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Sample records for terephthalate film sheet

  1. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty..., 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

  2. 76 FR 48122 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil. This administrative..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Scott or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7... antidumping duty order on PET film from Brazil. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From...

  3. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR... Halle, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... Results in the Administrative Review on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan (PET...

  4. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR) is... Administrative Review: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates...

  5. 78 FR 79400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jonathan Hill, AD/CVD Operations, Office IV, Enforcement & Compliance, International... Operations, Office IV ``Initiation of Antidumping New Shipper Review of Polyethylene Terephthalate Film...

  6. 78 FR 47276 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the... terephthalate (PET) film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from India. The Department finds that revocation of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sean Carey or Dana Mermelstein, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  7. 76 FR 71512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Korea, covering the June 1, 2009, to May 31, 2010, period... the preliminary results. In addition, the Department is revoking the antidumping order on PET film... CONTACT: Tyler Weinhold or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import Administration, International...

  8. 78 FR 48651 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan; Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of.... (SMTC) (collectively, Shinkong), producer and exporter of PET Film from Taiwan. The Department...: Milton Koch, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S...

  9. 78 FR 67113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... antidumping duty orders on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (``PET Film'') from India and... Operations, Office VII, Enforcement and Compliance, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of...) 482-2371, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on PET Film...

  10. 78 FR 50029 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from Brazil... any reviewable entries, shipments or sales of subject PET film by Terphane during the POR, we are.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tyler Weinhold or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import...

  11. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for Ester Industries Ltd... export of PET Film from India. Also, based on our analysis of Ester's comments, we made certain revisions..., Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th...

  12. 78 FR 42105 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET'' film) from India and the antidumping duty orders on PET film from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...-205-3169), Office of Investigations, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500 E Street SW., Washington...

  13. 76 FR 30910 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... shipper review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited... Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce..., International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New Shipper Reviews of the Antidumping Duty...

  14. 76 FR 30908 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the... Page or Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... Interested Parties From Elfi Blum, International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New...

  15. 75 FR 6634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... of the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from....'' EFFECTIVE DATE: February 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6... Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, from Barbara E. Tillman, Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  16. 76 FR 57715 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Revocation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ..., and strip from the Republic of Korea would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic..., the Department determined that revocation of the antidumping duty order would be likely to lead to the...

  17. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This review covers two producers/exporters of subject... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  18. 76 FR 22867 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) from the United Arab Emirates. This review covers two producers/ exporters of subject merchandise: JBF... Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of...

  19. 76 FR 45508 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Film, Sheet and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the period November 01... producer and/or exporter of the subject merchandise to the United States: JBF RAK LLC (JBF). Extension of...

  20. 78 FR 9670 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from India.\\1.... (Polyplex), and SRF Limited (SRF), producers and exporters of PET Film from India. Based on the results of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum or Toni Page, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  1. 76 FR 9745 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from Taiwan. See... Jun Jack Zhao, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration... products produced by Nan Ya, are not covered by the scope of the antidumping order on PET Film from Taiwan...

  2. 75 FR 10758 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ..., Sheet and Strip (PET Film) from India. The Department determines that these requests are sufficient to... CONTACT: Elfi Blum or Mark Hoadley, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International...: Background The notice announcing the antidumping duty order on PET Film from India was published on July 1...

  3. 77 FR 73010 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR) is November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The... Strip from Brazil, the People's Republic of China and the United Arab Emirates: Antidumping Duty Orders...

  4. 76 FR 13128 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of...: Emily Halle or Gene Calvert, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan covering the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. See...

  5. 77 FR 18206 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of...: Gene Calvert or Jun Jack Zhao, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... the antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan covering the period July 1, 2010 through June 30...

  6. Effect of phenolic oligomer on adhesion of poly (ethylene terephthalate) film laminated steel sheets by Electron Beam Curing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuhara, Kenichi; Mori, Koji; Koshiishi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion of poly (ethylene terephthalate) film by Electron Beam Curing (EBC) method which can be thought as an energy-saving process was studied for the purpose of bestowing economically design and distinctness of image on thermosetting high molecular weight polyester precoated steel sheets. Adhesion of EB curable resins onto metal is generally poor. In this report, addition of EB curable phenolic resole oligomer with bifunctional acrylates to the top coat used for precoated steel was studied in order to increase the adhesion of an EB curable adhesive, and it was found that the phenolic oligomer is tremendously effective for the improvement of adhesion. The reasons why the phenolic oligomer provides excellent adhesion were 1) elongation at break of the top coat to which the phenolic oligomer is added is little decreased by EB irradiation, and the formability does not reduce. 2) As the phenolic oligomer is unevenly distributed to the surface layer of the top coat, it is suggested that the contact frequency of the phenolic oligomer to the EB curable adhesive is so high that graft polymerization between them is liable to occur. (author)

  7. 75 FR 49893 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ..., Stretch Wrap Film, Plastic Bag, Paper Plate, PE Foam using November 2008 through October 2009 weighted... Teijin Films, Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc., SKC, Inc., and Toray Plastics (America), Inc.... U.S. Price In accordance with section 772(a) of the Act, the Department used EP as the basis for U.S...

  8. 76 FR 42113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ..., and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). This review covers the period... CONTACT: Thomas Martin or Jonathan Hill, AD/CVD Operations, Office 4, Import Administration, International... review of the antidumping duty order on PET film from the PRC. See Initiation of Antidumping and...

  9. 76 FR 61085 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ..., and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). This review covers the period... CONTACT: Thomas Martin or Jonathan Hill, AD/CVD Operations, Office 4, Import Administration, International... review of the antidumping duty order on PET film from the PRC. See Initiation of Antidumping and...

  10. 76 FR 68140 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... latex. Tracing and drafting film is also excluded. PET film is classifiable under subheading 3920.62.00... from data on the following Web site: http://www.infobanc.com/logistics/logtruck.htm .\\64\\ The logistics section of this Web site contains inland freight truck rates between many large Indian cities. We did not...

  11. 76 FR 9753 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Records Unit (``CRU''), Main Commerce Building, Room 7046, and is accessible on the Department's Web site... SBR latex. Tracing and drafting film is also excluded. PET film is classifiable under subheading 3920... recertify their separate rates using the separate rate certification provided at the Department's Web site...

  12. 76 FR 27005 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Initiation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... typically examines several factors including, but not limited to: (1) Management; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada: Final... Saehan to TAMK resulted in little or no change in management, production facilities, supplier...

  13. 77 FR 73428 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    .... Because the PRC is a nonmarket economy within the meaning of section 771(18) of the Act, NV has been... China Limited 2.95 Shaoxing Xiangyu Green Packing Co., Ltd 0.00 Fuwei Films (Shandong) Co., Ltd 2.95... the PRC-wide rate.\\9\\ \\9\\ For a full discussion of this practice, see Non-Market Economy Antidumping...

  14. 77 FR 31833 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... strip (PET Film) from Brazil for the period November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. Based on..., Office 7, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th... Federal Register a notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on PET...

  15. 78 FR 48147 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... resinous or inorganic layer of more than 0.00001 inches thick. Imports of PET film are classifiable in the... limit for filing case briefs.\\3\\ Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.309(d)(2), rebuttal briefs must be limited to...

  16. 78 FR 14266 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Notice of Correction to the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Milton Koch, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan.\\1\\ The period of review covered July 1, 2010, through... an incorrect case number associated with PET Film from Taiwan (i.e., incorrect case number A-533-824...

  17. 77 FR 20357 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... latex. Tracing and drafting film is also excluded. PET Film is classifiable under subheading 3920.62.00... on the Web at http://ia.ita.doc.gov/frn . The signed Decision Memorandum and the electronic versions...

  18. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to continuation or... was given by posting copies of the notice in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade...

  19. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  20. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljeva, I.V.; Mjakin, S.V.; Makarov, A.V.; Krasovsky, A.N.; Varlamov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  1. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljeva, I.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: radiant@skylink.spb.ru; Mjakin, S.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Makarov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasovsky, A.N. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Varlamov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  2. Electron-beam-induced conduction in polyethylene terephthalate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckley, L M; Lewis, T J; Taylor, D M [University Coll. of North Wales, Bangor (UK). School of Electronic Engineering Science

    1976-06-21

    Measurements are reported of electron-beam-induced conduction in thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films for electron energies up to 10 keV. The ratio of induced dielectric current to incident beam current (the gain) is orders of magnitude less than unity over practically the whole range of beam penetration. This result is quite unlike that normally found for inorganic dielectrics where the gain will exceed unity and reach a maximum at or near full penetration. In spite of the very different gain characteristics it is shown that the model recently proposed by Nunes de Oliviera and Gross (J. App. Phys.; 46:3132 (1975)), and by Aris et al (IEE Conf. Publ. No.129.; 267 (1975) and J. Phys. C. Solid State Phys.; 9:797 (1976)) and applied to mica and tantalum oxide respectively is also applicable to PET. Use is made of the known carrier mobility and lifetime data for this polymer and it is shown that very large space-charge distortions of the field can be produced by the beam which may well account for the frequent sample failure experienced during the experiments. The work supports suggestions by earlier workers that the current in unirradiated PET is electrode limited and predicts the maximum (space-charge limited) current likely to occur in this polymer.

  3. 78 FR 45512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... or Jacky Arrowsmith at 202-482-1396 or 202-482-5255, respectively, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6... terephthalate film (PET Film) from India and Taiwan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as..., Office of Investigations, International Trade Commission, regarding ``Sunset Reviews Initiated on April 2...

  4. Electron beam induced modifications in flexible biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate sheets: Improved mechanical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, N. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Koiry, S.P. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Singh, A., E-mail: asb_barc@yahoo.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Tillu, A.R. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Jha, P.; Samanta, S.; Debnath, A.K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Aswal, D.K., E-mail: dkaswal@yahoo.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Mondal, R.K. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India); Acharya, S.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator & Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400 085 (India)

    2017-03-01

    In the present work, we have studied the effects of electron beam irradiation (with dose ranging from 2 to 32 kGy) on mechanical and electrical properties of biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) sheets. The sol-gel analysis, Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterizations of the irradiated BOPET sheets suggest partial cross-linking of PET chains through the diethylene glycol (DEG). The mechanical properties of BOPET, such as, tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical resistivity shows improvement with increasing dose and saturate for doses >10 kGy. The improved mechanical properties and high electrical resistivity of electron beam modified BOPET sheets may have additional advantages in applications, such as, packaging materials for food irradiation, medical product sterilization and electronic industries. - Graphical abstract: Irradiation of BOPET by electron beam leads to the formation of diethylene glycol that crosslink's the PET chains, resulting in improved mechanical properties and enhanced electrical resistivity. - Highlights: • BOPET exhibit improved tensile strength/Young's modulus after e-beam exposure. • Electrical resistivity of BOPET increases after e-beam exposure. • Cross-linking of PET chains through diethylene glycol was observed after e-beam exposure.

  5. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  6. Recovery of electrical resistance in copper films on polyethylene terephthalate subjected to a tensile strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushko, O.; Marx, V.M.; Kirchlechner, C.; Zizak, I.; Cordill, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial recovery (decrease) of electrical resistance during and after unloading is demonstrated for copper films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates subjected to a tensile strain with different peak values. Particularly, the films strained to 5% exhibit full resistance recovery after unloading despite clearly visible plastic deformation of the film. The recovery of electrical resistance in connection with the mechanical behavior of film/substrate couple is discussed with the help of in situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • Tensile tests on 200 nm Cu films on PET substrate are performed. • Electrical resistance is recorded in-situ during loading and unloading. • Significant recovery (decrease) of resistance is observed during and after unloading. • Films strained to 5% demonstrate full resistance recovery. • Viscoelastic relaxation of PET is responsible for recovery of Cu film resistance

  7. Experimental study on tensile bifurcation of nanoscale Cu film bonded to polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men, Yutao; Wang, Shibin; Jia, Haikun; Wu, Zhiliang; Li, Linan; Zhang, Chunqiu

    2013-01-01

    Cu films are widely used in flexible electronic products. Tensile mechanical properties of the film determine product performance. In this paper, tensile experiments of sputtered Cu films on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate were carried out under an optical microscope. In the experiments, three changes took place under tension: uniform deformation, microcrack initiation and propagation, and microcrack saturation. The elastic modulus of the Cu film is 120 GPa and is independent of film thickness since the film is formed to be continuous in the nanoscale range. Film thickness is an important parameter to decide the tensile properties. The critical fracture strain, the interfacial bonding strength, and the crack spacing after saturation are related to film thickness. The critical strain and the interfacial bonding strength of the nanoscale Cu film tend to ascend then to descend as film thickness increases. The microcrack spacing is in direct proportion to film thickness after the microcrack saturates. The optimum thickness of the sputtered Cu films on the PET substrate is about 500 nm. - Highlights: • The elastic modulus of the Cu films is 120 GPa and does not change with thickness. • The optimal thickness of the Cu films is about 500 nm. • The critical strain tends to ascend then to descend as film thickness increases. • The interfacial strength changes in accordance with the critical strain. • Microcrack spacing is proportional to film thickness after the microcrack saturates

  8. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jun [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Seok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jin-Seo, E-mail: jinseonoh@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  9. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Jun; Lee, Ho Seok; Noh, Jin-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  10. Adsorption of anionic surfactant on porous and nonporous polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Yu.; Apel, P.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We study the adsorption of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate (SDDD) on three types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates from aqueous solutions of SDDD of different concentrations. Neutral electrolyte (KCl) was added to the solutions to vary the ionic strength. Three types of substrates were used: 1) original PET film; 2) etched nonporous film, obtained from pristine film by chemical etching and bearing negative charge on the surface; 3) etched porous membranes, fabricated from pristine film by ion irradiation and subsequent chemical etching. The membranes have negative charge on the flat surface and on the inner pore walls. The comparison shows that the negative charge on the flat surface has weak effect on adsorption of the anionic surfactant, and the SDDD adsorption on the inner walls of pores is much weaker than on flat surface, even if the pore radius is significantly larger than the Debye length. This «exclusion» effect strongly depends on ionic strength of solution. [ru

  11. Development of biodegradable metaloxide/polymer nanocomposite films based on poly-ε-caprolactone and terephthalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu, E-mail: varmaindian@gmail.com [Centro de Investigación de Polímeros Avanzados (CIPA), Avenida Collao 1202, Edificio de Laboratorios, Concepción (Chile); Pariguana, Manuel [Centro de Investigación de Polímeros Avanzados (CIPA), Avenida Collao 1202, Edificio de Laboratorios, Concepción (Chile); Centro de Innovación Tecnológica Agroindustrial CITE Agroindustrial, Panamericana Sur Km, 293.3, Ica (Peru); Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd [Department of Packaging, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220 710 (Korea, Republic of); Jayaramudu, Tippabattini [Center for Nano Cellulose Future Composites, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-Dong, Nam-Ku, Incheon 402–751 (Korea, Republic of); Sadiku, Emmanuel Rotimi [Department of Polymer Technology, Tshwane University of Technology, CSIR-Campus, Pretoria 0040 (South Africa)

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation describes the development of metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films from biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone, disposed poly(ethylene terephthalate) oil bottles monomer and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles. The terephthalic acid and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using a temperature-dependent precipitation technique and double precipitation method, respectively. The terephthalic acid synthesized was confirmed by FTIR analysis and furthermore, it was characterized by thermal analysis. The as-prepared CuO-ZnO nanoparticles structure was confirmed by XRD analysis and its morphology was analyzed by SEM/EDS and TEM. Furthermore, the metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films have excellent mechanical properties, with tensile strength and modulus better than pure films. The metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films that were successfully developed show a relatively brighter colour when compared to CuO film. These new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films can replace many non-degradable plastics. The new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films developed are envisaged to be suitable for use in industrial and domestic packaging applications. - Graphical abstract: Biodegradable metal-oxide/polymer nanocomposites films prepared by using poly-ε-caprolactone with disposed PET oil bottles terephthalic acid monomer. The development of biodegradable film provides a new material with desirable mechanical, physical and chemical properties and can be utilized for industrial applications. - Highlights: • Terephthalic acid obtained from disposed PET oil bottles via precipitation technique. • New nano metal-oxides were developed by double precipitation technique. • Nano metal-oxide polymer films were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. • Nano metal-oxide polymer films exhibit superior mechanical characteristics.

  12. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate films treated by ammonia low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhiwen; Ren Li; Feng Wenjiang; Zhai Zhichen; Wang Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the surface characterization and protein adhesion behavior of polyethylene terephthalate film, low temperature ammonia plasma was used to modify the film. Effects of plasma conditions of the surface structures and properties were investigated. Results indicated that surface hydrophilicity of polyethylene terephthalate was significantly improved by ammonia plasma treatment. Ammonia plasma played the role more important than air treatment in the process of modification. Furthermore, by Fourier Transform Infrared spectra some new bonds such as -N=O and N-H which could result in the improvement of the surface hydrophilicity were successfully grafted on the film surface. Atom force microscope experiments indicated that more protein adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces than hydrophilic ones, and the blobs arranged in a straight line at etching surface by plasma. Modified membrane after ammonia plasma treatment had a good cell affinity and could be effective in promoting the adhesion and growth of cells on the material surface. Timeliness experiments showed that the plasma treatment gave the material a certain performance only in a short period of time and the hydrophobicity recovered after 12 days.

  13. Interfacial characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate-based piezoelectric multi-layer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.H.; Pan, C.T.; Chen, Y.C.; Liang, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the deformation between interfaces and the adhesion mechanism of multi-layer flexible electronic composites. Indium tin oxide (ITO), aluminum (Al), and zinc oxide (ZnO) were deposited on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature to form flexible structures (e.g., ITO/PET, Al/PET, ZnO/ITO/PET, and ZnO/Al/PET) for piezoelectric transducers. ITO and Al films are used as the conductive layers. A ZnO thin film shows a high (002) c-axis preferred orientation at 2θ = 34.45° and excellent piezoelectric properties. Nanoscratching and nano-indention testing were conducted to analyze the adhesion following periodic mechanical stress. Additionally, two Berkovich and conical probes with a curvature radius of 40 nm and 10 μm are examined for the scratching test. A 4-point probe is used to measure the conductive properties. The plastic deformation between the ductile Al film and PET substrate is observed using scanning electron microscopy to examine the chip formation on the ITO/PET. Delamination between the ZnO and Al/PET substrate was not observed. The result suggests that ZnO film has excellent adhesion with Al/PET compared to ITO/PET. - Highlights: ► Interfaces and adhesion mechanism of multi-layer flexible electronic composites ► Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) based flexible structures ► Nano-scratching and nano-indention tests were used to analyze adhesion. ► Using two various probes of Berkovich and conical ► Piezoelectric zinc oxide film has excellent adhesion with aluminum/PET

  14. Starch/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate/montmorillonite films produced by blow extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. L. Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prepare biodegradable films from cassava starch, poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT, and montmorillonite (MMT using blow-extrusion process and analyze the effects of different types and concentrations of MMT on the microstructure, physicochemical, and mechanical properties of the resulting films. The films were produced by blending 30% of PBAT with glycerol (17.5%, starch (49.0-52.5%, and four different types of montmorillonite (Cloisite® Na+, 10A, 15A, and 30B at two different concentrations (1.75% and 3.5%. All the films prepared in this study showed an increase in the basal spacing of MMT layers. In particular, the films with 10A and 30B showed the highest increase in intercalation basal spacing, suggesting the formation of intercalated composites. The addition of nanoclays decreased the elongation of films. The addition of Cloisite® 10A resulted in films with the lowest WVP values and the highest stability to water adsorption under different RH conditions.

  15. Effect of [gamma]-irradiation on latent tracks of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroki, A.; Asano, M.; Yamaki, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2005-04-01

    The pre-treatment effect of γ-irradiation on latent tracks of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films bombarded with swift heavy ions was investigated by electric conductometry and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. The Xe-ion bombarded PET films were etched for 6 h in 0.2 M NaOH aqueous solution at 70 °C to prepare track-etched membranes. As γ-irradiation doses increased in the range of 0-160 kGy, the surface pore diameter obtained by SEM observation decreased while that obtained by conductometry became large. This inconsistent result between the two methods was due to an increase in the crosslinked region in the latent tracks caused by γ-irradiation.

  16. High gamma dose response of the electrical properties of polyethylene terephthalate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), irradiated with gamma rays, have been investigated. The PET films were irradiated with high gamma dose levels in the range from 100 to 2000 kGy. The changes in the DC (σ DC ) and the ac (σ ac ) conductivities, with the dose, have been performed. The effect of gamma irradiation on the dielectric constant (ε') and loss (ε'') has been determined. Also, the dose dependence of the frequency exponent index (S), the resonance frequency (Fc) and the hopping frequency (ω P ) have been obtained. The obtained results show that increasing gamma dose leads to slight increase in σ DC , σ ac and ε', while no change was observed in ε'' value. Meanwhile, S, Fc and ω P are inversely proportional to the dose. Accordingly, the study suggests the possibility of using PET films in electronic components (capacitors, resistors, etc.), especially that operate at high gamma dose environments for the frequency independent applications

  17. Study on Optoelectronic Characteristics of Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Indium Tin Oxide/Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hwa; Chen, Mi; Chiou, Chin-Lung; Liu, Xing-Yang; Weng, Lin-Song; Koo, Horng-Show

    2013-05-01

    Transparent conductive oxides of Sn-doped ZnO (SZO) films with doping weight ratios of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 wt % have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and PET flexible substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Resultant films of SZO on ITO/PET and PET flexible substrates are amorphous in phase. It is found that undoped and SZO films on ITO/PET is anomalously better than films on PET in optical transmittance in the range of longer wavelength, possibly due to the refraction index difference between SZO, ITO films, and PET substrates, Burstein-Moss effect and optical interference of SZO/ITO bilayer films and substrate materials, and furthermore resulting in the decrement of reflection. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4.0 wt % SZO films on flexible substrates of PET and ITO/PET are 3.8×10-2 and ρ= 1.2×10-2 Ω.cm, respectively. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the resultant films are greatly dependent on various amount of Sn element doping effect and substrate material characteristics.

  18. Development of biodegradable metaloxide/polymer nanocomposite films based on poly-ε-caprolactone and terephthalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Pariguana, Manuel; Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Sadiku, Emmanuel Rotimi

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation describes the development of metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films from biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone, disposed poly(ethylene terephthalate) oil bottles monomer and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles. The terephthalic acid and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using a temperature-dependent precipitation technique and double precipitation method, respectively. The terephthalic acid synthesized was confirmed by FTIR analysis and furthermore, it was characterized by thermal analysis. The as-prepared CuO-ZnO nanoparticles structure was confirmed by XRD analysis and its morphology was analyzed by SEM/EDS and TEM. Furthermore, the metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films have excellent mechanical properties, with tensile strength and modulus better than pure films. The metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films that were successfully developed show a relatively brighter colour when compared to CuO film. These new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films can replace many non-degradable plastics. The new metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films developed are envisaged to be suitable for use in industrial and domestic packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas barrier properties of titanium oxynitride films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, L.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National ChungHsin University, 250, Kuo-Kung Road, 40227 Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lschang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Lin, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, 106 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-03-30

    Titanium oxynitride (TiN{sub x}O{sub y}) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by means of a reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system in which the power density and substrate bias were the varied parameters. Experimental results show that the deposited TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films exhibited an amorphous or a columnar structure with fine crystalline dependent on power density. The deposition rate increases significantly in conjunction as the power density increases from 2 W/cm{sup 2} to 7 W/cm{sup 2}. The maximum deposition rate occurs, as the substrate bias is -40 V at a certain power densities chosen in this study. The film's roughness slightly decreases with increasing substrate bias. The TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films deposited at power densities above 4 W/cm{sup 2} show a steady Ti:N:O ratio of about 1:1:0.8. The water vapor and oxygen transmission rates of the TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films reach values as low as 0.98 g/m{sup 2}-day-atm and 0.60 cm{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-day-atm which are about 6 and 47 times lower than those of the uncoated PET substrate, respectively. These transmission rates are comparable to those of DLC, carbon-based and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier films. Therefore, TiN{sub x}O{sub y} films are potential candidates to be used as a gas permeation barrier for PET substrate.

  20. Influence of UV-Irradiation on Latent Tracks in Polyethylene Terephthalate Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qi; Wang Peng-Fei; Ling Yun; Wang Mao; Yan Dong-Xiao; Wang Yu-Gang; Cao Xing-Zhong; Wang Bao-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films in thickness of 12 μm are irradiated by Xe and Au ions at the energies of 9.5 and 11.4MeV/u and with the ion fluence from 5 × 10"9 cm"−"2 to 1 × 10"1"1 cm"−"2. After irradiation, ultra-violet lights are used to illuminate the samples with latent tracks at the wavelength of 365 nm with flux density of 4.2 mW/cm"−"2. UV-irradiation effects on tracked PET are investigated by the UV-vis spectrum and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). It is found that carbonaceous clusters in PET films are generated by ion irradiation and decomposed with UV illumination by calculating the optical energy band gap E_g in the UV-vis spectrum. The free volumes behave differently in track and bulk after UV illumination. In our experiment, the PALS results show an increase in radius and density of free volume in tracked PET films after UV treatment, which indicates an expansion in radius of latent tracks. (paper)

  1. Improved damp heat stability of Ga-Doped ZnO thin film by pretreatment of the polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. B.; Seo, S. G.; Lim, Y. S.; Choi, H.-S.; Seo, W.-S.; Park, H.-H.

    2013-09-01

    A study on the damp heat stability of transparent conducting ZnO thin film grown on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate (PET) is reported. By thermal annealing of the PET substrate at 100°C with Ar flow in a vacuum chamber prior to the sputtering growth of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin film, significantly enhanced damp heat stability was achieved at 60°C with a 90% relative humidity. Electrical and structural characterizations of the GZO thin films were carried out and the effects of the pretreatment on the improved damp heat stability are discussed.

