less than 0.1 mm.a -1 respectively. The linear relationship between chlorine-36 and stable chloride indicates that variations of chlorine-36 are governed by evapotranspiration, with a concentration factor of up to 2. Therefore the chlorine-36 is normalised to chloride to take account of the evapotranspiration process. In the soil profile at Kaniva, Western Victoria, 36 Cl/Cl'- ratio shows an increase of approximately 20% down profile. The second profile at Boree Plains, Wester, NSW, shows variations of 36 Cl/Cl'- ratio of 40% with a decreasing trend down profile. The input signal of chlorine-36/chloride is calculated by correction

  20. A novel neural prosthesis providing long-term electrocorticography recording and cortical stimulation for epilepsy and brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Pantaleo; Piangerelli, Marco; Ratel, David; Gaude, Christophe; Costecalde, Thomas; Puttilli, Cosimo; Picciafuoco, Mauro; Benabid, Alim; Torres, Napoleon

    2018-05-11

    OBJECTIVE Wireless technology is a novel tool for the transmission of cortical signals. Wireless electrocorticography (ECoG) aims to improve the safety and diagnostic gain of procedures requiring invasive localization of seizure foci and also to provide long-term recording of brain activity for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, no wireless devices aimed at these clinical applications are currently available. The authors present the application of a fully implantable and externally rechargeable neural prosthesis providing wireless ECoG recording and direct cortical stimulation (DCS). Prolonged wireless ECoG monitoring was tested in nonhuman primates by using a custom-made device (the ECoG implantable wireless 16-electrode [ECOGIW-16E] device) containing a 16-contact subdural grid. This is a preliminary step toward large-scale, long-term wireless ECoG recording in humans. METHODS The authors implanted the ECOGIW-16E device over the left sensorimotor cortex of a nonhuman primate ( Macaca fascicularis), recording ECoG signals over a time span of 6 months. Daily electrode impedances were measured, aiming to maintain the impedance values below a threshold of 100 KΩ. Brain mapping was obtained through wireless cortical stimulation at fixed intervals (1, 3, and 6 months). After 6 months, the device was removed. The authors analyzed cortical tissues by using conventional histological and immunohistological investigation to assess whether there was evidence of damage after the long-term implantation of the grid. RESULTS The implant was well tolerated; no neurological or behavioral consequences were reported in the monkey, which resumed his normal activities within a few hours of the procedure. The signal quality of wireless ECoG remained excellent over the 6-month observation period. Impedance values remained well below the threshold value; the average impedance per contact remains approximately 40 KΩ. Wireless cortical stimulation induced movements of the upper

  1. Beating the Heat: Magmatism in the Low-Temperature Thermochronologic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.; Reiners, P. W.; Braun, J.; Karlstrom, L.; Morriss, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The low-temperature thermochronology community was quick to recognize upper-crustal complexities in the geotherm that reflect landscape evolution, but the complex effects of crustal magmatism on thermochronometers can be difficult to independently document and remain underexplored. Because magmatism is common in many regions central to our understanding of tectonics, this is a significant gap in our ability to robustly interpret rock cooling. Here, we use several different numerical approaches to examine how local and regional crustal magmatism affects cooling age patterns and present examples from the western US that demonstrate the importance—and utility—of considering these effects. We modified the finite-element code Pecube to calculate how thermochronometers document the emplacement of simple hot bodies at different crustal levels. Results demonstrate the potential for mid-crustal plutons, emplaced at 10-15 km depth, to reset cooling ages in the overlying rocks at partial-retention depths at the time of magmatism. Permo-Triassic sandstones from the Colorado Plateau's Canyonlands region have apatite cooling ages that exemplify the resulting ambiguity: Oligocene rock cooling can be attributed to either 1 km of erosion or relaxation of a geothermal gradient transiently doubled by mid-crustal magmatism. Despite these complexities, there are compelling reasons to target rocks with magmatic histories. Shallowly emplaced plutons can usefully reset cooling ages in country rocks with protracted near-surface histories, as we have demonstrated in the Colorado Plateau's Henry Mountains. Cooling age patterns are also useful for quantifying magmatic processes themselves. In an ongoing project, we use the pattern of thermochronometer resetting around individual dikes that fed the Columbia River flood basalts, which are exposed in the Wallowa Mountains, to identify long-lived feeder dikes and model their thermal aureoles to further constrain eruptive dynamics. The pattern

  2. Orbital-scale Central Arctic Ocean Temperature Records from Benthic Foraminiferal δ18O and Ostracode Mg/Ca Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, K.; Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G. S.; Farmer, J. R.; Poirier, R. K.; Schaller, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Orbital-scale climate variability is often amplified in the polar region, for example in changes in seawater temperature, sea-ice cover, deep-water formation, ecosystems, heat storage and carbon cycling. Yet, the relationship between the Arctic Ocean and global climate remains poorly understood due largely to limited orbital-scale paleoclimate records, the complicated nature of sea-ice response to climate and limited abundance of deep sea biological proxies. Here we reconstruct central Arctic Ocean bottom temperatures over the last 600 kyr using ostracode Mg/Ca ratios (genus Krithe) and benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Obf - I. teretis, O. tener, P. bulloides, C. reniforme, C. wuellerstorfi) in six sediment cores recovered from the Mendeleev and Northwind Ridges (700- 2726 m water depth). We examined glacial-interglacial cycles in Arctic seawater temperatures and Arctic δ18Obf chronostratigraphy to reconcile effects of changing bottom water temperature, ice volume and regional hydrography on δ18Obf records. Results show lower ( 10-12 mmol/mol) interglacial and higher ( 16-23 mmol/mol) glacial Mg/Ca ratios, signifying intermediate depth ocean warming during glacials of up to 2 ºC. These temperature maxima are likely related to a deepening of the halocline and the corresponding deeper influence of warm Atlantic water. Glacial-interglacial δ18Obf ranges are smaller in the Arctic ( 0.8-1‰ VPDB) than in the global ocean ( 1.8 ‰). However, when the distinct glacial-interglacial temperature histories of the Arctic (glacial warming) and global ocean (glacial cooling) are accounted for, both Arctic and global ocean seawater δ18O values (δ18Osw) exhibit similar 1.2-1.3 ‰ glacial-interglacial ranges. Thus, Arctic δ18Obf confirms glacial Arctic warming inferred from ostracode Mg/Ca. This study will discuss the strengths and limitations of applying paired Mg/Ca and oxygen isotope proxies in reconstructing more robust paleoceanographic changes in the

  3. Expanding research capabilities with sea ice climate records for analysis of long-term climate change and short-term variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. J.; Meier, W. N.

    2008-12-01

    Recent sea ice analysis is leading to predictions of a sea ice-free summertime in the Arctic within 20 years, or even sooner. Sea ice topics, such as concentration, extent, motion, and age, are predominately studied using satellite data. At the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), passive microwave sea ice data sets provide timely assessments of seasonal-scale variability as well as consistent long-term climate data records. Such data sets are crucial to understanding changes and assessing their impacts. Noticeable impacts of changing sea ice conditions on native cultures and wildlife in the Arctic region are now being documented. With continued deterioration in Arctic sea ice, global economic impacts will be seen as new shipping routes open. NSIDC is at the forefront of making climate data records available to address the changes in sea ice and its global impacts. By focusing on integrated data sets, NSIDC leads the way by broadening the studies of sea ice beyond the traditional cryospheric community.

  4. Use and Limitations of a Climate-Quality Data Record to Study Temperature Trends on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate-quality data record, 11- and 12-year trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now available at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid as described in Hall et al. (submitted). This record will be elevated in status to a climate-data record (CDR) when more years of data become available either from the MODIS on the Terra or Aqua satellites, or from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched in October 2011. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. IST 12-year trends are compared with in-situ data, and climate data from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Reanalysis.

  5. The glacial inception as recorded in the NorthGRIP Greenland ice core: timing, structure and associated abrupt temperature changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landais, Amaelle [UMR CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, IPSL/Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur -Yvette (France); Hebrew University, Institute of Earth Sciences, Givat Ram, Jerusalem (Israel); Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Jouzel, Jean; Minster, Benedicte [UMR CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, IPSL/Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur -Yvette (France); Raynaud, Dominique [LGGE, UMR CNRS-UJF, St Martin d' Heres (France); Johnsen, Sigfus [University of Copenhagen, Department of Geophysics, Copenhagen (Denmark); Huber, Christof; Leuenberger, Markus; Schwander, Jakob [University of Bern, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the glacial inception are still poorly constrained due to a lack of high resolution and cross-dated climate records at various locations. Using air isotopic measurements in the recently drilled NorthGRIP ice core, we show that no evidence exists for stratigraphic disturbance of the climate record of the last glacial inception ({proportional_to}123-100 kyears BP) encompassing Dansgaard-Oeschger events (DO) 25, 24 and 23, even if we lack sufficient resolution to completely rule out disturbance over DO 25. We quantify the rapid surface temperature variability over DO 23 and 24 with associated warmings of 10{+-}2.5 and 16{+-}2.5 C, amplitudes which mimic those observed in full glacial conditions. We use records of {delta}{sup 18}O of O{sub 2} to propose a common timescale for the NorthGRIP and the Antarctic Vostok ice cores, with a maximum uncertainty of 2,500 years, and to examine the interhemispheric sequence of events over this period. After a synchronous North-South temperature decrease, the onset of rapid events is triggered in the North through DO 25. As for later events, DO 24 and 23 have a clear Antarctic counterpart which does not seem to be the case for the very first abrupt warming (DO 25). This information, when added to intermediate levels of CO{sub 2} and to the absence of clear ice rafting associated with DO 25, highlights the uniqueness of this first event, while DO 24 and 23 appear similar to typical full glacial DO events. (orig.)

  6. A 20 year independent record of sea surface temperature for climate from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Christopher J.; Embury, Owen; Rayner, Nick A.; Berry, David I.; Corlett, Gary K.; Lean, Katie; Veal, Karen L.; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Llewellyn-Jones, David T.; Remedios, John J.; Saunders, Roger

    2012-12-01

    A new record of sea surface temperature (SST) for climate applications is described. This record provides independent corroboration of global variations estimated from SST measurements made in situ. Infrared imagery from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs) is used to create a 20 year time series of SST at 0.1° latitude-longitude resolution, in the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate (ARC) project. A very high degree of independence of in situ measurements is achieved via physics-based techniques. Skin SST and SST estimated for 20 cm depth are provided, with grid cell uncertainty estimates. Comparison with in situ data sets establishes that ARC SSTs generally have bias of order 0.1 K or smaller. The precision of the ARC SSTs is 0.14 K during 2003 to 2009, from three-way error analysis. Over the period 1994 to 2010, ARC SSTs are stable, with better than 95% confidence, to within 0.005 K yr-1(demonstrated for tropical regions). The data set appears useful for cleanly quantifying interannual variability in SST and major SST anomalies. The ARC SST global anomaly time series is compared to the in situ-based Hadley Centre SST data set version 3 (HadSST3). Within known uncertainties in bias adjustments applied to in situ measurements, the independent ARC record and HadSST3 present the same variations in global marine temperature since 1996. Since the in situ observing system evolved significantly in its mix of measurement platforms and techniques over this period, ARC SSTs provide an important corroboration that HadSST3 accurately represents recent variability and change in this essential climate variable.

  7. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  8. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity in combi......The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity...... in combination with temperatures of 10, 14 and 18 degrees C. A parametric survival model found a significant correlation between survival of pike fry and temperature and salinity, respectively. L(C)50 values after 72 h were between 11.2 and 12.2 ppt, being lowest at 10 degrees C. Pike fry did not survive more...

  9. Temperature under the Tongue: A paleotemperature record of the Drygalksi Ice Tongue with improved chronology of ice retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subt, C.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Lee, J. I.; Yoo, K. C.; Browne, I. M.; Shevenell, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Ross Embayment is among the most well-studied regions in Antarctica. Despite the relative abundance of data, the style and forcing of deglaciation of the Ross Sea sector following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 23-19 ka) is challenging due to the region's considerable size, complex geometry, and the difficulties in dating Antarctic glaciomarine sedimentary sequences. Ross Sea sediments indicate a dynamic glacial retreat in the western Ross Sea, whereas regional glacial systems may have retreated and advanced multiple times during the last deglaciation. Two marine sediment cores collected near the Drygalski Ice Tongue in the western Ross Sea during 2012 and 2015 Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) expeditions reveal a sequence of alternating diatomaceous muds and oozes interbedded with diamict, which suggest dynamic post-LGM grounded ice retreat in the Ross Sea. Dynamic retreat is hypothesized to have been driven by rising sea levels and warmer ocean waters on the continental shelf, thus a record of upper ocean temperatures should reflect this. Here we present the first post-LGM upper ocean temperature record from the Ross Sea, developed using the TEX86 (tetraether index of lipids consisting of 86 carbons) paleothermometer. To overcome the difficulties of dating these sediments using traditional methods, we apply specialized Ramped PyrOx 14C dating for sediments with high proportions of relict carbon . This technique is particularly well-suited for the post-LGM retreat sedimentary sequences from Antarctic margins because it allows for separation of autochthonous and relict material for dating. By combining organic paleothermometry and state-of-the-art chronologic techniques, we gain a more thorough understanding of upper ocean temperatures in the Ross Sea during the last deglaciation, and their implications for ice retreat.

  10. Autonomous distributed temperature sensing for long-term heated applications in remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Kurth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Distributed temperature sensing (DTS is a fiber-optical method enabling simultaneous temperature measurements over long distances. Electrical resistance heating of the metallic components of the fiber-optic cable provides information on the thermal characteristics of the cable's environment, providing valuable insight into processes occurring in the surrounding medium, such as groundwater–surface water interactions, dam stability or soil moisture. Until now, heated applications required direct handling of the DTS instrument by a researcher, rendering long-term investigations in remote areas impractical due to the often difficult and time-consuming access to the field site. Remote control and automation of the DTS instrument and heating processes, however, resolve the issue with difficult access. The data can also be remotely accessed and stored on a central database. The power supply can be grid independent, although significant infrastructure investment is required here due to high power consumption during heated applications. Solar energy must be sufficient even in worst case scenarios, e.g. during long periods of intense cloud cover, to prevent system failure due to energy shortage. In combination with storage batteries and a low heating frequency, e.g. once per day or once per week (depending on the season and the solar radiation on site, issues of high power consumption may be resolved. Safety regulations dictate adequate shielding and ground-fault protection, to safeguard animals and humans from electricity and laser sources. In this paper the autonomous DTS system is presented to allow research with heated applications of DTS in remote areas for long-term investigations of temperature distributions in the environment.

  11. Long-term trends in stratospheric ozone, temperature, and water vapor over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankamani Akhil Raj, Sivan; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Narayana Rao, Daggumati; Venkata Krishna Murthy, Boddam

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the long-term trends in and variabilities of stratospheric ozone, water vapor and temperature over the Indian monsoon region using the long-term data constructed from multi-satellite (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS MLS and HALOE, 1993-2005), Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS, 2004-2015), Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER, 2002-2015) on board TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics)) observations covering the period 1993-2015. We have selected two locations, namely, Trivandrum (8.4° N, 76.9° E) and New Delhi (28° N, 77° E), covering northern and southern parts of the Indian region. We also used observations from another station, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), for comparison. A decreasing trend in ozone associated with NOx chemistry in the tropical middle stratosphere is found, and the trend turned to positive in the upper stratosphere. Temperature shows a cooling trend in the stratosphere, with a maximum around 37 km over Trivandrum (-1.71 ± 0.49 K decade-1) and New Delhi (-1.15 ± 0.55 K decade-1). The observed cooling trend in the stratosphere over Trivandrum and New Delhi is consistent with Gadanki lidar observations during 1998-2011. The water vapor shows a decreasing trend in the lower stratosphere and an increasing trend in the middle and upper stratosphere. A good correlation between N2O and O3 is found in the middle stratosphere (˜ 10 hPa) and poor correlation in the lower stratosphere. There is not much regional difference in the water vapor and temperature trends. However, upper stratospheric ozone trends over Trivandrum and New Delhi are different. The trend analysis carried out by varying the initial year has shown significant changes in the estimated trend.

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26134, Lat: 23.76895 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.57m; Data Range: 20080915-20100908.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27510, Lat: 23.85623 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.62m; Data Range: 20080915-20091009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.17967, Lat: 23.63883 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.28m; Data Range: 20060906-20070930.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.16683, Lat: 23.73815 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.01m; Data Range: 20040918-20060905.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26132, Lat: 23.76897 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.96m; Data Range: 20040917-20060905.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26197, Lat: 23.76887 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.06m; Data Range: 20080915-20090614.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27163, Lat: 23.85675 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.92m; Data Range: 20061112-20070924.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.16685, Lat: 23.73815 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.13m; Data Range: 20060906-20081008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27506, Lat: 23.85620 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.30m; Data Range: 20091009-20100907.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.16747, Lat: 23.73812 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.05m; Data Range: 20081008-20100908.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27185, Lat: 23.85682 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.90m; Data Range: 20040918-20051009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26135, Lat: 23.76892 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.57m; Data Range: 20070930-20080915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.21990, Lat: 23.86595 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.10m; Data Range: 20040919-20060905.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.21970, Lat: 23.86607 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.05m; Data Range: 20080916-20100907.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.17971, Lat: 23.63880 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.36m; Data Range: 20080915-20100910.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.21967, Lat: 23.86611 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.00m; Data Range: 20030716-20040918.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27513, Lat: 23.85626 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.92m; Data Range: 20091009-20100907.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26140, Lat: 23.76891 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.00m; Data Range: 20021005-20030715.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.16685, Lat: 23.73815 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.00m; Data Range: 20030717-20040916.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.21967, Lat: 23.86611 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.00m; Data Range: 20020912-20030714.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27154, Lat: 23.85652 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.10m; Data Range: 20070925-20071110.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.18554, Lat: 23.63507 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 23.80m; Data Range: 20100514-20100909.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.17377, Lat: 23.64516 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.13m; Data Range: 20070930-20080915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26140, Lat: 23.76891 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.00m; Data Range: 20030716-20040916.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.17350, Lat: 23.64478 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.00m; Data Range: 20030717-20040919.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.18559, Lat: 23.63498 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 23.16m; Data Range: 20061001-20071001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27187, Lat: 23.85676 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.92m; Data Range: 20070925-20091009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.21967, Lat: 23.86607 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.05m; Data Range: 20060906-20080916.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.17377, Lat: 23.64515 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.83m; Data Range: 20080915-20100910.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.27505, Lat: 23.85625 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.62m; Data Range: 20070924-20080915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.17967, Lat: 23.63883 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.67m; Data Range: 20070930-20080915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.18554, Lat: 23.63507 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 23.77m; Data Range: 20080915-20090614.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.18562, Lat: 23.63503 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 23.77m; Data Range: 20091018-20100513.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.17373, Lat: 23.64516 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.13m; Data Range: 20060906-20070930.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, FFS; Long: -166.26198, Lat: 23.76883 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.28m; Data Range: 20091009-20100513.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. NOAA Climate Data Record of Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A) Mean Layer Temperature, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains three channel-based, monthly gridded atmospheric layer temperature Climate Data Records generated by merging nine MSU NOAA polar orbiting...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, OAH; Long: -158.23436, Lat: 21.53197 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.20m; Data Range: 20090902-20100715.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, GAR; Long: -167.99952, Lat: 24.99883 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Range: 20030719-20040919.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.04504, Lat: 05.87031 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20080402-20100412.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.72929, Lat: 25.75915 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.91m; Data Range: 20060910-20080920.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MOL; Long: -157.25236, Lat: 21.20307 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.36m; Data Range: 20081024-20101023.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -159.99661, Lat: -00.38210 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.61m; Data Range: 20080327-20100403.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.32334, Lat: 28.24437 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.50m; Data Range: 20021204-20030727.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -160.01552, Lat: -00.37926 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 15.24m; Data Range: 20080327-20100401.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.40177, Lat: 28.19357 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.22m; Data Range: 20060915-20080926.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -160.00832, Lat: -00.36893 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.30m; Data Range: 20060321-20080328.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.88215, Lat: 27.78250 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 12.50m; Data Range: 20060913-20060922.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, GAR; Long: -167.99958, Lat: 24.99883 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.36m; Data Range: 20040920-20060705.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -160.00804, Lat: -00.36902 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.40m; Data Range: 20080328-20080507.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.55499, Lat: 16.71490 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.70m; Data Range: 20040117-20060119.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, ROS; Long: -168.15342, Lat: -14.53775 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.40m; Data Range: 20080311-20100303.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, ZEA; Long: 145.85335, Lat: 16.89749 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 24.68m; Data Range: 20070526-20090505.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.12694, Lat: 05.86387 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 15.20m; Data Range: 20040402-20060328.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.53972, Lat: 25.38417 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.50m; Data Range: 20030720-20040920.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.88422, Lat: 25.94284 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.42m; Data Range: 20060927-20081004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34317, Lat: 28.41816 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.75m; Data Range: 20090916-20100918.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.48513, Lat: 16.74071 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.13m; Data Range: 20080201-20100125.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.78083, Lat: 27.95750 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20020927-20030728.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.34437, Lat: 28.21823 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.14m; Data Range: 20050701-20060915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.32575, Lat: 28.38175 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 12.50m; Data Range: 20090915-20100519.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.78085, Lat: 27.95766 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.22m; Data Range: 20060915-20061030.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.52683, Lat: 16.74804 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.00m; Data Range: 20040114-20060119.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.48875, Lat: 00.19178 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.37m; Data Range: 20080209-20100207.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.04044, Lat: 05.87450 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.18m; Data Range: 20080402-20100409.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, KIN; Long: -162.38180, Lat: 06.42888 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.18m; Data Range: 20080407-20100415.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.96097, Lat: 26.06337 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.61m; Data Range: 20060925-20081005.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.55502, Lat: 16.71490 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.74m; Data Range: 20080201-20100127.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.91583, Lat: 25.96762 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.36m; Data Range: 20081004-20090910.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.86494, Lat: 27.94438 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 35.36m; Data Range: 20070805-20080923.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.11275, Lat: 05.86657 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 12.19m; Data Range: 20090918-20100408.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.49964, Lat: 16.75956 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 8.84m; Data Range: 20080201-20100125.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.51376, Lat: 25.36694 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.27m; Data Range: 20060909-20080919.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.40178, Lat: 28.19358 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.91m; Data Range: 20041002-20050520.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.88112, Lat: 27.78202 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 23.16m; Data Range: 20060913-20060922.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.28268, Lat: 28.39066 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.20m; Data Range: 20060918-20080111.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81593, Lat: 27.85397 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.90m; Data Range: 20040928-20060912.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.12130, Lat: 05.88243 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.96m; Data Range: 20080403-20100411.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.96100, Lat: 26.06368 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.50m; Data Range: 20030726-20041008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.04503, Lat: 05.87029 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.21m; Data Range: 20060326-20070618.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, HOW; Long: -176.62133, Lat: 00.80660 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 3.00m; Data Range: 20060128-20080207.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.72941, Lat: 25.75893 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20030723-20040923.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.34457, Lat: 28.41858 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.75m; Data Range: 20041024-20060917.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, KIN; Long: -162.34219, Lat: 06.39240 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.60m; Data Range: 20040403-20060329.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.16859, Lat: 05.88377 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.51m; Data Range: 20080331-20100411.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, KUR; Long: -178.35620, Lat: 28.45155 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.12m; Data Range: 20081001-20100918.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.66913, Lat: 25.41957 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.58m; Data Range: 20080918-20090615.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.00206, Lat: 05.87637 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 32.61m; Data Range: 20080402-20100412.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.88089, Lat: 27.78168 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 37.49m; Data Range: 20060913-20060922.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.37492, Lat: 28.19637 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.02m; Data Range: 20060916-20080925.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, HOW; Long: -176.62216, Lat: 00.82351 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Range: 20040122-20060226.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.77935, Lat: 27.80267 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20080924-20100914.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81592, Lat: 27.85395 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.30m; Data Range: 20090923-20090925.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, BAK; Long: -176.47574, Lat: 00.20538 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.06m; Data Range: 20060202-20080210.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.89432, Lat: 27.91185 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 2.40m; Data Range: 20041001-20060802.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.06237, Lat: 05.88208 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 25.29m; Data Range: 20060324-20080227.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.06183, Lat: 05.88278 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.26m; Data Range: 20060324-20080330.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LIS; Long: -173.96100, Lat: 26.06368 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.50m; Data Range: 20020930-20030725.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.86492, Lat: 27.94435 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 35.05m; Data Range: 20060923-20070726.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, PAL; Long: -162.11364, Lat: 05.86635 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.20m; Data Range: 20090918-20100408.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, KIN; Long: -162.37968, Lat: 06.43320 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 8.23m; Data Range: 20080406-20100416.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.74816, Lat: 27.82180 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 21.64m; Data Range: 20080924-20100914.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, PHR; Long: -175.81595, Lat: 27.85396 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.62m; Data Range: 20060914-20080922.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, MAI; Long: -156.42031, Lat: 20.59198 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.90m; Data Range: 20060805-20071009.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, NEC; Long: -164.69775, Lat: 23.57152 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.07m; Data Range: 20050414-20060904.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); MHI, LAN; Long: -156.83705, Lat: 20.87186 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 13.11m; Data Range: 20081019-20101021.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -159.99113, Lat: -00.36327 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.75m; Data Range: 20060321-20080327.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, SAI; Long: 145.78947, Lat: 15.17485 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 19.20m; Data Range: 20080815-20090419.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Intersatellite Calibrated Clear-Sky HIRS Channel 12 Brightness Temperature, Version 2.6 (Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Inter-Satellite Calibrated Clear-Sky High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Channel 12 brightness temperatures...

