WorldWideScience

Sample records for term site productivity

  1. Forest Soil Productivity on the Southern Long-Term Soil Productivity Sites at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; Allan E. Tiarks; Felipe G. Sanchez; Michael Elliott-Smith; Rick Stagg

    2004-01-01

    Forest management operations have the potential to reduce soil productivity through organic matter and nutrient removal and soil compaction. We measured pine volume, bulk density, and soil and foliar nitrogen and phosphorus at age 5 on the 13 southern Long-Term Soil Productivity study sites. The treatments were organic matter removal [bole only (BO), whole tree (WT),...

  2. The Fall River Long-Term Site Productivity study in coastal Washington: site characteristics, methods, and biomass and carbon and nitrogen stores before and after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Kathryn B. Piatek; Robert B. Harrison; Richard E. Miller; Barry L. Flaming; ChristopherW Licata; Brian D. Strahm; Constance A. Harrington; Rodney Meade; Harry W. Anderson; Leslie C. Brodie; Joseph M. Kraft

    2007-01-01

    The Fall River research site in coastal Washington is an affiliate installation of the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) network, which constitutes one of the world’s largest coordinated research programs addressing forest management impacts on sustained productivity. Overall goals of the Fall River study are to assess effects of biomass removals, soil...

  3. Long term effects of wet site timber harvesting and site preparation on soil properties and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity in the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Neaves III, Charles Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Short term studies have suggested that ground based timber harvesting on wet sites can alter soil properties and inhibit early survival and growth of seedlings. Persistence of such negative effects may translate to losses in forest productivity over a rotation. During the fall and winter of 1989, numerous salvage logging operations were conducted during high soil moisture conditions on wet pine flats in the lower coastal plain of South Carolina following Hurricane Hugo. A long-term experim...

  4. Effects Of Very Intensive Forest Biomass Harvesting On Short And Long Term Site Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Stupak, Inge; Clarke, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Intensified forest biomass utilisation causes export of substantial amounts of nutrients from the forest ecosystem. Compared to conventional stems-only harvesting, the most intensive biomass sce nario causes increases in nutrient exports of up to 6-7 times whereas the biomass export increases only...... up to 2 times (Stupak et al. 2007a). High concentrations of nutrients in small branches, twigs, and leaves compared to stems are the main reason. The extensive export of nutrients related to intensive biomass extraction have for many years caused concern for the long-term fertility of the system...

  5. Asymmetric Responses of Primary Productivity to Altered Precipitation Simulated by Land Surface Models across Three Long-term Grassland Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Knapp, A.; Wilcox, K.; Bahn, M.; Smith, M. D.; Ito, A.; Arneth, A.; Harper, A. B.; Ukkola, A.; Paschalis, A.; Poulter, B.; Peng, C.; Reick, C. H.; Hayes, D. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Reinthaler, D.; Chen, G.; Tian, H.; Helene, G.; Zscheischler, J.; Mao, J.; Ingrisch, J.; Nabel, J.; Pongratz, J.; Boysen, L.; Kautz, M.; Schmitt, M.; Krohn, M.; Zeng, N.; Meir, P.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Hasibeder, R.; Vicca, S.; Sippel, S.; Dangal, S. R. S.; Fatichi, S.; Sitch, S.; Shi, X.; Wang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Liu, Y.; Piao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in precipitation variability including the occurrence of extreme events strongly influence plant growth in grasslands. Field measurements of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in temperate grasslands suggest a positive asymmetric response with wet years resulting in ANPP gains larger than ANPP declines in dry years. Whether land surface models used for historical simulations and future projections of the coupled carbon-water system in grasslands are capable to simulate such non-symmetrical ANPP responses remains an important open research question. In this study, we evaluate the simulated responses of grassland primary productivity to altered precipitation with fourteen land surface models at the three sites of Colorado Shortgrass Steppe (SGS), Konza prairie (KNZ) and Stubai Valley meadow (STU) along a rainfall gradient from dry to wet. Our results suggest that: (i) Gross primary production (GPP), NPP, ANPP and belowground NPP (BNPP) show nonlinear response curves (concave-down) in all the models, but with different curvatures and mean values. In contrast across the sites, primary production increases and then saturates along increasing precipitation with a flattening at the wetter site. (ii) Slopes of spatial relationships between modeled primary production and precipitation are steeper than the temporal slopes (obtained from inter-annual variations). (iii) Asymmetric responses under nominal precipitation range with modeled inter-annual primary production show large uncertainties, and model-ensemble median generally suggests negative asymmetry (greater declines in dry years than increases in wet years) across the three sites. (iv) Primary production at the drier site is predicted to more sensitive to precipitation compared to wetter site, and median sensitivity consistently indicates greater negative impacts of reduced precipitation than positive effects of increased precipitation under extreme conditions. This study implies that most models

  6. Long-Term Trends in Loblolly Pine Site Productivity and Stand Characteristics Observed at the Impac Research Site in Alachua County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Martin; Eric J. Jokela

    2002-01-01

    While nutrient availability is a dominant factor controlling leaf area development and pine productivity in the southeastern USA, few studies have explored the long-term interactions among nutrient inputs, canopy foliage production, and aboveground biomass production. In order to address these questions, the Intensive Management Practices Assessment Center (IMPAC)...

  7. Fission-product source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    This presentation consists of a review of fission-product source terms for light water reactor (LWR) fuel. A source term is the quantity of fission products released under specified conditions that can be used to calculate the consequences of the release. The source term usually defines release from breached fuel-rod cladding but could also describe release from the primary coolant system, the reactor containment shell, or the site boundary. The source term would be different for each locality, and the chemical and physical forms of the fission products could also differ

  8. Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on 5-year seedling performance: a regional comparison of long-term soil productivity sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Fleming; Robert F. Powers; Neil W. Foster; J. Marty Kranabetter; D. Andrew Scott; Felix Jr. Ponder; Shannon Berch; William K. Chapman; Richard D. Kabzems; Kim H. Ludovici; David M. Morris; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul T. Sanborn; Felipe G. Sanchez; Douglas M. Stone; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We examined fifth-year seedling response to soil disturbance and vegetation control at 42 experimental locations representing 25 replicated studies within the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) program. These studies share a common experimental design while encompassing a wide range of climate, site conditions, and forest types. Whole-tree harvest had...

  9. Soil physical property changes at the North American long-term soil productivity study sites: 1 and 5 years after compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Allan E. Tiarks; Felix Ponder; Felipe G. Sanchez; Robert L. Fleming; J. Marty Kranabetter; Robert F. Powers; Douglas M. Stone; John D. Elioff; D. Andrew. Scott

    2006-01-01

    The impact of forest management operations on soil physical properties is important to understand, since management can significantly change site productivity by altering root growth potential, water infiltration and soil erosion, and water and nutrient availability. We studied soil bulk density and strength changes as indicators of soil compaction before harvesting...

  10. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  11. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  12. Long-term monitoring of fleshy fruit and hard mast production and seasonal bird distribution at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2009-06-15

    A final report of Fruit and hard mast production in five habitat types at SRS with a comparison of fruit consumption by fledgling versus adult birds at SRS and Relative importance of fruit, seeds, and insects in the diets of overwintering birds at SRS.

  13. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash was used

  14. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  15. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  16. Fine root production at drained peatland sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, L. [Finnish Forest Research Inst. (Finland). Joensuu Research Station; Laine, J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The preliminary results of the Finnish project `Carbon balance of peatlands and climate change` show that fine roots play an important role in carbon cycling on peat soils. After drainage the roots of mire species are gradually replaced by the roots of trees and other forest species. Pine fine root biomass reaches a maximum level by the time of crown closure, some 20 years after drainage on pine mire. The aim of this study is to compare the results of the sequential coring method and the ingrowth bag method used for estimating fine root production on three drained peatland sites of different fertility. The results are preliminary and continuation to the work done in the study Pine root production on drained peatlands, which is part of the Finnish project `Carbon cycling on peatlands and climate change`. In this study the fine root biomass was greater on the poor site than on the rich sites. Pine fine root production increased with the decrease in fertility. Root turnover and the production of field layer species were greater on the rich sites than on the poor site. The results suggested that the in growth bag method measured more root activity than the magnitude of production. More than two growing seasons would have been needed to balance the root dynamics in the in growth bags with the surrounding soil. That time would probably have been longer on the poor site than on the rich ones and longer for pine and field layer consisting of dwarf shrubs than for field layer consisting of sedge like species and birch. (11 refs.)

  17. Long-term monitoring for closed special sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.; Sedlet, J.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology is presented for planning and implementing a long-term environmental monitoring program for closed special radioactive waste disposal sites. The steps in the method involve collection of the available background information on the site history, site and area characteristics, waste inventory, pathway analysis, prior monitoring programs, applicable standards, and the legal/regulatory requirements. This information is coupled with factors such as experience, half-life, radionuclide migration rates, and potential hazard to develop a monitoring program. As an example, a site-specific long-term monitoring program is described for the AMAX site using the available information. Sampling techniques and practices for the monitoring program are discussed and techniques and practices expected to be available in the future are considered. 7 references, 2 tables

  18. Site transition framework for long-term surveillance and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a framework for all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and sites where DOE may have anticipated long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTSM) responsibilities. It is a tool to help facilitate a smooth transition from remediation to LTSM, providing a systematic process for affected parties to utilize in analyzing the baseline to understand and manage the actions from EM mission completion through a site's transition into LTSM. The framework is not meant to provide an exhaustive list of the specific requirement and information that are needed. Sites will have unique considerations that may not be adequately addressed by this tool, and it is anticipated that a team comprised of the transferring and receiving organization will use judgment in utilizing this augmenting with other DOE guidance. However the framework should be followed to the extent possible at each site; and adapted to accommodate unique site-specific requirements, needs, and documents. Since the objective of the tool is facilitate better understanding of the conditions of the site and the actions required for transfer, the transition team utilizing the checklist is expected to consult with management of both the receiving and transferring organization to verify that major concerns are addressed. Ideally, this framework should be used as early in the remediation process as possible. Subsequent applications of the Site Transition Framework (STF) to the site should be conducted periodically and used to verify that all appropriate steps have been or will be taken to close-out the site and that actions by both organization are identified to transfer the site to LTSM. The requirements are provided herein

  19. Site transition framework for long-term surveillance and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    This document provides a framework for all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and sites where DOE may have anticipated long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTSM) responsibilities. It is a tool to help facilitate a smooth transition from remediation to LTSM, providing a systematic process for affected parties to utilize in analyzing the baseline to understand and manage the actions from EM mission completion through a site’s transition into LTSM. The framework is not meant to provide an exhaustive list of the specific requirement and information that are needed. Sites will have unique considerations that may not be adequately addressed by this tool, and it is anticipated that a team comprised of the transferring and receiving organization will use judgment in utilizing this augmenting with other DOE guidance. However the framework should be followed to the extent possible at each site; and adapted to accommodate unique site-specific requirements, needs, and documents. Since the objective of the tool is facilitate better understanding of the conditions of the site and the actions required for transfer, the transition team utilizing the checklist is expected to consult with management of both the receiving and transferring organization to verify that major concerns are addressed. Ideally, this framework should be used as early in the remediation process as possible. Subsequent applications of the Site Transition Framework (STF) to the site should be conducted periodically and used to verify that all appropriate steps have been or will be taken to close-out the site and that actions by both organization are identified to transfer the site to LTSM. The requirements are provided herein.

  20. Source term development for tritium at the Sheffield disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Barletta, R.E.; Smalley, J.F.; Kempf, C.R.; Davis, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site, which ceased operation in 1978, has been the focus of modeling efforts by the NRC for the purpose of predicting long-term site behavior. To provide the NRC with the information required for its modeling effort, a study to define the source term for tritium in eight trenches at the Sheffield site has been undertaken. Tritium is of special interest since significant concentrations of the isotope have been found in groundwater samples taken at the site and at locations outside the site boundary. Previous estimates of tritium site inventory at Sheffield are in wide disagreement. In this study, the tritium inventory in the eight trenches was estimated by reviewing the radioactive shipping records (RSRs) for waste buried in these trenches. It has been found that the tritium shipped for burial at the site was probably higher than previously estimated. In the eight trenches surveyed, which amount to roughly one half the total volume and activity buried at Sheffield, approximately 2350 Ci of tritium from non-fuel cycle sources were identified. The review of RSRs also formed the basis for obtaining waste package descriptions and for contacting large waste generators to obtain more detailed information regarding these waste packages. As a result of this review and the selected generator contacts, the non-fuel cycle tritium waste was categorized. The tritium releases from each of these waste categories were modeled. The results of this modeling effort are presented for each of the eight trenches selected. 3 references, 2 figures

  1. Isotope Production at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammoniums

    1999-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request from the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) subcommittee on ''Long-Term Isotope Research and Production Plans.'' The NERAC subcommittee has asked for a reply to a number of questions regarding (1) ''How well does the Department of Energy (DOE) infrastructure sme the need for commercial and medical isotopes?'' and (2) ''What should be the long-term role of the federal government in providing commercial and medical isotopes?' Our report addresses the questions raised by the NERAC subcommittee, and especially the 10 issues that were raised under the first of the above questions (see Appendix). These issues are related to the isotope products offered by the DOE Isotope Production Sites, the capabilities and condition of the facilities used to produce these products, the management of the isotope production programs at DOE laboratories, and the customer service record of the DOE Isotope Production sites. An important component of our report is a description of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor at the Hbford Site and the future plans for its utilization as a source of radioisotopes needed by nuclear medicine physicians, by researchers, and by customers in the commercial sector. In response to the second question raised by the NERAC subcommittee, it is our firm belief that the supply of isotopes provided by DOE for medical, industrial, and research applications must be strengthened in the near future. Many of the radioisotopes currently used for medical diagnosis and therapy of cancer and other diseases are imported from Canada, Europe, and Asia. This situation places the control of isotope availability, quality, and pricing in the hands of non-U.S. suppliers. It is our opinion that the needs of the U.S. customers for isotopes and isotope products are not being adequately served, and that the DOE infrastructure and facilities devoted to the

  2. Savannah River Site production reactor technical specifications. K Production Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    These technical specifications are explicit restrictions on the operation of the Savannah River Site K Production Reactor. They are designed to preserve the validity of the plant safety analysis by ensuring that the plant is operated within the required conditions bounded by the analysis, and with the operable equipment that is assumed to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Technical specifications preserve the primary success path relied upon to detect and respond to accidents. This report describes requirements on thermal-hydraulic limits; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance for the reactor, power distribution control, instrumentation, process water system, emergency cooling and emergency shutdown systems, confinement systems, plant systems, electrical systems, components handling, and special test exceptions; design features; and administrative controls.

  3. Site Suitability For Yam, Rice And Cotton Production In Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper demonstrated the potentials of GIS technique for mapping and delineating the suitable sites for Yam, Rice and Cotton production in Adamawa State. Site suitability mapping is necessary to create data bank and to guide the farmers in decision making on sites for crop production in the state. The use of GIS for this ...

  4. Long-Term Stewardship At DOE's Hanford Site - 12575

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, R.J.; Grindstaff, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)(1), which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S and M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation

  5. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    the investigation results from Forsmark will be further analysed. A long-term safety assessment based on geoscientific and ecological modeling will be made, and the Forsmark site will in this respect and from other aspects be compared with the Laxemar site situated in the municipality of Oskarshamn, which has been investigated simultaneously with the Forsmark site. SKB will then, probably during 2009, give preference to one of the two sites in order to prepare and submit an application under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act to localize and build a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at that site. This application must be accompanied by an environmental impact statement, the production of which will profit much from a conscientiously performed monitoring programme. A continued monitoring programme for the period July 2007-2009 has been decided, and the extent and execution of that programme is presented in this report. This will generate longer time series than have been achieved during the site investigations, which will serve as an improved scientific basis to be used in the site selection process. Broadly speaking, the monitoring programme initiated during the site investigations is suggested to continue after June 2007. However, this programme has been successively expanded during the site investigation period, and some monitoring equipment will not be installed until just before or after completion of the site investigations. Also the recent installations will be included in the continued monitoring programme, which hence, with a few exceptions, will be more extensive than the current programme.

  6. Forsmark site investigation. Programme for long-term observations of geosphere and biosphere after completed site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    results from Forsmark will be further analysed. A long-term safety assessment based on geoscientific and ecological modeling will be made, and the Forsmark site will in this respect and from other aspects be compared with the Laxemar site situated in the municipality of Oskarshamn, which has been investigated simultaneously with the Forsmark site. SKB will then, probably during 2009, give preference to one of the two sites in order to prepare and submit an application under the Environmental Code and the Nuclear Activities Act to localize and build a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at that site. This application must be accompanied by an environmental impact statement, the production of which will profit much from a conscientiously performed monitoring programme. A continued monitoring programme for the period July 2007-2009 has been decided, and the extent and execution of that programme is presented in this report. This will generate longer time series than have been achieved during the site investigations, which will serve as an improved scientific basis to be used in the site selection process. Broadly speaking, the monitoring programme initiated during the site investigations is suggested to continue after June 2007. However, this programme has been successively expanded during the site investigation period, and some monitoring equipment will not be installed until just before or after completion of the site investigations. Also the recent installations will be included in the continued monitoring programme, which hence, with a few exceptions, will be more extensive than the current programme

  7. Summer droughts limit tree growth across 10 temperate species on a productive forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weemstra, M.; Eilmann, B.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Sterck, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on climate impacts on tree annual growth are mainly restricted to marginal sites. To date, the climate effects on annual growth of trees in favorable environments remain therefore unclear despite the importance of these sites in terms of forest productivity. Because species respond

  8. A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship. Volume II, Site Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as for other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over a 100 sites in 30 States and one U.S. Territory. Hundreds of thousand of acres of residually contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, surface water and sediment contamination, and contaminated buildings are present at many sites across the country. These sites range in size from less than one acre, containing only a single facility, to large sites spanning over 100,000 acres with huge uranium enrichment plants and plutonium processing canyons. Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program has made significant progress in addressing this environmental legacy. Millions of cubic meters of waste have been removed, stabilized, or disposed of, resulting in significant risk and cost reduction. In addition, DOE began disposing of transuranic (i.e., plutonium-contaminated) waste in the nation’s first deep geologic repository – the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. DOE is now carrying out its long-term stewardship obligations at dozens of sites, including smaller sites where DOE has completed cleanup work for the entire site and many larger sites where DOE has remediated portions of the site.

  9. Impact of liability and site closure and long-term care issues on future siting efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hana, S.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Washington's research in the area of financial responsibility for liability and cleanup for radioactive materials licensees and low-level radioactive waste permittees is offered to assist unsited states and regions in their planning and development of new low-level waste disposal capacity. The state considered the need for third party bodily injury and property damage financial responsibility and determined that the USDOT requirements comprehensively cover transport of wastes. In regard to licensees' facilities, it is the state's opinion that an adequate technical basis for third party requirements has not yet been developed. Also considered was the need for financial assurance for cleanup, which is covered for transportation, but generally not available for facilities. Three options are examined to provide such coverage, and the economic impact on licensees assessed. Finally, the current low-level waste disposal site operator's insurance coverage is analyzed and deficiencies are identified. Washington is also conducting research into site closure and perpetual care and maintenance requirements for the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located on the Hanford reservation near Richland, Washington. This research includes a site assessment and identification and formulation of site-specific design elements for closure and long-term care

  10. Long term prediction of unconventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, S.H.; Evans, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and the other for mining the resources. Unconventional oil production is anticipated to reach between 18 and 32 Gb/y (49-88 Mb/d) in 2076-2084, before declining. If conventional oil production is at peak production then projected unconventional oil production cannot mitigate peaking of conventional oil alone.

  11. Short term solar radiation forecasting: Island versus continental sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, John; David, Mathieu; Lauret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Due its intermittency, the large-scale integration of solar energy into electricity grids is an issue and more specifically in an insular context. Thus, forecasting the output of solar energy is a key feature to efficiently manage the supply-demand balance. In this paper, three short term forecasting procedures are applied to island locations in order to see how they perform in situations that are potentially more volatile than continental locations. Two continental locations, one coastal and one inland are chosen for comparison. At the two time scales studied, ten minute and hourly, the island locations prove to be more difficult to forecast, as shown by larger forecast errors. It is found that the three methods, one purely statistical combining Fourier series plus linear ARMA models, one combining clear sky index models plus neural net models, and a third using a clear sky index plus ARMA, give similar forecasting results. It is also suggested that there is great potential of merging modelling approaches on different horizons. - Highlights: • Solar energy forecasting is more difficult for insular than continental sites. • Fourier series plus linear ARMA models are one forecasting method tested. • Clear sky index models plus neural net models are also tested. • Clear sky index models plus linear ARMA is also an option. • All three approaches have similar skill.

  12. Sites of Sign-Production and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ana Tupan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available T.S. Eliot’s query in The Waste Land, “Who is the third who walks always beside you?” may be said to sum up the hermeneutic situation of any language act, whether of sign production or interpretation. Whereas traditional topoi of expressionist aesthetics, such as the artist’s subjectivity, empirical psychology, truthfulness, intentionality, etc. have become irrelevant in the heteroglottic discourse of the most famous dirge on the decaying West, Eliot’s awareness of the matrical role of cultural semiosis allows us to place him among the founding fathers of semiotic aesthetics. The anagnorisis episode in The Waste Land is one of appropriate reading of the body of Christ through knowledge of the crucifixion scene and associated symbolism.Rooted in the insights of Charles Peirce Sanders and Charles Morris, and enlarged by post-war contributors, such as Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, Michael B. Hardt, Richard Rudner, Foucault, Vattimo, Baudrillard and Deleuze, the semiotic, cultural materialist, or genetic approach  to art makes interpretation dependent on a mediating third (Peirce: the Interpretant, which is variously related to context, regime of signification, episteme, schemata, generic convention, structure of feeling, triangulation of desire ...

  13. Collaboration in Long-Term Stewardship at DOE's Hanford Site - 13019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, Rick; Brown, David; Feist, Ella; Grindstaff, Keith; Zeisloft, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km 2 (586 mi 2 ) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi 2 on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan [1]. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years,, 253.8 km 2 (98 mi 2 ) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that includes one of the six (6

  14. Collaboration in Long-Term Stewardship at DOE's Hanford Site - 13019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Rick; Brown, David [Mission Support Alliance, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Feist, Ella [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland WA (United States); Grindstaff, Keith; Zeisloft, Jamie [US Department of Energy, Richland Operations, Richland WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan [1]. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years,, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another

  15. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site-13019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km 2 (586 mi 2 ) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi 2 on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km 2 (98 mi 2 ) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that includes one

  16. Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gregory, David

    2005-01-01

    Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark; studies of enviroment, archaeological artefacts, and modern analogues, Prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems.......Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark; studies of enviroment, archaeological artefacts, and modern analogues, Prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems....

  17. Comparison of conventional vs. modular hydrogen refueling stations and on-site production vs. delivery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Ethan S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    To meet the needs of public and private stakeholders involved in the development, construction, and operation of hydrogen fueling stations needed to support the widespread roll-out of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles, this work presents publicly available station templates and analyses. These ‘Reference Stations’ help reduce the cost and speed the deployment of hydrogen stations by providing a common baseline with which to start a design, enable quick assessment of potential sites for a hydrogen station, identify contributors to poor economics, and suggest areas of research. This work presents layouts, bills of materials, piping and instrumentation diagrams, and detailed analyses of five new station designs. In the near term, delivered hydrogen results in a lower cost of hydrogen compared to on-site production via steam methane reforming or electrolysis, although the on-site production methods have other advantages. Modular station concepts including on-site production can reduce lot sizes from conventional assemble-on-site stations.

  18. 9 CFR 101.3 - Biological products and related terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as required by the regulations. (e) Released product. A finished product released for marketing after... total quantity of completed product which has been thoroughly mixed in a single container and identified... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological products and related terms...

  19. Antimatter Production for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P.; Schmidt, George R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses the use and potential of power generated from Proton-Antiproton Annihilation. The problem is that there is not enough production of anti-protons, and that the production methods are inefficient. The cost for 1 gram of antiprotons is estimated at 62.5 trillion dollars. Applications which require large quantities (i.e., about 1 kg) will require dramatic improvements in the efficiency of the production of the antiprotons. However, applications which involve small quantities (i.e., 1 to 10 micrograms may be practical with a relative expansion of capacities. There are four "conventional" antimatter propulsion concepts which are: (1) the solid core, (2) the gas core, (3) the plasma core, and the (4) beam core. These are compared in terms of specific impulse, propulsive energy utilization and vehicle structure/propellant mass ratio. Antimatter-catalyzed fusion propulsion is also evaluated. The improvements outlined in the presentation to the Fermilab production, and other sites. capability would result in worldwide capacity of several micrograms per year, by the middle of the next decade. The conclusions drawn are: (1) the Conventional antimatter propulsion IS not practical due to large p-bar requirement; (2) Antimatter-catalyzed systems can be reasonably considered this "solves" energy cost problem by employing substantially smaller quantities; (3) With current infrastructure, cost for 1 microgram of p-bars is $62.5 million, but with near-term improvements cost should drop; (4) Milligram-scale facility would require a $15 billion investment, but could produce 1 mg, at $0.1/kW-hr, for $6.25 million.

  20. Long-term Behavior of Hydrocarbon Production Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A.; Karra, S.; O'Malley, D.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Recovering hydrocarbons (such as natural gas) from naturally-occurring formations with low permeability has had a huge impact on the energy sector, however, recovery rates are low due to poor understanding of recovery and transport mechanisms [1]. The physical mechanisms that control the production of hydrocarbon are only partially understood. Calculations have shown that the short-term behavior in the peak of the production curve is understood to come from the free hydrocarbons in the fracture networks, but the long-term behavior of these curves is often underpredicted [2]. This behavior is thought to be due to small scale processes - such as matrix diffusion, desorption, and connectivity in the damage region around the large fracture network. In this work, we explore some of these small-scale processes using discrete fracture networks (DFN) and the toolkit dfnWorks [3], the matrix diffusion, size of the damage region, and distribution of free gas between the fracture networks and rock matrix. Individual and combined parameter spaces are explored, and comparisons of the resulting production curves are made to experimental site data from the Haynesville formation [4]. We find that matrix diffusion significantly controls the shape of the tail of the production curve, while the distribution of free gas impacts the relative magnitude of the peak to the tail. The height of the damage region has no effect on the shape of the tail. Understanding the constrains of the parameter space based on site data is the first step in rigorously quantifying the uncertainties coming from these types of systems, which can in turn optimize and improve hydrocarbon recovery. [1] C. McGlade, et. al., (2013) Methods of estimating shale gas resources - comparison, evaluation, and implications, Energy, 59, 116-125 [2] S. Karra, et. al., (2015) Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production, Water Resources Research, 51(10), 8646-8657 [3] J.D. Hyman, et

  1. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  2. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (the Gnome site). The Gnome site is approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad in Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 1). The site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test and radioisotope groundwater tracer test. The tests resulted in residual contamination and post-detonation features that require long-term oversight. Long-term responsibility for the site was transferred from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to LM on October 1, 2006. Responsibilities include surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of institutional controls (ICs) as part of the long-term stewardship of the site. Long-term stewardship is designed to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive disposal site Clive, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the South Clive disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  6. Interim long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This interim long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney Disposal Site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  8. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study`s scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  9. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study's scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  10. Vodnyi. A long-term, low-level radiation exposure field site in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, A.I.; Guryev, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The Vodnyi site in the Komi Republic of Russia represents a unique radioecological field site. The history of industrial operations associated with radioactivity here spans the period 1931 to 1956. Initial operations focused on the extraction of radium from groundwater [ 226 Ra concentration up to 7840 pCi/L (290 Bq/L) ]. In 1947, the extraction of uranium and radium from ores began. Radionuclide contamination in the Vodnyi region includes soils that had been in long-term contact with radium-rich groundwater, charcoal- and gypsum/anhydrite-bearing solid wastes associated with radium production from groundwater, and uranium/radium mill tailings (ore residues). Environmental monitoring and radioecological investigations in the region began in 1957. Due to the restrictive publication practices of the past, many of the radioecological studies done at the Vodnyi site have received limited attention outside the former Soviet Union. Our goal here is to introduce the Vodnyi site to a wider audience and to describe past and current investigations. (author)

  11. Geoscientific long-term prognosis. Preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrugalla, Sabine

    2011-07-01

    The preliminary safety analysis of the site Gorleben includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Aim and content of the geoscientific long-term prognosis for the site Gorleben; (3) Boundary conditions at the site Gorleben: climate; geomorphology; overlying rocks and adjoining rocks; hydrogeology; salt deposit Gorleben. (4) Probable future geological developments at the site Gorleben: supraregional developments with effects on the site Gorleben; glacial period developments; developments of the geomorphology, overlying and adjoining rocks; future developments of the hydrological systems at the site Gorleben; future saliniferous specific developments of the salt deposit Gorleben. (5) Commentary on the unlikely or excludable developments of the site Gorleben.

  12. North American long-term soil productivity research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Robert F. Powers; Jerry F. Ragus; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Felix Ponder; Douglas M. Stone

    1997-01-01

    The National Long-term Soil Productivity research program was chartered to address National Forest Management Act concerns over possible losses n soil productivity on national forest lands. The program supports validation of soil quality monitoring standards and process-level productivity research. Summarized results are supplied to forests as collected. National...

  13. Management of Hanford Site non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to provide radiologically, and industrially safe and cost-effective management of the non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site. The proposed action would place the Hanford Site's non-defense production reactor SNF in a radiologically- and industrially-safe, and passive storage condition pending final disposition. The proposed action would also reduce operational costs associated with storage of the non-defense production reactor SNF through consolidation of the SNF and through use of passive rather than active storage systems. Environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with existing non-defense production reactor SNF storage facilities have been identified. DOE has determined that additional activities are required to consolidate non-defense production reactor SNF management activities at the Hanford Site, including cost-effective and safe interim storage, prior to final disposition, to enable deactivation of facilities where the SNF is now stored. Cost-effectiveness would be realized: through reduced operational costs associated with passive rather than active storage systems; removal of SNF from areas undergoing deactivation as part of the Hanford Site remediation effort; and eliminating the need to duplicate future transloading facilities at the 200 and 400 Areas. Radiologically- and industrially-safe storage would be enhanced through: (1) removal from aging facilities requiring substantial upgrades to continue safe storage; (2) utilization of passive rather than active storage systems for SNF; and (3) removal of SNF from some storage containers which have a limited remaining design life. No substantial increase in Hanford Site environmental impacts would be expected from the proposed action. Environmental impacts from postulated accident scenarios also were evaluated, and indicated that the risks associated with the proposed action would be small

  14. Rainfall frequency analysis for ungauged sites using satellite precipitation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gado, Tamer A.; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of extreme rainfall events and their impacts on hydrologic systems and society are critical considerations in the design and management of a large number of water resources projects. As precipitation records are often limited or unavailable at many sites, it is essential to develop better methods for regional estimation of extreme rainfall at these partially-gauged or ungauged sites. In this study, an innovative method for regional rainfall frequency analysis for ungauged sites is presented. The new method (hereafter, this is called the RRFA-S) is based on corrected annual maximum series obtained from a satellite precipitation product (e.g., PERSIANN-CDR). The probability matching method (PMM) is used here for bias correction to match the CDF of satellite-based precipitation data with the gauged data. The RRFA-S method was assessed through a comparative study with the traditional index flood method using the available annual maximum series of daily rainfall in two different regions in USA (11 sites in Colorado and 18 sites in California). The leave-one-out cross-validation technique was used to represent the ungauged site condition. Results of this numerical application have found that the quantile estimates obtained from the new approach are more accurate and more robust than those given by the traditional index flood method.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished

  16. Challenges in defining a radiologic and hydrologic source term for underground nuclear test centers, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.

    1995-06-01

    The compilation of a radionuclide inventory for long-lived radioactive contaminants residual from nuclear testing provides a partial measure of the radiologic source term at the Nevada Test Site. The radiologic source term also includes potentially mobile short-lived radionuclides excluded from the inventory. The radiologic source term for tritium is known with accuracy and is equivalent to the hydrologic source term within the saturated zone. Definition of the total hydrologic source term for fission and activation products that have high activities for decades following underground testing involves knowledge and assumptions which are presently unavailable. Systematic investigation of the behavior of fission products, activation products and actinides under saturated or Partially saturated conditions is imperative to define a representative total hydrologic source term. This is particularly important given the heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides within testing centers. Data quality objectives which emphasize a combination of measurements and credible estimates of the hydrologic source term are a priority for near-field investigations at the Nevada Test Site

  17. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Abrantes, Kátya G; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark

  18. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive

  19. Site Characteristics For Long Term Storage in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hemamy, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the establishment of a new guideline for a new disposal for low and intermediate radioactive waste in Egypt. It is only permitted in natural geological formations with acceptable seismic and tectonic parameters. The representative parameters applied for this evaluation are related to the release process of the strain energy. The examined parameters are magnitude M2, equivalent to the mean annual total strain energy release, and magnitude M3, analogous to the maximum strain energy which may be accumulated and released in a region. Empirical relation between M3 and M2 is obtained and the result shows that it has a worldwide validity. The quantity Dt, showing the time difference per year between the upper bound line (in the energy diagram) and the time since the last seismic activity (strain energy accumulation) is suggested here. An effort is made to forecast the approximate time of the next earthquake occurrence with magnitude less or equal to the maximum strain energy release. Finally, it clears that the Western Desert are a suitable region for establishing the site of radioactive waste repository

  20. Rent Sharing in Multi-Site Hog Production

    OpenAIRE

    Brian P. Cozzarin; Randall E. Westgren

    2000-01-01

    A firm-level model of three-site hog production is used compare a franchise organizational structure to a three-firm alliance. The results of the simulations imply that the franchise system is better equipped to mitigate underproduction in the nursery and finishing units, the nursery and finishing units lose relatively more profit than they otherwise would in an alliance. The pig-space guatantee does little to offset the financial risk for the nursery and finishing units when underproduction ...

  1. The North-American Long-Term Soil Productivity Study: Concepts and literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    The resiliency of forest sites after a pulse disturbance is one of the key questions mandated by the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. This Act mandated that we maintain the productive capacity of federally managed stands. The original USDA Forest Service soil quality standards were based largely on professional judgment. The North American Long-Term Soil...

  2. The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: findings from the first decade of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; D. Andrew Scott; Felipe g. Sanchez; Richard A. Voldseth; Deborah Page-Dumroese; John D. Elioff; Douglas M. Stone

    2005-01-01

    First decade findings on the impacts of organic matter removal and soil compaction are reported for the 26 oldest installations in the nation-wide network of long-term soil productivity sites. Complete removal of surface organic matter led to declines in soil C concentration to 20 cm depth and to reduced nutrient availability. The effect is attributed mainly to the...

  3. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  12. Short-term robustness of production management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Short-term performance of a production management system for make-to-stock factories may be quantified through the service rate per shift; long-term performance through the average monthly work in process (WIP). This may yield, for example, that WIP is minimized, while the probability of the service

  13. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of

  14. Fission product source term research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe some of the research being performed at ORNL in support of the effort to describe, as realistically as possible, fission product source terms for nuclear reactor accidents. In order to make this presentation manageable, only those studies directly concerned with fission product behavior, as opposed to thermal hydraulics, accident sequence progression, etc., will be discussed

  15. Short-term hydropower production planning by stochastic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Kristoffersen, Trine

    2008-01-01

    -term production planning a matter of spatial distribution among the reservoirs of the plant. Day-ahead market prices and reservoir inflows are, however, uncertain beyond the current operation day and water must be allocated among the reservoirs in order to strike a balance between current profits and expected......Within the framework of multi-stage mixed-integer linear stochastic programming we develop a short-term production plan for a price-taking hydropower plant operating under uncertainty. Current production must comply with the day-ahead commitments of the previous day which makes short...

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive Disposal Site, Clive, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CRF Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the South Clive disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the South Clive site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the South Clive disposal site performs as designed. The program's primary activity is site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity

  17. Resource evaluation and site selection for microalgae production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, E.L.; Folger, A.G.; Hogg, S.E.

    1985-05-01

    Climate, land, and water resource requirements of microalgae production systems (MPS) were examined relative to construction costs, operating costs, and biomass productivity. The objective was the stratification of the southwestern United States into zones of relative suitability for MPS. Maps of climate (insolation, freeze-free period, precipitation, evaporation, thunderstorm days), land (use/cover, ownership, slope), and water (saline groundwater) resource parameters were obtained. These maps were transformed into digital overlays permitting the cell-by-cell compositing of selected resource parameters to form maps representing relative productivity, make-up water, climate suitability, land suitability, water suitability, and overall suitability. The Southwest was selected for this study because of its high levels of insolation, saline water resources, and large areas of relatively low valued land. The stratification maps cannot be used for the selection of specific sites because of their low resolution (12,455-acre cells). They can be used to guide future resource studies and site selection efforts, however, by limiting these efforts to the most suitable regions. Future efforts should concentrate on saline water resources, for which only limited data are currently available. 13 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992)

  20. The North American Long-Term Soil Productivity Experiment: Coast-to-coast findings from the first decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; Felipe G. Sanchez; D. Andrew Scott; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2004-01-01

    The National Forest Management Act of 1976 mandates that a site’s productive capacity must be protected on federally managed lands. Monitoring the effects of management on a site’s productive capacity is not easy, and in 1989 a national program of Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) research was established to assist National Forests toward this end. The LTSP program...

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished

  2. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  3. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  7. Six-term exact sequences for smooth generalized crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Olivier; Grensing, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We define smooth generalized crossed products and prove six-term exact sequences of Pimsner–Voiculescu type. This sequence may, in particular, be applied to smooth subalgebras of the quantum Heisenberg manifolds in order to compute the generators of their cyclic cohomology. Further, our results...... include the known results for smooth crossed products. Our proof is based on a combination of arguments from the setting of (Cuntz–)Pimsner algebras and the Toeplitz proof of Bott periodicity....

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  13. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  14. Hydrogen production from small hyropower sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A synergistic relationship was not found to exist between low-head hydropower and electrolytic hydrogen production. The storageability of hydrogen was expected to mitigate problems of hydrogen generation variability associated with the use of low-head hydropower as the power source. The expense of gaseous hydrogen storage equipment effectively eliminates storage as a means to decouple hydrogen demand and power/hydrogen production. From the opposite perspective, the availability of a low and stable cost of power from low-head hydro was expected to improve the competitiveness of electrolysis. In actuality, the results indicated that hydroelectric power from small dams would be comparatively expensive by current grid power standards (mid-1979). Electrolysis, in the capacity range considered here, is less sensitive to the cost of the power than originally presumed. Other costs including depreciation and capital related charges are more significant. Due to power generation variability, sole reliance on low-head hydropower to provide electricity to the cells would reduce the utilization of the hydrogen production investment, resulting in an increase in unit production costs. These factors were paramount in the Air Products recommendation to discontinue the study before continuing to more detailed stages of analysis, including an analysis of a site specific facility and the construction of a demonstration facility. Another major factor was the unavailability of a pipeline hydrogen supply situation which, because of lower distribution and capital costs, could have been commercially viable. An unfavorable judgment on the combined facility should not be misinterpreted and extended to the component systems. Although a detailed analysis of the individual prospects for electrolysis and low-head hydropower was beyond the study scope, the reader will realize, as the study is reviewed, that each is worthy of individual consideration.

  15. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program, Gnome site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Gnome site is located in Eddy County, approximately 31 miles southeast of the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Project Gnome, with a yield of 3.1 kilotons, was detonated December 10, 1961. It was the first nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event of the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program at the Gnome site is to obtain data that will assure the public safety; inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination; and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. The Gnome site geographical setting, climate, geology, and hydrology are described. Site history, including Gnome event information and pre- and post-Gnome monitoring by the US Public Health Service and the USGS, is described. Site cleanups of 1968 and 1979 are described. Postoperational surveys indicate that the Gnome site is well below the established decontamination criteria and that no hazard exists or will likely occur during public use of the surface of the Gnome site. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for the Gnome site is described

  16. An approach for siting poplar energy production systems to increase productivity and associated ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Jr. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; D.R. Coyle; W.L. Headlee; R.B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are renewable energy feedstocks that are vital to reducing our dependence on non-renewable and foreign sources of energy used for heat, power, and transportation fuels. Highly productive poplars grown primarily on marginal agricultural sites are an important...

  17. Remediation options and the significance of water treatment at former uranium production sites in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Jakubick, A.T.; Kiessig, G.

    2000-01-01

    The WISMUT remediation project in the States of Saxony and Thuringia, Germany, comprises several mine and mill sites including large volumes of production residues. Due to the climate, the intensive land use and the regulatory conditions, the water path is most important in evaluating remediation options. Water treatment is an integral part of mine flooding, mine dump and tailings remediation, and treatment costs represent a major portion of the overall costs of the project. Uncertainties in the estimations of quantities of mine and seepage waters, variations in quality from site to site, and changing conditions in time demand a strategic approach to the selection and optimization of water treatment methods. The paper describes options considered and experience gained including efforts to limit long-term treatment costs by developing and applying passive treatment systems and negotiating acceptable discharge limits. (author)

  18. Economical comparison of imported energy sources in terms of long-term production planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Z.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the Turkish energy production sector is studied and power plants fueled by natural gas, imported coal and nuclear power are compared in terms of long-term (1996-2010) production economy. A net present value is used for comparing nuclear, coal and natural gas power plants. A scenario approach is utilized in establishing the effects of different factors, such as inflation rate, unit of investment costs, load factor change, discount rate and fuel price changes. Six different scenarios of interest are developed and discussed. The study ends with conclusions and recommendations based on a study of a reference scenario and alternative scenarios. (author)

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment.For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP

  1. Long term effects on potential repository sites: occurrence and diagenesis of anhydrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, A.H.; George, I.A.; Milodowski, A.E.; Darling, W.G.

    1985-10-01

    The report deals with the long-term behaviour of anhydrite as a potential host rock for deep disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The principal long-term effect on the integrity of such a repository is the possibility of penetration of groundwater and consequent transformation to gypsum. Therefore, in order to assess the chydrological and geochemical processes of hydration in detail, mineralogical and geochemical analyses have been carried out on anhydrite samples in a drillcore taken near Darlington, United Kingdom. The results are discussed in terms of the long-term integrity of anhydrite as a repository site. (U.K.)