  2. Surface treatment of polyethylene terephthalate film using atmospheric pressure glow discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhi; Qiu Yuchang; Wang Hui

    2004-01-01

    Non-thermal plasmas under atmospheric pressure are of great interest in polymer surface processing because of their convenience, effectiveness and low cost. In this paper, the treatment of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface for improving hydrophilicity using the non-thermal plasma generated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) in air is conducted. The discharge characteristics of APGD are shown by measurement of their electrical discharge parameters and observation of light-emission phenomena, and the surface properties of PET before and after the APGD treatment are studied using contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that the APGD is homogeneous and stable in the whole gas gap, which differs from the commonly filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A short time (several seconds) APGD treatment can modify the surface characteristics of PET film markedly and uniformly. After 10 s APGD treatment, the surface oxygen content of PET surface increases to 39%, and the water contact angle decreases to 19 degree, respectively. (authors)

  3. Effects of annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machinaga, Hironobu; Ueda, Eri; Mizuike, Atsuko; Takeda, Yuuki; Shimokita, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. The ITO films were annealed at the range from 150 °C to 195 °C after the DC sputtering deposition for the production of polycrystalline ITO layers on the substrates. The onset strains of cracking in the annealed ITO films were evaluated by the uniaxial stretching tests with electrical resistance measurements during film stretching. The results indicate that the onset strain of cracking in the ITO film is clearly increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The in-situ measurements of the inter-planer spacing of the (222) plane in the crystalline ITO films during film stretching by using synchrotron radiation strongly suggest that the large compressive stress in the ITO film increases the onset strain of cracking in the film. X-ray stress analyses of the annealed ITO films and thermal mechanical analyses of the PET substrates also clarifies that the residual compressive stress in the ITO film is enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature due to the considerably larger shrinkage of the PET substrate. - Highlights: • Indium-tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • Mechanical durability of the ITO is improved by high temperature post-annealing. • The shrinkage in the PET increases with rising the post-annealing temperature. • The shrinkage of the PET enhances the compressive stress in the ITO film. • Large compressive stress in the ITO film may improve its mechanical durability

  4. Structural colors of the SiO2/polyethyleneimine thin films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yanrong; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qiubao; Fan, Qinguo; Shao, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    The SiO 2 /polyethyleneimine (PEI) films with structural colors on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates were fabricated by an electrostatic self-assembly method. The morphology of the films was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that there was no distinguishable multilayered structure found of SiO 2 /PEI films. The optical behaviors of the films were investigated through the color photos captured by a digital camera and the color measurement by a multi-angle spectrophotometer. Different hue and brightness were observed at various viewing angles. The structural colors were dependent on the SiO 2 particle size and the number of assembly cycles. The mechanism of the structural colors generated from the assembled films was elucidated. The morphological structures and the optical properties proved that the SiO 2 /PEI film fabricated on PET substrate formed a homogeneous inorganic/organic SiO 2 /PEI composite layer, and the structural colors were originated from single thin film interference. - Highlights: • SiO 2 /PEI thin films were electrostatic self-assembled on PET substrates. • The surface morphology and optical behavior of the film were investigated. • The structural colors varied with various SiO 2 particle sizes and assembly cycles. • Different hue and lightness of SiO 2 /PEI film were observed at various viewing angles. • Structural color of the SiO 2 /PEI film originated from single thin film interference

  5. Magnetron sputtered transparent conductive zinc-oxide stabilized amorphous indium oxide thin films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Zhang, X.-F.; Ding, Y.-T.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous transparent conducting zinc-oxide stabilized indium oxide thin films, named amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO), were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at ambient temperature on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. It has been demonstrated that the electrical resistivity could attain as low as ∼ 5 × 10 −4 Ω cm, which was noticeably lower than amorphous indium tin oxide films prepared at the same condition, while the visible transmittance exceeded 84% with the refractive index of 1.85–2.00. In our experiments, introduction of oxygen gas appeared to be beneficial to the improvement of the transparency and electrical conductivity. Both free carrier absorption and indirect transition were observed and Burstein–Moss effect proved a-IZO to be a degenerated amorphous semiconductor. However, the linear relation between the optical band gap and the band tail width which usually observed in covalent amorphous semiconductor such as a-Si:H was not conserved. Besides, porosity could greatly determine the resistivity and optical constants for the thickness variation at this deposition condition. Furthermore, a broad photoluminescence peak around 510 nm was identified when more than 1.5 sccm oxygen was introduced. - Highlights: ► Highly conducting amorphous zinc-oxide stabilized indium oxide thin films were prepared. ► The films were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate at ambient temperature. ► Introduction of oxygen can improve the transparency and electrical conductivity. ► The linear relation between optical band gap and band tail width was not conserved

  6. Stepwise crystallization and the layered distribution in crystallization kinetics of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Biao, E-mail: chemizuo@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: wxinping@yahoo.com; Xu, Jianquan; Sun, Shuzheng; Liu, Yue; Yang, Juping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping, E-mail: chemizuo@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: wxinping@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of the Education Ministry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-06-21

    Crystallization is an important property of polymeric materials. In conventional viewpoint, the transformation of disordered chains into crystals is usually a spatially homogeneous process (i.e., it occurs simultaneously throughout the sample), that is, the crystallization rate at each local position within the sample is almost the same. Here, we show that crystallization of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films can occur in the heterogeneous way, exhibiting a stepwise crystallization process. We found that the layered distribution of glass transition dynamics of thin film modifies the corresponding crystallization behavior, giving rise to the layered distribution of the crystallization kinetics of PET films, with an 11-nm-thick surface layer having faster crystallization rate and the underlying layer showing bulk-like behavior. The layered distribution in crystallization kinetics results in a particular stepwise crystallization behavior during heating the sample, with the two cold-crystallization temperatures separated by up to 20 K. Meanwhile, interfacial interaction is crucial for the occurrence of the heterogeneous crystallization, as the thin film crystallizes simultaneously if the interfacial interaction is relatively strong. We anticipate that this mechanism of stepwise crystallization of thin polymeric films will allow new insight into the chain organization in confined environments and permit independent manipulation of localized properties of nanomaterials.

  7. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2018-01-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  8. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yun; Yang Yun; Wu Feng

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  9. Grafting of copolymer styrene maleic anhydride on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by chemical reaction and by plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigan, Muriel; Bigot, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoleculaire (UMR 8009), Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Mutel, Brigitte [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interactions Fluides reactifs-Materiaux (UPRES-EA 3751), Batiment C5, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: Brigitte.mutel@univ-lille1.fr; Coqueret, Xavier [Laboratoire Reactions Selectives et Applications (UMR-CNRS 6519) Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardennes, B.P. 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-02-15

    This work deals with the chemical grafting of a styrene maleic anhydride copolymer on the surface of a previously hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film 12 {mu}m thick via covalent bond. Two different ways are studied. The first one involves an activation of the hydrolyzed PET by the triethylamine before the grafting step. In the second one, the copolymer reacts with the 4-dimethylaminopyridine in order to form maleinyl pyridinium salt which reacts with alcohol function of the hydrolyzed PET. Characterization and quantification of the grafting are performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Factorial experiment designs are used to optimize the process and to estimate experimental parameters effects. The opportunity to associate the chemical process to a cold remote nitrogen plasma one is also examined.

  10. Active biodegradable films produced with blends of rice flour and poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate): effect of potassium sorbate on film characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, G M; Soares Júnior, M S; Yamashita, F

    2013-08-01

    The objective of work was to produce and characterize biodegradable films from rice flour, poly(butylene adipate co-terephthalate) (PBAT), glycerol and potassium sorbate, for application as active packaging for fresh lasagna pasta. The films were evaluated with respect to their optical, water vapor barrier, mechanical and microstructural properties. The mechanical properties and microstructure were evaluated after use as packaging material for fresh pasta for 45 days at 7°C. The blends of rice flour, PBAT, glycerol and potassium sorbate showed good processability and allowed for the pilot scale production of films by blow extrusion process. The addition of 1 to 5% potassium sorbate as plasticizer agent of films in place of glycerol did not alter the film mechanical properties and a sorbate concentration greater or equal than 3% reduced the opacity, although increasing the water vapor permeability. The films could be used as active packaging for fresh food pasta, since they remained integral and easy to handle after application. The rice flour was shown to be an excellent material for the formulation of biodegradable films, since it is a low-cost raw material from a renewable source. The addition of potassium sorbate did not affect the extrusion process, and could be used in the production of packaging for use with foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The study on grafting comonomer of n-butyl acrylate and styrene onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) film by gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Xiang; Wang Mozhen [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ge Xuewu, E-mail: xwge@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was successfully grafted with n-butyl acrylate and styrene comonomer through gamma-ray induced graft copolymerization. The degree of grafting (DG) and the composition of grafted side chain were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR. It was found that St can inhibit the homopolymerization of BA effectively and increase the DG when the concentration of comonomer mixture is kept constant. The proportion of St to BA in grafted side chain has a positive dependence on the feed ratio of St, which ultimately approaches the feed ratio. The thermal properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-graft-poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-styrene) (PET-g-P(BA-co-St)) films were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The T{sub g} of PET decreases with the DG, indicating that the grafted P(BA-co-St) copolymer has good compatibility with PET backbone.

  12. Direct Silver Micro Circuit Patterning on Transparent Polyethylene Terephthalate Film Using Laser-Induced Photothermochemical Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Jui Lan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new and improved approach to the rapid and green fabrication of highly conductive microscale silver structures on low-cost transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate. In this new laser direct synthesis and pattering (LDSP process, silver microstructures are simultaneously synthesized and laid down in a predetermined pattern using a low power continuous wave (CW laser. The silver ion processing solution, which is transparent and reactive, contains a red azo dye as the absorbing material. The silver pattern is formed by photothermochemical reduction of the silver ions induced by the focused CW laser beam. In this improved LDSP process, the non-toxic additive in the transparent ionic solution absorbs energy from a low cost CW visible laser without the need for the introduction of any hazardous chemical process. Tests were carried out to determine the durability of the conductive patterns, and numerical analyses of the thermal and fluid transport were performed to investigate the morphology of the deposited patterns. This technology is an advanced method for preparing micro-scale circuitry on an inexpensive, flexible, and transparent polymer substrate that is fast, environmentally benign, and shows potential for Roll-to-Roll manufacture.

  13. 78 FR 60311 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... inputs into production); and factors related to the ability to shift supply among different national... output of the Domestic Like Product constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of... conducts under Title VII of the Act, or in internal audits and investigations relating to the programs and...

  14. 78 FR 78333 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... respondents (Shaoxing Xiangyu Green Packing Co., Ltd. and Tianjin Wanhua Co., Ltd.) and three separate rate... accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because the PRC is a non-market economy (``NME'') within the meaning... dumping margin (percent) Shaoxing Xiangyu Green Packing Co., Ltd 34.69 Tianjin Wanhua Co., Ltd 22.07 Fuwei...

  15. 75 FR 40784 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...). This review covers one company, Kolon Industries Inc. (Kolon) and the period June 1, 2008, through May..., representing essentially a logistical transfer of inventory that resembles ex-factory sales. In contrast, all..., warehousing, and U.S. credit expenses), inventory carrying costs, and other U.S. indirect selling expenses. We...

  16. 78 FR 9668 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... calculations of credit expenses, direct selling expenses, and the adjustment for the provision of free samples... associated with that importer with offsets being provided for non- dumped comparisons. \\8\\ See 19 CFR 351.106...). Cash Deposit Requirements The following deposit requirements will be effective for all shipments of PET...

  17. 76 FR 18519 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... CONTACT: Gene Calvert, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... Ya argues that the last criteria in the Department's model matching hierarchy, surface treatment, has... criteria in the hierarchy, and that it should receive more weight during the model matching process...

  18. 76 FR 47546 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... subheadings are provided for convenience and customs purposes. The written description of the scope of the...) than U.S. sales, we examine selling functions along the chain of distribution between the respondent... implementing these principles, we examined all the information provided by Ester regarding the selling...

  19. 75 FR 78968 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Schedule of the United States (HTSUS). While HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and customs... movement charges, direct selling expenses, and packing. Pursuant to 19 CFR 351.403(c), and in accordance... U.S. sales, we examine selling functions along the chain of distribution between the respondent and...

  20. 77 FR 46687 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... United States (HTSUS) under item number 3920.62.00.90. HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and...).\\17\\ Substantial differences in selling activities are a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for... the distribution system in each market (i.e., the chain of distribution), including selling functions...

  1. 76 FR 76365 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and customs purposes, our written description of the.... sales, we examine selling functions along the chain of distribution between the respondent and the... regarding the selling functions involved in its home market and U.S. sales, including a description of these...

  2. 75 FR 81570 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    .... HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and customs purposes. The written description of the... derive selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses and profit. For EP, the U.S. LOT is the level... whether NV sales are at a different LOT than EP sales, we examine stages in the selling functions along...

  3. 77 FR 14493 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Issues for the Final Results Surrogate Country Selection and Surrogate Financial Ratios Issue 1: Whether... Department should have selected the financial statement of JBF Industries Ltd. to calculate financial ratios... this review. We invited interested parties to comment on our Preliminary Results. Based on our analysis...

  4. 76 FR 47558 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum at ``Pre-Shipment and Post-Shipment Export Financing.'' Therefore... Issues and Decision Memorandum, at ``Allocation Period.'' In the instant administrative review, Ester...-Shipment Export Financing program. For further information regarding this program, see the ``Pre-Shipment...

  5. 75 FR 81574 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Statistics (IMF Statistics) for SRF. SRF received exemptions from import duties and central sales taxes (CST... Territory Sales Tax Exemption program, we have used SRF's total sales of subject merchandise as the... were certified by an accountant. The total values of the GOI redemption document reflect the import and...

  6. 77 FR 46704 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... performed at the same or similar levels of intensity in all channels of distribution. We examined the... selling functions in all three categories to the same or similar degree in all channels of distribution... comparison market sales are made through these channels of distribution, and Shinkong's selling activities...

  7. 76 FR 40325 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... the marketing process and selling functions along the chain of distribution between the producer and... activities performed, along with a flowchart and tables comparing the LOTs among each channel of distribution... market, Kolon identified two channels of distribution described as follows: (1) Direct shipments (i.e...

  8. Liquid Film Migration in Warm Formed Aluminum Brazing Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M. J.; Whitney, M. A.; Wells, M. A.; Jin, H.; Winkler, S.

    2017-10-01

    Warm forming has previously proven to be a promising manufacturing route to improve formability of Al brazing sheets used in automotive heat exchanger production; however, the impact of warm forming on subsequent brazing has not previously been studied. In particular, the interaction between liquid clad and solid core alloys during brazing through the process of liquid film migration (LFM) requires further understanding. Al brazing sheet comprised of an AA3003 core and AA4045 clad alloy, supplied in O and H24 tempers, was stretched between 0 and 12 pct strain, at room temperature and 523K (250 °C), to simulate warm forming. Brazeability was predicted through thermal and microstructure analysis. The rate of solid-liquid interactions was quantified using thermal analysis, while microstructure analysis was used to investigate the opposing processes of LFM and core alloy recrystallization during brazing. In general, liquid clad was consumed relatively rapidly and LFM occurred in forming conditions where the core alloy did not recrystallize during brazing. The results showed that warm forming could potentially impair brazeability of O temper sheet by extending the regime over which LFM occurs during brazing. No change in microstructure or thermal data was found for H24 sheet when the forming temperature was increased, and thus warm forming was not predicted to adversely affect the brazing performance of H24 sheet.

  9. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  10. Influence of temperature on radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) nuclear membranes and films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitaryuk, N.I.; Shtan'ko, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature effect on kinetics of radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP) nuclear membranes with various parameters (pore diameter, the average distance between the pores) as well as onto PETP films with different thickness has been studied. Graft polymerization has been carried out by the methods of preirradiation in air and in vacuum. The overall activation energy of grafting as well as the activation energy of swelling of PETP in toluene has been obtained. It was found that in the method of preirradiation in vacuum the initial grafting rate in Arrhenius plot has two linear ranges. Activation energy in low temperature range correlates with activation energy of PETP swelling. Activation energy in high temperature range is determined by kinetics of graft polymerization in the method of preirradiation in air. Arrhenius plot of the initial grafting rate gives the activation energy that approximately corresponds to the initiation of grafting with oxyradicals. Dependence of PETP matrix critical thickness on temperature has also been obtained. The form of this dependence is identical to the one of the rate of graft polymerization. 33 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Magnetic properties of thin films obtained by ion implantation of 3d metals in polyethylene-terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petukhov, V.Yu.; Ibragimova, M.I.; Khabibullina, N.R; Zheglov, E.P.; Muller, R.

    2002-01-01

    Polymer films containing small metal particles have been attracting particular interest because of their unique properties. Implantation of metal ions in polymers is one of the methods to synthesize metal-polymer nano-composite materials. Ion implantation makes possible the magnetic nano-structures with controlled parameters. Previously, we showed that 3d-metal implantation into numerous polymers (polymethylmethacrylate, phosphorus containing polymethylmethacrylate) resulted in the formation of a composite film consisting of metal nanoparticles buried in an implanted layer. The particles are usually found to be distributed randomly in the surface layer. It has been established that structural peculiarities, phase composition, and magnetic properties of synthesized metal-polymer systems depend on the type of the initial polymer matrix, ion types, as well as conditions of ion implantation. In the present study we have been prepared thin metal-polymer composite films by ion-beam implantation of Fe + and Co + ions in polyethylene terephthalate. The implantation of 40 keV ions at room temperature with doses from 2·10 1 6 to 3·10 17 cm -2 have been performed, with the ion current density not exceeding 10 μA/cm 2 . The magnetic properties have been investigated both by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). FMR spectra were recorded using magnetic radio spectrometer Varian E-12 with frequency of 9.5 GHz at room temperature. The dependencies of FMR spectra on orientation have been measured for all samples. Measurements were carried out for two orientations of the sample, normal direction of the films being either parallel or perpendicular to dc magnetic field. The values of the effective magnetization were calculated from orientation dependencies. Thin ferromagnetic films (TFF) have been shown to form for samples with both implanted ions. For samples implanted with Co + ions, the appearance of FMR lines occurs at doses markedly greater

  12. Gas barrier properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films coated on polyethylene terephthalate by plasma polymerization in argon/n-hexane gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Petr, Martin; Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan; Biederman, Hynek

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films were deposited by RF plasma polymerization in argon/n-hexane gas mixture on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foils. It was found that such deposited films may significantly improve the barrier properties of PET. It was demonstrated that the principal parameter that influences barrier properties of such deposited films towards oxygen and water vapor is the density of the coatings. Moreover, it was shown that for achieving good barrier properties it is advantageous to deposit coatings with very low thickness. According to the presented results, optimal thickness of the coating should not be higher than several tens of nm. - Highlights: • a-C:H films were prepared by plasma polymerization in Ar/n-hexane atmosphere. • Barrier properties of coatings are dependent on their density and thickness. • Highest barrier properties were observed for films with thickness 15 nm.

  13. Electron-Beam Induced Grafting of Isopropylacrylamide to a Poly(Ethylene-Terephthalate) Membrane for Cell Sheet Detachment, and Fuel Cell Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahamat, L; Al-Sheikhly, M [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College Park, MD (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Using high-energy irradiation initiation, isopropylacrylamide (IPAA) was grafted to a porous membrane dish composed of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). IPPA demonstrates a transition from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic structure with a simple change in temperature. The dishes were used for cell grow. Cells generally grow in an environment set at 37 deg. C, at which the IPAA polymer exhibits its hydrophobic structure. IPAA was attached uniformly to a cell culture surface, and cells were able to grow on top of the IPAA while it was in its hydrophobic state. Cells were easily removed from the surface of the dishes after changing the temperature below the LCST of IPAA. By changing the temperature polymer altered its structure to a hydrophilic state and no longer provided a suitable surface for the cells to adhere to. This caused the cells to lift off the culture surface without the use of a destructive enzyme such as trypsin or dispase. These cell sheets are useful to cell sheet engineering because the cells will retain both their extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-to-cell junctions, which are normally lost in the harvest of cells. Poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexefluoropropylene) (FEP) is a material under investigation as a polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cells. In order to make it ionically conductive, styrene was grafted to it and then subsequently sulfonated. Grafting of styrene to FEP was performed by simultaneous irradiation of the monomer and substrate to initiate the reaction, followed by a heat treatment to allow the reaction to undergo propagation. The effects of dose rate and heat treatment time on the weight percent yield of grafting and uniformity as a function of depth in the substrate was investigated. A 38.5 wt% graft was obtained after a 50 kGy dose of electron irradiation at a dose rate of 2,8 Gy/pulse and post-irradiation heat treatment of 60 deg. C for three hours. FTIR analysis of 10 {mu}m sections of material grafted under these

  14. Effects of pre-strain applied at a polyethylene terephthalate substrate before the coating of TiO2 film on the coating film quality and optical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tse-Chang; Wu, Bo-Hsiung; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2011-01-01

    A mold was designed to create various strains in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates before the deposition of TiO 2 film to simulate deposition process on a cylindrical drum. The residual stress of the PET substrate with TiO 2 film significantly increased with increasing strain, decreasing the radius of curvature. Compared to the as-received PET substrate, there was a noticeable increase in the surface roughness in the PET/TiO 2 specimens when a large strain was applied. The formation of voids or cavities in the TiO 2 layer significantly increased the roughness of the specimen. The mean cavity size and depth increased with increasing strain. For strains ≤ 4%, the specimen's hardness and Young's modulus factored by the voids/cavities increased with increasing surface roughness. The optical absorption increased with increasing surface roughness before becoming asymptotic to a constant value. The strain applied to the PET substrate before TiO 2 deposition greatly affects the optical reflection, transmittance, and absorption.

  15. Electroless plating Cu-Co-P polyalloy on UV/ozonolysis irradiated polyethylene terephthalate film and its corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei; Bi, Siyi; Zhao, Hang; Xu, Yumeng; Mu, Yuhang; Lu, Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Electroless plating Cu-Co-P polyalloy was firstly fabricated onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. • An etchant-free and amine-free UV/ozonolysis irradiation method UV/ozonolysis was effective for the transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic of PET sheet. • A time-saving and cost-effective orthogonal experiment (L{sub 9}(3){sup 4}) was utilized to optimize the plating conditions. • The optimized copper polyalloy possessed high corrosion resistance in three aggressive mediums including NaCl, NaOH and HCl, respectively. • The Cu-Co-P coated PET composite showed excellent electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE > 99.999% at frequency ranging from 30 MHz to 1000 MHz). - Abstract: High corrosion resistant Cu-Co-P coatings were firstly prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by electroless plating in combination with UV/ozonolysis irradiation under optimized cobalt sulfate heptahydrate concentration, pH value, plating temperature and time. The copper polyalloy/PET composite can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the generation of oxygen-containing functionalities (carboxylic groups) onto PET surface through UV irradiation combined with ozone, (ii) Cu seeding catalysts were obtained after being immersed into cupric citrate and NaBH{sub 4} solutions subsequently, and (iii) Cu-Co-P polyalloy metallization using electroless plating bath. Attenuated total reflection fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurement and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) were utilized to track the surface changes during the whole process. The electroless plating conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experiment (L{sub 9}(3){sup 4}) for Cu-Co-P coating as follows: CoSO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O addition of 0.08 M, pH value, plating temperature and time were set on 10.0, 35 °C and 25 min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, copper

  16. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-01

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×1016 atoms/cm3) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  17. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  18. Improvement of the characteristics of chemical bath deposition-cadmium sulfide films deposited on an O{sub 2} plasma-treated polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Donggun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300, Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Sunwon, Kyeonggi-do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Woochang, E-mail: wcsong@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do 245-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We prepared cadmium sulfide (CdS) films on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. To improve the adhesion between the CdS film and the PET substrate, the substrate was pre-treated with an O{sub 2} plasma by an inductively coupled plasma. The surface characterizations of the pre-treated PET substrate were analyzed by a contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that that O{sub 2} plasma-treated PET films had more hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic property of the substrate is one of the important factors when a film is prepared by CBD. The structural and the optical properties of the CdS films, deposited on PET substrates, were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The CdS films were formed on a compact and granular structure. The optical transmittance was also improved. Therefore, the O{sub 2} plasma treatment of a PET surface is an effective method of preparing CdS films deposited on substrates by CBD. - Highlights: • Chemical bath deposition of CdS film for flexible solar cells • O{sub 2} plasma treatment improved adhesion between the CdS and polymer substrate • Identification of best fabrication condition of CdS window layers for flexible solar cells.

  19. Textured surface boron-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxides on polyethylene terephthalate substrates for Si-based thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinliang; Lin Quan; Ni Jian; Zhang Dekun; Sun Jian; Zhao Ying; Geng Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    Textured surface boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films were directly grown via low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrates at low temperatures and high-efficiency flexible polymer silicon (Si) based thin film solar cells were obtained. High purity diethylzinc and water vapors were used as source materials, and diborane was used as an n-type dopant gas. P-i-n silicon layers were fabricated at ∼ 398 K by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. These textured surface ZnO:B thin films on PET substrates (PET/ZnO:B) exhibit rough pyramid-like morphology with high transparencies (T ∼ 80%) and excellent electrical properties (Rs ∼ 10 Ω at d ∼ 1500 nm). Finally, the PET/ZnO:B thin films were applied in flexible p-i-n type silicon thin film solar cells (device structure: PET/ZnO:B/p-i-n a-Si:H/Al) with a high conversion efficiency of 6.32% (short-circuit current density J SC = 10.62 mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage V OC = 0.93 V and fill factor = 64%).