  20. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Reflectance and Brightness Temperatures from AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-x), Version 5.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR reflectance and brightness temperatures was produced by the University of Wisconsin using the AVHRR Pathfinder...

  1. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, FDP; Long: 144.90023, Lat: 20.53725 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 31.70m; Data Range: 20070603-20090428.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  2. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.40181, Lat: 28.19361 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.00m; Data Range: 20030729-20041001.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, OFU; Long: -169.62662, Lat: -14.18175 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.80m; Data Range: 20040207-20060226.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, WAK; Long: 166.60452, Lat: 19.30868 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.52m; Data Range: 20070505-20090325.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TAU; Long: -169.41908, Lat: -14.23545 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 9.75m; Data Range: 20080303-20100313.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JAR; Long: -159.97228, Lat: -00.37500 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 30.70m; Data Range: 20060320-20080328.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, TUT; Long: -170.70257, Lat: -14.33050 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.20m; Data Range: 20040223-20060224.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MAR; Long: -170.51372, Lat: 25.36697 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 4.27m; Data Range: 20040921-20060909.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, MID; Long: -177.36784, Lat: 28.27774 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 0.30m; Data Range: 20020926-20030727.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, SWA; Long: -171.09092, Lat: -11.05855 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.00m; Data Range: 20040216-20060211.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  11. Seawater Temperature and Salinity Moored Time-Series Records, Collected During 2010 and 2011 in Vieques Sound and Virgin Passage (NODC Accession 0088063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea-Bird SBE37SM MicroCat Conductivity/Temperature (CT) recorders were deployed between March 2010 and April 2011 on shallow water moorings located in Vieques Sound,...

  12. Seawater Temperature and Salinity Moored Time-Series Records, Collected During 2010 and 2011 in Vieques Sound and Virgin Passage (NODC Accession 0077910)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea-Bird SBE37SM MicroCat Conductivity/Temperature (CT) recorders were deployed between March 2010 and April 2011 on shallow water moorings located in Vieques Sound,...

  13. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of GPS RO-Calibrated AMSU Channel 7 (Temperatures of Troposphere / Stratosphere, TTS), Version 1.0 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Data Records (CDR) for Channel 7 contains Radio Occulation (RO) calibrated brightness temperatures from AMSU-A channel 7 measurements at 54.9 GHz from...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, AGU; Long: 145.53723, Lat: 14.84778 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 8.23m; Data Range: 20070518-20090410.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, ROT; Long: 145.20680, Lat: 14.18284 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.36m; Data Range: 20070516-20090409.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); PRIA, JOH; Long: -169.49963, Lat: 16.75956 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.92m; Data Range: 20060120-20070618.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, SAR; Long: 145.78810, Lat: 16.69863 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 11.27m; Data Range: 20070526-20090420.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); AMSM, OFU; Long: -169.65220, Lat: -14.18020 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.10m; Data Range: 20060228-20080228.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); CNMI, ALA; Long: 145.81875, Lat: 17.58744 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.70m; Data Range: 20050916-20070527.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); NWHI, LAY; Long: -171.73891, Lat: 25.77957 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 1.22m; Data Range: 20060911-20070411.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  1. Carbide Transformation in Haynes 230 during Long-term Exposure at High Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Hyunmyung; Hong, Sunghoon; Jang, Changheui

    2014-01-01

    Long-term aging behaviors of a solid solution hardened Ni-base superalloy, Haynes 230 at high temperature have not been fully investigated yet. In this study, long-term aging tests of Haynes 230 was carried out to evaluate microstructure changes especially in carbide evolution. In addition, its consequential effects on tensile property such as tensile strength and elongation were discussed. In Haynes 230, a nucleation of the secondary carbides was dominant at 800 .deg. C ageing while growth at 900 .deg. C ageing. In addition, after aging at 800 .deg. C, transition of primary W-rich M 6 C carbides (break down) were observed and it showed high W content (up to 70 at.% W) compared to un-aged W-rich M 6 C carbides (around 30 at.% W). Coarsened Cr- and Ni-rich phase surrounded by carbide depleted region and high W-rich M 6 C carbide along the grain boundary were formed only at 900 .deg. C after long-term exposure above 10000 h. Tensile strength of aged Haynes 230 increased at 800 .deg. C while decreased at 900 .deg. C due to the formation of secondary carbide within the grains at 800 .deg. C. Decrease in elongation would be resulted from the coarsened and continuous carbides at the grain boundary as well as Cr- and Ni-rich phase along the grain boundary

  2. Creation of a long-term data record of total O3 - issues and challenges in prescribing the uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Li, J. Y.

    2012-12-01

    With the launch of the BUV instrument on NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite in April 1970, ozone became one of the first atmospheric variables to be measured from space with high accuracy. By 1980, the quality of total column ozone measured from the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite had improved to the point that it started to be used to identify poorly calibrated instruments in the venerable Dobson ground-based network. Now we have a total ozone record spanning 42 years created by more than a dozen instruments. We will discuss the issues and challenges that we have faced in creating a consistent long-term record and in providing uncertainty estimates. This work is not yet finished. We are currently developing a new algorithm (Version 9) that will be used to reprocess the entire record. The main motivation for developing this algorithm is not so much to improve the quality of the data, which is quite high already, but to provide better estimates of uncertainties when errors are spatially and temporally correlated, and to develop better techniques to catch "Black Swan" events (BSE). These are events that occur infrequently but cause errors larger than expected by Gaussian probability distribution. For example, the eruption of El Chichón revealed that our ozone algorithm had unexpected sensitivity to volcanic SO2, and evidence of the ozone hole was initially interpreted as a problem with the TOMS instrument. We also provide mathematical operators that can be applied by sophisticated users to compute their own uncertainties for their particular applications. This is necessary because uncertainties change in complex ways when the data are smoothed or averaged. The modern data archival system should be designed to accommodate such operators and provide software for using them.

  3. The long-term management of information and records on radioactive waste packages in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshall, I.R.; Wisbey, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that information associated with the creation, conditioning and packaging of radioactive waste must be maintained for a considerable period of time. During the retention period not only must the storage media be preserved, but the data must remain accessible and in a form that can be interpreted with minimum 'processing'. This will ensure, as far as practicable, that the information accurately represents the nature of the waste and its packaging, that the media employed is suitable for long-term storage and that the storage conditions provide a stable environment. Careful consideration must be given to the type and form of the retained information and the threats to its continued integrity. United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex), in association with experts in records media and management, has undertaken a programme of work to consider the range of media currently available, the threats to media integrity and the implications of a general move towards 'electronic' records. The results of this study are being used to develop an information management system strategy, capable of retaining data for all future phases of radioactive waste management. (author)

  4. A new manganese-based single-molecule magnet with a record-high antiferromagnetic phase transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yan; Li Yan-Rong; Li Rui-Yuan; Wang Yun-Ping

    2014-01-01

    We perform both dc and ac magnetic measurements on the single crystal of Mn 3 O(Et-sao) 3 (ClO 4 )(MeOH) 3 single-molecule magnet (SMM) when the sample is preserved in air for different durations. We find that, during the oxidation process, the sample develops into another SMM with a smaller anisotropy energy barrier and a stronger antiferromagnetic intermolecular exchange interaction. The antiferromagnetic transition temperature observed at 6.65 K in the new SMM is record-high for the antiferromagnetic phase transition in all the known SMMs. Compared to the original SMM, the only apparent change for the new SMM is that each molecule has lost three methyl groups as revealed by four-circle x-ray diffraction (XRD), which is thought to be the origin of the stronger antiferromagnetic intermolecular exchange interaction

  5. The high-temperature expansion of the classical Ising model with Sz2 term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Thomaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We derive the high-temperature expansion of the Helmholtz free energy up to order β17 of the one-dimensional spin-S Ising model, with single-ion anisotropy term, in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field. We show that the values of some thermodynamical functions for the ferromagnetic models, in the presence of a weak magnetic field, are not small corrections to their values with h=0. This model with S=3 was applied by Kishine et al. [J.-i. Kishine et al., Phys. Rev. B, 2006, 74, 224419] to analyze experimental data of the single-chain magnet [Mn (saltmen]2 [Ni(pac2 (py2] (PF62 for T<40 K. We show that for T<35 K the thermodynamic functions of the large-spin limit model are poor approximations to their analogous spin-3 functions.

  6. Long-term dynamics of OH * temperatures over central Europe: trends and solar correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kalicinsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the analysis of annual average OH* temperatures in the mesopause region derived from measurements of the Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer (GRIPS at Wuppertal (51° N, 7° E in the time interval 1988 to 2015. The new study uses a temperature time series which is 7 years longer than that used for the latest analysis regarding the long-term dynamics. This additional observation time leads to a change in characterisation of the observed long-term dynamics. We perform a multiple linear regression using the solar radio flux F10.7 cm (11-year cycle of solar activity and time to describe the temperature evolution. The analysis leads to a linear trend of (−0.089 ± 0.055 K year−1 and a sensitivity to the solar activity of (4.2 ± 0.9 K (100 SFU−1 (r2 of fit 0.6. However, one linear trend in combination with the 11-year solar cycle is not sufficient to explain all observed long-term dynamics. In fact, we find a clear trend break in the temperature time series in the middle of 2008. Before this break point there is an explicit negative linear trend of (−0.24 ± 0.07 K year−1, and after 2008 the linear trend turns positive with a value of (0.64 ± 0.33 K year−1. This apparent trend break can also be described using a long periodic oscillation. One possibility is to use the 22-year solar cycle that describes the reversal of the solar magnetic field (Hale cycle. A multiple linear regression using the solar radio flux and the solar polar magnetic field as parameters leads to the regression coefficients Csolar = (5.0 ± 0.7 K (100 SFU−1 and Chale = (1.8 ±  0.5 K (100 µT−1 (r2 = 0.71. The second way of describing the OH* temperature time series is to use the solar radio flux and an oscillation. A least-square fit leads to a sensitivity to the solar activity of (4.1 ± 0.8 K (100 SFU−1, a period P  =  (24.8 ± 3.3 years, and

  7. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    above and below average strength of the Aleutian Low pressure system. During periods of stronger low pressure, sea surface temperature anomalies are warm in the northeast Pacific and cool in the central and northwest Pacific, a condition referred to as the positive phase of the Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation (PDO). Historically, during positive phases of the PDO Alaska salmon abundance is generally high. Consistent with this pattern, records of reconstructed sockeye salmon generally show higher abundance during warm periods over the past 300 years. However, the long-term trend suggests generally higher abundance during the cooler Little Ice Age, which southern Alaska glacial records suggest occurred between about 1200 - 1900 AD. The apparent complexity of salmon-climate relationships may be due to several factors. Long-term paleoclimate records from this region suggest additional modes of North Pacific climate variability, relative to the PDO. In addition, data on primary and secondary production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean indicates that climatic forcing has a direct impact on lower trophic levels, which subsequently affects salmon production. Thus records of ocean productivity, which are currently unavailable, may provide a mechanistic linkage between climate change and salmon abundance. The long-term perspective provided by the paleodata suggest that historical observations provide a limited understanding of how Pacific salmon respond to climatic change, and point to important areas of research necessary to better predict future responses.

  8. Sea Surface Temperature Records Using Sr/Ca Ratios in a Siderastrea siderea Coral from SE Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargher, H. A.; Hughen, K. A.; Ossolinski, J. E.; Bretos, F.; Siciliano, D.; Gonzalez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability from Cuba remains relatively unknown compared to the rest of the Caribbean. Cuba sits near an inflection point in the spatial pattern of SST from the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and long SST records from the region could reveal changes in the influence of this climate system through time. A Siderastrea siderea coral from the Jardínes de la Reina in southern Cuba was drilled to obtain a 220 year long archive of environmental change. The genus Siderastrea has not been extensively studied as an SST archive, yet Sr/Ca ratios in the Cuban core show a clear seasonal signal and strong correlation to instrumental SST data (r2 = 0.86 and 0.36 for monthly and interannual (winter season) timescales, respectively). Annual growth rates (linear extension) of the coral are observed to have a minor influence on Sr/Ca variability, but do not show a direct correlation to SST on timescales from annual to multidecadal. Sr/Ca measurements from the Cuban coral are used to reconstruct monthly and seasonal (winter, summer) SST extending back more than two centuries. Wintertime SST in southern Cuba is compared to other coral Sr/Ca records of winter-season SST from locations sensitive to the NAO in order to investigate the stationarity of the NAO SST 'fingerprint' through time.

  9. Prediction of short-term and long-term VOC emissions from SBR bitumen-backed carpet under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Chen, Q.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two models for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carpet. One is a numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tech-nique for short-term predictions, the other an analytical model for long-term predictions. The numerical model can (1) deal with

  10. Cellulose Degradation at Alkaline Conditions: Long-Term Experiments at Elevated Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaus, M.A.; Van Loon, L.R.

    2004-04-01

    temperatures tested here. It may be hypothesised that the alkaline hydrolysis has even not been observed in the experiments. However, if this is true, cellulose degradation proceeded via another unknown type of reaction. Mass balances for carbon show that the large majority of reaction products found in solution can be explained by formation of isosaccharinic acids and other low-molecular weight carboxylic acids. With respect to long-term predictions for cellulose degradation at room temperature it can be concluded that the kinetic parameters for alkaline hydrolysis as proposed in the work of PAVASARS (Linkoping Studies in Arts and Science, 196, Linkoping University, Sweden, 1999) are too large and that complete cellulose degradation at these temperatures occurs only within time scales larger than hundreds of years. However, it is not possible from the experimental evidences, to corroborate the validity of a linear extrapolation (Arrhenius equation) of the reaction rates measured at temperatures between 140 and 190 o C to room temperature, from which it was previously concluded that complete cellulose degradation would take time spans of the order of millions of years. An interesting observation in the present experiments is the chemical instability of aisosaccharinic acid at 90 o C, which has been hypothetically interpreted as a fragmentation induced by the sorption of α-isosaccharinic acid on Ca(OH) 2 . Carbon mass balances show that α-isosaccharinic acid is thereby transformed to other lowmolecular weight carboxylic acids. Such a reaction would be an interesting long-term perspective for performance assessment of the disposal of cellulose-containing radioactive waste, in that it may reduce the concentration of organic compounds strongly complexing radionuclides. (author)

  11. Cellulose Degradation at Alkaline Conditions: Long-Term Experiments at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaus, M.A.; Van Loon, L.R

    2004-04-01

    hydrolysis at the temperatures tested here. It may be hypothesised that the alkaline hydrolysis has even not been observed in the experiments. However, if this is true, cellulose degradation proceeded via another unknown type of reaction. Mass balances for carbon show that the large majority of reaction products found in solution can be explained by formation of isosaccharinic acids and other low-molecular weight carboxylic acids. With respect to long-term predictions for cellulose degradation at room temperature it can be concluded that the kinetic parameters for alkaline hydrolysis as proposed in the work of PAVASARS (Linkoping Studies in Arts and Science, 196, Linkoping University, Sweden, 1999) are too large and that complete cellulose degradation at these temperatures occurs only within time scales larger than hundreds of years. However, it is not possible from the experimental evidences, to corroborate the validity of a linear extrapolation (Arrhenius equation) of the reaction rates measured at temperatures between 140 and 190{sup o}C to room temperature, from which it was previously concluded that complete cellulose degradation would take time spans of the order of millions of years. An interesting observation in the present experiments is the chemical instability of aisosaccharinic acid at 90{sup o}C, which has been hypothetically interpreted as a fragmentation induced by the sorption of {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid on Ca(OH){sub 2}. Carbon mass balances show that {alpha}-isosaccharinic acid is thereby transformed to other lowmolecular weight carboxylic acids. Such a reaction would be an interesting long-term perspective for performance assessment of the disposal of cellulose-containing radioactive waste, in that it may reduce the concentration of organic compounds strongly complexing radionuclides. (author)

  12. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  13. Ring and peg electrodes for minimally-Invasive and long-term sub-scalp EEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benovitski, Y B; Lai, A; McGowan, C C; Burns, O; Maxim, V; Nayagam, D A X; Millard, R; Rathbone, G D; le Chevoir, M A; Williams, R A; Grayden, D B; May, C N; Murphy, M; D'Souza, W J; Cook, M J; Williams, C E

    2017-09-01

    Minimally-invasive approaches are needed for long-term reliable Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to assist with epilepsy diagnosis, investigation and more naturalistic monitoring. This study compared three methods for long-term implantation of sub-scalp EEG electrodes. Three types of electrodes (disk, ring, and peg) were fabricated from biocompatible materials and implanted under the scalp in five ambulatory ewes for 3months. Disk electrodes were inserted into sub-pericranial pockets. Ring electrodes were tunneled under the scalp. Peg electrodes were inserted into the skull, close to the dura. EEG was continuously monitored wirelessly. High resolution CT imaging, histopathology, and impedance measurements were used to assess the status of the electrodes at the end of the study. EEG amplitude was larger in the peg compared with the disk and ring electrodes (pEEG, mechanical stability, and lower chewing artifact. Whereas, ring electrode arrays tunneled under the scalp enable minimal surgical techniques to be used for implantation and removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of short-term decrease in water temperature on body temperature and involvement of testosterone in steelhead and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Go; Munakata, Arimune; Yada, Takashi; Schreck, Carl B; Noakes, David L G; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    The Pacific salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss is separated into a migratory form (steelhead trout) and a non-migratory form (rainbow trout). A decrease in water temperature is likely a cue triggering downstream behavior in the migratory form, and testosterone inhibits onset of this behavior. To elucidate differences in sensitivity to water temperature decreases between the migratory and non-migratory forms and effect of testosterone on the sensitivity, we examined two experiments. In experiment 1, we compared changes in body temperature during a short-term decrease in water temperature between both live and dead steelhead and rainbow trout. In experiment 2, we investigated effects of testosterone on body temperature decrease in steelhead trout. Water temperature was decreased by 3°C in 30min. The body temperature of the steelhead decreased faster than that of the rainbow trout. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the decrease in body temperature between dead steelhead and rainbow trout specimens. The body temperature of the testosterone-treated steelhead trout decreased more slowly than that of control fish. Our results suggest that the migratory form is more sensitive to decreases in water temperature than the non-migratory form. Moreover, testosterone might play an inhibitory role in sensitivity to such decreases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prediction of Sea Surface Temperature Using Long Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Wang, Hui; Dong, Junyu; Zhong, Guoqiang; Sun, Xin

    2017-10-01

    This letter adopts long short-term memory(LSTM) to predict sea surface temperature(SST), which is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to use recurrent neural network to solve the problem of SST prediction, and to make one week and one month daily prediction. We formulate the SST prediction problem as a time series regression problem. LSTM is a special kind of recurrent neural network, which introduces gate mechanism into vanilla RNN to prevent the vanished or exploding gradient problem. It has strong ability to model the temporal relationship of time series data and can handle the long-term dependency problem well. The proposed network architecture is composed of two kinds of layers: LSTM layer and full-connected dense layer. LSTM layer is utilized to model the time series relationship. Full-connected layer is utilized to map the output of LSTM layer to a final prediction. We explore the optimal setting of this architecture by experiments and report the accuracy of coastal seas of China to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, we also show its online updated characteristics.