  2. Device to irradiate agricultural product on the production site, after harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegu, Jean; Palomo, Georges; Blaive, Daniel.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a device to irradiate agricultural product on the production site, after harvesting. It includes an outer shielding to absorb the radiations and containers in which the products are placed for irradiation. The shielding is rotationally symmetrical around a vertical axis and holds an irradiation chamber containing a radioactive bar fitted along the shielding axis. The cylindrical containers are placed around the chamber with their axes parallel to the axis of the shielding. They are set in rotation by a motor and receive the farm products through their top ends which communicate with a supply system. Their bottom ends are closed by shutters covering a means for evacuating the products. The invention applies in particular to the irradiation of newly dug potatoes to avoid germination [fr

  3. Remediation of cyanide-contaminated industrial sites through woody biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Repmann, Frank; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Due to the unfavourable chemical and physical soil quality parameters and the potential presence of contaminants, former industrial sites can hardly be utilized as arable land and can thus be classified as marginal areas. Still, as far as possible, they can effectively be used for the production of alternative energy, including the cultivation of fast growing trees. Apart from being a source of bioenergy, trees might facilitate the stabilization, remedation, contaminant extraction and degradation and, not on the last place, to enhance soil quality improvement on former industrial areas. This process is known as phytoremediation and has successfully been applied on industrial sites of various organic and inorganic contamination. The former manufactured gas plant site ( 2500 m2) "ehemalige Leuchtgasanstalt" Cottbus, contaminated, among others, with iron cyanides undergoes phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production since 2011. The project "Biomass-Remediation" is fully financed by the German Railways JSC. A dense (23700 stems/ha), mixed cover of willow (Salix caprea), poplar (Populus maximowicii Henry x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray (Hybrid 275)) and black locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia) trees has been planted on the site. Throughout the five years of remediation, a successful long-term stabilization of the site has been achieved as a result of the nearly outright established tree stock and the dense planting. Annual monitoring of the cyanide levels in the leaf tissue of the trees on the site and results from greenhouse experiments indicate the ability of all tree species to extract and transport the cyanide from the soil. Additonally, the greenhouse experiments suggest that the willows might be able, although not to a full extent, to detoxify the contaminant by splitting the CN moiety. The contaminated biomass material might easily be dealt with through regular harvests and subsequent incineration. Phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production

  4. Design surface covers: an approach to long-term waste site stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; McShane, M.C.

    1983-02-01

    The wide range of existing environmental conditions, potential contaminants and available cover materials at waste disposal sites necessitates site-specific designing of surface covers for effective long-term erosion resistance. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing surface covers for hazardous waste repositories that can be tailored to conditions at any site. The approach consists of three phases: (1) an assessment, during which the degree of required surface protection (erosion potential) is determined; (2) a preliminary design that integrates surface cover design with the need to minimize transport of contaminants; and (3) a final design, where the cost and effectiveness of the surface cover are determined. 1 figure

  5. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadren, M.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It's filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter's. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach's and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author)

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  11. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program. Project Shoal site, Sand Springs Range, Churchill County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The Shoal site is located in Churchill County in the northern part of the Sand Springs Range, approximately 30 miles (48.3 kilometers) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal, with a yield of 12 kilotons, was detonated October 26, 1963. It was conducted as part of the Vela program to obtain event measurements relating to the detection of underground nuclear detonations. The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program at the Shoal site is to obtain data that will assure public safety; inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination; and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. The Shoal site geographical setting, climate, geology, and hydrology are described. Site history, including Shoal event information and Shoal monitoring is described. The final radiological surveys following the Shoal site cleanup described in this report indicate that there are no radiation levels above natural background on or near the land surface and that no hazard exists or is likely to occur during public use of the surface of the Shoal site. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for the Shoal site is described. 17 references, 4 figures

  12. Marginal sites in for biomass production - case study sites in northern Greece. Obstacles and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiourtsis, Fotios; Keramitzis, Dimitris; Papatheodorou, Ioannis; Tsoulakaki, Dimitra; Gontzaridou, Marina; Lampetsou, Eugenia; Fragkiskakis, Nikitas; Gerwin, Werner; Repmann, Frank; Baumgarten, Wibke

    2017-04-01

    In 2016, D.A.M.T, the Hellenic Forest Service for northern Greece (Macedonia and Thrace Regions), with the support of BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg Reseach Center Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes experts and following common standard protocols of the SEEMLA project, established three plots, in the northeastern part of Greece, in Rodopi prefecture (main forest species for biomass production: Pinus Nigra, Pinus Brutia and Robinia Pseudacacia). Nearby productive ecosystems (including forests etc.) or successional sites will be used as references for estimating the potentials of MagL. Further existing plantations of energy crops on similar MagL, will be used to assess potential crop yields. These plots represent different types of marginal lands, they were specifically selected for SEEMLA purposes (reliable and sustainable exploitation of biomass) and are entirely different from other inventories, used for typical forest operations in Greece. The main differences are:  an intensively studied core area,  Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method measurements,  Soil Classification Maps - parameters estimation (land capability classes and landforms),  tightly spaced plantations (1,5 m x 1,5 m),  cropping systems,  shorter rotations and  the need for special forest management study. The combination of these requirements with the soil conditions of the area has created significant issues on plots establishment and accurate recording of supply chain stages. Main expected SEEMLA impacts are: • provide a substantial amount of EU energy needs from marginal/degraded land, • avoidance of land use conflicts by strengthening the ability to use MagL for biomass production for energy, • reduction of EU-wide greenhouse gas, • mitigation of conflicts regarding sustainability and biodiversity for the utilization of MagL for biomass production, • growth of plantations of bioenergy carriers from MagL at competitive costs, • expansion of economic opportunities

  13. Fission product source terms and engineered safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author states that new, technically defensible, methodologies to establish realistic source term values for nuclear reactor accidents will soon be available. Although these methodologies will undoubtedly find widespread use in the development of accident response procedures, the author states that it is less clear that the industry is preparing to employ the newer results to develop a more rational approach to strategies for the mitigation of fission product releases. Questions concerning the performance of existing engineered safety systems are reviewed

  14. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  15. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  16. Confluence of arts, humanities, and science at sites of long-term ecological inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, ecology, the arts, and humanities diverged, but are now converging again, especially at sites of long-term, place-based ecological inquiry. This convergence has been inspired in part by the works of creative, boundary-spanning individuals and the long-standing examples of artshumanities programs in intriguing landscapes, such as artist and writer...

  17. Guide to effective research-management collaboration at long-term environmental research sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson; Steve Eubanks; Mary Beth Adams; John C. Brissette

    2010-01-01

    The Forest Service system of experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) and other sites of long-term silvicultural, watershed, and ecological research have contributed to science and natural resource management for more than a century. An important aspect of the success of EFR programs is strong collaboration between the research and land manager communities. This guide...

  18. Production site of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Cui Xuemei; Gao Yabing; Yang Ruibiao; Xia Guowei; Wang Dewen

    1997-01-01

    Production site development and alterations of early pulmonary fibrosis were studied. Single irradiation was made at right thorax of rats with 0, 15 and 30 Gy of γ-irradiation, respectively. The rats were divided into three groups which were sacrificed 1, 3, 5 months post irradiation. Hydroxyproline in lungs was measured by biochemical method. Pulmonary type I and III collagens were measured by polarization method. Distribution of angiotensin II (A II) in pulmonary tissues was displayed by immunohistochemical method. Extent of pulmonary fibrosis relatively increased with irradiation dose and time elapse after irradiation. Ratio of type I to type III collagens increased with increasing fibrosis. Proliferating collagen fibers mainly came from fibroblasts of pulmonary bronchial and arterial adventitia, and extended into pulmonary parenchyma. Meanwhile, type I collagen substituted for type III collagen in interstitium of pulmonary alveoli. A II was positive for fibroblasts and macrophages in pulmonary interstitium. Irradiation can stimulate fibroblasts in interstitium proliferation, and type I collagen substitutes for type III collagen. Expression and synthesis of A II in interstitium may promote the course of pulmonary fibrosis

  19. Enhanced Polyhydroxybutyrate Production for Long-Term Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Ryan J.; Rahman, Asif; Miller, Charles D.; Hadi, Masood Z.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology holds the promise of advancing long term space fight by the production of medicine, food, materials, and energy. One such application of synthetic biology is the production of biomaterials, specifically polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), using purposed organisms such as Escherichia coli. PHAs are a group of biodegradable bioplastics that are produced by a wide variety of naturally occurring microorganisms, mainly as an energy storage intermediate. PHAs have similar melting point to polypropylene and a Youngs modulus close to polystyrene. Due to limited resources and cost of transportation, large-scale extraction of biologically produced products in situ is extremely cumbersome during space flight. To that end, we are developing a secretion systems for exporting PHA from the cell in order to reduce unit operations. PHAs granules deposited inside bacteria are typically associated with proteins bound to the granule surface. Phasin, a granule bound protein, was targeted for type I secretion by fusion with HlyA signal peptide for indirect secretion of PHAs. In order to validate our secretion strategy, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was tagged to the PHA polymerase enzyme (phaC), this three part gene cassette consists of phaA and phaB and are required for PHA production. Producing PHAs in situ during space flight or planet colonization will enable mission success by providing a valuable source of biomaterials that can have many potential applications thereby reducing resupply requirements. Biologically produced PHAs can be used in additive manufacturing such as three dimensional (3D) printing to create products that can be made on demand during space flight. After exceeding their lifetime, the PHAs could be melted and recycled back to 3D print other products. We will discuss some of our long term goals of this approach.

  20. Long-term stabilization considerations for decommissioned and reclaimed uranium sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.; Johnson, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term stabilization of decommissioned uranium mill sites and of reclaimed uranium mill tailings sites encompass a broad spectrum of design capabilities. This paper presents a few of the quantitative methodologies recently developed or refined to evaluate physical factors (i.e. precipitation, fluvial geomorphology, stable slope, slope stabilization with riprap and riprap selection) that influence long-term stabilization of uranium mill and mill tailings sites. It is acknowledged that the degree of refinement of these methodologies are in their infancy and that extensive research and development are warranted to increase the level of assurance. However, these methodologies provide an initial guideline for evaluating long-term stabilization that has not been previously existed. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of currently available state-of-the-art engineering techniques and methodologies for the evaluation of reclamation plans designed to provide long-term stability against potential failure modes. In some cases, evaluative techniques have been developed for long-term stabilization where methodologies have not previously existed. Each methodology to be presented represents a starting point upon which additional research and/or development may be warranted

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992)

  2. Net community production and metabolic balance at the oligotrophic ocean site, station ALOHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    le B. Williams, Peter J.; Morris, Paul J.; Karl, David M.

    2004-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that in oligotrophic areas of the ocean respiration exceeds production, a 12-month study was undertaken of in vitro-determined net oxygen production and consumption in the top 150 m of the water column at the extreme oligotrophic site, Station ALOHA, in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. Throughout the year the water column was observed to be in metabolic deficit, the calculated cumulative shortfall being 9±1.7 mol O2 m-2 a-1 (approximately 100 g C m-2 a-1), an amount equivalent to 40% of measured production (annual estimated rates of production and consumption were, respectively, 22 and 31 mol O2 m-2 a-1). We consider three possible explanations for the observed deficit: the in vitro oxygen rate measurements, in themselves, are fundamentally flawed and should be discounted, the observations are correct and the observed deficit is a true account of the balance of oxygen (and organic carbon) at Station ALOHA, or the observations are correct as they stand, but need not be interpreted as organic carbon imbalance for that ecosystem. We find no error unique to the oxygen rate measurements themselves. We find also no evidence that the associated organic carbon deficit can be sustained over the long-term by internal organic reserves or by external subsidy. Accordingly we accept the geochemical findings that calculated in situ oxygen flux requires the euphotic zone of the water column at this site to be slightly (circa 2 mol C m-2 a-1) autotrophic, in contrast to the simple analysis of our observations which gives a net heterotrophic water column. We discuss a number of processes that may give rise to the observed discrepancy. In part it may derive from the difficulty of reproducing the variations in the light field experienced by an algal cell due to vertical advection. It may also derive from the intermittency of production. This latter effect would manifest itself in the following manner. Because of its universal distribution in the food web

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office

  5. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  6. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20 (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum, onion (n=20 (Allium cepa and tomato (n=18 (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum, were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid digestion. Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respectively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentrations were observed in kurrat (leek. Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05 and Zn (P<0.001 among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed between Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001 Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05 and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05. Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possible health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is required to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure.

  7. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B.; Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas; Seaman, John

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This document establishes elements of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, disposal site. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will use this plan in support of license issuance for the long-term surveillance of the Canonsburg site. The Canonsburg (CAN) site is located within the borough of Canonsburg, Washington County, in southwestern Pennsylvania. The Canonsburg site covers approximately 30 acres (74 hectares). The disposal cell contains approximately 226,000 tons (241,000 tons) of residual radioactive material (RRM). Area C is southeast of the Canonsburg site, between Strabane Avenue and Chartiers Creek. Contaminated soils were removed from Area C during the remedial action, and the area was restored with uncontaminated fill material.After this cleanup, residual quantities of thorium-230 were detected at several Area C locations. The remedial action plan did not consider the ingrowth of radium-226 from thorium-230 as part of the Area C cleanup, and only two locations contained sufficient thorium-230 concentrations to result in radium-226 concentrations slightly above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards

  9. The Cottonwood Lake study area, a long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    The Cottonwood Lake study area is one of only three long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring sites in the prairie pothole region of North America; the other two are Orchid Meadows in South Dakota and St. Denis in Saskatchewan. Of the three, Cottonwood Lake has, by far, the longest continuous data-collection record. Research was initiated at the study area in 1966, and intensive investigations of the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of prairie pothole wetlands continue at the site today. This fact sheet describes the study area, provides an overview of wetland ecology research that has been conducted at the site in the past, and provides an introduction to current work being conducted at the study area by USGS scientists.

  10. Adaptive Long-Term Monitoring at Environmental Restoration Sites (ER-0629)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Printed on recycled paper TECHNICAL REPORT TR-2317-ENV ADAPTIVE LONG-TERM MONITORING AT ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION SITES (ER-0629...nondetect values. One curiosity is that the typical recent RL for TCE has been 0.5, whereas that for PCE has been 1.4. As a consequence, and due to...Spring 2000 makes little difference, however. A curiosity is that the anomalous value from Spring 2006 is actually quite similar to the early

  11. Nuclear wastes: vitrification and long term behaviour. Information available on Internet sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This document reports an information search on the long-term behaviour of vitrified nuclear wastes. This search has been performed on the Internet and this report presents 21 forms corresponding to the 21 relevant Internet web sites. These forms contain the name of the organization, its country, its Internet address, its language, a brief description of the available information, the concerned public (general public, scholars and students, scientific community)

  12. Trust and Product/Sellers Reviews as Factors Influencing Online Product Comparison Sites Usage by Young Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Radoslaw Macik; Dorota Macik

    2016-01-01

    Paper describes young consumers’ behaviour connected with online product comparison sites usage as an example of online decision shopping aids. Authors’ main goal is to check whether or not such factors as: previous experience in such sites usage, personal innovativeness in domain of information technology – PIIT, and particularly cognitive trust (in several subdimensions), as well as affective trust toward online product comparison site, influence purchase intention via men...

  13. Transplantation assessment of degraded Posidonia oceanica habitats: site selection and long-term monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIRROTTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A model developed for Zostera marina was adapted and used to select suitable areas for Posidonia oceanica transplantation in the Gulf of Palermo, where recent rehabilitation programmes have reduced human pressure. This model consists of three steps: (1 habitat selection, by calculation of the Preliminary Transplant Suitability Index (PTSI; (2 field assessments and test-transplanting, to evaluate the site suitability and to estimate the effects of tearing on transplant units (about 50%; (3 identification of suitable restoration sites, by calculation of the Transplant Suitability Index (TSI. A new parameter was added to the literature model: the number of grids detached, which is linked to factors (hydrodynamic regime, anchoring, fishing that have a potentially great effect on the final outcome of the transplant. Only one site (TSI = 16 in the Gulf of Palermo was indicated as potentially suitable for restoration with P. oceanica. In this site, a transplant of 40 m2 was implemented. From 2008 to 2014, transplant effectiveness was evaluated in terms of establishment, detachment and mortality of cuttings and shoot density. The long-term monitoring (6 years allowed us to detect changes in the structural conditions of the transplanted meadow and to identify the possible turning point in P. oceanica recovery (2 years after transplanting. Moreover, 6 years after transplantation the P. oceanica meadow has exceeded the transplant shoot density of about 16%, with a mean and a maximum value of 11.6 and 17 shoots per cutting, respectively.

  14. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  15. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs

  17. Long-Term Changes in Species Composition and Relative Abundances of Sharks at a Provisioning Site

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-...

  18. Water Quality and Sedimentation Data of the Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) Long Term Monitoring Sites in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii from 1998 to 2001 (NODC Accession 0001473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A long term project to monitor water quality and sediment processes in Kaneohe Bay was initiated in November 1998 and continued through July 2001. Four primary sites...

  19. The Phebus Fission Product and Source Term International Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.; Zeyen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The international Phebus FP programme, initiated in 1988 is one of the major research programmes on light water reactors severe accidents. After a short description of the facility and of the test matrix, the main outcomes and results of the first four integral tests are provided and analysed. Several results were unexpected and some are of importance for safety analyses, particularly concerning fuel degradation, cladding oxidation, chemical form of some fission products, especially iodine, effect of control rod materials on degradation and chemistry, iodine behaviour in the containment. Prediction capabilities of calculation tools have largely been improved as a result of this research effort. However, significant uncertainties remain for a number of phenomena, requiring detailed physical analysis and implementation of improved models in codes, sustained by a number of separate-effect experiments. This is the subject of the new Source Term programme for a better understanding of the phenomenology on important safety issues, in accordance with priorities defined in the EURSAFE project of the 5 th European framework programme aiming at reducing the uncertainties on Source Term analyses. It covers iodine chemistry, impact of boron carbide control rods degradation and oxidation, air ingress situations and fission product release from fuel. Regarding the interpretation of Phebus, an international co-operation has been established since over ten years, particularly helpful for the improvement and common understanding of severe accident phenomena. Few months ago, the Phebus community was happy to welcome representatives of a large number of organisations from the following new European countries: the Czech republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia and also from Bulgaria and Romania. (author)

  20. Using an engaging approach to products to help create long-term credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, G.; Larkin, E.

    1993-01-01

    A long-term, thorough and engaging public information products plan is essential for supporting interaction between Nevadans and the scientists and staff of the US DOE Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). As members of the Institutional and External Affairs office on the YMP in Nevada, our focus is to create successful products for a Nevada audience, in accordance with DOE regulations. Our product plan is broad, but has the same theoretical foundation whether we are developing a new fact sheet of working with a scientist to help him or her communicate effectively. Our goals are to: Create products that help build long-term credibility; communicate honestly about risk; engage the public in meaningful, effective ways; be receptive to hearing Nevadans' concerns and questions; respond in ways that indicate that the public has been heard and respected; and to keep away from the open-quotes usclose quotes versus open-quotes themclose quotes orientation, distinguishing our communication approach from others. Explanations of our rationale, products plan, and goals and techniques for achieving them are stated, and related problems are described

  1. Resource Evaluation and Site Selection for Microalgae Production in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Jarvis, E.

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates climate conditions, availability of CO2 and other nutrients, water resources, and land characteristics to identify areas in India suitable for algae production. The purpose is to provide an understanding of the resource potential in India for algae biofuels production and to assist policymakers, investors, and industry developers in their future strategic decisions.

  2. Marine Export Production and Remineralization During Early Eocene Hyperthermal Events at ODP Site 1263, Walvis Ridge, ODP Site 1209, Shatsky Rise and ODP Site 1215, Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A.; Griffith, E. M.; Thomas, E.; Winguth, A. M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of global hyperthermal events on marine productivity and remineralization is important for understanding the reaction of the ocean to major climate change. Marine export production and remineralization was reconstructed using marine (pelagic) barite accumulation rates (BAR) coupled with records of benthic foraminiferal assemblages across the Paleocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at 55.3 Ma, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) 2 Ma later, and ETM3 3.1 Ma after the PETM. Marine barite accumulates in deep sea sediment precipitating in the overlying water column during degradation of organic matter exported from the photic zone. Foraminiferal data indicate the amount of organic matter reaching the seafloor. We use the difference between these records to infer changes in rates of remineralization. We present data from ODP Site on Walvis Ridge, Southeastern Atlantic; ODP Site 1209 on Shatsky Rise, North Pacific; and ODP Site 1215, equatorial Pacific. Sites 1263 and 1215 had maximum BAR roughly centered over the maximum negative PETM CIE, whereas at Site 1209 the maximum was before the PETM. The maximum BAR across ETM2 and ETM3 (0.5 and 0.25 of that at the PETM, respectively) was centered over the maximum negative CIE at Site 1263. At Site 1209, the BAR (0.5 the maximum value before the PETM) peaked before ETM2. Barite concentration at Site 1215 was low across at the smaller hyperthermals, but the onset of ETM2 had a maximum value food arrival at the seafloor during elevated BAR, thus indicating enhanced remineralization. During the PETM, at all 3 sites, increases in barite coincided with reduced BFAR. Similar trends were observed during ETM2 at Sites 1263 and 1215, suggesting dramatic changes in remineralization over all hyperthermal events at these sites. Increased remineralization rates could partly account for differences in planktonic and benthic extinction, as observed during the PETM.

  3. Microbial and plant ecology of a long-term TNT-contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Emma R.; Bruce, Neil C.; Rosser, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The contamination of the environment with explosive residues presents a serious ecological problem at sites across the world, with the highly toxic compound trinitrotoluene (TNT) the most widespread contaminant. This study examines the soil microbial community composition across a long-term TNT-contaminated site. It also investigates the extent of nitroaromatic contamination and its effect on vegetation. Concentrations of TNT and its metabolites varied across the site and this was observed to dramatically impact on the extent and diversity of the vegetation, with the most heavily contaminated area completely devoid of vegetation. Bryophytes were seen to be particularly sensitive to TNT contamination. The microbial population experienced both a reduction in culturable bacterial numbers and a shift in composition at the high concentrations of TNT. DGGE and community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) revealed a clear change in both the genetic and functional diversity of the soil when soil was contaminated with TNT. - Long-term contamination of soil with TNT reduces the extent and diversity of vegetation, decreases culturable bacterial numbers and shifts the microbial community composition

  4. A Basal Area Increment-Based Approach of Site Productivity Evaluation for Multi-Aged and Mixed Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of forest site productivity are essential for environmental planning and forest management. In this study, we developed a new productivity index, hereafter termed basal area potential productivity index (BAPP, to estimate site productivity for irregular and complex forests characterized by multi-aged, multi-species, and multi-layer stands. We presented the biological relevance of BAPP with its computational details. We also compared BAPP against basal area realized productivity (BARP in order to verify the practicability and reliability of BAPP. Time-series data of the national forest inventory on 1912 permanent sample plots that were located in two main forest types and consisted of oak-dominated mixed forests and other broadleaf forests in northeast China were used to demonstrate the application of BAPP. The results showed that the value of BAPP for each sample plot was larger than or equal to the corresponding BARP value for each forest type. For appropriately managed stands with relatively better site conditions, the values of both BARP and BAPP were almost identical. The values of the difference between BAPP and BARP could therefore be used to effectively assess forest site productivity. Meanwhile, BAPP also provides much reliable and valuable information that can aid decision-making in forest management.

  5. Site-level evaluation of satellite-based global terrestrial gross primary production and net primary production monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Turner; William D. Ritts; Warren B. Cohen; Thomas K. Maeirsperger; Stith T. Gower; Al A. Kirschbaum; Steve W. Runnings; Maosheng Zhaos; Steven C. Wofsy; Allison L. Dunn; Beverly E. Law; John L. Campbell; Walter C. Oechel; Hyo Jung Kwon; Tilden P. Meyers; Eric E. Small; Shirley A. Kurc; John A. Gamon

    2005-01-01

    Operational monitoring of global terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP) is now underway using imagery from the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Evaluation of MODIS GPP and NPP products will require site-level studies across a range of biomes, with close attention to numerous scaling...

  6. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas

  9. Long-term observations of Boreal Toads at an ARMI apex site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Muths, Erin L.; Pilliod, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national project with goals to monitor the status and trends of amphibians, conduct research on causes of declines, and provide information and support to management agencies for conservation of amphibian populations. ARMI activities are organized around extensive inventories and place-based monitoring (such as collaboration with the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network), and intensive population studies and research at selected locations (apex sites). One such site is an oxbow pond on the Buffalo Fork near the Black Rock Ranger Station east of Grand Teton National Park. We have been conducting mark-recapture of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas) at Black Rock since 2002. In concert with studies of other toad populations in the Rocky Mountains, we have documented a high rate of incidence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and a negative rate of growth of the toad population, but not the population crash or extinction observed in other populations with high prevalence of Bd. Long-term observations at other ARMI apex sites have proven invaluable for studying effects of climate change on amphibian behavior, and the Black Rock site has been upgraded with onsite recording of weather data and auditory monitoring of other amphibian species. Continued research at Black Rock will be critical for understanding the interrelated effects of climate and disease on amphibians in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

  10. Microreactor Technology for On-Site Production of Methyl Chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmidt, S.A.; Vajglová, Zuzana; Eränen, K.; Murzin, D.Y.; Salmi, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 5 (2014), s. 345-352 ISSN 2191-9542 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : chloromethane * intensification * microreactor * product separation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2014

  11. ATLAS HEC Photographs - Pictures of the TRIUMF Production Site

    CERN Multimedia

    Wielers, M.

    2000-01-01

    Photo 1 - Arrival of Copper Plates Photo 2 - Cleaning of Copper Plates Photo 3 - Stacking Clean Room Photo 4 - Glue Press used for PAD Board Production Photo 5 - Cut honeycomb being removed from Steel Rule Die Photo 6 - Brake Press

  12. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: 32 P, 51 Cr, 60 C, and 65 Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated

  13. Advanced wind turbine near-term product development. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the US Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) Program to assist the growth of a viable wind energy industry in the US. This program, which has been managed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has been divided into three phases: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) near-term product development, and (3) next-generation product development. The goals of the second phase were to bring into production wind turbines which would meet the cost goal of $0.05 kWh at a site with a mean (Rayleigh) windspeed of 5.8 m/s (13 mph) and a vertical wind shear exponent of 0.14. These machines were to allow a US-based industry to compete domestically with other sources of energy and to provide internationally competitive products. Information is given in the report on design values of peak loads and of fatigue spectra and the results of the design process are summarized in a table. Measured response is compared with the results from mathematical modeling using the ADAMS code and is discussed. Detailed information is presented on the estimated costs of maintenance and on spare parts requirements. A failure modes and effects analysis was carried out and resulted in approximately 50 design changes including the identification of ten previously unidentified failure modes. The performance results of both prototypes are examined and adjusted for air density and for correlation between the anemometer site and the turbine location. The anticipated energy production at the reference site specified by NREL is used to calculate the final cost of energy using the formulas indicated in the Statement of Work. The value obtained is $0.0514/kWh in January 1994 dollars. 71 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. The uranium source-term mineralogy and geochemistry at the Broubster natural analogue site, Caithness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Basham, I.R.; Hyslop, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been conducting a coordinated research programme at the Broubster natural analogue site in Caithness, north Scotland. This work on a natural radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report is one of a series being produced and it concentrates on the mineralogical characterization of the uranium distribution in the limestone unit considered as the 'source-term' in the natural analogue model

  15. Long term evolution of waste disposal sites: scenario selection and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaudecerf, P.; Blanc, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The safety analysis of long term radioactive waste disposal projects must take into account the evolution of the sites natural environment. The present paper aims at reassessing some questions relating to the methods and to some lack of knowledge which may appear when we try to forecast such evolutions and their results, and to some solutions that can be considered. We will particularly discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the deterministic approaches and the construction and working out of scenarios. The presentation is illustrated by reference to recent examples. 5 refs., 6 figs [fr

  16. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  17. Productivity of Acacia angustissima accessions at two sites in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low leaf biomass yields coupled with small land sizes are some of the major constraints faced by smallholder farmers that grow protein-rich fodder trees and shrubs. Given these challenges, availability of highly productive seed sources would be important to enable farmers to produce leaf fodder in sufficient quantities.

  18. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites

  19. Medium-term erosion simulation of an abandoned mine site using the SIBERIA landscape evolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, G.R.; Willgoose, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    This study forms part of a collaborative project designed to validate the long-term erosion predictions of the SIBERIA landform evolution model on rehabilitated mine sites. The SIBERIA catchment evolution model can simulate the evolution of landforms resulting from runoff and erosion over many years. SIBERIA needs to be calibrated before evaluating whether it correctly models the observed evolution of rehabilitated mine landforms. A field study to collect data to calibrate SIBERIA was conducted at the abandoned Scinto 6 uranium mine located in the Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia. The data were used to fit parameter values to a sediment loss model and a rainfall-runoff model. The derived runoff and erosion model parameter values were used in SIBERIA to simulate 50 years of erosion by concentrated flow on the batters of the abandoned site. The SIBERIA runs correctly simulated the geomorphic development of the gullies on the man-made batters of the waste rock dump. The observed gully position, depth, volume, and morphology on the waste rock dump were quantitatively compared with the SIBERIA simulations. The close similarities between the observed and simulated gully features indicate that SIBERIA can accurately predict the rate of gully development on a man-made post-mining landscape over periods of up to 50 years. SIBERIA is an appropriate model for assessment of erosional stability of rehabilitated mine sites over time spans of around 50 years. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  20. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States); Seaman, John [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  1. Savannah River Site production reactor safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The process water system (PWS) is designed to remove heat produced in the reactor from the fission process, gamma radiation absorption, and fission product decay. Heat removal is accomplished by circulating heavy water through the reactor. Cooling is provided for fuel assemblies, target assemblies, control rods, bulk moderator, deflector plate, reactor tank, and reactor structural components. Approximately 90% of the heat load is generated in the fuel and target assemblies, 5% in the moderator, and 5% in the shielding. In addition to serving as the-heat transfer medium, the process water moderates neutrons produced by fission in the fuel. D 2 O is used in this application because of its favorable moderating and neutron capture properties, which result in high neutron efficiency and reactor productivity. The PWS piping and components also provide a high-integrity leak barrier against loss of moderator and the radioactive fission and corrosion products. Components of the PWS are located in the reactor building between the -40-foot elevation and the 0-foot elevation. Specific locations include the process room, heat exchanger bay, motor rooms, and pump rooms. The system diagram is shown in Figure 5.1-2. PWS design data are presented in Table 5.1-1. The PWS consists of six parallel heat transfer loops. In each loop, approximately 25,000 gpm of D 2 O is circulated from one of six outlet nozzles in the bottom of the reactor tank through a motor-operated valve (MOV) to the suction side of the process water pump. Each pump is driven by an AC motor and a DC motor through a gear reducer unit. A 3-ton flywheel on the drive shaft of the AC motor provides gradual flow coastdown when power is lost. During reactor operation, the DC motors are operated continuously from the diesel generator sets as backup to the AC motors. Following shutdown, the DC motors are operated to provide adequate circulation and core cooling

  2. Free product recovery at spill sites with fluctuating water tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Katyal, A.K.; Zhu, J.L.; Kremesec, V.J.; Hockman, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Spills and leaks of hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks, pipelines and other facilities pose a serious potential for groundwater contamination which can be very costly to remediate. The severity of the impacts and the cost of remediation can be reduced by various means. Lateral spreading of free phase hydrocarbons on the groundwater table can be prevented by pumping water to control the hydraulic gradient. Recovery of floating product may be performed by skimming hydrocarbons from wells, usually in combination with water pumping to increase the gradient. The environmental variables (water table gradient, water table fluctuations due to regional recovery wells, rates of water pumping)

  3. Monitoring production using surface deformation: the Hijiori test site and the Okuaizu geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    2002-01-01

    Production in geothermal reservoirs often leads to observable surface displacement. As shown in this paper, there is a direct relationship between such displacement and reservoir dynamics. This relationship is exploited in order to image fluid flow at two geothermal field sites. At the first locality, the Hijiori Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site, 17 tilt meters record deformation associated with a 2.2 km deep injection experiment. Images of fluid migration along a ring fracture system of the collapsed Hijiori caldera are obtained. At the Okuaizu geothermal field, leveling and tilt meter data provide constraints on long- and short-term fluid movement within the reservoir. A set of 119 leveling data suggest that the north-to-northeast trending Takiyagawa fault acts as a barrier to flow. The northwesterly oriented Chinoikezawa and Sarukurazawa faults appear to channel fluid from the southeast. The tilt data from Okuaizu indicate that a fault paralleling the Takiyagawa fault zone acts as a conduit to transient flow, on a time scale of several weeks. The volume strain in a region adjacent to the injection wells reaches a maximum and then decreases with time. The transient propagation of fluid along the fault may be due to pressure build-up, resulting from the re-initiation of injection. (author)

  4. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer

  5. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  6. A new mathematical programming model for long-term production scheduling considering geological uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamnejad, J.; Moosavi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the optimum production schedules over the life of a mine is a critical mechanism in open pit mine planning procedures. Long-term production scheduling is used to maximize the net present value of the project under technical, financial, and environmental constraints. Mathematical programming models are well suited for optimizing long-term production schedules of open pit mines. There are two approaches to solving long-term production problems: deterministic- and uncertainty- b...

  7. Role of water balance in the long-term stability of hazardous waste site cover treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1986-01-01

    After the 30-year post-closure maintenance period at hazardous waste landfills, long-term stability must be assured without continued intervention. Understanding water balance in the established vegetative cover system is central to predicting such stability. A Los Alamos National Laboratory research project has established a series of experimental cover treatment plots on a closed waste disposal site which will permit the determination of the effects of such critical parameters as soil cover design, leaf area index, and rooting characteristics on water balance under varied conditions. Data from these experiments are being analyzed by water balance modeling and other means. The results show consistent differences in soil moisture storage between soil profiles and between vegetation cover treatments

  8. Pb and Sr isotopic compositions of ancient pottery: a method to discriminate production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xun; Chen Jiangfeng; Ma Lin; He Jianfeng; Wang Changsui; Qiu Ping

    2004-01-01

    The discriminating of production sites of ancient pottery samples using multi-isotopic systematics was described. Previous work has proven that Pb isotopic ratios can be used for discriminating the production sites of ancient pottery under certain conditions. The present work suggests that although Nd isotopic ratios are not sensitive to the production sites of ancient pottery, Sr isotopic ratios are important for the purpose. Pb isotopic ratios are indistinguishable for the pottery excavated from the Jiahu relict, Wuyang, Henan Province and for famous Qin Terra-cotta Figures. But, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the former (about 0.715) are significantly lower than that of the latter (0.717-0.718). The authors concluded that a combined use of Pb and Sr isotopes would be a more powerful method for discriminating the production site of ancient pottery. (authors)

  9. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This is the Comment and Response Document dated November 1996 for the Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site in Falls City, Texas. The site is part of the U.S. DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). Several comments regarding the hydrology and surface erosion described in the Long-Term Surveillance Plan are addressed in this document

  10. Institutional Control Program: Long Term Care and Control of Decommissioned Mine/Mill Sites Located on Crown Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, K.

    2014-01-01

    Institutional Control Program: • Establishes an endpoint for mining company activities on sites located on Crown land; • Establishes funding for the long-term care and control of the closed sites; • Company responsibilities for sites under the Environmental Management and Protection Act remain; • Establishes an Institutional Control Registry; • Establishes an Institutional Control Monitoring and Maintenance Fund and an Institutional Control Unforeseen Events Fund

  11. Hanford Site Long-term Surface Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1994 highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.L.; Link, S.O.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, plus preventing or minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. A team of scientists from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) direct the barrier development effort. ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, in conjunction with WHC and PNL, developed design drawings and construction specifications for a 5-acre prototype barrier. The highlight of efforts in FY 1994 was the construction of the prototype barrier. The prototype barrier was constructed on the Hanford Site at the 200 BP-1 Operable Unit of the 200 East Area. Construction was completed in August 1994 and monitoring instruments are being installed so experiments on the prototype barrier can begin in FY 1995. The purpose of the prototype barrier is to provide insights and experience with issues regarding barrier design, construction, and performance that have not been possible with individual tests and experiments conducted to date. Additional knowledge and experience was gained in FY 1994 on erosion control, physical stability, water infiltration control, model testing, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) comparisons, biointrusion control, long-term performance, and technology transfer

  12. Safeguards issues of long-term waste management at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1992-06-01

    Waste management at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is not often regarded as a safeguard-sensitive step in the nuclear fuel cycle because the material concerned is relatively unattractive for diversion or theft. However, the accumulation of large amounts of fissile materials in wastes over a period of time can be a safeguards concern. One estimate shows that high-level and transuranic wastes and some miscellaneous radioactive materials at DOE sites may contain as much as 15 Mt of fissile materials. In the context of present US strategies for the disposal of these radioactive wastes, this study identifies safeguards issues relevant to proposed scenarios for the long-term management and permanent disposal of the above-mentioned waste forms in geologic repositories. This study points out areas of concern and the need to examine the issues before the wastes are processed for geologic disposal. Good waste management practices may offer unique opportunities to address the safeguards issues identified here. A judicious approach to examining the safeguards requirements of waste disposal programs may also contribute to DOE's new effort to establish and maintain public confidence in its environmental restoration programs

  13. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used.

  14. The determination and analysis of site-specific rates of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinlan, Casey L; Perevoschikova, Irina V; Goncalves, Renata L S

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely implicated in physiological and pathological pathways. We propose that it is critical to understand the specific sites of mitochondrial ROS production and their mechanisms of action. Mitochondria possess at least eight distinct sites of ROS...... production in the electron transport chain and matrix compartment. In this chapter, we describe the nature of the mitochondrial ROS-producing machinery and the relative capacities of each site. We provide detailed methods for the measurement of H2O2 release and the conditions under which maximal rates from...

  15. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties following organic matter removal and compaction: 20-year response of the aspen Lake-States Long Term Soil Productivity installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Brian J. Palik; Anthony W. D' Amato; Valerie J. Kurth

    2017-01-01

    Soil functions that control plant resource availability can be altered by management activities such as increased organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction during forest harvesting. The Long Term Soil Productivity study was established to evaluate how these practices influence soil and site productivity using experimental treatments that span a range of forest...

  16. 76 FR 14101 - Meadwestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... undated planning and organizing products. The review shows that on August 21, 2008, a certification of..., Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Pro-Tel People, Sidney, NY; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with...

  17. 77 FR 48550 - Technicolor Creative Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ajilon... Services, Post Production Feature Mastering Division, Hollywood, California (subject firm). The worker... the workers meet the eligibility requirements of the Trade Act of 1974. Conclusion After careful...

  18. On-Site Enzyme Production by Trichoderma asperellum for the Degradation of Duckweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2015-01-01

    The on-site production of cell wall degrading enzymes is an important strategy for the development of sustainable bio-refinery processes. This study concerns the optimization of production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes produced by Trichoderma asperellum. A comparative secretome analysis...

  19. Safety and optimization aspects of radioactive waste long-term storage at the ''Vector'' site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevs'kij, O.V.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Aleksjejeva, Z.M.; Ribalka, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes links between the final disposal option and needs for long-term storage of radioactive waste taking into proposals on possible changes in radwaste classification as regards disposal. It considers the conceptual approach to design facilities for long-term storage of long-lived radioactive waste at the Vector site and approaches to apply requirements of regulatory documents, radiation safety principles and criteria for long-term storage of radwaste and safety assessment.

  20. FFSM, Long-Term Nuclear Waste Repository Site Simulation by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, L.R.; Hellstrom, D.I.; Mikulis, M.J.B.; Little, A.D.; Golis, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FFSM (Far Field State Model) predicts the approximate geologic and climatic state of a site for a nuclear waste repository over relatively long periods of time. The purpose of FFSM is to represent quantitatively certain events and processes that could alter the effectiveness of one or more natural barriers in a waste isolation system. The barriers treated by the model are primarily components of the geologic environment surrounding the repository, although biosphere components (e.g. climate parameters) that could affect the impact of radionuclide releases are also considered. These components are treated outside the realm of wastes or repository-induced effects, which is indicated by use of the term f ar field . The model treats both natural and man-induced changes in these barriers within a probabilistic framework, and it accounts for cumulative and interactive effects of multiple phenomena. 2 - Method of solution: Fifteen submodels are included in FFSM to account for phenomena that may be of importance individually or in combination in evaluating sites for repositories. These submodels include: undetected features, climate, worldwide glaciation, local glaciation, folding, salt dispersion, magmatic events, faulting, biosphere state, regional deformation, geomorphic processes, dissolution fronts, localized dissolution (breccia pipes), solution mining, and drilling. FFSM can be used in both a deterministic mode, to evaluate interactions or to calculate point values, and a probabilistic mode, to make statistical estimates of future changes. In the probabilistic mode, Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate output probabilities, based on user-supplied input, largely in the form of probability density functions for variable or uncertain parameters

  1. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  2. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2005-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  3. Wootz Crucible Steel: A Newly Discovered Production Site in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Srinivasan

    1994-01-01

    During the course of field investigations of copper mining and smelting in South India, the author of this paper came across a previously unrecorded archaeometallurgical site in Mel-siruvalur, South Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, which investigations have confinned was a production centre for wootz crucible steel in the Deccan. The find of this production centre supports the idea that wootz steel production was relatiYely widespread in South India, and extends the known horizons of this technolo...