  20. Effects of Interphase Modification and Biaxial Orientation on Dielectric Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Multilayer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kezhen; Zhou, Zheng; Schuele, Donald E; Wolak, Mason; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Recently, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based multilayer films have demonstrated enhanced dielectric properties, combining high energy density and high dielectric breakdown strength from the component polymers. In this work, further enhanced dielectric properties were achieved through interface/interphase modulation and biaxial orientation for the poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP)] three-component multilayer films. Because PMMA is miscible with P(VDF-HFP) and compatible with PET, the interfacial adhesion between PET and P(VDF-HFP) layers should be improved. Biaxial stretching of the as-extruded multilayer films induced formation of highly oriented fibrillar crystals in both P(VDF-HFP) and PET, resulting in improved dielectric properties with respect to the unstretched films. First, the parallel orientation of PVDF crystals reduced the dielectric loss from the αc relaxation in α crystals. Second, biaxial stretching constrained the amorphous phase in P(VDF-HFP) and thus the migrational loss from impurity ions was reduced. Third, biaxial stretching induced a significant amount of rigid amorphous phase in PET, further enhancing the breakdown strength of multilayer films. Due to the synergistic effects of improved interfacial adhesion and biaxial orientation, the PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP) 65-layer films with 8 vol % PMMA exhibited optimal dielectric properties with an energy density of 17.4 J/cm(3) at breakdown and the lowest dielectric loss. These three-component multilayer films are promising for future high-energy-density film capacitor applications.

  1. Structure and gas-barrier properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited on inner walls of cylindrical polyethylene terephthalate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Tian Xiubo; Yang Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of radio-frequency (RF) power on the structure and gas permeation through amorphous hydrogenated carbon films deposited on cylindrical polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples is investigated. The results show that a higher radio-frequency power leads to a smaller sp 3 /sp 2 value but produces fewer defects with smaller size. The permeability of PET samples decreases significantly after a-C:H deposition and the RF only exerts a small influence. However, the coating uniformity, color, and wettability of the surface are affected by the RF power. A higher RF power results in to better uniformity and it may be attributed to the combination of the high-density plasma and sample heating.

  2. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films and thermal properties of the obtained graft copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping Xiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Mozhen, E-mail: pstwmz@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ge Xuewu, E-mail: xwge@ustc.edu.c [CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2011-05-15

    n-Butyl acrylate (BA) was successfully grafted onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using simultaneous radiation induced graft copolymerization with gamma rays. When BA concentration ranges from 20% to 30%, the Degree of Grafting (DG), measured by gravimetry and {sup 1}H NMR, increases with the monomer concentration and absorbed dose, but decreases with dose rate from 0.83 to 2.53 kGy/h. The maximum DG can reach up to 22.1%. The thermal transition temperatures such as glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) and cold-crystallization temperature (T{sub cc}) of PET in grafted films were little different from those in original PET film, indicating that microphase separation occurred between PBA side chains and PET backbone. This work implied that if PET/elastomers (e.g., acrylate rubber) blends are radiated by high energy gamma rays under a certain condition, PET-g-polyacrylate copolymer may be produced in-situ, which will improve the compatibility between PET and the elastomers so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic.

  3. Silk fibroin immobilization on poly(ethylene terephthalate) films: Comparison of two surface modification methods and their effect on mesenchymal stem cells culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Meini; Yao, Jinrong; Chen, Xin; Huang, Lei; Shao, Zhengzhong, E-mail: zzshao@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has played a curial role for the surface modification of conventional materials to improve the biocompatibility, and SF modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials have potential applications on tissue engineering such as artificial ligament, artificial vessel, artificial heart valve sewing cuffs dacron and surgical mesh engineering. In this work, SF was immobilized onto PET film via two different methods: 1) plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating (PET-SF) and 2) plasma-induce acrylic acid graft polymerization and subsequent covalent immobilization of SF on PET film (PET-PAA-SF). It could be found that plasma treatment provided higher surface roughness which was suitable for further SF dip coating, while grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) promised the covalent bonding between SF and PAA. ATR-FTIR adsorption band at 3284 cm{sup −1}, 1623 cm{sup −1} and 1520 cm{sup −1} suggested the successful introduction of SF onto PET surface, while the amount of immobilized SF of PET-SF was higher than PET-PAA-SF according to XPS investigation (0.29 vs 0.23 for N/C ratio). Surface modified PET film was used as substrate for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture, the cells on PET-SF surface exhibited optimum density compared to PET-PAA-SF according to CCK-8 assays, which indicated that plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating was a simple and effective way to prepare biocompatible PET surface. Highlights: ► Silk fibroins were immobilized onto PET films with or without the linker of PAA. ► Various techniques were performed to characterize the modified surfaces ► Plasma treatment followed by SF dip coating introduced more SF onto PET films. ► Compare to PET-PAA-SF, PET-SF has better biocompatibility base on MSCs culture.

  4. Super-Robust Polylactide Barrier Films by Building Densely Oriented Lamellae Incorporated with Ductile in Situ Nanofibrils of Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Hua-Dong; Ji, Xu; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Remarkable combination of excellent gas barrier performance, high strength, and toughness was realized in polylactide (PLA) composite films by constructing the supernetworks of oriented and pyknotic crystals with the assistance of ductile in situ nanofibrils of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). On the basis that the permeation of gas molecules through polymer materials with anisotropic structure would be more frustrated, we believe that oriented crystalline textures cooperating with inerratic amorphism can be favorable for the enhancement of gas barrier property. By taking full advantage of intensively elongational flow field, the dispersed phase of PBAT in situ forms into nanofibrils, and simultaneously sufficient row-nuclei for PLA are induced. After appropriate thermal treatment with the acceleration effect of PBAT on PLA crystallization, oriented lamellae of PLA tend to be more perfect in a preferential direction and constitute into a kind of network interconnecting with each other. At the same time, the molecular chains between lamellae tend to be more extended. This unique structure manifests superior ability in ameliorating the performance of PLA film. The oxygen permeability coefficient can be achieved as low as 2 × 10(-15) cm(3) cm cm(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), combining with the high strength, modulus, and ductility (104.5 MPa, 3484 MPa, and 110.6%, respectively). The methodology proposed in this work presents an industrially scalable processing method to fabricate super-robust PLA barrier films. It would indeed push the usability of biopolymers forward, and certainly prompt wider application of biodegradable polymers in the fields of environmental protection such as food packaging, medical packaging, and biodegradable mulch.

  5. 78 FR 9363 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... clarified by Diamond Sawblades Mfrs. Coalition v. United States, 626 F.3d 1374 (Fed. Cir. 2010) (``Diamond... must correct Shaoxing Xiangyu Green Packing Co. Ltd.'s (``Green Packing'') per unit water and... Packing's reported per-unit water and electricity consumption. To correct the error, the Department has...

  6. 78 FR 19524 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... required if a currently valid Office of Management and Budget (OMB) number is not displayed; the OMB number... of the Domestic Like Product constitutes a major proportion of the total domestic production of the..., 2011) and the newly revised Commission's Handbook on E-Filing, available on the Commission's Web site...

  7. 78 FR 52500 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ....2d 337 (Fed. Cir. 1990) (``Timken''), as clarified by Diamond Sawblades Mfrs. Coalition v. United...\\ Pursuant to the CIT's remand order, the Department re- examined record evidence and made changes to the...

  8. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-07-01

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  9. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  10. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing [Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Modern Design and Rotor-Bearing System, School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Diao, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfdiao@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering (INSE), Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-07-18

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  11. Thermally Induced Alpha-Helix to Beta-Sheet Transition in Regenerated Silk Fibers and Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummy,L.; Phillips, D.; Stone, M.; Farmer, B.; Naik, R.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of thin films cast from regenerated solutions of Bombyx mori cocoon silk in hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol (HFIP) was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction during heating. A solid-state conformational transition from an alpha-helical structure to the well-known beta-sheet silk II structure occurred at a temperature of approximately 140 degrees C. The transition appeared to be homogeneous, as both phases do not coexist within the resolution of the current study. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the films showed an endothermic melting peak followed by an exothermic crystallization peak, both occurring near 140 degrees C. Oriented fibers were also produced that displayed this helical molecular conformation. Subsequent heating above the structural transition temperature produced oriented beta-sheet fibers very similar in structure to B. mori cocoon fibers. Heat treatment of silk films at temperatures well below their degradation temperature offers a controllable route to materials with well-defined structures and mechanical behavior.

  12. Electrodeposition of Manganese-Nickel Oxide Films on a Graphite Sheet for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Min Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese-nickel (Mn-Ni oxide films were electrodeposited on a graphite sheet in a bath consisting of manganese acetate and nickel chloride, and the structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of these films were investigated. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide films had porous structures covered with nanofibers. The X-ray diffractometer pattern revealed the presence of separate manganese oxide (g-MnO2 and nickel oxide (NiO in the films. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide electrode exhibited a specific capacitance of 424 F/g in Na2SO4 electrolyte. This electrode maintained 86% of its initial specific capacitance over 2000 cycles of the charge-discharge operation, showing good cycling stability.

  13. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalpando, I. [Centro de Investigacion de los Recursos Naturales, Antigua Normal Rural, Salaices, Lopez, Chihuahua (Mexico); John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B., E-mail: isaelav@hotmail.com [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14-4AS (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  14. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, I.; John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2017-01-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  15. Exogenous ROS-induced cell sheet transfer based on hematoporphyrin-polyketone film via a one-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Min-Ah; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Dohyun; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Jong-Chul

    2018-04-01

    To date, most of invasive cell sheet harvesting methods have used culture surface property variations, such as wettability, pH, electricity, and magnetism, to induce cell detachment. These methods that rely on surface property changes are effective when cell detachment prior to application is necessary, but of limited use when used for cell sheet transfer to target regions. The study reports a new reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced strategy based on hematoporphyrin-incorporated polyketone film (Hp-PK film) to transfer cell sheets directly to target areas without an intermediate harvesting process. After green LED (510 nm) irradiation, production of exogenous ROS from the Hp-PK films induces cell sheet detachment and transfer. The study suggests that ROS-induced cell detachment property of the Hp-PK film is closely related to conformational changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Also, this strategy with the Hp-PK film can be applied by regulating production rate of exogenous ROS in various types of cells, including fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes. In conclusion, ROS-induced method using the Hp-PK film can be used for one-step cell sheet transplantation and has potential in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of RGD immobilization on light-induced cell sheet detachment from TiO{sub 2} nanodots films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kui; Wang, Tiantian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Mengliu [The Affiliated Stomatologic Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Wan, Hongping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Jun [The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Huiming, E-mail: hmwang1960@hotmail.com [The Affiliated Stomatologic Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Light-induced cell detachment is reported to be a safe and effective cell sheet harvest method. In the present study, the effects of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) immobilization on cell growth, cell sheet construction and cell harvest through light illumination are investigated. RGD was first immobilized on TiO{sub 2} nanodots films through simple physical adsorption, and then mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the films. It was found that RGD immobilization promoted cell adhesion and proliferation. It was also observed that cells cultured on RGD immobilized films showed relatively high level of pan-cadherin. Cells harvested with ultraviolet illumination (365 nm) showed good viability on both RGD immobilized and unmodified TiO{sub 2} nanodot films. Single cell detachment assay showed that cells detached more quickly on RGD immobilized TiO{sub 2} nanodot films. That could be ascribed to the RGD release after UV365 illumination. The current study demonstrated that RGD immobilization could effectively improve both the cellular responses and light-induced cell harvest. - Highlights: • RGD immobilization on TiO{sub 2} nanodots film favors light-induced cell sheet detachment. • Physically adsorbed RGD detaches from the film through ultraviolet illumination. • RGD detachment promotes cells and cell sheets detachment.

  17. Characterisation of organic thin film coatings on automobile steel sheets by photothermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Fluegge, W. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Gibkes, J. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). AG FestKoerperSpektroskopie

    2006-07-01

    In the nineties, the first generation of organic thin film coatings for corrosion protection of zinc-coated thin sheet steel have been introduced. The coating typically consists of a suspension of small zinc particles, embedded in a polymer matrix. In the scope of quality control, the characterisation of the resulting layer structure is of great interest, comprising not only a constant layer thickness and a local homogeneity of the coating, but also the depth distribution of the particles within the layer. Especially the latter parameter does have a direct influence on the spot weldability of the steel sheets. The present work shows, how photothermal methods like modulated infrared radiometry and photoacoustics can be used for a successful depth profiling of the thin film coatings. The sample surface is periodically heated using an intensitymodulated laser beam, and a thermal wave is induced in the layer system. By variation of the modulation frequency of the laser beam, the thermal diffusion length and, as a consequence, the penetration depth of the thermal wave can be adjusted. By a suitable evaluation of the amplitude and phase lag signals as a function of the modulation frequency, accurate depth profiling has been realized which can be used for a very reliable prediction of the welding properties of the product. In the first investigations, artificial samples with well defined extreme distributions of the particles have been analyzed, and in a second step, an evaluation strategy has been developed for real production samples. (orig.)

  18. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) thin films for cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Jiao, Alex; Yu, Seungjung; You, Jae Bem; Kim, Deok-Ho; Im, Sung Gap

    2013-08-01

    Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive polymer known to be nontoxic, water soluble and biocompatible. Here, PNVCL homopolymer was successfully synthesized for the first time by use of a one-step vapor-phase process, termed initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that radical polymerization took place from N-vinylcaprolactam monomers without damaging the functional caprolactam ring. A sharp lower critical solution temperature transition was observed at 31°C from the iCVD poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) film. The thermoresponsive PNVCL surface exhibited a hydrophilic/hydrophobic alteration with external temperature change, which enabled the thermally modulated attachment and detachment of cells. The conformal coverage of PNVCL film on various substrates with complex topography, including fabrics and nanopatterns, was successfully demonstrated, which can further be utilized to fabricate cell sheets with aligned cell morphology. The advantage of this system is that cells cultured on such thermoresponsive surfaces could be recovered as an intact cell sheet by simply lowering the temperature, eliminating the need for conventional enzymatic treatments. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structurally Oriented Nano-Sheets in Co Thin Films: Changing Their Anisotropic Physical Properties by Thermally-Induced Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, José; Favieres, Cristina; Magén, César; de Teresa, José María; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo; Madurga, Vicente

    2017-12-05

    We show how nanocrystalline Co films formed by separated oblique nano-sheets display anisotropy in their resistivity, magnetization process, surface nano-morphology and optical transmission. After performing a heat treatment at 270 °C, these anisotropies decrease. This loss has been monitored measuring the resistivity as a function of temperature. The resistivity measured parallel to the direction of the nano-sheets has been constant up to 270 °C, but it decreases when measured perpendicular to the nano-sheets. This suggests the existence of a structural relaxation, which produces the change of the Co nano-sheets during annealing. The changes in the nano-morphology and the local chemical composition of the films at the nanoscale after heating above 270 °C have been analysed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Thus, an approach and coalescence of the nano-sheets have been directly visualized. The spectrum of activation energies of this structural relaxation has indicated that the coalescence of the nano-sheets has taken place between 1.2 and 1.7 eV. In addition, an increase in the size of the nano-crystals has occurred in the samples annealed at 400 °C. This study may be relevant for the application in devices working, for example, in the GHz range and to achieve the retention of the anisotropy of these films at higher temperatures.

  20. Structurally Oriented Nano-Sheets in Co Thin Films: Changing Their Anisotropic Physical Properties by Thermally-Induced Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vergara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how nanocrystalline Co films formed by separated oblique nano-sheets display anisotropy in their resistivity, magnetization process, surface nano-morphology and optical transmission. After performing a heat treatment at 270 °C, these anisotropies decrease. This loss has been monitored measuring the resistivity as a function of temperature. The resistivity measured parallel to the direction of the nano-sheets has been constant up to 270 °C, but it decreases when measured perpendicular to the nano-sheets. This suggests the existence of a structural relaxation, which produces the change of the Co nano-sheets during annealing. The changes in the nano-morphology and the local chemical composition of the films at the nanoscale after heating above 270 °C have been analysed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM. Thus, an approach and coalescence of the nano-sheets have been directly visualized. The spectrum of activation energies of this structural relaxation has indicated that the coalescence of the nano-sheets has taken place between 1.2 and 1.7 eV. In addition, an increase in the size of the nano-crystals has occurred in the samples annealed at 400 °C. This study may be relevant for the application in devices working, for example, in the GHz range and to achieve the retention of the anisotropy of these films at higher temperatures.

  1. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect ...

  2. Preparation of Graphene Sheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Confined Space and Their Application in Transparent Conductive Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wei, Can; Zhu, Kaiyi; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Jiwei; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-10-04

    A novel electrochemical exfoliation mode was established to prepare graphene sheets efficiently with potential applications in transparent conductive films. The graphite electrode was coated with paraffin to keep the electrochemical exfoliation in confined space in the presence of concentrated sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte, yielding ∼100% low-defect (the D band to G band intensity ratio, I D /I G = 0.26) graphene sheets. Furthermore, ozone was first detected with ozone test strips, and the effect of ozone on the exfoliation of graphite foil and the microstructure of the as-prepared graphene sheets was investigated. Findings indicate that upon applying a low voltage (3 V) on the graphite foil partially coated with paraffin wax that the coating can prevent the insufficiently intercalated graphite sheets from prematurely peeling off from the graphite electrode thereby affording few-layer (graphene sheets in a yield of as much as 60%. Besides, the ozone generated during the electrochemical exfoliation process plays a crucial role in the exfoliation of graphite, and the amount of defect in the as-prepared graphene sheets is dependent on electrolytic potential and electrode distance. Moreover, the graphene-based transparent conductive films prepared by simple modified vacuum filtration exhibit an excellent transparency and a low sheet resistance after being treated with NH 4 NO 3 and annealing (∼1.21 kΩ/□ at ∼72.4% transmittance).

  3. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  4. Rapid fabrication of transparent conductive films with controllable sheet resistance on glass substrates by laser annealing of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunhee; Ki, Hyungson

    2016-01-01

    We report a laser-based method for directly fabricating large-area, transparent conductive films with customizable electrical resistance on glass. In this method, a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is deposited first on a glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition, which is then annealed in a helium shielding environment by a 2 kW continuous-wave fiber laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm, which is transparent to glass but is absorbed by DLC to transform the amorphous carbons to graphene. When a 510 nm thick film was annealed at a scanning speed of 1 m/s by a 200 μm top-hat laser beam, the sp 3 fraction was decreased from 43.1% to 8.1% after the annealing process, and the transformed film showed a transparency of ∼80% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of ∼2050 Ω/sq. We also showed that sheet resistance and transparency can be controlled by changing processing parameters. To show the scalability of the method, a 15 mm wide line beam was used to produce a 15 mm × 15 mm film. This method is simple, fully scalable, transfer-free and catalyst-free, and we believe that the fabricated films can have many applications with further research, such as transparent heating films, electromagnetic shielding films, and transparent electrodes.

  5. Controlled bending and folding of a bilayer structure consisting of a thin stiff film and a heat shrinkable polymer sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianxun; Adams, John G. M.; Zhu, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Bending pre-designed flat sheets into three-dimensional (3D) structures is attracting much interest, as it provides a simple approach to make 3D devices. Here we report controlled bending and folding of a bilayer structure consisting of a heat shrinkable polymer sheet and a thin stiff film (not thermally responsive). Upon heating, the prestrained polymer sheet shrinks, leading to bending or folding of the bilayer. We studied the effect of relative dimensions of the two layers on the bending behavior and demonstrated the transition from longitudinal bending to transverse bending of the bilayer strip. Transverse bending was utilized to fold origami structures, including several flat letters, a crane, and a corrugated metal sheet via Miura-ori folding. We developed a method to further control the bending orientation based on bio-inspired anisotropic bending stiffness. By bending the metal foil in different orientations, several structures were obtained, including cylindrical surfaces and left-handed/right-handed helical structures.

  6. High-Resolution Digitization of the Film Archive of SPRI/NSF/TUD Radar Sounding of the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, D. M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Mackie, E. J.; Vega, K. I.; Emmons, J. R.; Winstein, K.; Bingham, R. G.; Benham, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    The airborne radio echo sounding data collected during the SPRI/NSF/TUD surveys of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in the late nineteen sixties and early seventies were recorded on a combination of 35mm and super-8 mm black-and-white optical film. These data represent the oldest extant continent-scale geophysical observations of ice thickness, internal layering and conditions beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. As such, when compared with modern radar sounding observations, they offer a unique opportunity to investigate temporal changes in ice sheet conditions across half a century. However, the storage of these data on film, paper-prints, and scans of those prints have made such comparison at the full radiometric and geometric resolution of the data difficult. To address this challenge, we utilized a state-of-the-art high-resolution Hollywood film scanning system to digitize the entire SPRI/NSF/TUD optical film archive. This has resulted in over two million digital images with information at the full spatial and brightness-level resolution of the original film. We present the process and results of this scanning as well as the current progress in formatting, registering, and positioning these data for release and use by the wider radio glaciological community. We also discuss the glaciological insights enabled by this effort.

  7. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors based on laser reduced graphene oxide supported on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoniem, Engy; Mori, Shinsuke; Abdel-Moniem, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    A controlled high powered CO2 laser system is used to reduce and pattern graphene oxide (GO) film supported onto a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The laser reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film is characterized and evaluated electrochemically in the absence and presence of an overlying anodicaly deposited thin film of pseuodcapactive MnO2 as electrodes for supercapacitor applications using aqueous electrolyte. The laser treatment of the GO film leads to an overlapped structure of defective multi-layer rGO sheets with an electrical conductivity of 273 S m-1. The rGO and MnO2/rGO electrodes exhibit specific capacitance in the range of 82-107 and 172-368 Fg-1 at applied current range of 0.1-1.0 mA cm-2 and retain 98 and 95% of their initial capacitances after 2000 cycles at a current density of 1.0 mA cm-2, respectively. Also, the rGO is assigned as an electrode material for flexible conventionally stacked and interdigitated in-plane supercapacitor structures using gel electrolyte. Three electrode architectures of 2, 4, and 6 sub-electrodes are studied for the interdigital in-plane design. The device with interdigital 6 sub-electrodes architecture I-PS(6) delivers power density of 537.1 Wcm-3 and an energy density of 0.45 mWh cm-3.

  8. Time-resolved measurements of the external electric field effects on fluorescence in electron donor and acceptor pairs of N-ethylcarbazole and dimethyl terephthalate doped in a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimori, Toshifumi; Yoshizawa, Tomokazu; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Electric-field-induced change in fluorescence decay has been measured for electron donor and acceptor pairs of N-ethylcarbazole (ECZ) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMTP) doped in a polymer film. Field-induced change in lifetime of the fluorescence emitted from the locally excited state of ECZ clearly shows that the electron transfer from the excited state of ECZ to DMTP is enhanced by an external electric field ( F ). A comparison is made between the experimental results of the field effect on decay profile of the ECZ fluorescence and the simulated results. Time-resolved electrofluorescence spectra as well as the field-induced change in decay profile of exciplex fluorescence show that exciplex fluorescence is quenched by F at the early stage of time following photoexcitation, but enhanced by F at a later stage of time. Both the decrease in the initial population of the fluorescent exciplex and the lengthening of the exciplex fluorescence in lifetime are shown to be induced by F

  9. Time-resolved measurements of the external electric field effects on fluorescence in electron donor and acceptor pairs of N-ethylcarbazole and dimethyl terephthalate doped in a polymer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Toshifumi [Research Institute for Electronic Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Yoshizawa, Tomokazu [Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Nakabayashi, Takakazu [Research Institute for Electronic Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ohta, Nobuhiro [Research Institute for Electronic Science (RIES), Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)], E-mail: nohta@es.hokudai.ac.jp

    2005-12-07

    Electric-field-induced change in fluorescence decay has been measured for electron donor and acceptor pairs of N-ethylcarbazole (ECZ) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMTP) doped in a polymer film. Field-induced change in lifetime of the fluorescence emitted from the locally excited state of ECZ clearly shows that the electron transfer from the excited state of ECZ to DMTP is enhanced by an external electric field ( F ). A comparison is made between the experimental results of the field effect on decay profile of the ECZ fluorescence and the simulated results. Time-resolved electrofluorescence spectra as well as the field-induced change in decay profile of exciplex fluorescence show that exciplex fluorescence is quenched by F at the early stage of time following photoexcitation, but enhanced by F at a later stage of time. Both the decrease in the initial population of the fluorescent exciplex and the lengthening of the exciplex fluorescence in lifetime are shown to be induced by F.

  10. Silver-Nanoparticle-Based Screen-Printing and Film Characterization of a Disposable, Dual-Band, Bandstop Filter on a Flexible Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Kumar Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a silver-nanoparticle-based, screen-printed, high-performance, dual-band, bandstop filter (DBBSF on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. Using screen-printing techniques to process a highly viscous silver printing ink, high-conductivity printed lines were implemented at a web transfer speed of 5 m/min. Characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the printed lines were shown to be characterized by smooth surfaces with a root mean square roughness of 7.986 nm; a significantly higher thickness (12.2 μm than the skin depth; and a high conductivity of 2×107 S/m. These excellent printed line characteristics enabled the implementation of a high-selectivity DBBSF using shunt-connected uniform impedance resonators (UIRs. Additionally, the inductive loading effect of T-shaped stubs on the UIRs, which were analyzed using S-parameters based on lumped parameter calculations, was used to improve the return losses of the geometrically optimized DBBSF. The measured minimum return loss and maximum insertion loss of 28.26 and 1.58 dB, respectively, at the central frequencies of 2.56 and 5.29 GHz of a protocol screen-printed DBBSF demonstrated the excellent performance of the material and its significant potential for use in future cost-effective, flexible WiMax and WLAN applications.