  16. Test Plan for Long-Term Operation of a Ten-Cell High Temperature Electrolysis Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-01-01

    This document defines a test plan for a long-term (2500 Hour) test of a ten-cell high-temperature electrolysis stack to be performed at INL during FY09 under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This test was originally planned for FY08, but was removed from our work scope as a result of the severe budget cuts in the FY08 NHI Program. The purpose of this test is to evaluate stack performance degradation over a relatively long time period and to attempt to identify some of the degradation mechanisms via post-test examination. This test will be performed using a planar ten-cell Ceramatec stack, with each cell having dimensions of 10 cm x 10 cm. The specific makeup of the stack will be based on the results of a series of shorter duration ten-cell stack tests being performed during FY08, funded by NGNP. This series of tests was aimed at evaluating stack performance with different interconnect materials and coatings and with or without brazed edge rails. The best performing stack from the FY08 series, in which five different interconnect/coating/edge rail combinations were tested, will be selected for the FY09 long-term test described herein

  17. Temperature - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  18. Long-term trends in stratospheric ozone, temperature, and water vapor over the Indian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Akhil Raj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the long-term trends in and variabilities of stratospheric ozone, water vapor and temperature over the Indian monsoon region using the long-term data constructed from multi-satellite (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS MLS and HALOE, 1993–2005, Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS, 2004–2015, Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER, 2002–2015 on board TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics observations covering the period 1993–2015. We have selected two locations, namely, Trivandrum (8.4° N, 76.9° E and New Delhi (28° N, 77° E, covering northern and southern parts of the Indian region. We also used observations from another station, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, for comparison. A decreasing trend in ozone associated with NOx chemistry in the tropical middle stratosphere is found, and the trend turned to positive in the upper stratosphere. Temperature shows a cooling trend in the stratosphere, with a maximum around 37 km over Trivandrum (−1.71 ± 0.49 K decade−1 and New Delhi (−1.15 ± 0.55 K decade−1. The observed cooling trend in the stratosphere over Trivandrum and New Delhi is consistent with Gadanki lidar observations during 1998–2011. The water vapor shows a decreasing trend in the lower stratosphere and an increasing trend in the middle and upper stratosphere. A good correlation between N2O and O3 is found in the middle stratosphere (∼ 10 hPa and poor correlation in the lower stratosphere. There is not much regional difference in the water vapor and temperature trends. However, upper stratospheric ozone trends over Trivandrum and New Delhi are different. The trend analysis carried out by varying the initial year has shown significant changes in the estimated trend.

  19. Short-term association between personal exposure to noise and heart rate variability: The RECORD MultiSensor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aarbaoui, Tarik; Méline, Julie; Brondeel, Ruben; Chaix, Basile

    2017-12-01

    Studies revealed long-term associations between noise exposure and cardiovascular health, but the underlying short-term mechanisms remain uncertain. To explore the concomitant and lagged short-term associations between personal exposure to noise and heart rate variability (HRV) in a real life setting in the Île-de-France region. The RECORD MultiSensor Study collected between July 2014 and June 2015 noise and heart rate data for 75 participants, aged 34-74 years, in their living environments for 7 days using a personal dosimeter and electrocardiography (ECG) sensor on the chest. HRV parameters and noise levels were calculated for 5-min windows. Short-term relationships between noise level and log-transformed HRV parameters were assessed using mixed effects models with a random intercept for participants and a temporal autocorrelation structure, adjusted for heart rate, physical activity (accelerometry), and short-term trends. An increase by one dB(A) of A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) was associated with a 0.97% concomitant increase of the Standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN) (95% CI: 0.92, 1.02), of 2.08% of the Low frequency band power (LF) (95% CI: 1.97, 2.18), of 1.30% of the High frequency band power (HF) (95% CI: 1.17, 1.43), and of 1.16% of the LF/HF ratio (95% CI: 1.10, 1.23). The analysis of lagged exposures to noise adjusted for the concomitant exposure illustrates the dynamic of recovery of the autonomic nervous system. Non-linear associations were documented with all HRV parameters with the exception of HF. Piecewise regression revealed that the association was almost 6 times stronger below than above 65 Leq dB(A) for the SDNN and LF/HF ratio. Personal noise exposure was found to be related to a concomitant increase of the overall HRV, with evidence of imbalance of the autonomic nervous system towards sympathetic activity, a pathway to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  20. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the ice-surface temperature (IST) we are developing a climate-data record (CDR) of monthly IST of the Greenland ice sheet, from 1982 to the present using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at 5-km resolution. "Clear-sky" surface temperature increases have been measured from the early 1980s to the early 2000s in the Arctic using AVHRR data, showing increases ranging from 0.57-0.02 (Wang and Key, 2005) to 0.72 0.10 deg C per decade (Comiso, 2006). Arctic warming has implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the ice sheet is near 0 deg C in the melt season and is thus vulnerable to more extensive melting (Hanna et al., 2008). The algorithm used for this work has a long history of measuring IST in the Arctic with AVHRR (Key and Haefliger, 1992). The data are currently available from 1981 to 2004 in the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset (Fowler et al., 2000). J. Key1NOAA modified the AVHRR algorithm for use with MODIS (Hall et al., 2004). The MODIS algorithm is now being processed over Greenland. Issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: time-series bias caused by cloud cover, and cross-calibration between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, time series of satellite ISTs do not necessarily correspond with actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with in-situ (see Koenig and Hall, in press) and automatic-weather station data (e.g., Shuman et al., 2001).

  1. Homogenization of Portuguese long-term temperature data series: Lisbon, Coimbra and Porto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Morozova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Three long-term temperature data series measured in Portugal were studied to detect and correct non-climatic homogeneity breaks and are now available for future studies of climate variability.

    Series of monthly minimum (Tmin and maximum (Tmax temperatures measured in the three Portuguese meteorological stations of Lisbon (from 1856 to 2008, Coimbra (from 1865 to 2005 and Porto (from 1888 to 2001 were studied to detect and correct non-climatic breaks. These series, together with monthly series of average temperature (Taver and temperature range (DTR derived from them, were tested in order to detect breaks, using firstly metadata, secondly a visual analysis, and thirdly four widely used homogeneity tests: von Neumann ratio test, Buishand test, standard normal homogeneity test, and Pettitt test. The homogeneity tests were used in absolute (using temperature series themselves and relative (using sea-surface temperature anomalies series obtained from HadISST2.0.0.0 close to the Portuguese coast or already corrected temperature series as reference series modes. We considered the Tmin, Tmax and DTR series as most informative for the detection of breaks due to the fact that Tmin and Tmax could respond differently to changes in position of a thermometer or other changes in the instrument's environment; Taver series have been used mainly as control.

    The homogeneity tests showed strong inhomogeneity of the original data series, which could have both internal climatic and non-climatic origins. Breaks that were identified by the last three mentioned homogeneity tests were compared with available metadata containing data such as instrument changes, changes in station location and environment, observation procedures, etc. Significant breaks (significance 95% or more that coincided with known dates of

  2. Effects of long-term elevated temperature on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisheng; Zhang, Lingling; Shi, Dongtao; Wei, Jing; Chang, Yaqing

    2017-01-01

    Increases in ocean temperature due to climate change are predicted to change the behaviors of marine invertebrates. Altered behaviors of keystone ecosystem engineers such as echinoderms will have consequences for the fitness of individuals, which are expected to flow on to the local ecosystem. Relatively few studies have investigated the behavioral responses of echinoderms to long-term elevated temperature. We investigated the effects of exposure to long-term (∼31 weeks) elevated temperature (∼3 °C above the ambient water temperature) on covering, sheltering and righting behaviors of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Long-term elevated temperature showed different effects on the three behaviors. It significantly decreased covering behavior, including both covering behavior reaction (time to first covering) and ability (number of covered sea urchins and number of shells used for covering). Conversely, exposure to long-term elevated temperature significantly increased sheltering behavior. Righting response in S. intermedius was not significantly different between temperature treatments. The results provide new information into behavioral responses of echinoderms to ocean warming. PMID:28348933

  3. Validation of PC-based Sound Card with Biopac for Digitalization of ECG Recording in Short-term HRV Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshkumar, K; Dilara, K; Maruthy, K N; Sundareswaren, L

    2016-07-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a simple and noninvasive technique capable of assessing autonomic nervous system modulation on heart rate (HR) in healthy as well as disease conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare (validate) the HRV using a temporal series of electrocardiograms (ECG) obtained by simple analog amplifier with PC-based sound card (audacity) and Biopac MP36 module. Based on the inclusion criteria, 120 healthy participants, including 72 males and 48 females, participated in the present study. Following standard protocol, 5-min ECG was recorded after 10 min of supine rest by Portable simple analog amplifier PC-based sound card as well as by Biopac module with surface electrodes in Leads II position simultaneously. All the ECG data was visually screened and was found to be free of ectopic beats and noise. RR intervals from both ECG recordings were analyzed separately in Kubios software. Short-term HRV indexes in both time and frequency domain were used. The unpaired Student's t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for the analysis using the R statistical software. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the values analyzed by means of the two devices for HRV. Correlation analysis revealed perfect positive correlation (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) between the values in time and frequency domain obtained by the devices. On the basis of the results of the present study, we suggest that the calculation of HRV values in the time and frequency domains by RR series obtained from the PC-based sound card is probably as reliable as those obtained by the gold standard Biopac MP36.

  4. Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in long-term time series and palaeoecological records: deep sea as a test bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Doi, Hideyuki; Wei, Chih-Lin; Danovaro, Roberto; Myhre, Sarah E

    2016-05-19

    The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) over long temporal scales is poorly understood. Here, we investigate biological monitoring and palaeoecological records on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales from a BEF framework by using deep sea, soft-sediment environments as a test bed. Results generally show positive BEF relationships, in agreement with BEF studies based on present-day spatial analyses and short-term manipulative experiments. However, the deep-sea BEF relationship is much noisier across longer time scales compared with modern observational studies. We also demonstrate with palaeoecological time-series data that a larger species pool does not enhance ecosystem stability through time, whereas higher abundance as an indicator of higher ecosystem functioning may enhance ecosystem stability. These results suggest that BEF relationships are potentially time scale-dependent. Environmental impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning may be much stronger than biodiversity impacts on ecosystem functioning at long, decadal-millennial, time scales. Longer time scale perspectives, including palaeoecological and ecosystem monitoring data, are critical for predicting future BEF relationships on a rapidly changing planet. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. The global historical climatology network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, and pressure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, R.S.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Peterson, T.C.; Steurer, P.M.; Heim, R.R. Jr.; Karl, T.R.; Eischeid, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the past several decades. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, many different organizations and researchers have compiled these data sets, making it confusing and time consuming for individuals to acquire the most comprehensive data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, DOE's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) established the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for as dense a network of global stations as possible. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global data base; to subject the data to rigorous quality control; and to update, enhance, and distribute the data set at regular intervals. The purpose of this paper is to describe the compilation and contents of the GHCN data base (i.e., GHCN Version 1.0)

  6. Long-Term Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Wrought Commercial Alloys at High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bingtao [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation resistance of a high-temperature alloy is dependent upon sustaining the formation of a protective scale, which is strongly related to the alloying composition and the oxidation condition. The protective oxide scale only provides a finite period of oxidation resistance owing to its eventual breakdown, which is especially accelerated under thermal cycling conditions. This current study focuses on the long-term cyclic oxidation behavior of a number of commercial wrought alloys. The alloys studied were Fe- and Ni-based, containing different levels of minor elements, such as Si, Al, Mn, and Ti. Oxidation testing was conducted at 1000 and 1100 C in still air under both isothermal and thermal cycling conditions (1-day and 7-days). The specific aspects studied were the oxidation behavior of chromia-forming alloys that are used extensively in industry. The current study analyzed the effects of alloying elements, especially the effect of minor element Si, on cyclic oxidation resistance. The behavior of oxide scale growth, scale spallation, subsurface changes, and chromium interdiffusion in the alloy were analyzed in detail. A novel model was developed in the current study to predict the life-time during cyclic oxidation by simulating oxidation kinetics and chromium interdiffusion in the subsurface of chromia-forming alloys.

  7. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government) marine data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J.; Pinnegar, John K.; Maxwell, David L.; Dye, Stephen R.; Fernand, Liam J.; Flatman, Stephen; Williams, Oliver J.; Rogers, Stuart I.

    2018-01-01

    The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom). Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with > 1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys), through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures), although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN) database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing hydrological conditions

  8. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government marine data systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Morris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom. Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with  >  1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys, through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures, although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing

  9. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STRs) at selected coral reef locations across the Pacific Ocean from 2001-09-20 to 2012-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0162471)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water temperature data are collected using subsurface temperature recorders (STRs) that aid in the monitoring of seawater temperature variability at permanent coral...

  10. Evaluation of Long-term Aerosol Data Records from SeaWiFS over Land and Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettenhausen, C.; Hsu, C.; Jeong, M.; Huang, J.

    2010-12-01

    Deserts around the globe produce mineral dust aerosols that may then be transported over cities, across continents, or even oceans. These aerosols affect the Earth’s energy balance through direct and indirect interactions with incoming solar radiation. They also have a biogeochemical effect as they deliver scarce nutrients to remote ecosystems. Large dust storms regularly disrupt air traffic and are a general nuisance to those living in transport regions. In the past, measuring dust aerosols has been incomplete at best. Satellite retrieval algorithms were limited to oceans or vegetated surfaces and typically neglected desert regions due to their high surface reflectivity in the mid-visible and near-infrared wavelengths, which have been typically used for aerosol retrievals. The Deep Blue aerosol retrieval algorithm was developed to resolve these shortcomings by utilizing the blue channels from instruments such as the Sea-Viewing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to infer aerosol properties over these highly reflective surfaces. The surface reflectivity of desert regions is much lower in the blue channels and thus it is easier to separate the aerosol and surface signals than at the longer wavelengths used in other algorithms. More recently, the Deep Blue algorithm has been expanded to retrieve over vegetated surfaces and oceans as well. A single algorithm can now follow dust from source to sink. In this work, we introduce the SeaWiFS instrument and the Deep Blue aerosol retrieval algorithm. We have produced global aerosol data records over land and ocean from 1997 through 2009 using the Deep Blue algorithm and SeaWiFS data. We describe these data records and validate them with data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We also show the relative performance compared to the current MODIS Deep Blue operational aerosol data in desert regions. The current results are encouraging and this dataset will

  11. Can climate sensitivity be estimated from short-term relationships of top-of-atmosphere net radiation and surface temperature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bing; Min Qilong; Sun Wenbo; Hu Yongxiang; Fan, Tai-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the knowledge in climate radiative feedbacks is critical for current climate studies. This work focuses on short-term relationships between global mean surface temperature and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) net radiation. The relationships may be used to characterize the climate feedback as suggested by some recent studies. As those recent studies, an energy balance model with ocean mixed layer and both radiative and non-radiative heat sources is used here. The significant improvement of current model is that climate system memories are considered. Based on model simulations, short-term relationship between global mean surface temperature and TOA net radiation (or the linear striation feature as suggested by previous studies) might represent climate feedbacks when the system had no memories. However, climate systems with the same short-term feedbacks but different memories would have a similar linear striation feature. This linear striation feature reflects only fast components of climate feedbacks and may not represent the total climate feedback even when the memory length of climate systems is minimal. The potential errors in the use of short-term relationships in estimations of climate sensitivity could be big. In short time scales, fast climate processes may overwhelm long-term climate feedbacks. Thus, the climate radiative feedback parameter obtained from short-term data may not provide a reliable estimate of climate sensitivity. This result also suggests that long-term observations of global surface temperature and TOA radiation are critical in the understanding of climate feedbacks and sensitivities.

  12. Evolution of extreme temperature events in short term climate projection for Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Enrique; Dosio, Alessandro; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Extreme events of maximum and minimum temperatures are a main hazard for agricultural production in Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose, in this study we analyze projections of their evolution that could be valid for the next decade, represented in this study by the 30-year period 2004-2034 (target period). For this purpose two kinds of data were used in this study: 1) observations from the station network of AEMET (Spanish National Meteorological Agency) for five Spanish locations, and 2) simulated data at a resolution of 50 ×50 km horizontal grid derived from the outputs of twelve Regional Climate Models (RCMs) taken from project ENSEMBLES (van der Linden and Mitchell, 2009), with a bias correction (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) regarding the observational dataset Spain02 (Herrera et al., 2012). To validate the simulated climate, the available period of observations was compared to a baseline period (1964-1994) of simulated climate for all locations. Then, to analyze the changes for the present/very next future, probability of extreme temperature events for 2004-2034 were compared to that of the baseline period. Although only minor changes are expected, small variations in variability may have a significant impact in crop performance. The objective of the work is to evaluate the utility of these short term projections for potential users, as for instance insurance companies. References Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116,D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research,Volume 117, D17, doi: 0.1029/2012JD017968 Herrera et. al. (2012) Development and Analysis of a 50 year high

  13. Links between meteorological conditions and spatial/temporal variations in long-term isotope records from the Austrian precipitation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, A.; Scheifinger, H.; Kralik, M.; Papesch, W.; Rank, D.; Stichler, W.

    2002-01-01

    The isotope records from the Austrian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (ANIP) show significant but not uniform long-term trends. While the 10-year running means of some mountain stations exhibit a pronounced increase in δ 18 O of about 1 per mille since 1975, the change of δ 18 O at the valley stations is much lower. There are also differences in the time behaviour. The differences in the δ 18 O-values of sampling stations at similar altitudes can be explained by different origins of the air moisture (Atlantic or Mediterranean influence). Furthermore, a significant difference in the behaviour of the deuterium excess at neighbouring mountain and valley stations has been observed. There is a slight increase of the yearly mean of the deuterium excess with increasing altitude of the sampling station. But moreover, the seasonal pattern of the deuterium excess is quite different. While the valley stations exhibit the expected minimum in summer, the mountain stations show a distinct maximum between June and October. As a first step into a comprehensive analysis of the meteorological effects on the isotope patterns, the role of advection of different air masses is studied by trajectory statistics. Back trajectories, based on the three dimensional wind fields of the ECMWF model, are calculated for each hour within each precipitation event. Thus, the frequency of the origin of air masses and their contribution to the isotope patterns of the monthly precipitation samples are studied for two selected mountain stations north and south of the main ridge of the Alps. (author)

  14. Long-term Satellite Observations of Cloud and Aerosol Radiative Effects Using the (A)ATSR Satellite Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M.; McGarragh, G.; Thomas, G.; Povey, A.; Proud, S.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Radiative forcing by clouds, aerosols, and their interactions constitute some of the largest sources of uncertainties in the climate system (Chapter 7 IPCC, 2013). It is essential to understand the past through examination of long-term satellite observation records to provide insight into the uncertainty characteristics of these radiative forcers. As part of the ESA CCI (Climate Change Initiative) we have recently implemented a broadband radiative flux algorithm (known as BUGSrad) into the Optimal Retrieval for Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC) scheme. ORAC achieves radiative consistency of its aerosol and cloud products through an optimal estimation scheme and is highly versatile, enabling retrievals for numerous satellite sensors: ATSR, MODIS, VIIRS, AVHRR, SLSTR, SEVIRI, and AHI. An analysis of the 17-year well-calibrated Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) data is used to quantify trends in cloud and aerosol radiative effects over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. The El Niño Southern Oscillation stands out as the largest contributing mode of variability to the radiative energy balance (long wave and shortwave fluxes) at the top of the atmosphere. Furthermore, trends in planetary albedo show substantial decreases across the Arctic Ocean (likely due to the melting of sea ice and snow) and modest increases in regions dominated by stratocumulus (e.g., off the coast of California) through notable increases in cloud fraction and liquid water path. Finally, changes in volcanic activity and biomass burning aerosol over this period show sizeable radiative forcing impacts at local-scales. We will demonstrate that radiative forcing from aerosols and clouds have played a significant role in the identified key climate processes using 17 years of satellite observational data.