  4. Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouk, Haifa; de Bello, Francesco; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to environmental changes such as global warming, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of warming only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i) how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental warming, and (ii) whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland) in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a warm continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland). The impacts of simulated warming on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term warming. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM) for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after warming were more dependent on trait composition (CWM) than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before warming changed less in composition after warming. Results suggest that (i) the short-term warming can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii) the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term warming

  5. Functional Trait Changes, Productivity Shifts and Vegetation Stability in Mountain Grasslands during a Short-Term Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Debouk

    Full Text Available Plant functional traits underlie vegetation responses to environmental changes such as global warming, and consequently influence ecosystem processes. While most of the existing studies focus on the effect of warming only on species diversity and productivity, we further investigated (i how the structure of community plant functional traits in temperate grasslands respond to experimental warming, and (ii whether species and functional diversity contribute to a greater stability of grasslands, in terms of vegetation composition and productivity. Intact vegetation turves were extracted from temperate subalpine grassland (highland in the Eastern Pyrenees and transplanted into a warm continental, experimental site in Lleida, in Western Catalonia (lowland. The impacts of simulated warming on plant production and diversity, functional trait structure, and vegetation compositional stability were assessed. We observed an increase in biomass and a reduction in species and functional diversity under short-term warming. The functional structure of the grassland communities changed significantly, in terms of functional diversity and community-weighted means (CWM for several traits. Acquisitive and fast-growing species with higher SLA, early flowering, erect growth habit, and rhizomatous strategy became dominant in the lowland. Productivity was significantly positively related to species, and to a lower extent, functional diversity, but productivity and stability after warming were more dependent on trait composition (CWM than on diversity. The turves with more acquisitive species before warming changed less in composition after warming. Results suggest that (i the short-term warming can lead to the dominance of acquisitive fast growing species over conservative species, thus reducing species richness, and (ii the functional traits structure in grassland communities had a greater influence on the productivity and stability of the community under short-term

  6. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1964-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to help solve the problem of the selection of optimal sizes and sites for spent nuclear fuel processing plants associated with power capacity programmes already installed. Firstly, the structure of capital and running costs of irradiated natural uranium processing plants is studied, as well as the influence of plant sizes on these costs and structures. Shipping costs from the production site to the plant must also be added to processing costs. An attempt to reach a minimum cost for the production of a country or a group of countries must therefore take into account both the size and the location of the plants. The foreseeable shipping costs and their structure (freight, insurance, container cost and depreciation), for spent natural uranium are indicated. Secondly, for various annual spent fuel reprocessing programmes, the optimal sizes and locations of the plants are determined. The sensitivity of the results to the basic assumptions relative to processing costs, shipping costs, the starting up year of the plant programme and the length of period considered, is also tested. - this rather complex problem, of a combinative nature, is solved through dynamic programming methods. - It is shown that these methods can also be applied to the problem of selecting the optimal sizes and locations of processing plants for MTR type fuel elements, related to research reactor programmes, as well as to future plutonium element processing plants related to breeder reactors. Thirdly, the case where yearly extraction of the plutonium contained in the irradiated natural uranium is not compulsory is examined; some stockpiling of the fuel is then allowed some years, entailing delayed processing. The load factor of such plants is thus greatly improved with respect to that of plants where the annual plutonium demand is strictly satisfied. By including spent natural uranium stockpiling costs an optimal rhythm of introduction and optimal sizes for spent fuel

  7. RANKING ENTERPRISES IN TERMS OF COMPETENCES INSIDE REGIONAL PRODUCTION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Mladineo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's economic crisis has led to bankruptcy of many successful, but usually large-sized enterprises. This brought into question the future of large-sized enterprises. However, the only alternative to largesized enterprises (LEs is networking of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs into Regional Production Networks (RPNet. RPNet is non-hierarchical organizational form in which every SME is autonomous. Hence, every SME of production network is capable and wiling to be part of special cooperation inside network called Virtual Enterprise (VE. For each new product a new virtual enterprise is formed from different SMEs. The question is: which SMEs will be part of new virtual enterprise? If it is possible to evaluate SME's competences, it is also possible to rank SMEs. Ranking of SMEs according to technical, organizational and human competences is multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA problem. So, in this paper PROMETHEE method is selected to perform a ranking of SMEs.

  8. Trust and Product/Sellers Reviews as Factors Influencing Online Product Comparison Sites Usage by Young Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes young consumers’ behaviour connected with online product comparison sites usage as an example of online decision shopping aids. Authors’ main goal is to check whether or not such factors as: previous experience in such sites usage, personal innovativeness in domain of information technology – PIIT, and particularly cognitive trust (in several subdimensions, as well as affective trust toward online product comparison site, influence purchase intention via mentioned sites (acting as intermediaries in online sales channel, and anticipated satisfaction from choice made by consumer. Also indirect influence of users’ opinions about product and sellers on mentioned constructs has been researched. Study on effective sample of 456 young consumers with data collected through CAWI questionnaire confirmed reliability and validity of measurement scales. Path model estimated via PLS-SEM confirmed most hypotheses settled, particularly confirming strong positive relationships between cognitive trust (mostly in competence on affective trust, and later on purchase intention and choice satisfaction. Product and sellers reviews were partially mediating some of those relationships.

  9. Long-term sustainability of bio-components production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souček Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels play an increasingly important role in motor fuel market. The list of biofuels (bio-components in accordance with EU legislations contains a number of substances not widely used in the market. Traditionally these include: fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, in the Czech Republic methyl ether of rape seed oil and bioethanol (also ethyl terc. buthyl ether ETBE, based on bioethanol. The availability and possible utilizations of bio-component fuels in Czech Republic and Serbia are discussed. Additional attention is paid on the identification of the possibilities to improve effectiveness of rape seeds cultivation and utilization of by-products from FAME production (utilization of sew, rape-meal and glycerol which will allow fulfilment of the sustainability criteria for the first generation biofuels. The new approaches on renewable co-processing are commented. The concept of 3E (emissions, energy demand, and economics is introduced specifying three main attributes for effective production of FAME production in accordance with legal compliances. Bio-components price change is analyzed in comparison to the price of motor fuels, identifying possible (speculative crude price break-even point at the level of 149-176 USD/bbl at which point bio-fuels would become economically cost effective for the use by refiners.

  10. Changes in Cleanup Strategies and Long-Term Monitoring Costs for DOE FUSRAP Sites-17241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Roberts, Rebecca [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Young, Carl [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.

    2017-03-05

    LM is preparing for the transfer of 11 new FUSRAP sites within the next 10 years from USACE, many of which will have substantially greater LTSM requirements than the current Completed sites. LM is analyzing the estimates for the level of effort required to monitor the new sites in order to make more customized and accurate predictions of future life cycle costs and environmental liabilities of these sites.

  11. Iliac Crest Donor Site for Children With Cleft Lip and Palate Undergoing Alveolar Bone Grafting: A Long-term Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jonathan; Sanders, Megan; Loo, Stanley; Moaveni, Zac; Bartlett, Glenn; Keall, Heather; Pinkerton, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The authors aimed to accurately assess the donor site morbidity from iliac crest bone grafts for secondary bone grafting in patients with cleft lip and palate alveolar defects. Fifty patients between 3 months and 10 years following alveolar bone grafting for cleft lip and palate were entered into the study. Two-thirds of patients had no significant concerns about the donor site. The remaining third had some concerns about the appearance of their hips and less than 10% of patients expressing strong agreement with statements about concerns with shape, appearance, and self-consciousness about the iliac crest donor site. Examination findings showed the average length of scar being 5.4 cm and a third of patients having some minor palpable boney irregularities of the iliac crest. The authors found that the alveolar crest donor site is well tolerated by patients long term but has a measurable morbidity long term.

  12. Comparison of primary and delayed primary closure in dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, O.B.A.; Ahmed, N.; Butt, M.W.U.D.; Saleem, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Objective of this study was to compare primary and delayed primary wound closure for dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection. Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Multan. From 16 Sep 2010 to 15 Mar 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 110 patients were randomly divided into two groups of 55 patients each using random numbers table. Abdominal wounds of one group were closed primarily and of other group were subjected to delayed primary wound closure. The wounds were then checked for surgical site infection for seven post operative days. Results: A higher frequency of surgical site infection was observed in primary closure group (27.3%) as compared to delayed primary closure group (9.1%) which was statistically significant (p=0.013). Conclusion: Delayed primary closure is superior to primary closure in dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection. (author)

  13. IUFRO Symposium on forest site and continuous productivity: Seattle, Washington, August 22-28, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Ballard; Stanley P. Gessel

    1983-01-01

    This Symposium was planned by members of the IUFRO Site Group (S1.02) as part of their on-going activities to facilitate the worldwide exchange of ideas among individual research workers and to promote the dissemination of research results in the area of forest site productivity. The Symposium consisted of three days of indoor sessions followed by a 2-1/2-day field...

  14. Pristine aquatic systems in a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Bárbara Medeiros; de Mendonça-Galvão, Luciana

    2014-12-01

    The maintenance of limnological monitoring programs in the Cerrado Domain is crucial as a provision of useful information about temporal variations in land use and their respective water quality responses, considering its importance as water source for different Brazilian hydrographic basins. The purpose of this research was to describe limnological variables of low-order lotic systems located in the Cerrado Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Environmental Protection Area (APA) Gama and Cabeça de Veado, Federal District of Brazil). Altogether, nine different streams were considered in this study. Samplings were conducted between 2010 and 2012, concentrated in the dry and rainy seasons. The sampling sites were generally characterized by low nutrient concentrations (e.g., medians, TP = 14.8 μg L(-1), TN = 20.0 μg L(-1), NO3 = 13.8 μg L(-1)) and slightly acidic waters (median, pH = 5.3), with quite low electrical conductivity values (median = 6.4 μS cm(-1)). However, water quality degradation as a response to diffuse pollution was reported in some sampling points (e.g., Onça and Gama streams), expressed by relatively higher N and P concentrations, which were probably highlighted by the good water quality of the data set as whole. Although there was a trend to higher values of nitrogen forms during the dry season, significant statistical differences between the seasonal periods were reported only for the variables temperature and dissolved silica, which were higher in the dry and rainy season, respectively. The streams located in the preserved areas inside the ecological stations of APA Gama and Cabeça de Veado can still be considered good examples of reference lotic systems in the Cerrado Domain; notwithstanding, this study reported incipient signs of water quality degradation which cannot be overlooked in future limnological monitoring.

  15. Assessment of natural hydrocarbon bioremediation at two gas condensate production sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.; Trent, G.L.; Brown, D.R.; Sublette, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Condensate liquids are present in soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver-Julesburg Basin operated by Amoco. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores strongly suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways, including aerobic oxidation, Fe(III) reduction, and sulfate reduction

  16. Cleaning up a toxic legacy: Environmental remediation of former uranium production sites in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 60 abandoned uranium production sites dot the landscape and represent a hazard to the environment and inhabitants throughout rural Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Each site poses a challenge for local and national governments that lack technical expertise and resources for remediation. The sites were used to produce uranium until the 1990s. They were built before proper regulatory infrastructure was in place to ensure eventual decommissioning, so leftover residues with long-lived radioactive and highly toxic chemical contaminants still pose substantial risks to the health of the public and the environment.

  17. Cleaning up a toxic legacy: Environmental remediation of former uranium production sites in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 60 abandoned uranium production sites dot the landscape and represent a hazard to the environment and inhabitants throughout rural Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Each site poses a challenge for local and national governments that lack technical expertise and resources for remediation. The sites were used to produce uranium until the 1990s. They were built before proper regulatory infrastructure was in place to ensure eventual decommissioning, so leftover residues with long-lived radioactive and highly toxic chemical contaminants still pose substantial risks to the health of the public and the environment

  18. Verification of geomechanical integrity and prediction of long-term mineral trapping for the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Static and dynamic numerical modelling generally accompany the entire CO2 storage site life cycle. Thereto, it is required to match the employed models with field observations on a regular basis in order to predict future site behaviour. We investigated the coupled processes at the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site [1] using a model coupling concept focusing on the temporal relevance of processes involved (hydraulic, chemical and mechanical) at given time-scales (site operation, abandonment and long-term stabilization). For that purpose, long-term dynamic multi-phase flow simulations [2], [3] established the basis for all simulations discussed in the following. Hereby, pressure changes resulting in geomechanical effects are largest during site operation, whereas geochemical reactions are governed by slow kinetics resulting in a long-term stabilization. To account for mechanical integrity, which may be mainly affected during site operation, we incorporated a regional-scale coupled hydro-mechanical model. Our simulation results show maximum ground surface displacements of about 4 mm, whereas shear and tensile failure are not observed. Consequently, the CO2 storage operation at the Ketzin pilot site does not compromise reservoir, caprock and fault integrity. Chemical processes responsible for mineral trapping are expected to mainly occur during long-term stabilization at the Ketzin pilot site [4]. Hence, our previous assessment [3] was extended by integrating two long-term mineral trapping scenarios. Thereby, mineral trapping contributes to the trapping mechanisms with 11.7 % after 16,000 years of simulation in our conservative and with 30.9 % in our maximum reactivity scenarios. Dynamic flow simulations indicate that only 0.2 % of the CO2 injected (about 67,270 t CO2 in total) is in gaseous state, but structurally trapped after 16,000 years. Depending on the studied long-term scenario, CO2 dissolution is the dominating trapping mechanism with 68.9 % and 88

  19. Ozone, OH and NO3 sink terms at a coniferous forest site in Central Germany: Role of biogenic VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, B.; Bourtsoukidis, S.; Haunold, W.; Sitals, R.; Jacobi, S.

    2012-04-01

    sink terms during daytime. The contributions of monoterpene and isoprene reactions strengthened towards the summer period, while sesquiterpene reactions slowed down. Hydroxyl radical: The picture becomes much more complex for OH. Besides the reaction with nitrogen dioxide, isoprene and monoterpenes were key destructing agents of OH with estimated contributions of about 50-60%, increasing towards the summertime. Contributions of their oxidation products to the total sink of OH are supposed to be less than 20% but showing more intense during summer and less towards cooler periods. Sesquiterpene OH-reactions only contributed to 10% with a maximum of about 20% at the early April. Nitrate radical: NO3 displayed a mixture of the sinks of OH and ozone. The dominant destruction takes place via NOx-reactions (about 50%) and the remainder primarily via monoterpene (36±20%), sesquiterpene (11±8%) and isoprene (2±1%) OH-reactions. From our observations at this particular site it is apparent that the spruce forest provides a quite efficient variety of pathways to compensate oxidation stress. This is essentially displayed in the variation of emission pattern of different compound classes with different reactivity for the three major oxidation agents. One needs to be aware of the fact that the sink is highly variable in space, too. Therefore we conclude: In order to understand and describe the oxidation tolerance of a certain ecosystem one needs to detect at least the reactive hydrocarbons. [1] Jenkin, M.E., Shallcross, D. E., and Harvey, J. N.: Development and application of a possible mechanism for the generation of cis-pinic acid form the ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene. Atmos.Environ., 34, 2837-2850, 2000.

  20. Maize production in terms of global climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekavac Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and expected variability of climatic parameters represent a serious concern of the 21st century agriculture. At the global level, the further rise in temperature, changed quantity and distribution of precipitation, increased variability of climate parameters and the occurrence of extreme climate events are expected. In order to avoid, or at least reduce the negative effects of global climate change, several adaptation strategies are proposed. Adjustment of production technology and breeding for tolerance to changed environment are proposed as two most important adaptation measures.

  1. Poplar physiology and short-term biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, P.; Lannoye, R. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale)

    1990-01-01

    This program comprised the establishment, on biochemical and physiological basis, of specific screening tests for the rapid evaluation of poplar adaptation to environmental conditions. The resistance of chloroplasts to several major environmental stresses affecting biomass production (light, heat, cold and water stress) has been assessed in leaves of five poplar (Populus sp.) clones by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen production measurements. These two chloroplastic activities are correlated to the photosynthetic activity of the plant and respond immediately to any changes affecting the organization and the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus, including regulatory mechanisms. Test clones were grown as cuttings in a .80 {times} .80m planting pattern. In addition, some plants were grown hydroponically in containers under a plastic roof in controlled conditions to test their behavior toward hydric (drought), light (shadow and overlight) and temperature (cold and warm) stresses. A specific data capture system has been developed to analyze clone resistance to environmental stresses. The results indicated considerable genetic variation in tolerance of poplar clones toward environmental stresses. The application of the in vivo fluorescence method and of the photoacoustic method appears to be an easy and rapid method to estimate the reaction of poplar clones against some stresses and thus for detecting plant species adapted to environmental stresses. 59 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  3. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  4. Very-long-term storage of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Pradel, J.; Cousin, O.

    The large majority of the fission products, with 99.9 percent of the radioactivity content, do not pose actual problems in storage in a geological formation for which we can guarantee total confinement. Safety of storage in a geological formation for the radionuclides of long half-life is based in particular on the absorption capacity of the geological formations and the example of the Oklo fossil reactor and the retention of Pu which is produced is a striking example. But the problems are not the same, and the properties that we look for in the terrain are not the same. We could thus be led to storage in different geological formations for the fission products and the long-half-life emitters. Their separation is interesting from this point of view, but the date at which the separation is made will not be necessarily that of reprocessing. But there is a question of one or the other, and these storages will offer a very high level of insurance and will present only the potential hazards that are very comparable with those presented by natural conditions

  5. Long-term soil productivity: genesis of the concept and principles behind the program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2006-01-01

    The capacity of a forest site to capture carbon and convert it into biomass defines fundamental site productivity. In the United States, the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976 mandates that this capacity must be protected on federally managed lands. Responding to NFMA, the USDA Forest Service began a soil-based monitoring program for its managed forests....

  6. UK Regulators Long-term Management of Higher Activity Radioactive Wastes on Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are long time frames from the production of waste to packaging, transport, storage and final disposal in a repository. This entails changing custodians, as the responsible individuals and organisations change. This presentation once again pointed out the importance of a life cycle approach towards RK and M preservation and RWM in general. The traditional focus for the safety case has been examining individual facilities and short term goals (put bluntly, on 'getting the permit'). This approach does not lend itself to forward planning, or a holistic vision of the process. The 'Radioactive waste management case' is an effort to integrate the different individual safety cases, and focus on waste streams rather than facilities, so that the trail of decisions is documented. The concept of 'waste streams' was explained as having been developed in the context of decommissioning, in order to make concrete the idea of 'cradle to grave' life cycle analysis. The importance of creating an 'information management culture' at the level of organisations was underscored. With regard to needing to find a balance between completeness and overload, it was once again pointed out that one needs to wary to avoid a situation of 'Keep everything, find nothing'

  7. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Consumer Decision-Making Styles Extension to Trust-Based Product Comparison Site Usage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an implementation of extended consumer decision-making styles concept in explaining consumer choices made in product comparison site environment in the context of trust-based information technology acceptance model. Previous research proved that trust-based acceptance model is useful in explaining purchase intention and anticipated satisfaction in product comparison site environment, as an example of online decision shopping aids. Trust to such aids is important in explaining their usage by consumers. The connections between consumer decision-making styles, product and sellers opinions usage, cognitive and affective trust toward online product comparison site, as well as choice outcomes (purchase intention and brand choice are explored trough structural equation models using PLS-SEM approach, using a sample of 461 young consumers. Research confirmed the validity of research model in explaining product comparison usage, and some consumer decision-making styles influenced consumers’ choices and purchase intention. Product and sellers reviews usage were partially mediating mentioned relationships.

  9. Study of relationship between time overrun and productivity on construction sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameh, Oko John

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the construction industry worldwide is full of projects that were completed with significant time and cost overruns. In an attempt to reverse this trend, this study aims at establishing the relationship between time overrun and labour productivity on construction sites in Lagos, Nigeria. 43 technical and management staff of some medium and large construction firms based in Lagos, Nigeria were sampled and administered a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire contained 18 causes of project time overrun and 14 causes of low labour productivity which had been identified from the literature reviewed. With these a relationship between project time overrun and low labour productivity was established. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the data. Results indicate that inadequate funds for the project, inadequate planning before project takeoff, inadequate tools and equipment and delay in delivery of material top the list of major causes of time overrun while the use of wrong construction methods, inadequate construction materials and inaccurate drawing/specification are the key factors causing low labour productivity on construction sites. Significant negative relationship was found between time overrun and labour productivity in construction sites in Nigeria. The study concludes by recommending that early appointment of project managers could ensure proper management of both the human and material resources that could guarantee improved productivity and ultimately save projects from time overrun.

  10. Evaluation of short- and long-term fission product sources at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Okada, Hidetoshi; Pellegrini, Marco; Achilli, Andrea; Hanamoto, Yukio; Sasaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Research on fission product (FP) behaviors used to be one of the most important subjects in water chemistry but it is not done nowadays as a consequence of the increased integrity of nuclear fuels and the minimization of FP release into the environment. Evaluation of FP release into the environment is still one of the key issues for severe accident analysis, though. Although there have been a long quiet period in nuclear safety research, how to detect initiation of severe accidents, how to prevent them and how to mitigate them are still important subjects for nuclear engineering, and how to control the severe accidents after their occurrence, especially how to control FP release into the environment, has seldom been discussed in the water chemistry group recently. The paper is intended to address the issue of fewer activities for FP studies. FP sources are divided into two categories, short- and long-term FP sources. Short-term FP source can be evaluated based on the measured data obtained from monitoring posts (MPs), which give us clear evidence on the importance of radioactive iodine and cesium releases into the environment. It used to be considered that during primary containment vessel (PCV) venting, release of each element, e.g., iodine and cesium, was determined by the suppression pool scrubbing efficiency and most of the cesium would likely be removed in the pool due to its large scrubbing efficiency. But as a result of analyzing the MP data at early stage of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, it was confirmed that the releases of both elements were in proportion to their inventories in the reactors and their scrubbing efficiencies were almost the same. The scrubbing efficiency which increased with the pool water temperature became almost the same for iodine and cesium around the pool water boiling temperature. As a result of the mass balance analysis for FPs in the contaminated water accumulated in the Fukushima Daiichi plant site, it

  11. Nest site characteristics, nesting movements, and lack of long-term nest site fidelity in Agassiz's desert tortoises at a wind energy facility in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Agha, Mickey; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Ennen, Joshua R.; Arundel, Terry R.; Austin, Meaghan

    2014-01-01

    Nest site selection has important consequences for maternal and offspring survival and fitness. Females of some species return to the same nesting areas year after year. We studied nest site characteristics, fidelity, and daily pre-nesting movements in a population of Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in southern California during two field seasons separated by over a decade. No females returned to the same exact nest site within or between years but several nested in the same general area. However, distances between first and second clutches within a year (2000) were not significantly different from distances between nests among years (2000 and 2011) for a small sample of females, suggesting some degree of fidelity within their normal activity areas. Environmental attributes of nest sites did not differ significantly among females but did among years due largely to changes in perennial plant structure as a result of multiple fires. Daily pre-nesting distances moved by females decreased consistently from the time shelled eggs were first visible in X-radiographs until oviposition, again suggesting some degree of nest site selection. Tortoises appear to select nest sites that are within their long-term activity areas, inside the climate-moderated confines of one of their self-constructed burrows, and specifically, at a depth in the burrow that minimizes exposure of eggs and embryos to lethal incubation temperatures. Nesting in “climate-controlled” burrows and nest guarding by females relaxes some of the constraints that drive nest site selection in other oviparous species.

  12. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  13. Nuclear tourists: the challenge of EDF's production sites accessibility, 1974-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the evolution of accessibility of Electricite de France (EDF) production sites when the country chose energy independence in 1974. If the nuclear program seems to be at the origins of French industrial tourism, which process made these energy plants a touristic attraction?

  14. Consumer and purchasing agent response to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie Barber

    2007-01-01

    This study surveys 204 consumers and purchasing agents and reports their reaction to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska. Although 67 percent of the respondents would purchase products from old-growth trees, purchasing agents were more likely to refuse to purchase such products (negative response from 12 percent of consumers vs. 29 percent for...

  15. Safety issues in construction of facilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste at vector site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarevskyi, O.; Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine); Rybalka, N. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, it is planned to create a number of near-surface facilities for disposal of short-lived RW and long-term (up to 100 years) storage of long-lived RW at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The expected streams of long-lived RW are analyzed in the paper. According to the analysis of RW streams, in particular, issues are considered on development of RW acceptance criteria, admissible radiological impacts during preparation of RW for long-term storage, reliability of barriers (RW packages, modules and structures, etc.) during long-term storage of RW. (orig.)

  16. Monitoring Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in real-time on oil and natural gas production sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupardus, R.; Franklin, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Oil and Natural Gas (O&NG) development, production, infrastructure, and associated processing activities can be a substantial source of air pollution, yet relevant data and real-time quantification methods are lacking. In the current study, O&NG fugitive emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were quantified in real-time and used to determine the spatial and temporal windows of exposure for proximate flora and fauna. Eleven O&NG sites on the Pawnee National Grassland in Northeastern Colorado were randomly selected and grouped according to production along with 13 control sites from three geographical locations. At each site, samples were collected 25 m from the wellhead in NE, SE, and W directions. In each direction, two samples were collected with a Gasmet DX4040 gas analyzer every hour from 8:00 am to 2:00 pm (6 hours total), July to October, 2016 (N=864). VOC concentrations generally increased during the 6 hr. day with the exception of N2O and were predominately the result of O&NG production and not vehicle exhaust. Thirteen of 24 VOCs had significantly different levels between production groups, frequently above reference standards and at biologically relevant levels for flora and fauna. The most biologically relevant VOCs, found at concentrations exceeding time weighted average permissible exposure limits (TWA PELs), were benzene and acrolein. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) measured the relative quality of statistical models predicting benzene concentrations on sites. The data not only confirms that O&NG emissions are impacting the region, but also that this influence is present at all sites, including controls. Increased real-time VOC monitoring on O&NG sites is required to identify and contain fugitive emissions and to protect human and environmental health.

  17. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  18. Hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming over co-hydrotalcites having basic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico City (Mexico); Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The catalytic steam reforming process can be used to produce hydrogen from ethanol for use in fuel cells. In comparison to methanol or gasoline, ethanol offers many advantages, notably, it is a renewable resource and neutral with respect to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}); it is less toxic; it can be readily stored without handling risk; and it can be obtained in large quantities from biomass. The reaction of ethanol with steam is strongly endothermic and can form undesirable products during the reaction. This article presented a study that combined, for the first time, the catalytic properties of cobalt (Co) with a new family of supports that are the hydrotalcites of high surface area and with basic sites. Co/Hydrotalcite catalysts were prepared, characterized and evaluated during the steam reforming of ethanol from 500 to 650 degrees Celsius. The article discussed the experiment, including the preparation of catalysts; characterization of solids; and catalytic evaluation. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies were also described. Results were described in terms of area and pore volume distribution; thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis; temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}; scanning electron microscopy; x-ray diffraction; the crystalline nature of cobalt; and ethanol steam-reforming reaction. It was concluded that the Co concentration was enriched on the hydrotalcite surface. In addition, a direct relationship between the Co concentration and the total basicity was found. A direct relationship between basicity and the conversion was also found. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  19. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  20. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of calibrated Highway Development and Management (HDM 4) type models. Generally, five years continuous data would give a complete view of the behaviour of the materials for the individual sites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Transport and Public Works... purposes. 4. FIELD DATA COLLECTION The CSIR project team in partnership with the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province project team conduct detailed field investigation of six sites biannually. Field (monitoring) data...

  1. Semipalatinsk test site: Parameters of radionuclide transfer to livestock and poultry products under actual radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigazinov, Z.; Lukashenko, S. [Institute of Radiation Safety and Ecology (Kazakhstan)

    2014-07-01

    The IAEA document 'Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments' published in 2010 is one of the major sources of knowledge about the migration parameters of radionuclides in the agro-ecosystems that is necessary to assess the dose loads to the population. It is known from there that Sr and Cs transfer has been studied thoroughly, however the factors vary over a wide range. Few studies were conducted for Pu and Am transfer. It should be noted that the studies carried out in real conditions of radioactive contamination, i.e. under natural conditions is also very few. In this regard, since 2007 the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site has been used for comprehensive radioecological studies, where the major radionuclides to be investigated are {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am. The objects for these studies are birds and animals typical for the region, as well as products obtained from them (lamb, beef, horse meat, chicken, pork, cow's milk, mare's milk, eggs, chicken, chicken feathers, wool, leather). It should be noted that these products are the main agricultural goods that are available in these areas. The studies have been conducted with grazing animals in the most contaminated areas of the test site. Some groups of animals and birds were fed to contaminated feed, soil, contaminated water. Radionuclide intake by animal body with air were studied. Husbandry periods for animals and birds ranged from 1 to 150 days. The transfer parameters to cow and mare's milk have been investigated at single and prolonged intake of radionuclides, also their excretion dynamics has been studied. The studies revealed features of the radionuclide transfer into organs and tissues of animals and birds intaken with hay, water and soil. The results showed that the transfer factors vary up to one order. A relationship has been identified between distribution of

  2. Workbook for prioritizing petroleum industry exploration and production sites for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Workbook is to provide a screening-level method for prioritizing petroleum exploration and production sites for remediation that is based on readily available information, but which does not require a full characterization of the sites being evaluated. The process draws heavily from the Canadian National Classification System for Contaminated Sites, and fits into the framework for ecological risk assessment provided in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Using this approach, scoring guidelines are provided for a number of Evaluation Factors relating to: (1) the contaminants present at the site; (2) the potential exposure pathways for these contaminants; and (3) the potential receptors of those contaminants. The process therefore incorporates a risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework to estimate the relative threat posed by a site to human health and to ecological systems. Physical (non-toxic) disturbance factors have also been incorporated into the process. It should also be noted that the process described in this Workbook has not yet been field tested at petroleum E and P sites. The first logical step in the field testing of this process is to apply the method at a small number of sites to assess the availability of the information that is needed to score each evaluation factor. Following this evaluation, the Workbook process should be applied at a series of sites to determine the effectiveness of the process at ranking sites according to their relative need for remediation. Upon completion of these tests, the Workbook should be revised to reflect the findings of the field tests

  3. In-Plant Fission Product Behavior in SGTR Accident with Long-Term SBO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The off-site AC power was recovered in 9 days after the accident in the NPS. Therefore safety injection by fire pump truck with fresh water or seawater is only available in the Fukushima accident. However, safety injection by fire pump truck is not always effective due to the high pressure of RPV inside or leakages of alternative water injection flow paths. In the SBO situations in pressurized water reactor plant (PWR), turbine driven auxiliary feedwater (TD-AFW) pump can inject water to the secondary side of steam generator. However, turbine inlet steam flow control valve cannot work properly when loss of vital DC power occurs. Vital DC power is designed to be maintained during 4 or 8 hours in the SBO conditions. In this paper motor-driven and turbine driven AFW pumps are all assumed to be not working at time 0 sec as a worst case assumption. Iodine pool-scrubbing can occur in the secondary side of the faulted steam generator. However, iodine pool-scrubbing in the secondary side of the faulted steam generator is assumed not to be working, due to the assumption of the loss of DC battery for turbine inlet flow control valve. Iodine pool-scrubbing is one of the long-term research issues in safety assessment of nuclear power plant severe accident. PHEBUS FPT series and THAI experiment projects are typical projects on the resolving source term issues in severe accident of nuclear power plants. However, iodine retention by pool scrubbing is still a debating issue. In such containment bypass sequences, fission products can be released out to environment directly from RCS without retention or deposition in containment structures. SGTR is one of the hazardous accident scenarios in the typical PSA, because SGTR induces a large release amount of source term to environment directly. A key operation strategy was the isolation of the broken reactor coolant system loop from the intact loop. Typical core degradation in SGTR scenarios occurs with multiple failures of the isolation

  4. Net Biome Productivity of different land use at the sites of the Tharandt cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, T.; Prescher, A.-K.; Bernhofer, Ch.

    2009-04-01

    Within the Tharandt cluster there are 5 flux monitoring sites including 3 CARBOEUROPE main sites. The CARBOEUROPE sites cover typical land use of the region (spruce [monitored since 1996], grassland [since 2003], cropland [since 2004]). For all sites estimates of the Net Biome Productivity (NBP) and its uncertainty have been derived using Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) based on the EC measurements and C exports and imports on an annual basis. The crop site is a small C sink (NEP of 30-110gCm-2a-1) only. The annual NEP values are dependent on the cultivated crop species (winter or summer crop). Including C export (harvest) and C import (manure spreading) lead to a considerable C source of 270-540gCm-2a-1. Organic fertilisation (C import) has a strong impact on NBP values expressed in a reduced annual net carbon source. Also, the largest interannual differences of NBP values are found at this site - mainly induced by the existence and the amount of a carbon import due to organic fertilisation. Management practices affect the NBP in a sensitive way at this crop site. Each crop shows a higher C export due to harvest than the annual NEP. To validate the calculated C equivalent using harvested grain biomass modelled NPP values are available. Uncertainty ranges of C export, C import and NBP as well as the grassland and spruce NBP (for comparison) are also stated. In general, land use and management strongly affect the annual NBP of non-forested ecosystems especially. So, this is the second main driver of the C budget besides the interannual variability in meteorological conditions and water availability with its influence on NEP, GPP and TER.

  5. Fuelwood production potential of six Prosopis species on an alkaline soil site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Biomass Research Center

    1995-07-01

    The biomass potential of six species Prosopis was evaluated on highly alkaline soil site. Prosopis alba I was found to have the fastest growth rate and highest above-ground biomass production. P. juliflora ranked next. P. cineraria showed high plant establishment but relatively slow growth. The performance of P. glandulosa was poor on such sites. The high fuelwood value index and rapid growth rate of P. juliflora and P. alba makes them suitable for short-rotation fuelwood forestry programmes on waste-lands. Selection of promising genotypes is suggested as a means of improvement in yields. (author)

  6. Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyustov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest V.K. Khlustov Head of the Forestry Department of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A.Timiryazev doctor of agricultural sciences, professor The efficiency of forest management can be improved substantially by development and introduction of principally new models of forest growth and productivity dynamics based on regionalized site specific parameters. Therefore an innovative information system was developed. It describes the current state and gives a forecast for forest stand parameters: growth, structure, commercial and biological productivity depend on type of site quality. In contrast to existing yield tables, the new system has environmental basis: site quality type. The information system contains set of multivariate statistical models and can work at the level of individual trees or at the stand level. The system provides a graphical visualization, as well as export of the emulation results. The System is able to calculate detailed description of any forest stand based on five initial indicators: site quality type, site index, stocking, composition, and tree age by elements of the forest. The results of the model run are following parameters: average diameter and height, top height, number of trees, basal area, growing stock (total, commercial with distribution by size, firewood and residuals), live biomass (stem, bark, branches, foliage). The system also provides the distribution of mentioned above forest stand parameters by tree diameter classes. To predict the future forest stand dynamics the system require in addition the time slot only. Full set of forest parameters mention above will be provided by the System. The most conservative initial parameters (site quality type and site index) can be kept in the form of geo referenced polygons. In this case the system would need only 3 dynamic initial parameters (stocking, composition and age) to

  7. Forecasting short-term wind farm production in complex terrain. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, M.

    2005-01-01

    Wind energy forecasting adds financial value to wind farms and may soon become a regulatory requirement. A robust information technology system is essential for addressing industry demands. Various forecasting methodologies for short-term wind production in complex terrain were presented. Numerical weather predictions were discussed with reference to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system site measurements. Forecasting methods using wind speed, direction, temperature and pressure, as well as issues concerning statistical modelling were presented. Model output statistics and neural networks were reviewed, as well as significant components of error. Results from a Garrad Hassan forecaster with a European wind farm were presented, including wind speed evaluation, and forecast horizon for T + 1 hours, T + 12 hours, and T + 36 hours. It was suggested that buy prices often reflect the cost of under-prediction, and that forecasting has more potential where the spread is greatest. Accurate T + 19 hours to T + 31 hours could enable participation in the day-ahead market, which is less volatile and prices are usually better. Estimates of possible profits per annum through the use of GH forecaster power predictions were presented, calculated over and above spilling power to the grid. It was concluded that accurate forecasts combined with certainty evaluation enables the optimization of wind energy in the market, and is applicable to a wide range of weather regimes and terrain types. It was suggested that site feedback is essential for good forecasts at short horizons, and that the value of forecasting is dependent on the market. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Characterization of VOCs Emissions from Industrial Facilities and Natural Gas Production Sites: A Mobile Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Gu, J.; Trask, B.; Lyon, D. R.; Albertson, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent expansion of U.S. oil and gas (O&G) production, many studies have focused on the quantification of fugitive methane emissions. However, only a few studies have explored the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from O&G production sites that affect human health in adjacent communities, both directly through exposure to toxic chemical compounds and indirectly via formation of ground-level ozone. In this study, we seek to quantify emissions of VOCs from O&G production sites and petrochemical facilities using a mobile sensing approach, with both high-end analyzers and relatively low-cost sensors. A probabilistic source characterization approach is used to estimate emission rates of VOCs, directly taking into account quantitative measure of sensor accuracy. This work will provide data with proper spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, so as to improve the understanding of VOCs emission from O&G production sites, VOCs-exposure of local communities, and explore the feasibility of low-cost sensors for VOCs monitoring. The project will provide an important foundational step to enable large scale studies.

  9. The Salcher landslide observatory: a new long-term monitoring site in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Engels, Alexander; Glade, Thomas; Schweigl, Joachim; Bertagnoli, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant hazard in the federal district of Lower Austria. The Geological Survey of Lower Austria is responsible for detailed site investigations as well as the planning and installation of protective measures. The most landslide prone area in Lower Austria is within the Rhenodanubian Flyschzone whose materials consist of alterations of fine grained layers (clayey shales, silty shales, marls) and sandstones. It exhibits over 6200 landslides within an area of approx. 1300 km². For areas susceptible to landsliding, protection works are not feasible or simply too costly. Therefore, monitoring systems have been installed in the past, most of them, however, are not operated automatically and require field visits for data readouts. Thus, it is difficult to establish any relation between initiating and controlling factors to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying process mechanism that is essential for any early warning applications. In this presentation, we present the design and first results of an automated landslide monitoring system in Gresten (Lower Austria). The deep-seated, slow moving Salcher landslide extends over approx. 8000 m² and is situated adjacent to residential buildings and infrastructure. This monitoring setup is designed to run for at least a decade to account for investigations of long term sliding dynamics and pattern. Historically the Salcher landslide has shown shorter phases with accelerated movements followed by longer phases with barely any movements. Those periods of inactivity commonly exceed regular project durations, thus it is important to cover longer periods. Such slope dynamics can be investigated throughout many parts in the world, thus this monitoring might allow to understand better also landslides with infrequent movement patterns. The monitoring setup consists of surface as well as subsurface installations. All installations are connected to permanent power supply, are taking the respective

  10. EVALUATION OF THE MAIN CEOS PSEUDO CALIBRATION SITES USING MODIS BRDF/ALBEDO PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kharbouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes our findings about an evaluation of the stability and the consistency of twenty primary PICSs (Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites. We present an analysis of 13 years of 8-daily MODIS products of BRDF parameters and white-sky-albedos (WSA over the shortwave band. This time series of WSA and BRDFs shows the variation of the “stability” varies significantly from site to site. Using a 10x10 km window size over all the sites, the change in of WSA stability is around 4% but the isotropicity, which is an important element in inter-satellite calibration, can vary from 75% to 98%. Moreover, some PICS, especially, Libya-4 which is one of the PICS which is most employed, has significant and relatively fast changes in wintertime. PICS observations of BRDF/albedo shows that the Libya-4 PICS has the best performance but it is not too far from some sites such as Libya-1 and Mali. This study also reveals that Niger-3 PICS has the longest continuous period of high stability per year, and Sudan has the most isotropic surface. These observations have important implications for the use of these sites.

  11. Piezo-electric automatic vehicle classification system : Oregon Department of Transportation with Castle Rock Consultants for a SHRP Long Term Pavement Performance Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Oregon has twelve sites that are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) studies. Part of the data gathering on these sites involves vehicle weight and classification. This pilot project was to hel...

  12. Piezo-electric automatic vehicle classification system : Oregon Department of Transportation with Castle Rock Consultants for a SHRP Long Term Pavement Performance Site : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Oregon has twelve pavement test sites that are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) studies. Part of the data gathering on these sites involves vehicle weight and classification. This pilot proj...

  13. Stormwater Pollutant Process Analysis with Long-Term Online Monitoring Data at Micro-Scale Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Leutnant

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff quality was measured with online turbidity sensors at four common types of small urban subcatchments: (i a flat roof; (ii a parking lot; (iii a residential catchment; and (iv a high-traffic street. Samples were taken to estimate site-specific correlations between total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity. Continuous TSS time series were derived from online turbidity measurements and were used to estimate event loads and event mean concentrations. Rainfall runoff event characteristics were subjected to correlation analysis to TSS loads. Significant correlations were found for rainfall intensities at sites with high imperviousness and decrease with increasing catchment size. Antecedent dry weather periods are only correlated at the parking lot site. Intra-event TSS load distributions were studied with M (V-curves. M (V-curves are grouped at runoff quantiles and statistically described with boxplots. All sites show, in general, a more pronounced first-flush effect. While wash-off of the flat roof tends to be source-limited, the parking lot and high-traffic street sites show a more transport-limited behavior. Wash-off process of the residential catchment appears to be influenced by a composition of different subcatchments.

  14. Characterization, Improvement and Long Term Evaluation Of Cementitious Waste Products. An Indian Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaeotikar, R.G.; Rakesh, R.R.; Shirole, A.; Paul, B.; Valsala, T.P.; Choudhury, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Cement is a very good matrix for immobilization for different types of wastes. In India, the cementation process has been adopted and used for the last four decades. Depending on the waste composition, there is need to formulate the cement waste matrix appropriately to ensure adequate compressive strength and chemical durability. This has been achieved by using different additives/backfill materials during the cementation process with cements for example Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Slag Based Cements (SBC). Backfill materials studied include vermiculite and bentonite. They were evaluated for sorption characteristics, particle size distribution, water equilibration, etc. They were incorporated in the OPC-CWP (Cement Waste Product) with various waste compositions. The composition developed for ILW generated during reprocessing and during spent solvent hydrolysis were successfully adopted on a plant scale. Some of the compositions which are being developed are also in the process of being adopted in-plant. The long-term evaluation study of the CWP was carried out at actual site conditions where CWP in carbon steel drum, plastic drums and bare CWP were disposed in 2001 and removed in 2010: parameters including compressive strength and release of activity to the soil were measured. (author)

  15. Short-term to seasonal variability in factors driving primary productivity in a shallow estuary: Implications for modeling production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Andy; MacIntyre, Hugh L.; Phipps, Scott

    2013-10-01

    The inputs of primary productivity models may be highly variable on short timescales (hourly to daily) in turbid estuaries, but modeling of productivity in these environments is often implemented with data collected over longer timescales. Daily, seasonal, and spatial variability in primary productivity model parameters: chlorophyll a concentration (Chla), the downwelling light attenuation coefficient (kd), and photosynthesis-irradiance response parameters (Pmchl, αChl) were characterized in Weeks Bay, a nitrogen-impacted shallow estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Variability in primary productivity model parameters in response to environmental forcing, nutrients, and microalgal taxonomic marker pigments were analysed in monthly and short-term datasets. Microalgal biomass (as Chla) was strongly related to total phosphorus concentration on seasonal scales. Hourly data support wind-driven resuspension as a major source of short-term variability in Chla and light attenuation (kd). The empirical relationship between areal primary productivity and a combined variable of biomass and light attenuation showed that variability in the photosynthesis-irradiance response contributed little to the overall variability in primary productivity, and Chla alone could account for 53-86% of the variability in primary productivity. Efforts to model productivity in similar shallow systems with highly variable microalgal biomass may benefit the most by investing resources in improving spatial and temporal resolution of chlorophyll a measurements before increasing the complexity of models used in productivity modeling.