  11. Residual stress and bending strength of ZnO films deposited on polyimide sheet by RF sputtering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusaka, Kazuya, E-mail: kusaka@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Institute of Technology and Science, Tokushima University, 2-1, Minamijosanjima, Tokushima, Tokushima 7708506 (Japan); Maruoka, Yutaka, E-mail: ymaruoka1116@gmail.com [Graduate School of Advanced Technology and Science, Tokushima University, 2-1, Minamijosanjima, Tokushima, Tokushima 7708506 (Japan); Matsue, Tatsuya, E-mail: tmatsue@mat.niihama-nct.ac.jp [Department of Environmental Materials Engineering National Institute of Technology, NIIHAMA College, 7-1, Yakumo-cho, Niihama, Ehime 7928580 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on a soft polyimide sheet substrate by radio frequency sputtering with a ZnO powder target, and the films' crystal orientations and residual stress were investigated using x-ray diffraction as a function of substrate temperature. C-axis oriented ZnO films were achieved using this ZnO powder target method. The ZnO films exhibited high compressive residual stresses between −0.7 and −1.4 GPa. Finally, the authors examined the strength of the obtained film by applying tensile bending loads. No cracks were observed on the surfaces of the ZnO films after a bending test using cylinders with diameters >25 mm. After a bending test using a cylinder with a diameter of 19 mm, large cracks were formed on the films. Therefore, the authors concluded that the tensile bending strength of the obtained films was greater than ∼420 MPa.

  12. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.

  13. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar S. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production. PET plastic waste converting to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained. The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy. A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  14. Characterization of plasma-polymerized 4-vinyl pyridine with silver nanoparticies on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film for anti-microbial properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2006-01-01

    scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Different thicknesses Of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) coating under different plasma polymerization conditions were studied. Silver nanoparticles with diameter around 50nm deposit were precipitated...... on the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) coating by UV irradiation in Silver nitride water solution, in order to enhance the anti-microbial properties. Different kinds of modified PET films were tested for anti-microbial properties against yeast (Debaryomyces hansenii) by using microbiological analyser mu-4200...

  15. Production and characterization of novel starch and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)-based materials and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, Jacqueline Ann

    This work focuses on the production and characterization of blends of maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) and poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate) and their application for use as thermoformed objects, films, and foams. First, by the production and characterization of maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) synthesized by reactive extrusion in a twin-screw extruder, a better understanding of MTPS was gained. This reactive thermoplastic starch was prepared with glycerol as the plasticizer, maleic anhydride (MA), and free-radical initiator, 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox 101). Dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), soxhlet extraction in acetone, and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were performed to determine the effect of maleation, extrusion temperature, initiator concentration, and maleic anhydride concentration on the resulting MTPS. Next, maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) were reactively blended in a twin-screw extruder with a biodegradable polyester, poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). The blends were extruded to produce thermoformable sheets. The mechanical properties of the sheets were characterized by tensile and puncture tests. Proof of grafting was determined by soxhlet extraction in dichloromethane and FTIR analysis. Observations of the thermal properties were made using DSC, while the surface of the sheets was imaged using ESEM. Blends of MTPS and PBAT were also extruded to produce films. Mechanical testing (tensile and puncture tests) and barrier performance testing (carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor permeability) were performed on the films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image the blends and to view the dispersion of the various phases. Finally, blends of MTPS and PBAT were extruded with an endothermic chemical blowing agent to produce foams. The foams were

  16. Hall effect measurement for precise sheet resistance and thickness evaluation of Ruthenium thin films using non-equidistant four-point probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Westergaard Østerberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new micro Hall effect measurement method using non-equidistant electrodes. We show theoretically and verify experimentally that it is advantageous to use non-equidistant electrodes for samples with low Hall sheet resistance. We demonstrate the new method by experiments where Hall sheet carrier densities and Hall mobilities of Ruthenium thin films (3-30 nm are determined. The measurements show that it is possible to measure Hall mobilities as low as 1 cm2V−1s−1 with a relative standard deviation of 2-3%. We show a linear relation between measured Hall sheet carrier density and film thickness. Thus, the method can be used to monitor thickness variations of ultra-thin metal films.

  17. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices.

  18. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  19. Unsteady three dimensional flow of Casson liquid film over a porous stretching sheet in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field and suction/injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, S., E-mail: susantamaiti@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India); Singh, S.K. [Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Kumar, A.V. [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Three dimensional flow of thin Casson liquid film over a porous unsteady stretching sheet is investigated under assumption of initial uniform film thickness. The effects of the uniform transverse magnetic field, suction and injection are also considered for investigation. The nonlinear governing set of equations and film evolution equation are solved analytically by using singular perturbation technique. It is found that the film thickness decreases with the increasing values of the Casson parameter. The Hartmann number and porosity parameter resist the film thinning process. It is also observed that the film thickness increases with the increasing values of the suction velocity whereas it decreases for increasing values of the injection velocity at the stretching surface.

  20. Fabrication and mechanical properties of self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET composites prepared by using a modified film-stacking technique were examined in this study. The starting materials included a high tenacity PET yarn (reinforcement and a low melting temperature biodegradable polyester resin (matrix, both of which differ in their melting temperatures with a value of 56°C. This experiment produced composite sheets at three consolidation temperatures (Tc: 215, 225, and 235°C at a constant holding time (th: 6.5 min, and three holding times (3, 6.5 and 10 min at a constant consolidation temperature of 225°C. This study observed a significant improvement in the mechanical properties obtained in self-reinforced PET composites compared to the pure polyester resin. The results of tensile, flexural, and Izod impact tests proved that optimal conditions are low consolidation temperature and short holding time. The absorbed impact energy of the best self-reinforced PET composite material was 854.0 J/m, which is 63 times that of pure polyester resin.

  1. Hidrofilicidade de filmes de amido/poli(butileno adipato co-tereftalato (Pbat adicionados de tween 80 e óleo de soja Hydrophilicity of starch and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (Pbat films containing tween 80 and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. Herrera Brandelero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação de amido ao polímero poli (butilenoadipatoco-tereftalato (PBAT através de blendas com alto teor de amido pode ser uma alternativa para obter embalagens biodegradáveis, minimizar custos e o uso de recursos não renováveis. No entanto, a adição de amido aumenta a permeabilidade ao vapor de água (PVA. A incorporação em filmes com amido de substâncias como óleos vegetais e surfactantes pode diminuir a hidrofilicidade, favorecendo as aplicações destes como embalagens. A hidrofilicidade dos filmes elaborados por blendas de amido/PBAT adicionados de óleo de soja (OS e tween 80 (TW foi avaliada considerando o efeito do OS e TW nas isotermas de sorção dos filmes, na PVA e nos coeficientes de difusão (Dw e solubilidade (β do vapor de água. Filmes com OS com ou sem TW apresentaram menor quantidade de água de sorção, sendo os filmes com menores quantidades de OS e sem TW menos hidrofílicos e menos permeáveis aos vapores de água. A adição de OS reduziu os valores de β e Dw dos filmes de amido/PBAT. O efeito foi relacionado com o aumento das porções hidrofóbicas e da compatibilidade entre o amido e PBAT na presença de OS.Incorporating starch into the poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT polymer by means of blends with high starch contents is a possible option for producing biodegradable packaging using renewable resources and reducing costs. However, the addition of starch increases the water vapour permeability (WVP. The incorporation of substances as lipids and surfactants can reduce the hydrophilicity of films containing starch, favouring their use as packaging. The hydrophilicity of films produced from blends of starch/PBAT with added soybean oil (SO and tween 80 (TW was studied. The effects of these substances on the sorption isotherm, on the WVP and on the water vapour diffusion (Dw and solubility (β coefficients of the films were evaluated. The water sorption in films with SO, with or without TW

  2. Process for obtaining multiple sheet resistances for thin film hybrid microcircuit resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A standard thin film circuit containing Ta/sub 2/N (100 ohms/square) resistors is fabricated by depositing on a dielectric substrate successive layers of Ta/sub 2/N, Ti and Pd, with a gold layer to provide conductors. The addition of a few simple photoprocessing steps to the standard TFN manufacturing process enables the formation of Ta/sub 2/N + Ti (10 ohms/square) and Ta/sub 2/N + Ti + Pd (1 ohm/square) resistors in the same otherwise standard thin film circuit structure

  3. Flexible IZO/Ag/IZO/Ag multilayer electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate using roll-to-roll sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the optical, electrical, structural, and surface properties of roll-to-roll [R2R] sputter-grown flexible IZO/Ag/IZO/Ag [IAIA] multilayer films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates as a function of the top indium zinc oxide [IZO] thickness. It was found that the optical transmittance of the IAIA multilayer was significantly influenced by the top IZO layer thickness, which was grown on identical AIA multilayers. However, the sheet resistance of the IAIA multilayer was maintained between the range 5.01 to 5.1 Ω/square regardless of the top IZO thickness because the sheet resistance of the IAIA multilayer was mainly dependent on the thickness of the Ag layers. Notably, the optimized IAIA multilayer had a constant resistance change (ΔR/R0) under repeated outer bending tests with a radius of 10 mm. The mechanical integrity of the R2R-sputtered IAIA multilayer indicated that hybridization of an IZO and Ag metal layer is a promising flexible electrode scheme for the next-generation flexible optoelectronics. PMID:22222144

  4. Zero-order release of lysozyme from (poly)ethylene glycol)/poly(butylene terephthalate) matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, J.M.; Radersma, R.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2000-01-01

    Protein release from a series of biodegradable poly(ether ester) multiblock copolymers, based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) was investigated. Lysozyme-containing PEG/PBT films and microspheres were prepared using an emulsion technique. Proteins were

  5. Tissue response to intraperitoneal implants of polyethylene oxide-modified polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, N P; Hubbell, J A

    1992-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate films surface modified with polyethylene oxide of mol wt 18,500 g/mol (18.5 k) by a previously described technique, were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice, along with their respective untreated controls, for periods of 1-28 d. The implants were retrieved and examined for tissue reactivity and cellular adherence. The control polyethylene terephthalate surfaces showed an initial inflammatory reaction followed by an extensive fibrotic response with a mean thickness of 60 microns at 28 d. By contrast, polyethylene oxide-modified polyethylene terephthalate showed only a mild inflammatory response and no fibrotic encapsulation throughout the implantation period: at 28 d a cellular monolayer was observed. Apparently either the polyethylene oxide-modified surface was stimulating less inflammation, which was in turn stimulating less fibroblastic overgrowth, or the cellular adhesion to the polyethylene oxide-modified surface was too weak to support cellular multilayers.

  6. Mesoporous polyaniline film on ultra-thin graphene sheets for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yan, Jun; Fan, Zhuangjun; Wei, Tong; Zhang, Milin; Jing, Xiaoyan

    2014-02-01

    A facile approach has been developed to fabricate mesoporous PANI film on ultra-thin graphene nanosheet (G-mPANI) hybrid by in situ polymerization using graphene-mesoporous silica composite as template. Due to its mesoporous structure, over-all conductive network, G-mPANI electrode displays a specific capacitance of 749 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 with excellent rate capability (remains 73% even at 5.0 A g-1), much higher than that of pristine PANI electrode (315 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, 39% retention at 5.0 A g-1) in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 aqueous solution. More interestingly, the G-mPANI hybrid can maintain 88% of its initial capacitance compared to 45% for pristine PANI after 1000 cycles, suggesting a superior electrochemical cyclic stability.

  7. Studies on the adsorption of RuN{sub 3} dye on sheet-like nanostructured porous ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong; Pan, Jie; Briggs, Evan P.; Thrash, Marvin; Kerr, Lei L. [Department of Paper and Chemical Engineering, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The interface between the ZnO and dye directly impacts the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance. Nanostructured porous ZnO film was developed by a simple chemical solution process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images demonstrated the uniform ZnO films with sheet-like nanostructure. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of RuN{sub 3} dye on the surface of ZnO films was approximately 0.016 mmol RuN{sub 3}/g ZnO films. Adsorption studies were conducted at 25 and 40 C. The results showed that the dye adsorption was significantly influenced by temperatures. Moreover, the problem of the dye aggregation on the ZnO surface was reduced at higher adsorption temperatures. The adsorption chemistry was studied with Raman spectroscopy. (author)

  8. Novel cellulose ester substrates for high performance flat-sheet thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ong, Rui Chin

    2015-01-01

    A novel hydrophilic cellulose ester with a high intrinsic water permeability and a water partition coefficient was discovered to construct membrane supports for flat-sheet thin film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes for water reuse and seawater desalination with high performance. The performance of TFC-FO membranes prepared from the hydrophilic cellulose ester containing a high degree of OH and a moderate degree of Pr substitutions clearly surpasses those prepared from cellulose esters and other polymers with moderate hydrophilicity. Post-treatments of TFC-FO membranes using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and glycerol followed by heat treatment further enhance the water flux without compromising the selectivity. Positron annihilation lifetime analyses have confirmed that the SDS/glycerol post-treatment increases the free volume size and fractional free volume of the polyamide selective layer. The newly developed post-treated TFC-FO membranes exhibit a remarkably high water flux up to 90 LMH when the selective layer is oriented towards the draw solution (i.e., PRO mode) using 1. M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. For seawater desalination, the membranes display a high water flux up to 35 LMH using a 2. M NaCl draw solution. These water fluxes exceeded the water fluxes achieved by other types of FO membranes reported in literatures. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Fabrication of Cost-Effective Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Sheet-Like CoS2 Films and Phthaloylchitosan-Based Gel-Polymer Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saradh Prasad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-free counter electrodes (CE were developed for use in efficient and cost-effective energy conversion devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Electrochemical deposition of CoS2 on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO formed a hierarchical sheet-like structured CoS2 thin film. This film was engaged as a cost-effective platinum-free and high-efficiency CE for DSSCs. High stability was achieved using a phthaloychitosan-based gel-polymer electrolyte as the redox electrolyte. The electrocatalytic performance of the sheet-like CoS2 film was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The film displayed improved electrocatalytic behavior that can be credited to a low charge-transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte boundary and improved exchange between triiodide and iodide ions. The fabricated DSSCs with a phthaloychitosan-based gel-polymer electrolyte and sheet-like CoS2 CE had a power conversion efficiency (PCE, η of 7.29% with a fill factor (FF of 0.64, Jsc of 17.51 mA/cm2, and a Voc of 0.65 V, which was analogous to that of Pt CE (η = 7.82%. The high PCE of the sheet-like CoS2 CE arises from the enhanced FF and Jsc, which can be attributed to the abundant active electrocatalytic sites and enhanced interfacial charge-transfer by the well-organized surface structure.

  10. Fabrication and stability investigation of ultra-thin transparent and flexible Cu-Ag-Au tri-layer film on PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasarao, Ch Surya; D'souza, Slavia Deeksha; Hazarika, Pratim; Karthiselva N., S.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Kovendhan, M.; Kumar, R. Arockia; Joseph, D. Paul

    2018-04-01

    The need for transparent conducting electrodes with high transmittance, low sheet resistance and flexibility to replace Indium Tin Oxide is ever growing. We have deposited and studied the performance of ultra-thin Cu-Ag-Au tri-layer films over a flexible poly-ethylene terephthalate substrate. Scotch tape test showed good adhesion of the metallic film. Transmittance of the tri-layer was around 40 % in visible region. Optical profiler measurements were done to study the surface features. The XRD pattern revealed that film was amorphous. Sheet resistance measured by four probe technique was around 7.7 Ohm/Δ and was stable up to 423 K. The transport parameters by Hall effect showed high conductivity and carrier concentration with a mobility of 5.58 cm2/Vs. Tests performed in an indigenously designed bending unit indicated the films to be stable both mechanically and electrically even after 50,000 bending cycles.

  11. The Effects of Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Sheet Resistance and Transmittance in Poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene: Poly(styrenesulfonate Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teen-Hang Meen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conductivity of poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS films by adding various molar concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 was improved and studied in this paper. The sheet resistance of the doped PEDOT: PSS film was enhanced with increasing the ratio of H2SO4, but it drops after the maximum sheet resistance. The reason for this phenomenon is resulting from the fact that the H2SO4 preferentially react with the sorbitol which is so-called the pinacol rearrangement. The nonconductive anions of some PSS− were substituted by the conductive anions of hydrogen sulfate (HSO4- when the residual H2SO4 reacted with PSS. In addition to the substitution reaction, PEDOT chains were increasingly aggregated with increasing the ratio of H2SO4. After doped H2SO4, the sheet resistance of H2SO4-doped PEDOT: PSS film is improved nearly 36%; the surface roughness is reduced from 1.268 nm to 0.822 nm and the transmittance is up to 91.9% in the visible wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm.

  12. Hemocompatibility improvement of poly(ethylene terephthalate) via self-polymerization of dopamine and covalent graft of zwitterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Xianmei; Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: bioalchem@yahoo.com; Chen, Shuangchun; Li, Pengfei; Li, Li, E-mail: lili3@njnu.edu.cn; Shen, Jian

    2014-03-01

    Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been widely adopted as a scaffold biomaterial, but further hemocompatibility improvement is still needed for wide biomedical applications. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we propose to use self-polymerized dopamine to form a surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto PET sheet, followed by Michael addition with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMDA) to build tertiary amine, and final zwitterions(sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine) construction through ring-opening reaction. Physicochemical properties of substrates were demonstrated by water contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hemocompatibility was evaluated by platelet adhesion, hemolytic, and protein adsorption. The results showed that the zwitterions immobilized PET endowed with improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion as well as nonhemolytic. The zwitterions with desirable hemocompatibility can be readily tailored to catheter for various biomedical applications. - Highlights: • We first used self-polymerized dopamine to form a thin and surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto PET film. • Then, DMDA was attached to the PET surface by Michael addition. • Sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine were finally constructed through ring-opening reaction. • The modify PET endowed with improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  13. Highly conductive, transparent flexible films based on open rings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Su, Jun-Wei; Guo, Chian-Hua; Fu, Shu-Juan; Hsu, Chuen-Yuan; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2011-01-01

    Open rings of multi-walled carbon nanotubes were stacked to form porous networks on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate to form a flexible conducting film (MWCNT-PET) with good electrical conductivity and transparency by a combination of ultrasonic atomization and spin-coating technique. To enhance the electric flexibility, we spin-coated a cast film of poly(vinyl alcohol) onto the MWCNT-PET substrate, which then underwent a thermo-compression process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy of the cross-sectional morphology illustrates that the film has a robust network with a thickness of ∼ 175 nm, and it remarkably exhibits a sheet resistance of approximately 370 Ω/sq with ∼ 77% transmittance at 550 nm even after 500 bending cycles. This electrical conductivity is much superior to that of other MWCNT-based transparent flexible films.

  14. Controlled Synthesis of Monolayer Graphene Toward Transparent Flexible Conductive Film Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han-Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We demonstrate the synthesis of monolayer graphene using thermal chemical vapor deposition and successive transfer onto arbitrary substrates toward transparent flexible conductive film application. We used electron-beam-deposited Ni thin film as a synthetic catalyst and introduced a gas mixture consisting of methane and hydrogen. To optimize the synthesis condition, we investigated the effects of synthetic temperature and cooling rate in the ranges of 850–1,000°C and 2–8°C/min, respectively. It was found that a cooling rate of 4°C/min after 1,000°C synthesis is the most effective condition for monolayer graphene production. We also successfully transferred as-synthesized graphene films to arbitrary substrates such as silicon-dioxide-coated wafers, glass, and polyethylene terephthalate sheets to develop transparent, flexible, and conductive film application.

  15. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Szymczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Pawelec, Iwona; Lisiecki, Slawomir; Jotko, Marek; Spitalsky, Zdenko; Mosnácek, Jaroslav; Roslaniec, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt%) of graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for ...

  16. Homotopy Perturbation Method for Thin Film Flow and Heat Transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heating and Variable Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chung Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the effects of variable heat flux and internal heat generation on the flow and heat transfer in a thin film on a horizontal sheet in the presence of thermal radiation. Similarity transformations are used to transform the governing equations to a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The obtained differential equations are solved approximately by the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The effects of various parameters governing the flow and heat transfer in this study are discussed and presented graphically. Comparison of numerical results is made with the earlier published results under limiting cases.

  17. Transparent conductive ZnO layers on polymer substrates: Thin film deposition and application in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosmailov, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Leonat, L.N. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Patek, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D.; Bauer, P. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S. [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS)/Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Pedarnig, J.D., E-mail: johannes.pedarnig@jku.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-09-30

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polymer substrates by pulsed-laser deposition and the optical, electrical, and structural film properties are investigated. Laser fluence, substrate temperature, and oxygen pressure are varied to obtain transparent, conductive, and stoichiometric AZO layers on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) that are free of cracks. At low fluence (1 J/cm{sup 2}) and low pressure (10{sup −3} mbar), AZO/PET samples of high optical transmission in the visible range, low electrical sheet resistance, and high figure of merit (FOM) are produced. AZO films on fluorinated ethylene propylene have low FOM. The AZO films on PET substrates are used as electron transport layer in inverted organic solar cell devices employing P3HT:PCBM as photovoltaic polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction. - Highlights: • Aluminum doped and pure ZnO thin films are grown on polyethylene terephthalate. • Growth parameters laser fluence, temperature, and gas pressure are optimized. • AZO films on PET have high optical transmission and electrical conductance (FOM). • Organic solar cells on PET using AZO as electron transport layer are made. • Power conversion efficiency of these OSC devices is measured.

  18. Reaction kinetics of polybutylene terephthalate polycondensation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darda, P. J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.; Souren, F.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of the forward polycondensation reaction of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) has been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PBT - prepolymer with an initial degree of polymerization of 5.5 was used as starting material. The PBT prepolymer was prepared from dimethyl

  19. Influence of the film thickness on the structure, optical and electrical properties of ITO coatings deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, C; Herrero, J

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films with thickness between 0.2 and 0.7 µm were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. All films were polycrystalline, with crystallite size increasing and lattice distortion decreasing when the film thickness was increased. Besides, transmission in the near-infrared region is found to be decreasing and carrier concentration increasing when the film thickness was increased. For the same thickness, the lattice distortion is slightly lower and the carrier concentration higher for the layers grown on PET substrates. A direct relationship between the lattice distortion and the free carrier concentration has been established, applying to the films grown on glass and plastic substrates. By adjusting ITO coating thickness, sheet resistance below 15 Ω sq −1 and average visible transmittance about 90% have been achieved by sputtering at room temperature

  20. A Facile Method for Preparing Transparent, Conductive, and Paper-Like Silver Nanowire Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent, conductive, and flexible silver nanowire (AgNW films have been fabricated by a facile two-step method. Firstly, the well-dispersed AgNW suspension is vacuum filtered using mixed esters of cellulose (MCE membranes as filters. Then, the AgNW-MCE films are treated with acetone vapor. After the infiltration of acetone vapor, the white and porous MCE membranes change into transparent and pore-free, and AgNW-MCE films are obtained with extraordinary optical, conductive, and mechanical properties. An optimal result is obtained with transmittance of 85% at 550 nm and sheet resistance about 50 Ohm/sq. The flexibility of AgNW-MCE films is remarkable, which is comparable to that of the AgNW film on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET. More important, AgNW-MCE films show an excellent adhesion to the substrate, which causes a stable electrical conductivity even after scotch tape test and finger friction test. As a result of improved adhesion to the substrate, the sheet resistance of AgNW-MCE films is about 20% smaller than that of AgNW-PET films.

  1. Length-controlled few-walled carbon nanotubes and their effect on the electrical property of flexible transparent conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-Joo; Shin, Eui-Chul; Jeong, Goo-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the length of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the electrical property of CNT-based flexible, transparent, and conductive films (TCFs). We grew vertically aligned CNTs with controlled lengths, dispersed them in ethanol by ultrasonication, and spray coated them onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. We focused on the variation in the sheet resistance and transmittance of the above-mentioned films as a function of the CNT length, and we found that the optimum CNT length was 200 μm. We concluded that the CNT length should be carefully optimized because a shorter tube affords the advantage of efficient dispersion, while a longer tube helps in reducing the number of contact points between tubes along the electrical conduction path.