  15. Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record: A New Era for Gridded Passive Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Long, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1978, the satellite passive microwave data record has been a mainstay of remote sensing of the cryosphere, providing twice-daily, near-global spatial coverage for monitoring changes in hydrologic and cryospheric parameters that include precipitation, soil moisture, surface water, vegetation, snow water equivalent, sea ice concentration and sea ice motion. Up until recently, the available global gridded passive microwave data sets have not been produced consistently. Various projections (equal-area, polar stereographic), a number of different gridding techniques were used, along with various temporal sampling as well as a mix of Level 2 source data versions. In addition, not all data from all sensors have been processed completely and they have not been processed in any one consistent way. Furthermore, the original gridding techniques were relatively primitive and were produced on 25 km grids using the original EASE-Grid definition that is not easily accommodated in modern software packages. As part of NASA MEaSUREs, we have re-processed all data from SMMR, all SSM/I-SSMIS and AMSR-E instruments, using the most mature Level 2 data. The Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record (ESDR) gridded data are now available from the NSIDC DAAC. The data are distributed as netCDF files that comply with CF-1.6 and ACDD-1.3 conventions. The data have been produced on EASE 2.0 projections at smoothed, 25 kilometer resolution and spatially-enhanced resolutions, up to 3.125 km depending on channel frequency, using the radiometer version of the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (rSIR) method. We expect this newly produced data set to enable scientists to better analyze trends in coastal regions, marginal ice zones and in mountainous terrain that were not possible with the previous gridded passive microwave data. The use of the EASE-Grid 2.0 definition and netCDF-CF formatting allows users to extract compliant geotiff images and

  16. CONTEMPT-4MOD3, LWR Containment Long-Term Pressure Distribution and Temperature Distribution in LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Economos, C.; Lehner, J.R.; Maise, G.; Ng, K.K.; Mirsky, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: CONTEMPT-4/MOD5 describes the response of multi-compartment containment systems subjected to postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The program can accommodate both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) containment systems. Also, both design basis accident (DBA) and degraded core type LOCA conditions can be analyzed. The program calculates the time variation of compartment pressures, temperatures, and mass and energy inventories due to inter-compartment mass and energy exchange taking into account user- supplied descriptions of compartments, inter-compartment junction flow areas, LOCA source terms, and user-selected problem features. Analytical models available to describe containment systems include models for containment fans and pumps, cooling sprays, heat conducting structures, sump drains, PWR ice condensers, and BWR pressure suppression systems. To accommodate degraded core type accidents, analytical models for hydrogen combustion within compartments and energy transfer due to gas radiation are also provided. CONTEMPT4/MOD6 is an update of previous CONTEMPT4 versions. Improvements in CONTEMPT4/MOD6 over CONTEMPT4/MOD3 include coding of a BWR pressure suppression system model, a hydrogen/carbon monoxide burn model, a gas radiation heat transfer model, a user specified variable junction (leakage) area as a function of pressure or time, additional heat transfer coefficient options for heat structures, generalized initial compartment conditions for inerted containment, an alternative containment spray model and spray carry-over capability. Also, the thermodynamic properties routines have been extended to accommodate the higher temperature and multicomponent gas mixtures associated with combustion. In addition, reduced running time is achieved by incorporation of an optional implicit numerical algorithm for junction flow. This makes economically feasible the analysis of very long

  17. Long-Term Degradation Testing of High-Temperature Electrolytic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.M. Stoots; J.E. O' Brien; J.S. Herring; G.K. Housley; D.G. Milobar; M.S. Sohal

    2009-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed a new cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. This report presents results of the INL's testing of this new solid oxide cell design as an electrolyzer. Gas composition, operating voltage, and other parameters were varied during testing. Results to date show the NASA cell to be a promising design for both high power-to-weight fuel cell and electrolyzer applications.

  18. Long-Term Degradation Testing of High-Temperature Electrolytic Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoots, C.M.; O'Brien, J.E.; Herring, J.S.; Housley, G.K.; Milobar, D.G.; Sohal, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900 C. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, with an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ∼10 ∼m thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ∼1400 (micro)m thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900 C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed a new cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. This report presents results of the INL's testing of this new solid oxide cell design as an electrolyzer. Gas composition, operating voltage, and other parameters were varied during testing. Results to date show the NASA cell to be a promising design for both high power-to-weight fuel cell and electrolyzer applications.

  19. Long-term changes of South China Sea surface temperatures in winter and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Gyu; Choi, Ara

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing available atmospheric and oceanographic reanalysis data sets, the long-term trend in South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) between 1950 and 2008 and the governing processes are investigated. Both winter and summer SST increased by comparable amounts, but the warming patterns and the governing processes were different. Strong warming in winter occurred in a deep central area, and during summer in the southern region. In winter the net heat flux into the sea increased, contributing to the warming. The spatial pattern of the heat flux, however, was different from that of the warming. Heat flux increased over the coastal area where warming was weaker, but decreased over the deeper area where warming was stronger. The northeasterly monsoon wind weakened lowering the shoreward Ekman transport and the sea surface height gradient. The cyclonic gyre which transports cold northern water to the south weakened, thereby warming the ocean. The effect was manifested more strongly along the southward western boundary current inducing warming in the deep central part. In summer however, the net surface heat flux decreased and could not contribute to the warming. Over the southern part of the SCS, the weakening of the southwesterly summer monsoon reduced southeastward Ekman transport, which is parallel to the mean SST gradient. Southeastward cold advection due to Ekman transport was reduced, thereby warming the surface near the southeastern boundary of the SCS. Upwelling southeast of Vietnam was also weakened, raising the SST east of Vietnam contributing to the southern summer warming secondarily. The weakening of the winds in each season was the ultimate cause of the warming, but the responses of the ocean that lead to the warming were different in winter and summer.

  20. Predicting the impact of long-term temperature changes on the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis: a mechanistic model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara D Mangal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many parasites of medical and veterinary importance are transmitted by cold-blooded intermediate hosts or vectors, the abundance of which will vary with ambient temperatures, potentially altering disease prevalence. In particular, if global climate change will increase mean ambient temperature in a region endemic with a human pathogen then it is possible that the incidence of disease will similarly increase. Here we examine this possibility by using a mathematical model to explore the effects of increasing long-term mean ambient temperature on the prevalence and abundance of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of schistosomiasis in humans.The model showed that the impact of temperature on disease prevalence and abundance is not straightforward; the mean infection burden in humans increases up to 30 degrees C, but then crashes at 35 degrees C, primarily due to increased mortalities of the snail intermediate host. In addition, increased temperatures changed the dynamics of disease from stable, endemic infection to unstable, epidemic cycles at 35 degrees C. However, the prevalence of infection was largely unchanged by increasing temperatures. Temperature increases also affected the response of the model to changes in each parameter, indicating certain control strategies may become less effective with local temperature changes. At lower temperatures, the most effective single control strategy is to target the adult parasites through chemotherapy. However, as temperatures increase, targeting the snail intermediate hosts, for example through molluscicide use, becomes more effective.These results show that S. mansoni will not respond to increased temperatures in a linear fashion, and the optimal control strategy is likely to change as temperatures change. It is only through a mechanistic approach, incorporating the combined effects of temperature on all stages of the life-cycle, that we can begin to predict the consequences of climate

  1. The effect of long-term impact of elevated temperature on changes in the microstructure of inconel 740H alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sroka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of investigations on microstructure changes after the long-term impact of temperature. The microstructure investigations were carried out by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The qualitative and quantitative identification of the existing precipitates was carried out using X-ray phase composition analysis. The effect of elevated temperature on precipitation processes of test material were described. The obtained results of investigations form part of the material characteristics of new-generation alloys, which can be indirectly associated with the stability of functional properties under the simultaneous effect of high temperature and stress.

  2. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integration of ambient seismic noise monitoring, displacement and meteorological measurements to infer the temperature-controlled long-term evolution of a complex prone-to-fall cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Baillet, L.; Comina, C.; Jongmans, D.; Larose, E.; Valentin, J.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring the temporal evolution of resonance frequencies and velocity changes detected from ambient seismic noise recordings can help in recognizing reversible and irreversible modifications within unstable rock volumes. With this aim, the long-term ambient seismic noise data set acquired at the potentially unstable cliff of Madonna delSasso (NW Italian Alps) was analysed in this study, using both spectral analysis and cross-correlation techniques. Noise results were integrated and compared with direct displacement measurements and meteorological data, to understand the long-term evolution of the cliff. No irreversible modifications in the stability of the site were detected over the monitored period. Conversely, daily and seasonal air temperature fluctuations were found to control resonance frequency values, amplitudes and directivities and to induce reversible velocity changes within the fractured rock mass. The immediate modification in the noise parameters due to temperature fluctuations was interpreted as the result of rock mass thermal expansion and contraction, inducing variations in the contact stiffness along the fractures isolating two unstable compartments. Differences with previous case studies were highlighted in the long-term evolution of noise spectral amplitudes and directivities, due to the complex 3-D fracture setting of the site and to the combined effects of the two unstable compartments.

  4. Long-term strength of claddings made of E110 in the temperature range of 400-570 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobylyansky, G.; Shamardin, V.; Eremin, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the data on the initial stage of the in-sight into the mechanism of long-term strength of spent fuel rod claddings in the temperature range 400-570 0 C and also their comparison with corresponding mechanism of irradiated in the inert environment specimens and unirradiated ones. A set of test results in the temperature range 400-570 0 C of non-irradiated and irradiated in BOR-60 specimens and also of the WWER-1000 fuel element claddings irradiated up to a burnup of 29-47 MWd/kgU is approximated by Larson-Miller parametric dependence in the first approximation that allows the long-term strength data to be extrapolated and interpolated onto the unknown value regions of stress, temperature and time. The time before damage of the fuel element claddings irradiated up to ∼ 29MWd/kgU in the temperature range 540-570 0 C is higher than that of non-irradiated tubular specimens and irradiated ones up to fast neutron fluence (1-2)x10 22 cm -2 (E >0.1 MeV). With temperature decreasing to 673 K, the long-term strength of the claddings irradiated up to ∼ 47 MWd/kgU is lower than it can be expected from the extrapolation of high-temperature data obtained with the irradiated specimens. Now, the bulk of experimental data on the long-term strength of the claddings made of E110 alloy makes it possible to provide only preliminary estimation for the validation of parameters typical of the deviation from the normal operation conditions; emergencies and accidental situations; dry and wet storage and also transportation. The experiments should be continued to accumulate missing data, in particular, tests of fuel element claddings irradiated up to high burnup at temperatures ranging 300-400 0 C and stresses, which are significantly lower than the yield stress

  5. Towards a long-term Science Exploitation Plan for the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer on Sentinel-3 and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, John J.; Llewellyn-Jones, David

    2014-05-01

    The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on Sentinel-3 is the latest satellite instrument in a series of dual-angle optical and thermal sensors, the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs). Operating on Sentinel-3, the SLSTR has a number of significant improvements compared to the original ATSRs including wider swaths for nadir and dual angles, emphasis on all surface temperature domains, dedicated fire channels and additional cloud channels. The SLSTR therefore provides some excellent opportunities to extend science undertaken with the ATSRs whilst also providing long-term data sets to investigate climate change. The European Space Agency, together with the Department of Energy and Climate Change, sponsored the production of an Exploitation Plan for the ATSRs. In the last year, this been extended to cover the SLSTR also. The plan enables UK and European member states to plan activities related to SLSTR in a long-term context. Covering climate change, oceanography, land surface, atmosphere and cryosphere science, particular attention is paid to the exploitation of long-term data sets. In the case of SLSTR, relevant products include sea, land, lake and ice surface temperatures; aerosols and clouds; fires and gas flares; land surface reflectances. In this presentation, the SLSTR and ATSR science Exploitation Plan will be outlined with emphasis on SLSTR science opportunities, on appropriate co-ordinating mechanisms and on example implementation plans. Particular attention will be paid to the challenges of linking ATSR records with SLSTR to provide consistent long-term data sets, and on the international context of such data sets. The exploitation plan approach to science may prove relevant and useful for other Sentinel instruments.

  6. Long-term exposure to slightly elevated air temperature alleviates the negative impacts of short term waterlogging stress by altering nitrogen metabolism in cotton leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haimiao; Chen, Yinglong; Xu, Bingjie; Hu, Wei; Snider, John L; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhao, Wenqing; Wang, Shanshan; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2018-02-01

    Short-term waterlogging and chronic elevated temperature occur frequently in the Yangtze River Valley, yet the effects of these co-occurring environments on nitrogen metabolism of the subtending leaf (a major source leaf for boll development) have received little attention. In this study, plants were exposed to two temperature regimes (31.6/26.5 °C and 34.1/29.0 °C) and waterlogging events (0 d, 3 d, 6 d) during flowering and boll development. The results showed that the effects of waterlogging stress and elevated temperature in isolation on nitrogen metabolism were quite different. Waterlogging stress not only limited NR (EC 1.6.6.1) and GS (EC 6.3.1.2) activities through the down-regulation of GhNR and GhGS expression for amino acid synthesis, but also promoted protein degradation by enhanced protease activity and peptidase activity, leading to lower organ and total biomass (reduced by 12.01%-27.63%), whereas elevated temperature inhibited protein degradation by limited protease activity and peptidase activity, promoting plant biomass accumulation. Furthermore, 2-3 °C chronic elevated temperature alleviated the negative impacts of a brief (3 d) waterlogging stress on cotton leaves, with the expression of GhNiR up-regulated, the activities of NR, GS and GOGAT (EC 1.4.7.1) increased and the activities of protease and peptidase decreased, leading to higher protein concentration and enhanced leaf biomass for EW 3 relative to AW 3 . The results of the study suggested that exposure to slightly elevated air temperature improves the cotton plants' ability to recover from short-term (3 d) waterlogging stress by sustaining processes associated with nitrogen assimilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Low-temperature District Heating Concepts in a Long-Term Energy System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Yang, Xiaochen

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy systems. This study compares three alternative concepts for DH temperature level: Low temperature (55/25 °C), Ultra-low temperature with electric boosting (45/25 °C), and Ultra-low temperature with heat pump boosting (35/20 °C) taking into account the grid losses, production efficiencies......District heating (DH) systems are important components in an energy efficient heat supply. With increasing amounts of renewable energy, the foundation for DH is changing and the approach to its planning will have to change. Reduced temperatures of DH are proposed as a solution to adapt it to future...... and building requirements. The scenarios are modelled and analysed in the analysis tool EnergyPLAN and compared on primary energy supply and socioeconomic costs. The results show that the low temperature solution (55/25°C) has the lowest costs, reducing the total costs by about 100 M€/year in 2050....

  8. Little Ice Age versus Present Day: Comparison of Temperature, Precipitation and Seasonality in Speleothem Records from the Han-sur-Lesse Cave, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenberge, S.; Van Opdenbosch, J.; Van Rampelbergh, M.; Verheyden, S.; Keppens, E.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Claeys, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Proserpine stalagmite is a 2 m large, tabular-shaped speleothem located in the Han-sur-Lesse cave in Belgium. The speleothem formed over the last 1000 years and is still growing. High-accuracy U/Th datings have indicated exceptionally high growth-rates of up to 2 mm per year. This, together with a well expressed annual layering, makes the Proserpine stalagmite an ideal candidate for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions of the last millennium. Previous work, including over 10 years of cave monitoring, has already learned us how short-term, i.e. decadal to seasonal, climate variations are incorporated within speleothem calcite from the Han-sur-Lesse cave system. It has been shown that δ18O and δ13C stable isotopes and trace element proxies of recently formed calcite reflect seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation of the near-cave environment (Verheyden et al, 2008; Van Rampelbergh et al., 2014). Now, this knowledge was used to infer local climate parameters further back in time to the period of +/- 1620-1630 CE, corresponding to one of the cold peaks within the Little Ice Age. Speleothem calcite was sampled at sub-annual resolution, with approximately 11 samples per year, for stable isotope analysis. LA-ICP-MS and µXRF analyses resulted in time series of trace elements. Preliminary results indicate a well expressed seasonal signal in δ13C and trace element composition but a multi-annual to decadal trend in δ18O. This combined proxy study eventually enables comparison of the expression of seasonality and longer term climate variations between a Little Ice Age cold peak and Present Day. References: Verheyden, S. et al., 2008, Monitoring climatological, hydrological and geochemical parameters in the Père Noël cave (Belgium): implication for the interpretation of speleothem isotopic and geochemical time-series. International Journal of Speleology, 37(3), 221-234. Van Rampelbergh, M. et al., 2014, Seasonal variations recorded in cave

  9. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method to...

  10. Temperature effect on hydrocarbon deposition on molybdenum mirrors under ITER-relevant long-term plasma operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.; Litnovsky, A.; Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Westerhout, J.; Zoethout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Optical diagnostics in ITER will rely on mirrors near the plasma and the deterioration of the reflectivity is a concern. The effect of temperature on the deposition efficiency of hydrocarbons under long-term operation conditions similar to ITER was investigated in the linear plasma generator

  11. Immersion-scanning-tunneling-microscope for long-term variable-temperature experiments at liquid-solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Oliver; Heckl, Wolfgang M.; Lackinger, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Fundamental insights into the kinetics and thermodynamics of supramolecular self-assembly on surfaces are uniquely gained by variable-temperature high-resolution Scanning-Tunneling-Microscopy (STM). Conventionally, these experiments are performed with standard ambient microscopes extended with heatable sample stages for local heating. However, unavoidable solvent evaporation sets a technical limit on the duration of these experiments, hence prohibiting long-term experiments. These, however, would be highly desirable to provide enough time for temperature stabilization and settling of drift but also to study processes with inherently slow kinetics. To overcome this dilemma, we propose a STM that can operate fully immersed in solution. The instrument is mounted onto the lid of a hermetically sealed heatable container that is filled with the respective solution. By closing the container, both the sample and microscope are immersed in solution. Thereby solvent evaporation is eliminated and an environment for long-term experiments with utmost stable and controllable temperatures between room-temperature and 100 °C is provided. Important experimental requirements for the immersion-STM and resulting design criteria are discussed, the strategy for protection against corrosive media is described, the temperature stability and drift behavior are thoroughly characterized, and first long-term high resolution experiments at liquid-solid interfaces are presented.

  12. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from AVHRR Pathfinder, Version 5.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 Sea Surface Temperature data set (PFV52) is a collection of global, twice-daily 4km sea surface temperature data produced in a...

  13. Robustness of a rhythmic circuit to short- and long-term temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lamont S; Taylor, Adam L; Rinberg, Anatoly; Marder, Eve

    2012-07-18

    Recent computational and experimental work has shown that similar network performance can result from variable sets of synaptic and intrinsic properties. Because temperature is a global perturbation that differentially influences every biological process within the nervous system, one might therefore expect that individual animals would respond differently to temperature. Nonetheless, the phase relationships of the pyloric rhythm of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the crab, Cancer borealis, are remarkably invariant between 7 and 23°C (Tang et al., 2010). Here, we report that, when isolated STG preparations were exposed to more extreme temperature ranges, their networks became nonrhythmic, or "crashed", in a reversible fashion. Animals were acclimated for at least 3 weeks at 7, 11, or 19°C. When networks from the acclimated animals were perturbed by acute physiologically relevant temperature ramps (11-23°C), the network frequency and phase relationships were independent of the acclimation group. At high acute temperatures (>23°C), circuits from the cold-acclimated animals produced less-regular pyloric rhythms than those from warm-acclimated animals. At high acute temperatures, phase relationships between pyloric neurons were more variable from animal to animal than at moderate acute temperatures, suggesting that individual differences across animals in intrinsic circuit parameters are revealed at high temperatures. This shows that individual and variable neuronal circuits can behave similarly in normal conditions, but their behavior may diverge when confronted with extreme external perturbations.

  14. Admission body temperature predicts long-term mortality after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Rungby, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is considered crucial in the management of acute stroke patients. Recently hypothermia applied as a therapy for stroke has been demonstrated to be feasible and safe in acute stroke patients. In the present study, we investigated the predictive role of admission body temperature...

  15. Long-term creep behavior of high-temperature gas turbine materials under constant and variable stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granacher, J.; Preussler, T.

    1987-01-01

    Within the framework of the documented research project, extensive creep rupture tests were carried out with characteristic, high-temperature gas turbine materials for establishment of improved design data. In the range of the main application temperatures and in stress ranges down to application-relevant values the tests extended over a period of about 40,000 hours. In addition, long-term annealing tests were carried out in the most important temperature ranges for the measurement of the density-dependent straim, which almost always manifested itself as a material contraction. Furthermore, hot tensile tests were carried out for the description of the elastoplastic short-term behavior. Several creep curves were derived from the results of the different tests with a differentiated evaluation method. On the basis of these creep curves, creep equations were set up for a series of materials which are valid in the entire examined temperature range and stress range and up to the end of the secondary creep range. Also, equations for the time-temperature-dependent description of the material contraction behavior were derived. With these equations, the high-temperature deformation behavior of the examined materials under constant creep stress can be described simply and application-oriented. (orig.) With 109 figs., 19 tabs., 77 refs [de

  16. Method for determining thermo-physical properties of specimens. [photographic recording of changes in thin film phase-change temperature indicating material in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The square root of the product of thermophysical properties q, c and k, where p is density, c is specific heat and k is thermal conductivity, is determined directly on a test specimen such as a wind tunnel model. The test specimen and a reference specimen of known specific heat are positioned at a given distance from a heat source. The specimens are provided with a coating, such as a phase change coating, to visually indicate that a given temperature was reached. A shutter interposed between the heat source and the specimens is opened and a motion picture camera is actuated to provide a time record of the heating step. The temperature of the reference specimen is recorded as a function of time. The heat rate to which both the test and reference specimens were subjected is determined from the temperature time response of the reference specimen by the conventional thin-skin calorimeter equation.