  16. How consistent are global long-term satellite LAI products in terms of interannual variability and trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Ryu, Y.; Fang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Proper usage of global satellite LAI products requires comprehensive evaluation. To address this issue, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup proposed a four-stage validation hierarchy. During the past decade, great efforts have been made following this validation framework, mainly focused on absolute magnitude, seasonal trajectory, and spatial pattern of those global satellite LAI products. However, interannual variability and trends of global satellite LAI products have been investigated marginally. Targeting on this gap, we made an intercomparison between seven global satellite LAI datasets, including four short-term ones: MODIS C5, MODIS C6, GEOV1, MERIS, and three long-term products ones: LAI3g, GLASS, and GLOBMAP. We calculated global annual LAI time series for each dataset, among which we found substantial differences. During the overlapped period (2003 - 2011), MODIS C5, GLASS and GLOBMAP have positive correlation (r > 0.6) between each other, while MODIS C6, GEOV1, MERIS, and LAI3g are highly consistent (r > 0.7) in interannual variations. However, the previous three datasets show negative trends, all of which use MODIS C5 reflectance data, whereas the latter four show positive trends, using MODIS C6, SPOT/VGT, ENVISAT/MERIS, and NOAA/AVHRR, respectively. During the pre-MODIS era (1982 - 1999), the three AVHRR-based datasets (LAI3g, GLASS and GLOBMAP) agree well (r > 0.7), yet all of them show oscillation related with NOAA platform changes. In addition, both GLASS and GLOBMAP show clear cut-points around 2000 when they move from AVHRR to MODIS. Such inconsistency is also visible for GEOV1, which uses SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 before and after 2002. We further investigate the map-to-map deviations among these products. This study highlights that continuous sensor calibration and cross calibration are essential to obtain reliable global LAI time series.

  17. On Uneven Ground: How Corporate Governance Prioritizes Short-term Speculative Investments, Impedes Productive Investments, and Jeopardizes Productivity Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Christian E. Weller; Luke Reidenbach

    2011-01-01

    The economic recovery after the Great Recession highlighted a continuous divergence between soaring profits and lagging investment. These trends are related at the corporate level, where corporate managers have stronger incentives to pursue short-term profit-seeking activities than to invest in longer-term productive activities, such as hiring and training people and investment in physical infrastructure. This prioritization results because the corporate governance system is biased towards th...

  18. Radiation protection products. Terms and definitions. Vyrobky radiacne ochranne techniky. Nazvy a definice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The basic terms of radiation protection means, these means and their parts are defined. Radiation protection products are classified into nine groups and their outer appearance and design are described. The standard also gives equivalent terms in Czech, Russian, Polish, Hungarian, German, Bulgarian and Romanian.

  19. Analysis of the Variability of Classified and Unclassified Radiological Source term Inventories in the Frenchman Flat Area, Nevada test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.; Zavarin, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that unclassified source terms used in the reactive transport modeling investigations at NTS CAUs should be based on yield-weighted source terms calculated using the average source term from Bowen et al. (2001) and the unclassified announced yields reported in DOE/NV-209. This unclassified inventory is likely to be used in unclassified contaminant boundary calculations and is, thus, relevant to compare to the classified inventory. They have examined the classified radionuclide inventory produced by 10 underground nuclear tests conducted in the Frenchman Flat (FF) area of the Nevada Test Site. The goals were to (1) evaluate the variability in classified radiological source terms among the 10 tests and (2) compare that variability and inventory uncertainties to an average unclassified inventory (e.g. Bowen 2001). To evaluate source term variability among the 10 tests, radiological inventories were compared on two relative scales: geometric mean and yield-weighted geometric mean. Furthermore, radiological inventories were either decay corrected to a common date (9/23/1992) or the time zero (t 0 ) of each test. Thus, a total of four data sets were produced. The date of 9/23/1992 was chosen based on the date of the last underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site

  20. Nutrition content of food and beverage products on Web sites popular with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingas, Elena O; Dorfman, Lori; Bukofzer, Eliana

    2009-11-01

    We assessed the nutritional quality of branded food and beverage products advertised on 28 Web sites popular with children. Of the 77 advertised products for which nutritional information was available, 49 met Institute of Medicine criteria for foods to avoid, 23 met criteria for foods to neither avoid nor encourage, and 5 met criteria for foods to encourage. There is a need for further research on the nature and extent of food and beverage advertising online to aid policymakers as they assess the impact of this marketing on children.

  1. On-site Labour Productivity of New Zealand Construction Industry: Key Constraints and Improvement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is key to the survival and growth of any organisation, industry or nation. Some factors constrain the achievement of the set project objectives in the New Zealand building and construction industry and are responsible for the reported steady decline of productivity and performance. This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in New Zealand were canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantity data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints, which contribute 67 percent of the onsite productivity issues, comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination. . The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner.

  2. Field study of nitrous oxide production with in situ aeration in a closed landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Mitali; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Xiaoli, Chai

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has gained considerable attention as a contributor to global warming and depilation of stratospheric ozone layer. Landfill is one of the high emitters of greenhouse gas such as methane and N(2)O during the biodegradation of solid waste. Landfill aeration has been attracted increasing attention worldwide for fast, controlled and sustainable conversion of landfills into a biological stabilized condition, however landfill aeration impel N(2)O emission with ammonia removal. N(2)O originates from the biodegradation, or the combustion of nitrogen-containing solid waste during the microbial process of nitrification and denitrification. During these two processes, formation of N(2)O as a by-product from nitrification, or as an intermediate product of denitrification. In this study, air was injected into a closed landfill site and investigated the major N(2)O production factors and correlations established between them. The in-situ aeration experiment was carried out by three sets of gas collection pipes along with temperature probes were installed at three different distances of one, two and three meter away from the aeration point; named points A-C, respectively. Each set of pipes consisted of three different pipes at three different depths of 0.0, 0.75 and 1.5 m from the bottom of the cover soil. Landfill gases composition was monitored weekly and gas samples were collected for analysis of nitrous oxide concentrations. It was evaluated that temperatures within the range of 30-40°C with high oxygen content led to higher generation of nitrous oxide with high aeration rate. Lower O(2) content can infuse N(2)O production during nitrification and high O(2) inhibit denitrification which would affect N(2)O production. The findings provide insights concerning the production potentials of N(2)O in an aerated landfill that may help to minimize with appropriate control of the operational parameters and biological reactions of N turnover. Investigation of

  3. Hydrologic Source Term Processes and Models for the Clearwater and Wineskin Tests, Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Steven F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-04

    This report describes the development, processes, and results of a hydrologic source term (HST) model for the CLEARWATER (U12q) and WINESKIN (U12r) tests located on Rainier Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada (Figure 1.1). Of the 61 underground tests (involving 62 unique detonations) conducted on Rainier Mesa (Area 12) between 1957 and 1992 (USDOE, 2015), the CLEARWATER and WINESKIN tests present many unique features that warrant a separate HST modeling effort from other Rainier Mesa tests.

  4. Geomorphological assessment of sites and impoundments for the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a program of current and future research into those geomorphological processes likely to affect the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory. Research is directed at three main areas: identification of geomorphic hazards at proposed impoundment sites; determination of erosion rates on impoundment slopes; and prediction of patterns of fluvial dispersal of released tailings. Each necessitates consideration of present and future geomorphic processes

  5. Long-term leaf production response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan F. Talhelm; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Christian P. Giardina

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 will profoundly influence future forest productivity, but our understanding of these influences over the long-term is poor. Leaves are key indicators of productivity and we measured the mass, area, and nitrogen concentration of leaves collected in litter traps...

  6. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France; Modelisation a court terme des consommations de produits petroliers en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadren, M

    1998-06-23

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It`s filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter`s. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach`s and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author) 153 refs.

  7. Site-adapted cultivation of bioenergy crops - a strategy towards a greener and innovative feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Thorsten; Emmerling, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Cultivation of bioenergy crops is of increasing interest to produce valuable feedstocks e.g. for anaerobic digestion. In the past decade, the focus was primarily set to cultivation of the most economic viable crop, namely maize. In Germany for example, the cultivation area of maize was expanded from approx. 200,000 ha in 2006 to 800,000 ha in 2015. However, this process initiated a scientific and public discussion about the sustainability of intense maize cultivation. Concerns addressed in this context are depletion of soil organic matter, soil erosion and compaction as well as losses of (agro-)biodiversity. However, from a soil science perspective, several problems arise from not site-adapted cultivation of maize. In contrast, the cultivation of perennial bioenergy crops may provide a valuable opportunity to preserve or even enhance soil fertility and agrobiodiversity without limiting economic efficiency. Several perennial energy crops, with various requirements regarding stand conditions, allow a beneficial selection of the most suitable species for a respective location. The study aimed to provide a first step towards a more strategic planning of bioenergy crop cultivation with respect to spatial arrangement, distribution and connectivity of sites on a regional scale. The identification of pedological site characteristics is a crucial step in this process. With the study presented, we tried to derive site information that allow for an assessment of the suitability for specific energy crops. Our idea is to design a multifunctional landscape with a coexistence of sites with reduced management for soil protection and highly productive site. By a site adapted cultivation of perennial energy plants in sensitive areas, a complex, heterogeneous landscape could be reached.

  8. Meaningful public participation in scientific research: How to build an effective site-based long-term education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, L.

    2013-12-01

    Many site-based educators (Wildlife Refuges, nature centers, Cooperative Extension Programs, schools, arboretums) struggle with developing and implementing cohesive long-term scientific monitoring projects into their existing outreach programming. Moreover, projects that are not meaningful to participants often have little or no sustainable long-term impact. Programs proven most effective are those which 1.) engage the participants in the study design and implementation process, 2.) answer a scientific question posed by site leaders; the data collected supports USA-NPN efforts as well as related site management and monitoring questions, 3.) are built into existing outreach and education programs, using phenology as a lens for understanding both natural and cultural history, and 4.) consistently share outcomes and results with the participants. The USA National Phenology Network's (USA-NPN) Education Program provides phenology curriculum and outreach to educators in formal, non-formal, and informal settings. Materials are designed to serve participants in grades 5-12, higher education, and adult learners. Phenology, used as a lens for place-based education, can inform science, environmental, and climate literacy, as well as other subject areas including cultural studies, art, and language arts. The USA-NPN offers consultation with site leaders on how to successfully engage site-based volunteers and students in long-term phenological studies using Nature's Notebook (NN), the professional and citizen science phenology monitoring program. USA-NPN education and educator instruction materials are designed and field-tested to demonstrate how to implement a long-term NN phenology-monitoring program at such sites. These curricula incorporate monitoring for public visitors, long-term volunteers, and school groups, while meeting the goals of USA-NPN and the site, and can be used as a model for other public participation in science programs interested in achieving similar

  9. Long-term observations of regional aerosol composition at two sites in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; De Ridder, Dirk J.A.; Fernandez-Jimenez, Maria-Teresa; Hooper, Martin A.; Hooper, Bev; Nurhayati, Ms

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol samples were collected with Gent PM10 stacked filter unit (SFU) samplers at Bukit Tinggi, a mountain site on Sumatra, and at Pontianak, a sea-level site on Kalimantan. The Gent PM10 SFU sampler provides two size fractions: coarse (2-10 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD)) and fine ( 3 at Bukit Tinggi and Pontianak, respectively. For the fine fraction, the corresponding numbers were 4.5 (2.6-9.1) and 9.4 (6.5-13) μg/m 3 . Principal component analysis was applied to the fine fraction data sets in order to identify the contributing sources (source types). At Bukit Tinggi, five components were identified, i.e., a crustal component, a biomass burning component (with loadings of 0.7-0.9 for BC, K, Br, Rb and I), an oil combustion component (with S and V), a pollution component (with Sb and Pb), and a Na component

  10. Long term effects on potential repository sites: climatic and geomorphological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, M.B.; Worsley, P.

    1985-05-01

    A study of the effects of climatic variability on the geomorphological processes operating on the landscape are important in the study of radioactive waste repository sites. The effects of glacial erosion and deposition are fundamental to an examination of repository safety, particularly in North Britain. Rates of climatic shift need to be examined. Predictive simulation models, based on a knowledge of past climatic events, for future global climates are proposed. (UK)

  11. Global Production Planning Process considering the Supply Risk of Overseas Manufacturing Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although global manufacturers can produce most of their final products in local plants, they need to source components or parts from desirable overseas manufacturing partners at low cost in order to fulfill customer orders. In this global manufacturing environment, capacity information for planning is usually imprecise owing to the various risks of overseas plants (e.g., foreign governments’ policies and labor stability. It is therefore not easy for decision-makers to generate a global production plan showing the production amounts at local plants and overseas manufacturing facilities operated by manufacturing partners. In this paper, we present a new global production planning process considering the supply risk of overseas manufacturing sites. First, local experts estimate the supply capacity of an overseas plant using their judgment to determine when the risk could occur and how large the risk impact would be. Next, we run a global production planning model with the estimated supply capacities. The proposed process systematically adopts the qualitative judgments of local experts in the global production planning process and thus can provide companies with a realistic global production plan. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed process with a real world case.

  12. On policies to regulate long-term risks from hazardous waste disposal sites under both intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhongbin

    In recent years, it has been recognized that there is a need for a general philosophic policy to guide the regulation of societal activities that involve long-term and very long-term risks. Theses societal activities not only include the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and global warming, but also include the disposal of non-radioactive carcinogens that never decay, such as arsenic, nickel, etc. In the past, attention has been focused on nuclear wastes. However, there has been international recognition that large quantities of non-radioactive wastes are being disposed of with little consideration of their long-term risks. The objectives of this dissertation are to present the significant long-term risks posed by non-radioactive carcinogens through case studies; develop the conceptual decision framework for setting the long-term risk policy; and illustrate that certain factors, such as discount rate, can significantly influence the results of long-term risk analysis. Therefore, the proposed decision-making framework can be used to systematically study the important policy questions on long-term risk regulations, and then subsequently help the decision-maker to make informed decisions. Regulatory disparities between high-level radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes are summarized. Long-term risk is rarely a consideration in the regulation of disposal of non-radioactive hazardous chemicals; and when it is, the matter has been handled in a somewhat perfunctory manner. Case studies of long-term risks are conducted for five Superfund sites that are contaminated with one or more non-radioactive carcinogens. Under the same assumptions used for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, future subsistence farmers would be exposed to significant individual risks, in some cases with lifetime fatality risk equal to unity. The important policy questions on long-term risk regulation are identified, and the conceptual decision-making framework to regulate

  13. 75 FR 453 - FLSMidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,048] FLSMidth, Inc., Cement..., Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, including on-site leased workers of Aerotek Contract.... were also employed on-site at FLSmidth, Inc., Cement Division, Product Engineering, Bethlehem...

  14. Verification of“Trend-Volatility Model”in Short-Term Forecast of Grain Production Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Chang-hong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The "trend-volatility model" in short-term forecasting of grain production potential was verified and discussed systematically by using the grain production data from 1949 to 2014, in 16 typical counties and 6 typical districts, and 31 provinces, of China. The results showed as follows:(1 Size of forecast error reflected the precision of short-term production potential, the main reason of large prediction error was a great amount of high yield farmlands were occupied in developed areas and a great increase of vegetable and fruit planted that made grain yield decreased in a short time;(2 The micro-trend amendment method was a necessary part of "trend-volatility model", which could involve the short-term factors such as meteorological factors, science and technology input, social factors and other effects, while macro-trend prediction could not. Therefore, The micro-trend amendment method could improve the forecast precision.(3 In terms of actual situation in recent years in China, the more developed the areas was, the bigger the volatility of short-term production potential was; For the short-term production potential, the stage of increasing-decreasing-recovering also existed in developed areas;(4 In the terms of forecast precision of short-terms production potential, the scale of national was higher than the scale of province, the scale of province was higher than the scale of district, the scale of district was higher than the scale of county. And it was large differences in precision between different provinces, different districts and different counties respectively, which was concerned to the complementarity of domestic climate and the ability of the farmland resistance to natural disasters.

  15. Long Term Wave Climate at the Danish Test Site DanWEC Based on 35 Years Hindcast Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetu, Amélie; Jensen, Palle Martin; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the wave climate of the DanWEC test site based on the 35 years hindcast data. This includes monthly and annual variation of the wave climate at the site together with an analysis of extreme events. This work includees results from the project “Resource Assessment...... and reduce WEC’s costs. The work so far has been concentrated on establishing the base for gaining detailed information on the wave and current climate at DanWEC. In this paper an analysis of the wave climate at the DanWEC test site based on 35 years modelled data will be presented. Relevant characteristics...... of the test site, such as scatter tables in terms of wave height and energy period (Hm0, Te) and weather window characteristics will be given. Based on 35 years of data gathered so far, an analysis of extreme events at the DanWEC test site is also included in this work....

  16. No advantages in terms of safety. 'Energy in a Dialog' about the 'Final disposal site selection law'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The current legislative process for the site selection law (StandAG) was topic of the DAtF event 'Energy in a Dialog' on 6 June 2013 in Berlin: 'Is the path the goal: purpose and results of the site selection law'. The President of the German Atomic Forum (DAtF), Dr. Ralf Gldner, moderated the discussion with Prof. Dr. Ortwin Renn of the University of Stuttgart and the CEO of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service (GNS), Hannes Wimmer. The opportunities and risks of a new site search for high-level radioactive waste were the main topics. Professor Renn summarized some findings to conditions of acceptance perceived in connection with industrial projects. Dr. Wimmer said in his keynote that social acceptance for site selection for a repository must be maintained for a long time. During the ensuing discussion, a common understanding was evident on some aspects of the topic. This is especially true for a limitation of the new location search method in terms of its objective. As a realistic objective to determine a secure suitable site was considered instead of a 'best' location proposed by the new law. (orig.)

  17. Lignocellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: The impact of facility siting on competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, James D.; Mabee, Warren E.; Saddler, Jack N.

    2013-01-01

    Just as temperate region pulp and paper companies need to compete with Brazilian eucalyptus pulp producers, lignocellulosic biofuel producers in North America and Europe, in the absence of protectionist trade policies, will need to be competitive with tropical and sub-tropical biofuel producers. This work sought to determine the impact of lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery siting on economic performance and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) for both east and west coast North American fuel markets. Facility sites included the pine-dominated Pacific Northwest Interior, the mixed deciduous forest of Ontario and New York, and the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Feedstock scenarios included both plantation (poplar, willow, and eucalyptus, respectively) and managed forest harvest. Site specific variables in the techno-economic model included delivered feedstock cost, ethanol delivery cost, cost of capital, construction cost, labour cost, electricity revenues (and co-product credits), and taxes, insurance, and permits. Despite the long shipping distance from Brazil to North American east and west coast markets, the MESP for Brazilian-produced eucalyptus lignocellulosic ethanol, modelled at $0.74 L −1 , was notably lower than that of all North American-produced cases at $0.83–1.02 L −1 . - Highlights: • Lignocellulosic ethanol production costs vary notably by region. • Feedstock cost is the primary site-specific production cost variable. • Woody feedstocks in North America have a higher cost than those in Brazil. • Use of Brazilian eucalyptus resulted in the lowest MESP for considered feedstocks. • MESP ranged from −1 to >$1.00 L −1

  18. Long-term environmental monitoring at two US Department of Energy Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site was established in southeastern Washington during the 1940s to produce plutonium during World War II. The Pantex Plant in the Texas Panhandle was originally used by the U.S. Army for loading conventional ammunition shells and bombs. The Plant was rehabilitated and enhanced in the 1950s to assemble nuclear weapons. Environmental monitoring has been ongoing at both locations for several decades. Monitoring objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of facility operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soils, and vegetation. Currently, measured concentrations of airborne radionuclides around the perimeters of both sites are below applicable guidelines. The low levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in some onsite Hanford wildlife samples and concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation from onsite and offsite at both locations are typical of those attributable to naturally occurring radioactivity and to worldwide fallout. Ironically, by virtue of its size (1,450 km 2 [560 mi 2 )], restricted public access, and conservative use of undeveloped land, the Hanford Site has provided a sanctuary for plant and animal populations that have been eliminated from, or greatly reduced on, surrounding agricultural and range lands. Ongoing studies will determine if this is also true at Pantex Plant. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and its islands and the Pantex Plant with its playas both serve as refuges for raptorial birds and migratory waterfowl. In addition, the Hanford Reach serves as a migration route for several species of salmon, and chinook salmon and steelhead trout spawn there. Bald eagles congregate along the Hanford Reach in the fall and winter to feed on the spawned-out carcasses of salmon and on wintering waterfowl

  19. Effects of produced waters at oilfield production sites on the Osage Indian Reservation, northeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Asher-Bolinder, Sigrid; Owen, Douglass E.; Hall, Laurel

    1997-01-01

    The authors conducted limited site surveys in the Wildhorse and Burbank oilfields on the Osage Indian Reservation, northeastern Oklahoma. The purpose was to document salt scarring, erosion, and soil and water salinization, to survey for radioactivity in oilfield equipment, and to determine if trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) were present in soils affected by oilfield solid waste and produced waters. These surveys were also designed to see if field gamma spectrometry and field soil conductivity measurements were useful in screening for NORM contamination and soil salinity at these sites. Visits to oilfield production sites in the Wildhorse field in June of 1995 and 1996 confirmed the presence of substantial salt scarring, soil salinization, and slight to locally severe erosion. Levels of radioactivity on some oil field equipment, soils, and road surfaces exceed proposed state standards. Radium activities in soils affected by tank sludge and produced waters also locally exceed proposed state standards. Laboratory analyses of samples from two sites show moderate levels of copper, lead, and zinc in brine-affected soils and pipe scale. Several sites showed detectable levels of bromine and iodine, suggesting that these trace elements may be present in sufficient quantity to inhibit plant growth. Surface waters in streams at two sampled sites exceed total dissolved solid limits for drinking waters. At one site in the Wildhorse field, an EM survey showed that saline soils in the upper 6m extend from a surface salt scar downvalley about 150 m. (Photo [95k]: Dead oak trees and partly revegetated salt scar at Site OS95-2 in the Wildhorse field, Osage County, Oklahoma.) In the Burbank field, limited salt scarring and slight erosion occurs in soils at some sites and low to moderate levels of radioactivity were observed in oil field equipment at some sites. The levels of radioactivity and radium observed in some soils and equipment at these

  20. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  1. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs

  2. Geoscientific long-term prognosis. Preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben; Geowissenschaftliche Langzeitprognose. Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 2. Vorlaeufige Sicherheitsanalyse fuer den Standort Gorleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrugalla, Sabine [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The preliminary safety analysis of the site Gorleben includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Aim and content of the geoscientific long-term prognosis for the site Gorleben; (3) Boundary conditions at the site Gorleben: climate; geomorphology; overlying rocks and adjoining rocks; hydrogeology; salt deposit Gorleben. (4) Probable future geological developments at the site Gorleben: supraregional developments with effects on the site Gorleben; glacial period developments; developments of the geomorphology, overlying and adjoining rocks; future developments of the hydrological systems at the site Gorleben; future saliniferous specific developments of the salt deposit Gorleben. (5) Commentary on the unlikely or excludable developments of the site Gorleben.

  3. Economics of plant production on marginal sites in the state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesemer, Andrea; Andreas, Gurgel; Ines, Bull

    2017-04-01

    Marginal sites are defined by economics. It is not possible to produce any profit there under given conditions of markets and policy even when management is optimized. In the state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a portion of nearly 20 % of arable land is characterized by such conditions. There are often to find sandy sites below 28 soil points with low storage capacity and irregular water supply. Animal husbandry as a type of agricultural upgrading has a more important role in the south and southwest of the state than in the regions with better soil quality. The percentage of Maize was already in 2003 twice as high in the regions with more marginal sites. After implementation of the Renewable Energy Act many enterprises started built biogas plants. In 2010, the portion of maize was raised to 20 %. The increase of Maize was combined with a reduction of growing other fodder crops, rye and also by reducing set-aside areas. The scale of the cash crops Rape (16%), Wheat (15 %) and barley (9 %) stayed the same. The yields and production processes of several selected farms in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern were analyzed for the years 2011 to 2016. The farms reached 6.6 tons per hectare of wheat and 6.1 tons per hectare of barley on soils below 28 soil points. Hybrid rye achieved 5.4 tons per hectare and rape 3.0. Maize was especially dependent on water supply and made between 30 and 35 tons per hectare. The big problem in these regions is caused by high production costs in cropping. More than a half of the costs is required for seeds, fertilization and crop protection. However, the remaining revenues are not adequate for paying work and fix costs as an evaluation of farms in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern shows. It is not a valid option to set more land that is arable aside in regions with much marginal sites because cropping is a strategic investment there. Therefore, it is important to make effort on crop rotations and optimization of production intensities to decrease costs per unit and to

  4. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  5. Terms of Productivity, Including the Relationship Between Productivity, Effectiveness and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    for Awareness Juran on Planning for Quality, 1988, J.M. Juran What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way, 1985, Kaoru Ishikawa Guide to Quality...Control, 1982, Kaoru Ishikawa Andrews, M. (1985). Statistical Process Control: Mandatory Management Tool. Production April 1985. Bushe, G. (1988

  6. Long-term carbon exclusion alters soil microbial function but not community structure across forests of contrasting productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. C.; Dove, N. C.; Stark, J.

    2017-12-01

    While it is well-documented that distinct heterotrophic microbial communities emerge under different conditions of carbon (C) availability, the response of soil microbial communities and their function to long-term conditions of C exclusion in situ has yet to be investigated. We evaluated the role of C in controlling soil microbial communities and function by experimentally excluding plant C inputs for nine years at four forest sites along a productivity gradient in Oregon, USA. Carbon exclusion treatments were implemented by root trenching to a depth of 30 cm using 25-cm diameter steel pipe, and minimizing aboveground inputs as plant litter by covering the pipe with a 1-mm mesh screen. After nine years, we measured rates of gross and net nitrogen (N) transformations and microbial respiration in situ in the upper 15-cm of mineral soil in both C excluded plots and undisturbed control soils. We measured the soil total C and N concentration and potential extracellular enzyme activities. We used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis to determine potential changes in the microbial community structure. Nine years of C exclusion reduced soil total C by about 20%, except at the highest productivity site where no statistically significant change was observed. Although PLFA community structure and microbial C were unchanged, microbial respiration was reduced by 15-45% at all sites. Similarly, specific extracellular enzyme activities for all enzymes increased at these sites with C exclusion, suggesting that the microbial communities were substrate-limited. Although gross N mineralization decreased under C exclusion, decreases in gross N immobilization were greater, resulting in increased net N mineralization rates in all but the lowest productivity site. Furthermore, C exclusion only increased net nitrification in the highest productivity site. Although these field-based results are largely consistent with previous laboratory studies indicating a strong coupling between C

  7. Gulf Atlantic Coastal Plain Long Term Agroecosystem Research site, Tifton, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Strickland; David D. Bosch; Dinku M. Endale; Thomas L. Potter

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain (GACP) physiographic region is an important agricultural production area within the southeastern U.S. that extends from Delaware in the Northeast to the Gulf Coast of Texas. The region consists mainly of low-elevation flat to rolling terrain with numerous streams, abundant rainfall, a complex coastline, and many wetlands. The GACP Long ...

  8. Inventory of chemicals used at Hanford Site production plants and support operations (1944-1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M. J.

    1990-04-01

    A complete list of chemicals used in the production facilities and support operations of the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is presented to aid development of plans for characterizing the radioactive liquid chemical wastes stored in the 149 single-shell tanks. The complete chemical list is compared to the list provided by the regulatory agencies to identify hazardous chemicals stored in the single-shell tanks. A reduced list has been developed by others and is used to identify the chemical constituents for analysis in the Waste Characterization Plan for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks. The chemical list is based on chemical process flowsheets, essential material consumption records, letters, reports, and other historical data. 14 refs., 36 tabs.

  9. Aspects of supervision of the clearance of nuclear fuel production sites in the Hanau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, L.; Ibach, T.M.; Lehmann, K.-H.

    2002-01-01

    Five nuclear fuel production facilities in the Hanau area are shut down and have to be dismantled. The activities and the licenses for these activities are carried out and issued step by step. In charge of the licensing authorities, TUeV Sueddeutschland evaluated clearance limits as far as they were not given by law and carried out the on-site supervision. This includes independent measurements, the control of a safe clearance strategy and the solution of the specific problems that arise by the characteristics of nuclear fuel. These problems were solved, mainly by specific gamma spectrometric measuring and evaluation techniques, such as adapted in situ spectrometry and a conveyor belt device. At the end of this process is a green field or a site with buildings which can be re-used for purposes not subject to the atomic law. (author)

  10. Geological and rock mechanics aspects of the long-term evolution of a crystalline rock site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, J.W.; Hudson, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the stability of a crystalline rock mass and hence the integrity of a radioactive waste repository contained therein by, firstly, identifying the geological evolution of such a site and, secondly, by assessing the likely rock mechanics consequences of the natural perturbations to the repository. In this way, the potency of an integrated geological-rock mechanics approach is demonstrated. The factors considered are the pre-repository geological evolution, the period of repository excavation, emplacement and closure, and the subsequent degradation and natural geological perturbations introduced by glacial loading. It is found that the additional rock stresses associated with glacial advance and retreat have a first order effect on the stress magnitudes and are likely to cause a radical change in the stress regime. There are many factors involved in the related geosphere stability and so the paper concludes with a systems diagram of the total evolutionary considerations before, during and after repository construction. (authors)

  11. Experience of on-site disposal of production uranium-graphite nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavliuk, Alexander O; Kotlyarevskiy, Sergey G; Bespala, Evgeny V; Zakharova, Elena V; Ermolaev, Vyacheslav M; Volkova, Anna G

    2018-04-01

    The paper reported the experience gained in the course of decommissioning EI-2 Production Uranium-Graphite Nuclear Reactor. EI-2 was a production Uranium-Graphite Nuclear Reactor located on the Production and Demonstration Center for Uranium-Graphite Reactors JSC (PDC UGR JSC) site of Seversk City, Tomsk Region, Russia. EI-2 commenced its operation in 1958, and was shut down on December 28, 1990, having operated for the period of 33 years all together. The extra pure grade graphite for the moderator, water for the coolant, and uranium metal for the fuel were used in the reactor. During the operation nitrogen gas was passed through the graphite stack of the reactor. In the process of decommissioning the PDC UGR JSC site the cavities in the reactor space were filled with clay-based materials. A specific composite barrier material based on clays and minerals of Siberian Region was developed for the purpose. Numerical modeling demonstrated the developed clay composite would make efficient geological barriers preventing release of radionuclides into the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure of Dioclea virgata lectin: relations between carbohydrate binding site and nitric oxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatorre, P.; Gadelha, C.A.A.; Santi-Gadelha, T.; Nobrega, R.B.; Rocha, B.A.M.; Nascimento, K.S.; Naganao, C.S.; Sampaio, A.H.; Cavada, B.S.; Pires, A.F.; Assreuy, A.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Lectins are proteins/glycoproteins with at least one noncatalytic domain binding reversibly to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. By binding to carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface, lectins participate in a range of cellular processes without changing the properties of the carbohydrates involved. The lectin of Dioclea virgata (DvirL), both native and complexed with X-man, was submitted to X-ray diffraction analysis and the crystal structure was compared to that of other Diocleinae lectins in order to better understand differences in biological proper- ties, especially with regard to the ability of lectins to induce nitric oxide (NO) production. The DvirL diffraction analysis revealed that both the native crystal and the X-Man-complexed form are orthorhombic and belong to space group I222. The cell parameters were: a=65.4 , b=86.6 and c=90.2 (native structure), and a=61.89 , b=87.67 and c=88.78 (X-Man-complexed structure). An association was observed between the volume of the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), the ability to induce NO production and the relative positions of Tyr12, Arg228 and Leu99. Thus, differences in biological activity induced by Diocleinae lectins are related to the configuration of amino acid residues in the carbohydrate binding site and to the structural conformation of subsequent regions capable of influencing site-ligand interactions. In conclusion, the ability of Diocleinae lectins to induce NO production depends on CRD configuration. (author)

  13. Radionuclide concentrations in agricultural products near the Hanford Site, 1982 through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed monitoring data for agricultural products collected from 1982 through 1992 near the Hanford Site to determine radionuclide concentration trends. While samples were collected and analyzed, and results reported annual in Hanford Site environmental reports, an 11-year data set was reviewed for this report to increase the ability to assess trends and potential Hanford effects. Products reviewed included milk, chicken, eggs, beef, vegetables, fruit, wine, wheat, and alfalfa. To determine which radionuclides were detected sufficiently often to permit analysis for trends and effects, each radionuclide concentration and its associated uncertainty were ratioed. Radionuclides were considered routinely detectable if more than 50% of the ratios were between zero and one. Data for these radionuclides were then analyzed statistically, using analyses of variance. The statistical analyses indicated the following: for the most part, there were no measurable effects for Hanford operations; radionuclide concentrations in all products reviewed remained relatively low when compared to concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to an individual; radionuclide concentrations are decreasing in general; however, 90 Sr concentrations in all media and 129 I in milk increased from 1982 to 1986, then decreased gradually for the remainder of the review period. The 129 I concentrations may be correlated with processing of irradiated reactor fuel at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant

  14. Long-Term Stewardship at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Riverton, Wyoming WM2017-17090

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Gil, Dr. April [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) is responsible for maintaining protective public health and environmental conditions at former uranium mill tailings sites nationwide via long-term stewardship. One of these sites, a former uranium mill near Riverton, Wyoming, is within the boundary of the Wind River Indian Reservation and operated from 1958 to 1963. Tailings and contaminated material associated with mill operations were removed and transported to an offsite disposal cell in 1989. The remedial action was completed under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Milling operations, which included an unlined tailings impoundment and an unlined evaporation pond, contaminated the shallow groundwater, resulting in a downgradient groundwater plume that discharges to the Little Wind River. A natural flushing compliance strategy was implemented in 1998. This strategy allows contaminants of concern to naturally flush from the groundwater, provided that contaminants flush below US Environmental Protection Agency maximum concentration limits within 100 years. As part of the compliance strategy, LM has implemented a groundwater monitoring program along with institutional controls that include the installation of an alternate water supply, continued sampling of private wells, and restrictions on well drilling and gravel pit construction. LM works closely with local stakeholders and community members to ensure that these institutional controls are in place and maintained. The Riverton site provides an interesting case study where contaminant remobilization due to river flooding prompted a reevaluation of the conceptual site model to verify if the current compliance strategy would remain protective of human health and the environment. Concentrations of groundwater contaminants, which include sulfate, molybdenum, and uranium, were transiently elevated following flooding of the Little Wind River in 2010 and 2016. These flood

  15. Predicting long-term moisture contents of earthen covers at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-09-01

    The three methods for long-term moisture prediction covered in this report are: estimates from water retention (permanent wilting point) data, correlation with climate and soil type, and detailed model simulation. The test results have shown: soils vary greatly in residual moisture. Expected long-term moisture saturation ratios (based on generalized soil characteristics) range from 0.2 to 0.8 for soils ranging in texture from sand to clay, respectively. These values hold for noncompacted field soils. Measured radon diffusion coefficients for soils at 15-bar water contents ranged from 5.0E-2 cm 2 /s to 5.0E-3 cm 2 /s for sands and clays, respectively, at typical field densities. In contrast, fine-textured pit-run earthen materials, subjected to optimum compaction (>85% Proctor density) and dried to the 15-bar water content, ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 moisture saturation. Compacted pit-run soils at these moisture contents exhibited radon diffusion coefficients as low as 3.0E-4 cm 2 /s. The residual moisture saturation for cover soils is not known since no engineered barrier has been in place for more than a few years. A comparison of methods for predicting moisture saturation indicates that model simulations are useful for predicting effects of climatic changes on residual soil moisture, but that long-term moisture also can be predicted with some degree of confidence using generalized soil properties or empirical correlations based both on soils and climatic information. The optimal soil cover design will likely include more than one layer of soil. A two-layer system using a thick (1-m minimum) plant root zone of uncompacted soil placed over a moistened, tightly compacted fine-textured soil is recommended. This design concept has been tested successfully at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings piles

  16. Modeling the Effects of Trait Diversity on Short-term Adaptive Capacity and Long-term Productivity of Phytoplankton Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. L.; Vallina, S. M.; Merico, A.

    2016-02-01

    We examine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function (BEF) in a model phytoplankton community, using two recently developed mechanisms for sustaining diversity. The Trait Diffusion (TD) formulation represents the maintenance of diversity via endogenous mechanisms, such as inter-generational trait plasticity and rapid evolution. The 'Kill-the-Winner' (KTW) formulation for grazing sustains prey biodiversity via the exogenous mechanism of active prey switching. We implement both TD and KTW in a continuous trait-distribution model using simplified size-scalings to define a gleaner-opportunist trade-off for a phytoplankton community. By simulating semi-continuous culture experiments with periodic external dilutions, we test the dynamic response of the phytoplankton community to different scenarios of pulsed nutrient supply. We quantify the short-term Adaptive Capacity (AC) of the community by the specific growth rate averaged over the first 3 days of perturbations, and the Long-term Productivity (LP) by its average over the entire 120 day period of perturbations. When either the frequency or intensity of pulses is low, both AC and LP tend to decrease with diversity (and vice versa). Trait diversity has more impact on AC, particularly for pulses of high frequency or intensity, for which it tends to increase gradually at first, then steeply, and then to saturate with increasing diversity. For pulses of moderate intensity and frequency, increasing trait diversity from low to moderate levels leads to a trade-off between enhancing AC while slightly decreasing LP. Ultimately, we find that sustaining diversity increases the speed at which the phytoplankton community changes its composition in terms of size and hence nutrient acquisition traits, which may have implications for the transfer of productivity through the foodweb.

  17. Long-term meteorologically independent trend analysis of ozone air quality at an urban site in the greater Houston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botlaguduru, Venkata S V; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Huque, Ziaul

    2018-04-19

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area of Texas has a history of ozone exceedances and is currently classified under moderate nonattainment status for the 2008 8-hr ozone standard of 75 ppb. The HGB area is characterized by intense solar radiation, high temperature, and humidity, which influence day-to-day variations in ozone concentrations. Long-term air quality trends independent of meteorological influence need to be constructed for ascertaining the effectiveness of air quality management in this area. The Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter technique used to separate different scales of motion in a time series, is applied in the current study for maximum daily 8-hr (MDA8) ozone concentrations at an urban site (EPA AQS Site ID: 48-201-0024, Aldine) in the HGB area. This site located within 10 miles of downtown Houston and the George Bush Intercontinental Airport, was selected for developing long-term meteorologically independent MDA8 ozone trends for the years 1990-2016. Results from this study indicate a consistent decrease in meteorologically independent MDA8 ozone between 2000-2016. This pattern could be partially attributed to a reduction in underlying NO X emissions, particularly that of lowering nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) levels, and a decrease in the release of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC). Results also suggest solar radiation to be most strongly correlated to ozone, with temperature being the secondary meteorological control variable. Relative humidity and wind speed have tertiary influence at this site. This study observed that meteorological variability accounts for a high of 61% variability in baseline ozone (low-frequency component, sum of long-term and seasonal components), while 64% of the change in long-term MDA8 ozone post-2000 could be attributed to NO X emissions reduction. Long-term MDA8 ozone trend component was estimated to be decreasing at a linear rate of 0.412 ± 0.007 ppb/yr for the years 2000-2016, and 0.155

  18. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaee, J.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances

  19. Long term effects on potential repository sites: the alteration of the Lower Oxford Clay during weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milowdowski, A.E.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Wilmot, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The report is one of a short series describing work carried out to investigate the long-term effects of various geological processes on the performance of both shallow and deep repositories for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the alteration as a result of weathering of the Lower Oxford Clay, a potential host rock for shallow disposal of wastes. A description of the Lower Oxford Clay is given, along with the weathering of argillaceous rocks. Investigations of the weathering at the Elstow Storage Depot are described, as well as the implications for radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  20. Predicted environmental impacts of long-term waste management at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, S.V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the different alternative approaches to long-term waste management at SRP, along with their probable relative costs, risks, and uncertainties; the issue of methodology for decision-making in nuclear waste management is also raised. This paper contains a preliminary listing of the SRP alternaties including a simple cost-risk analysis. The alternatives are: glass shipped offsite to Federal repository; air-cooled vault with glass at SRP; liquid waste slurry stored in SRP bedrock cavern; and continued tank farm operation with salt and sludge

  1. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaee, J.

    2002-05-16

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances.

  2. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaee, Jila

    2002-08-01

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances.