  2. Electrophoretic build-up of alternately multilayered films and micropatterns based on graphene sheets and nanoparticles and their applications in flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Du, Jianjun; Cao, Xuebo; Sun, Yinghui; Zhou, Weiya; Hng, Huey Hoon; Ma, Jan; Chen, Xiaodong; Xie, Sishen

    2012-10-22

    Graphene nanosheets and metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as nano-building-blocks for assembly into macroscale hybrid structures with promising performance in electrical devices. However, in most graphene and metal NP hybrid structures, the graphene sheets and metal NPs (e.g., AuNPs) do not enable control of the reaction process, orientation of building blocks, and organization at the nanoscale. Here, an electrophoretic layer-by-layer assembly for constructing multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/AuNP films and lateral micropatterns is presented. This assembly method allows easy control of the nano-architecture of building blocks along the normal direction of the film, including the number and thickness of RGO and AuNP layers, in addition to control of the lateral orientation of the resultant multilayered structures. Conductivity of multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid nano-architecture shows great improvement caused by a bridging effect of the AuNPs along the out-of-plane direction between the upper and lower RGO layers. The results clearly show the potential of electrophoretic build-up in the fabrication of graphene-based alternately multilayered films and patterns. Finally, flexible supercapacitors based on multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid films are fabricated, and excellent performance, such as high energy and power densities, are achieved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Core-shell Si/C nanospheres embedded in bubble sheet-like carbon film with enhanced performance as lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyue; Tang, Yongbing; Kang, Wenpei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Yang, Xia; Zhu, Yu; Zhang, Wenjun; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-03-18

    Due to its high theoretical capacity and low lithium insertion voltage plateau, silicon has been considered one of the most promising anodes for high energy and high power density lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, its rapid capacity degradation, mainly caused by huge volume changes during lithium insertion/extraction processes, remains a significant challenge to its practical application. Engineering Si anodes with abundant free spaces and stabilizing them by incorporating carbon materials has been found to be effective to address the above problems. Using sodium chloride (NaCl) as a template, bubble sheet-like carbon film supported core-shell Si/C composites are prepared for the first time by a facile magnesium thermal reduction/glucose carbonization process. The capacity retention achieves up to 93.6% (about 1018 mAh g(-1)) after 200 cycles at 1 A g(-1). The good performance is attributed to synergistic effects of the conductive carbon film and the hollow structure of the core-shell nanospheres, which provide an ideal conductive matrix and buffer spaces for respectively electron transfer and Si expansion during lithiation process. This unique structure decreases the charge transfer resistance and suppresses the cracking/pulverization of Si, leading to the enhanced cycling performance of bubble sheet-like composite. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sheet resistance, transmittance, and chromatic property of CNTs coated with PEDOT:PSS films for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates hybrid-type transparent electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that possess characteristics desirable for touch screen panels. This has been accomplished by depositing CNTs via spray-coating and then depositing thin conductive polymer (such as PEDOT:PSS) films on the CNTs via spin-coating. For all of the samples such as CNTs, PEDOT:PSS, and hybrid (i.e., PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs), their surface morphologies, sheet resistances, visible transmittances, and chromatic properties are characterized as functions of their preparation conditions. In the PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs, the PEDOT:PSS particles fill up the voids between tubes in CNTs, forming a conduction bridge for electron transfer and eventually decreasing the sheet resistance of the hybrid electrode. Also, the hybrid electrode reveals a superior color property compared with that of CNTs or the PEDOT:PSS single electrode due to the complementary color relation between CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. Experimental results show that the fabricated hybrid-type electrodes can simultaneously satisfy the requirements necessary for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels such as the sheet resistance requiring to be lower than 100 Ω/sq, visible transmittance higher than 80%, and yellowness approaching to zero. - Highlights: • Hybrid-type (PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs) electrodes for touch panels are fabricated. • PEDOT:PSS films are coated via spin-coating on spray-deposited CNTs. • Hybrid electrodes are fabricated by varying the thickness of CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. • The resistance, transmittance, and color properties have been analyzed. • Hybrid electrodes satisfy electrical and optical properties for touch panels

  5. Sheet resistance, transmittance, and chromatic property of CNTs coated with PEDOT:PSS films for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Han, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jin-Seok

    2014-12-01

    This study demonstrates hybrid-type transparent electrodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that possess characteristics desirable for touch screen panels. This has been accomplished by depositing CNTs via spray-coating and then depositing thin conductive polymer (such as PEDOT:PSS) films on the CNTs via spin-coating. For all of the samples such as CNTs, PEDOT:PSS, and hybrid (i.e., PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs), their surface morphologies, sheet resistances, visible transmittances, and chromatic properties are characterized as functions of their preparation conditions. In the PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs, the PEDOT:PSS particles fill up the voids between tubes in CNTs, forming a conduction bridge for electron transfer and eventually decreasing the sheet resistance of the hybrid electrode. Also, the hybrid electrode reveals a superior color property compared with that of CNTs or the PEDOT:PSS single electrode due to the complementary color relation between CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. Experimental results show that the fabricated hybrid-type electrodes can simultaneously satisfy the requirements necessary for transparent electrodes of touch screen panels such as the sheet resistance requiring to be lower than 100 Ω/sq, visible transmittance higher than 80%, and yellowness approaching to zero. - Highlights: • Hybrid-type (PEDOT:PSS-coated CNTs) electrodes for touch panels are fabricated. • PEDOT:PSS films are coated via spin-coating on spray-deposited CNTs. • Hybrid electrodes are fabricated by varying the thickness of CNTs and PEDOT:PSS. • The resistance, transmittance, and color properties have been analyzed. • Hybrid electrodes satisfy electrical and optical properties for touch panels.

  6. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Ming [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China); Liu, Xinghua [Hubei Aerospace Industry Technology Academe Special Vehicle Technology Center, Wuhan (China); Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, 3-11 WenHua Rd., 319#, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  7. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZAO thin films were deposited on PET substrate. • A set of experimental parameters were systematically investigated. • Change rule of film photoelectric properties was obtained. • ZAO films with optimal properties were obtained at our working conditions. - Abstract: Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  8. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  9. MHD Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Casson Liquid Film Towards an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mostafa A. A.; Megahed, Ahmed M.

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical and numerical outcomes of the non-Newtonian Casson liquid thin film fluid flow owing to an unsteady stretching sheet which exposed to a magnetic field, Ohmic heating and slip velocity phenomena is reported here. The non-Newtonian thermal conductivity is imposed and treated as it vary with temperature. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the non-Newtonian Casson thin film fluid are simplified into a group of highly nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using an adequate dimensionless transformations. With this in mind, the numerical solutions for the ordinary conservation equations are found using an accurate shooting iteration technique together with the Runge-Kutta algorithm. The lineaments of the thin film flow and the heat transfer characteristics for the pertinent parameters are discussed through graphs. The results obtained here detect many concern for the local Nusselt number and the local skin-friction coefficient in which they may be beneficial for the material processing industries. Furthermore, in some special conditions, the present problem has an excellent agreement with previously published work.

  10. Deposition Rate and Energy Enhancements of TiN Thin-Film in a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Muhyuddin D. Barra; Henry J. Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been synthesized using the sheet plasma negative ion source (SPNIS). The parameters used for its effective synthesis has been determined from previous experiments and studies. In this study, further enhancement of the deposition rate of TiN synthesis and advancement of the SPNIS operation is presented. This is primarily achieved by the addition of Sm-Co permanent magnets and a modification of the configuration in the TiN deposition process. The ...

  11. Development and utilization of liquid quartz light modulating film. Ekisho choko film no kaihatsu to riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-03-01

    This paper introduces the polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) ACT'' sheet, a liquid quartz light modulating film, developed by the Ajinomoto Company in Japan. A mixture of liquid crystal and polymer precursor is sandwiched between polyethylene terephthalate films imparted with transparency conductor made of indium tin oxide (ITO), which is then polymerized by heating or irradiating ultraviolet rays to obtain a PDLC. The film has a thickness as thin as about 0.3 mm, and good processibility. The sheet uses light modulating elements functioning on scatter and permeation of light. Clarification was made on the voltage dependence of cloudiness, total light permeability, straight and parallel light permeability, the response, and the operating voltage. The system consumes small amount of power with a threshold value of about 35V, and is suitable to operate large areas when working on the utility power supply. An incident light having a high diffusion capability when the electric field is turned off exhibits a high clouding function. The system gives an excellent feel of colorlessness and transparency when the electric field is turned on. The performances in heat insulation, infrared reflection capability and noise resistance are expected to be compounded for a functional versatility. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou Chongwu

    2011-01-01

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ DC /σ Op , for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ TE . Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  13. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-06-17

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ(DC)/σ(Op), for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ(TE). Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  14. Microstructure, thickness and sheet resistivity of Cu/Ni thin film produced by electroplating technique on the variation of electrolyte temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toifur, M.; Yuningsih, Y.; Khusnani, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, it has been made Cu/Ni thin film produced with electroplating technique. The deposition process was done in the plating bath using Cu and Ni as cathode and anode respectively. The electrolyte solution was made from the mixture of HBrO3 (7.5g), NiSO4 (100g), NiCl2 (15g), and aquadest (250 ml). Electrolyte temperature was varied from 40°C up to 80°C, to make the Ni ions in the solution easy to move to Cu cathode. The deposition was done during 2 minutes on the potential of 1.5 volt. Many characterizations were done including the thickness of Ni film, microstructure, and sheet resistivity. The results showed that at all samples Ni had attacked on the Cu substrate to form Cu/Ni. The raising of electrolyte temperature affected the increasing of Ni thickness that is the Ni thickness increase with the increasing electrolyte temperature. From the EDS spectrum, it can be informed that samples already contain Ni and Cu elements and NiO and CuO compounds. Addition element and compound are found for sample Cu/Ni resulted from 70° electrolyte temperature of Ni deposition, that are Pt and PtO2. From XRD pattern, there are several phases which have crystal structure i.e. Cu, Ni, and NiO, while CuO and PtO2 have amorphous structure. The sheet resistivity linearly decreases with the increasing electrolyte temperature.

  15. Highly transparent and conductive thin films fabricated with nano-silver/double-walled carbon nanotube composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shie-Heng; Teng, Chih-Chun; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Wang, Ikai

    2011-12-01

    This study develops a technique for enhancing the electrical conductivity and optical transmittance of transparent double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) film. Silver nanoparticles were modified with a NH(2)(CH(2))(2)SH self-assembled monolayer terminated by amino groups and subsequent surface condensation that reacted with functionalized DWNTs. Ag nanoparticles were grafted on the surface of the DWNTs. The low sheet resistance of the resulting thin conductive film on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was due to the increased contact areas between DWNTs and work function by grafting Ag nanoparticles on the DWNT surfaces. Increasing the contact area between DWNTs and work function improved the conductivity of the DWNT-Ag thin films. The prepared DWNT-Ag thin films had a sheet resistance of 53.4 Ω/sq with 90.5% optical transmittance at a 550 nm wavelength. After treatment with HNO(3) and annealing at 150 °C for 30 min, a lower sheet resistance of 45.8 Ω/sq and a higher transmittance of 90.4% could be attained. The value of the DC conductivity to optical conductivity (σ(DC)/σ(OP)) ratio is 121.3. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Entropy Generation on Nanofluid Thin Film Flow of Eyring–Powell Fluid with Thermal Radiation and MHD Effect on an Unsteady Porous Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ishaq

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research paper investigates entropy generation analysis on two-dimensional nanofluid film flow of Eyring–Powell fluid with heat amd mass transmission over an unsteady porous stretching sheet in the existence of uniform magnetic field (MHD. The flow of liquid films are taken under the impact of thermal radiation. The basic time dependent equations of heat transfer, momentum and mass transfer are modeled and converted to a system of differential equations by employing appropriate similarity transformation with unsteady dimensionless parameters. Entropy analysis is the main focus in this work and the impact of physical parameters on the entropy profile are discussed in detail. The influence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion has been taken in the nanofluids model. An optima approach has been applied to acquire the solution of modeled problem. The convergence of the HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method has been presented numerically. The disparity of the Nusslet number, Skin friction, Sherwood number and their influence on the velocity, heat and concentration fields has been scrutinized. Moreover, for comprehension, the physical presentation of the embedded parameters are explored analytically for entropy generation and discussed.

  17. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahre, H.; Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Steves, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Böke, M.; Hopmann, Ch; Winter, J.

    2013-02-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

  18. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahre, H; Böke, M; Winter, J; Bahroun, K; Behm, H; Hopmann, Ch; Steves, S; Awakowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered. (paper)

  19. Plasma-chemical modification of the structure and properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L I; Dmitriev, S N; Dinescu, G; Lazea, A; Sleptsov, V V; Elinson, V M

    2007-01-01

    A process of extraction of the low-molecular products of the synthesis from the poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes modified by plasma has been investigated. It is shown that the deposition of a thin polymeric hydrocarbon film by cyclohexane plasma on the membrane surface with preliminary treatment in a plasma of non-polymerizing gases, for example oxygen, allows one to produce membranes possessing a high productivity. Their advantages are much better hydrodynamic properties and a small amount of the low-molecular products of the synthesis extracted by organic solvents

  20. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  1. Effect of cross-linkable polymer on the morphology and properties of transparent multi-walled carbon nanotube conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Teng, Chih-Chun; Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wei, Ming-Hsiung; Wu, Sheng-Yen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated optically transparent and electrically conductive multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thin films using a spray-coating technique. The transparency and the electrical resistance of thin film are dependent on the nanotube content deposited on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used as adhesion promoters to improve MWCNT coating more significantly. The cross-linked polymer resulted in a superior bond between the MWCNTs and the substrates. The surface electrical resistance was significantly lower than the original sheet after nitric acid (HNO 3 ) treatment because of the removed surfactant and the increased interconnecting networks of MWCNT bundles, thus improving the electrical and optical properties of the films. Stronger interaction between the MWCNTs and the substrates resulted in lower decomposition of the polymer chain and less amounts of MWCNTs separated into the HNO 3 solution. The lower sheet electrical resistance of PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT conductive films on the PET substrate was because of a more complete conductive path with the cross-linked polymer than that without. Such an improved sheet of electrical resistance varied from 8.83 x 10 4 Ω/□ to 2.65 x 10 3 Ω/□ with 5.0 wt.% PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT sprayed on the PET after acid treatment.

  2. Effect of cross-linkable polymer on the morphology and properties of transparent multi-walled carbon nanotube conductive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Teng, Chih-Chun; Yu, Yi-Hsiuan; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wei, Ming-Hsiung; Wu, Sheng-Yen

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we fabricated optically transparent and electrically conductive multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thin films using a spray-coating technique. The transparency and the electrical resistance of thin film are dependent on the nanotube content deposited on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used as adhesion promoters to improve MWCNT coating more significantly. The cross-linked polymer resulted in a superior bond between the MWCNTs and the substrates. The surface electrical resistance was significantly lower than the original sheet after nitric acid (HNO 3) treatment because of the removed surfactant and the increased interconnecting networks of MWCNT bundles, thus improving the electrical and optical properties of the films. Stronger interaction between the MWCNTs and the substrates resulted in lower decomposition of the polymer chain and less amounts of MWCNTs separated into the HNO 3 solution. The lower sheet electrical resistance of PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT conductive films on the PET substrate was because of a more complete conductive path with the cross-linked polymer than that without. Such an improved sheet of electrical resistance varied from 8.83 × 10 4 Ω/□ to 2.65 × 10 3 Ω/□ with 5.0 wt.% PVP/PAA-g-MWCNT sprayed on the PET after acid treatment.

  3. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″(0, Nusselt number (heat flux -θ′(0 and free surface temperature θ(1 are presented graphically and in tabular form. Keywords: Variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, Thermocapillary number, Magnetic field, Thin film, Unsteady stretching surface

  4. Tactile Sensing From Laser-Ablated Metallized PET Films

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and implementation of a novel sensor patch developed from commercial polyethylene terephthalate films metallized with aluminum on one side. The aluminum was ablated with laser to form interdigitated

  5. The Optical and Electrical Properties of ZnO/Ag/ZnO Films on Flexible Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Dongyan; Wang, Pangpang; Murakami, Ri-Ichi; Ding, Bingjun; Song, Xiaoping

    The deposition of ZnO/Ag/ZnO film on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering method. The thicknesses of ZnO layers were 30 nm and Ag films' thicknesses were changed from 1 nm to 6 nm by controlled the sputtering time. This kind of film can be used as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials. The electrical and optical properties of composite layers were determined by Ag films. The optimum sputtering time of Ag thin films was found to be 20 s for the high optical transmittance with good electrical conductivity. The ZnO/Ag(20 s)/ZnO layer, which has high optical transmittance of 73% at 550 nm, shows sheet resistance as low as 6.7 ohm/sq. These multilayer transparent films had low electrical resistance as the widely used transparent conductive oxide electrodes. SEM, XRD, the UV-Vis-NIR and Hall Effect measurement system were used to characterize properties of fabricated films. The reasons for the change of transmittance and resistance will also be interpreted.

  6. Highly flexible transparent and conductive ZnS/Ag/ZnS multilayer films prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhinong; Leng, Jian; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Yurong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Dongpu

    2012-01-01

    ZnS/Ag/ZnS (ZAZ) multilayer films were prepared on polyethene terephthalate (PET) by ion beam assisted deposition at room temperature. The structural, optical and electrical characteristics of ZAZ multilayers dependent on the thickness of silver layer were investigated. The ZAZ multilayers exhibit a low sheet resistance of about 10 Ω/sq., a high transmittance of 92.1%, and the improved resistance stabilities when subjected to bending. When the inserted Ag thickness is over 12 nm, the ZAZ multilayers show good resistance stabilities due to the existence of a ductile Ag metal layer. The results suggest that ZAZ film has better optoelectrical and anti-deflection characteristics than conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) single layer.

  7. Thin Film Williamson Nanofluid Flow with Varying Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity on a Time-Dependent Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the effect of thermal radiation on the thin film nanofluid flow of a Williamson fluid over an unsteady stretching surface with variable fluid properties. The basic governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and concentration are incorporated. The effect of thermal radiation and viscous dissipation terms are included in the energy equation. The energy and concentration fields are also coupled with the effect of Dufour and Soret. The transformations are used to reduce the unsteady equations of velocity, temperature and concentration in the set of nonlinear differential equations and these equations are tackled through the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. For the sake of comparison, numerical (ND-Solve Method solutions are also obtained. Special attention has been given to the variable fluid properties’ effects on the flow of a Williamson nanofluid. Finally, the effect of non-dimensional physical parameters like thermal conductivity, Schmidt number, Williamson parameter, Brinkman number, radiation parameter, and Prandtl number has been thoroughly demonstrated and discussed.

  8. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, M.; Rehman, Sajid; Shah, Rehan Ali; Ullah, M.; Abbas, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″ (0) , Nusselt number (heat flux) -θ‧ (0) and free surface temperature θ (1) are presented graphically and in tabular form.

  9. Heterojunction solar cell with 6% efficiency based on an n-type aluminum-gallium-oxide thin film and p-type sodium-doped Cu2O sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we describe efforts to enhance the efficiency of Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated with an aluminum-gallium-oxide (Al-Ga-O) thin film as the n-type layer and a p-type sodium (Na)-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheet prepared by thermally oxidizing copper sheets. The optimal Al content [X; Al/(Ga + Al) atomic ratio] of an AlX-Ga1-X-O thin-film n-type layer was found to be approximately 2.5 at. %. The optimized resistivity was approximately 15 Ω cm for n-type AlX-Ga1-X-O/p-type Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cells. A MgF2/AZO/Al0.025-Ga0.975-O/Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell with 6.1% efficiency was fabricated using a 60-nm-thick n-type oxide thin-film layer and a 0.2-mm-thick Cu2O:Na sheet with the optimized resistivity.

  10. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  11. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... and demand conditions or business cycle for the Domestic Like Product that have occurred in the United... of business proprietary information (BPI) under an administrative protective order (APO) and APO..., a U.S. or foreign trade or business association, or another interested party (including an...

  12. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Hung, E-mail: tieamo2002@gmail.com; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property.

  13. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying-Hung; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1 min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4–5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1 min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on PET fabric by HIPIMS • Brass-coated fabric with excellent durability, even undergone rubbing and washing tests • Brass-coated fabric provides effective antimicrobial properties for E. coli and S. aureus. • After brass coating, PET fabric still retained its mechanical property

  14. Confinement-induced vitrification in polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balta Calleja, F. J.; Flores, A.; Di Marco, G.; Pieruccini, M.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis performed on cold-drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET), cold crystallized (annealed) in the temperature interval 100-140 deg. C, reveals the presence of marginally glassy domains above the annealing temperature T a . This suggests that the thermodynamic force driving crystallization causes the structural arrest of some noncrystalline domains. The latter thus need a temperature higher than T a to completely defreeze. Differential scanning calorimetry supports this point of view. Analogous investigations on unoriented PET, cold crystallized in the same conditions, do not show the same peculiarities; thus, chain orientation is relevant to vitrification. This phenomenology is first cast in the language of thermodynamics by introducing an excess chemical potential δμ describing the presence of structural constraints in the amorphous domains and the effect of chain orientation. For a first test of this picture, the orientation contribution to δμ is calculated by means of the Gaussian chain model (this implicitly assumes that δμ is related to the density fluctuations). The resulting expression is then used to discuss the structural differences between cold-drawn and unoriented PET samples reported in the literature

  15. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2-Ar sputtering gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; de Andrés, A.; Prieto, C.

    2015-07-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H2 in the gas mixture of H2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H2/(Ar + H2) ratio in the range of 0.3-0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, ΦTC = T10/RS, than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices.

  16. Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seon Yong; Jung, Ho Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon, E-mail: heonlee@korea.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Polymer films are widely used as a substrate for displays and for solar cells since they are cheap, transparent and flexible, and their material properties are easy to design. Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) is especially useful for various applications requiring transparency, flexibility and good thermal and chemical resistance. In this study, nano-sized metal patterns were fabricated on flexible PET film by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Water-soluble poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) resin was used as a planarization and sacrificial layer for the lift-off process, as it does not damage the PET films and can easily be etched off by using oxygen plasma. NIL was used to fabricate the nano-sized patterns on the non-planar or flexible substrate. Finally, a nano-sized metal pattern was successfully formed by depositing the metal layer over the imprinted resist patterns and applying the lift-off process, which is economic and environmentally friendly, to the PET films.

  17. Ultra smooth NiO thin films on flexible plastic (PET) substrate at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering and effect of oxygen partial pressure on their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, S.; Goswami, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Transparent p-type nickel oxide thin films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique in argon + oxygen atmosphere with different oxygen partial pressures at room temperature. The morphology of the NiO thin films grown on PET and glass substrates was studied by atomic force microscope. The rms surface roughnesses of the films were in the range 0.63-0.65 nm. These ultra smooth nanocrystalline NiO thin films are useful for many applications. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that the grains of NiO films on the highly flexible PET substrate were purely crystalline and spherical in shape with diameters 8-10 nm. XRD analysis also supported these results. NiO films grown on the PET substrates were found to have better crystalline quality with fewer defects than those on the glass substrates. The sheet resistances of the NiO films deposited on PET and glass substrates were not much different; having values 5.1 and 5.3 kΩ/□ and decreased to 3.05, 3.1 kΩ/□ respectively with increasing oxygen partial pressure. The thicknesses of the films on both substrates were ∼700 nm. It was also noted that further increase in oxygen partial pressure caused increase in resistivity due to formation of defects in NiO.

  18. A flexible angle sensor made from MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite films deposited by an electrophoretic co-deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toboonsung, Buppachat, E-mail: buppachattt@yahoo.co.th [Physics and General Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Singjai, Pisith, E-mail: singjai@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-08-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}Onanocomposite films were coated on a PET sheet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film resistance and application as angle sensor were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thesensor showed a linear relation between the film resistance and the bending angle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A minimum loop area and a high stability in sensitivity over a thousand bending cycles were obtained. - Abstract: A flexible angle sensor was prepared using an electrophoretic co-deposition process to form nanocomposite networks of multi-wall carbon nanotube/cupric oxide/cuprous oxide (MWNT/CuO/Cu{sub 2}O) on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. The deposition method used copper and stainless steel electrodes, and the effects of varying of electrode separation, MWNT concentration in deionized water, voltage and deposition time were studied. The film resistance of the as-deposited samples decreased with increasing the MWNT concentration up to 0.3 mg/ml. The angle sensor showed a linear relation between the film resistance and the bending angle, a relationship that was illustrated with loop area and sensitivity data. The best angle sensor was successfully made with an electrode separation of 8 mm, a concentration of 0.3 mg/ml, a voltage of 10 V and a deposition time of 3 h, parameters that resulted in a minimum loop area and the most stability in sensitivity over a thousand bending cycles.

  19. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of technologies to manufacture applied type thin film solar cells with new structure and development of high-efficiency hybrid thin film/sheet solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shin kozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (kokoritsu hybrid gata usumaku / sheet taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop low-cost and high-efficiency hybrid thin film/sheet solar cells, research and development has been performed. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research is related to a hybrid construction, in which the upper cells of amorphous silicon thin film are formed on the lower cells bonded with micro-crystalline silicon thin film relative to a poly-crystalline silicon sheet. In the technology to form the upper cells, a pin-construction using amorphous silicon thin film made by using the plasma CVD process was adopted, whereas an open circuit voltage of 1.45V, a short circuit current of 13.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, and a conversion efficiency of 13.5% were obtained. In the technology to form the substrate for the lower cells, formation of flat silicon thin plate that can be peeled off was identified as a result of adopting the construction in which a graphite substrate is provided on a rotating cooling body of 12-prism type. With regard to the technology to bond and form the lower cells, electrical properties of hetero-bonded cells were discussed, and an open circuit voltage of 0.605V and a conversion efficiency of 14.3% were obtained as a result of enhancing the film quality and optimizing the film thickness. (NEDO)

  20. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate using excimer and CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Attempts have been made to evaluate microstructuring which affects cell behaviour, physical and chemical changes produced by laser irradiation onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using the CO 2 laser and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes in chemical and physical properties of the irradiated PET surface were investigated by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and contact angle measurements. ATR-IR Spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 laser and excimer laser irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the morphology of the laser irradiated PET surface changed due to laser irradiation. The results obtained from the cell behaviour studies revealed that changes of physico-chemical properties of the laser treated PET film have significantly changed in comparison with the unmodified PET

  2. Effects of high energy (MeV) ion beam irradiation on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nandlal; Sharma, Anita; Avasthi, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation effects of 50 MeV Li 3+ ion beams in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were studied with respect to their structural and electrical properties by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ac electrical measurement in the frequency range: 50-100 kHz at different temperatures of 30-150 deg. C. It is found that ac resistivity of PET decreases as frequency increases. The temperature dependencies of dielectric loss tangent exhibit a peak (T g ) at 60 deg. C. The capacitance value of irradiated PET is almost temperature independent and ones increases with an increasing of lithium fluence. FTIR spectra show various bands related to C-H, C-O, C-O-C molecular bonds and groups which get modified or break down due to ion beam irradiation

  3. Growth and optical properties of Ag clusters deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Camacho, J M; Weidlinger, G; Sun, L D; Hohage, M; Primetzhofer, D; Bauer, P; Zeppenfeld, P; Schmidegg, K

    2011-01-01

    The growth and concomitant evolution of the optical properties of Ag nano-clusters deposited on biaxially extruded poly(ethylene terephthalate) films is studied by reflectance difference spectroscopy. It is demonstrated by low energy ion scattering and simulated optical spectra that the clusters form a two-dimensional layer buried beneath the surface of the substrate. The experimental spectra are described by simulations in which different configurations of the host such as anisotropy, amorphization, and dilution are considered in an effective medium approach. The contribution of the anisotropic substrate is used to explain the resulting line shapes. We also discuss the role of the rate of change of the filling fraction with Ag coverage in the evolution of the spectra and the detection of the onset of coalescence by optical means.