  17. Intrapartum Temperature Elevation, Epidural Use, and Adverse Outcome in Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace; Ringer, Steven A.; Johnson, Lise C.; Rivkin, Michael J.; Lieberman, Ellice

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of intrapartum temperature elevation with adverse neonatal outcome among low-risk women receiving epidural analgesia and evaluate the association of epidural with adverse neonatal outcome without temperature elevation. METHODS: We studied all low-risk nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies ≥37 weeks delivering at our hospital during 2000, excluding pregnancies where infants had documented sepsis, meningitis, or a major congenital anomaly. Neonatal outcomes were compared between women receiving (n = 1538) and not receiving epidural analgesia (n = 363) in the absence of intrapartum temperature elevation (≤99.5°F) and according to the level of intrapartum temperature elevation within the group receiving epidural (n = 2784). Logistic regression was used to evaluate neonatal outcome while controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Maternal temperature >100.4°F developed during labor in 19.2% (535/2784) of women receiving epidural compared with 2.4% (10/425) not receiving epidural. In the absence of intrapartum temperature elevation (≤99.5°F), no significant differences were observed in adverse neonatal outcomes between women receiving and not receiving epidural. Among women receiving epidural, a significant linear trend was observed between maximum maternal temperature and all neonatal outcomes examined including hypotonia, assisted ventilation, 1- and 5-min Apgar scores 101°F had a two- to sixfold increased risk of all adverse outcomes examined. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of infants experiencing adverse outcomes increased with the degree of epidural-related maternal temperature elevation. Epidural use without temperature elevation was not associated with any of the adverse outcomes we studied. PMID:22291120

  18. Negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of earth's surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.C.G.; Hays, P.B.; Kasting, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    We suggest that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is buffered, over geological time scales, by a negative feedback mechanism in which the rate of weathering of silicate minerals (followed by deposition of carbonate minerals) depends on surface temperature, and surface temperature, in turn, depends on carbon dioxide partial pressure through the green effect. Although the quantitative details of this mechanism are speculative, it appears able partially to stabilize earth's surface temperature against the steady increase of solar luminosity believed to have occured since the origin of the solar system

  19. Role of the Soil Thermal Inertia in the short term variability of the surface temperature and consequences for the soil-moisture temperature feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruy, Frederique; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Ait Mesbah, Sonia; Grandpeix, Jean-Yves; Wang, Fuxing

    2017-04-01

    A simple model based on the surface energy budget at equilibrium is developed to compute the sensitivity of the climatological mean daily temperature and diurnal amplitude to the soil thermal inertia. It gives a conceptual framework to quantity the role of the atmospheric and land surface processes in the surface temperature variability and relies on the diurnal amplitude of the net surface radiation, the sensitivity of the turbulent fluxes to the surface temperature and the thermal inertia. The performances of the model are first evaluated with 3D numerical simulations performed with the atmospheric (LMDZ) and land surface (ORCHIDEE) modules of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate model. A nudging approach is adopted, it prevents from using time-consuming long-term simulations required to account for the natural variability of the climate and allow to draw conclusion based on short-term (several years) simulations. In the moist regions the diurnal amplitude and the mean surface temperature are controlled by the latent heat flux. In the dry areas, the relevant role of the stability of the boundary layer and of the soil thermal inertia is demonstrated. In these regions, the sensitivity of the surface temperature to the thermal inertia is high, due to the high contribution of the thermal flux to the energy budget. At high latitudes, when the sensitivity of turbulent fluxes is dominated by the day-time sensitivity of the sensible heat flux to the surface temperature and when this later is comparable to the thermal inertia term of the sensitivity equation, the surface temperature is also partially controlled by the thermal inertia which can rely on the snow properties; In the regions where the latent heat flux exhibits a high day-to-day variability, such as transition regions, the thermal inertia has also significant impact on the surface temperature variability . In these not too wet (energy limited) and not too dry (moisture-limited) soil moisture (SM

  20. Spatio-temporal long-term (1950-2009) temperature trend analysis in North Carolina, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad; Jha, Manoj K.; Mekonnen, Ademe

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzed long-term (1950-2009) annual and seasonal time series data of maximum and minimum temperature from 249 uniformly distributed stations across the State of North Carolina, United States. The Mann-Kendall and Theil-Sen approach were applied to quantify the significance and magnitude of trend, respectively. A pre-whitening technique was applied to eliminate the effect of lag-1 serial correlation. For most stations over the period of the past 60 years, the difference between minimum and maximum temperatures was found decreasing with an overall increasing trend in the mean temperature. However, significant trends (confidence level ≥ 95 %) in the mean temperature analysis were detected only in 20, 3, 23, and 20 % of the stations in summer, winter, autumn, and spring, respectively. The magnitude of the highest warming trend in minimum temperature and the highest cooling trend in maximum temperature was +0.073 °C/year in the autumn season and -0.12 °C/year in the summer season, respectively. Additional analysis in mean temperature trend was conducted on three regions of North Carolina (mountain, piedmont, and coastal). The results revealed a warming trend for the coastal zone, a cooling trend for the mountain zone, and no distinct trend for the piedmont zone. The Sequential Mann-Kendall test results indicated that the significant increasing trends in minimum temperature and decreasing trend in maximum temperature had begun around 1970 and 1960 (change point), respectively, in most of the stations. Finally, the comparison between mean surface air temperature (SAT) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) concluded that the variability and trend in SAT can be explained partially by the NAO index for North Carolina.

  1. Long term ambient temperature analysis and energy use implications in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Tsang, C.L.; Li, Danny H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Climate change issues and building energy use implications in subtropical Hong Kong were examined. A total of 40 years (1961-2000) of measured hourly temperature data were gathered and analysed. Three different parameters were examined, namely mean temperature, cumulative frequency of occurrence and cooling degree days (CDD). It was found that there was an underlying trend of temperature rise in recent years. Such temperature increase tended to occur more frequently during the winter period and mid-season than the summer months. The slight increase in CDD during the last 20 years suggested that cooling requirements and, hence, energy use for air conditioning might be affected if the trend persisted. The frequency of occurrence analysis, however, revealed no significant changes in the outdoor design conditions, and peak building cooling loads were expected to remain unchanged. This paper presents the work and discusses the energy use implications

  2. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. -- Highlights: • Interactive effects between air pollution and equivalent temperature result in augmented excess mortality. • High levels of ozone and particulate matter increase adverse heat effects on human mortality. • Cold effects are mostly unaffected by air pollution. • Findings underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat-related mortality. -- Interactive effects between air pollution and elevated (equivalent) temperatures underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating the adverse effects of heat

  3. Equatorial seawater temperatures and latitudinal temperature gradients during the Middle to Late Jurassic: the stable isotope record of brachiopods and oysters from Gebel Maghara, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Abdelhady, Ahmed A.; Andersen, Nils

    2017-04-01

    The Jurassic climate has traditionally been described as equable, warmer than today, with weak latitudinal temperature gradients, and no polar glaciations. This view changed over the last decades with studies pointing to distinct climate fluctuations and the occasional presence of polar ice caps. Most of these temperature reconstructions are based on stable isotope analyses of fossil shells from Europe. Additional data from other parts of the world is slowly completing the picture. Gebel Maghara in the northern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt exposes a thick Jurassic succession. After a phase of terrestrial sedimentation in the Early Jurassic, marine conditions dominated since the end of the Aalenian. The stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) composition of brachiopod and oyster shells was used to reconstruct seawater temperatures from the Bajocian to the Kimmeridgian at a palaeolatitude of ca. 3°N. Throughout this time interval, temperatures were comparatively constant aorund an average of 25.7°C. Slightly warmer conditions existed in the Early Bathonian ( 27.0°C), while the Kimmeridgian shows the lowest temperatures ( 24.3°C). The seasonality has been reconstructed with the help of high-resolution sampling of two oyster shells and was found to be very low (temperature gradients. During the Middle Jurassic, this gradient was much steeper than previously expected and comparable to today. During the Kimmeridgian, temperatures in Europe were generally warmer leading to weaker latitudinal gradients. Based on currently used estimates for the δ18O value of seawater during the Jurassic, reconstructed water temperatures for localities above the thermocline in Egypt and Europe were mostly lower than Recent sea-surface temperatures. These results improve our understanding of the Jurassic climate and its influence on marine faunal diversity patterns.

  4. A Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nikolo E.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Koenig, Lora S.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a climate-quality data record of the clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm. A climate-data record (CDR) is a time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to determine climate variability and change. We present daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. This record will be elevated in status to a CDR when at least nine more years of data become available either from MODIS Terra or Aqua, or from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched in October 2011. Our ultimate goal is to develop a CDR that starts in 1981 with the Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset and continues with MODIS data from 2000 to the present, and into the VIIRS era. Differences in the APP and MODIS cloud masks have so far precluded the current 1ST records from spanning both the APP and MODIS time series in a seamless manner though this will be revisited when the APP dataset has been reprocessed. The complete MODIS 1ST daily and monthly data record is available online.

  5. Comparison between remotely-sensed sea-surface temperature (AVHRR and in situ records in San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N Williams

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ records of sea surface temperature collected between 2005 and 2009 were used to compare, for the first time, the temperature estimated by the Multichannel algorithms (MCSST of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sensors in San Matías Gulf, in the north of the Argentinean Patagonian Continental Shelf (between 40°47'-42°13'S. Match-ups between in situ records and satellite sea surface temperature (SST were analyzed. In situ records came from fixed stations and oceanographic cruises, while satellite data came from different NOAA satellites. The fitting of temperature data to a Standard Major Axis (SMA type II regression model indicated that a high proportion of the total variance (0.53< r² <0.99 was explained by this model showing a high correlation between in situ data and satellite estimations. The mean differences between satellite and in situ data for the full data set were 1.64 ± 1.49°C. Looking separately into in situ data from different sources and day and night estimates from different NOAA satellites, the differences were between 0.30 ± 0.60°C and 2.60 ± 1.50°C. In this paper we discuss possible reasons for the above-mentioned performance of the MCSST algorithms in the study area.

  6. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Surface Temperature (IST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  7. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Top Temperature (CTT) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  8. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU and AMSU-A Mean Layer Temperatures, UAH Version 5.4 (Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note: this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). This version is archived offline by NOAA NCEI. This Climate Data Record (CDR) includes...

  9. Long-Term Effects of Temperature Exposure on SLM 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Tarak; Kriewall, Caitlin S.; Newkirk, Joseph W.

    2018-03-01

    Austenitic stainless steel is extensively used in industries that operate at elevated temperatures. This work investigates the high-temperature microstructure stability as well as elevated-temperature properties of 304L stainless steel fabricated using the selective laser melting (SLM) process. Significant microstructural changes were seen after a 400°C aging process for as little as 25 h. This dramatic change in microstructure would not be expected based on the ferrite decomposition studied in conventional 304L materials. The as-built additively manufactured alloy has much faster kinetic response to heat treatment at 400°C. An investigation of the structures which occur, the kinetics of the various transformations, and the mechanical properties is presented. The impact of this on the application of SLM 304L is discussed.

  10. Dependence of defect introduction on temperature and resistivity and some long-term annealing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    The effort reported here represents data of lithium properties in bulk-silicon samples before and after irradiation for analytical information required to characterize the interactions of lithium with radiation-induced defects in silicon. A model of the damage and recovery mechanisms in irradiated-lithium-containing solar cells is developed based on making measurements of the Hall coefficient and resistivity of samples irradiated by 1-MeV electrons. Experiments on bulk samples included Hall coefficient and resistivity measurements taken as a function of: (1) bombardment temperature, (2) resistivity, (3) fluence, (4) oxygen concentration, and (5) annealing time at temperatures from 300 to 373 K.

  11. Challenges of cold chain quality for routine EPI in south-west Burkina-Faso: An assessment using automated temperature recording devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, C; Sanou, C; Medah, C; Schlumberger, M; Mireux, F; Ouédraogo, I; Ouédraogo, S M; Betsem, E

    2018-06-18

    Abnormal temperatures are a major issue for vaccines within the Expanded Program of Immunization in tropical climates. Prolonged exposure to temperatures outside the standard +2 °C/+8 °C range can impact vaccine potency. The current study used automatic temperature recording devices (Testostore 171-1©) to monitor cold chain in remote areas of Western Burkina Faso. A series of 25 randomly selected health centers representing 33% of the existing 176 EPI facilities in Western Burkina Faso were prospectively assessed for eight months in 2015. Automatic measurements were compared to routine temperature loggers and vaccine vial monitors (VVM). The median age for all refrigerators was 9 years with 10/25 (42%) older than 10 years. Adverse temperatures were recorded in 20/24 (83%) refrigerators and ranged from -18.5 °C to +34.2 °C with 12,958/128,905 (10%) abnormal hourly records below +2 °C and 7357/128,905 (5.7%) above +8 °C. Time of day significantly affected the rate of temperature excursions, with higher rates from 00 am to 06 am (p cold chain reliability issues reported in the current study in Western Burkina Faso raise concern about vaccine potency. In the absence of systematic renewal of the cold chain infrastructure or improved staff training and monitoring, antibody response assessment is recommended to study levels of effective immunization coverage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term changes and spatio-temporal variability of the growing season temperature in Europe during the last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiot, Joel; Corona, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    A gridded reconstruction of April to September temperature was produced for Europe based on tree-rings, documentaries, pollen and ice cores. The majority of the proxy series have an annual resolution. For a better inference of long-term climate variations, they were completed by number of low resolution data (decadal or more), mostly on pollen and ice-core data. An original spectral analogue method was devised to deal with this heterogeneous dataset, and especially to preserve the long-term variations and the variability of the temperature series. It is the condition is to make pertinent the comparison of the recent climate changes to a broader context of 1400 years. The reconstruction of the April-September temperature was validated with a Jack-knife technique, and it was also compared with other spatially gridded temperature reconstructions, literature data, and glacier advance and retreat curves. We also attempted to relate the spatial distribution of European temperature anomalies to known solar and volcanic forcings. We found that (1) our results are sound back to A.D. 750; (2) conditions during the last decade have exceeded all those known during the last millennium; (3) before the 20th century, cold periods can partly be explained by low solar activity and/or high volcanic activity and that Medieval Warm Period (MWP) is consistent with a high solar activity; (4) during the 20th century, however only anthropogenic forcing can explain the exceptionally high temperature rise; (5) based on an analysis of the distribution of extreme temperatures, the maximum event of the Medieval Period (1.1°C higher than the 1960-1990 reference period) had a return period of more than 1000 years, but this recently fell to less than 26 years; (6) all decades before AD 1350 were warm on average but relatively heterogeneous, while the last decade was homogeneously warmer. These results support the fact that we are facing an unprecedented changing climate in Europe unlike any known

  13. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastouret, Alan [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Gooijer, Frans [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Overton, Bob [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Jonker, Jan [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Curley, Jim [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Constantine, Walter [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States); Waterman, Kendall Miller [Draka Cableteq USA, Inc., North Dighton, MA (United States)

    2015-11-13

    High Temperature insulated wire and optical fiber cable is a key enabling technology for the Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP). Without insulated electrical wires and optical fiber, downhole temperature and pressure sensors, flow meters and gauges cannot communicate with the surface. Unfortunately, there are currently no insulated electrical wire or fiber cable constructions capable of surviving for extended periods of deployment in a geothermal well (240-325°C) or supercritical (374°C) reservoir. This has severely hindered engineered reservoir creation, management and utilization, as hot zones and cool water intrusions cannot be understood over time. The lack of a insulated electrical wire and fiber cable solution is a fundamental limitation to the viability of this energy source. The High Temperature Downhole Tools target specification is development of tools and sensors for logging and monitoring wellbore conditions at depths of up to 10,000 meters and temperatures up to 374oC. It well recognized in the industry that no current electronic or fiber cable can be successfully deployed in a well and function successfully for more a few days at temperatures over 240oC. The goal of this project was to raise this performance level significantly. Prysmian Group’s objective in this project was to develop a complete, multi-purpose cable solution for long-term deployment in geothermal wells/reservoirs that can be used with the widest variety of sensors. In particular, the overall project objective was to produce a manufacturable cable design that can perform without serious degradation: • At temperatures up to 374°C; • At pressures up to 220 bar; • In a hydrogen-rich environment; and • For the life of the well (> 5 years). This cable incorporates: • Specialty optical fibers, with specific glass chemistry and high temperature and pressure protective coatings for data communication and distributed temperature and pressure sensing, and • High-temperature

  14. Long-Term Water Temperature Variations in Daya Bay, China Using Satellite and In Situ Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daya Bay is a shallow, semi-en closed bay in the northern section of the South China Sea. The present study analyzed variations of water temperature in Daya Bay over the past 21 years (1985 - 2005 using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellite remote sensing data and in situ observations. Results showed that AVHRR readings of sea surface temperature (SST increased by 0.07°C y-1. Linear regression anal y sis for monthly SST anomalies (SSTA showed a shift from negative to positive from 1995 - 1996, when the Daya Bay nuclear power station commenced operations in 1994. The slope of linear regression analysis for SSTA nearly doubled from 0.05 (1985 - 1993 to 0.09 (1994 - 2005. Monthly AVHRR images showed a thermal plume from the power station and revealed the in crease of SST over 21 years. In situ observations in water temperature also showed an in creasing trend for the same period (1985 - 2005. Variations in water temperature in Daya Bay were connected with climatic perturbations and in creasing human activity including thermal discharge from nuclear power stations and the rapid economic development around the bay area.

  15. 6-kyr record of flood frequency and intensity in the western Mediterranean Alps - Interplay of solar and temperature forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Pierre; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Moiroux, Fanny; Poulenard, Jérôme; Develle, Anne-Lise; Bichet, Adeline; Chen, Wentao; Pignol, Cécile; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Gielly, Ludovic; Bajard, Manon; Perrette, Yves; Malet, Emmanuel; Taberlet, Pierre; Arnaud, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    The high-resolution sedimentological and geochemical analysis of a sediment sequence from Lake Savine (Western Mediterranean Alps, France) led to the identification of 220 event layers for the last 6000 years. 200 were triggered by flood events and 20 by underwater mass movements possibly related to earthquakes that occurred in 5 clusters of increase seismicity. Because human activity could influence the flood chronicle, the presence of pastures was reconstructed through ancient DNA, which suggested that the flood chronicle was mainly driven by hydroclimate variability. Weather reanalysis of historical floods allow to identify that mesoscale precipitation events called "East Return" events were the main triggers of floods recorded in Lake Savine. The first part of this palaeoflood record (6-4 kyr BP) was characterized by increases in flood frequency and intensity in phase with Northern Alpine palaeoflood records. By contrast, the second part of the record (i.e., since 4 kyr BP) was phased with Southern Alpine palaeoflood records. These results suggest a palaeohydrological transition at approximately 4 kyr BP, as has been previously described for the Mediterranean region. This may have resulted in a change of flood-prone hydro-meteorological processes, i.e., in the balance between occurrence and intensity of local convective climatic phenomena and their influence on Mediterranean mesoscale precipitation events in this part of the Alps. At a centennial timescale, increases in flood frequency and intensity corresponded to periods of solar minima, affecting climate through atmospheric changes in the Euro-Atlantic sector.

  16. Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability and Temperature Coefficient of Dew-Point Hygrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, R.; Vicente, T.; Hernández, P.; De Rivas, L.; Conde, F.

    2012-09-01

    The continuous quest for improved specifications of optical dew-point hygrometers has raised customer expectations on the performance of these devices. In the absence of a long calibration history, users with a limited prior experience in the measurement of humidity, place reliance on manufacturer specifications to estimate long-term stability. While this might be reasonable in the case of measurement of electrical quantities, in humidity it can lead to optimistic estimations of uncertainty. This article reports a study of the long-term stability of some hygrometers and the analysis of their performance as monitored through regular calibration. The results of the investigations provide some typical, realistic uncertainties associated with the long-term stability of instruments used in calibration and testing laboratories. Together, these uncertainties can help in establishing initial contributions in uncertainty budgets, as well as in setting the minimum calibration requirements, based on the evaluation of dominant influence quantities.

  17. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of MSU and AMSU-A Mean Layer Temperatures, UAH Version 6.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset includes monthly gridded temperature anomalies on a global 2.5 x 2.5 degree grid derived from Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave...

  18. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AMSU-A Level 1c Brightness Temperature, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains Level 1c inter-calibrated brightness temperatures from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) sensors onboard six polar orbiting...