  3. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  4. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  5. A multi-sites analysis on the ozone effects on Gross Primary Production of European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proietti, C. [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anav, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter (United Kingdom); De Marco, A. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment (ENEA), C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Sicard, P. [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard BP234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis-cedex (France); Vitale, M., E-mail: marcello.vitale@uniroma1.it [Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) is both a greenhouse gas and a secondary air pollutant causing adverse impacts on forests ecosystems at different scales, from cellular to ecosystem level. Specifically, the phytotoxic nature of O{sub 3} can impair CO{sub 2} assimilation that, in turn affects forest productivity. This study aims to evaluate the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on Gross Primary Production (GPP) at 37 European forest sites during the time period 2000–2010. Due to the lack of carbon assimilation data at O{sub 3} monitoring stations (and vice-versa) this study makes a first attempt to combine high resolution MODIS Gross Primary Production (GPP) estimates and O{sub 3} measurement data. Partial Correlations, Anomalies Analysis and the Random Forests Analysis (RFA) were used to quantify the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} concentration and its uptake on GPP and to evaluate the most important factors affecting inter-annual GPP changes. Our results showed, along a North-West/South-East European transect, a negative impact of O{sub 3} on GPP ranging from 0.4% to 30%, although a key role of meteorological parameters respect to pollutant variables in affecting GPP was found. In particular, meteorological parameters, namely air temperature (T), soil water content (SWC) and relative humidity (RH) are the most important predictors at 81% of test sites. Moreover, it is interesting to highlight a key role of SWC in the Mediterranean areas (Spanish, Italian and French test sites) confirming that, soil moisture and soil water availability affect vegetation growth and photosynthesis especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems such as the Mediterranean climate regions. Considering the pivotal role of GPP in the global carbon balance and the O{sub 3} ability to reduce primary productivity of the forests, this study can help in assessing the O{sub 3} impacts on ecosystem services, including wood production and carbon sequestration. - Highlights: • Assessment of the surface O{sub 3

  6. The occupational safety on the construction sites of the farm production buildings in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hellstedt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The size of farms has increased considerably during Finland's EU membership. The growth has meant big investments in the new production buildings. The buildings have been switched to big industrialhall- like constructions from small-scale ones which have contained own timber and own work contribution. The objective of the project financed by Farmers' Social Insurance Institution was to improve occupational safety on farm building construction and renovation sites by disseminating current safety practices and by developing ways of action which are better than the prevailing ones. The project consisted of a literature review, statistical analysis, as well as a farmer and designer interviews. In the statistical analysis the MATA occupational injuries insurance claims database on farmers’ claims during construction and renovation work for the years 2005 - 2008 was compared with the register of Federation of Accident Insurance Institutions on the construction workers' injuries. In comparing the reasons of the accidents a clear difference was found; poor scaffoldings and ladders are still the main culprits on farm accidents. Farmer interviews were used to assess occupational safety measures on the construction site, occurred injuries and their types, nearmiss situations and the underlying factors which have led to the injuries. Also construction safety deficiencies as well as the direct and indirect costs caused for instance because of the delay in completion of construction project were discussed. Designer interviews aimed to find out how occupational safety and health considerations are taken into account in farm building planning and counseling, and how this experience of the designers should be utilized in order to improve safety at the construction sites on farms. Farmers knew their obligations on occupational safety poorly. The situation was further worsened by the fact that on the site the supervisor tasks were only nominally executed. The

  7. Investigation of nucleation events vertical extent: a long term study at two different altitude sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boulon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present an analysis of the occurrence of nucleation events during more than three years of measurements at two different rural altitude sites, the puy de Dôme research station (1465 m a.s.l. and the Opme station (660 m a.s.l., central France. The collected database is a unique combination of scanning mobility particle sizer (10–400 nm, air ion spectrometers (from 0.8 to 42 nm for NTP-conditions, and, neutral clusters and air ion spectrometers (from 0.8 to 42 nm for NTP-conditions measurements at these two different altitudes nearly located research stations, from February 2007 to June 2010. The seasonality of the frequency of nucleation events was studied at the puy de Dôme station and maximum of events frequency was found during early spring and early autumn. During the measurement period, neither the particle formation rates (J2= 1.382 ± 0.195 s−1 nor the growth rates (GR1.3−20 nm = 6.20 ± 0.12 nm h−1 differ from one site to the other on average. Hovewer, we found that, on 437 sampling days in common to the two sites, the nucleation frequency was higher at the puy de Dôme station (35.9 %, 157 days than at the low elevation station of Opme (20.8 %, 91 days. LIDAR measurements and the evolution of the potential equivalent temperature revealed that the nucleation could be triggered either (i within the whole low tropospheric column at the same time from the planetary boundary layer to the top of the interface layer (29.2 %, 47 events, (ii above the planetary boundary layer upper limit (43.5 %, 70 events, and (iii at low altitude and then transported, conserving dynamic and properties, at high altitude (24.8 %, 40 events. This is the first time that the vertical extent of nucleation can be studied over a long observational period, allowing for a rigorous

  8. Proposal of a molten-salt system for long-term energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.

    2002-01-01

    Within the framework of nuclear waste management studies, the 'ose-composent' concept is considered to be an attractive option for the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE ('Thorium-based Accelerator-drives System with Simplified fuel cycle for long-term Energy production') destined for the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front end and the back end of the fuel cycle. Its major goal is to provide electricity with low waste production and economical competitiveness. (author)

  9. Strategy for long-term 3D cloud-resolving simulations over the ARM SGP site and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Song, H.; Endo, S.

    2011-12-01

    Parametric representations of cloud/precipitation processes continue having to be adopted in climate simulations with increasingly higher spatial resolution or with emerging adaptive mesh framework; and it is only becoming more critical that such parameterizations have to be scale aware. Continuous cloud measurements at DOE's ARM sites have provided a strong observational basis for novel cloud parameterization research at various scales. Despite significant progress in our observational ability, there are important cloud-scale physical and dynamical quantities that are either not currently observable or insufficiently sampled. To complement the long-term ARM measurements, we have explored an optimal strategy to carry out long-term 3-D cloud-resolving simulations over the ARM SGP site using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with multi-domain nesting. The factors that are considered to have important influences on the simulated cloud fields include domain size, spatial resolution, model top, forcing data set, model physics and the growth of model errors. The hydrometeor advection that may play a significant role in hydrological process within the observational domain but is often lacking, and the limitations due to the constraint of domain-wide uniform forcing in conventional cloud system-resolving model simulations, are at least partly accounted for in our approach. Conventional and probabilistic verification approaches are employed first for selected cases to optimize the model's capability of faithfully reproducing the observed mean and statistical distributions of cloud-scale quantities. This then forms the basis of our setup for long-term cloud-resolving simulations over the ARM SGP site. The model results will facilitate parameterization research, as well as understanding and dissecting parameterization deficiencies in climate models.

  10. Increase in D-tagatose production rate by site-directed mutagenesis of L-arabinose isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2006-02-01

    Among single-site mutations of L-arabinose isomerase derived from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, two mutants were produced having the lowest and highest activities of D-tagatose production. Site-directed mutagenesis at these sites showed that the aromatic ring at amino acid 164 and the size of amino acid 475 were important for D-tagatose production. Among double-site mutations, one mutant converted D-galactose into D-tagatose with a yield of 58% whereas the wild type gave 46% D-tagatose conversion after 300 min at 65 degrees C.

  11. Evaluation on biosafety in long-term administration, teratogenicity and local toxicity of developed product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Chun; Kim, Se-Ra; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jin-Hee [Chonnam Nat. Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    We performed this study to determine biosafety of developed product in long-term administration and teratogenicity and local toxicity (skin and eye) of developed product (HemoHIM and HemoTonic). It is suggested that long-term administration with the developed products may not exert considerable side effects. It is concluded that the administration of HemoHIM or HemoTonic does not inflict any adverse effect on fetuses of pregnant mice. HemoHIM and HemoTonic could be considered as a no irritating materials to the skin and eye of the test animals. These results indicated that HemoHIM and HemoTonic might be a useful functional food, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.

  12. Evaluation on biosafety in long-term administration, teratogenicity and local toxicity of developed product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Chun; Kim, Se-Ra; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jin-Hee

    2006-01-01

    We performed this study to determine biosafety of developed product in long-term administration and teratogenicity and local toxicity (skin and eye) of developed product (HemoHIM and HemoTonic). It is suggested that long-term administration with the developed products may not exert considerable side effects. It is concluded that the administration of HemoHIM or HemoTonic does not inflict any adverse effect on fetuses of pregnant mice. HemoHIM and HemoTonic could be considered as a no irritating materials to the skin and eye of the test animals. These results indicated that HemoHIM and HemoTonic might be a useful functional food, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product

  13. ARIES Oxide Production Program Assessment of Risk to Long-term Sustainable Production Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lloyd, Jane Alexandria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Majors, Harry W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-04

    This report describes an assessment of risks and the development of a risk watch list for the ARIES Oxide Production Program conducted in the Plutonium Facility at LANL. The watch list is an active list of potential risks and opportunities that the management team periodically considers to maximize the likelihood of program success. The initial assessments were made in FY 16. The initial watch list was reviewed in September 2016. The initial report was not issued. Revision 1 has been developed based on management review of the original watch list and includes changes that occurred during FY-16.

  14. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W. Russell; Laine, Heini M.; Khoury, Hani

    2015-01-01

    The long-term durability of low alkali cements is of interest where they are under consideration as repository tunnel and exploration borehole seals and plugs. It is essential to have an appropriate understanding of their longevity to inform decisions on their potential use in a repository environment. Archaelogical analogues of low alkali cement have been studied for some time. Thomassin and Rassineux (1992), for example, reviewed some of the literature on Gallo-Roman cement-based materials and noted that one of the most impressive examples is the 1700 year old Roman mortar used in Hadrian's Wall (UK) which still contains substantial amounts of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate) compounds. These mortars were studied specifically with the behaviour of an ILW repository in mind (Jull and Lees 1990). However, plugs and seals will generally be required to be durable for longer than the few thousand years which can be accessed via archaeological analogues, so it is essential to turn to natural systems for evidence of longer term durability. To date, there have been no reported studies on natural low alkali cements. In principle, however, such cements should exist and the Bituminous Marl Formation, which hosts the natural OPC cements in Jordan (Pitty and Alexander, 2011), is a likely source. This Formation constitutes a widespread terrain which stretches from Syria in the north, through Israel and Jordan to Saudi Arabia in the south. The natural cement was formed by the combustion of organic rich limestones, a process which continues today. In Syria and northern Jordan, for example, the Formation is punctured by Late Oligocene to Quaternary volcanics so sites which include pozzolanic ash mixed with the Bituminous Marl exist and, on combustion, should produce natural low alkali cements. A site in northern Jordan is currently under investigation for evidence of long-term fresh groundwater/low alkali cement interaction and the preliminary results of the study will be

  15. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W. Russell [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Laine, Heini M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Khoury, Hani [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Geology

    2015-07-01

    The long-term durability of low alkali cements is of interest where they are under consideration as repository tunnel and exploration borehole seals and plugs. It is essential to have an appropriate understanding of their longevity to inform decisions on their potential use in a repository environment. Archaelogical analogues of low alkali cement have been studied for some time. Thomassin and Rassineux (1992), for example, reviewed some of the literature on Gallo-Roman cement-based materials and noted that one of the most impressive examples is the 1700 year old Roman mortar used in Hadrian's Wall (UK) which still contains substantial amounts of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate) compounds. These mortars were studied specifically with the behaviour of an ILW repository in mind (Jull and Lees 1990). However, plugs and seals will generally be required to be durable for longer than the few thousand years which can be accessed via archaeological analogues, so it is essential to turn to natural systems for evidence of longer term durability. To date, there have been no reported studies on natural low alkali cements. In principle, however, such cements should exist and the Bituminous Marl Formation, which hosts the natural OPC cements in Jordan (Pitty and Alexander, 2011), is a likely source. This Formation constitutes a widespread terrain which stretches from Syria in the north, through Israel and Jordan to Saudi Arabia in the south. The natural cement was formed by the combustion of organic rich limestones, a process which continues today. In Syria and northern Jordan, for example, the Formation is punctured by Late Oligocene to Quaternary volcanics so sites which include pozzolanic ash mixed with the Bituminous Marl exist and, on combustion, should produce natural low alkali cements. A site in northern Jordan is currently under investigation for evidence of long-term fresh groundwater/low alkali cement interaction and the preliminary results of the study will be

  16. Cross-Site Transfer System at Hanford: long-term strategy for waste acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekarriz, A.; Onishi, Y.; Smith, P.A.; Sterner, M.; Rector, D.R.; Virden, J.

    1997-02-01

    This report summarizes results of a technical panel review of the current methodology for accepting waste for transport through the Hanford Replacement Cross-Site Transfer System (RCSTS), which was constructed to replace the existing pipelines that hydraulically connect the 200 West and 200 East areas. This report is a complement to an existing document (Hudson 1996); the methodology proposed in that document was refined based on panel recommendations. The refinements were focused around predicting and preventing the 3 main modes suspected of plugging the existing CSTS: precipitation, gelation, particle dropout/settling. The proposed analysis will require integration of computer modeling and laboratory experiments to build a defensible case for transportability of a proposed slurry composition for a given tank. This will be validated by recirculating actual tank waste, in-tank and in-farm, prior to transport. The panel's recommendation was that the probability of success of waste transfer would be greatly improved by integrating the predictive analysis with real-time control during RCSTS operation. The methodology will be optimized

  17. Large scale and long term application of bioslurping: the case of a Greek petroleum refinery site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, E; Aivalioti, M

    2007-11-19

    This paper presents the course and the remediation results of a 4-year application of bioslurping technology on the subsurface of a Greek petroleum refinery, which is still under full operation and has important and complicated subsurface contamination problems, mainly due to the presence of light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL). About 55 wells are connected to the central bioslurping unit, while a mobile bioslurping unit is also used whenever and wherever is necessary. Moreover, there are about 120 additional wells for the monitoring of the subsurface of the facilities that cover a total area of 1,000,000 m(2). An integrated monitoring program has also been developed and applied on the site, including frequent LNAPL layer depth and thickness measurements, conduction of bail-down and recovery tests, sampling and chemical analysis of the free oil phase, etc., so as to evaluate the remediation technique's efficiency and ensure a prompt tracing of any new potential leak. Despite the occurrence of new leaks within the last 4 years and the observed entrapment of LNAPL in the vadoze zone, bioslurping has managed to greatly restrict the original plume within certain and relatively small parts of the refinery facilities.

  18. Short-term Lost Productivity per Victim: Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, or Stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Liu, Yang; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Florence, Curtis; Merrick, Melissa T; DeGue, Sarah; Lokey, Colby N

    2018-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes. Victims' lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017. Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator. Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims' lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Clinical utility of marketing terms used for over-the-counter dermatologic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozalis, Emily; Patel, Shivani

    2018-05-08

    Cosmetic products are commonly marketed using dermatologic terms such as 'hypoallergenic', 'non-comedogenic', 'fragrance-free', etc. The clinical relevance of these claims can be confusing to both patients and clinicians. A systematic review was performed via a PubMed search of published articles from January 1985 to October 2017 to further describe and elucidate the clinical utility of a predefined list of common dermatologic terms used by pharmaceutical companies to market over-the-counter products. The terms 'fragrance-free', 'hypoallergenic', 'non-comedogenic', and 'oil-free' on cosmetic product labels are not regulated by any governing body and provide varied clinical utility. Products labeled as having 'natural ingredients' are not necessarily safer or less irritating to patients with atopy or a history of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite the increasing popularity of 'paraben-free' cosmetics, parabens are safe for patients in the quantities used in cosmetic products and can be safely used in patients who do not exhibit contact dermatitis to this preservative. A working knowledge of common cosmetic ingredients may help dermatologists to counsel patients on which products to avoid for their specific dermatologic conditions.

  20. Multimodel simulations of forest harvesting effects on long‐term productivity and CN cycling in aspen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fugui; Mladenoff, David J; Forrester, Jodi A; Blanco, Juan A; Schelle, Robert M; Peckham, Scott D; Keough, Cindy; Lucash, Melissa S; Gower, Stith T

    The effects of forest management on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics vary by harvest type and species. We simulated long-term effects of bole-only harvesting of aspen (Populus tremuloides) on stand productivity and interaction of CN cycles with a multiple model approach. Five models, Biome-BGC, CENTURY, FORECAST, LANDIS-II with Century-based soil dynamics, and PnET-CN, were run for 350 yr with seven harvesting events on nutrient-poor, sandy soils representing northwestern Wisconsin, United States. Twenty CN state and flux variables were summarized from the models' outputs and statistically analyzed using ordination and variance analysis methods. The multiple models' averages suggest that bole-only harvest would not significantly affect long-term site productivity of aspen, though declines in soil organic matter and soil N were significant. Along with direct N removal by harvesting, extensive leaching after harvesting before canopy closure was another major cause of N depletion. These five models were notably different in output values of the 20 variables examined, although there were some similarities for certain variables. PnET-CN produced unique results for every variable, and CENTURY showed fewer outliers and similar temporal patterns to the mean of all models. In general, we demonstrated that when there are no site-specific data for fine-scale calibration and evaluation of a single model, the multiple model approach may be a more robust approach for long-term simulations. In addition, multimodeling may also improve the calibration and evaluation of an individual model.

  1. Natural attenuation of trichloroethene and its degradation products at a lake-shore site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Youn-Joo; Kampbell, Donald H.; Weaver, James W.; Wilson, John T.; Jeong, Seung-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface contamination by trichloroethene (TCE) was detected at a Michigan National Priorities List (NPL) site in 1982. The TCE plume resulted from the disposal of spent solvent and other chemicals at an industrial facility located in the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. TCE degradation products of three dichloroethene (DCE) isomers, vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene were present. The plume was depleted of oxygen and methanogenic at certain depths. Transects of the plume were sampled by slotted auger borings the year after the TCE plume was first discovered. Water samples were also taken from lake sediments to a depth of 12 m about 100 m offshore. Later samples were taken along the shoreline of the lake with a hand-driven probe. Later in 1998 water was taken from sediments about 3-m from the shoreline. The average concentration of each chemical and net apparent base coefficient between appropriate pairs of transects between the lower site and lakeshore were calculated. Loss rates were then calculated from an analytical solution of the two-dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive transport equation. Net apparent rate coefficients and a set of coupled reaction rate equations were used to extract the apparent loss coefficients. This study showed the field evidence for natural attenuation of TCE. - Field investigation of TCE contamination at a lake-shore site indicates that TCE is anaerobically degrading under ambient conditions

  2. Protein carbonylation sites in bovine raw milk and processed milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Mnatsakanyan, Ruzanna; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-08-15

    During thermal treatment of milk, proteins are oxidized, which may reduce the nutritional value of milk, abolish protein functions supporting human health, especially important for newborns, and yield potentially harmful products. The side chains of several amino acids can be oxidized to reactive carbonyls, which are often used to monitor oxidative stress in organisms. Here we mapped protein carbonylation sites in raw milk and different brands of pasteurized, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated milk, and infant formulas (IFs) after digesting the precipitated proteins with trypsin. Reactive carbonyls were derivatized with O-(biotinylcarbazoylmethyl)hydroxylamine to enrich the modified peptides by avidin-biotin affinity chromatography and analyze them by nanoRP-UPLC-ESI-MS. Overall, 53 unique carbonylated peptides (37 carbonylation sites, 15 proteins) were identified. Most carbonyls were derived from dicarbonyls (mainly glyoxal). The number of carbonylation sites increased with the harsher processing from raw milk (4) to pasteurized (16) and UHT milk (16) and to IF (24). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diurnal variations in personal care products in seawater and mussels at three Mediterranean coastal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot-Groz, Marina; Fenet, Hélène; Martinez Bueno, Maria Jesus; Rosain, David; Gomez, Elena

    2018-03-01

    The presence of personal care products (PCPs) in the marine environment is of major concern. PCPs, UV filters, and musks can enter the marine environment indirectly through wastewater or directly via recreational activities. We conducted this study to document patterns in the occurrence of seven PCPs at three coastal sites impacted by recreational activities during 1 day. The study focused on diurnal variations in these seven PCPs in seawater and indigenous mussels. In seawater, UV filters showed diurnal variations that mirrored variations in recreational activities at the sites. Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) water concentrations increased from under the limit of quantification in the morning to 106 and 369 ng/L, respectively, when recreational activities were the highest. In mussels, diurnal variations in OC were observed, with the lowest concentrations recorded in the morning and then increasing throughout the day. As Mytilus spp. are widely used as sentinels in coastal pollution monitoring programs (mussel watch), our findings on diurnal variations could enhance sampling recommendations for recreational sites impacted by PCPs.

  4. Site-Dependent Environmental Impacts of Industrial Hydrogen Production by Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christian Koj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Industrial hydrogen production via alkaline water electrolysis (AEL is a mature hydrogen production method. One argument in favor of AEL when supplied with renewable energy is its environmental superiority against conventional fossil-based hydrogen production. However, today electricity from the national grid is widely utilized for industrial applications of AEL. Also, the ban on asbestos membranes led to a change in performance patterns, making a detailed assessment necessary. This study presents a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA using the GaBi software (version 6.115, thinkstep, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, Germany, revealing inventory data and environmental impacts for industrial hydrogen production by latest AELs (6 MW, Zirfon membranes in three different countries (Austria, Germany and Spain with corresponding grid mixes. The results confirm the dependence of most environmental effects from the operation phase and specifically the site-dependent electricity mix. Construction of system components and the replacement of cell stacks make a minor contribution. At present, considering the three countries, AEL can be operated in the most environmentally friendly fashion in Austria. Concerning the construction of AEL plants the materials nickel and polytetrafluoroethylene in particular, used for cell manufacturing, revealed significant contributions to the environmental burden.

  5. Cellulase Production Potentials of the Microbial Profile of Some Sugarcane Bagasse Dumping Sites in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated cellulase production potentials of the microbial profile of three sugarcane bagasse dumping sites at Zango area, Ilorin, Nigeria. The microbial isolates were screened for cellulase production with a view to select the best organism for eventual cellulase production. Pour Plate method was used for the isolation and a total of thirteen (13 different organisms including both fungal and bacterial species were isolated and screened. Six (6 fungal isolates identified as Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Neurospora sitophilus, Penicillium oxalicum and Penicillium citrinum were isolated, while seven (7 different bacterial species isolated include Clostridium cellobioparum, Clostridium thermocellum,Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumillus, Lactobacillus spp, Pseudomonas flavescens and Serratia spp. Generally, bacterial isolates were more in abundance than fungal species. However; fungal isolates were constant and were isolated through the experimental period of three weeks. All the isolates showed cellulase production potential in varying degrees as reflected in the clearance zone around their colonies. Fungal isolates produced more cellulase than the bacterial isolates. Mucor racemosus had the highest clearance zone (75.0 mm among the fungal isolates while Clostridium cellobioparum (35.0 mm were the best producer among bacterial isolates. The least producer among fungal isolates, Penicillium citrinum (40.0 mm, is a little more than the bacterial cellulase producer (35.0 mm and is far greater than the least bacterium Serratia spp (14.0 mm.

  6. Authenticity of Ficus Hispida as a Local Traditional Product in the Lembah Lenggong World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz Siti Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lembah Lenggong is a place well known amongst locals as an archaeological site; the valley has been attested as a World Heritage Site. There is an overwhelming variety of plant species that are uniquely used in their cultural and traditional cuisines including Ficus hispida (Senia. Ficus hispida is a well-known species restricted to the native people in Lembah Lenggong. It is recognized as one of the plants used specifically in the traditional cuisine of the locals, especially amongst the old folks. The plant leaves are a major part of a local traditional dish called ‘Masak Pindang’. The fruit of Ficus hispida is also edible, and consumed locally in candied form (halwa. In their traditional herbal remedies, Ficus hispida is used in treating wounds and as a medicine in post and pre natal care (maternal remedies. The desired outcome of this study is to emphasize and promote this specific species as one of the more unique products of Lembah Lenggong in a tourism aspect. The traditional knowledge and practices involving the use of Ficus hispida should be cherished and treasured by future generations to retain the authenticity of their local traditional and cultural products in the light of the awakening tourism industry.

  7. Source term analysis for a criticality accident in metal production line glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.

    1991-06-01

    A recent development in criticality accident analysis is the deterministic calculations of the transport of fission products and actinides through the barriers of the physical facility. The knowledge of the redistribution of the materials inside the facility will help determine the reentry and clean-up procedures. The amount of radioactive materials released to the environment is the source term for dispersion calculations. We have used an integrated computer model to determine the release of fission products to the environment from a hypothetical criticality event in a glove box of the metal production line (MPL) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

  8. Complex evaluation of ecology situation and soil productivity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, perspectives of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', L.; Ptiskaya, L.; Lyashenko; Pisak, R.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of the Project. The goal of the project is complex evaluation of environmental resources at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site and perspectives of their cultivation with taking into account radioactive pollution. Scope of Activities. The following main works at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site: - estimate of climate, climatic resources and their changes; - organization and realization of complex visual and tool-making air survey (geo botanical, utter satellite spectrometric, radiometric); - reception and computer treatment of space information; - organization and realization of surface expedition field works (radiometric measurements and geo botanical observations); - realization of laboratory analysis for exposure of radio nucleus content in soil, plant and water; - treatment of materials of geo botanical survey, construction of plant and soil maps; - treatment of materials of aero spectrometric and space survey, calculation of vegetation cover productivity, drawing up of computer maps; - assessment of desert and steppe zone vegetation dynamic under artificial and climate impact.Expected Results. The following main investigation results will be obtained first for the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site and area around it. 1. Objective modern characteristics of radioactive land pollution. Distribution of radio nucleus in soil and vegetation cover. 2. Modern characteristics climatic resources assessment under possible climate change. 3. New maps of vegetation and soil cover, biological and feed productivity of the lands of the polygon at the scale 1:100 000 -1:1 500 000 taking into account climatic resources of the region. 4. Dynamics of desert and steppe zone vegetation assessment under radiation impact and possible climate change. 5. Features of vegetation restoration under constant radiation influence. 6. Basis of perspectives of land cultivation in the Semipalatinsk polygon area and recommendation on rehabilitation soil and

  9. Site-Directed Immobilization of BMP-2: Two Approaches for the Production of Innovative Osteoinductive Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabisz, Barbara; Schmitz, Werner; Schmitz, Michael; Luehmann, Tessa; Heusler, Eva; Rybak, Jens-Christoph; Meinel, Lorenz; Fiebig, Juliane E; Mueller, Thomas D; Nickel, Joachim

    2017-03-13

    The regenerative potential of bone is strongly impaired in pathological conditions, such as nonunion fractures. To support bone regeneration various scaffolds have been developed in the past, which have been functionalized with osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, most of them required supra-physiological levels of these proteins leading to burst releases, thereby causing severe side effects. Site-specific, covalent coupling of BMP2 to implant materials might be an optimal strategy in order to overcome these problems. Therefore, we created a BMP-2 variant (BMP2-K3Plk) containing a noncanonical amino acid (propargyl-l-lysine) substitution introduced by genetic code expansion that allows for site-specific and covalent immobilization onto polymeric scaffold materials. To directly compare different coupling strategies, we also produced a BMP2 variant containing an additional cysteine residue (BMP2-A2C) allowing covalent coupling by thioether formation. The BMP2-K3Plk mutant was coupled to functionalized beads by a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) either directly or via a short biotin-PEG linker both with high specificity. After exposing the BMP-coated beads to C2C12 cells, ALP expression appeared locally restricted in close proximity to these beads, showing that both coupled BMP2 variants trigger cell differentiation. The advantage of our approach over non-site-directed immobilization techniques is the ability to produce fully defined osteogenic surfaces, allowing for lower BMP2 loads and concomitant higher bioactivities, for example, due to controlled orientation toward BMP2 receptors. Such products might provide superior bone healing capabilities with potential safety advantages as of homogeneous product outcome.

  10. Long term precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote dry savanna site in Africa (Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Galy-Lacaux

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term precipitation chemistry have been recorded in the rural area of Banizoumbou (Niger, representative of a semi-arid savanna ecosystem. A total of 305 rainfall samples ~90% of the total annual rainfall were collected from June 1994 to September 2005. From ionic chromatography, pH major inorganic and organic ions were detected. Rainwater chemistry is controlled by soil/dust emissions associated with terrigeneous elements represented by SO42−, Ca2+, Carbonates, K+ and Mg2+. It is found that calcium and carbonates represent ~40% of the total ionic charge. The second highest contribution is nitrogenous, with annual Volume Weighed Mean (VWM for NO3 and NH4+ concentrations of 11.6 and 18.1 μeq.l−1, respectively. This is the signature of ammonia sources from animals and NOx emissions from savannas soil-particles rain-induced. The mean annual NH3 and NO2 air concentration are of 6 ppbv and 2.6 ppbv, respectively. The annual VWM precipitation concentration of sodium and chloride are both of 8.7 μeq.l−1 which reflects the marine signature of monsoonal and humid air masses. The median pH value is of 6.05. Acidity is neutralized by mineral dust, mainly carbonates, and/or dissolved gases such NH3. High level of organic acidity with 8μeq.l−1 and 5.2 μeq.l−1 of formate and acetate were also found. The analysis of monthly Black Carbon emissions and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR values show that both biogenic emission from vegetation and biomass burning could explain the rainfall organic acidity content. The interannual variability of the VWM concentrations around the mean (1994–2005 is between ±5% and ±30% and mainly due to variations of sources strength and rainfall spatio-temporal distribution. From 1994 to 2005

  11. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  12. Short-term effects of dietary advanced glycation end products in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Andersen, Jeanette Marker; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg

    2016-01-01

    Dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) formed during heating of food have gained interest as potential nutritional toxins with adverse effects on inflammation and glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the short-term effects of high and low molecular weight (HMW and LMW)...

  13. Time of mowing and burning veld: short term effects on production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a comparison of mowing and burning as removal treatments in the Natal Tall Grassveld, mowing proved to be superior to burning in terms of sward productivity in the season following the removal treatment, but burning was responsible for a sward of higher protein content, at least during the early part of the season.

  14. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Keuning, Sytze [Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  15. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    In this report, results are presented based on interviews and literature surveys on the triggers and stoppers for non food crop on contaminated land in Sweden. The report also includes a first estimate of potential marginal land for biofuel production in Sweden. The report is a first step to explore the feasibility of a range of possible approaches to combine risk based land management (RBLM) with non-food crop land-uses and organic matter re-use as appropriate in a Swedish context. The focus of the report is on the treatment of contaminated land by phyto-remediation and on biofuel cultivation. In Sweden, like all other countries in Europe, areas of land have been degraded by past use. Such previously developed land includes areas affected by mining, fallout from industrial processes such as smelting, areas elevated with contaminated dredged sediments, former landfill sites and many other areas where the decline of industrial activity has left a legacy of degraded land and communities. The extent of contamination may not be sufficient to trigger remediation under current regulatory conditions, and there may be little economic incentive to regenerate the affected areas. An ideal solution would be a land management approach that is able to pay for itself. Biomass from coppice or other plantations has long been seen as a possible means of achieving this goal. Phyto remediation offers a low cost method for remediation of areas that are not candidates for conventional regeneration. The optimal conditions for phyto remediation are large land areas of low or mediate contamination. Phyto remediation is also suitable to prevent spreading of contaminants, for example in green areas such as in cities, as waste water buffer and small size remediation areas with diffuse spreading. Phyto remediation implies that plants, fungi or algae are used to remediate, control or increase the natural attenuation of contaminants. Depending on the contaminating species and the site conditions

  16. Long-term climate change assessment study plan for the Hanford Site permanent isolation Barrier Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.L.; Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.

    1992-07-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the Hanford Site (Adams and Wing 1986; Wig and Gee 1990). The goal of the Barrier Development Program is to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration; plant and animal intrusion; and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 yr and isolate wastes from the accessible environment and warm inadvertent human intruders using markers. This document describes the long-term climate change studies planned to support the Barrier Development Program. The plan outlines a multi-year and multi-discipline approach to assess long-term climate change issues and to help optimize the design of the permanent isolation barriers. A multi-disciplinary approach to climatic data acquisition will be responsible for obtaining needed information for concurrent barrier tasks and for developing a local climate forecast model. This model will couple past climate patterns with models of regional and global climate drivers to provide bounding conditions for barrier performance assessment analyses

  17. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Saldana, M.; Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Longhitano, F.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Ventura, C.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Lonardo, A.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Hugon, C.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.C.T.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D.; Barbarito, E.; Beverini, N.; Calamai, M.; Maccioni, E.; Marinelli, A.; Terreni, G.; Biagi, S.; Cacopardo, G.; Cali, C.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; De Luca, V.; Distefano, C.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismueller, K.P.; Litrico, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pulvirenti, S.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Trovato, A.; Viola, S.; Bouhadef, B.; Flaminio, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M.; Calvo, D.; Real, D.; Capone, A.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C.; Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I.; Chiarusi, T.; D'Amico, A.; Deniskina, N.; Migliozzi, P.; Mollo, C.M.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Lahmann, R.; Ferrara, G.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Lo Presti, D.; Pugliatti, C.; Martini, A.; Trasatti, L.; Morganti, M.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Piattelli, P.; Taiuti, M.

    2016-01-01

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than 1 year at the ''record'' depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than 1 year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of 40 K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bioluminescence. All these features confirm the stability and good optical properties of the site. (orig.)

  18. Long-term change of site response after the M W 9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Peng, Zhigang

    2012-12-01

    The recent M W 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake is the largest recorded earthquake in Japan's history. The Tohoku main shock and its aftershocks generated widespread strong shakings as large as ~3000 Gal along the east coast of Japan. Wu and Peng (2011) found clear drop of resonant frequency of up to 70% during the Tohoku main shock at 6 sites and correlation of resonance (peak) frequency and peak ground acceleration (PGA) during the main shock. Here we follow that study and systematically analyze long-term changes of material properties in the shallow crust from one year before to 5 months after the Tohoku main shock, using seismic data recorded by the Japanese Strong Motion Network KiK-Net. We use sliding window spectral ratios computed from a pair of surface and borehole stations to track the temporal changes in the site response of 6 sites. Our results show two stages of logarithmic recovery after a sharp drop of resonance frequency during the Tohoku main shock. The first stage is a rapid recovery within several hundred seconds to several hours, and the second stage is a slow recovery of more than five months. We also investigate whether the damage caused by the Tohoku main shock could make the near surface layers more susceptible to further damages, but we do not observe clear changes in susceptibility to further damage before and after the Tohoku main shock.

  19. Long term monitoring of the optical background in the Capo Passero deep-sea site with the NEMO tower prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Instituto de Investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de las Zonas Costeras, Gandia (Spain); Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Longhitano, F.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Ventura, C. [INFN Sezione Catania, Catania (Italy); Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Lonardo, A.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P. [INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Anghinolfi, M.; Hugon, C.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A.; Sanguineti, M. [INFN Sezione Genova, Genoa (Italy); Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.C.T.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D. [INFN Sezione Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche Universita di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Barbarito, E. [INFN Sezione Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); Beverini, N.; Calamai, M.; Maccioni, E.; Marinelli, A.; Terreni, G. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, S.; Cacopardo, G.; Cali, C.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; De Luca, V.; Distefano, C.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismueller, K.P.; Litrico, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pulvirenti, S.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Trovato, A.; Viola, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Bouhadef, B.; Flaminio, V.; Raffaelli, F. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Calvo, D.; Real, D. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Capone, A.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C. [INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita ' ' Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I. [INFN Sezione Bari, Bari (Italy); Chiarusi, T. [INFN Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); D' Amico, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Deniskina, N.; Migliozzi, P.; Mollo, C.M. [INFN Sezione Napoli, Naples (Italy); Enzenhoefer, A.; Lahmann, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ferrara, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M. [INFN Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Lo Presti, D.; Pugliatti, C. [INFN Sezione Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Martini, A.; Trasatti, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Morganti, M. [INFN Sezione Pisa, Polo Fibonacci, Pisa (Italy); Accademia Navale di Livorno, Livorno (Italy); Pellegriti, M.G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (IT); Piattelli, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (IT); Taiuti, M. [INFN Sezione Genova, Genoa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Genova, Genoa (IT)

    2016-02-15

    The NEMO Phase-2 tower is the first detector which was operated underwater for more than 1 year at the ''record'' depth of 3500 m. It was designed and built within the framework of the NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) project. The 380 m high tower was successfully installed in March 2013 80 km offshore Capo Passero (Italy). This is the first prototype operated on the site where the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be built. The installation and operation of the NEMO Phase-2 tower has proven the functionality of the infrastructure and the operability at 3500 m depth. A more than 1 year long monitoring of the deep water characteristics of the site has been also provided. In this paper the infrastructure and the tower structure and instrumentation are described. The results of long term optical background measurements are presented. The rates show stable and low baseline values, compatible with the contribution of {sup 40}K light emission, with a small percentage of light bursts due to bioluminescence. All these features confirm the stability and good optical properties of the site. (orig.)

  20. Geomorphological assessment of sites and impoundments for the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Current and future research into the geomorphological processes likely to affect the long term containment of uranium mill tailings in the Alligator Rivers Region is directed at three main areas: identification of geomorphic hazards at proposed impoundment sites; determination of erosion rates on impoundment slopes; and prediction of patterns of fluvial dispersal of released tailings. Each necessitates consideration of present and future geomorphic processes. Process rates during the next few thousand years might be predictable by extrapolation of contemporary and past (i.e. Holocene) climates, sea-levels and depositional environments, evidence for which is preserved in the sedimentary record. In current projects, the Late Quarternary stratigraphy of Magela Creek are examined to provide data for modelling of present and future sedimentological processes. Site stability evaluation entails recognition of present and future geomorphic hazards at impoundment sites, and includes fluvial and hillslope erosion, extreme flood events and mass movements. The life of a tailings impoundment is further determined by the intensity of erosional processes acting upon its slopes and their cover materials. A knowledge of present and future erosion rates will allow the optimisation of slope characteristics and materials in the impoundment design

  1. Methods for definition of reference conditions for a repository site taking long-term environmental change into account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, A.T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd. (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In a few countries, programmes for disposal of spent nuclear fuel have proceeded into a site-specific phase, and the number of low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste repositories requiring updated state-of-the-art long-term safety assessments is considerable. In this contribution, the approach employed in the Finnish spent fuel disposal programme is analysed and used as an example for a more general methodology for defining reference surface conditions for a site, e.g. to guide selection of representative input data to safety assessments, using spatio-temporal analogues so that long-term environmental changes are taken into account. The contribution incorporates also elements from discussions in the IAEA EMRAS II and MODARIA working groups on addressing the environmental change in the assessments. The legacy of the earlier BIOMASS project is also recognised. Broadly, the methods to be presented include identification of similarity factors (e.g. geological, biological and climate regimes) upon which a reference area can be delineated. Within the reference area, characteristic lines of development and biotopes are identified and described, and these are then used to guide further research and application of literature data to iteratively accumulate adequate understanding of the site conditions and relevant processes at the present and in the future (by projecting further the past and present development lines and biotopes). In this iterative approach, also the intensity of research efforts can be adjusted with the stage of the repository programme, as will be discussed in the complete contribution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  2. Mapping upland hardwood site quality and productivity with GIS and FIA in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia A. Cotton; Stephen R. Prisley; Thomas R. Fox

    2009-01-01

    The forested ecosystems of the southern Appalachians are some of the most diverse in North America due to the variability in climate, soils, and geologic parent material coupled with the complex topography found throughout the region. These same characteristics cause stands of upland hardwoods to be extremely variable with regard to site quality and productivity. Site...

  3. Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Marshall, Fiona M

    2009-03-01

    Vegetables (Beta vulgaris L., Abelmoschus esculentus L. and Brassica oleracea L.) from the production and market sites of India were tested for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb. At market sites, the mean concentration of Cu in cauliflower, and of Zn and Cd in both palak and cauliflower had exceeded the PFA standard. Zn at the production sites also exceeded the PFA standard in cauliflower. Cd concentration in vegetables tested from both production and market sites was many folds higher than the EU standard. In contrast, Pb in vegetables tested from both production and market sites was below the PFA limit, but was considerably higher than the current EU and WHO standards. Heavy metals accumulation in vegetables tested are higher at market sites than those at the crop production sites. The contributions of these vegetables to dietary intake of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were 13%, 1%, 47% and 9% of provisional tolerable daily intake, respectively. The study concludes that the transportation and marketing systems of vegetables play a significant role in elevating the contaminant levels of heavy metals which may pose a threat to the quality of the vegetables with consequences for the health of the consumers of locally produced foodstuffs.

  4. Long-Term Climate Change Assessment Task for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program: Status through FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, K.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Chatters, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-07-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized (Adams and Wing 1986) to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The goals of the Barrier Development Program are to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 years; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier`s ability to meet its 1,000-year design life. The performance and stability of natural barrier analogs that have existed for several millennia and the reconstruction of climate changes during the past 10,000 to 125,000 years also will provide insight into bounding conditions of possible future changes and increase confidence in the barriers design. In the following discussion the term {open_quotes}long-term{close_quotes} references periods of time up to 1000`s of years, distinguishing it from {open_quotes}short-term{close_quotes} weather patterns covering a decade or less. Specific activities focus on planning and conducting a series of studies and tests required to confirm key aspects of the barrier design. The effort is a collaborative one between scientists and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to design barriers to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for at least 1,000 years. These activities have been divided into 14 groups of tasks that aid in the complete development of protective barrier and warning marker system.

  5. Climatic Characteristics of the Subtropical Mountainous Cloud Forest at the Yuanyang Lake Long-Term Ecological Research Site, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ling Lai

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the climatic characteristics in a subtropical mountainous cloud forest at the Yuanyang Lake long-term ecological research site, weather data collected from January 1994 to December 2004 were analyzed in the present study. The obvious seasonal changes in climatic factors were observed at this site. The annual mean air temperature was 12.7°C. The lowest temperature was recorded in February (monthly mean 5.9°C, and the highest one was taken in July (monthly mean 18.1°C. Winter featured light rain with a prolonged occurrence of fog, resulting in a large reduction of radiation. In summer, fog occurred once in the early morning and the other time from afternoon to evening. The latter one was associated with the wind direction changes and usually accompanied with short moderate to heavy convective rain. Consequently the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD was high in the morning but reduced drastically in the afternoon. Typhoons occurred in the summer had contributed to 37% of the annual rainfall, usually resulting in torrential rain events and sharp increases in the water level of this lake. As a matter of fact, perhumid environment of this site was attributed to abundant rainfall (mean annual precipitation 3396 mm and high frequency (up to 40% of foggy time. Such conditions would reduce the intensity of solar radiation and PPFD. The average annual solar radiation at the site was 2475 MJ m-2, and annual PPFD was 5713 mol m-2. The average degree of reduction of PPFD under foggy condition was up to 88%. Such climatic characteristics are suggested to constrain the growth of plants and play an important role in competition among plant species in this cloud forest. It is considered that the distinct seasonal fluctuation in environmental factors, perhumid and dim light conditions are the most distinguished characteristics of this subtropical mountainous cloud forest ecosystem.