  4. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L 9 (3 4 ) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics

  5. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang1968@163.com; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  6. Tearing resistance of some co-polyester sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Karger-Kocsis, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    A three-zone model consisting of initial, evolutionary and stabilised plastic zones for tearing resistance was proposed for polymer sheets. An analysis with the model, based on the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach, was demonstrated to be capable for predicting specific total work of fracture along the tear path across all the plastic zones although accuracy of specific essential work of fracture is subject to improvement. Photo-elastic images were used for identification of plastic deformation sizes and profiles. Fracture mode change during loading was described in relation with the three zones. Tearing fracture behaviour of extruded mono- and bi-layer sheets of different types of amorphous co-polyesters and different thicknesses was investigated. Thick material exhibited higher specific total work of tear fracture than thin mono-layer sheet in the case of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This finding was explained in terms of plastic zone size formed along the tear path, i.e., thick material underwent larger plastic deformation than thin material. When PET and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) were laminated with each other, specific total work of fracture of the bi-layer sheets was not noticeably improved over that of the constituent materials

  7. An anti-ferromagnetic terephthalate-bridged trigonal prismatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Scheme 1. Possible coordination modes of terephthalate. (tp). 2. ..... W and Atwood J L 2009 In Supramolecular Chemistry .... (a) Jiang Z Q, Zhao Z, Jiang G Y, Hou D C, Kang Y ... (a) Li H, Eddaoudi M, O'Keeffe M and Yaghi O M 1999.

  8. Mass transfer analysis for terephthalic acid biodegradation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodegradation of terephthalic acid (TA) by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate immobilized Pseudomonas sp. was carried out in a packed-bed reactor. The effect of inlet TA concentration on biodegradation was investigated at 30°C, pH 7 and flow rate of 20 ml/min. The effects of flow rate on mass transfer and biodegradation ...

  9. Effects of ph ON Ni Coating on Poly(ethylene Terephthalate) Substrate by Printing Prime in Combination with Palladium Activating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junjun; Sun, Zhiping; Huang, Hongzhi; Liu, Qi; Gao, Min; Li, Mengyu; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Zhenming

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the primer-printed and then self-assembled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) sheets were plated when the bath pH increased from 7 to 11. The effects of bath pH on the structural and electrical properties of electroless nickel plating were investigated systematically using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the crystallographic structures of Ni-plated PET (NPP) sheets were face centered cubic, the preferential orientation of the coatings changes from (200) plane to (111) plane, the growth rate of plated nickel coating increased from 3.71μm/min to 8.13μm/min, the average Ni crystal size was increased from 0.23μm to 0.92μm, the average EMI-SE of NPP sheets was increased from 37.2dB to 38.6dB and the surface electrical resistivity of NPP sheets was decreased from 6235ohm ṡ cm to 0.03ohm ṡ cm with the increase of bath pH. The changes in structural and electrical properties were most possibly due to the fact that the thickness of coating increased.

  10. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of a thin silver layer deposited onto PET film via atmospheric pressure plasma reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jun; Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the first use of a plasma reduction reaction under atmospheric pressure to fabricate a thin silver layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film without the use of toxic chemicals, high voltages, or an expensive vacuum apparatus. The developed film is applied to electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. After repeatedly depositing a silver layer through a plasma reduction reaction on PET, we can successfully fabricate a uniformly deposited thin silver layer. It was found that both the particle size and film thickness of thin silver layers fabricated at different AgNO3 concentrations increase with an increase in the concentration of AgNO3. However, the roughness of the thin silver layer decreases when increasing the concentration of AgNO3 from 100 to 500 mM, and the roughness increases with a further increase in the concentration of AgNO3. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of the film is measured in the frequency range of 0.045 to 1 GHz. As a result of optimizing the electrical conductivity by measuring sheet resistance of the thin silver layer, the film fabricated from 500 mM AgNO3 exhibits the highest EMI SE among all fabricated films. The maximum values of the EMI SE are 60.490 dB at 0.1 GHz and 54.721 dB at 1.0 GHz with minimum sheet resistance of 0.244 Ω/□. Given that the proposed strategy is simple and effective, it is promising for fabricating various low-cost metal films with high EMI SE.

  11. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of technology for commercialization of the photovoltaic power system - Development of production technology of thin film solar cells. Development of production technology of application type new structure thin film solar cells (Development of production technology of high efficiency hybrid thin films/sheet solar cells); 2000 nendo New sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu, Hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, Oyogata shinkozo hakumaku taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, (Kokoritsu hybrid gata hakumaku / sheet taiyodenchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of realizing low cost and high efficiency hybrid thin films/sheet solar cells, the R and D were carried out, and the FY 2000 results were reported. As to the formation technology of the upper cell, the following technologies were developed and the results contributory to the heightening of efficiency were obtained: technology for improvement of cell characteristics by gap widening of p layer, technology for optimization of formation conditions of i layer corresponding to the hybrid solar cell, technology for heightening of current by the intermediate ZnO layer just under the upper cell. Relating to the development of formation technology of high quality microcrystal thin films, it was indicated that the microcrystal silicon thin film had the conformity effective also for polycrystal silicon, and at the same time, the conversion efficiency of 12.8% and release voltage of 0.579V were obtained by the cell using the cast polycrystal board. In the thin film/polycrystal sheet hybrid solar cell in which all these technologies were integrated, the conversion efficiency of 12.0% was achieved, and the possibility was verified of achieving the target efficiency of 14% by further improvement of FF. (NEDO)

  12. Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis; Zhang, Yi; Schlenker, Cody W; Ryu, Koungmin; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness ( approximately 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Omega/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (eta) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138 degrees , whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60 degrees . Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications.

  13. Continuous, Highly Flexible, and Transparent Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomez De Arco, Lewis

    2010-05-25

    We report the implementation of continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) in organic photovoltaic cells. Graphene films were synthesized by CVD, transferred to transparent substrates, and evaluated in organic solar cell heterojunctions (TCE/poly-3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene:poly styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/copper phthalocyanine/fullerene/bathocuproine/aluminum). Key to our success is the continuous nature of the CVD graphene films, which led to minimal surface roughness (∼ 0.9 nm) and offered sheet resistance down to 230 Ω/sq (at 72% transparency), much lower than stacked graphene flakes at similar transparency. In addition, solar cells with CVD graphene and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes were fabricated side-by-side on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and were confirmed to offer comparable performance, with power conversion efficiencies (η) of 1.18 and 1.27%, respectively. Furthermore, CVD graphene solar cells demonstrated outstanding capability to operate under bending conditions up to 138°, whereas the ITO-based devices displayed cracks and irreversible failure under bending of 60°. Our work indicates the great potential of CVD graphene films for flexible photovoltaic applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. «Acts of wisdom and trust»: Sheets, Tapes and Machines in Egisto Macchi’s Film Music Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cosci

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Egisto Macchi (1928-92 was a key figure in the renewal of late 20th century Italian musical life, as he contributed significantly to the creation of institutions such as Nuova Consonanza. During the 1960s his significant involvement in film production led him to compose scores for hundreds of short films, working with leading Italian documentary filmmakers, and for several feature films. The relationship between Macchi’s musical strategies and the film production apparatus has not hitherto received much scholarly attention. Drawing on archival sources, this essay aims at discussing the different compositional levels that are layered in Macchi’s soundtracks. The study of sketches and paratextual indications in the score allows a close look at the relation between musical ideas and their realizations from a perspective strongly influenced by film post-production technologies.

  15. Processing and characterization of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends with chain extenders, thermoplastic elastomer, and/or poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yottha Srithep; Alireza Javadi; Srikanth Pilla; Lih-Sheng Turng; Shaoqin Gong; Craig Clemons; Jun Peng

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) resin is one of the most widely used thermoplastics, especially in packaging. Because thermal and hydrolytic degradations, recycled PET (RPET) exhibits poor mechanical properties and lacks moldability. The effects of adding elastomeric modifiers, chain extenders (CE), and poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate), PBAT, as a toughener...

  16. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  17. Manufacturing of multilayer graphene oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with tunable crystallinity, chain orientations and thermal transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyyed Monfared Zanjani, Jamal [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Saner Okan, Burcu, E-mail: bsanerokan@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Nanografen Nanotechnological Products Limited Company, GOSB Teknopark, Gebze 41430, Kocaeli (Turkey); Menceloglu, Yusuf [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey); Nanografen Nanotechnological Products Limited Company, GOSB Teknopark, Gebze 41430, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-06-15

    Thermally exfoliated graphene oxide (TEGO) reinforced polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocomposites with controlled crystallinity, chain conformations and thermo-mechanical properties were produced with very low TEGO weight fractions by a twin-screw compounding extruder. Tensile modulus was found to increase by 52% by the addition of 1 wt% TEGO. This significant increase in mechanical properties of PET nanocomposites was explained by well intercalation of PET chains through multi-layer graphene sheets and complete coverage of graphene surface by electrostatic interactions. An increase in the ratio of gauche and trans conformations in PET chains indicated that PET nanocomposites became more crystalline by increasing TEGO amount. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the favorable interaction between TEGO sheets and PET matrix facilitating the dispersion and flattening of graphene sheets into polymeric matrix during elongation. The integration of 1 wt% TEGO sheets into PET matrix enhanced heat distortion temperature from 71 °C for neat specimen upto 91.6 °C at the constant stress of 0.45 MPa, and increased Vicat softening point from 76 °C upto 95 °C. Therefore, the failures of PET considerably reduced by improving short-term heat resistance and its softening properties between glass transition temperature and melting temperature by the incorporation of TEGO sheets. - Highlights: • 52% modulus improvement by the addition of 1 wt% graphene in PET. • Well-intercalation of PET chains through graphene sheets during compounding process. • Homogeneous graphene dispersion by favorable interactions between graphene and PET. • Enhancement in Heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point of PET composite. • Considerable reduction in failures of PET by improving short-term heat resistance.

  18. New Titanium-Based Catalysts for the Synthesis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Youngkeun; Yoon, Seungwoong; Hwang, Yongtaek; Song, Bogeun

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a polymer with relatively low cost and high performance, which is widely used in various applications such as bottles, textile fibers, films and engineering plastics for automobiles and electric industries. Commercial catalysts used for synthesis of PET are in general antimony (Sb) compounds. Antimony(III) oxide, antimony(III) acetate and antimony(III) glycolate are used as a catalyst in 95% of PET manufacturing industries worldwide. The few organoantimony compounds that have been identified in environmental and biological samples are all in the form of methylated Sb-species. The Sb trace element is extremely toxic to mammals, and interferes with embryonic and fetal development, also, carcinogenic to humans. In addition to being found in drinking water, food packaging and soft-drink bottles. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Sb species concentration lower than 20 ppb are acceptable for drinking water. According to a recent study, in 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. Therefore, a very important challenge for polyester catalysis is to come-up with a new Sb-free catalysts with low environmental impact. Intensive efforts have been made to find other stable and more environmental friendly non-antimony catalysts, such as those based on titanium. Titanium-based catalysts have been known for many years and actually are used for polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polypropylene terephthalate (PPT) production, however, polycondensation (PC) of PET manufacture is not well studied in literature. To date, only few esterification processes have been applied for the synthesis of PET by titanium catalysts. Herein, we report an efficient synthesis characterization and polymerization of PET for a series of new nontoxic organotitanium

  19. The thermal analysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ziyu [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Hay, J.N., E-mail: j.n.hay@bham.ac.uk [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Jenkins, M.J. [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, The College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    Graphical abstract: Changes to infra-red spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) on heating and cooling. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microgram samples have been analysed to determine glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorbance of cis/trans bands have been followed with temperature on heating and cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractional crystallinity was determined directly without calibration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IR absorption bands are characterized as type I or type II according to their behaviour with temperature. - Abstract: Thermal analysis-FTIR spectroscopy, TA-FTIR, has been used to characterize the phase transitions in thin films of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and it has been shown to have distinct advantages over other TA techniques in particular it was not so limited in sensitivity. Since the technique measured property, such as amorphous content or fractional crystallinity directly rather than the rate of change of the properties with time or temperature, it was not so restricted in the time scale over which measurements were made. It also had the advantage of measuring the change in concentration of different functional groups with temperature and determining the temperature range over which chain mobility set in and defining the type of molecular groups involved in the configurational changes. The change in absorbance and shift in peak position with temperature are discussed in terms of the separation of crystalline and amorphous bands as well as defining the cis/trans ratio as a function of temperature. Depending on the change in absorbance or peak position with temperature of the IR bands, they have been characterized as type I or type II behaviour. Measurements on both have been used to characterize the glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET.

  20. The thermal analysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ziyu; Hay, J.N.; Jenkins, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Changes to infra-red spectra of poly(ethylene terephthalate) on heating and cooling. Highlights: ► Microgram samples have been analysed to determine glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET. ► The absorbance of cis/trans bands have been followed with temperature on heating and cooling. ► Fractional crystallinity was determined directly without calibration. ► The IR absorption bands are characterized as type I or type II according to their behaviour with temperature. - Abstract: Thermal analysis-FTIR spectroscopy, TA-FTIR, has been used to characterize the phase transitions in thin films of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and it has been shown to have distinct advantages over other TA techniques in particular it was not so limited in sensitivity. Since the technique measured property, such as amorphous content or fractional crystallinity directly rather than the rate of change of the properties with time or temperature, it was not so restricted in the time scale over which measurements were made. It also had the advantage of measuring the change in concentration of different functional groups with temperature and determining the temperature range over which chain mobility set in and defining the type of molecular groups involved in the configurational changes. The change in absorbance and shift in peak position with temperature are discussed in terms of the separation of crystalline and amorphous bands as well as defining the cis/trans ratio as a function of temperature. Depending on the change in absorbance or peak position with temperature of the IR bands, they have been characterized as type I or type II behaviour. Measurements on both have been used to characterize the glass transition, crystallization and melting behaviour of PET.

  1. Characterization of transparent silica films deposited on polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, K.; Sugimura, H.; Inoue, Y.; Takai, O.

    2002-01-01

    Silica films were synthesized by capacitively coupled RF PECVD using mixtures of organo-silane and oxygen as a source. The chemical bonding states and compositions of the films deposited were evaluated with FTIR and XPS. Film surfaces and cross-sections were observed by SEM. Oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of the films coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were measured by an isopiestic method. (Authors)

  2. Synthesis and Verification of Biobased Terephthalic Acid from Furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yuya; Kimura, Saori; Kasuya, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Exploiting biomass as an alternative to petrochemicals for the production of commodity plastics is vitally important if we are to become a more sustainable society. Here, we report a synthetic route for the production of terephthalic acid (TPA), the monomer of the widely used thermoplastic polymer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), from the biomass-derived starting material furfural. Biobased furfural was oxidised and dehydrated to give maleic anhydride, which was further reacted with biobased furan to give its Diels-Alder (DA) adduct. The dehydration of the DA adduct gave phthalic anhydride, which was converted via phthalic acid and dipotassium phthalate to TPA. The biobased carbon content of the TPA was measured by accelerator mass spectroscopy and the TPA was found to be made of 100% biobased carbon.

  3. The radiation chemistry of aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    The radiation chemistry of cobalt-60 gamma-irradiated aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions has been studied. In aerated 4 x 10 -4 M sodium hydroxide solutions, the main products are hydroxyterephthalate (HTA) (G = 0.99 +- 0.01), carbonate (G = 1.31 +- 0.08), and peroxides (G = 2.84 +- 0.04). The HTA and carbonate species are both formed as a result of hydroxyl radical attack and account for approximately 90 per cent of hydroxyl radical reactions. Oxygen needs to be present for efficient conversion of the terephthalate-OH radical adduct to HTA and oxygenation increases G(HTA) above the aerated solution value. G(HTA) is unaffected by changes in terephthalate concentration between 1 x 10 -4 M and 1 x 10 -2 M in sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10. Decreasing the solution pH does however affect G(HTA). In phosphate buffered solutions pH 6.85, G(HTA) is 0.93 +- 0.01 and lower values are obtained with further decrease in solution pH. The lowering of the G(HTA) value is attributed to recombination reactions between the terephthalate-OH radical products and reducing radical products. Experimental evidence supporting the recombination postulate was obtained from the measurement of a parallel decrease in the peroxide yield and the observation of a dose rate effect on G(HTA). Competition kinetic studies with the added solutes carbonate and bicarbonate gave the rate ratios k (OH + TA 2- ) : k(OH + CO 3 2- ) : k(OH + HCO 3 - ) = 1 : 0.105 : 0.0036

  4. Method to measure composition modifications in polyethylene terephthalate during ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdesselam, M.; Stoquert, J. P.; Chami, S.; Djebara, M.; Chami, A. C.; Siad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Matter losses of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, Mylar) films induced by 1600 keV deuteron beams have been investigated in situ simultaneously by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), deuteron forward elastic scattering (DFES) and hydrogen elastic recoil detection (HERD) in the fluence range from 1 × 10 14 to 9 × 10 16 cm -2. Volatile degradation products escape from the polymeric film, mostly as hydrogen-, oxygen- and carbon-containing molecules. Appropriate experimental conditions for observing the composition and thickness changes during irradiation are determined. 16O(d,p 0) 17O, 16O(d,p 1) 17O and 12C(d,p 0) 13C nuclear reactions were used to monitor the oxygen and carbon content as a function of deuteron fluence. Hydrogen release was determined simultaneously by H(d,d)H DFES and H(d,H)d HERD. Comparisons between NRA, DFES and HERD measurements show that the polymer carbonizes at high fluences because most of the oxygen and hydrogen depletion has already occured below a fluence of 3 × 10 16 cm -2. Release curves for each element are determined. Experimental results are consistent with the bulk molecular recombination (BMR) model.

  5. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szymczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt% of graphene oxide (GO have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for PET nanocomposite films over the neat PET is approximately factors of 2–3.3. DSC study on the nonisothermal crystallization behaviors proves that GO acts as a nucleating agent to accelerate the crystallization of PET matrix. The evolution of the lamellar nanostructure of nanocomposite and neat PET was monitored by SAXS during nonisothermal crystallization from the melt. It was found that unfilled PET and nanocomposite with the highest concentration of GO (0.5 wt% showed almost similar values of the long period (L=11.4 nm for neat PET and L=11.5 nm for PET/0.5GO.

  6. Thermal Properties, Structure and Morphology of Graphene Reinforced Polyethylene Terephthalate/ Polypropylene Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuwa, I.M.; Hassan, A.; Shamsudin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the thermal properties, structure and morphology of a blend of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) reinforced with graphene nano platelets (GNP) were investigated. A blend of PET/ PP (70/ 30 weight percent) compatibilized with styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted maleic anhydride triblock copolymer (10 phr) were fabricated by melt extrusion process in a twin screw extruder. The effective thermal conductivity of the nano composites increased as a function of the GNP concentration. More than 80 % increase in effective thermal conductivity was observed for the 7 phr reinforced sample compared to the neat blend. This observation was attributed to the development interconnected GNP sheets which formed heat conductive bridges that are suitable for maximum heat transfer. However, in the case of thermal stability which is a function of dispersibility of GNP in polymer matrix, the maximum increase was observed at 3 phr GNP loading which could be attributed to the uniform dispersion of GNPs in the matrix. It is explained that the GNP nano fillers migrated to the surface of matrix forming an effective oxygen barrier due to char formation. Morphological studies revealed uniform dispersion graphene in the polymer matrix at 3 phr GNP loading along with isolated instances of exfoliation of the graphene layers. (author)

  7. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Amorphous indium tin oxide films deposited on flexible substrates by facing target sputtering at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Yu; Gao, Fangyuan; Dong, Guobo; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Qirong; Ye, Di; Diao, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates using a DC facing target sputtering (DC-FTS) system at room temperature. The sputtering conditions including oxygen partial pressure and discharge current were varied from 0% to 4% and 0.5 A to 1.3 A, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and surface morphology of as-prepared films. All the films exhibited amorphous structures and smooth surfaces. The dependence of electrical and optical properties on various deposition parameters was investigated by a linear array four-point probe, Hall-effect measurements, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A lowest sheet resistance of 17.4 Ω/square, a lowest resistivity of 3.61 × 10 −4 Ω cm, and an average relative transmittance over 88% in the visible range were obtained under the optimal deposition conditions. The relationship between the Hall mobility (μ) and carrier concentration (n) was interpreted by a functional relation of μ ∼ n −0.127 , which indicated that ionized donor scattering was the dominant electron scattering mechanism. It is also confirmed that the carrier concentration in ITO films prepared by the DC-FTS system is mainly controlled by the number of activated Sn donors rather than oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • ITO thin films were grown on PET substrates by DC facing target sputtering system. • All the films were prepared at room temperature and exhibited amorphous structure. • Highly conductive and transparent ITO thin films were obtained. • The dominant ionized donor scattering mechanism was suggested

  9. Amorphous indium tin oxide films deposited on flexible substrates by facing target sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yu [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao, Fangyuan, E-mail: gaofangyuan@buaa.edu.cn [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Dong, Guobo; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Qirong [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Di [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China); Diao, Xungang [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates using a DC facing target sputtering (DC-FTS) system at room temperature. The sputtering conditions including oxygen partial pressure and discharge current were varied from 0% to 4% and 0.5 A to 1.3 A, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and surface morphology of as-prepared films. All the films exhibited amorphous structures and smooth surfaces. The dependence of electrical and optical properties on various deposition parameters was investigated by a linear array four-point probe, Hall-effect measurements, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A lowest sheet resistance of 17.4 Ω/square, a lowest resistivity of 3.61 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, and an average relative transmittance over 88% in the visible range were obtained under the optimal deposition conditions. The relationship between the Hall mobility (μ) and carrier concentration (n) was interpreted by a functional relation of μ ∼ n{sup −0.127}, which indicated that ionized donor scattering was the dominant electron scattering mechanism. It is also confirmed that the carrier concentration in ITO films prepared by the DC-FTS system is mainly controlled by the number of activated Sn donors rather than oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • ITO thin films were grown on PET substrates by DC facing target sputtering system. • All the films were prepared at room temperature and exhibited amorphous structure. • Highly conductive and transparent ITO thin films were obtained. • The dominant ionized donor scattering mechanism was suggested.

  10. Effect of Ga2O3 buffer layer thickness on the properties of Cu/ITO thin films deposited on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Huihui; Yan Jinliang; Xu Chengyang; Meng Delan

    2014-01-01

    Cu and Cu/ITO films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer using radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu layer thickness on the optical and electrical properties of the Cu film deposited on a PET substrate with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer was studied, and an appropriate Cu layer thickness of 4.2 nm was obtained. Changes in the optoelectrical properties of Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films were investigated with respect to the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer thickness. The optical and electrical properties of the Cu/ITO films were significantly influenced by the thickness of the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer. A maximum transmission of 86%, sheet resistance of 45 Ω/□ and figure of merit of 3.96 × 10 −3 Ω −1 were achieved for Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films with a Ga 2 O 3 layer thickness of 15 nm. (semiconductor materials)

  11. All-organic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light-valves integrated with electroactive anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films as driving electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pen-Cheng; Yu, Jing-Yu; Li, Kuan-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fabrication of flexible semi-transparent all-polymer electrodes under ambient conditions without using a CVD system. → Characterization of the above electrodes based on anthraquinone-2-sulfonate-doped polypyrrole thin films. → Demonstration of all-organic liquid crystal light-valves with polypyrrole thin films as the driving electrodes. - Abstract: All-organic PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystal) light-valves using all-polymer conductive substrates containing thin films of polypyrrole doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQSA - ) as the driving electrodes were fabricated in this study. The all-polymer conductive substrates were prepared under ambient conditions by in situ depositing polypyrrole thin films on blank flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate), or PET, substrates from aqueous media in which oxidative polymerization of pyrrole was taking place. The obtained flexible all-polymer conductive substrates were semi-transparent with cohesive coatings of AQSA - doped polypyrrole thin films (thickness ∼55 nm). The all-polymer flexible conductive substrates had sheet resistivity ∼40 kΩ □ -1 and T% transparency against air ∼78% at 600 nm. The light-valves fabricated using the above all-polymer conductive substrates showed ∼50% transparency against air at 600 nm when 4 V μm -1 electric field was applied.

  12. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  13. Simultaneous recovery of benzene-rich oil and metals by steam pyrolysis of metal-poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shogo; Grause, Guido; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2014-03-18

    The possibility of simultaneous recovery of benzene and metals from the hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)-based materials such as X-ray films, magnetic tape, and prepaid cards under a steam atmosphere at a temperature of 450 °C was evaluated. The hydrolysis resulted in metal-containing carbonaceous residue and volatile terephthalic acid (TPA). The effects of metals and additives on the recovery process were also investigated. All metals were quantitatively recovered, and silver, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and anatase (TiO2) were recovered without any changes in their crystal structures or compositions. In a second step, TPA was decarboxylized in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO) at 700 °C, producing benzene with an average yield of 34% and purity of 76%. Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) incorporated in magnetic tape and prepaid cards could decarboxylate TPA. Aluminum present in the prepaid cards produced hydrogen by the reaction with steam. However, the presence of metals had no adverse influence on the recovery of benzene-rich oil in the presence of CaO. Therefore, this method can be applied to PET-based materials containing inorganic substances, which cannot be recycled effectively otherwise.