  19. The Need for Proportionate Systems for Markers and Records in the Long Term, and How to Plan for Them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Passive Institutional Controls (PICs) are markers and archives designed to warn and inform future generations about the location, purpose and to some extent the content of a repository. These warnings are addressed to potential intruders into deep geologic repositories, advertent and inadvertent. Current thought is that rather than attempt to manipulate the emotions of future generations through ominous symbolic warnings, the structures and messages ought to inform those generations that the content of the repository is dangerous and useless. The presenter raised the issue that although careful efforts were made to show that there is no valuable resources in Yucca Mountain, it is undeniable that a repository project involves a massive amount of valuable materials. It was asked why markers were labelled 'passive' controls. It was explained that under EPA definitions, 'active' controls cover the use of fences, gates, and guards; essentially, those structures and systems which imply continued human presence. Markers are 'Passive Institutional Controls' because they are intended to fulfil their purpose without the need for anyone to remain on site. In discussing this specific understanding of 'passive' and 'active' controls, the comment was made that there had been no mention of the fact there are going to be regulators and institutions for a long time; neither had the presentation discussed the role local communities could play with regards to monitoring and record keeping. It was suggested that the focus remained too strongly on passive controls. It was suggested that it would be better to see the marker system as the redundancy in the event that all continuity - of institutions or of community - was broken. It was suggested furthermore that there should be some agreed terminology which expressed this scenario. In response to the comment on using the local communities, Van Luik explained there was a reluctance to rely on the community in question, because as it is

  20. Analysis of rainfall and temperature time series to detect long-term ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    67

    ABSTRACT. Arid and semiarid environments have been identified with locations prone to impacts of climate variability and change. Investigating long term trends is one way of tracing climate change impacts. This study investigates variability through annual and seasonal meteorological time series. Possible ...

  1. Last millennium northern hemisphere summer temperatures from tree rings: Part I: The long term context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilson, R.; Anchukaitis, K.; Briffa, K. R.; Büntgen, Ulf; Cook, E.; D'Arrigo, R.; Davi, N.; Esper, J.; Frank, D.; Gunnarson, B.; Hegerl, G.; Helama, S.; Klesse, S.; Krusic, P. J.; Linderholm, H. W.; Myglan, V. S.; Osborn, T. J.; Rydval, M.; Schneider, L.; Schurer, A.; Wiles, G.; Zhang, P.; Zorita, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 134, FEB (2016), s. 1-18 ISSN 0277-3791 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : high-resolution paleoclimatology * stable carbon isotopes * medieval warm period * past 600 years * blue intensity * volcanic-eruptions * density data * ice-age * dendroclimatic reconstruction * cambium phenology * Tree-rings * Northern hemisphere * Last millennium * Summer temperatures * Reconstruction * CMIP5 models Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.797, year: 2016

  2. Induced Chern-Simons term in lattice QCD at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, O.A.; Petrov, V.K.; Zinovjev, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The general conditions for the Chern-Simons action to be induced as a non-universal contribution of fermionic determinant are formulated in finite-temperature lattice QCD. The dependence of the corresponding coefficient in the action on non-universal parameters (chemical potentials, vacuum features, etc.) is explored. Special attention is paid to the role of A 0 -condensate if it is available in this theory. ((orig.))

  3. USE OF ALTERNATIVE EXTENDERS AND TEMPERATURES IN LONG TERM STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Raquel Santos Araújo; Tatyane Bandeira Barros; Daianny Barboza Guimarães; Ludymila Furtado Cantanhêde; Aline Viana Dias; Ricardo Toniolli

    2016-01-01

    The use of appropriate extenders is important for the success of an artificial insemination program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative extenders for swine semen at different temperatures (17 to 10 °C). The following extenders were used: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS), powdered coconut water (ACP-103®), and skimmed milk powder (LPD). The 50 ejaculates were analyzed daily, in natura and after dilution, during the 5-day period of semen preservation  (D0...

  4. A tentative record of the last 1,000 years of Greenland temperature from occluded air in the GISP2 ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, T.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Barnola, J.; Kawamura, K.; Beaudette, R.

    2005-12-01

    Ice borehole temperature inversion has been used to reconstruct Greenland surface temperature during the last millennium (Dahl-Jensen et al, Science, 1998). However, this technique does not preserve high frequencies because of diffusion of heat in the ice. Here, we present a tentative reconstruction of the past 1,000 years of central Greenland temperature using nitrogen and argon isotopes from occluded air in the GISP2 ice core. This technique preserves decadal-to-centennial-scale temperature variations and complements the borehole technique. Nitrogen and argon isotopes in the porous snow layer (~80m) experience two isotopic fractionations by gravitation and temperature gradients (ΔT) between the top and bottom of the snow layer. The simultaneous analysis of argon and nitrogen isotopes allows us to separate these two effects, and obtain a history of ΔT in the layer. To a first approximation, ΔT change on decadal to centennial time scales is a surface temperature history because the heat conductivity of snow is much smaller than that of ice, and the heat capacity of the ice sheet is quite large. The preliminary ΔT history (20-year interval) shows a Medieval Warm Period in the 11th to 12th centuries and the Little Ice Age in the 15th to 19th centuries. Furthermore, the record shows a clear similarity with the Be-10 record (a proxy for solar activity) with Wolf, Sporer, Maunder, and Dalton minima clearly seen in the cold periods. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that solar activity influenced Greenland temperature during the past 1000 years.

  5. A novel high pressure, high temperature vessel used to conduct long-term stability measurements of silicon MEMS pressure transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewiski, David

    2014-03-01

    The need to quantify and to improve long-term stability of pressure transducers is a persistent requirement from the aerospace sector. Specifically, the incorporation of real-time pressure monitoring in aircraft landing gear, as exemplified in Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS), has placed greater demand on the pressure transducer for improved performance and increased reliability which is manifested in low lifecycle cost and minimal maintenance downtime through fuel savings and increased life of the tire. Piezoresistive (PR) silicon MEMS pressure transducers are the primary choice as a transduction method for this measurement owing to their ability to be designed for the harsh environment seen in aircraft landing gear. However, these pressure transducers are only as valuable as the long-term stability they possess to ensure reliable, real-time monitoring over tens of years. The "heart" of the pressure transducer is the silicon MEMS element, and it is at this basic level where the long-term stability is established and needs to be quantified. A novel High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) vessel has been designed and constructed to facilitate this critical measurement of the silicon MEMS element directly through a process of mechanically "floating" the silicon MEMS element while being subjected to the extreme environments of pressure and temperature, simultaneously. Furthermore, the HPHT vessel is scalable to permit up to fifty specimens to be tested at one time to provide a statistically significant data population on which to draw reasonable conclusions on long-term stability. With the knowledge gained on the silicon MEMS element, higher level assembly to the pressure transducer envelope package can also be quantified as to the build-effects contribution to long-term stability in the same HPHT vessel due to its accommodating size. Accordingly, a HPHT vessel offering multiple levels of configurability and robustness in data measurement is presented, along

  6. Long-term monitoring of streambed sedimentation and scour in a dynamic stream based on streambed temperature time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Eva; Engesgaard, Peter; Duque, Carlos

    2017-08-24

    This study presented the monitoring and quantification of streambed sedimentation and scour in a stream with dynamically changing streambed based on measured phase and amplitude of the diurnal signal of sediment temperature time series. With the applied method, changes in streambed elevation were estimated on a sub-daily scale with 2-h intervals without continuous maintenance of the measurement system, thus making both high temporal resolution and long-term monitoring of streambed elevations possible. Estimates of streambed elevation showed that during base flow conditions streambed elevation fluctuates by 2-3 cm. Following high stream stages, scouring of 2-5 cm can be observed even at areas with low stream flow and weak currents. Our results demonstrate that weather variability can induce significant changes in the stream water and consequently sediment temperatures influencing the diurnal temperature signal in such an extent that the sediment thickness between paired temperature sensors were overestimated by up to 8 cm. These observations have significant consequences on the design of vertical sensor spacing in high-flux environments and in climates with reduced diurnal variations in air temperature.

  7. Long-term preservation of Tetraselmis indica (Chlorodendrophyceae, Chlorophyta) for flow cytometric analysis: Influence of fixative and storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sangeeta Mahableshwar; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2017-08-01

    Immediate enumeration of phytoplankton is seldom possible. Therefore, fixation and subsequent storage are required for delayed analysis. This study investigated the influence of glutaraldehyde (GA) concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%) and storage temperatures (-80°C LN2 , -80°C, -20°C, and 5°C) on Tetraselmis indica for flow cytometric analysis. Cell recovery, granularity, and membrane permeability were independent of GA concentration whereas cell size and chlorophyll autofluorescence were concentration dependent. After an initial cell loss (16-19%), no cell loss was observed when samples were stored at 5°C. Cell recovery was not influenced by storage temperature until 4months but later samples preserved at -80°C LN2 , -80°C, and -20°C resulted in ~41% cell loss. Although maximum cell recovery with minimal effect on cell integrity was obtained at 5°C, autofluorescence was retained better at -80°C LN2 and -80°C. This suggests that in addition to fixative, the choice of storage temperature is equally important. Thus for long-term preservation, especially to retain autofluorescence, the use of lower concentration (0.25%) of GA when stored at a lower temperature (-80°C LN2 and -80°C) while a higher concentration (1%) of GA when stored at a higher temperature (5°C) is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term air temperature changes in a Central European sedge-grass marsh

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Jiří; Stellner, Stanislav; Komárek, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2013), s. 182-190 ISSN 1936-0584 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D1/93/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Carex acuta * fen * wetland * long-term monitoring * global change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.634, year: 2013

  9. Short-Term Effect of Ambient Temperature and the Risk of Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The relationship between stroke and short-term temperature changes remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between stroke and both high and low temperatures, and health assessment. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and Wanfang Data up to 14 September 2014. Study selection, quality assessment, and author-contractions were steps before data extraction. We converted all estimates effects into relative risk (RR per 1 °C increase/decrease in temperature from 75th to 99th or 25th to 1st percentiles, then conducted meta-analyses to combine the ultimate RRs, and assessed health impact among the population. Results: 20 articles were included in the final analysis. The overall analysis showed a positive relationship between 1 °C change and the occurrence of major adverse cerebrovascular events (MACBE, 1.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI, 0.6 to 1.7 and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.6 increase for hot and cold effects separately. The same trends can be found in both effects of mortality and the cold effect for morbidity. Hot temperature acted as a protective factor of hemorrhage stroke (HS, −1.9% (95% CI, −2.8 to −0.9, however, it acted as a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS, 1.2% (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.8. Conclusion: Short-term changes of both low and high temperature had statistically significant impacts on MACBE.

  10. Determinants of first-time utilization of long-term care services in the Netherlands : An observational record linkage study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, L.C.J.; Wong, A.; Verheij, R.A.; Van Oers, J.A.M.; Polder, J.J.

    Background Since in an ageing society more long-term care (LTC) facilities are needed, it is important to understand the main determinants of first-time utilization of (LTC) services. Methods The Andersen service model, which distinguishes predisposing, enabling and need factors, was used to develop

  11. Determinants of first-time utilization of long-term care services in the Netherlands: an observational record linkage study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slobbe, L.C.J.; Wong, A.; Verheij, R.A.; Oers, H.J.A.M. van; Polder, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Since in an ageing society more long-term care (LTC) facilities are needed, it is important to understand the main determinants of first-time utilization of (LTC) services. Methods: The Andersen service model, which distinguishes predisposing, enabling and need factors, was used to

  12. Record of the first meeting of the working group, London, 6-7 December 1977 (includes terms of reference)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items discussed include the presentation and adoption of the Group Working Paper on: terms of reference, prime objectives, topics and assessments, criteria for proliferation resistance, the organization of the Group, including the establishment of two sub-groups, schedule of work, assignment of work to be done, and the contributions to be made by international organizations

  13. The effects of moisture and temperature variations on the long term durability of polymer concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Ricardo; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Grelk, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The use of polymer concrete to precast products in construction presents normally many advantages compared to traditional concrete. Higher strength, lower permeability, shorter curing periods, better chemical resistances and a better durability is normally predicated, however this is a research...... and after exposure to different thermal conditions is very important. In this paper, an experimental study concerning the influence of temperature and moisture in cyclic conditions on the durability of polymer concrete based on an unsaturated polyester resin is described and the results are presented...

  14. Long-Term Vegetation Dynamics in a Megadiverse Hotspot: The Ice-Age Record of a Pre-montane Forest of Central Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarni Montoya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical ecosystems play a key role in many aspects of Earth system dynamics currently of global concern, including carbon sequestration and biodiversity. To accurately understand complex tropical systems it is necessary to parameterise key ecological aspects, such as rates of change (RoC, species turnover, dynamism, resilience, or stability. To obtain a long-term (>50 years perspective on these ecological aspects we must turn to the fossil record. However, compared to temperate zones, collecting continuous sedimentary archives in the lowland tropics is often difficult due to the active landscape processes, with potentially frequent volcanic, tectonic, and/or fluvial events confounding sediment deposition, preservation, and recovery. Consequently, the nature, and drivers, of vegetation dynamics during the last glacial are barely known from many non-montane tropical landscapes. One of the first lowland Amazonian locations from which palaeoecological data were obtained was an outcrop near Mera (Ecuador. Mera was discovered, and analysed, by Paul Colinvaux in the 1980s, but his interpretation of the data as indicative of a forested glacial period were criticised based on the ecology and age control. Here we present new palaeoecological data from a lake located less than 10 km away from Mera. Sediment cores raised from Laguna Pindo (1250 masl; 1°27′S, 78°05′W have been shown to span the late last glacial period [50–13 cal kyr BP (calibrated kiloyears before present]. The palaeoecological information obtained from Laguna Pindo indicate that the region was characterised by a relatively stable plant community, formed by taxa nowadays common at both mid and high elevations. Miconia was the dominant taxon until around 30 cal kyr BP, when it was replaced by Hedyosmum, Asteraceae and Ilex among other taxa. Heat intolerant taxa including Podocarpus, Alnus, and Myrica peaked around the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum (c. 21 cal kyr BP. The results

  15. Influence of water and temperature on long term mechanical behaviour of high performance concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnon, H.; Vidal, T.; Sellier, A.; Camps, G.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental program on thermal expansion of concretes presents a dual purpose. The first one is to quantify the differential thermal dilation of the constituents of nuclear containment area. The second is to bring elements of explanation on the damage detected at 80 C. degrees. Between 20 and 80 C. degrees there is an important differential thermal dilation concerning various phases of the concrete. As a comparison cement paste dilates 7 times more than limestone aggregate, mortar 4 times more and concrete 2 times more. This differential thermal deformation can cause a strong microcracking particularly for saturated sample submitted to 80 C. degrees. The value of the coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete and mortar seems to correspond to the value averaged by the coefficients of every phase (cement paste / aggregates) balanced by their volume fraction. Water seems to have an important impact on thermal expansion on saturated samples for a significant rise of temperature (80 C. degrees). To ensure this result, complementary tests will be done. The other experimental program deals with the deformation evolution versus the chronology of temperature/loading cycles and the improvement of understanding of the thermal transient deformation. The thermal transient deformation would be an increase of the kinetics of deformation under load. It seems to be not totally repeatable because of the consolidation of concrete

  16. Short-term cropland responses to temperature extreme events during late winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to extreme events. Most of this research has been conducted in natural ecosystems, but few have considered agroecosystems. In this study, we investigated the impact of a manipulated warmer or cooler late winter/early spring on the carbon budget and final harvest of a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Soil temperature was altered by manipulating soil albedo by covering the soil surface with a layer of inert silica gravel. We tested three treatments - cooling (Co), warming (W), mix (M) - and control (C). An automated system continuously measured soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh), soil temperature profiles, and soil water content across the entire year in each plot. Phenological phases were periodically assessed and final harvest was measured in each plot. Results showed that treatments had only a transient effect on daily Rh rates, which did not result in a total annual carbon budget significantly different from control, even though cooling showed a significant reduction in final harvest. We also observed anticipation in emergence in both W and M treatments and a delay in emergence for Co. Moreover, plant density and growth increased in W and M and decreased in Co. In conclusion, from the results of our experiment we can assert that an increase in the frequency of both heat and cold waves is unlikely to have large effects on the overall annual carbon balance of irrigated croplands.

  17. USE OF ALTERNATIVE EXTENDERS AND TEMPERATURES IN LONG TERM STORAGE OF BOAR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Raquel Santos Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate extenders is important for the success of an artificial insemination program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative extenders for swine semen at different temperatures (17 to 10 °C. The following extenders were used: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, powdered coconut water (ACP-103®, and skimmed milk powder (LPD. The 50 ejaculates were analyzed daily, in natura and after dilution, during the 5-day period of semen preservation  (D0 to D4, regarding spermatic vigor and motility. Acrosome integrity and sperm viability were evaluated on D0 and D4. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Students, Tukey and chi-square tests (p<0.05. The LPD extender at 10 °C presented higher motility and sperm vigor compared to BTS and ACP until D2, and to treatments stored at 17 °C. Acrosome vitality and integrity remained higher (p<0.001 with LPD at 10 °C on D0 and D4. LPD showed to be a good extender for the swine semen at lower temperature (10 °C. Furthermore, it provided better protection to sperm cells, by allowing greater integrity and vitality of the acrosome. Keywords: coconut water; conservation; skimmed milk; semen boar.

  18. Intended Use of a Building in Terms of Updating the Cadastral Database and Harmonizing the Data with other Public Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buśko Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the original wording of the Regulation on the register of land and buildings of 2001, in the real estate cadastre there was one attribute associated with the use of a building structure - its intended use, which was applicable until the amendment to the Regulation was introduced in 2013. Then, additional attributes were added, i.e. the type of the building according to the Classification of Fixed Assets (KST, the class of the building according to the Polish Classification of Types of Constructions (PKOB and, at the same time, the main functional use and other functions of the building remained in the Regulation as well. The record data on buildings are captured for the real estate cadastre from other data sets, for example those maintained by architectural and construction authorities. At the same time, the data contained in the cadastre, after they have been entered or changed in the database, are transferred to other registers, such as tax records, or land and mortgage court registers. This study is the result of the analysis of the laws applicable to the specific units and registers. A list of discrepancies in the attributes occurring in the different registers was prepared. The practical part of the study paid particular attention to the legal bases and procedures for entering the function of a building in the real estate cadastre, which is extremely significant, as it is the attribute determining the property tax basis.

  19. Intended Use of a Building in Terms of Updating the Cadastral Database and Harmonizing the Data with other Public Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    According to the original wording of the Regulation on the register of land and buildings of 2001, in the real estate cadastre there was one attribute associated with the use of a building structure - its intended use, which was applicable until the amendment to the Regulation was introduced in 2013. Then, additional attributes were added, i.e. the type of the building according to the Classification of Fixed Assets (KST), the class of the building according to the Polish Classification of Types of Constructions (PKOB) and, at the same time, the main functional use and other functions of the building remained in the Regulation as well. The record data on buildings are captured for the real estate cadastre from other data sets, for example those maintained by architectural and construction authorities. At the same time, the data contained in the cadastre, after they have been entered or changed in the database, are transferred to other registers, such as tax records, or land and mortgage court registers. This study is the result of the analysis of the laws applicable to the specific units and registers. A list of discrepancies in the attributes occurring in the different registers was prepared. The practical part of the study paid particular attention to the legal bases and procedures for entering the function of a building in the real estate cadastre, which is extremely significant, as it is the attribute determining the property tax basis.

  20. Long term variability of the annual hydrological regime and sensitivity to temperature phase shifts in Saxony/Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M.; Bernhofer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the seasons strongly effects ecosystems and human activities. Recently, there is increasing evidence of changes in the timing of the seasons, such as earlier spring seasons detected in phenological records, advanced seasonal timing of surface temperature, earlier snow melt or streamflow timing. For water resources management there is a need to quantitatively describe the variability in the timing of hydrological regimes and to understand how climatic changes control the seasonal water budget of river basins on the regional scale. In this study, changes of the annual cycle of hydrological variables are analysed for 27 river basins in Saxony/Germany. Thereby monthly series of basin runoff ratios, the ratio of runoff and basin precipitation are investigated for changes and variability of their annual periodicity over the period 1930-2009. Approximating the annual cycle by the means of harmonic functions gave acceptable results, while only two parameters, phase and amplitude, are required. It has been found that the annual phase of runoff ratio, representing the timing of the hydrological regime, is subject to considerable year-to-year variability, being concurrent with basins in similar hydro-climatic conditions. Two distinct basin classes have been identified, whereby basin elevation has been found to be the delimiting factor. An increasing importance of snow on the basin water balance with elevation is apparent and mainly governs the temporal variability of the annual timing of hydrological regimes. Further there is evidence of coincident changes in trend direction (change points in 1971 and 1988) in snow melt influenced basins. In these basins the timing of the runoff ratio is significantly correlated with the timing of temperature, and effects on runoff by temperature phase changes are even amplified. Interestingly, temperature effects may explain the low frequent variability of the second change point until today. However, the first change point can

  1. Synthesis of a quarter-century of satellite and airborne altimetry records to resolve long-term ice sheet elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J.; Paolo, F. S.; Simonsen, S.; Gardner, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite and airborne altimetry provide the longest continuous record from which the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet can be derived, starting with the launch of ERS-1 in 1992. Accurate knowledge of the long-term mass balance is vital for understanding the geophysical processes governing the ice sheet contribution to present day sea-level rise. However, this record is comprised of several different measurement systems, with different accuracies and varying resolution. This poses a major challenge on the interpretation and reconstruction of consistent elevation-change time series for determining long-term ice sheet trends and variability. Previous studies using data from multiple satellite altimetry missions have relied on a cross-calibration technique based on crossover bias analysis to merge records from different sensors. This methodology, though accurate, limits the spatial coverage to typical resolutions of 10-50 km, restricting the approach to regional or continental-wide studies. In this study, we present a novel framework for seamless integration of heterogeneous altimetry records, using an adaptive least-squares minimization technique. The procedure allows reconstructing time series at fine spatial (sheet, including both data from the European Space Agency (ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2) and NASA (ICESat and Operation IceBridge), with future inclusion of data from NASA's ICESat-2. Mission specific errors, estimated from independent airborne measurements and crossover analysis, are propagated to derive uncertainty bounds for each individual time series. We also perform an extensive analysis of the major corrections applied to raw satellite altimetry data to assess their overall effect on the estimated uncertainty. This methodology will allow us to determine robust long-term changes in the surface elevation of grounded Antarctic ice. Such a dataset will be invaluable to advancing ice sheet assimilation efforts and to disentangle causal

  2. Daily temperature records from a mesonet in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Wood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-surface air temperatures were monitored from 2005 to 2010 in a mesoscale network of 230 sites in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The monitoring network covers a range of elevations from 890 to 2880 m above sea level and an area of about 18 000 km2, sampling a variety of topographic settings and surface environments with an average spatial density of one station per 78 km2. This paper presents the multiyear temperature dataset from this study, with minimum, maximum, and mean daily temperature data available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.880611. In this paper, we describe the quality control and processing methods used to clean and filter the data and assess its accuracy. Overall data coverage for the study period is 91 %. We introduce a weather-system-dependent gap-filling technique to estimate the missing 9 % of data. Monthly and seasonal distributions of minimum, maximum, and mean daily temperature lapse rates are shown for the region.