  6. Monitoring N2O Production Using a cNOR Modeled Active Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Z. G.; Hegg, E. L.; Finders, C.; Haslun, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas with a 100-year global warming potential 265-296 times greater than carbon dioxide (CO2). It is the leading contributor to ozone depletion and can persist in the stratosphere for approximately 114 years. Hence, understanding the sources of atmospheric N2O emissions is critical to remediating the effects of climate change. Agricultural activities are the largest contributor to N2O emissions in the U.S. with microbial nitrification and denitrification as the dominating soil processes. The enzyme cytochrome c nitric oxide reductase (cNOR) is involved in bacterial denitrification. It is often difficult to study the enzymes involved in biotic N2O production, hence, model enzymes are a useful tool. The enzyme I107EFeBMb, a sperm whale myoglobin derivative, models the active site of cNOR and was used to simulate the anaerobic reduction of NO to N2O by cNOR. Dithionite was used to induce the catalytic activity of I107EFeBMb by reducing the enzyme. However, dithionite is a strong reductant that is capable of reducing NO to N2O directly. Therefore, the dithionite-enzyme mixture was passed through a size-exclusion column to isolate the reduced enzyme. This reduced and purified enzyme was then utilized to investigate N2O production from NO. This project will provide both an enzymatic and abiotic model to study N2O production.

  7. The psychological contract: enhancing productivity and its implications for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2002-01-01

    When hired, a new employee is usually given a job description and an explanation of benefits. In addition, the employee will also have a psychological contract with the organization. This contract, often unstated, reflects the main source of the employee's motivation to work hard. This is true of all groups of employees, including long-term care staff. Common examples of psychological contracts for long-term care administrative staff include autonomy, social acceptance, and being in the forefront of cutting-edge research. An awareness of these psychological contracts can result in better "fits" between employee aspirations and relevant long-term care organization tasks so that productivity is enhanced. This article outlines the steps necessary to create these good fits in ways that benefit both the organization and its employees. These recommendations are of particular relevance to administrators and supervisors in long-term carefacilities.

  8. Analysis of long term options in the management of closed uranium mining sites in France: a pluralistic expertise experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Yves; Barbey, Pierre; Catelinois, Olivier; Crochon, Philippe; Petitfrere, Michael; Guillaumont, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Palaiseau Public demand and new regulations call for a growing stakeholder involvement in the protection of the public and the environment. On complex technical subjects prone to controversy, a useful advise to decision making processes can be provided by the pluralistic examination of the issues by a group of institutional and non-institutional experts. The French ministers for the environment, health, and industry created in 2005 a pluralistic expert group (GEP), started in mid-2006, to focus on the remediated uranium mines in the Limousin region of France. This group, which receives public funding, brings together experts with varied skills and backgrounds (from institutions, associations and industry, including independent and foreign experts). AREVA NC (COGEMA) the mine owner for the Haute Vienne sites has provided, on request of the administration, documents to assess the situation of the sites, and the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has been commissioned to produce a global expertise of this assessment. The GEP has been given the task of contributing this critical analysis and participating in the direction of the global expertise, with the aim to provide the authorities and the operator with recommendations on long-term management and monitoring options for the facilities. The group has also the duty to report to local stakeholders and to inform the general public. Work has been developed in three complementary areas: Improving the assessment of the source term and releases of transfer to the natural environment, including hydrogeological and geochemical studies as well as the characterisation of exhalations of radon; Developing a more thorough assessment of health and environmental impacts, including radiological and chemical risks. This includes, in addition to traditional methods, the first-of-a-kind application of an innovative methodology to assess radio-ecological impacts; - strengthening the

  9. Correlating Information Contents of Gene Ontology Terms to Infer Semantic Similarity of Gene Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Gan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful applications of the gene ontology to the inference of functional relationships between gene products in recent years have raised the need for computational methods to automatically calculate semantic similarity between gene products based on semantic similarity of gene ontology terms. Nevertheless, existing methods, though having been widely used in a variety of applications, may significantly overestimate semantic similarity between genes that are actually not functionally related, thereby yielding misleading results in applications. To overcome this limitation, we propose to represent a gene product as a vector that is composed of information contents of gene ontology terms annotated for the gene product, and we suggest calculating similarity between two gene products as the relatedness of their corresponding vectors using three measures: Pearson’s correlation coefficient, cosine similarity, and the Jaccard index. We focus on the biological process domain of the gene ontology and annotations of yeast proteins to study the effectiveness of the proposed measures. Results show that semantic similarity scores calculated using the proposed measures are more consistent with known biological knowledge than those derived using a list of existing methods, suggesting the effectiveness of our method in characterizing functional relationships between gene products.

  10. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  11. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  12. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site - 13038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G.T.; Baker, R.A.; Lee, P.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Eddy, T.P.; Blount, G.C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Whitney, G.R. [US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the Hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 milli-sievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the 'effective' half-life of Cs

  13. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene

    2005-09-01

    Frenchman Flat is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) used for underground nuclear testing (Figure 1-1). These nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the underground test areas. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) of the Frenchman Flat underground test areas. Since 1996, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) has regulated NNSA/NSO corrective actions through the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' ([FFACO], 1996). Appendix VI of the FFACO agreement, ''Corrective Action Strategy'', was revised on December 7, 2000, and describes the processes that will be used to complete corrective actions, including those in the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. The individual locations covered by the agreement are known as corrective action sites (CASs), which are grouped into corrective action units (CAUs). The UGTA CASs are grouped geographically into five CAUs: Frenchman Flat, Central Pahute Mesa, Western Pahute Mesa, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (Figure 1-1). These CAUs have distinctly different contaminant source, geologic, and hydrogeologic characteristics related to their location (FFACO, 1996). The Frenchman Flat CAU consists of 10 CASs located in the northern part of Area 5 and the southern part of Area 11 (Figure 1-1). This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Frenchman Flat, CAU 98. The methodology used to estimate hydrologic source terms (HSTs) for the Frenchman Flat CAU is also documented. The HST of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total inventory of radionuclides that is released over time into the groundwater following the test. The total residual inventory

  14. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Frenchman Flat is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) used for underground nuclear testing (Figure 1-1). These nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the underground test areas. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) of the Frenchman Flat underground test areas. Since 1996, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) has regulated NNSA/NSO corrective actions through the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' ([FFACO], 1996). Appendix VI of the FFACO agreement, ''Corrective Action Strategy'', was revised on December 7, 2000, and describes the processes that will be used to complete corrective actions, including those in the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. The individual locations covered by the agreement are known as corrective action sites (CASs), which are grouped into corrective action units (CAUs). The UGTA CASs are grouped geographically into five CAUs: Frenchman Flat, Central Pahute Mesa, Western Pahute Mesa, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (Figure 1-1). These CAUs have distinctly different contaminant source, geologic, and hydrogeologic characteristics related to their location (FFACO, 1996). The Frenchman Flat CAU consists of 10 CASs located in the northern part of Area 5 and the southern part of Area 11 (Figure 1-1). This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Frenchman Flat, CAU 98. The methodology used to estimate hydrologic source terms (HSTs) for the Frenchman Flat CAU is also documented. The HST of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total inventory of radionuclides that is released over time into the groundwater following the test. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or

  15. Enabling Product Design Reuse by Long-term Preservation of Engineering Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Brunsmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the highly competitive engineering industry, product innovations are created with the help of a product lifecycle management (PLM tool chain. In order to support fast-paced product development, a major company goal is the reuse of product designs and product descriptions. Due to the product’s complexity, the design of a product not only consists of geometry data but also of valuable engineering knowledge that is created during the various PLM phases. The need to preserve such intellectual capital leads engineering companies to introduce knowledge management and archiving their machine-readable formal representation. However, archived knowledge is in danger of becoming unusable since it is very likely that knowledge semantics and knowledge representation will evolve over long time periods, for example during the 50 operational years of some products. Knowledge evolution and knowledge representation technology changes are crucial issues since a reuse of the archived product information can only be ensured if its rationale and additional knowledge are interpretable with future software and technologies. Therefore, in order to reuse design data fully, knowledge about the design must also be migrated to be interoperable with future design systems and knowledge representation methods. This paper identifies problems, issues, requirements, challenges and solutions that arise while tackling the long-term preservation of engineering knowledge.

  16. AATSR land surface temperature product algorithm verification over a WATERMED site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, E. J.; Sòria, G.; Sobrino, J. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.

    A new operational Land Surface Temperature (LST) product generated from data acquired by the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) provides the opportunity to measure LST on a global scale with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The target accuracy of the product, which utilises nadir data from the AATSR thermal channels at 11 and 12 μm, is 2.5 K for daytime retrievals and 1.0 K at night. We present the results of an experiment where the performance of the algorithm has been assessed for one daytime and one night time overpass occurring over the WATERMED field site near Marrakech, Morocco, on 05 March 2003. Top of atmosphere (TOA) brightness temperatures (BTs) are simulated for 12 pixels from each overpass using a radiative transfer model, with the LST product and independent emissivity values and atmospheric data as inputs. We have estimated the error in the LST product over this biome for this set of conditions by applying the operational AATSR LST retrieval algorithm to the modelled BTs and comparing the results with the original AATSR LSTs input into the model. An average bias of -1.00 K (standard deviation 0.07 K) for the daytime data, and -1.74 K (standard deviation 0.02 K) for the night time data is obtained, which indicates that the algorithm is yielding an LST that is too cold under these conditions. While these results are within specification for daytime retrievals, this suggests that the target accuracy of 1.0 K at night is not being met within this biome.

  17. Long-term kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 survival on peanuts and peanut confectionery products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela S Nascimento

    Full Text Available Due to recent large outbreaks, peanuts have been considered a product of potential risk for Salmonella. Usually, peanut products show a low water activity (aw and high fat content, which contribute to increasing the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella. This study evaluated the long-term kinetics of Salmonella survival on different peanut products under storage at 28°C for 420 days. Samples of raw in-shell peanuts (aw = 0.29, roasted peanuts (aw = 0.39, unblanched peanut kernel (aw = 0.54, peanut brittle (aw = 0.30, paçoca (aw = 0.40 and pé-de-moça (aw = 0.68 were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 at two inoculum levels (3 and 6 log cfu/ g. The Salmonella behavior was influenced (p420 days, especially in products with aw around 0.40.

  18. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  19. Comparison of Different Height–Diameter Modelling Techniques for Prediction of Site Productivity in Natural Uneven-Aged Pure Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshuang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of forest site productivity are a central element of forest management. The model of height-diameter relationship of dominant trees using algebraic difference approach (ADA is a commonly used method to measure site productivity of natural uneven-aged stands. However, the existing models of this method do not recognize site type or sample plot specific variability in height curves; thus, it cannot be effectively used to estimate site type or sample plot-related site productivity for natural uneven-aged stands. Two primary subject-specific approaches, ADA with dummy variable (DV (ADA + DV and ADA with combination of dummy variable and nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (CM (ADA + CM, were proposed for height–diameter modelling. Height–diameter models developed with ADA, ADA + DV and ADA + CM were compared using data from 4161 observations on 349 permanent sample plots of four major natural uneven-aged pure stands (Spruce, Korean Larch, Mongolian Oak, and White Birch in northeastern China. It was found that models developed with ADA + CM provided the best performance, followed by the models with ADA + DV, and the models developed with ADA performed the worst. Random effects at the plot level were substantial, and their inclusion greatly improved the model’s accuracy. More importantly, the models developed with ADA + CM provide an effective method for quantifying site type- and sample plot-specific forest site productivity for uneven-aged pure stands.

  20. Environmental Impacts of Petroleum Production: Initial Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2003-01-01

    Exploration for and production of petroleum have caused major detrimental impacts to soils, surface and ground waters, and the local ecosystems in the United States. These impacts arise primarily from the improper disposal of large volumes of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were not correctly sealed. It is important to understand the long-term and short-term effects of produced water and hydrocarbon releases from these sites in order to develop risk-based remediation plans. Remediation is particularly needed in aging and depleted fields where land use is changing from petroleum production to residential, agricultural or recreational uses. About 20 scientists from the USGS and other governmental agencies and academia are involved in a multidisciplinary investigation to study the transport, fate, and natural attenuation of inorganic salts, trace metals, organic compounds and radionuclides present in produced water, and their impacts at the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research (OSPER) 'A' and 'B' sites, located on the Osage Reservation in Osage County, Oklahoma. Stakeholders in the project include the Osage Nation, which holds the mineral rights, the Bureau of Indian Affairs with trust responsibility, and the Army Corps of Engineers, which owns the surface rights at these sites and manages adjacent Skiatook Lake. The 4250-hectare Skiatook Lake provides drinking water to local Tulsa suburban communities and a rural water district, and offers recreational fishing and boating opportunities to tens of thousands of visitors each year. Approximately 1.5 and 1.0 hectare of land at the OSPER 'A' (depleted Lester lease) and 'B' (active Branstetter lease) sites, respectively, are affected by salt scarring, tree kills, soil salinization and brine and petroleum contamination due to the leakage of produced water and associated hydrocarbons from brine pits and accidental

  1. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  2. 75 FR 28657 - Dell Products LP-Parmer North Location, a Subsidiary of Dell, Inc., Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Spherion Corporation; Round Rock, TX; Dell Products LP--Parmer North One; Austin, TX; Amended Certification... Products LP--Parmer North Location, a Subsidiary of Dell, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... Act of 1974, as amended (``Act''), 19 U.S.C. 2273, the Department of Labor issued a Certification of...

  3. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group to be covered by this certification. The intent of the... North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated... Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment...

  4. 75 FR 45160 - Ingersoll-Rand/Harrow Products, Inc., Formerly Known as Locknetics Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... account under the name Harrow Products, Inc. Accordingly, the Department is amending this certification to... Products, Inc., Formerly Known as Locknetics Including On-Site Leased Workers From Monroe Staffing Services, Adecco USA, Inc., and Infinistaff, LLC, Bristol, CT; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply...

  5. 75 FR 20390 - Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., Including the On-Site Leased Workers of Manpower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,115] Senco Brands, Inc., fka... workers of Senco Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc., including the on-site leased workers of Manpower... Brands, Inc., fka Senco Products, Inc. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently...

  6. Look-ahead procedures for Lanczos-type product methods based on three-term recurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutknecht, M.H.; Ressel, K.J. [Swiss Center for Scientific Computing, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Lanczos-type product methods for the solution of large sparse non-Hermitian linear systems either square the Lanczos process or combine it with a local minimization of the residual. They inherit from the underlying Lanczos process the danger of breakdown. For various Lanczos-type product methods that are based on the Lanczos three-term recurrence, look-ahead versions are presented, which avoid such breakdowns or near breakdowns with a small computational overhead. Different look-ahead strategies are discussed and their efficiency is demonstrated in several numerical examples.

  7. Comparison of laparoscopic and open appendectomy in terms of operative time, hospital stay and frequency of surgical site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, T.; Saleem, M.R.; Aziz, O.B.; Arshad, A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare laparoscopic and conventional open appendectomy in terms of operative time, hospital stay and frequency of surgical site infection (SSI). Patient and Methods: A total of 417 patients underwent appendectomy during this period. 137 patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (group A) while 280 patient had open appendectomy (group B). The samples include all patients who were operated open between the time span of june 2010 to september 2011. A chi square-test was performed to compare the data for statistical significance. Result: Mean operative time for group A was 79.21+-23.42 minitues where as in group B, the mean operative time was 41.49+-20.86 minitues. Group A patients had a shorter hospital 1 stay (3.6+-1 day) but in group B it was (5.2+-3 days). Seven patients (5.1 %) developed surgical site infection (SSI) in group A and 34 patients (12.14 %)developed postoperative SSI in group B. Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy is superior to open appendectomy because of shorter hospital stay and laser-operative SSI, but requires longer operative time. (author)

  8. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Report on the Production and Use of Recycled Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Lewis; D. C. Barg; C. L. Bendixsen; J. P. Henscheid; D. R. Wenzel; B. L. Denning

    2000-09-01

    Recent allegations regarding radiation exposure to radionuclides present in recycled uranium sent to the gaseous diffusion plants prompted the Department of Energy to undertake a system-wide study of recycled uranium. Of particular interest, were the flowpaths from site to site operations and facilities in which exposure to plutonium, neptunium and technetium could occur, and to the workers that could receive a significant radiation dose from handling recycled uranium. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site report is primarily concerned with two locations. Recycled uranium was produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant where highly enriched uranium was recovered from spent fuel. The other facility is the Specific Manufacturing Facility (SMC) where recycled, depleted uranium is manufactured into shapes for use by their customer. The SMC is a manufacturing facility that uses depleted uranium metal as a raw material that is then rolled and cut into shapes. There are no chemical processes that might concentrate any of the radioactive contaminant species. Recyclable depleted uranium from the SMC facility is sent to a private metallurgical facility for recasting. Analyses on the recast billets indicate that there is no change in the concentrations of transuranics as a result of the recasting process. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was built to recover high-enriched uranium from spent nuclear fuel from test reactors. The facility processed diverse types of fuel which required uniquely different fuel dissolution processes. The dissolved fuel was passed through three cycles of solvent extraction which resulted in a concentrated uranyl nitrate product. For the first half of the operating period, the uranium was shipped as the concentrated solution. For the second half of the operating period the uranium solution was thermally converted to granular, uranium trioxide solids. The dose reconstruction project has evaluated work exposure and

  9. Long-term temperature monitoring at the biological community site on the Nankai accretionary prism off Kii Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Yamano, M.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Nankai subduction zone off Kii Peninsula is one of the most intensively surveyed areas for studies on the seismogenic zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys carried out in this area revealed the existence of splay faults that branched from the subduction zone plate boundary [Park et al., 2002]. Along the splay faults, reversal of reflection polarity was observed, indicating elevated pore fluid pressure along the faults. Cold seepages with biological communities were discovered along a seafloor outcrop of one of the splay faults through submersible observations. Long-term temperature monitoring at a biological community site along the outcrop revealed high heat flow carried by upward fluid flow (>180 mW/m2) [Goto et al., 2003]. Toki et al. [2004] estimated upward fluid flow rates of 40-200 cm/yr from chloride distribution of interstitial water extracted from sediments in and around biological community sites along the outcrop. These observation results suggest upward fluid flow along the splay fault. In order to investigate hydrological nature of the splay fault, we conducted long-term temperature monitoring again in the same cold seepage site where Goto et al. [2003] carried out long-term temperature monitoring. In this presentation, we present results of the temperature monitoring and estimate heat flow carried by upward fluid flow from the temperature records. In this long-term temperature monitoring, we used stand-alone heat flow meter (SAHF), a probe-type sediment temperature recorder. Two SAHFs (SAHF-3 and SAHF-4) were used in this study. SAHF-4 was inserted into a bacterial mat, within several meters of which the previous long-term temperature monitoring was conducted. SAHF-3 was penetrated into ordinary sediment near the bacterial mat. The sub-bottom temperature records were obtained for 8 months. The subsurface temperatures oscillated reflecting bottom- water temperature variation (BTV). For sub-bottom temperatures measured with SAHF-3 (outside of

  10. Calculation of the isotope concentrations, source terms and radiation shielding of the SAFARI-1 irradiation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, C.C.; Ball, G.

    2000-01-01

    The ever increasing expansion of the irradiation product portfolio of the SAFARI-1 reactor leads to the need to routinely calculate the radio-isotope concentrations and source terms for the materials irradiated in the reactor accurately. In addition to this, the required shielding for the transportation and processing of these irradiation products needs to be determined. In this paper the calculational methodology applied is described with special attention given to the spectrum dependence of the one-group cross sections of selected SAFARI-1 irradiation materials and the consequent effect on the determination of the isotope concentrations and source terms. Comparisons of the calculated isotopic concentrations and dose rates with experimental analysis and measurements provide confidence in the calculational methodologies and data used. (author)

  11. Long-Term Soil Productivity in Christmas Tree Farms of Oregon and Washington: A Comparative Analysis between First- and Multi-Rotation Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hatten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Christmas tree production removes organic matter and associated nutrients from a site and can change soil physical properties, reduce mycorrhizal populations, and result in pesticide over-use/accumulation. These impacts have been implicated in potential field productivity declines. Assessing Christmas tree productivity is complicated by genetics, management, and market forces. We approached the perceived or possible productivity decline by examining soil properties on 22 pairs of sites. Each pair was comprised of an early rotation and late rotation plot with 1 and 3 or more rotations of Christmas trees, respectively. All sites were located on commercial Christmas tree plantations from the major production areas in Washington and Oregon. Chemical properties assessed to 45cm included pH, total C and N, and extractable P, K, Ca, and Mg. Soil physical properties assessed included aggregate stability and soil resistance. In general, we found little impact on soil resources that would impact long term production of Christmas trees. These impacts may have been mitigated by farmers following extension service recommendations. Nitrogen, K, and Ca appeared to be primarily affected by harvesting, but replacement by fertilizer application was probably adequate.

  12. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly...

  13. On the sequence of core-melt accidents: Fission product release, source terms and Chernobyl release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H

    1986-01-01

    There is a sketch of our ideas on the course of a core melt-out accident in a PWR. There is then a survey of the most important results on fission product release, which were obtained by experiments on the SASCHA melt-out plant. The 3rd part considers questions which are important for determining source terms for the environment and the last part contains some considerations on radioactivity release from the Chernobyl reactor.

  14. A Simplification for Exp-Function Method When the Balanced Nonlinear Term Is a Certain Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Exp-function method plays an important role in searching for analytic solutions of many nonlinear differential equations. In this paper, we prove that the balancing procedure in the method is unnecessary when the balanced nonlinear term is a product of the dependent variable under consideration and its derivatives. And in this case, the ansatz of the method can be simplified to be with less parameters so as to be easy to calculate.

  15. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torudd, Jesper [Facilia AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    This study is part of the safety assessment of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, called SR-Site. The purpose of the report is to clarify whether the environment is protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from the planned repository. According to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be protected, and the evaluation should pay special attention to threatened and endemic species as well as economically and culturally valuable species. The report shows the approach to, and results of, calculations of dose rates to organisms other than man. The calculations are based on modelled activity concentrations from a potential future radioactive release, provided by a separate modelling project. Calculations were performed with the ERICA Tool, a software programme developed by an EU research project. In the ERICA Tool, dose rates for site specific organisms (i.e., occurring at the site) were calculated using input data such as size dimensions and masses of organisms, ecosystems and habitats, concentration ratios for the studied elements (i.e. the ratio of accumulated element concentration in the body compared with the element concentration in the surrounding environment) and maximum activity concentrations of radionuclides from the modelled future release. The results are provided in terms of final dose rates for each studied organism. In accordance with rationales of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the ERICA project, Representative (site-specific) Organisms from the planned site of the future repository were studied. Ideally, the organisms selected would meet the criteria defined by both SSM (species worth protecting) and by ICRP and ERICA (so-called Reference Organisms). Since activity concentrations for a number of radionuclides were missing for some of the studied

  16. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torudd, Jesper (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This study is part of the safety assessment of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, called SR-Site. The purpose of the report is to clarify whether the environment is protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from the planned repository. According to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be protected, and the evaluation should pay special attention to threatened and endemic species as well as economically and culturally valuable species. The report shows the approach to, and results of, calculations of dose rates to organisms other than man. The calculations are based on modelled activity concentrations from a potential future radioactive release, provided by a separate modelling project. Calculations were performed with the ERICA Tool, a software programme developed by an EU research project. In the ERICA Tool, dose rates for site specific organisms (i.e., occurring at the site) were calculated using input data such as size dimensions and masses of organisms, ecosystems and habitats, concentration ratios for the studied elements (i.e. the ratio of accumulated element concentration in the body compared with the element concentration in the surrounding environment) and maximum activity concentrations of radionuclides from the modelled future release. The results are provided in terms of final dose rates for each studied organism. In accordance with rationales of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the ERICA project, Representative (site-specific) Organisms from the planned site of the future repository were studied. Ideally, the organisms selected would meet the criteria defined by both SSM (species worth protecting) and by ICRP and ERICA (so-called Reference Organisms). Since activity concentrations for a number of radionuclides were missing for some of the studied

  17. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torudd, Jesper

    2010-12-01

    This study is part of the safety assessment of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, called SR-Site. The purpose of the report is to clarify whether the environment is protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from the planned repository. According to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be protected, and the evaluation should pay special attention to threatened and endemic species as well as economically and culturally valuable species. The report shows the approach to, and results of, calculations of dose rates to organisms other than man. The calculations are based on modelled activity concentrations from a potential future radioactive release, provided by a separate modelling project. Calculations were performed with the ERICA Tool, a software programme developed by an EU research project. In the ERICA Tool, dose rates for site specific organisms (i.e., occurring at the site) were calculated using input data such as size dimensions and masses of organisms, ecosystems and habitats, concentration ratios for the studied elements (i.e. the ratio of accumulated element concentration in the body compared with the element concentration in the surrounding environment) and maximum activity concentrations of radionuclides from the modelled future release. The results are provided in terms of final dose rates for each studied organism. In accordance with rationales of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the ERICA project, Representative (site-specific) Organisms from the planned site of the future repository were studied. Ideally, the organisms selected would meet the criteria defined by both SSM (species worth protecting) and by ICRP and ERICA (so-called Reference Organisms). Since activity concentrations for a number of radionuclides were missing for some of the studied

  18. Long-Term Stability Testing Results Using Surrogates And Sorbents For Savannah River Site Organic And Aqueous Wastestreams - 10016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  19. The Near-Term Viability and Benefits of eLabels for Patients, Clinical Sites, and Sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Gick, Jodi; Barnes, Nicola; Barone, Rocco; Bedford, Jeff; James, Jason R; Reisner, Stacy Frankovitz; Stephenson, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Current clinical trial labels are designed primarily to meet regulatory requirements. These labels have low patient and site utility, few are opened, and they have limited space and small fonts. As our world transitions from paper to electronic, an opportunity exists to provide patients with information about their investigational clinical trial product in a way that is more easily accessible, meets Health Authority requirements, and provides valuable additional information for the patient and caregiver. A TransCelerate initiative was launched to understand the current regulatory and technology landscape for the potential use an electronic label (eLabel) for investigational medicinal products (IMPs). Concepts and an example proof of concept were developed intended to show the "art of the possible" for a foundational eLabel and a "universal printed label." In addition, possible patient-centric enhancements were captured in the eLabel proof of concept. These concepts were shared with Health Authorities as well as patient and site advisory groups to gather feedback and subsequently enhance the concepts. Feedback indicated that the concept of an eLabel provides value and concepts should continue to be pursued. While the Health Authorities engaged with did not express issues with the use of an eLabel per se, the reduction in the content on the paper label is not possible in some geographic locations due to existing regulations. There is nothing that prevents transmitting the label electronically in conjunction with current conventional labeling. While there are still some regulatory barriers that need to be addressed for reducing what is on the paper label, advancement toward a more patient-centric approach benefits stakeholders and will enable a fully connected patient-centric experience. The industry must start now to build the foundation.

  20. Long-term Measurement of Sediment Resuspension and Gas Hydrate Stability at a Gulf of Mexico Seep Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaro, M. F.; Bender, L. C.; MacDonald, I. R.

    2003-12-01

    change in the depth and local distribution of surface sediments is a robust feature of the benthos at this site. Because the sediment interface is a critical environment for hydrocarbon oxidation and chemosynthesis, short term variations and heterogeneity may be important attributes of these settings.

  1. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Gregory J.; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  2. Technical status report on environmental aspects of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1944, radioactive wastes have accumulated at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) 1500-km 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington, where nine nuclear reactors have produced nuclear materials for National defense. Today, only one production reactor is still operating, but a large inventory of radioactive high-level waste (HLW), the residue from processing the spent fuel to recover plutonium and uranium, remains stored in underground tanks and in metal capsules in water basins. So that this waste will pose no significant threat to the public health and safety, it must be isolated from the biosphere for thousands of years. This document contains an evaluation of environmental impacts of four alternative methods for long-term management of these HLW. The alternatives range from continuing the present action of storing the waste near the surface of the ground to retrieving the waste and disposing of it deep underground in a mined geologic repository. The alternatives are: near-term geologic disposal of stored waste; deferred geologic disposal of in-tank waste; in situ disposal of in-tank waste; and continued present action for stored waste. The environmental impacts of the four alternatives are small relative to that radiation received from natural sources or the available natural resources in the earth

  3. THE EMPLOYMENT – PRODUCTIVITY – SALARY RELATION, A CONDITION FOR ACHIEVING LONG - TERM ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai CHIRILA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment-productivity-salary correlation is essential towards setting up conditions for economic growth andlasting social stability. An influence exists from technological changes, current stage of economic development,peculiarities of labour offer, employers – trade-unions interaction, etc. The analysis covers long-term and short-termcycles. In keeping with specificity of development stages, national economy witnesses an interval of productivitygrowth facilitating maximized employment and a rise in salary too. A lower growth rate indicates difficulties inassimilating new technologies; a higher growth rate generates instability in employing labour. Thus, the exercise ofstrong pressure is shown to exist on economic and technological structures. Likewise, this is what happens whenproductivity goes ahead of the separate analyses of the correlations between employment and productivity, on theone hand, and productivity and salary, on the other.

  4. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  5. The evaluation of effective criteria on site selection for energy production units from cellulosic biomass in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR techniques were used successfully to evaluate the effective criteria on site selection for energy production unit development from cellulosic biomass in Iran. The results showed that the benefits criteria was at the first level while the initial cellulosic raw materials and opportunities with the aim of the local economy had the second position as the most important indices on site selection. In addition, third criterion has been introduced for the costs criteria (transportation cost and social barriers by the experts. However, risks criteria which referred to instability of providing cellulosic raw materials is one of the less important effective indices on site selection to make energy production unit. The results illustrated that the economy and politics as two environmental effective factors affected on the site selection process generally.

  6. A small-scale flow alkaline fuel cell for on-site production of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillas, Enric; Alcaide, Francisco; Cabot, Pere-Lluis

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of a small-scale flow alkaline fuel cell (AFC) built-up for on-site production of HO 2 - using commercial gas-diffusion electrodes has been studied. It produces a spontaneous current due to the oxidation of H 2 to H 2 O at the H 2 -diffusion anode and the reduction of O 2 to HO 2 - at the O 2 -diffusion cathode, while a fresh 1.0-6.0 mol dm -3 KOH electrolyte at 15.0-45.0 deg. C is injected through it. Under circulation of HO 2 - +KOH solutions in open circuit, the flow AFC behaves as a two-electron reversible system. When it is shorted with an external load (R ext ), steady cell voltage-current density curves are found. The use of O 2 /N 2 mixtures to fed the cathode causes a loss of its performance, being required to supply pure O 2 to yield a maximum HO 2 - electrogeneration. The current density and HO 2 - productivity increase with raising OH - concentration, temperature and pressure of O 2 fed. At R ext =0.10 Ω, a current efficiency close to 100% is obtained, and current densities >100 mA cm -2 are achieved for 1.0 mol dm -3 KOH at 45.0 deg. C and for higher KOH concentrations at 25.0 deg. C. The flow AFC can work under optimum conditions up to 6.0 mol dm -3 KOH and 45.0 deg. C for possible industrial applications

  7. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...... energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system...

  8. Long-Term Climate Change Assessment Task for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program: Status through FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.L.; Chatters, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized (Adams and Wing 1986) to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The goals of the Barrier Development Program are to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 years; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier's ability to meet its 1,000-year design life. The performance and stability of natural barrier analogs that have existed for several millennia and the reconstruction of climate changes during the past 10,000 to 125,000 years also will provide insight into bounding conditions of possible future changes and increase confidence in the barriers design. In the following discussion the term open-quotes long-termclose quotes references periods of time up to 1000's of years, distinguishing it from open-quotes short-termclose quotes weather patterns covering a decade or less. Specific activities focus on planning and conducting a series of studies and tests required to confirm key aspects of the barrier design. The effort is a collaborative one between scientists and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to design barriers to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for at least 1,000 years. These activities have been divided into 14 groups of tasks that aid in the complete development of protective barrier and warning marker system

  9. Defect production in simulated cascades: Cascade quenching and short-term annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    Defect production in displacement cascades in copper has been modeled using the MARLOWE code to generate cascades and the stochastic annealing code ALSOME to simulate cascade quenching and short-term annealing of isolated cascades. Quenching is accomplished by using exaggerated values for defect mobilities and for critical reaction distances in ALSOME for a very short time. The quenched cascades are then short-term annealed with normal parameter values. The quenching parameter values were empirically determined by comparison with results of resistivity measurements. Throughout the collisional, quenching and short-term annealing phases of cascade development, the high energy cascades continue to behave as a collection of independent lower energy lobes. For recoils above about 30 keV the total number of defects and the numbers of free defects scale with the damage energy. As the energy decreases from 30 keV, defect production varies with the changing nature of the cascade configuration, resulting in more defects per unit damage energy. The simulated annealing of a low fluence of interacting cascades revealed an interstitial shielding effect on depleted zones during Stage I recovery. (orig.)

  10. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT) is a glass leach test that was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to routinely confirm the durability of nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a 7 day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90 degree C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2--5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment

  11. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  12. Chlorella vulgaris vs cyanobacterial biomasses: Comparison in terms of biomass productivity and biogas yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, Lara; Mahdy, Ahmed; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cyanobacteria and C. vulgaris were compared in terms of growth and methane production. • Biomasses were subjected to anaerobic digestion without applying any disruption method. • Cyanobacteria showed an increased methane yield in comparison with C. vulgaris. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare cyanobacteria strains (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, Anabaena planctonica, Borzia trilocularis and Synechocystis sp.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) in terms of growth rate, biochemical profile and methane production. Cyanobacteria growth rate ranged 0.5–0.6 day −1 for A. planctonica, A. ovalisporum and Synecochystis sp. and 0.4 day −1 for B. tricularis. Opposite, C. vulgaris maximum growth rate was double (1.2 day −1 ) than that of cyanobacteria. Regarding the methane yield, microalgae C. vulgaris averaged 120 mL CH 4 g COD in −1 due to the presence of a strong cell wall. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of cyanobacteria supported higher methane yields. B. trilocularis and A. planctonica presented 1.42-fold higher methane yield than microalgae while this value was raised to approximately 1.85-fold for A. ovalisporum and Synechochystis sp. In the biogas production context, this study showed that the low growth rates of cyanobacteria can be overcome by their increased anaerobic digestibility when compared to their microalgae counterpartners, such is the case of C. vulgaris

  13. Directions of Development of International Production Specialization Theory in Terms of Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Aleksandrovna Pankova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the definition of directions of development of the theory of international production specialization in terms of integration based on new trends in various areas of international business. The author proposes a new concept of international industrial specialization in terms of integration. As a result of research the author came to the conclusion that in the current economic conditions the need for a free market constraints associated with the deepening global market failures is becoming more and more obvious. Therefore, in the process of international specialization of production in the conditions of integration of the country should be guided not by comparative advantage in the production of certain goods or services, but also by other criteria. These criteria are: financial criterion determining the financial situation in the country, the trade criterion, reflecting the possibility of benefiting from international trade, technological criterion, considering the technological security of the country in the field of specialization and the cyclical criterion, reflecting the situation in the world economy and the level of integration of the country. On the basis of these criteria, the author identifies three categories of countries according to their ability to benefit from an international industrial specialization in the integration process: effective export, export-neutral and export-inefficient countries.

  14. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Amchitka, Alaska, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    This Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan describes how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fulfill its mission to maintain protection of human health and the environment at the Amchitka, Alaska, Site1. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. The U.S. Department of Defense, in conjunction with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), conducted the first nuclear test (Long Shot) to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. The final nuclear test (Cannikin), the largest United States underground test, was a weapons-related test. Surface disturbances associated with these tests have been remediated. However, radioactivity remains deep below the surface, contained in and around the test cavities, for which no feasible remediation technology has been identified. In 2006, the groundwater model (Hassan et al. 2002) was updated using 2005 data collected by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation. Model simulation results indicate there is no breakthrough or seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment within 2,000 years. The Amchitka conceptual model is reasonable; the flow and transport simulation is based on the best available information and data. The simulation results are a quantitative prediction supported by the best available science and technology. This Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan is an additional step intended for the protection of human health and the environment. This plan may be modified from time to time in the future consistent with the mission to protect human health

  15. From probabilistic forecasts to statistical scenarios of short-term wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Papaefthymiou, George; Klockl, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    on the development of the forecast uncertainty through forecast series. However, this additional information may be paramount for a large class of time-dependent and multistage decision-making problems, e.g. optimal operation of combined wind-storage systems or multiple-market trading with different gate closures......Short-term (up to 2-3 days ahead) probabilistic forecasts of wind power provide forecast users with highly valuable information on the uncertainty of expected wind generation. Whatever the type of these probabilistic forecasts, they are produced on a per horizon basis, and hence do not inform....... This issue is addressed here by describing a method that permits the generation of statistical scenarios of short-term wind generation that accounts for both the interdependence structure of prediction errors and the predictive distributions of wind power production. The method is based on the conversion...

  16. Optimisation (sampling strategies and analytical procedures) for site specific environment monitoring at the areas of uranium production legacy sites in Ukraine - 59045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg V.; Lavrova, Tatiana V.; Kostezh, Alexander B.

    2012-01-01

    There are many sites in the world, where Environment are still under influence of the contamination related to the Uranium production carried out in past. Author's experience shows that lack of site characterization data, incomplete or unreliable environment monitoring studies can significantly limit quality of Safety Assessment procedures and Priority actions analyses needed for Remediation Planning. During recent decades the analytical laboratories of the many enterprises, currently being responsible for establishing the site specific environment monitoring program have been significantly improved their technical sampling and analytical capacities. However, lack of experience in the optimal site specific sampling strategy planning and also not enough experience in application of the required analytical techniques, such as modern alpha-beta radiometers, gamma and alpha spectrometry and liquid-scintillation analytical methods application for determination of U-Th series radionuclides in the environment, does not allow to these laboratories to develop and conduct efficiently the monitoring programs as a basis for further Safety Assessment in decision making procedures. This paper gives some conclusions, which were gained from the experience establishing monitoring programs in Ukraine and also propose some practical steps on optimization in sampling strategy planning and analytical procedures to be applied for the area required Safety assessment and justification for its potential remediation and safe management. (authors)

  17. On-site management of investigational products and drug delivery systems in conformity with Good Clinical Practices (GCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méthot, Julie; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Investigators and research teams participating in clinical trials have to deal with complex investigational products, study designs, and research environments. The emergence of new drug delivery systems and investigational products combining more than one drug and the development of biodrugs such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, siRNA, and gene therapy to treat orphan or common diseases constitute a new challenge for investigators and clinical sites. We describe the requirements and challenges of drug management in conformity with Good Clinical Practices (GCPs) for investigators and sites participating in clinical trials. Review At all sites participating in clinical trials, standard operating procedures (SOPs) covering the critical path of drug and drug delivery systems management are required. All steps should be auditable, including reception, validation, storage, access, preparation, distribution, techniques of administration, use, return, and destruction of research products. Biodrugs require traceability and specific SOPs on the management of potential immune reactions. Investigational products must be stored under standard auditable conditions. The traceability of storage conditions (including temperature) requires these conditions to be monitored on a continuous basis. A dedicated space with restricted access limited to authorized qualified personnel facilitates the monitoring. The development of standardized, auditable settings and the application of dedicated, site-specific SOPs for the management of investigational products and drug delivery systems contribute to guarantee the compliance to GCP requirements.

  18. Build Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site production prototype modular treatment system for stand alone core capability for residue unpack, sort, assay, repack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, R.A.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes a portable and modular suit of equipment that upfront and near-term accomplishes a sorting process that documents and removes Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) residue and waste from site inventory

  19. Radiological assessment of long-term effects at the Semipalatinsk test site. NATO-Semipalatinsk Project 1995/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.; Bouisset, P.; Calmet, D.; Kluson, J.; Smagulov, S.; Sysebaev, A.

    1996-12-01

    To determine the long-term consequences of atmospheric atomic bomb tests for the population in the surroundings of the former nuclear weapons test site near Semipalatinsk, studies were performed by international cooperation between Kazakh, French, Czech and German institutions at two measuring locations (Moistik, Maisk) in Kazakhstan. Moistik is a village close to Dolon and downwind of the first atomic bomb explosion on August 29, 1947. Maisk is close to Kurchatov and not too far from ground zero. With financial support from NATO, nine experts from Europe went on a field mission to Kazakhstan in September 1995 to assess, together with Kazakh scientists, the radiological situation as far as external doses, environmental contamination and body burden of man are concerned. The results show that surface contamination from nuclear weapons tests has in the meantime decayed to a large extent. External doses largely correspond to the natural background. The remaining incorporation of longer-lived radionuclides is also slight and in 1995 merely led to an annual dose of less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure for 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The question of a dose contribution by the possible incorporation of 239 Pu remains open. Life in the villages of Maisk and Moistik does not currently involve any radiological threat to the inhabitants. However, dose reconstruction for the older inhabitants directly affected by aboveground atomic weapons tests remains difficult. (orig.)

  20. Considerations on post-production obligations in terms of Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebentisch, M.

    1992-01-01

    The article describes and evaluates the laws concerning the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants and offers suggestions for possible new regulations. The contribution examines fundamental legal aspects, the instrumentalization of post-production obligations in terms of atomic energy laws, especially the question as to how to bring the Atomic Energy Law into accord with the Federal Emission Control Law within the realm of decommissioning laws, licences for safe confinement and dismantling of a plant, and in addition questions on making financial provisions for decommissioning. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Nuclear energy contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions and long-term energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoda-Bakhsh, R.