  14. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  15. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene... Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers. Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene... purposes of this section, ethylene-1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers (1,4-benzene...

  16. The effect of oxygen ion beam bombardment on the properties of tin indium oxide/polyethylene terephthalate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Liu, Honglin; Zou, Lin; Ding, Wanyu; Ju, Dongying; Chai, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    The tin indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface that has been bombarded by an O ion beam. The variation of the O bombardment time resulted in the production of ITO/PET complex with different properties. Characterization by four-point probe measurement after the bending fatigue test showed that the adhesion property of the ITO/PET complex could be improved by the increase of O bombardment time while little change of electrical resistivity was observed. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that after the bending fatigue test, the nano scale seams and micro scale trenches appeared at the surface of the ITO/PET complex. The former was only the cracks of ITO film, which has little influence on the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. On the contrary, the micro scale trenches were caused by the peeling off of ITO chips at the cracks, which mainly influenced the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. With the increase of O bombardment time, the number and length of the micro scale trenches decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry characterization showed that with the increase of O bombardment time, parts of the methylene C bonds were transformed into C=O bonds, which could be broken to form C-O-In(Sn) bonds at the initial stage of ITO film growth. By these C-O-In(Sn) crosslink bonds, the ITO film could adhere well onto the PET and the ITO/PET complex display better anti-bending fatigue property. Finally, in the context of the application of the ITO/PET complex as a flexible electrode substrate, the present work reveals a simple way to crosslink them, as well as the physicochemical mechanism happening at the interface of complex. - Highlights: • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface was bombarded by N ions. • Tin indium oxide (ITO) film was deposited on bombarded PET surface. • By bombardment, methylene C bond on PET surface was broken and replaced by C=O bond. • C=O bond was

  17. The effect of oxygen ion beam bombardment on the properties of tin indium oxide/polyethylene terephthalate complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li; Liu, Honglin; Zou, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Ding, Wanyu, E-mail: dwysd_2000@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116028 (China); Ju, Dongying [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fukaya 369-0293 (Japan); Chai, Weiping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China)

    2013-10-31

    The tin indium oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface that has been bombarded by an O ion beam. The variation of the O bombardment time resulted in the production of ITO/PET complex with different properties. Characterization by four-point probe measurement after the bending fatigue test showed that the adhesion property of the ITO/PET complex could be improved by the increase of O bombardment time while little change of electrical resistivity was observed. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that after the bending fatigue test, the nano scale seams and micro scale trenches appeared at the surface of the ITO/PET complex. The former was only the cracks of ITO film, which has little influence on the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. On the contrary, the micro scale trenches were caused by the peeling off of ITO chips at the cracks, which mainly influenced the continuity and electrical resistivity of ITO film. With the increase of O bombardment time, the number and length of the micro scale trenches decreased. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry characterization showed that with the increase of O bombardment time, parts of the methylene C bonds were transformed into C=O bonds, which could be broken to form C-O-In(Sn) bonds at the initial stage of ITO film growth. By these C-O-In(Sn) crosslink bonds, the ITO film could adhere well onto the PET and the ITO/PET complex display better anti-bending fatigue property. Finally, in the context of the application of the ITO/PET complex as a flexible electrode substrate, the present work reveals a simple way to crosslink them, as well as the physicochemical mechanism happening at the interface of complex. - Highlights: • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface was bombarded by N ions. • Tin indium oxide (ITO) film was deposited on bombarded PET surface. • By bombardment, methylene C bond on PET surface was broken and replaced by C=O bond. • C=O bond was

  18. The Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polyethylene-Polyethylene Terephthalate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Avazverdi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, one of the thermoplastic polymers, is encountered with arduous problems in its recycling. After recycling, its mechanical properties drop dramatically and therefore it cannot be used to produce the products as virgin PET does. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer which can be easily recycled using the conventional recycling processes. The decreased mechanical properties of virgin polyethylene due to the environmental factors can be improved by reinforcing fillers. In this paper, we studied the effects of adding recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET as a filler, in various amounts with different sizes, on the physical and mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene. Composite samples were prepared using an internal mixer at temperature 185°C, well below rPET melting point (250°C, and characterized by their mechanical properties. To improve the compatibility between different components, PE grafted with maleic anhydride was added as a coupling agent in all the compositions under study. The mechanical properties of the prepared samples were performed using the tensile strength, impact strength, surface hardness and melt flow index (MFI tests. To check the dispersity of the polyethylene terephthalate powder in the polyethylene matrix, light microscopy was used. The results showed that the addition of rPET improved the tensile energy, tensile modulus and surface hardness of the composites while reduced the melt flow index, elongation-at-yield, tensile strength and fracture energy of impact test. We could conclude that with increasing rPET percentage in the recycled polyethylene matrix, the composite became brittle, in other words it decreased the plastic behavior of recycled polyethylene. Decreasing particle size led to higher surface contacts, increased the mechanical properties and made the composite more brittle. The light microscopy micrographs of the samples showed a good distribution of small r

  19. Laminin-521 Promotes Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheet Formation on Light-Induced Cell Sheet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets (rBMSC sheets are attractive for cell-based tissue engineering. However, methods of culturing rBMSC sheets are critically limited. In order to obtain intact rBMSC sheets, a light-induced cell sheet method was used in this study. TiO2 nanodot films were coated with (TL or without (TN laminin-521. We investigated the effects of laminin-521 on rBMSCs during cell sheet culturing. The fabricated rBMSC sheets were subsequently assessed to study cell sheet viability, reattachment ability, cell sheet thickness, collagen type I deposition, and multilineage potential. The results showed that laminin-521 could promote the formation of rBMSC sheets with good viability under hyperconfluent conditions. Cell sheet thickness increased from an initial 26.7 ± 1.5 μm (day 5 up to 47.7 ± 3.0 μm (day 10. Moreover, rBMSC sheets maintained their potential of osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. This study provides a new strategy to obtain rBMSC sheets using light-induced cell sheet technology.

  20. Lubricant Film Breakdown and Material Pick-Up in Sheet Forming of Advanced High Strength Steels and Stainless Steels when Using Environmental Friendly Lubricants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Olsson, M.; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    chemically with the tool and workpiece material forming thin films, which adhere strongly to the surfaces and reduce the tendency to metal-metal contact and material pick-up. Production tests of new, environmentally benign tribo-systems are, however, costly and laboratory tests are preferred as a preliminary...... the tribological performance, i.e. tendency to material pick-up and galling, of the evaluated tribo-systems. Moreover the SEM analysis shows that different workpiece materials result in different types of material pick-up....

  1. 120 MeV Ni Ion beam induced modifications in poly (ethylene terephthalate) used in commercial bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Ali, Yasir; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We report the effects of heavy ion irradiation on the optical, structural, and chemical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film used in commercial bottled water. PET bottles were exposed with 120 MeV Ni ions at fluences varying from 3 x 10 10 to 3 x 10 12 ion/cm 2 . The modifications so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Substantial decrease in optical band gap is observed with the increase in ion fluence. In the FTIR spectra, most of bands are decreased due the degradation of the molecular structure. XRD measurements show the decrease in peak intensity, which reflects the loss of crystallinity after irradiation.

  2. One-Step Process for High-Performance, Adhesive, Flexible Transparent Conductive Films Based on p-Type Reduced Graphene Oxides and Silver Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Ting; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2015-08-26

    This work demonstrates a one-step process to synthesize uniformly dispersed hybrid nanomaterial containing silver nanowires (AgNWs) and p-type reduced graphene (p-rGO). The hybrid nanomaterial was coated onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for preparing high-performance flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs). The p-rGO plays the role of bridging discrete AgNWs, providing more electron holes and lowering the resistance of the contacted AgNWs; therefore, enhancing the electrical conductivity without sacrificing too much transparence of the TCFs. Additionally, the p-rGO also improves the adhesion between AgNWs and substrate by covering the AgNWs on the substrate tightly. The study shows that coating of the hybrid nanomaterials on the PET substrate demonstrates exceptional optoelectronic properties with a transmittance of 94.68% (at a wavelength of 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of 25.0 ± 0.8 Ω/sq. No significant variation in electric resistance can be detected even when the film was subjected to a bend loading with a radius of curvature of 5.0 mm or the film was loaded with a reciprocal tension or compression for 1000 cycles. Furthermore, both chemical corrosion resistance and haze effect were improved when p-rGO was introduced. The study shows that the fabricated flexible TCFs have the potential to replace indium tin oxide film in the optoelectronic industry.

  3. Stress-corrosion cracking of indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate for flexible optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierros, Konstantinos A.; Morris, Nicholas J.; Ramji, Karpagavalli; Cairns, Darran R.

    2009-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of transparent conductive layers of indium tin oxide (ITO), sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, is an issue of paramount importance in flexible optoelectronic devices. These components, when used in flexible device stacks, can be in contact with acid containing pressure-sensitive adhesives or with conductive polymers doped in acids. Acids can corrode the brittle ITO layer, stress can cause cracking and delamination, and stress-corrosion cracking can cause more rapid failure than corrosion alone. The combined effect of an externally-applied mechanical stress to bend the device and the corrosive environment provided by the acid is investigated in this work. We show that acrylic acid which is contained in many pressure-sensitive adhesives can cause corrosion of ITO coatings on PET. We also investigate and report on the combined effect of external mechanical stress and corrosion on ITO-coated PET composite films. Also, it is shown that the combination of stress and corrosion by acrylic acid can cause ITO cracking to occur at stresses less than a quarter of those needed for failure with no corrosion. In addition, the time to failure, under ∼ 1% tensile strain can reduce the total time to failure by as much as a third

  4. Fog Collection on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Fibers: Influence of Cross Section and Surface Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Krause, Tobias; Danter, Leon; Baars, Albert; Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2017-06-06

    Fog-collecting meshes show a great potential in ensuring the availability of a supply of sustainable freshwater in certain arid regions. In most cases, the meshes are made of hydrophilic smooth fibers. Based on the study of plant surfaces, we analyzed the fog collection using various polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers with different cross sections and surface structures with the aim of developing optimized biomimetic fog collectors. Water droplet movement and the onset of dripping from fiber samples were compared. Fibers with round, oval, and rectangular cross sections with round edges showed higher fog-collection performance than those with other cross sections. However, other parameters, for example, width, surface structure, wettability, and so forth, also influenced the performance. The directional delivery of the collected fog droplets by wavy/v-shaped microgrooves on the surface of the fibers enhances the formation of a water film and their fog collection. A numerical simulation of the water droplet spreading behavior strongly supports these findings. Therefore, our study suggests the use of fibers with a round cross section, a microgrooved surface, and an optimized width for an efficient fog collection.

  5. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Tian, Xiubo; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-12-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  6. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin; Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  7. Hybrid radio-frequency/direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system for deposition on inner surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jing; Gong Chunzhi; Yang Shiqin [Institute of Plasma Surface Engineering and Equipment, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tian Xiubo [Institute of Plasma Surface Engineering and Equipment, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-12-15

    A hybrid radio-frequency (rf)/direct-current (dc) system has been developed to control the biasing effects during deposition of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films onto the inner wall of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. An additional dc bias is coupled to the rf electrode to produce the effect of equivalent rf self-biasing. This allows more flexible control of the deposition of the DLC films which are intended to improve the gas barrier characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate that the additional dc bias improves the adhesion strength between the DLC film and PET, although the enhancement in the gas barrier properties is not significantly larger compared to the one without dc bias. The apparatus and methodology have practical importance in the food and beverage industry.

  8. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  9. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.  Q.; Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  10. Flapping dynamics of a thin liquid sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivukkarasan, M.; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Panchagnula, Mahesh; Multi-phase flow physics Group Team

    2017-11-01

    We attempt to delineate and describe the complete evolution of a thin soap film when air is blown through a nozzle in the normal direction. The sequence of events and its intrinsic dynamics are captured using high speed imaging. By careful observation, it was observed that multiple mechanisms occur in the same system and each event is triggered by an independent mechanism. The events include (a) flapping of a liquid sheet and pinching of the bubble, (b) onset of rupture on the liquid sheet, (c) formation of ligaments and (d) ejection of drops. From this study, it is shown that these events are predominantly governed by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Taylor - Culick law, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and capillary instability, respectively. The present experiments can be considered as an extension to the previous studies on soap films as well as thin flapping sheets which has direct relevance to coaxial atomizers used in aircraft applications.

  11. Printed energy storage devices by integration of electrodes and separators into single sheets of paper

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We report carbon nanotube thin film-based supercapacitors fabricated with printing methods, where electrodes and separators are integrated into single sheets of commercial paper. Carbon nanotube films are easily printed with Meyer rod coating or ink

  12. Biaxial stretching of film principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Demeuse, M T

    2011-01-01

    Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for bi...

  13. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/silica nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvinzadeh, Mazeyar, E-mail: mparvinzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Siamak [Department of Polymer and Color Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Abosaeed [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohamad-Esmail [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) based nanocomposites containing hydrophilic (i.e. Aerosil 200 or Aerosil TT 600) or hydrophobic (i.e. Aerosil R 972) nano-silica were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica type on surface properties of the resultant nanocomposites was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement (CAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). The possible interaction between nano-silica particles and PET functional groups at bulk and surface were elucidated by transmission FTIR and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. AFM studies of the resultant nanocomposites showed increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. Contact angle measurements of the resultant PET composites demonstrated that the wettability of such composites depends on surface treatment of the particular nano-silica particles used. SEM images illustrated that hydrophilic nano-silica particles tended to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix.

  14. Texturation and superhydrophobicity of polyethylene terephthalate thanks to plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrade, Jeanne; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frédéric; Debarnot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Anti-bioadhesive surfaces were designed from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by three steps plasma-treatment. First, the nano-pattern is created by oxygen plasma-treatment with controlled dimensions. Then, the plasma-treated polymeric surface was hydrophobized with a tetrafluorocarbon plasma, allowing to obtain a water contact angle of 145 ± 4°. However, the SEM pictures give evidence to show the degradation of the structuration caused by the CF 4 -plasma and consequently, the superhydrophobicity was not reached. Thus, a plasma-polypyrrole layer was deposited before the plasma-fluorination, which has a protective role against the degradation generated by fluorinated species, preserving the structuration and improving the fluorination rate. Therefore, the obtained surfaces are superhydrophobic with water contact angle of 157 ± 2° and a hysteresis of 65 ± 3°. The ability of these surfaces to reduce bioadhesion will be performed in further work.

  15. Single clay sheets inside electrospun polymer nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui

    2005-03-01

    Nanofibers were prepared from polymer solution with clay sheets by electrospinning. Plasma etching, as a well controlled process, was used to supply electrically excited gas molecules from a glow discharge. To reveal the structure and arrangement of clay layers in the polymer matrix, plasma etching was used to remove the polymer by controlled gasification to expose the clay sheets due to the difference in reactivity. The shape, flexibility, and orientation of clay sheets were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Additional quantitative information on size distribution and degree of exfoliation of clay sheets were obtained by analyzing electron micrograph of sample after plasma etching. Samples in various forms including fiber, film and bulk, were thinned by plasma etching. Morphology and dispersion of inorganic fillers were studied by electron microscopy.

  16. Non-toxic poly(ethylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites with enhanced barrier properties

    KAUST Repository

    Hayrapetyan, Suren; Kelarakis, Antonios; Estevez, Luis; Lin, Qin; Dana, Kausik; Chung, Yi-Lin; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the technological need for poly(ethylene terephthalate) materials with improved barrier properties together with the requirement for sustainability this study focuses on an eco-friendly sulfonated polyester as clay compatibilizer

  17. Toughening modification of poly(butylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends by an epoxy-functionalized elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhou; Wang, Kai; Yan, Wei; Guo, Weihong

    2017-10-01

    New toughened poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) (40/60 wt%) blends were obtained by melting with Glycidyl methacrylate grafted poly(ethylene octane) copolymer (POE-g-GMA), varying the POE-g-GMA content up to 20 wt%, in a twin-screw extruder, followed by injection molding. The influence of POE-g-GMA on the properties of the PBT/PET blends was investigated by mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, gel fractions analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The mechanical testing results indicated that the incorporation of POE-g-GMA led to increases in the notched impact strength and decreases in the tensile strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus. When POE-g-GMA content reached 20 wt%, the notched impact strength (8.0 kJ m-2) was achieved for the PBT/PET/POE-g-GMA blends. FT-IR results proved that some PBT/PET/POE-g-GMA copolymers were produced, which improved the compatibility between POE-g-GMA and the PBT/PET matrix. The extent of crosslinking was observed by gel fraction measurements. DMA results further testified chain-extending and micro-crosslink reactions occurred between POE-g-GMA and PBT/PET blends. In addition, the reactions induced by POE-g-GMA affected the crystallization behavior of PBT/PET blends obviously, as observed from DSC results. By means of SEM observation of the impact fracture surface morphology, and the discussion of the micro-crosslink reaction process between the epoxide-containing elastomers and PBT/PET matrix, the toughening mechanism was proposed to be taken into account the shear yielding of PBT/PET matrix and cavitation of elastomer particles.

  18. Ethylenediammonium dication: H-bonded complexes with terephthalate, chloroacetate, phosphite, selenite and sulfamate anions. Detailed vibrational spectroscopic and theoretical studies of ethylenediammonium terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, M. K.; Drozd, M.

    2012-12-01

    Crystalline complexes between ethylenediammonium dication and terephthalate, chloroacetate, phosphite, selenite and sulfamate anions were obtained by slow evaporation from water solution method. Room temperature powder infrared and Raman measurements were carried out. For ethylenediammonium terephthalate theoretical calculations of structure were performed by two ways: ab-initio HF and semiempirical PM3. In this case the PM3 method gave more accurate structure (closer to X-ray results). The additional PM3 calculations of vibrational spectra were performed. On the basis theoretical approach and earlier vibrational studies of similar compounds the vibrational assignments for observed bands have been proposed. All compounds were checked for second harmonic generation (SHG).

  19. Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Hahn-Gil; Kim, Jin-Hoon; Song, Jun-Hyuk; Jeong, Unyong; Park, Jin-Woo, E-mail: jwpark09@yonsei.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    In this work, we developed highly flexible transparent film heaters (f-TFHs) composed of Ag nanowire networks (AgNWs) and aluminum zinc oxide (AZO). Uniform AgNWs were roll-to-roll coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using the Mayer rod method, and AZO was sputter-deposited atop the AgNWs at room temperature. The sheet resistance (R{sub s}) and transparency (T{sub opt}) of the AZO-coated AgNWs changed only slightly compared with the uncoated AgNWs. AZO is thermally less conductive than the heat pipes, but increases the thermal efficiency of the heaters blocking the heat convection through the air. Based on Joule heating, a higher average film temperature (T{sub ave}) is attained at a fixed electric potential drop between electrodes (ϕ) as the R{sub s} of the film decreases. Our experimental results revealed that T{sub ave} of the hybrid f-TFH is higher than AgNWs when the ratio of the area coverage of AgNWs to AZO is over a certain value. When a ϕ as low as 3 V/cm was applied to 5 cm × 5 cm f-TFHs, the maximum temperature of the hybrid film was over 100 °C, which is greater than that of AgNWs by more than 30 °C. Furthermore, uniform heating throughout the surfaces is achieved in the hybrid films while heating begins in small areas where densities of the nanowires (NWs) are the highest in the bare network. The non-uniform heating decreases the lifetime of f-TFHs by forming hot spots. Cyclic bending test results indicated that the hybrid films were as flexible as the AgNWs, and the R{sub s} of the hybrid films changes only slightly until 5000 cycles. Combined with the high-throughput coating technology presented here, the hybrid films will provide a robust and scalable strategy for large-area f-TFHs with highly enhanced performance. - Highlights: • We developed highly efficient flexible thin film heaters based on Ag nanowires and AZO composites. • In the composite, AZO plays an important role as an insulation blanket to block heat loss to

  20. Scanning-probe-microscopy of polyethylene terephthalate surface treatment by argon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza-Beltran, Francisco [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Sanchez, Isaac C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); España-Sánchez, Beatriz L.; Mota-Morales, Josué D.; Carrillo, Salvador; Enríquez-Flores, C.I. [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico); Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne, E-mail: epaill@univ-lemans.fr [Institute for Molecules and Materials, UMR CNRS 6283, Av. O. Messiaen, Universitè du Maine, Le Mans 72085 (France); Luna-Barcenas, Gabriel, E-mail: gluna@qro.cinvestav.mx [Polymer & Biopolymer Group, Libramiento Norponiente no. 2000, Cinvestav Queretaro, Queretaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Kelvin-probe-force microscopy helps study of PET surface treated by Ar ion beam. • Ar ion beam surface treatment promotes chain scission and N insertion. • Surface roughness and work function increases as intensity of ion energy increases. • Adhesive force of PET decrease due to the surface changes by ion bombardment. - Abstract: The effect of argon (Ar{sup +}) ion beam treatment on the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples was studied by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and the changes in surface topography were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) sheds light of adhesion force between treated polymer films and a Pt/Cr probe under dry conditions, obtaining the contact potential difference of material. As a result of Ar{sup +} ion bombardment, important surface chemical changes were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements such as chains scission and incorporation of nitrogen species. Ion beam treatment increases the surface roughness from 0.49 ± 0.1 nm to 7.2 ± 0.1 nm and modify the surface potential of PET samples, decreasing the adhesive forces from 12.041 ± 2.1 nN to 5.782 ± 0.06 nN, and producing a slight increase in the electronic work function (Φ{sub e}) from 5.1 V (untreated) to 5.2 V (treated). Ar{sup +} ion beam treatment allows to potentially changing the surface properties of PET, modifying surface adhesion, improving surface chemical changes, wetting properties and surface potential of polymers.

  1. Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Neng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□ and high optical transmittance (88.1% at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films.

  2. Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Neng; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Yu-Hsin

    2017-02-24

    We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO) triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□) and high optical transmittance (88.1%) at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films.

  3. Effects of UV Aging on the Cracking of Titanium Oxide Layer on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrate: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Gray, Matthew H.; Tirawat, Robert; Larsen, Ross E.; Chen, Fangliang

    2016-04-18

    Thin oxide and metal films deposited on polymer substrates is an emerging technology for advanced reflectors for concentrated solar power applications, due to their unique combination of light weight, flexibility and inexpensive manufacture. Thus far, there is little knowledge on the mechanical integrity or structural persistence of such multi-layer thin film systems under long-term environmental aging. In this paper, the cracking of a brittle titanium dioxide layer deposited onto elasto-plastic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate is studied through a combination of experiment and modeling. In-situ fragmentation tests have been conducted to monitor the onset and evolution of cracks both on pristine and on samples aged with ultraviolet (UV) light. An analytical model is presented to simulate the cracking behavior and to predict the effects of UV aging. Based on preliminary experimental observation, the effect of aging is divided into three aspects and analyzed independently: mechanical property degradation of the polymer substrate; degradation of the interlayer between substrate and oxide coating; and internal stress-induced cracks on the oxide coating.

  4. Anaerobic horizontal flow reactor with polyethylene terephthalate as support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Muñoz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot anaerobic reactor was installed to remove the organic load of wastewater from dairy industry. It uses a bacterial inoculum previously acclimated to the substrate. It was disposed horizontally and filled with pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, from plastic bottles. The reactor was operated at room temperature, during 100 days, in three phases: 1 the reactor was stabilized with volumetric organic load from 0.013 to 0.500 kg/day.m³; 2 the hydraulic retention time was of 1 day and the volumetric organic load of 3 kg/day.m³; 3 the volumetric organic load was incremented from 4 to 6.6 kg/day.m³ and the hydraulic retention time was 1 day. Organic material removal efficiencies was of 85%, and approximately 75% were obtained in the second and third phase, respectively. The Y value was 0.15, indicating that 0.15 kg of biomass were generated by kg of QDO supplied to the reactor. Finally, the biomass generated inside the reactor was analyzed, obtaining a value of 18868 mg/L, which is a higher value than those of conventional systems.

  5. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  6. Multiple Syntrophic Interactions in a Terephthalate-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Chen, Chia-Lung; Tringe, Susannah G.; McHardy, Alice C.; Copeland, Alex 5; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-08-05

    Terephthalate (TA) is one of the top 50 chemicals produced worldwide. Its production results in a TA-containing wastewater that is treated by anaerobic processes through a poorly understood methanogenic syntrophy. Using metagenomics, we characterized the methanogenic consortium tinside a hyper-mesophilic (i.e., between mesophilic and thermophilic), TA-degrading bioreactor. We identified genes belonging to dominant Pelotomaculum species presumably involved in TA degradation through decarboxylation, dearomatization, and modified ?-oxidation to H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and acetate. These intermediates are converted to CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} by three novel hyper-mesophilic methanogens. Additional secondary syntrophic interactions were predicted in Thermotogae, Syntrophus and candidate phyla OP5 and WWE1 populations. The OP5 encodes genes capable of anaerobic autotrophic butyrate production and Thermotogae, Syntrophus and WWE1 have the genetic potential to oxidize butyrate to COsub 2}/H{sub 2} and acetate. These observations suggest that the TA-degrading consortium consists of additional syntrophic interactions beyond the standard H{sub 2}-producing syntroph ? methanogen partnership that may serve to improve community stability.