  3. Daily temperature records from a mesonet in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy H.; Marshall, Shawn J.; Whitehead, Terri L.; Fargey, Shannon E.

    2018-03-01

    Near-surface air temperatures were monitored from 2005 to 2010 in a mesoscale network of 230 sites in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Alberta, Canada. The monitoring network covers a range of elevations from 890 to 2880 m above sea level and an area of about 18 000 km2, sampling a variety of topographic settings and surface environments with an average spatial density of one station per 78 km2. This paper presents the multiyear temperature dataset from this study, with minimum, maximum, and mean daily temperature data available at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.880611" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.880611. In this paper, we describe the quality control and processing methods used to clean and filter the data and assess its accuracy. Overall data coverage for the study period is 91 %. We introduce a weather-system-dependent gap-filling technique to estimate the missing 9 % of data. Monthly and seasonal distributions of minimum, maximum, and mean daily temperature lapse rates are shown for the region.

  4. Automated recording of home cage activity and temperature of individual rats housed in social groups: The Rodent Big Brother project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, William S; Tse, Karen; Grant, Claire; Keerie, Amy; Simpson, David J; Pedersen, John C; Rimmer, Victoria; Leslie, Lauren; Klein, Stephanie K; Karp, Natasha A; Sillito, Rowland; Chartsias, Agis; Lukins, Tim; Heward, James; Vickers, Catherine; Chapman, Kathryn; Armstrong, J Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the activity and temperature of rats is commonly required in biomedical research. Conventional approaches necessitate single housing, which affects their behavior and wellbeing. We have used a subcutaneous radiofrequency identification (RFID) transponder to measure ambulatory activity and temperature of individual rats when group-housed in conventional, rack-mounted home cages. The transponder location and temperature is detected by a matrix of antennae in a baseplate under the cage. An infrared high-definition camera acquires side-view video of the cage and also enables automated detection of vertical activity. Validation studies showed that baseplate-derived ambulatory activity correlated well with manual tracking and with side-view whole-cage video pixel movement. This technology enables individual behavioral and temperature data to be acquired continuously from group-housed rats in their familiar, home cage environment. We demonstrate its ability to reliably detect naturally occurring behavioral effects, extending beyond the capabilities of routine observational tests and conventional monitoring equipment. It has numerous potential applications including safety pharmacology, toxicology, circadian biology, disease models and drug discovery.

  5. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  6. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR): long term program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The FY 1980 effort was to investigate four technology options identified by program participants as potentially viable candidates for near-term demonstration: the Gas Turbine system (HTGR-GT), reflecting its perceived compatibility with the dry-cooling market, two systems addressing the process heat market, the Reforming (HTGR-R) and Steam Cycle (HTGR-SC) systems, and a more developmental reactor system, The Nuclear Heat Source Demonstration Reactor (NHSDR), which was to serve as a basis for both the HTGR-GT and HTGR-R systems as well as the further potential for developing advanced applications such as steam-coal gasification and water splitting

  7. The interactive effects of a gradual temperature decrease and long-term food deprivation on cardiac and hepatic blood flows in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L H; Dzialowski, E; Huggett, D B

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the fish liver is perfused with blood. Transonic® flow probes were therefore implanted around the ventral aorta and hepatic vein(s) to record baseline blood flows in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) previously held under two different feeding regimes (food-deprived or fed to satiation, 8-12 weeks). Fish from both groups were exposed to a gradual temperature decrease (12°C to 5°C) and physical disturbance. Cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (Sv) and hepatic venous blood flow (HVBF) were significantly reduced in food-deprived trout at 12°C. Heart rate was not significantly affected by nutritional status, but was significantly reduced when temperature was decreased to 5°C. Physically disturbing each fish at 12°C and 5°C showed that the performance capacity of the heart was not affected by food deprivation as the capacity to increase Q and Sv was not reduced in the food-deprived group. Overall this study showed that food deprivation in rainbow trout reduced cardiac and hepatic blood flows. However, long-term food deprivation did not affect the capacity of the heart to acutely increase performance. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Towards a long-term chlorophyll-a data record in a turbid estuary using MODIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chengfeng; Hu, Chuanmin; English, David; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Chen, Zhiqiang; Feng, Lian; Boler, Richard; Kovach, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Despite recent advances in using satellite data for continuous monitoring of estuarine water quality parameters such as turbidity and water clarity, estimating chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chla) has remained problematic due to the optical complexity of estuarine waters and imperfect atmospheric correction. This poses a significant challenge to the community as synoptic and frequent Chla “measurements” from satellites are in high demand by various government agencies and environmental groups to help make management decisions. Here, using 10 years of in situ and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements from a moderately sized, turbid estuary, Tampa Bay (Florida, USA), we developed and validated a new algorithm specifically designed for retrieving Chla from MODIS data. The algorithm takes the red-to-green remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs(λ)) band ratio of [Rrs(667) + Rrs(678)]/[Rrs(531) + Rrs(547)] as the independent variable, and estimates Chla through the non-linear regression function: Ln(Chla) = 1.91Ln(x) + 3.40 (R2 = 0.87, N = 97, p < 0.01, 1.5 < Chla < 80 mg m-3) where ‘x' is the band ratio. Validation of the algorithm using two independent datasets collected by different groups and near-concurrent MODIS measurements showed robust algorithm performance for Chla within this range, with mean relative errors of 25.8% and 41.7% for the two datasets. Time-series analyses at representative stations using both in situ and MODIS Chla also showed general agreement, with instances of noticeable discrepancy attributed to different measurement frequencies. The algorithm was implemented to establish a 10-year Chla data record for Tampa Bay in order to serve as a baseline for monitoring future phytoplankton bloom events. The 10-year Chla data record showed substantial variability in both space and time, with generally higher Chla observed during the wet season and in upper bay segments, and Chla minima observed in all bay segments during May

  9. Short-Term Impacts of the Air Temperature on Greening and Senescence in Alaskan Arctic Plant Tundra Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy L. May

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is warming the temperatures and lengthening the Arctic growing season with potentially important effects on plant phenology. The ability of plant species to acclimate to changing climatic conditions will dictate the level to which their spatial coverage and habitat-type dominance is different in the future. While the effect of changes in temperature on phenology and species composition have been observed at the plot and at the regional scale, a systematic assessment at medium spatial scales using new noninvasive sensor techniques has not been performed yet. At four sites across the North Slope of Alaska, changes in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI signal were observed by Mobile Instrumented Sensor Platforms (MISP that are suspended over 50 m transects spanning local moisture gradients. The rates of greening (measured in June and senescence (measured in August in response to the air temperature was estimated by changes in NDVI measured as the difference between the NDVI on a specific date and three days later. In June, graminoid- and shrub-dominated habitats showed the greatest rates of NDVI increase in response to the high air temperatures, while forb- and lichen-dominated habitats were less responsive. In August, the NDVI was more responsive to variations in the daily average temperature than spring greening at all sites. For graminoid- and shrub-dominated habitats, we observed a delayed decrease of the NDVI, reflecting a prolonged growing season, in response to high August temperatures. Consequently, the annual C assimilation capacity of these habitats is increased, which in turn may be partially responsible for shrub expansion and further increases in net summer CO2 fixation. Strong interannual differences highlight that long-term and noninvasive measurements of such complex feedback mechanisms in arctic ecosystems are critical to fully articulate the net effects of climate variability and climate change on

  10. Improved Reliability of SiC Pressure Sensors for Long Term High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, R. S.; Nguyen, V.; Savrun, E.; Lukco, D.

    2011-01-01

    We report advancement in the reliability of silicon carbide pressure sensors operating at 600 C for extended periods. The large temporal drifts in zero pressure offset voltage at 600 C observed previously were significantly suppressed to allow improved reliable operation. This improvement was the result of further enhancement of the electrical and mechanical integrity of the bondpad/contact metallization, and the introduction of studded bump bonding on the pad. The stud bump contact promoted strong adhesion between the Au bond pad and the Au die-attach. The changes in the zero offset voltage and bridge resistance over time at temperature were explained by the microstructure and phase changes within the contact metallization, that were analyzed with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).

  11. Temperature feedback control for long-term carrier-envelope phase locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zenghu [Manhattan, KS; Yun, Chenxia [Manhattan, KS; Chen, Shouyuan [Manhattan, KS; Wang, He [Manhattan, KS; Chini, Michael [Manhattan, KS

    2012-07-24

    A feedback control module for stabilizing a carrier-envelope phase of an output of a laser oscillator system comprises a first photodetector, a second photodetector, a phase stabilizer, an optical modulator, and a thermal control element. The first photodetector may generate a first feedback signal corresponding to a first portion of a laser beam from an oscillator. The second photodetector may generate a second feedback signal corresponding to a second portion of the laser beam filtered by a low-pass filter. The phase stabilizer may divide the frequency of the first feedback signal by a factor and generate an error signal corresponding to the difference between the frequency-divided first feedback signal and the second feedback signal. The optical modulator may modulate the laser beam within the oscillator corresponding to the error signal. The thermal control unit may change the temperature of the oscillator corresponding to a signal operable to control the optical modulator.

  12. A long-term ultrahigh temperature application of layered silicide coated Nb alloy in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia; Fu, Qian-Gang; Li, Tao; Wang, Chen; Huo, Cai-Xia; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Guan-Jun; Sun, Le

    2018-05-01

    Nb-based alloy possessed limited application service life at ultrahigh temperature (>1400 °C) in air even taking the effective protective coating strategy into consideration for last decades. In this work a long duration of above 128 h at 1500 °C in air was successfully achieved on Nb-based alloy thanked to multi-layered silicide coating. Through optimizing interfaces, the MoSi2/NbSi2 silicide coating with Al2O3-adsorbed-particles layer exhibited three-times higher of oxidation resistance capacity than the one without it. In MoSi2-Al2O3-NbSi2 multilayer coating, the Al2O3-adsorbed-particles layer playing as an element-diffusion barrier role, as well as the formed porous Nb5Si3 layer as a stress transition zone, contributed to the significant improvement.

  13. Short-term variability of Cyg X-1 and the accretion disk temperature fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical models which have been proposed to explain the observed time-averaged spectrum of Cyg X-1 assume that the hard x-rays are emitted by inverse-Compton mechanism from an optically thin, hot accretion disk around a black hole. Results are reported here of balloon observations (20-68 keV) and compared with previous rocket observations (1.5-25 keV). Using the results an analysis is made of the variability of the source intensity in the hard x-ray range which suggests that the variation is essentially spectral indicating that it originated from temperature fluctuation in an accretive disk. Such a model, which explains the stochastic nature of the variability, its characteristic time scale and spectral features at the same time in the context of the conventional accretion disk model for Cyg X-1, is examined. (U.K.)

  14. Short-term preservation of porcine oocytes in ambient temperature: novel approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Rong Yang

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of preserving porcine oocytes without freezing. To optimize preservation conditions, porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were preserved in TCM-199, porcine follicular fluid (pFF and FCS at different temperatures (4°C, 20°C, 25°C, 27.5°C, 30°C and 38.5°C for 1 day, 2 days or 3 days. After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV rate, actin cytoskeleton organization, cortical granule distribution, mitochondrial translocation and intracellular glutathione level were evaluated. Oocyte maturation was indicated by first polar body emission and spindle morphology after in vitro culture. Strikingly, when COCs were stored at 27.5°C for 3 days in pFF or FCS, more than 60% oocytes were still arrested at the GV stage and more than 50% oocytes matured into MII stages after culture. Almost 80% oocytes showed normal actin organization and cortical granule relocation to the cortex, and approximately 50% oocytes showed diffused mitochondria distribution patterns and normal spindle configurations. While stored in TCM-199, all these criteria decreased significantly. Glutathione (GSH level in the pFF or FCS group was higher than in the TCM-199 group, but lower than in the non-preserved control group. The preserved oocytes could be fertilized and developed to blastocysts (about 10% with normal cell number, which is clear evidence for their retaining the developmental potentiality after 3d preservation. Thus, we have developed a simple method for preserving immature pig oocytes at an ambient temperature for several days without evident damage of cytoplasm and keeping oocyte developmental competence.

  15. Short-term preservation of porcine oocytes in ambient temperature: novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cai-Rong; Miao, De-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Guo, Lei; Tong, Jing-Shan; Wei, Yanchang; Huang, Xin; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Liu, ZhongHua; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2010-12-07

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of preserving porcine oocytes without freezing. To optimize preservation conditions, porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were preserved in TCM-199, porcine follicular fluid (pFF) and FCS at different temperatures (4°C, 20°C, 25°C, 27.5°C, 30°C and 38.5°C) for 1 day, 2 days or 3 days. After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV) rate, actin cytoskeleton organization, cortical granule distribution, mitochondrial translocation and intracellular glutathione level were evaluated. Oocyte maturation was indicated by first polar body emission and spindle morphology after in vitro culture. Strikingly, when COCs were stored at 27.5°C for 3 days in pFF or FCS, more than 60% oocytes were still arrested at the GV stage and more than 50% oocytes matured into MII stages after culture. Almost 80% oocytes showed normal actin organization and cortical granule relocation to the cortex, and approximately 50% oocytes showed diffused mitochondria distribution patterns and normal spindle configurations. While stored in TCM-199, all these criteria decreased significantly. Glutathione (GSH) level in the pFF or FCS group was higher than in the TCM-199 group, but lower than in the non-preserved control group. The preserved oocytes could be fertilized and developed to blastocysts (about 10%) with normal cell number, which is clear evidence for their retaining the developmental potentiality after 3d preservation. Thus, we have developed a simple method for preserving immature pig oocytes at an ambient temperature for several days without evident damage of cytoplasm and keeping oocyte developmental competence.

  16. Local Seismicity Recorded by ChilePEPPER: Implications for Dynamic Accretionary Prism Response and Long-term Prism Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, A.; Trehu, A. M.; Tryon, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the dynamic response of the outer accretionary wedge updip from the patch of greatest slip during the Mw8.8 2010 Maule earthquake, 10 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) were deployed from May 2012 to March 2013 in a small array with an inter-instrument spacing of ~12 km . Nine instruments were recovered, with 4 recording data on 3 intermediate-band 3-component seismometers and a differential pressure gauge and 5 recording data from absolute pressure gauges. [note: All instruments were also equipped with a fluid flow meter sensitive to flow rates as low as 0.0001 cm/yr in or out of the sediments. However, no flow signal was detected.] Here we present hypocenters for 569 local events that have S-P times less than 17 seconds (i.e. within ~125 km of the array) using hand-picked arrival times and a 1D velocity model derived from a 2D seismic refraction profile through the region (Moscoso et al 2011, EPSL). We analyze the distribution of seismicity in the context of published slip models, ChilePEPPER high-resolution seismic reflection data, critical taper analysis done by Cubas et al 2013 (EPSL), and offshore gravity data. The data show distinct segmentation within the outer prism. The northern section of the study area is characterized by a lack of seismicity, accretion of nearly all incoming sediment and a prism at critical taper. In contrast, abundant seismicity, significant sediment underthrusting at the deformation front and a prism below critical taper angle characterize the southern part of the study area. Both coseismic slip and post-rupture local seismicity can be related to density anomalies within the upper plate as revealed by free air gravity data corrected for the effects of bathymetry and the subducting plate. [ChilePEPPER - Project Evaluating Prism Post-Earthquake Response

  17. An in situ Raman spectroscopy system for long-term corrosion experiments in high temperature water up to 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Tani, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    A Raman spectroscopy system has been developed, in order to identify oxides formed on the surfaces of metals and steels in high temperature water up to 673 K. A supercritical water loop system including a Raman cell was installed. The design of the loop system is up to 673 K and 40 MPa. The Raman cell has a diamond window without window-to-metal packing. Raman spectrum of alumina plate was measured at room temperature, at 523 and at 673 K under pressure of 25 MPa. A long-term measurement was also performed at 523 K and 25 MPa for 117.5 h. In all cases intense Raman peaks attributed to alumina were observed. Raman spectrum of anatase particles in suspension was measured at 673 K and 25 MPa. The results show that the Raman spectroscopy system developed in the present study works well not only for plate sample but also for suspension. Raman spectra observed for titanium plate in high temperature water of 673 K and 25 MPa show growth of several Raman peaks with time up to 257 h. The peaks disappeared after cooled down to room temperature. The experimental results have demonstrated importance of in situ Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  18. Non-Psychrophilic Methanogens Capable of Growth Following Long-Term Extreme Temperature Changes, with Application to Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Mickol

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the martian environment is currently cold and dry, geomorphological features on the surface of the planet indicate relatively recent (<4 My freeze/thaw episodes. Additionally, the recent detections of near-subsurface ice as well as hydrated salts within recurring slope lineae suggest potentially habitable micro-environments within the martian subsurface. On Earth, microbial communities are often active at sub-freezing temperatures within permafrost, especially within the active layer, which experiences large ranges in temperature. With warming global temperatures, the effect of thawing permafrost communities on the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane becomes increasingly important. Studies examining the community structure and activity of microbial permafrost communities on Earth can also be related to martian permafrost environments, should life have developed on the planet. Here, two non-psychrophilic methanogens, Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii, were tested for their ability to survive long-term (~4 year exposure to freeze/thaw cycles varying in both temperature and duration, with implications both for climate change on Earth and possible life on Mars.

  19. Non-Psychrophilic Methanogens Capable of Growth Following Long-Term Extreme Temperature Changes, with Application to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickol, Rebecca L; Laird, Sarah K; Kral, Timothy A

    2018-04-23

    Although the martian environment is currently cold and dry, geomorphological features on the surface of the planet indicate relatively recent (<4 My) freeze/thaw episodes. Additionally, the recent detections of near-subsurface ice as well as hydrated salts within recurring slope lineae suggest potentially habitable micro-environments within the martian subsurface. On Earth, microbial communities are often active at sub-freezing temperatures within permafrost, especially within the active layer, which experiences large ranges in temperature. With warming global temperatures, the effect of thawing permafrost communities on the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane becomes increasingly important. Studies examining the community structure and activity of microbial permafrost communities on Earth can also be related to martian permafrost environments, should life have developed on the planet. Here, two non-psychrophilic methanogens, Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii , were tested for their ability to survive long-term (~4 year) exposure to freeze/thaw cycles varying in both temperature and duration, with implications both for climate change on Earth and possible life on Mars.

  20. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation...... between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3–12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment......, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast...

  1. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana; Egsgaard, Helge; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3-12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO 2 . On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast pyrolysis process may result in incomplete conversion of biomass due to limitations to heat transfer and kinetics. In our case chemical analysis of the biochars revealed unconverted cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions, which in turn were found to be proportional with the short-term biochar degradation in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO 2 neutral bio-oil is the other factor to optimize when adjusting the pyrolysis temperature settings to give the overall greatest climate change mitigation effect.

  2. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel subjected to long-term annealing in the spinodal decomposition temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.H.; Kwok, C.T.; Chan, W.K.; Zeng, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long-term DLEPR data on duplex stainless steel. ► Spinodal decomposition remains unabated even after 15,000 h of annealing. ► Effect of long-term annealing on healing has been investigated. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing up to 15,000 h between 300 °C and 500 °C on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) 7MoPLUS has been investigated by using the DLEPR test. Spinodal decomposition in 7MoPLUS is unabated even after annealing for 15,000 h and no healing has been observed. The possible healing mechanisms in this temperature range (back diffusion of Cr atoms from the Cr-rich ferrite (α Cr ) and diffusion of Cr atoms from the austenite) and its absence in the present steel have been discussed.

  3. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel subjected to long-term annealing in the spinodal decomposition temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.H., E-mail: KHLO@umac.mo [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China); Kwok, C.T.; Chan, W.K.; Zeng, D. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term DLEPR data on duplex stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spinodal decomposition remains unabated even after 15,000 h of annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of long-term annealing on healing has been investigated. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing up to 15,000 h between 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) 7MoPLUS has been investigated by using the DLEPR test. Spinodal decomposition in 7MoPLUS is unabated even after annealing for 15,000 h and no healing has been observed. The possible healing mechanisms in this temperature range (back diffusion of Cr atoms from the Cr-rich ferrite ({alpha}{sub Cr}) and diffusion of Cr atoms from the austenite) and its absence in the present steel have been discussed.

  4. Construction and Analysis of Long-Term Surface Temperature Dataset in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. E.; Wang, X. Q.; Su, H.

    2017-09-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2) from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual) from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.

  5. CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM SURFACE TEMPERATURE DATASET IN FUJIAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2 from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.