    2004-01-01

    An important source of greenhouse gases, in particular Co 2 , is fossil fuel combustion for energy applications. Since nuclear power is an energy source that does not produce Co 2 , nuclear energy is already making a contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions. Because it has been internationally decided to reduce carbon dioxide emission before the year 2005 in order to avoid the green house catastrophy of the earth's atmosphere, and since there is an urgent need of energy especially in the developing countries, there is now a strong demand for alternative energy sources. While the established low cost energy production by light water nuclear fission reactors could be a solution for a period of transition (limited by resources of the light Uranium isotope), fusion energy is of interest for long- term and large scale energy production to provide the increased energy demand

  2. Paleo-Productivity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Walvis Ridge Transect (ODP Sites 1262, 1263, and 1266)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C. O.; Delaney, M. L.; Zachos, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Walvis Ridge transect (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 208) provides the first high-resolution depth-transect of deep-sea sediments recovered from the south Atlantic across the P/E boundary. A geographically restricted depth transect (~ 2.2 km, water depths between 2500 and 4770 m) allows us to constrain the surface waters by assuming marine productivity conditions in the overlying water column are similar across all sites. The sediment record will reveal variations for processes that are water-depth dependent. We use the geochemical tracers; biogenic barium, phosphorus, calcium carbonate, and the redox sensitive trace elements manganese and uranium, to reconstruct nutrient burial, paleoproductivity, and bottom water redox chemistry across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). We calculate our concentrations on a calcium carbonate-free basis to account for dilution by non-carbonate sediments. Trace metal enrichment factors (EFs) are calculated relative to bulk crustal averages. We chose three sites from the depth transect: the shallowest (Site 1263, 2717 m water depth), an intermediate site (Site 1266, 3798 m water depth), and the deepest site (Site 1262, 4755 m water depth). We sampled each site at a sample resolution of ~ 1-2 kyr for 5 m.y. centered at 55 Ma. Uranium EFs at the shallow site exhibits values ~ 5 pre-event and drop to values near crustal averages during and after the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). No dramatic changes in U EFs across the P/E boundary are recorded at the deep and intermediate sites. Mn EFs range between 2.9 -8.6 prior to the event across all three sites, suggesting an oxygenated depositional environment. At the boundary, Mn EFs drop to crustal averages at all sites, then gradually return to pre-event values, indicating more reducing environments during the CIE, a possible explanation for the benthic extinction event (BEE) observed across this transect. Ba excess and reactive phosphorus exhibit decreased concentrations during

  3. Long-Range Lightning Products for Short Term Forecasting of Tropical Cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businger, S.; Pessi, A.; Robinson, T.; Stolz, D.

    2010-12-01

    This paper will describe innovative graphical products derived in real time from long-range lightning data. The products have been designed to aid in short-term forecasting of tropical cyclone development for the Tropical Cyclone Structure Experiment 2010 (TCS10) held over the western Pacific Ocean from 17 August to 17 October 2010 and are available online at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/cgi-bin/pacnet/tcs10.pl. The long-range lightning data are from Vaisala’s Global Lightning Data 360 (GLD360) network and include time, location, current strength, polarity, and data quality indication. The products currently provided in real time include i. Infrared satellite imagery overlaid with lighting flash locations, with color indication of current strength and polarity (shades of blue for negative to ground and red for positive to ground). ii. A 15x15 degree storm-centered tile of IR imagery overlaid with lightning data as in i). iii. A pseudo reflectivity product showing estimates of radar reflectivity based on lightning rate - rain rate conversion derived from TRMM and PacNet data. iv. A lightning history product that plots each hour of lightning flash locations in a different color for a 12-hour period. v. Graphs of lightning counts within 50 or 300 km radius, respectively, of the storm center vs storm central sea-level pressure. vi. A 2-D graphic showing storm core lightning density along the storm track. The first three products above can be looped to gain a better understanding of the evolution of the lightning and storm structure. Examples of the graphics and their utility will be demonstrated and discussed. Histogram of lightning counts within 50 km of the storm center and graph of storm central pressure as a function of time.

  4. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  5. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The product consistency test (PCT) is a glass leach test developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to confirm the durability of radioactive nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a seven day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2-5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment. When the results of the two laboratories were compared to each other, the agreement was within 20%. Normalized concentrations for the nonradioactive and radioactive elements in the PCT leachates measured at both facilities indicated that the radionuclides were released from the glass slower than the major soluble elements in the glass. For both laboratories, the normalized releases for both glasses were in the general order Li ∼ B ∼ Na > Si > Cs - 137 > Sb - 125 < Sr - 90. The normalized releases for the major soluble elements and the final pH values in the tests with radioactive glass are consistent with those for nonradioactive glasses with similar compositions. This indicates that there was no significant effect of radiation on the results of the PCT

  6. A model-data comparison of gross primary productivity: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Schaefer; Christopher R. Schwalm; Chris Williams; M. Altaf Arain; Alan Barr; Jing M. Chen; Kenneth J. Davis; Dimitre Dimitrov; Timothy W. Hilton; David Y. Hollinger; Elyn Humphreys; Benjamin Poulter; Brett M. Raczka; Andrew D. Richardson; Alok Sahoo; Peter Thornton; Rodrigo Vargas; Hans Verbeeck; Ryan Anderson; Ian Baker; T. Andrew Black; Paul Bolstad; Jiquan Chen; Peter S. Curtis; Ankur R. Desai; Michael Dietze; Danilo Dragoni; Christopher Gough; Robert F. Grant; Lianhong Gu; Atul Jain; Chris Kucharik; Beverly Law; Shuguang Liu; Erandathie Lokipitiya; Hank A. Margolis; Roser Matamala; J. Harry McCaughey; Russ Monson; J. William Munger; Walter Oechel; Changhui Peng; David T. Price; Dan Ricciuto; William J. Riley; Nigel Roulet; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Margaret Torn; Ensheng Weng; Xiaolu Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in terrestrial ecosystem models is critical because errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model to introduce additional errors in simulated biomass and other fluxes. We evaluated simulated, daily average GPP from 26 models against estimated GPP at 39 eddy covariance flux tower sites across the United States...

  7. Online Measurement of Exhaled NO Concentration and Its Production Sites by Fast Non-equilibrium Dilution Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Liu, Jiwei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most promising breath markers for respiratory diseases. Its profile for exhalation and the respiratory NO production sites can provide useful information for medical disease diagnosis and therapeutic procedures. However, the high-level moisture in exhaled gas always leads to the poor selectivity and sensitivity for ion spectrometric techniques. Herein, a method based on fast non-equilibrium dilution ion mobility spectrometry (NED-IMS) was firstly proposed to directly monitor the exhaled NO profile on line. The moisture interference was eliminated by turbulently diluting the original moisture to 21% of the original with the drift gas and dilution gas. Weak enhancement was observed for humid NO response and its limit of detection at 100% relative humidity was down to 0.58 ppb. The NO concentrations at multiple exhalation flow rates were measured, while its respiratory production sites were determined by using two-compartment model (2CM) and Högman and Meriläinen algorithm (HMA). Last but not the least, the NO production sites were analyzed hourly to tentatively investigate the daily physiological process of NO. The results demonstrated the capacity of NED-IMS in the real-time analysis of exhaled NO and its production sites for clinical diagnosis and assessment.

  8. Defect production in simulated cascades: cascade quenching and short-term annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Defect production in high energy displacement cascades has been modeled using the computer code MARLOWE to generate the cascades and the stochastic computer code ALSOME to simulate the cascade quenching and short-term annealing of isolated cascades. The quenching is accomplished by using ALSOME with exaggerated values for defect mobilities and critical reaction distanes for recombination and clustering, which are in effect until the number of defect pairs is equal to the value determined from resistivity experiments at 4K. Then normal mobilities and reaction distances are used during short-term annealing to a point representative of Stage III recovery. Effects of cascade interactions at low fluences are also being investigated. The quenching parameter values were empirically determined for 30 keV cascades. The results agree well with experimental information throughout the range from 1 keV to 100 keV. Even after quenching and short-term annealing the high energy cascades behave as a collection of lower energy subcascades and lobes. Cascades generated in a crystal having thermal displacements were found to be in better agreement with experiments after quenching and annealing than those generated in a non-thermal crystal

  9. Modelling and simulation the radioactive source-term of fission products in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfirio, Rogilson Nazare da Silva

    1996-01-01

    The source-term was defined with the purpose the quantify all radioactive nuclides released the nuclear reactor in the case of accidents. Nowadays the source-term is limited to the coolant of the primary circuit of reactors and may be measured or modelled with computer coders such as the TFP developed in this work. The calculational process is based on the linear chain techniques used in the CINDER-2 code. The TFP code considers forms of fission products release from the fuel pellet: Recoil, Knockout and Migration. The release from the gap to the coolant fluid is determined from the ratio between activity measured in the coolant and calculated activity in the gap. Considered the operational data of SURRY-1 reactor, the TFP code was run to obtain the source=term of this reactor. From the measured activities it was verified the reliability level of the model and the employed computational logic. The accuracy of the calculated quantities were compared to the measured data was considered satisfactory. (author)

  10. Fission Product Transport and Source Terms in HTRs: Experience from AVR Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Moormann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission products deposited in the coolant circuit outside of the active core play a dominant role in source term estimations for advanced small pebble bed HTRs, particularly in design basis accidents (DBA. The deposited fission products may be released in depressurization accidents because present pebble bed HTR concepts abstain from a gas tight containment. Contamination of the circuit also hinders maintenance work. Experiments, performed from 1972 to 88 on the AVR, an experimental pebble bed HTR, allow for a deeper insight into fission product transport behavior. The activity deposition per coolant pass was lower than expected and was influenced by fission product chemistry and by presence of carbonaceous dust. The latter lead also to inconsistencies between Cs plate out experiments in laboratory and in AVR. The deposition behavior of Ag was in line with present models. Dust as activity carrier is of safety relevance because of its mobility and of its sorption capability for fission products. All metal surfaces in pebble bed reactors were covered by a carbonaceous dust layer. Dust in AVR was produced by abrasion in amounts of about 5 kg/y. Additional dust sources in AVR were ours oil ingress and peeling of fuel element surfaces due to an air ingress. Dust has a size of about 1  m, consists mainly of graphite, is partly remobilized by flow perturbations, and deposits with time constants of 1 to 2 hours. In future reactors, an efficient filtering via a gas tight containment is required because accidents with fast depressurizations induce dust mobilization. Enhanced core temperatures in normal operation as in AVR and broken fuel pebbles have to be considered, as inflammable dust concentrations in the gas phase.

  11. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, E.P.; Johnston, H.S. Jr.; Farrell, M.; Twedell, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  12. The REVEL Project: Long-Term Investment in K-12 Education at a RIDGE 2000 Integrated Study Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.

    2005-12-01

    The REVEL Project has provided dozens of science teachers from throughout the U.S. an opportunity to explore the links between mid-ocean ridge processes and life along the RIDGE 2000 Juan de Fuca Ridge Integrated Study Site. In turn, these educators have facilitated deep-sea, research-based teaching and learning in hundreds of classrooms, contributed to mid-ocean ridge curriculum and programs development ranging from IMAX movies and museum exhibits to the R2K-SEAS (Student Experiment At Sea) program. In addition, the REVEL educators take on the mission to champion the importance of science in education and to bring ocean sciences into their local and regional communities. For the scientific community, research in an environment as large, dynamic and remote as the ocean intrinsically requires long-term investment to advance the understanding of the interactions between the processes shaping our planet. Similarly, research-based education requires long-term investment to incrementally change the way science is taught in schools, informal settings or even at home. It takes even longer to perceptibly measure the result of new teaching methods on students' learning and the impact of these methods on citizens' scientific literacy. Research-based education involving teachers practicing research in the field, and collaborating with scientists to experience and understand the process of science is still in its infancy - despite 20 years of NSF's efforts in teachers' professional development. This poster reports on strategies that the REVEL Project has designed over 9 years to help teachers that adopt research-based education transform their way of teaching in the classroom and bring cutting-edge, exciting science into schools through rigorous science learning. Their teaching approaches encourage students' interest in science, and engage students in the life-long skills of reasoning and decision making through the practice of science. Evaluation results of how the research

  13. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  14. Identifying the most productive breeding sites for malaria mosquitoes in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Sombroek, H.; Majambere, S.; Loon, van E.; Takken, W.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. Despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the Gambia River, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy

  15. Predicting redwood productivity using biophysical data, spatial statistics and site quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Kevin L. O’Hara; Shawn Headley

    2017-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) height growth and basal area growth are sensitive to variations in site quality. Site factors known to be correlated with redwood stand growth and yield include topographic variables such as position on slope, exposure, and the composite variable: topographic relative moisture index. Species...

  16. Changing forest water yields in response to climate warming: results from long-term experimental watershed sites across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F; Spargo, Adam T; Jones, Julia A; Buttle, Jim M; Adams, Mary B; Beall, Fred D; Booth, Eric G; Campbell, John L; Clow, Dave; Elder, Kelly; Green, Mark B; Grimm, Nancy B; Miniat, Chelcy; Ramlal, Patricia; Saha, Amartya; Sebestyen, Stephen; Spittlehouse, Dave; Sterling, Shannon; Williams, Mark W; Winkler, Rita; Yao, Huaxia

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is projected to affect forest water yields but the effects are expected to vary. We investigated how forest type and age affect water yield resilience to climate warming. To answer this question, we examined the variability in historical water yields at long-term experimental catchments across Canada and the United States over 5-year cool and warm periods. Using the theoretical framework of the Budyko curve, we calculated the effects of climate warming on the annual partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield. Deviation (d) was defined as a catchment's change in actual ET divided by P [AET/P; evaporative index (EI)] coincident with a shift from a cool to a warm period – a positive d indicates an upward shift in EI and smaller than expected water yields, and a negative d indicates a downward shift in EI and larger than expected water yields. Elasticity was defined as the ratio of interannual variation in potential ET divided by P (PET/P; dryness index) to interannual variation in the EI – high elasticity indicates low d despite large range in drying index (i.e., resilient water yields), low elasticity indicates high d despite small range in drying index (i.e., nonresilient water yields). Although the data needed to fully evaluate ecosystems based on these metrics are limited, we were able to identify some characteristics of response among forest types. Alpine sites showed the greatest sensitivity to climate warming with any warming leading to increased water yields. Conifer forests included catchments with lowest elasticity and stable to larger water yields. Deciduous forests included catchments with intermediate elasticity and stable to smaller water yields. Mixed coniferous/deciduous forests included catchments with highest elasticity and stable water yields. Forest type appeared to influence the resilience of catchment water yields to climate warming, with conifer and deciduous catchments more susceptible to

  17. Modelling the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.W.; Nitao, J.J.; Morris, J.P. [California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    Caprock integrity is an important constraint on the long-term performance of natural and engineered carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites. Influxes of CO{sub 2} can lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the caprock and degrade seal integrity. In this study, reactive transport modelling was used to assess the evolution of caprock permeability. The model was based on mathematical models of the coupled physical and chemical processes catalyzed by an influx event, along with supporting geochemical databases and a distinct-element geomechanical model. Geomechanical contribution was evaluated within a full system analysis of coupled hydrological and geochemical processes for Sleipner-like settings, and then analyzed as a function of hydrological processes, key reservoir properties, and CO{sub 2} influx parameters. The net effect of the geomechanical and geomechanical contributions on caprock integrity was then evaluated for both natural and engineered storage scenarios. Results of the study showed that CO{sub 2} influx-triggered geochemical and geomechanical processes act in opposition to enhance and degrade hydrodynamic seal capacity through aperture narrowing and widening of microfractures. The extent of geochemical enhancement was independent of the reservoir characteristics that distinguished saline-aquifer from enhanced oil recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration settings. However, while the extent of geochemical alteration was nearly independent of the filling mode, geomechanical deformation processes were more pronounced in engineered storage scenarios. Results suggested that the secure caprocks of natural CO{sub 2} accumulation settings may be incapable of providing effective seals for engineered injection processes. The pressure increase associated with CO{sub 2} accumulation in any compartmentalized system resulted in the net geomechanical aperture widening of caprock microfractures. It was concluded that the

  18. Simulation of long-term erosion on an abandoned mine site using the SIBERIA landscape evolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, G.; Willgoose, G.; Evans, K.

    1999-01-01

    The SIBERIA catchment evolution model can simulate the evolution of landforms over many years as a result of runoff and erosion. This study discusses testing of the reliability of the erosion predictions of the model in a field study. Using erosion parameters calibrated from field studies of rainfall and runoff from the waste rock dump batters, the SIBERIA landscape evolution model was calibrated and then used to simulate erosion over 50 years on the abandoned Scinto 6 mine site. Scinto 6 is a former uranium mine located in the Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia. The SIBERIA runs simulated the geomorphic development of the gullies on the man-made batters of the waste rock dump. The waste rock of the mine had been dumped in the characteristic pattern of a flat top and steep sided batters typical of many former and current dumps and there had been significant degradation from both sheet and gully erosion. Traditional erosion models cannot model this type of degradation because their erosion model cannot change the landform, while SIBERIA does change the landform. The gully position, depth volume and morphology on the waste rock dump were compared with that of SIBERIA simulations. The geomorphic development of the waste rock dump indicated that SIBERIA can simulate features that arise from the long-term effect of erosion and also their rate of development on a man-made post-mining landscape over periods of up to 50 years. The detailed results of this specific study will be discussed with specific discussion of the type of data required and the implications of the uncertain erosion physics on the reliability of the predictions

  19. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ``flagship`` of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program.

  20. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ''flagship'' of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program

  1. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt) , respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  2. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  3. Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short-Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis: 2014-2015 Working Group Findings Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    fractions A grain size or sieve analysis typically yields the mass fraction of each particle size class after dispersing all of the material. However...ER D C TR -1 6- 2 Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Authorization and Short-Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis 2014 – 2015...Term FATE (STFATE) Model Analysis 2014 – 2015 Working Group Findings Report Jase D. Ousley Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer

  4. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  5. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  6. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon-nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J Beversdorf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic versus non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined three years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N speciation and inorganic carbon (C availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the toxic phase. Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment.

  7. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1-36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32) were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33) were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only), tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only), rash/irritation (study 2 only), and overall skin condition (study 2 only) at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, Pproduct-related adverse events. The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen.

  8. Above-ground woody carbon sequestration measured from tree rings is coherent with net ecosystem productivity at five eddy-covariance sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babst, Flurin; Bouriaud, Olivier; Papale, Dario; Gielen, Bert; Janssens, Ivan A; Nikinmaa, Eero; Ibrom, Andreas; Wu, Jian; Bernhofer, Christian; Köstner, Barbara; Grünwald, Thomas; Seufert, Günther; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    • Attempts to combine biometric and eddy-covariance (EC) quantifications of carbon allocation to different storage pools in forests have been inconsistent and variably successful in the past. • We assessed above-ground biomass changes at five long-term EC forest stations based on tree-ring width and wood density measurements, together with multiple allometric models. Measurements were validated with site-specific biomass estimates and compared with the sum of monthly CO₂ fluxes between 1997 and 2009. • Biometric measurements and seasonal net ecosystem productivity (NEP) proved largely compatible and suggested that carbon sequestered between January and July is mainly used for volume increase, whereas that taken up between August and September supports a combination of cell wall thickening and storage. The inter-annual variability in above-ground woody carbon uptake was significantly linked with wood production at the sites, ranging between 110 and 370 g C m(-2) yr(-1) , thereby accounting for 10-25% of gross primary productivity (GPP), 15-32% of terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and 25-80% of NEP. • The observed seasonal partitioning of carbon used to support different wood formation processes refines our knowledge on the dynamics and magnitude of carbon allocation in forests across the major European climatic zones. It may thus contribute, for example, to improved vegetation model parameterization and provides an enhanced framework to link tree-ring parameters with EC measurements. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Fission product iodine during early Hanford-Site operations: Its production and behavior during fuel processing, off-gas treatment and release to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate the radiological dose impact that Hanford Site operations may have made on the local and regional population. This impact is estimated by examining operations involving radioactive materials that were conducted at the Hanford Site from the startup of the first reactor in 1944 to the present. HEDR Project work is divided among several technical tasks. One of these tasks, Source Terms, is designed to develop quantitative estimates of all significant emissions of radionuclides by Hanford Site operations since 1944. Radiation doses can be estimated from these emissions by accounting for specific radionuclide transport conditions and population demography. This document provides technical information to assist in the evaluation of iodine releases. 115 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Bryant Park as a Site of Production: Revenue and Social Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kaufman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bryant Park is New York City's only 100% privately funded and managed 'public' park, making it an oft looked-to model of public-private partnerships. This paper examines the everyday workings of the park using ethnographic and archival data, and criminological and urban theory. These details help us understand how Bryant produces a theme-park-like social order in its built environment, landscaping, management, and programming of the park. I suggest that social control functions through five governing principles: visibility, classification, predictability, vulnerability, and empowerment. Everything is neatly classified, from people to activities to trash. Vulnerable design elements like flowers are chosen to suggest the park is cared for. Park-goers are meant to feel not controlled, but in-control; safe, comfortable, and empowered.This elaborate manipulation of semiotics and space serves to produce surplus value for multiple corporate interests involved in and around the park. I argue that the park operates as a site of production of revenue for these corporate interests. I explain how the park is created and marketed as a product itself, which park-goers have an unwitting share in producing. Thus New York’s elite-business community benefits from this nominally public park. Bryant Park es el único parque “público” de la ciudad de Nueva York de financiación y gestión 100% privada, lo que lo convierte a menudo en un ejemplo de partenariados público-privados. Este artículo analiza el funcionamiento cotidiano del parque, utilizando datos etnográficos y de archivo, así como teoría criminológica y urbana. Estos detalles nos ayudan a comprender cómo Bryant produce un orden social dentro del parque en el entorno creado, paisajismo, gestión y programación del parque. Se sugiere que el control social funciona a través de cinco principios de gobierno: visibilidad, clasificación, predicción, vulnerabilidad y empoderamiento. Todo est

  12. Monitoring NEON terrestrial sites phenology with daily MODIS BRDF/albedo product and landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and albedo products (MCD43) have already been in production for more than a decade. The standard product makes use of a linear “kernel-driven” RossThick-LiSparse Reciprocal (RTLSR) BRDF m...

  13. Impairment of Release Site Clearance within the Active Zone by Reduced SCAMP5 Expression Causes Short-Term Depression of Synaptic Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehun Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Despite being a highly enriched synaptic vesicle (SV protein and a candidate gene for autism, the physiological function of SCAMP5 remains mostly enigmatic. Here, using optical imaging and electrophysiological experiments, we demonstrate that SCAMP5 plays a critical role in release site clearance at the active zone. Truncation analysis revealed that the 2/3 loop domain of SCAMP5 directly interacts with adaptor protein 2, and this interaction is critical for its role in release site clearance. Knockdown (KD of SCAMP5 exhibited pronounced synaptic depression accompanied by a slower recovery of the SV pool. Moreover, it induced a strong frequency-dependent short-term depression of synaptic release, even under the condition of sufficient release-ready SVs. Super-resolution microscopy further proved the defects in SV protein clearance induced by KD. Thus, reduced expression of SCAMP5 may impair the efficiency of SV clearance at the active zone, and this might relate to the synaptic dysfunction observed in autism. : Park et al. show that SCAMP5 plays an important role in release site clearance during intense neuronal activity. Loss of SCAMP5 results in a traffic jam at release sites, causing aberrant short-term synaptic depression that might be associated with the synaptic dysfunction observed in autism. Keywords: secretory carrier membrane protein, SCAMP5, autism spectrum disorder, adaptor protein 2, release site clearance, presynaptic active zone, short-term depression, endocytosis, super-resolution microscopy

  14. Analysis of near-term production and market opportunities for hydrogen and related activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, R.; Leach, S. [National Hydrogen Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes current and planned activities in the areas of hydrogen production and use, near-term venture opportunities, and codes and standards. The rationale for these efforts is to assess industry interest and engage in activities that move hydrogen technologies down the path to commercialization. Some of the work presented in this document is a condensed, preliminary version of reports being prepared under the DOE/NREL contract. In addition, the NHA work funded by Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation (WSRC) to explore the opportunities and industry interest in a Hydrogen Research Center is briefly described. Finally, the planned support of and industry input to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel (HTAP) on hydrogen demonstration projects is discussed.

  15. Tracing the long-term microbial production of recalcitrant fluorescent dissolved organic matter in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Stedmon, Colin A.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean is resistant to microbial degradation, yet its formation remains poorly understood. The fluorescent fraction of DOM can be used to trace the formation of recalcitrant DOM (RDOM). A long-term (> 1 year) experiment revealed 27–52% removal...... of dissolved organic carbon and a nonlinear increase in RDOM fluorescence associated with microbial turnover of semilabile DOM. This fluorescence was also produced using glucose as the only initial carbon source, suggesting that degradation of prokaryote remnants contributes to RDOM. Our results indicate...... that the formation of a fluorescent RDOM component depends on the bioavailability of the substrate: the less labile, the larger the production of fluorescent RDOM relative to organic carbon remineralized. The anticipated increase in microbial carbon demand due to ocean warming can potentially forcemicrobes...

  16. Two decades of genetic profiling yields first evidence of natal philopatry and long-term fidelity to parturition sites in sharks

    KAUST Repository

    Feldheim, Kevin Andrew; Gruber, Samuel H.; DiBattista, Joseph; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Kessel, Steven T.; Hendry, Andrew P.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Ashley, Mary V.; Chapman, Demian D F

    2013-01-01

    in the 1993-1997 cohorts returned to give birth 14-17 years later, providing the first direct evidence of natal philopatry in the chondrichthyans. Long-term fidelity to specific nursery sites coupled with natal philopatry highlights the merits of emerging

  17. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This report contains the comment and response document for the Draft Long-Term Surveillance Plan of the Bodo Canyon Site in Durango, California. This is a part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Questions and comments regarding specific sections or statements in the report are described and then a response to each review comment or question is provided

  18. LONG-TERM STABILITY OF THE LOCAL GROUND CONTROL NETWORK AT THE CO-LOCATION SITE OF MEDICINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, C.; Sarti, P.; Legrand, J.

    2009-12-01

    ITRF combinations rely on the availability of accurate tie vectors linking reference points of space geodetic techniques. Co-located instruments are assumed to move consistently and no local relative motion is taken into account. Instabilities may degrade the quality of the co-location itself and perturb the result of ITRF combinations. This work aims to determine the stability of the local ground control network at Medicina (Italy) with independent surveying methods. The observatory hosts a co-location between a VLBI telescope and two GPS antennas, MEDI and MSEL. It is located in the Po Plain where thick layers of clays are the prevalent soil characteristics. Hence, provision of long term stability of geodetic monuments is a challenge and monitoring their stability is an issue. MEDI and the VLBI station regularly contribute to the determination of ITRF, while MSEL is part of the EUREF network. A set of five tie vectors observations linking the VLBI and MEDI reference points was acquired between 2001 and 2007. It is our main tool for performing local deformation analysis. Additionally, the GPS time series of MEDI and MSEL were used to cross check and confirm the local instability detected by terrestrial methods. To achieve a rigorous and reliable investigation of the local stability, multi-epoch terrestrial observations were homogeneously processed according to common parameterizations in a consistent reference frame. Similarly, continuous GPS observations from MEDI and MSEL were analysed according to the new EPN reprocessing strategy in order to monitor the short baseline between MEDI and MSEL; to spotlight any change in its length. Both approaches confirm differential motions at the site which can be related to monument instabilities originated by the particularly unfavourable local geological setting and the inapt design of the monuments foundation. The monuments move non homogeneously at rates reaching up to 1.6 mm/year, this value being comparable to intra

  19. Accessing SAFOD data products: Downhole measurements, physical samples and long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, C.; Zoback, M.; Hickman, S. H.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2005-12-01

    Many different types of data were collected during SAFOD Phases 1 and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the National Science Foundation's EarthScope program as well as from the SAFOD Pilot Hole, drilled in 2002 and funded by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). Both SAFOD and the SAFOD Pilot Hole are being conducted as a close collaboration between NSF, the U.S. Geological Survey and the ICDP. SAFOD data products include cuttings, core and fluid samples; borehole geophysical measurements; and strain, tilt, and seismic recordings from the multilevel SAFOD borehole monitoring instruments. As with all elements of EarthScope, these data (and samples) are openly available to members of the scientific and educational communities. This paper presents the acquisition, storage and distribution plan for SAFOD data products. Washed and unwashed drill cuttings and mud samples were collected during Phases 1 and 2, along with three spot cores at depths of 1.5, 2.5, and 3.1 km. A total of 52 side-wall cores were also collected in the open-hole interval between 2.5 and 3.1 km depth. The primary coring effort will occur during Phase 3 (2007), when we will continuously core up to four, 250-m-long multilaterals directly within and adjacent to the San Andreas Fault Zone. Drill cuttings, core, and fluid samples from all three Phases of SAFOD drilling are being curated under carefully controlled conditions at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Gulf Coast Repository in College Station, Texas. Photos of all physical samples and a downloadable sample request form are available on the ICDP website (http://www.icdp-online.de/sites/sanandreas/index/index.html). A suite of downhole geophysical measurements was conducted during the first two Phases of SAFOD drilling, as well as during drilling of the SAFOD Pilot Hole. These data include density, resistivity, porosity, seismic and borehole image logs and are also available via the ICDP website. The SAFOD monitoring program

  20. Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

  1. Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gases produced by in situ radiolysis of sealed solidified nuclear wastes during long-term storage could conceivably breach containment. Therefore, candidate waste forms (matrices containing simulated nuclear wastes) were irradiated with 60 Co-γ and 244 Cm-α radiation. These forms were: cement containing simulated fission product sludges, vermiculite containing organic liquids, and cellulosics contaminated with α-emitting transuranic isotopes. For cement waste forms exposed to γ-radiolysis, an equilibrium hydrogen pressure was reached that was dose rate dependent. For α-radiolysis, equilibrium was not reached. With organic wastes (n-octane on vermiculite), H 2 and traces of CO 2 and CH 4 were produced, and O 2 was consumed with both radiations. Only energy absorbed by the organic material was effective in producing H 2 . At low dose rates with both α- and γ-irradiations, G(H 2 ) was 4.5 and G(-O 2 ) was 5.0. Also, equilibrium was not obtained. For cellulosic material, H 2 , CO 2 , and CO were produced in the ratio of 1.0:0.7:0.3, and O 2 was consumed. With α-radiolysis, G(gas) was dose dependent; measured values ranged from 2.2 to 0.6 as the dose increased. Implications of all these results on long-term storage of radioactive waste are discussed. Some data from an actual nuclear wasteform are also presented

  2. Long-term cover design for low-level radioactive and hazardous waste sites as applied to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site solar evaporation ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenseng, S.E.; Nixon, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) operated five lined solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Jefferson County, Colorado from 1953 until 1986. The SEPs were used primarily to store and evaporate low-level radioactive and hazardous process wastes. Operation of the SEPs has resulted in contamination of the surrounding soils, and may also provide a source of groundwater contamination. The DOE proposes to close the SEPs by consolidating the contaminated material beneath an engineered cover. The primary objective of the closure of such hazardous and radioactive sites is to limit the exposure of the general public to the contaminants for time periods ranging from 100 to 10,000 years. The goal of the SEPs engineered cover is to isolate hazardous and low-level radioactive soils for a minimum of 1,000 years. Since there is currently no existing regulatory design guidance for a 1,000-year engineered cover, the proposed design of the SEPs engineered cover is based on research and testing that has been conducted for many years at various DOE facilities in the US. This paper discusses the main design theories of the proposed engineered cover for the closure of the SEPs, and how the research and test results of these other programs have been used to arrive at the final cover configuration, the material selections, the component layering, layer thicknesses, and the balance and interaction between components to establish an overall effective cover system

  3. Local and Regional Economic Benefits from Forest Products Production Activities at the Savannah River Site: 1955-Present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeter, L.; Blake, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    SRS was established in 1951 as a nuclear materials production facility; however, decline in the defense mission budget at SRS has created a major economic impact on the community in the Central Savannah River Area. SRS has been offsetting these effects by producing revenue (80 million dollars to date) from the sale of forest products since 1955 primarily trees, but also pine straw. Revenue has been re-invested into the infrastructure development, restoration and management of natural resources. Total asset value of the forest-land has increased from 21 million to over 500 million dollars in the same period

  4. Evaluation of the Non-Transient Hydrologic Source Term from the CAMBRIC Underground Nuclear Test in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A B; Maxwell, R M; Carle, S F; Zavarin, M; Pawloski, G A.; Shumaker, D E

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic Source Term (HST) calculations completed in 1998 at the CAMBRIC underground nuclear test site were LLNL's first attempt to simulate a hydrologic source term at the NTS by linking groundwater flow and transport modeling with geochemical modeling (Tompson et al., 1999). Significant effort was applied to develop a framework that modeled in detail the flow regime and captured all appropriate chemical processes that occurred over time. However, portions of the calculations were simplified because of data limitations and a perceived need for generalization of the results. For example: (1) Transient effects arising from a 16 years of pumping at the site for a radionuclide migration study were not incorporated. (2) Radionuclide fluxes across the water table, as derived from infiltration from a ditch to which pumping effluent was discharged, were not addressed. (3) Hydrothermal effects arising from residual heat of the test were not considered. (4) Background data on the ambient groundwater flow direction were uncertain and not represented. (5) Unclassified information on the Radiologic Source Term (RST) inventory, as tabulated recently by Bowen et al. (2001), was unavailable; instead, only a limited set of derived data were available (see Tompson et al., 1999). (6) Only a small number of radionuclides and geochemical reactions were incorporated in the work. (7) Data and interpretation of the RNM-2S multiple well aquifer test (MWAT) were not available. As a result, the current Transient CAMBRIC Hydrologic Source Term project was initiated as part of a broader Phase 2 Frenchman Flat CAU flow and transport modeling effort. The source term will be calculated under two scenarios: (1) A more specific representation of the transient flow and radionuclide release behavior at the site, reflecting the influence of the background hydraulic gradient, residual test heat, pumping experiment, and ditch recharge, and taking into account improved data sources and modeling

  5. Long-term effect of inoculum pretreatment on fermentative hydrogen production by repeated batch cultivations: homoacetogenesis and methanogenesis as competitors to hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Xie, Li

    2011-01-01

    Long-term effects of inoculum pretreatments(heat, acid, loading-shock) on hydrogen production from glucose under different temperatures (378C, 558C) and initial pH (7 and 5.5) were studied by repeated batch cultivations. Results obtained showed that it was necessary to investigate the long......-term effect of inoculum pretreatment on hydrogen production since pretreatments may just temporarily inhibit the hydrogen consuming processes. After long-term cultivation, pretreated inocula did not enhance hydrogen production compared to untreated inocula under mesophilic conditions (initial pH 7 and pH 5.......5) and thermophilic conditions (initial pH 7). However, pretreatment could inhibit lactate production and lead to higher hydrogen yield under thermophilic conditions at initial pH 5.5. The results further demonstrated that inoculum pretreatment could not permanently inhibit either methanogenesis or homoacetogenesis...

  6. Long-term product consistency test of simulated 90-19/Nd HLW glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, X.Y.; Zhang, Z.T.; Yuan, W.Y.; Wang, L.; Bai, Y.; Ma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical durability of 90-19/Nd glass, a simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass in contact with the groundwater was investigated with a long-term product consistency test (PCT). Generally, it is difficult to observe the long term property of HLW glass due to the slow corrosion rate in a mild condition. In order to overcome this problem, increased contacting surface (S/V = 6000 m -1 ) and elevated temperature (150 o C) were employed to accelerate the glass corrosion evolution. The micro-morphological characteristics of the glass surface and the secondary minerals formed after the glass alteration were analyzed by SEM-EDS and XRD, and concentrations of elements in the leaching solution were determined by ICP-AES. In our experiments, two types of minerals, which have great impact on glass dissolution, were found to form on 90-19/Nd HLW glass surface when it was subjected to a long-term leaching in the groundwater. One is Mg-Fe-rich phyllosilicates with honeycomb structure; the other is aluminosilicates (zeolites). Mg and Fe in the leaching solution participated in the formation of phyllosilicates. The main components of phyllosilicates in alteration products of 90-19/Nd HLW glass are nontronite (Na 0.3 Fe 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O) and montmorillonite (Ca 0.2 (Al,Mg) 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O), and those of aluminosilicates are mordenite ((Na 2 ,K 2 ,Ca)Al 2 Si 10 O 24 .7H 2 O)) and clinoptilolite ((Na,K,Ca) 5 Al 6 Si 30 O 72 .18H 2 O). Minerals like Ca(Mg)SO 4 and CaCO 3 with low solubility limits are prone to form precipitant on the glass surface. Appearance of the phyllosilicates and aluminosilicates result in the dissolution rate of 90-19/Nd HLW glass resumed, which is increased by several times over the stable rate. As further dissolution of the glass, both B and Na in the glass were found to leach out in borax form.

  7. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coret CD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30, a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30, or a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=32 were assessed over 2 weeks. In study 2, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash and a lightly fragranced natural baby lotion (n=33 were assessed as a regimen over 4 weeks. The wash and shampoo were used three or more times per week, but not more than once daily. Lotions were applied in the morning or after a bath. Clinicians assessed the arms, legs, torso, or scalp for erythema, dryness, peeling/flakiness (study 1 only, tactile roughness, edema (study 1 only, rash/irritation (study 2 only, and overall skin condition (study 2 only at baseline, week 1, and weeks 2 or 4. Parents completed skin assessment questionnaires. In study 2, stratum corneum hydration was measured. Subjects were monitored for adverse events. Results: No significant changes in clinical grading scores were observed, indicating that all products were well tolerated. By the end of each study, >90% of parents/caregivers believed each product was mild and gentle. In study 2, improvement in stratum corneum hydration was observed (+37% at week 1 and +48% at week 4, P<0.05 for both. In study 1, one baby experienced mild erythema on the neck and scalp after using the shampoo (possibly related to treatment. In study 2, there were no product-related adverse events. Conclusion: The natural baby skin-care products were well tolerated by infants and toddlers when used alone or as part of a skin-care regimen. Keywords: bath, cleanser, natural, infant, lotion, shampoo

  8. Surface-Water Quality Conditions and Long-Term Trends at Selected Sites within the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network in Missouri, Water Years 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.; Davis, Jerri V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, collects data pertaining to the surface-water resources of Missouri. These data are collected as part of the Missouri Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network and constitute a valuable source of reliable, impartial, and timely information for developing an improved understanding of water resources in the State. Six sites from the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, with data available from the 1993 through 2008 water years, were chosen to compare water-quality conditions and long-term trends of dissolved oxygen, selected physical properties, total suspended solids, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorous, fecal indicator bacteria, and selected trace elements. The six sites used in the study were classified in groups corresponding to the physiography, main land use, and drainage basin size, and represent most stream types in Missouri. Long-term trends in this study were analyzed using flow-adjusted and non-flow adjusted models. Highly censored datasets (greater than 5 percent but less than 50 percent censored values) were not flow-adjusted. Trends that were detected can possibly be related to changes in agriculture or urban development within the drainage basins. Trends in nutrients were the most prevalent. Upward flow-adjusted trends in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite (as nitrogen) concentrations were identified at the Elk River site, and in total phosphorus concentrations at the South Fabius and Grand River sites. A downward flow-adjusted trend was identified in total phosphorus concentrations from Wilson Creek, the only urban site in the study. The downward trend in phosphorus possibly was related to a phosphorus reduction system that began operation in 2001 at a wastewater treatment plant upstream from the sampling site. Total suspended solids concentrations indicated an upward non-flow adjusted trend at the two northern sites (South Fabius

  9. Effects of phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein on progesterone and estrogen (estradiol) production of human term trophoblast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dagmar Ulrike; Mylonas, Ioannis; Toth, Bettina; Scholz, Christoph; Briese, Volker; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo

    2009-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of nonsteroidal plant compounds that occur naturally in many plants. Because they possess a ring system similar to estrogens they are able to bind on estrogen receptors alpha and beta in humans. The effects of the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein on the production of progesterone and estrogen in isolated human term trophoblast cells in vitro were tested in this study. Cytotrophoblast cells were isolated from human term placentas. Phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast cells. Untreated cells were used as controls. After 24 h aliquots were removed and tested for progesterone and estrogen production. The production of the steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen are influenced by phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein in human term trophoblast cells. A strong inhibition effect of both phytoestrogens tested in the production of progesterone was demonstrated. In addition, a significant stimulating effect on estrogen production by genistein and daidzein was observed. Results obtained with this study show that phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein) sufficiently reduce progesterone production in human term trophoblast cells. Because blockade of progesterone is a possible mechanism involved in initiation of labor, we may speculate that high doses of phytoestrogens at the feto-maternal interphase could play a negative role in maintenance of pregnancy. Stimulation of estrogen production by genistein and daidzein in trophoblast cells is probably due to estrogen receptor blocking effects of both phytoestrogens. Trophoblast cells seem to compensate blocking of its estrogen receptors by higher estrogen production.

  10. Visit to the Russian Production and Assembly Sites in March 2000 (photos obtained from MPI)

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Photo1 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo2 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo3 - EST electrode production at LPI. Photo4 - Cold test of EST electrodes at LPI. Photo5 - Cold test of EST electrodes at LPI. Photo6 - The device for cleaning honeycomb mats at JINR. Photo7 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo8 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo9 - Module assembly at IHEP. Photo10 - Transport cases for "Molniya" modules (former bomb cases)

  11. BOREAS TGB-6 Soil Methane Oxidation and Production from NSA BP and Fen Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Bruce; Wahlen, Martin; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB-6) team collected soil methane measurements at several sites in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA). This data set contains soil methane consumption (bacterial CH4 oxidation) and associated C-13 fractionation effects in samples that were collected at various sites in 1994 and 1996 from enclosures (chambers). Methane C-13 data in soil gas samples from the NSA Young Jack Pine (YJP) and Old Jack Pine (OJP) sites for 1994 and 1996 are also given. Additional data on the isotopic composition of methane (carbon and hydrogen isotopes) produced in the NSA beaver ponds and fen bog in 1993 and 1994 are given as well. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  12. [Prediction of 137Cs accumulation in animal products in the territory of Semipalatinsk test site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, S I; Gontarenko, I A; Mukusheva, M K; Fesenko, S V; Semioshkina, N A

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes mathematical models for 137Cs behavior in the organism of horses and sheep pasturing on the bording area to the testing area "Ground Zero" of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The models are parameterized on the base of the data from an experiment with the breeds of animals now commonly encountered within the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The predictive calculations with the models devised have shown that 137Cs concentrations in milk of horses and sheep pasturingon the testing area to "Ground Zero" can exceed the adopted standards during a long period of time.