  6. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  7. Parachors in terms of critical temperature, critical pressure and acentric factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broseta, D.; Ragil, K.

    1995-12-31

    The method of parachors is widely used in conventional thermodynamic codes and reservoir simulators to calculate oil/gas interfacial tensions of complex hydrocarbon mixtures. In the low-to-moderate interfacial tension regime, a value p{approx}11/3 has previously been shown to be the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} parachor exponent. This exponent is a critical exponent and its value is consistent with the values of critical exponents characterizing the liquid/vapor critical behavior. Therefore parachors may be viewed as critical amplitudes. By using critical scaling theory, parachors are related to other critical amplitudes and critical parameters that describe the bulk thermodynamic behavior of fluids. A simple expression relating the parachor of a pure compound to its critical temperature T{sub c}, critical pressure P{sub c}, and acentric factor {omega} is proposed: P= (0.85-0.19{omega})T{sub c}{sup 12/11}/P{sub c}{sup 9/11} where the parachor P is in units of (dyn/cm){sup 3/11}cm{sup 3}/mol, T{sub c} in K and P{sub c} in MPa. This equation matches (within experimental error) the known parachor values of normal fluids (e.g. alkanes, aromatics, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, etc...).

  8. The Long-Term Financial and Clinical Impact of an Electronic Health Record on an Academic Ophthalmology Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C. Lim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine financial and clinical work productivity outcomes associated with the use of the electronic health record (EHR. Methods. 191,360 billable clinical encounters were analyzed for 12 clinical providers over a 9-year study period during which an EHR was implemented. Main outcome measures were clinical revenues collected per provider and secondary outcomes were charge capture, patient visit coding levels, transcription costs, patient visit volume per provider, digital drawing, and digital imaging volume. Results. The difference in inflation adjusted net clinical revenue per provider per year did not change significantly in the period after EHR implementation (mean = $404,198; SD = $17,912 than before (mean = $411,420; SD = $39,366 (P=0.746. Charge capture, the proportion of higher- and lower-level visit codes for new and established patients, and patient visits per provider remained stable. A total savings of $188,951 in transcription costs occurred over a 4-year time period post-EHR implementation. The rate of drawing the ophthalmic exam in the EHR was low (mean = 2.28%; SD = 0.05% for all providers. Conclusions. This study did not show a clear financial gain after EHR implementation in an academic ophthalmology practice. Ophthalmologists do not rely on drawings to document the ophthalmic exam; instead, the ophthalmic exam becomes text-driven in a paperless world.

  9. A Natural Language Processing System That Links Medical Terms in Electronic Health Record Notes to Lay Definitions: System Development Using Physician Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Druhl, Emily; Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Houston, Thomas K; Brandt, Cynthia A; Zulman, Donna M; Vimalananda, Varsha G; Malkani, Samir; Yu, Hong

    2018-01-22

    Many health care systems now allow patients to access their electronic health record (EHR) notes online through patient portals. Medical jargon in EHR notes can confuse patients, which may interfere with potential benefits of patient access to EHR notes. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the usability and content quality of NoteAid, a Web-based natural language processing system that links medical terms in EHR notes to lay definitions, that is, definitions easily understood by lay people. NoteAid incorporates two core components: CoDeMed, a lexical resource of lay definitions for medical terms, and MedLink, a computational unit that links medical terms to lay definitions. We developed innovative computational methods, including an adapted distant supervision algorithm to prioritize medical terms important for EHR comprehension to facilitate the effort of building CoDeMed. Ten physician domain experts evaluated the user interface and content quality of NoteAid. The evaluation protocol included a cognitive walkthrough session and a postsession questionnaire. Physician feedback sessions were audio-recorded. We used standard content analysis methods to analyze qualitative data from these sessions. Physician feedback was mixed. Positive feedback on NoteAid included (1) Easy to use, (2) Good visual display, (3) Satisfactory system speed, and (4) Adequate lay definitions. Opportunities for improvement arising from evaluation sessions and feedback included (1) improving the display of definitions for partially matched terms, (2) including more medical terms in CoDeMed, (3) improving the handling of terms whose definitions vary depending on different contexts, and (4) standardizing the scope of definitions for medicines. On the basis of these results, we have improved NoteAid's user interface and a number of definitions, and added 4502 more definitions in CoDeMed. Physician evaluation yielded useful feedback for content validation and refinement of this

  10. Value Retention, Service Life, Use Intensity and Long-Term Productivity of Wood Chippers as Obtained from Contractor Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Spinelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging the absence of up-to-date empirical data on the value retention, service life and annual use of chipping machinery, in 2017 the authors surveyed the records kept by 50 contractors offering biomass chipping services. The machine fleet and operations in this survey could be taken as representative for most of Europe, where the biomass sector is well established and is facing further expansion. Data collection included the whole chipping unit, comprised of chipper, carrier and loader. Manually-fed units were excluded from the survey. The data pointed at a service life up to and exceeding 10,000 h and 10 years, which relieved any concerns about poor durability. Value retention was good, and may exceed that of other mainstream forestry equipment. Engine power was the main explanatory variable in any models to predict purchase price and productivity. The effect of this variable could explain most of the variability (>80% in the purchase price and productivity data. Results also pointed at the essential equivalence in price and productivity between PTO-driven (i.e., tractor powered and independent-engine chippers, once differences in engine power are accounted for. However, the distribution of purchase price between different components of the chipping unit was different between the two unit types, with the chipper accounting for a larger proportion of the total investment in independent-engine units. Machine power was also different, with most PTO-driven units being significantly smaller than independent-engine units, due to the limitations of existing tractors. Furthermore, half of the carriers assigned to a PTO-driven unit were subject to flexible use, i.e., they were not solely used for chipping work.

  11. Characterization of the effects of borehole configuration and interference with long term ground temperature modelling of ground source heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Ying Lam E.; Dworkin, Seth B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Long term ground temperature response is explored using finite element methods. • Simulation method is validated against experimental and analytical data. • Temperature changes at a fast rate in the first few years and slows down gradually. • ASHRAE recommended separation distances are not always sufficient. • Thermal accumulation occurs at the centre of borehole field. - Abstract: Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional heating and cooling systems because of their high efficiency and low greenhouse gas emissions. The ground acts as a heat sink/source for the excess/required heat inside a building for cooling and heating modes, respectively. However, imbalance in heating and cooling needs can change ground temperature over the operating duration. This increase/decrease in ground temperature lowers system efficiency and causes the ground to foul—failing to accept or provide more heat. In order to ensure that GSHPs can operate to their designed conditions, thermal modelling is required to simulate the ground temperature during system operation. In addition, the borehole field layout can have a major impact on ground temperature. In this study, four buildings were studied—a hospital, fast-food restaurant, residence, and school, each with varying borehole configurations. Boreholes were modelled in a soil volume using finite-element methods and heating and cooling fluxes were applied to the borehole walls to simulate the GSHP operation. 20 years of operation were modelled for each building for 2 × 2, 4 × 4, and 2 × 8 borehole configurations. Results indicate that the borehole separation distance of 6 m, recommended by ASHRAE, is not always sufficient to prevent borehole thermal interactions. Benefits of using a 2 × 8 configuration as opposed to a 4 × 4 configuration, which can be observed because of the larger perimeter it provides for heat to dissipate to surrounding soil were

  12. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  13. Decoding a protracted zircon geochronological record in ultrahigh temperature granulite, and persistence of partial melting in the crust, Rogaland, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Antonin T.; Bingen, Bernard; Duchene, Stephanie; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-magali; Bosse, Valerie

    2018-04-01

    This contribution evaluates the relation between protracted zircon geochronological signal and protracted crustal melting in the course of polyphase high to ultrahigh temperature (UHT; T > 900 °C) granulite facies metamorphism. New U-Pb, oxygen isotope, trace element, ion imaging and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging data in zircon are reported from five samples from Rogaland, South Norway. The data reveal that the spread of apparent age captured by zircon, between 1040 and 930 Ma, results both from open-system growth and closed-system post-crystallization disturbance. Post-crystallization disturbance is evidenced by inverse age zoning induced by solid-state recrystallization of metamict cores that received an alpha dose above 35 × 1017 α g-1. Zircon neocrystallization is documented by CL-dark domains displaying O isotope open-system behaviour. In UHT samples, O isotopic ratios are homogenous (δ18O = 8.91 ± 0.08‰), pointing to high-temperature diffusion. Scanning ion imaging of these CL-dark domains did not reveal unsupported radiogenic Pb. The continuous geochronological signal retrieved from the CL-dark zircon in UHT samples is similar to that of monazite for the two recognized metamorphic phases (M1: 1040-990 Ma; M2: 940-930 Ma). A specific zircon-forming event is identified in the orthopyroxene and UHT zone with a probability peak at ca. 975 Ma, lasting until ca. 955 Ma. Coupling U-Pb geochronology and Ti-in-zircon thermometry provides firm evidence of protracted melting lasting up to 110 My (1040-930 Ma) in the UHT zone, 85 My (ca. 1040-955 Ma) in the orthopyroxene zone and some 40 My (ca. 1040-1000 Ma) in the regional basement. These results demonstrate the persistence of melt over long timescales in the crust, punctuated by two UHT incursions.

  14. Estimation of the base temperature and growth phase duration in terms of thermal time for four grapevine cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, D.; Salazar, M.; Chaves, B.; Keller, M.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal time models have been used to predict the development of many different species, including grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.). These models normally assume that there is a linear relationship between temperature and plant development. The goal of this study was to estimate the base temperature and duration in terms of thermal time for predicting veraison for four grapevine cultivars. Historical phenological data for four cultivars that were collected in the Pacific Northwest were used to develop the thermal time model. Base temperatures ( T b) of 0 and 10 °C and the best estimated T b using three different methods were evaluated for predicting veraison in grapevine. Thermal time requirements for each individual cultivar were evaluated through analysis of variance, and means were compared using the Fisher's test. The methods that were applied to estimate T b for the development of wine grapes included the least standard deviation in heat units, the regression coefficient, and the development rate method. The estimated T b varied among methods and cultivars. The development rate method provided the lowest T b values for all cultivars. For the three methods, Chardonnay had the lowest T b ranging from 8.7 to 10.7 °C, while the highest T b values were obtained for Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon with 11.8 and 12.8 °C, respectively. Thermal time also differed among cultivars, when either the fixed or estimated T b was used. Predictions of the beginning of ripening with the estimated temperature resulted in the lowest variation in real days when compared with predictions using T b = 0 or 10 °C, regardless of the method that was used to estimate the T b.

  15. Impact of the ozone monitoring instrument row anomaly on the long-term record of aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jethva, Hiren; Ahn, Changwoo

    2018-05-01

    Since about three years after the launch the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the EOS-Aura satellite, the sensor's viewing capability has been affected by what is believed to be an internal obstruction that has reduced OMI's spatial coverage. It currently affects about half of the instrument's 60 viewing positions. In this work we carry out an analysis to assess the effect of the reduced spatial coverage on the monthly average values of retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and the UV Aerosol Index (UVAI) using the 2005-2007 three-year period prior to the onset of the row anomaly. Regional monthly average values calculated using viewing positions 1 through 30 were compared to similarly obtained values using positions 31 through 60, with the expectation of finding close agreement between the two calculations. As expected, mean monthly values of AOD and SSA obtained with these two scattering-angle dependent subsets of OMI observations agreed over regions where carbonaceous or sulphate aerosol particles are the predominant aerosol type. However, over arid regions, where desert dust is the main aerosol type, significant differences between the two sets of calculated regional mean values of AOD were observed. As it turned out, the difference in retrieved desert dust AOD between the scattering-angle dependent observation subsets was due to the incorrect representation of desert dust scattering phase function. A sensitivity analysis using radiative transfer calculations demonstrated that the source of the observed AOD bias was the spherical shape assumption of desert dust particles. A similar analysis in terms of UVAI yielded large differences in the monthly mean values for the two sets of calculations over cloudy regions. On the contrary, in arid regions with minimum cloud presence, the resulting UVAI monthly average values for the two sets of observations were in very close agreement. The discrepancy under cloudy conditions was found

  16. New paleoclimatic database for the Iberian Peninsula since AD 1700 inferred from tree-ring records and documentary evidence: advances in temperature and drought variability reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Ernesto; Ángel Saz, Miguel; de Luis, Martín; Esper, Jan; Barriendos, Mariano; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Novak, Klemen; Longares, Luis Alberto; Martínez-del Castillo, Edurne; María Cuadrat, José

    2017-04-01

    A substantial increase of surface air temperatures in the upcoming decades, particularly significant in the Mediterranean basin, has been reported by the IPCC (IPCC, 2013). It is therefore particularly important to study past climate extremes and variability in this region, which will in turn support the accuracy of future climate scenarios. Yet, our knowledge of past climate variability and trends is limited by the shortage of instrumental data prior to the twentieth century, which prompts to the need of discovering new sources with which to reconstruct past climate. We here present a new paleoclimatic database for the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula based on tree-ring records, documentary evidence and instrumental data. The network includes 774 tree-ring, earlywood and latewood width series from Pinus uncinata, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra trees in the Pyrenees and Iberian Range reaching back to AD 1510. Three reconstructions are developed using these samples; an annual drought reconstruction since AD 1694, a summer drought reconstruction since AD 1734, and a maximum temperature reconstruction since AD 1604. Additionally, the documentary records from 16 locations in the Ebro Valley are examined focusing on climate-related 'rogations'. We differentiated three types of rogations, considering the importance of religious acts, to identify the severity of drought and pluvial events. Finally, an attempt to explore the links between documentary and tree-ring based reconstructions is presented.

  17. Developing a Validated Long-Term Satellite-Based Albedo Record in the Central Alaska Range to Improve Regional Hydroclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Godaire, T. P.; Burakowski, E. A.; Winski, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Hamilton, G. S.; Birkel, S. D.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Schaaf, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world, particularly in Alaska, are experiencing significant surface mass loss from rapid climatic shifts and constitute a large proportion of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Surface albedo acts as a primary control on a glacier's mass balance, yet it is difficult to measure and quantify spatially and temporally in steep, mountainous settings. During our 2013 field campaign in Denali National Park to recover two surface to bedrock ice cores, we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec4 Standard Resolution spectroradiometer to measure incoming solar radiation, outgoing surface reflectance and optical grain size on the Kahiltna Glacier and at the Kahiltna Base Camp. A Campbell Scientific automatic weather station was installed on Mount Hunter (3900m) in June 2013, complementing a longer-term (2008-present) station installed at Kahiltna Base Camp (2100m). Use of our in situ data aids in the validation of surface albedo values derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat satellite imagery. Comparisons are made between ASD FieldSpec4 ground measurements and 500m MODIS imagery to assess the ability of MODIS to capture the variability of surface albedo across the glacier surface. The MODIS MCD43A3 BRDF/Albedo Product performs well at Kahiltna Base Camp (albedo (10-28% relative to ASD data) appear to occur along the Kahiltna Glacier due to the snow-free valley walls being captured in the 500m MODIS footprint. Incorporating Landsat imagery will strengthen our interpretations and has the potential to produce a long-term (1982-present) validated satellite albedo record for steep and mountainous terrain. Once validation is complete, we will compare the satellite-derived albedo record to the Denali ice core accumulation rate, aerosol records (i.e. volcanics and biomass burning), and glacier mass balance data. This research will ultimately contribute to an improved understanding of the

  18. Regional difference of the start time of the recent warming in Eastern China: prompted by a 165-year temperature record deduced from tree rings in the Dabie Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiufang; Liu, Yu; Duan, Bingchuang; Sun, Changfeng

    2018-03-01

    Tree-ring studies from tropical to subtropical regions are rarer than that from extratropical regions, which greatly limit our understanding of some critical climate change issues. Based on the tree-ring-width chronology of samples collected from the Dabie Mountains, we reconstructed the April-June mean temperature for this region with an explained variance of 46.8%. Five cold (1861-1869, 1889-1899, 1913-1920, 1936-1942 and 1952-1990) and three warm (1870-1888, 1922-1934 and 2000-2005) periods were identified in the reconstruction. The reconstruction not only agreed well with the instrumental records in and around the study area, but also showed good resemblance to previous temperature reconstructions from nearby regions, indicating its spatial and temporal representativeness of the temperature variation in the central part of eastern China. Although no secular warming trend was found, the warming trend since 1970 was unambiguous in the Dabie Mountains (0.064 °C/year). Further temperature comparison indicated that the start time of the recent warming in eastern China was regional different. It delayed gradually from north to south, starting at least around 1940 AD in the north part, around 1970 AD in the central part and around 1980s in the south part. This work enriches the high-resolution temperature reconstructions in eastern China. We expect that climate warming in the future would promote the radial growth of alpine Pinus taiwanensis in the subtropical areas of China, therefore promote the carbon capture and carbon storage in the Pinus taiwanensis forest. It also helps to clarify the regional characteristic of recent warming in eastern China.

  19. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T; Bruus, Henrik; Laurell, Thomas

    2011-12-21

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method to determine optimal μPIV-settings for obtaining high-quality results of the spatially inhomogeneous acoustophoretic velocity fields of large dynamical range is presented. In particular we study the dependence of the results on the μPIV interrogation window size and the number of repeated experiments. The μPIV-method was further verified by comparing it with our previously published particle tracking method. Using the μPIV platform we present a series of high-resolution measurements of the acoustophoretic velocity field as a function of the driving frequency, the driving voltage, and the resonator temperature. Finally, we establish a direct and consistent connection between the obtained acoustophoretic velocity fields, and continuous flow mode acoustophoresis, commonly used in applications.

  20. Global observed long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes: A review of progress and limitations in IPCC assessments and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa V. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) first attempted a global assessment of long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in its Third Assessment Report in 2001. While data quality and coverage were limited, the report still concluded that heavy precipitation events had increased and that there had been, very likely, a reduction in the frequency of extreme low temperatures and increases in the frequency of extreme high temperatures. That overall assessment had ch...

  1. Analysis and description of the long-term creep behaviour of high-temperature gas turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    On a series of standard high-temperature gas turbine materials, creep tests were accomplished with the aim to obtain improved data on the long-term creep behaviour. The tests were carried out in the range of the main application temperatures of the materials and in the range of low stresses and elongations similar to operation conditions. They lasted about 5000 to 16000 h at maximum. At all important temperatures additional annealing tests lasting up to about 10000 h were carried out for the determination of a material-induced structure contraction. Thermal tension tests were effected for the description of elastoplastic short-time behaviour. As typical selection of materials the nickel investment casting alloys IN-738 LC, IN-939 and Udimet 500 for industrial turbine blades, IN-100 for aviation turbine blades and IN-713 C for integrally cast wheels of exhaust gas turbochargers were investigated, and also the nickel forge alloy Inconel 718 for industrial and aviation turbine disks and Nimonic 101 for industrial turbine blades and finally the cobalt alloy FSC 414 for guide blades and heat accumulation segments of industrial gas turbines. The creep tests were started on long-period individual creep testing machines with high strain measuring accuracy and economically continued on long-period multispecimen creep testing machines with long duration of test. The test results of this mixed test method were first subjected to a conventional evaluation in logarithmic time yield and creep diagrams which besides creep strength curves provided creep stress limit curves down to 0.2% residual strain. (orig./MM) [de

  2. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62847, Lat: 19.28011 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.42m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091110.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  3. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.65704, Lat: 19.27666 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.33m; Data Date Range: 20090404-20100915.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  4. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Swains Island, American Samoa; Long: -171.09087, Lat: -11.05859 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 6.70m; Data Date Range: 20100316-20120321.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  5. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Alamagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; Long: 145.81873, Lat: 17.58746 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.01m; Data Date Range: 20090504-20110423.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  6. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Ofu and Olosega Islands, American Samoa; Long: -169.65176, Lat: -14.18073 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.60m; Data Date Range: 20100311-20120425.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  7. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99118, Lat: -00.36291 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.30m; Data Date Range: 20100404-20120504.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  8. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.97227, Lat: -00.37505 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 33.20m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120505.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  9. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.12653, Lat: 05.86666 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100407-20110503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  10. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.59486, Lat: 19.30300 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 18.90m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091114.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  11. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Rose Atoll, American Samoa; Long: -168.15995, Lat: -14.55157 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.70m; Data Date Range: 20100305-20120418.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  12. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.62730, Lat: 19.31588 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 20.12m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20091013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  13. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -176.47476, Lat: 00.18783 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 5.50m; Data Date Range: 20100207-20120316.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  14. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.34221, Lat: 06.39242 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 7.00m; Data Date Range: 20100414-20120512.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  15. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Tutuila, American Samoa; Long: -170.67895, Lat: -14.28977 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 14.90m; Data Date Range: 20120414-20130403.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...

  16. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Rose Atoll, American Samoa; Long: -168.16864, Lat: -14.54858 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 8.50m; Data Date Range: 20100304-20120419.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  17. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -162.03300, Lat: 05.88243 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.40m; Data Date Range: 20100409-20110816.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  18. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Swains Island, American Samoa; Long: -171.09113, Lat: -11.05870 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 29.30m; Data Date Range: 20100316-20120321.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  19. CRED Subsurface Temperature Recorder (STR); Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: -159.99663, Lat: -00.38187 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 10.10m; Data Date Range: 20100403-20120503.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) Subsurface Temperature Recorders (STR) provide a time series of...

  20. CRED Temperature and Conductivity Recorders (SBE37); Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas; Long: 166.60979, Lat: 19.32583 (WGS84); Sensor Depth: 17.98m; Data Date Range: 20090326-20100308.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) conductivity and temperature recorders provide a time series of...