  13. Extended region of nodulation genes in Rhizobium meliloti 1021. II. Nucleotide sequence, transcription start sites and protein products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.F.; Swanson, J.A.; Mulligan, J.T.; Long, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have established the DNA sequence and analyzed the transcription and translation products of a series of putative nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti strain 1021. Four loci have been designated nodF, nodE, nodG and nodH. The correlation of transposon insertion positions with phenotypes and open reading frames was confirmed by sequencing the insertion junctions of the transposons. The protein products of these nod genes were visualized by in vitro expression of cloned DNA segments in a R. meliloti transcription-translation system. In addition, the sequence for nodG was substantiated by creating translational fusions in all three reading frames at several points in the sequence; the resulting fusions were expressed in vitro in both E. coli and R. meliloti transcription-translation systems. A DNA segment bearing several open reading frames downstream of nodG corresponds to the putative nod gene mutated in strain nod-216. The transcription start sites of nodF and nodH were mapped by primer extension of RNA from cells induced with the plant flavone, luteolin. Initiation of transcription occurs approximately 25 bp downstream from the conserved sequence designated the nod box, suggesting that this conserved sequence acts as an upstream regulator of inducible nod gene expression. Its distance from the transcription start site is more suggestive of an activator binding site rather than an RNA polymerase binding site

  14. Recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. as a source for synthetic seed production for medium-term preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holobiuc Irina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to establish an efficient and reproducible system for producing synthetic seeds from recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. This species is a vulnerable medicinal plant, protected both at the national and international levels, and is included in different Red Lists and Books. In vitro culture, as an alternative to classical methods of preservation, allows for the cyclic multiplication of plant material and short-, medium- and long-term preservation of tissue collections. Biotechnological approaches allow for maintenance of the plant material in a confined space and protection against biotic and abiotic factors. Somatic embryogenesis (SE is the most efficient way to regenerate plants, ensuring material for preservation and fundamental research. In our experiment, recurrent somatic embryogenesis was developed in long-term cultures in the presence of sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol and in the absence of growth factors. This process proceeded at a high rate, with adventive somatic embryos being generated in a continuous process, followed by maturation, germination and development into plants. To follow the somatic embryogenesis process, histological samples were made. We used these embryogenic cultures for synthetic seed production and medium-term conservation. The viability of somatic embryos after moderate osmotic stress treatment was tested using TTC. Our methodology relied on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in the presence of auxins in the first cycle of in vitro cultures, long-term high embryogenic culture maintenance in the presence of sugar alcohols and synthetic seed production.

  15. Numerical studies of gas production from several CH4 hydrate zones at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Dallimore, S.R.; Satoh, T.; Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mallik site represents an onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulation in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. A gas hydrate research well was drilled at the site in 1998. The objective of this study is the analysis of various gas production scenarios from five methane hydrate-bearing zones at the Mallik site. In Zone #1, numerical simulations using the EOSHYDR2 model indicated that gas production from hydrates at the Mallik site was possible by depressurizing a thin free gas zone at the base of the hydrate stability field. Horizontal wells appeared to have a slight advantage over vertical wells, while multiwell systems involving a combination of depressurization and thermal stimulation offered superior performance, especially when a hot noncondensible gas was injected. Zone #2, which involved a gas hydrate layer with an underlying aquifer, could yield significant amounts of gas originating entirely from gas hydrates, the volumes of which increased with the production rate. However, large amounts of water were also produced. Zones #3, #4 and #5 were lithologically isolated gas hydrate-bearing deposits with no underlying zones of mobile gas or water. In these zones, thermal stimulation by circulating hot water in the well was used to induce dissociation. Sensitivity studies indicated that the methane release from the hydrate accumulations increased with the gas hydrate saturation, the initial formation temperature, the temperature of the circulating water in the well, and the formation thermal conductivity. Methane production appears to be less sensitive to the specific heat of the rock and of the hydrate, and to the permeability of the formation. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Numerical simulation studies of gas production scenarios from hydrate accumulations at the Mallik Site, McKenzie Delta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy S.; Dallimore, Scott R.; Satoh, Tohru; Hancock, Stephen; Weatherill, Brian

    2002-01-01

    The Mallik site represents an onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulation in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. An 1150 m deep gas hydrate research well was drilled at the site in 1998. The objective of this study is the analysis of various gas production scenarios from several gas-hydrate-bearing zones at the Mallik site. The TOUGH2 general-purpose simulator with the EOSHYDR2 module were used for the analysis. EOSHYDR2 is designed to model the non-isothermal CH(sub 4) (methane) release, phase behavior and flow under conditions typical of methane-hydrate deposits by solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, and can describe any combination of gas hydrate dissociation mechanisms. Numerical simulations indicated that significant gas hydrate production at the Mallik site was possible by drawing down the pressure on a thin free-gas zone at the base of the hydrate stability field. Gas hydrate zones with underlying aquifers yielded significant gas production entirely from dissociated gas hydrate, but large amounts of produced water. Lithologically isolated gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs with no underlying free gas or water zones, and gas-hydrate saturations of at least 50% were also studied. In these cases, it was assumed that thermal stimulation by circulating hot water in the well was the method used to induce dissociation. Sensitivity studies indicated that the methane release from the hydrate accumulations increases with gas-hydrate saturation, the initial formation temperature, the temperature of the circulating water in the well, and the formation thermal conductivity. Methane production appears to be less sensitive to the rock and hydrate specific heat and permeability of the formation

  17. Evaluation of water quality conditions near proposed fish production sites associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauble, D.d.; Mueller, R.P.; Martinson, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP

  18. Quantitative site-specific phosphoproteomics of Trichoderma reesei signaling pathways upon induction of hydrolytic enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, E.V.; Imanishi, S.Y.; Haapaniemi, P.; Yadav, A.; Saloheimo, M.; Corthals, G.L.; Pakula, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is used for industrial production of secreted enzymes including carbohydrate active enzymes, such as cellulases and hemicellulases. The production of many of these enzymes by T. reesei is influenced by the carbon source it grows on, where the regulation

  19. Perspectives on site productivity of loblolly pine plantations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Vance; Felipe G. Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    Pine plantations in the U.S. South include some of the most intensively managed and productive forests in the world. Studies have been established in recent decades to answer questions about whether the productivity of these plantations is sustainable. While intensive management practices greatly enhance tree growth, their effects on factors controlling growth...

  20. Short-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment increases platelet cGMP production in elderly male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Valentino; Benso, Andrea; Gigliardi, Valentina Ramella; Masha, Andi; Origlia, Carla; Granata, Riccarda; Ghigo, Ezio

    2006-03-01

    Several clinical and population-based studies suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEA-S) play a protective role against atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in human. However, the mechanisms underlying this action are still unknown. It has recently been suggested that DHEA-S could delay atheroma formation through an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. Twenty-four aged male subjects [age (mean +/- SEM): 65.4 +/- 0.7 year; range: 58.2-67.6 years] underwent a blinded placebo controlled study receiving DHEA (50 mg p.o. daily at bedtime) or placebo for 2 months. Platelet cyclic guanosine-monophosphate (cGMP) concentration (as marker of NO production) and serum levels of DHEA-S, DHEA, IGF-I, insulin, glucose, oestradiol (E(2)), testosterone, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 antigen (PAI-1 Ag), homocysteine and lipid profile were evaluated before and after the 2-month treatment with DHEA or placebo. At the baseline, all variables in the two groups were overlapping. All parameters were unchanged after treatment with placebo. Conversely, treatment with DHEA (a) increased (P < 0.001 vs. baseline) platelet cGMP (111.9 +/- 7.1 vs. 50.1 +/- 4.1 fmol/10(6) plts), DHEA-S (13.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.3 micromol/l), DHEA (23.6 +/- 1.7 vs. 15.3 +/- 1.4 nmol/l), testosterone (23.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 17.7 +/- 1.0 nmol/l) and E(2) (72.0 +/- 5.0 vs. 60.0 +/- 4.0 pmol/l); and (b) decreased (P < 0.05 vs. baseline) PAI-1 Ag (27.4 +/- 3.8 vs. 21.5 +/- 2.5 ng/ml) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (3.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). IGF-I, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, HDL2 cholesterol, HDL3 cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and homocysteine levels were not modified by DHEA treatment. This study shows that short-term treatment with DHEA increased platelet cGMP production, a marker of NO production, in healthy elderly subjects. This effect is coupled with a decrease in PAI-1

  1. Site selection of the construction of the system for the production of pasta in AP Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the growing race for the market share, companies geographically position their production and office buildings according to the new business rules. In order for the company to survive in the market, it is necessary to maximize the profit, minimize the costs, maintain a good quality of the product and constantly improve it. The choice of location is one of the vital decisions in the process of building of a production system, although the selection of the location is a problem related to certain time sections in the life of a given production system, the need for research on the effect locations have is stable in time. The aim of the research is the methodological approach to the selection criteria of broader and narrower location for the construction of the production system for pastry production in Vojvodina as an area which has a rich base in raw material. The Agricultural and food industry as branches of industry have a long time tradition as well as a great potential in strengthening economic performances of the Economy of Vojvodina. Evaluation criteria and their use in the model of dimensional analysis will allow a good selection of a good location for the construction of the business systems for the production of pastry.

  2. Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giglio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001–2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997–2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

  3. Short‑Term and Long‑Term Relationships Between Prices of Imported Oil and Fuel Products in the U. S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Adamec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed a system of five monthly time series integrated I(1: average price of crude oil imported to the U.S. from OPEC countries (Opec, imported oil price from other than OPEC countries (NonOpec in USD per barrel, average price of regular gasoline in the U.S. (Regular, premium quality gasoline price (Premium and kerosene price (Kerosene in U.S. cents per gallon. Cointegration was established by EG test and the series were analyzed by VECM model with lag selected via BIC criterion. Cointegration rank was determined by the Johansen procedure. According to VECM coefficients, prices of oil from OPEC countries and beyond OPEC exert influence upon all commodity prices in the system, but in a contradictory manner. Responses to innovation shocks in Opec and NonOpec stabilized within 8 to 10 months upon a nonzero shift and further became permanent. Innovation shock in both types of gasoline and Kerosene had only short-term significant impact upon the system. Forecast error variance in all variables is explained mainly by variation in oil prices, especially Opec, which persists with increased horizon. For a short horizon h = 1, FEVDs in gasoline and kerosene prices are primarily made of variation in the respective fuel prices.

  4. EphrinA4 mimetic peptide targeted to EphA binding site impairs the formation of long-term fear memory in lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, M; Lamprecht, R

    2014-09-30

    Fear conditioning leads to long-term fear memory formation and is a model for studying fear-related psychopathologies conditions such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder. Long-term fear memory formation is believed to involve alterations of synaptic efficacy mediated by changes in synaptic transmission and morphology in lateral amygdala (LA). EphrinA4 and its cognate Eph receptors are intimately involved in regulating neuronal morphogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity. To assess possible roles of ephrinA4 in fear memory formation we designed and used a specific inhibitory ephrinA4 mimetic peptide (pep-ephrinA4) targeted to EphA binding site. We show that this peptide, composed of the ephrinA4 binding domain, interacts with EphA4 and inhibits ephrinA4-induced phosphorylation of EphA4. Microinjection of the pep-ephrinA4 into rat LA 30 min before training impaired long- but not short-term fear conditioning memory. Microinjection of a control peptide derived from a nonbinding E helix site of ephrinA4, that does not interact with EphA, had no effect on fear memory formation. Microinjection of pep-ephrinA4 into areas adjacent to the amygdala had no effect on fear memory. Acute systemic administration of pep-ephrinA4 1 h after training also impaired long-term fear conditioning memory formation. These results demonstrate that ephrinA4 binding sites in LA are essential for long-term fear memory formation. Moreover, our research shows that ephrinA4 binding sites may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear and anxiety disorders.

  5. The Future Through the Past: The Use of Analog Sites for Design Criteria and Long Term Performance Assessment of Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D. S.; Miller, J. J.; Young, M. H.; Edwards, S. C.; Rawlinson, S. E.

    2002-02-26

    There is growing support for using evapotranspiration (ET) covers for closure of low-level waste (LLW) and other types of waste disposal sites, particularly in the lower latitude arid regions of the western United States. At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), monolayer ET covers are the baseline technology for closure of LLW and mixed LLW cells. To better predict the long-term performance of monolayer ET covers, as well as to identify design criteria that will potentially improve their performance, the properties of, and processes occurring on, analog sites for ET covers on the NTS are being studied. The project is funded through the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area of the U.S. Department of Energy. Four analog sites on the NTS have been selected to predict performance of ET covers over a 1,000-year compliance period. Two sites are relatively recently disturbed (within the last 50 years) and have been selected to evaluate processes and changes on ET covers for the early period after active cover maintenance is discontinued. Two other sites, late to mid-Holocene in age, are intended as analogs for the end of the compliance period (1,000 years or more); both surfaces are abandoned alluvial/colluvial deposits. The history of the early post-institutional control analog sites are being evaluated by an archaeologist to help determine when the sites were last disturbed or modified, and the mode of disturbance to help set baseline conditions. Similar to other ''landforms,'' ET covers will evolve over time because of pedogenic, biotic, and climatic processes. Properties of analog sites that could affect ET water balance performance will be evaluated to help understand ET cover performance over time.

  6. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Cania, Barbara; Thijs, Sofie; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-08-01

    Many endophytic bacteria exert beneficial effects on their host, but still little is known about the bacteria associated with plants growing in areas heavily polluted by hydrocarbons. The aim of the study was characterization of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading endophytic bacteria associated with Lotus corniculatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. collected in long-term petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted site using culture-dependent and molecular approaches. A total of 26 hydrocarbon-degrading endophytes from these plants were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses classified the isolates into the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The majority of strains belonged to the genera Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodococcus. More than 90% of the isolates could grow on medium with diesel oil, approximately 20% could use n-hexadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR analysis revealed that 40% of the isolates possessed the P450 gene encoding for cytochrome P450-type alkane hydroxylase (CYP153). In in vitro tests, all endophytic strains demonstrated a wide range of plant growth-promoting traits such as production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and phosphate solubilization. More than 40% of the bacteria carried the gene encoding for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (acdS). Our study shows that the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in tested plants was different. The results revealed also that the investigated plants were colonized by endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting features and a clear potential to degrade hydrocarbons. The properties of isolated endophytes indicate that they have the high potential to improve phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils.

  7. Long-term chemical analysis and organic aerosol source apportionment at nine sites in central Europe: source identification and uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Stefenelli, Giulia; Bozzetti, Carlo; Vlachou, Athanasia; Fermo, Paola; Gonzalez, Raquel; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Colombi, Cristina; Canonaco, Francesco; Hueglin, Christoph; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Bianchi, Federico; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term monitoring of organic aerosol is important for epidemiological studies, validation of atmospheric models, and air quality management. In this study, we apply a recently developed filter-based offline methodology using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to investigate the regional and seasonal differences of contributing organic aerosol sources. We present offline AMS measurements for particulate matter smaller than 10 µm at nine stations in central Europe with different exposure characteristics for the entire year of 2013 (819 samples). The focus of this study is a detailed source apportionment analysis (using positive matrix factorization, PMF) including in-depth assessment of the related uncertainties. Primary organic aerosol (POA) is separated in three components: hydrocarbon-like OA related to traffic emissions (HOA), cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA). We observe enhanced production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in summer, following the increase in biogenic emissions with temperature (summer oxygenated OA, SOOA). In addition, a SOA component was extracted that correlated with an anthropogenic secondary inorganic species that is dominant in winter (winter oxygenated OA, WOOA). A factor (sulfur-containing organic, SC-OA) explaining sulfur-containing fragments (CH3SO2+), which has an event-driven temporal behaviour, was also identified. The relative yearly average factor contributions range from 4 to 14 % for HOA, from 3 to 11 % for COA, from 11 to 59 % for BBOA, from 5 to 23 % for SC-OA, from 14 to 27 % for WOOA, and from 15 to 38 % for SOOA. The uncertainty of the relative average factor contribution lies between 2 and 12 % of OA. At the sites north of the alpine crest, the sum of HOA, COA, and BBOA (POA) contributes less to OA (POA / OA = 0.3) than at the southern alpine valley sites (0.6). BBOA is the main contributor to POA with 87 % in alpine valleys and 42 % north of the alpine crest. Furthermore, the influence of primary

  8. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-27

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity.

  9. A Tiered Approach to Evaluating Salinity Sources in Water at Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Shawn M; Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Walker, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Harley; Chakraborty, Ayan

    2017-09-01

    A suspected increase in the salinity of fresh water resources can trigger a site investigation to identify the source(s) of salinity and the extent of any impacts. These investigations can be complicated by the presence of naturally elevated total dissolved solids or chlorides concentrations, multiple potential sources of salinity, and incomplete data and information on both naturally occurring conditions and the characteristics of potential sources. As a result, data evaluation techniques that are effective at one site may not be effective at another. In order to match the complexity of the evaluation effort to the complexity of the specific site, this paper presents a strategic tiered approach that utilizes established techniques for evaluating and identifying the source(s) of salinity in an efficient step-by-step manner. The tiered approach includes: (1) a simple screening process to evaluate whether an impact has occurred and if the source is readily apparent; (2) basic geochemical characterization of the impacted water resource(s) and potential salinity sources coupled with simple visual and statistical data evaluation methods to determine the source(s); and (3) advanced laboratory analyses (e.g., isotopes) and data evaluation methods to identify the source(s) and the extent of salinity impacts where it was not otherwise conclusive. A case study from the U.S. Gulf Coast is presented to illustrate the application of this tiered approach. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Uncertainties in source term calculations generated by the ORIGEN2 computer code for Hanford Production Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1991-03-01

    The ORIGEN2 computer code is the primary calculational tool for computing isotopic source terms for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The ORIGEN2 code computes the amounts of radionuclides that are created or remain in spent nuclear fuel after neutron irradiation and radioactive decay have occurred as a result of nuclear reactor operation. ORIGEN2 was chosen as the primary code for these calculations because it is widely used and accepted by the nuclear industry, both in the United States and the rest of the world. Its comprehensive library of over 1,600 nuclides includes any possible isotope of interest to the HEDR Project. It is important to evaluate the uncertainties expected from use of ORIGEN2 in the HEDR Project because these uncertainties may have a pivotal impact on the final accuracy and credibility of the results of the project. There are three primary sources of uncertainty in an ORIGEN2 calculation: basic nuclear data uncertainty in neutron cross sections, radioactive decay constants, energy per fission, and fission product yields; calculational uncertainty due to input data; and code uncertainties (i.e., numerical approximations, and neutron spectrum-averaged cross-section values from the code library). 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A Meyer

    Full Text Available Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS. This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification

  12. Comparing Bioenergy Production Sites in the Southeastern US Regarding Ecosystem Service Supply and Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are governance

  13. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus A; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are governance

  14. A GIS-based approach for the long-term prediction of human health risks at contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bień, J.D.; Meer, J. ter; Rulkens, W.H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    A Health Index/Risk Evaluation Tool (HIRET) has been developed for the integration of risk assessment and spatial planning using GIS capabilities. The method is meant to assist decision makers and site owners in the evaluation of potential human health risk with respect to land use. Human health

  15. A GIS-based approach for the long-term prediction of human health risks at contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bien, J.D.; Meer, J.; Rulkens, W.H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    A Health Index/Risk Evaluation Tool (HIRET) has been developed for the integration of risk assessment and spatial planning using GIS capabilities. The method is meant to assist decision makers and site owners in the evaluation of potential human health risk with respect to land use. Human health

  16. 'When you use the term 'long term', how long is that term'. Risk, Exclusion, and the Politics of Knowledge Production in Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Risk operates within Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste (NFW) management policy making as a heuristic for knowledge production about its effects which reconciles the knowledge of the nuclear industry with the outcomes of the NFW management process. In so doing it marginalizes the present and historical experiences of Aboriginal peoples with the nuclear industry, and removes from view the ways in which they have been implicated in the geography and political economy of the nuclear industry. Risk is a discursive form that protects a particular group's claims about the effects of NFW by providing it a universalizing epistemological structure with which to obscure its connection to context. Further risk discourse provides the nuclear industry with a conceptual vocabulary that deliberately casts all competing knowledge as perceptions, values, or as an object of inquiry. The arguments of Aboriginal peoples about the residual effects of radiation in their lands which hosted nuclear activities, such as uranium mining and disposal, have no representation in how the discourse of risk defines and represents knowledge, and thus no purchase in the policy debate. As a result the challenge they present to the nuclear industry's claims are contained. The arrangements which permit the unloading of the negative effects of nuclear power generation onto Aboriginal peoples are thus reproduced (both materially and conceptually), but not shown, by the policy making process and likely, its outcome. In order to raise critical questions about the democratic abilities of risk, this paper has examined the role of 'risk' in Canadian NFW policy making. I have shown how when the politics of knowledge production within the philosophy of risk is analyzed, and the use and role of the notion of risk are interrogated, difficult questions are posed for the democratic potential of risk. I have suggested, through an analysis of the NWMO's representations of Aboriginal content in their process, that in this

  17. Verifying Operational and Developmental Air Force Weather Cloud Analysis and Forecast Products Using Lidar Data from Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Air Force Weather has developed various cloud analysis and forecast products designed to support global Department of Defense (DoD) missions. A World-Wide Merged Cloud Analysis (WWMCA) and short term Advected Cloud (ADVCLD) forecast is generated hourly using data from 16 geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. Additionally, WWMCA and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) data are used in a statistical long-term (out to five days) cloud forecast model known as the Diagnostic Cloud Forecast (DCF). The WWMCA and ADVCLD are generated on the same polar stereographic 24 km grid for each hemisphere, whereas the DCF is generated on the same grid as its parent NWP model. When verifying the cloud forecast models, the goal is to understand not only the ability to detect cloud, but also the ability to assign it to the correct vertical layer. ADVCLD and DCF forecasts traditionally have been verified using WWMCA data as truth, but this might over-inflate the performance of those models because WWMCA also is a primary input dataset for those models. Because of this, in recent years, a WWMCA Reanalysis product has been developed, but this too is not a fully independent dataset. This year, work has been done to incorporate data from external, independent sources to verify not only the cloud forecast products, but the WWMCA data itself. One such dataset that has been useful for examining the 3-D performance of the cloud analysis and forecast models is Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data from various sites around the globe. This presentation will focus on the use of the Department of Energy (DoE) ARM data to verify Air Force Weather cloud analysis and forecast products. Results will be presented to show relative strengths and weaknesses of the analyses and forecasts.

  18. Long term consequences of a controlled slash burn and slash mastication to soil moisture and CO2 at a southern Colorado site

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Massman; J. M. Frank; A. E. Jimenez Esquilin; M. E. Stromberger; W. D. Shepperd

    2006-01-01

    Thinning of forest stands is frequently used to reduce the risk of catastrophic fire. But thinning requires that the refuse (or slash) be removed from the site, which can be done either by burning it or by mastication and dispersal. Either method has long term consequences to the soil and to soil moisture and soil CO2 levels. For example, after the initial drying of...

  19. 76 FR 22608 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Clothing Textiles: Revisions to Terms of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Product Certifications Based on Third Party Conformity Assessment Body Testing Prior to Commission's... the product. The Commission also emphasizes that, irrespective of certification, the product in... lifting the stay of enforcement with regard to testing and certification of children's products under 16...

  20. Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

  1. Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuBuchon, Angela M; Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated. Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing conditions that differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing). Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response. Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output organization. Instead, CI users are less efficient at encoding and maintaining phonological representations in verbal short-term memory using phonological and linguistic strategies during memory tasks.

  2. One-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production using the whole solid-state fermentation medium of mixed filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Larissa; Pereira, Sandra C; Silva, Adilson J; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2018-02-01

    The efficient use of renewable lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain biofuels and other bioproducts is a key requirement for a sustainable biobased economy. This requires novel and effective strategies to reduce the cost contribution of the cellulolytic enzymatic cocktails needed to convert the carbohydrates into simple sugars, in order to make large-scale commercial processes economically competitive. Here, we propose the use of the whole solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium of mixed filamentous fungi as an integrated one-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production. Ten different individual and mixed cultivations of commonly used industrial filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma reesei) were performed under SSF and the whole media (without the extraction step) were used in the hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The cocultivation of T. reesei with A. oryzae increased the amount of glucose released by around 50%, compared with individual cultivations. The release of glucose and reducing sugars achieved using the whole SSF medium was around 3-fold higher than obtained with the enzyme extract. The addition of soybean protein (0.5% w/w) during the hydrolysis reaction further significantly improved the saccharification performance by blocking the lignin and avoiding unproductive adsorption of enzymes. The results of the alcoholic fermentation validated the overall integrated process, with a volumetric ethanol productivity of 4.77 g/L.h, representing 83.5% of the theoretical yield. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed one-pot integrated strategy using the whole SSF medium of mixed filamentous fungi for on-site enzymes production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Production facility site selection factors for Texas value-added wood producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd H. Michael; Joanna Teitel; James E. Granskog

    1998-01-01

    Value-added wood products manufacturers serve an important role in the economies of many U.S. regions and are therefore sought after by entities such as economic development agencies. The reasons why certain locations for a prospective prodution facility would be more attractive to secondary wood industry producers are not clearly understood. Therefore, this research...

  4. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    KAUST Repository

    Gasol, Josep M.; Cardelú s, Clara; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Balagué , Vanessa; Forn, Irene; Marrasé , Cè lia; Massana, Ramon; Pedró s-Alió , Carlos; Sala, M. Montserrat; Simó , Rafel; Vaqué , Dolors; Estrada, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014) to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a

  5. Relationship of Aboveground Biomass Production Site Index and Soil Characteristics in a Loblolly Pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minyi Zhou; Thomas J. Dean

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the continuing studies of the Cooperative Research in Sustainable Silviculture and Soil Productivity (CRiSSSP), 24 experimental plots in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand have recently been installed near Natchitoches, LA. The plots were uniformly assigned to 3 blocks based on topography (i.e., up slope, midslope, and down slope)....

  6. Production rates of 36Cl in basalts from the calibration site of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mai, K.

    2009-01-01

    Age determination based on cosmogenic nuclides is an important tool to investigate landscape development and age relations of geologically very young materials. The aim of this study is to contribute data to establish age determination of the basis of cosmogenic 36Cl production as a generally

  7. Long-term climate change assessment study plan for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.L.; Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for low-level nuclear waste for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. The goal of the Barrier Development Program is to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 yr; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier's ability to meet its 1,000-yr design life

  8. Simple proxies for estimating the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kontkanen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation products of monoterpenes likely have a crucial role in the formation and growth of aerosol particles in boreal forests. However, the continuous measurements of monoterpene concentrations are usually not available on decadal timescales, and the direct measurements of the concentrations of monoterpene oxidation product have so far been scarce. In this study we developed proxies for the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. For deriving the proxies we used the monoterpene concentration measured with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS during 2006–2013. Our proxies for the monoterpene concentration take into account the temperature-controlled emissions from the forest ecosystem, the dilution caused by the mixing within the boundary layer and different oxidation processes. All the versions of our proxies captured the seasonal variation of the monoterpene concentration, the typical proxy-to-measurements ratios being between 0.8 and 1.3 in summer and between 0.6 and 2.6 in winter. In addition, the proxies were able to describe the diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration rather well, especially in summer months. By utilizing one of the proxies, we calculated the concentration of oxidation products of monoterpenes by considering their production in the oxidation and their loss due to condensation on aerosol particles. The concentration of oxidation products was found to have a clear seasonal cycle, with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The concentration of oxidation products was lowest in the morning or around noon and highest in the evening. In the future, our proxies for the monoterpene concentration and their oxidation products can be used, for example, in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.

  9. Description of source term data on contaminated sites and buildings compiled for the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (WMPEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.; Smith, D.E.; Hill, J.G.; Lerchen, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have historically had responsibility for carrying out various national missions primarily related to nuclear weapons development and energy research. Recently, these missions have been expanded to include remediation of sites and facilities contaminated as a result of past activities. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy announced that DOE would prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on the DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program; the primary focus was the evaluation of (1) strategies for conducting remediation of all DOE contaminated sites and facilities and (2) potential configurations for waste management capabilities. Several different environmental restoration strategies were identified for evaluation, ranging from doing no remediation to strategies where the level of remediation was driven by such factors as final land use and health effects. A quantitative assessment of the costs and health effects of remediation activities and residual contamination levels associated with each remediation strategy was made. These analyses required that information be compiled on each individual contaminated site and structure located at each DOE installation and that the information compiled include quantitative measurements and/or estimates of contamination levels and extent of contamination. This document provides a description of the types of information and data compiled for use in the analyses. Also provided is a description of the database used to manage the data, a detailed discussion of the methodology and assumptions used in compiling the data, and a summary of the data compiled into the database as of March 1995. As of this date, over 10,000 contaminated sites and structures and over 8,000 uncontaminated structures had been identified across the DOE complex of installations

  10. A Realistic View of Long-Term Middle East Production Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, Ali [National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), Tehran (Iran)

    2003-07-01

    The Middle East is a unique landmass bridging the continents of Europe, Africa and Asia. It now consists of fifteen major countries and one neutral zone. Four of these countries (Afghanistan, Israel, Jordan and Lebanon) are practically devoid of commercial oil resources. And the other eleven jointly control oil reserves estimated by Colin Campbell at 805 bnb (42% of world total) -- made up of 758 bnb discovered and 47 bnb yet-to-find. These eleven countries, which produced on average 20.8 mb/d and 19.3 mb/d in 2001 and 2002 respectively, can be subdivided into three categories: (i) the low producers (4 countries); (ii) the mid-size producers (4 countries); and (iii) the three large producers (Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia). In order to investigate the Middle East's long-term production capacity, the forecasts and scenarios developed by the following experts or institutions were reviewed: (a) Dr. Campbell; (b) the major international institutions (IEA, EIA, OPEC); (c) the major oil companies; (d) the major international banks; (e) the specialised press; (f) prominent economists and consultants; (g) the simulations of the 'World Oil Production Capacity' (WOCAP) model. The most significant results were derived from Dr. Campbell's predictions and the WOCAP model. Both of these show Middle Eastern producers going through a long 'bumpy plateau' between 2003 and 2020 with a gradual ramping down during the second decade. WOCAP's simulations for each of the large three producers are presented and analysed. All in all, the Middle Eastern countries, which produce nearly a third of global crude oil, will continue to play a major role on the global oil stage, a role that, with time, can only tend to become more predominant. And although the region's oil represents over 40% of global reserves and roughly two-thirds of proved reserves, there are limits to its output. For those believing that for Middle East oil 'the sky's the limit

  11. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  12. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodology ...

  13. Long-term labour productivity and GDP projections for the EU25 Member States : a production function framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carone, Giuseppe; Denis, Cécile; Mc Morrow, Kieran; Mourre, Gilles; Röger, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of long run labour productivity and GDP growth rate projections (until 2050) for each of the 25 EU Member States and provides a detailed overview of the forecast methodology used. These projections were undertaken in order to provide an internationally comparable macroeconomic framework against which to assess the potential economic and fiscal effects of ageing populations. The projections presented in this paper, using a common production function methodol...

  14. Internet resources for dentistry: computer, Internet, reference, and sites for enhancing personal productivity of the dental professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, G F

    2000-08-15

    At the onset of the new millennium the Internet has become the new standard means of distributing information. In the last two to three years there has been an explosion of e-commerce with hundreds of new web sites being created every minute. For most corporate entities, a web site is as essential as the phone book listing used to be. Twenty years ago technologist directed how computer-based systems were utilized. Now it is the end users of personal computers that have gained expertise and drive the functionality of software applications. The computer, initially invented for mathematical functions, has transitioned from this role to an integrated communications device that provides the portal to the digital world. The Web needs to be used by healthcare professionals, not only for professional activities, but also for instant access to information and services "just when they need it." This will facilitate the longitudinal use of information as society continues to gain better information access skills. With the demand for current "just in time" information and the standards established by Internet protocols, reference sources of information may be maintained in dynamic fashion. News services have been available through the Internet for several years, but now reference materials such as online journals and digital textbooks have become available and have the potential to change the traditional publishing industry. The pace of change should make us consider Will Rogers' advice, "It isn't good enough to be moving in the right direction. If you are not moving fast enough, you can still get run over!" The intent of this article is to complement previous articles on Internet Resources published in this journal, by presenting information about web sites that present information on computer and Internet technologies, reference materials, news information, and information that lets us improve personal productivity. Neither the author, nor the Journal endorses any of the

  15. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  16. Long-Term Analysis for Harvest Erosion Caused by Sugar Beet Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen DEVİREN SAYGIN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of soil resources is under significant threat due to the accelerated anthropogenic pressures at the historical expansion of human population. In this context, soil erosion is defined as a limiting factor for human interests in terms of ecosystem services. As an erosion type, harvest erosion occurs by harvesting of the taproot and tuberous root plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., potato (Solanum tuberosum L., carrot (Daucus carota L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L., has begun to take attention in recent years. The objective of this study was to estimate soil loss due to harvest erosion and to economically analyze the transport of plant nutrients between 1999 and 2016 from sugar beet growing areas in Turkey. For this aim, the compiled data of 25 different sugar factories throughout Turkey were obtained from Türkşeker and soil loss estimations were performed and economically analyzed. According to the results, average soil loss rate was calculated as 3.41 Mg ha-1y-1 for the studied period (1999-2016. That means annually an average of 716983 Mg soil removed from the Türkşeker sugar beet production areas. This result indicated that harvest erosion represents only 0.9% of soil lost by water erosion in Turkey. But, if tolerable soil loss value considered as “1 Mg ha-1 y-1”, calculated soil loss values are above this critical value for all the factories. In addition, economic assessments of soil losses showed that costs are to be more than US $10 000 annually on the 60% of the factories due to removal of plant nutrients with harvest process. And, annually US $419 433 investment must be made to recover all these losses. Conclusively, harvest erosion as an ignored erosion type must be emphasized to the economic sustainability of natural resources in fragile ecosystems such as our country.

  17. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena PETRESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an analysis of the level of labor productivity in agriculture for each development region of Romania. Labor productivity in agriculture was analyzed by two parameters, namely: the value of agricultural production and the number of employees in agriculture for the period 2011 – 2012. The level of labor productivity is influenced by the quality of biological and bio-capacity of plants and animals as well, as well as the equipment and quality of work performed. From the factorial analysis it can be noticed a decrease of labor productivity caused by a decrease in the value of agricultural production.

  18. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Gasol

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014 to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a coastal sampling station in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Our goal was to obtain seasonal trends and to establish the basis for detecting future changes of primary production in this oligotrophic area. The maximal photosynthetic rate PBmax ranged 30-fold (0.5-15 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1, averaged 3.7 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.25 SE and was highest in August and lowest in April and December. We only observed photoinhibition twice. The initial or light-limited slope of the P-E relationship, αB, was low, averaging 0.007 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (μmol photons m–2 s–1–1 (±0.001 SE, range 0.001-0.045 and showed the lowest values in spring (April-June. The light saturation parameter or saturation irradiance, EK, averaged 711 μmol photons m–2 s–1 (± 58.4 SE and tended to be higher in spring and lower in winter. Phytoplankton assemblages were typically dominated by picoeukaryotes in early winter, diatoms in late autumn and late winter, dinoflagellates in spring and cyanobacteria in summer. Total particulate primary production averaged 1.45 mg C m-3 h–1 (±0.13 SE with highest values in winter (up to 8.50 mg C m-3 h–1 and lowest values in summer (summer average, 0.30 mg C m-3 h–1, while chlorophyll-specific primary production averaged 2.49 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.19, SE and peaked in summer (up to 12.0 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 in August. 14C-determined phytoplankton growth rates varied between ca. 0.3 d–1 in winter and 0.5 d–1 in summer and were within 60-80% of the maximal rates of growth, based on PBmax. Chlorophyll a was a good predictor of primary production only in the winter and autumn. Seasonality appeared to explain most of the variability in the studied variables, while

  19. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    KAUST Repository

    Gasol, Josep M.

    2016-10-11

    We carried out monthly photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with the 14C-method for 12 years (2003–2014) to determine the photosynthetic parameters and primary production of surface phytoplankton in the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory, a coastal sampling station in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Our goal was to obtain seasonal trends and to establish the basis for detecting future changes of primary production in this oligotrophic area. The maximal photosynthetic rate PBmax ranged 30-fold (0.5-15 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1), averaged 3.7 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.25 SE) and was highest in August and lowest in April and December. We only observed photoinhibition twice. The initial or light-limited slope of the P-E relationship, αB, was low, averaging 0.007 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (μmol photons m–2 s–1)–1 (±0.001 SE, range 0.001-0.045) and showed the lowest values in spring (April-June). The light saturation parameter or saturation irradiance, EK, averaged 711 μmol photons m–2 s–1 (±58.4 SE) and tended to be higher in spring and lower in winter. Phytoplankton assemblages were typically dominated by picoeukaryotes in early winter, diatoms in late autumn and late winter, dinoflagellates in spring and cyanobacteria in summer. Total particulate primary production averaged 1.45 mg C m–3 h–1 (±0.13 SE) with highest values in winter (up to 8.50 mg C m–3 h–1) and lowest values in summer (summer average, 0.30 mg C m–3 h–1), while chlorophyll-specific primary production averaged 2.49 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 (±0.19, SE) and peaked in summer (up to 12.0 mg C mg Chl a–1 h–1 in August). 14C-determined phytoplankton growth rates varied between ca. 0.3 d–1 in winter and 0.5 d–1 in summer and were within 60-80% of the maximal rates of growth, based on PBmax. Chlorophyll a was a good predictor of primary production only in the winter and autumn. Seasonality appeared to explain most of the variability in the studied variables, while

  20. Actinide, Elemental, and Fission Product Measurements by ICPMS at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovo, L.L.; Waller, P.R.; Clymire, J.; Jones, V.D.; Boyce, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    VG Elemental Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICPMS), PlasmaQuad 1 (PQ1) Model No. 4, installed in a radiohood, is used by the Savannah River Technology Center to provide non-routine mass measurements for environmental monitoring, waste tank characterization studies, isotope ratios for criticality determinations, and the measurement of elemental, fission product, and actinide mass distributions of the glass product from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Modifications to improve instrument reliability, sample preparation, and data handling, as well as modifications to the laboratory that permit measurements in a radioactive environment will be discussed. Based on our operating experience, two laboratory facilities are being prepared for additional instruments to operate in a radioactive environment. A separate instrument is being installed for non-radioactive measurements and method development

  1. Long-term safety for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. Main report of the SR-Site project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfils long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. This conclusion is reached because the favourable properties of the Forsmark site ensure the required long-term durability of the barriers of the KBS-3 repository. In particular, the copper canisters with their cast iron inserts have been demonstrated to provide a sufficient resistance to the mechanical and chemical loads to which they may be subjected in the repository environment. The conclusion is underpinned by: - The reliance of the KBS-3 repository on i) a geological environment that exhibits long-term stability with respect to properties of importance for long-term safety, i.e. mechanical stability, low groundwater flow rates at repository depth and the absence of high concentrations of detrimental components in the groundwater, and ii) the choice of naturally occurring materials (copper and bentonite clay) for the engineered barriers that are sufficiently durable in the repository environment to provide the barrier longevity required for safety. - The understanding, through decades of research at SKB and in international collaboration, of the phenomena that affect long-term safety, resulting in a mature knowledge base for the safety assessment. - The understanding of the characteristics of the site through several years of surface-based investigations of the conditions at depth and of scientific interpretation of the data emerging from the investigations, resulting in a mature model of the site, adequate for use in the safety assessment. - The detailed specifications of the engineered parts of the repository and the demonstration of how components fulfilling the specifications are to be produced in a quality assured manner, thereby providing a quality assured initial state for the safety assessment. The detailed analyses demonstrate that canister failures in a one million year perspective are rare

  2. Long-term safety for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. Main report of the SR-Site project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    The central conclusion of the safety assessment SR-Site is that a KBS-3 repository that fulfils long-term safety requirements can be built at the Forsmark site. This conclusion is reached because the favourable properties of the Forsmark site ensure the required long-term durability of the barriers of the KBS-3 repository. In particular, the copper canisters with their cast iron inserts have been demonstrated to provide a sufficient resistance to the mechanical and chemical loads to which they may be subjected in the repository environment. The conclusion is underpinned by: - The reliance of the KBS-3 repository on i) a geological environment that exhibits long-term stability with respect to properties of importance for long-term safety, i.e. mechanical stability, low groundwater flow rates at repository depth and the absence of high concentrations of detrimental components in the groundwater, and ii) the choice of naturally occurring materials (copper and bentonite clay) for the engineered barriers that are sufficiently durable in the repository environment to provide the barrier longevity required for safety. - The understanding, through decades of research at SKB and in international collaboration, of the phenomena that affect long-term safety, resulting in a mature knowledge base for the safety assessment. - The understanding of the characteristics of the site through several years of surface-based investigations of the conditions at depth and of scientific interpretation of the data emerging from the investigations, resulting in a mature model of the site, adequate for use in the safety assessment. - The detailed specifications of the engineered parts of the repository and the demonstration of how components fulfilling the specifications are to be produced in a quality assured manner, thereby providing a quality assured initial state for the safety assessment. The detailed analyses demonstrate that canister failures in a one million year perspective are rare

  3. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  4. Changing forest water yields in response to climate warming: results from long-term experimental watershed sites across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irena F. Creed; Adam T. Spargo; Julia A. Jones; Jim M. Buttle; Mary B. Adams; Fred D. Beall; Eric G. Booth; John L. Campbell; Dave Clow; Kelly Elder; Mark B. Green; Nancy B. Grimm; Chelcy Miniat; Patricia Ramlal; Amartya Saha; Stephen Sebestyen; Dave Spittlehouse; Shannon Sterling; Mark W. Williams; Rita Winkler; Huaxia. Yao

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming is projected to affect forest water yields but the effects are expected to vary.We investigated how forest type and age affect water yield resilience to climate warming. To answer this question, we examined the variability in historical water yields at long-term experimental catchments across Canada and the United States over 5-year cool and warm...