  7. The influence of ultraviolet radiation on poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.

    2004-11-01

    The thermals properties of the polyethylene terephthalate samples exposed to UV radiation were studied. The results show a slight decrease ofΔ Cp and glass transition temperature values with the increase of the exposed times. The kinetics study of the cooled anisothermal crystallization, shows a weak increase of the values of the apparent energy with the irradiation times. Results obtained from the thermogravimetric analysis of the irradiated specimens indicate a stable thermal behavior. The results show that the PET material is a good resistant for the UV radiation, and the UV radiation affects only the exposed surface of the material and not the whole volume. The decrease of Tg is due to the changes in the molecular weight which occur at the surface of the irradiations samples. The decease of Δ Cp values is probably because of some degradation of the aromatic part of PET at the surface, which gives a double increase of the specific heat capacity. In addition, the changes of the surface properties obstruct the crystallization process at the surface. (Author)

  8. Hydrophilic-impermeable modified polyethylene terephthalate for selective endothelialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouane, D.; Fafet, J. F.; Barbet, R.; Dieval, F.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to create a modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) responding to vascular implants’ requirements, mainly with a surface promoting selective endothelialization. The surface alteration was carried out by hydrophilic functionalization in an alkaline solution with the presence of specific surfactant (TA). The carboxylic groups resulting from this reaction were quantified by colorimetric titration using bleu toluidine O dye (TBO). A single-sided coating process was then optimized to cover the PET surface by micro spherical structures’ polymeric layer. This coating provided to the PET surface high impermeability to the water under a pressure of 120 mmHg and enhanced its hydrophilic property. This spherical topography reduced the adhesion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) by 37% and inhibited their proliferation after 3 days by 50%. The hydrophilic functionalized PET (PET-TA) surface decreased the MSC adhesion by 50% and promoted HUVEC attachment with a number twice more important than the number of HUVEC adhered onto non treated-PET.

  9. Indium-free Cu/fluorine doped ZnO composite transparent conductive electrodes with stretchable and flexible performance on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Gong, Haibo; Yang, Xiaopeng; Qiu, Zhiwen; Zi, Min; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hongqiang; Cao, Bingqiang

    2015-03-01

    Material-abundant ZnO and metal thin film have been proposed as potential alternatives for the most widely commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent and conductive electrode. Yet the deterioration of optical transparency and conductivity for these materials makes them difficult to compete with ITO. In this work, a double-layer structured film-composed of FZO and Cu film is presented at room temperature, which combines the high transparency of FZO and high conductivity of Cu film. We first studied the effect of oxygen pressure on the transparency and conductivity of free-standing FZO layer deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by PLD method. Also the structural, electrical, and optical properties of bilayers electrode dependence on the Cu layer thickness were optimized in detail. As the Cu layer thickness increases, the resistivity decreases. The lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-5 Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 1.11 × 1022 cm-3 and mobility of 8.52 cm2 V-1 s-1 was obtained at the optimum Cu (12 nm) layer thickness. We find that FZO layer have anti-reflection effect for Cu/FZO (250 nm) bilayer in the wavelength range of 650-1000 nm compared with single Cu layer. And we firstly study the stretchable performance for Cu film-based composite electrodes with stretching ratio changing from 0 to 5%. Furthermore, we study excellent mechanical flexibility and stability of composite electrodes by bending test.

  10. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Mallegni; Thanh Vu Phuong; Maria-Beatrice Coltelli; Patrizia Cinelli; Andrea Lazzeri

    2018-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400) that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK). All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed me...

  11. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  12. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  13. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2–Ar sputtering gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Andrés, A. de; Prieto, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ITO deposition on glass and PET at room temperature by using H. • High transparency and low resistance is obtained by tuning the H. • The figure of merit for ITO films on PET becomes maximal for thickness near 100 nm. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H 2 in the gas mixture of H 2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H 2 /(Ar + H 2 ) ratio in the range of 0.3–0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, Φ TC = T 10 /R S , than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices

  14. Robust identification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastics through Bayesian decision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    Full Text Available Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster

  15. Robust identification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics through Bayesian decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah

    2014-01-01

    Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed.

  16. Robust Identification of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Plastics through Bayesian Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Mustafa, Mohd Marzuki; Hussain, Aini; Mustapha, Aouache; Ramli, Suzaimah

    2014-01-01

    Recycling is one of the most efficient methods for environmental friendly waste management. Among municipal wastes, plastics are the most common material that can be easily recycled and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is one of its major types. PET material is used in consumer goods packaging such as drinking bottles, toiletry containers, food packaging and many more. Usually, a recycling process is tailored to a specific material for optimal purification and decontamination to obtain high grade recyclable material. The quantity and quality of the sorting process are limited by the capacity of human workers that suffer from fatigue and boredom. Several automated sorting systems have been proposed in the literature that include using chemical, proximity and vision sensors. The main advantages of vision based sensors are its environmentally friendly approach, non-intrusive detection and capability of high throughput. However, the existing methods rely heavily on deterministic approaches that make them less accurate as the variations in PET plastic waste appearance are too high. We proposed a probabilistic approach of modeling the PET material by analyzing the reflection region and its surrounding. Three parameters are modeled by Gaussian and exponential distributions: color, size and distance of the reflection region. The final classification is made through a supervised training method of likelihood ratio test. The main novelty of the proposed method is the probabilistic approach in integrating various PET material signatures that are contaminated by stains under constant lighting changes. The system is evaluated by using four performance metrics: precision, recall, accuracy and error. Our system performed the best in all evaluation metrics compared to the benchmark methods. The system can be further improved by fusing all neighborhood information in decision making and by implementing the system in a graphics processing unit for faster processing speed. PMID

  17. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.V.; Foster, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is described which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro

  18. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  19. A flexible thermoresponsive cell culture substrate for direct transfer of keratinocyte cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Wulligundam; Madathil, Bernadette K; Sajin Raj, R S; Kumary, T V; Anil Kumar, P R

    2017-10-25

    Most cell sheet engineering systems require a support or carrier to handle the harvested cell sheets. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate-based overhead projection transparency sheets (OHPS) were subjected to surface hydrolysis by alkali treatment to increase pliability and hydrophilicity and enable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidylmethacrylate) copolymer (NGMA) coating to impart thermoresponsiveness. NGMA was applied on the modified OHPS by the technique of spin coating using an indigenously designed spin coater. The spin coating had the advantage of using low volumes of the polymer and a reduced coating time. The surface chemistry and thermoresponsive coating was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle. Human keratinocyte cells were cultured on the spin coated surface and scaffold-free cell sheets were successfully harvested by simple variation of temperature. These cell sheets were found to be viable, exhibited epithelial characteristic and cell-cell contact as confirmed by positive immunostaining for ZO-1. The integrity and morphology of the cell sheet was confirmed by stereomicroscopy and E-SEM. These results highlight the potential of the NGMA spin coated modified OHPS to serve as a thermoresponsive culture surface-cum-flexible transfer tool.

  20. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations.

  1. Enhancing the Dyeability of Polypropylene Fibers by Melt Blending with Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Mirjalili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts were made to modify polypropylene fibers by melt blending with polyethylene terephthalate in order to enhance the dyeability of the resultant fiber. Five blends of polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate/compatibilizer were prepared and subsequently spun into fibers. Three disperse dyes were used to dye such modified fibers at boiling and 130°C. The dyeing performance of the blend fibers, as well as the morphological, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties, of the corresponding blends was characterized by means of spectrophotometry, polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and tensile testing.

  2. Recovery of Terephthalic Acid by employing magnetic nanoparticles as a solid support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ghamary

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research work is focused on the improvement of Terephthalic acid recovery from PET wastes by using organically modified nano-Fe3O4@Cyanuric Chloride as the solid support. The performance of organically modified nano magnetic was examined in detail and the obtained results were compared with the unsupported reaction data. Required reaction time for complete glycolysis of the wastes, consumption of the solvent as well as catalyst decreases up 99%, 37.5% and 40% respectively. Result showed that nano-Fe 3O4@Cyanuric Chloride delivered good performance as solid support in depolymerizing of PET to the terephthalic acid.

  3. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  4. Smooth-surface silver nanowire electrode with high conductivity and transparency on functional layer coated flexible film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So Hee; Lim, Sooman; Kim, Haekyoung

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) with silver nanowires has been widely studied as an alternative of indium tin oxide for flexible electronic or optical devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, it has an issue of surface roughness due to nanowire's intrinsic properties. Here, to achieve a smooth electrode with high conductivity and transmittance on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a functional layer of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) is utilized with a mechanical transfer process. The silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET with low surface roughness of 9 nm exhibits the low sheet resistance of 18 Ω □ −1 and high transmittance of 87.6%. It is produced by transferring the silver nanowire electrode spin-coated on the glass to PVP-coated PET using a pressure of 10 MPa for 10 min. Silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET demonstrates the stable sheet resistance of 18 Ω □ −1 after the mechanical taping test due to strong adhesion between PVP functional layer and silver nanowires. Smooth TCE with silver nanowires could be proposed as a transparent electrode for flexible electronic or optical devices, which consist of thin electrical active layers on TCE. - Highlights: • Silver nanowire (Ag NWs) transparent electrodes were fabricated on flexible film. • Flexible film was coated with poly N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). • PVP layer plays roles as an adhesive layer and matrix in electrode. • Ag NWs electrode exhibited with low surface roughness of 9 nm. • Ag NWs electrode has a low resistance (18 Ω ☐ −1 ) and high transmittance (87.6%)

  5. Smooth-surface silver nanowire electrode with high conductivity and transparency on functional layer coated flexible film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Hee; Lim, Sooman; Kim, Haekyoung, E-mail: hkkim@ynu.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) with silver nanowires has been widely studied as an alternative of indium tin oxide for flexible electronic or optical devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, it has an issue of surface roughness due to nanowire's intrinsic properties. Here, to achieve a smooth electrode with high conductivity and transmittance on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a functional layer of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) is utilized with a mechanical transfer process. The silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET with low surface roughness of 9 nm exhibits the low sheet resistance of 18 Ω □{sup −1} and high transmittance of 87.6%. It is produced by transferring the silver nanowire electrode spin-coated on the glass to PVP-coated PET using a pressure of 10 MPa for 10 min. Silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET demonstrates the stable sheet resistance of 18 Ω □{sup −1} after the mechanical taping test due to strong adhesion between PVP functional layer and silver nanowires. Smooth TCE with silver nanowires could be proposed as a transparent electrode for flexible electronic or optical devices, which consist of thin electrical active layers on TCE. - Highlights: • Silver nanowire (Ag NWs) transparent electrodes were fabricated on flexible film. • Flexible film was coated with poly N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). • PVP layer plays roles as an adhesive layer and matrix in electrode. • Ag NWs electrode exhibited with low surface roughness of 9 nm. • Ag NWs electrode has a low resistance (18 Ω ☐{sup −1}) and high transmittance (87.6%)

  6. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  7. Radiation-induced conduction under high electric field (1 x 106 to 1 x 108 V/m) in polyethylene-terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, H.; Kurashige, M.; Ito, D.; Nakakita, T.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation-induced conduction in polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) has been measured under high electric field (1.0 x 10 6 to 1.6 x 10 8 V/m). In a 6-μm-thick PET film, saturation of the radiation-induced current occurs at field strengths above 1.2 x 10 8 V/m. This has been demonstrated by the thickness and dose rate dependence of the induced current. Radiation-induced conductivity increases monotonically with field strength, then shows a saturation tendency. This may be explained by geminate recombination. Above 1 x 10 8 V/m, slowly increasing radiation-induced current appears. This may be caused by electron injection from the cathode, enhanced by the accumulation of the hetero space charges near it

  8. Physicochemical modifications accompanying UV laser induced surface structures on poly(ethylene terephthalate) and their effect on adhesion of mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, Esther; Pérez, Susana; Hernández, Margarita; Domingo, Concepción; Martín, Margarita; Ezquerra, Tiberio A; García-Ruiz, Josefa P; Castillejo, Marta

    2014-09-07

    This work reports on the formation of different types of structures on the surface of polymer films upon UV laser irradiation. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) was irradiated with nanosecond UV pulses at 193 and 266 nm. The polarization of the laser beam and the irradiation angle of incidence were varied, giving rise to laser induced surface structures with different shapes and periodicities. The irradiated surfaces were topographically characterized by atomic force microscopy and the chemical modifications induced by laser irradiation were inspected via micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies. Contact angle measurements were performed with different liquids, and the results evaluated in terms of surface free energy components. Finally, in order to test the influence of surface properties for a potential application, the modified surfaces were used for mesenchymal stem cell culture assays and the effect of nanostructure and surface chemistry on cell adhesion was evaluated.

  9. Efficient tunable luminescence of SiGe alloy sheet polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogg, G.; Meyer, A. J.-P.; Miesner, C.; Brandt, M. S.; Stutzmann, M.

    2001-01-01

    Crystalline SiGe alloy sheet polymers were topotactically prepared from epitaxially grown calcium germanosilicide Ca(Si 1-x Ge x ) 2 precursor films in the whole composition range. These polygermanosilynes are found to be a well-defined mixture of the known siloxene and polygermyne sheet polymers with the OH groups exclusively bonded to silicon. The optical properties determined by photoluminescence and optical reflection measurements identify the mixed SiGe sheet polymers as direct semiconductors with efficient luminescence tunable in the energy range between 2.4 and 1.3 eV. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  10. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  11. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  12. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  13. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  14. PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR SEPARATING INDIVIDUAL PANES FROM A LAMINATED GLASS SHEET

    OpenAIRE

    Kübler, R.; Rist, T.; Hoetger, B.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating at least one individual pane of predefined size and edge form from a laminated glass sheet, which has at least two laminated glass sheet panes which are arranged one above another in adjacent form and between which there is arranged a plastic film, which permanently bonds the laminated glass sheet panes to one another, wherein - a laser track channel which at least weakens the plastic structure of the plastic film is laid into the plastic film...

  15. Surface and interior views on origins of two types of banded spherulites in poly(nonamethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eamor M; Nurkhamidah, Siti; Chen, Yu-Fan

    2011-10-21

    Top-surface and three-dimensional views of Type-1 and Type-2 of ring-banded spherulites in poly(nonamethylene terephthalate) (PNT) in thicker bulk crystallized on a nucleating potassium bromide (KBr) substrate were examined using various microscopy techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized-optical microscopy (POM), and atomic-force microscopy (AFM). In PNT crystallized at higher crystallization temperature (T(c)) with heterogeneous nucleating substrate, typically two types of ring-banded spherulites are present that differ significantly in patterns and ring spacings: Type-1 Type-2 (single- and double-ring-banded spherulites). Three-dimensional view on fractured spherulites in bulk PNT samples reveals that the single-ring-banded spherulite (Type-1) tends to be well-rounded spheres as they are nucleated homogeneously from bulk; the double-ring-banded spherulite (Type-2) is concentric hemisphere or truncated sphere shells owing to be nucleated from bottom. With confined thickness of films, the 3-D hemispheres in PNT may become truncated into multi-shell annular cones or arcs when thickness or growth is restricted. Based on the top-surface vs. interior views of banded lamellar assembly, origins and inner structures of dual types of ring bands in PNT were examined in greater details. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  16. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  17. Recent trend of titanium-clad steel plate/sheet (NKK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideto

    1997-01-01

    The roll-bonding process for titanium-clad steel production enabled the on-line manufacturing and quality control of the products which are usually applied for the production of steel plate and sheet by the steel producers. The recent trend of roll-bonded titanium-clad steel which has an excellent corrosion resistance together with the advantage in cost-saving are mainly described in this article as to the demand, production technique and new application aspects. Though the predominant usage of titanium-clad steel plate has been in power-generating plants, enlargeing utilization in the chemical plants such as terephthalic acid production plants is leading the growth in the market of titanium-clad steel plate. Also, the application of titanium-clad steel plates and sheets for the lining the marine structures is expected as one of the best solution to long-term surface protection for their outstanding corrosion resistance against sea water. (author)

  18. Gas-permeation properties of poly(ethylene oxide) poly(butylene terephthalate block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the gas-permeation properties of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) segmented multiblock copolymers. These block copolymers allow a precise structural modification by the amount of PBT and the PEO segment length, enabling a systematic study of the

  19. Molar mass of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during ultimate uniaxial drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  20. Molar-Mass of Poly(Ethylene-Terephthalate) (PET) During Ultimate Uniaxial Drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, A.G.P.U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  1. Toughening of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) with clay-compatibilized rubber phase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kelnar, Ivan; Sukhanov, Valentin; Rotrekl, Jakub; Kaprálková, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 6 (2010), s. 3621-3628 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) * nanocomposite * clay compatibilization Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2010

  2. Radiation-modified blends of the basis of polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mery-Meri, R.; Revyakin, O.; Zicans, J.

    2000-01-01

    The binary composite systems on the basis of post-consumer poly-(ethylene terephthalate) and polypropylene have been investigated. Mechanical properties of the compositions were studied in detail in order to expand the application possibilities of tested binary composites. Structural changes of the poly (ethylene terephthalate) / polypropylene blends depending on the concentration of the components were investigated also. Additionally, the optimum processing conditions were established. Particular attention was paid to study the influence of the ionizing γ-radiation on the structural and mechanical properties of the composition systems tested. The magnitude of the adsorbed dose od γ-radiation was established to affect differently the structure of poly(ethylene terephalate) and polypropylene. At small absorbed doses (50 kGy) crosslinking of the polymer was observed for both poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polypropylene resulting in the increase of some mechanical properties of pure materials as well of their compositions, whereas the absorbed dose of 300 kGy caused the destruction of the tested materials. It is important to mention that the rate of radiation-chemical destruction of polypropylene is higher than poly(ethylene terephthalate) destruction rate. (author)

  3. A New Esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans Hydrolyses Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET and Polylactic Acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Steinkellner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans (Thh_Est was cloned and expressed in E. coli and investigated for surface hydrolysis of polylactic acid (PLA and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Thh_Est is a member of the serine hydrolases superfamily containing the -GxSxG- motif with 85–87% homology to an esterase from T. alba, to an acetylxylan esterase from T. fusca and to various Thermobifida cutinases. Thh_Est hydrolyzed the PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethylterephthalate and PET releasing terephthalic acid and mono-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate in comparable amounts (19.8 and 21.5 mmol/mol of enzyme while no higher oligomers like bis-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate were detected. Similarly, PLA was hydrolyzed as indicated by the release of lactic acid. Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of PET and PLA led to a strong hydrophilicity increase, as quantified with a WCA decrease from 90.8° and 75.5° to 50.4° and to a complete spread of the water drop on the surface, respectively.

  4. The Depolymerization of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Using N-Heterocyclic Carbenes from Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamber, Nahrain E.; Tsujii, Yasuhito; Keets, Kate; Waymouth, Robert M.; Pratt, Russell C.; Nyce, Gregory W.; Hedrick, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The depolymerization of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is described in this laboratory procedure. The transesterification reaction used to depolymerize PET employs a highly efficient N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst derived from a commercially available imidazolium ionic liquid. N-heterocyclic carbenes are potent nucleophilic…

  5. Morphology and thermal properties of recycled polyacrylonitrile fiber blends with poly(ethylene terephthalate): Microstructural characterization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adegbola, TA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The compounding of rPAN/PET [polyacrylonitrile/poly(ethylene terephthalate]; 30/70, 50/50, and 70/30 wt %) using a melt-blending technique was the main focus of this investigation. An X-ray diffraction study indicated the possibility of interphase...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1345 - Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate... Ethylene/1,3-phenylene oxyethylene isophthalate/ terephthalate copolymer. Ethylene/1, 3-phenylene... polymers complying with § 177.1630. (a) Identity. For the purpose of this section, ethylene/1,3-phenylene...

  7. Medical effects of poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, bamboo activated charcoal was mixed with acrylic resin in various proportions and deposited on poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabrics. A series of characterizations were carried out to estimate the performances of PET non-woven fabrics such as far infrared ray emission, heat retention, negative ...

  8. Recycling of waste poly(ethylene terephthalate) with castor oil using microwave heating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Hynek; Slabá, J.; Walterová, Zuzana; Rais, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 11 (2013), s. 2232-2243 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-2TP1/135 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(ethylene terephthalate) * castor oil * chemical recycling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.633, year: 2013

  9. Evaluation of Acoustic Cavitation in Terephthalic Acid Solutions Containing Gold Nanoparticles by the Spectrofluorometry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sazgarnia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. When a liquid is irradiated with high intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs. The existence of particles in a liquid provides nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles and leads to a decrease in the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. Materials and Methods. The study was designed to measure hydroxyl radicals in terephthalic acid solutions containing gold nanoparticles in a near field of a 1 MHz sonotherapy probe. The effect of ultrasound irradiation parameters containing mode of sonication and ultrasound intensity in hydroxyl radicals production have been investigated by the spectrofluorometry method. Results. Recorded fluorescence signal in terephthalic acid solution containing gold nanoparticles was higher than the terephthalic acid solution without gold nanoparticles. Also, the results showed that any increase in intensity of the sonication would be associated with an increase in the fluorescence intensity. Conclusion. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of gold nanoparticles has been introduced as a way for improving therapeutic effects on the tumors in sonodynamic therapy. Also, the terephthalic acid dosimetry is suitable for detecting and quantifying free hydroxyl radicals as a criterion of cavitation production over a certain range of conditions in medical ultrasound fields.

  10. Layered double hydroxide/polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites. Influence of the intercalated LDH anion and the type of polymerization heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, M.; Martinez-Gallegos, S.; Labajos, F.M.; Rives, V.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional and microwave heating routes have been used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate had been previously intercalated in the LDH. PXRD and TEM were used to detect the degree of dispersion of the filler and the type of the polymeric composites obtained, and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the polymerization process had taken place. The thermal stability of these composites, as studied by thermogravimetric analysis, was enhanced when the microwave heating method was applied. Dodecyl sulphate was more effective than terephthalate to exfoliate the samples, which only occurred for the terephthalate ones under microwave irradiation. - Graphical abstract: Conventional and microwave heating routes were used to prepare PET-LDH (polyethylene terephthalate-layered double hydroxide) composites with 1-10 wt% LDH by in situ polymerization. To enhance the compatibility between PET and the LDH, terephthalate or dodecyl sulphate was previously intercalated into the LDH. The microwave process improves the dispersion and the thermal stability of nanocomposites due to the interaction of the microwave radiation and the dipolar properties of EG and the homogeneous heating. Highlights: → LDH-PET compatibility is enhanced by preintercalation of organic anions. → Dodecylsulphate performance is much better than that of terephthalate. → Microwave heating improves the thermal stability of the composites. → Microwave heating improves as well the dispersion of the inorganic phase.

  11. Tissue engineering of fish skin: behavior of fish cells on poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) copolymers in relation to the composition of the polymer substrate as an initial step in constructing a robotic/living tissue hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Roxane; Azhari, Rosa; Qanadilo, Hala F; Mahmood, Tahir A; Triantafyllou, Michael S; Langer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the development of a biosynthetic fish skin to be used on aquatic robots that can emulate fish. Smoothness of the external surface is desired in improving high propulsive efficiency and maneuvering agility of autonomous underwater vehicles such as the RoboTuna (Triantafyllou, M., and Triantafyllou, G. Sci. Am. 272, 64, 1995). An initial step was to determine the seeding density and select a polymer for the scaffolds. The attachment and proliferation of chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) and brown bullhead (BB) cells were studied on different compositions of a poly(ethylene glycol terephthalate) (PEGT) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) copolymer (Polyactive). Polymer films were used, cast of three different compositions of PEGT/PBT (weight ratios of 55/45, 60/40, and 70/30) and two different molecular masses of PEGT (300 and 1000 Da). When a 55 wt% and a 300-Da molecular mass form of PEGT was used, maximum attachment and proliferation of CHSE-214 and BB cells were achieved. Histological studies and immunostaining indicate the presence of collagen and cytokeratins in the extracellular matrix formed after 14 days of culture. Porous scaffolds of PEGT/PBT copolymers were also used for three-dimensional tissue engineering of fish skin, using BB cells. Overall, our results indicate that fish cells can attach, proliferate, and express fish skin components on dense and porous Polyactive scaffolds.

  12. Low-temperature deposition of ZnO thin films on PET and glass substrates by DC-sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.N.; Ghosh, C.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.; Minoura, Hideki; Sarkar, Ajay K.; Akiba, Atsuya; Kamiya, Atsushi; Endo, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    The structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films (260 - 490 nm thick) deposited by direct-current sputtering technique, at a relatively low-substrate temperature (363 K), onto polyethylene terephthalate and glass substrates have been investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the proper phase formation of the material. Optical transmittance data show high transparency (80% to more than 98%) of the films in the visible portion of solar radiation. Slight variation in the transparency of the films is observed with a variation in the deposition time. Electrical characterizations show the room-temperature conductivity of the films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates for 4 and 5 h around 0.05 and 0.25 S cm -1 , respectively. On the other hand, for the films deposited on glass substrates, these values are 8.5 and 9.6 S cm -1 for similar variation in the deposition time. Room-temperature conductivity of the ZnO films deposited on glass substrates is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of ZnO films deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates under identical conditions. Hall-measurements show the maximum carrier concentration of the films on PET and glass substrate around 2.8 x 10 16 and 3.1 x 10 2 cm -3 , respectively. This report will provide newer applications of ZnO thin films in flexible display technology

  13. Angle dependent laser nanopatterning of poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slepička, P.; Chaloupka, A.; Sajdl, P.; Heitz, J.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Svorcik, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 14 (2011), s. 6021-6025 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : POLYMER SURFACES * THIN-FILM * RADIATION Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2011

  14. A comparative study of oxygen transmission rates through polymer films based on fluorescence quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information on oxygen permeability through polymer films is essential for some applications, especially in food packaging where the control of oxygen levels can be critical in avoiding food spoilage. A permeability testing device using fluorescence-based optical oxygen sensing was developed...... as a potential new instrument for measuring the oxygen permeability of packaging films. The fluorescence-based permeability tester was validated against two existing commercial oxygen permeability measuring devices, the Mocon Ox-Tran 2/20 and PBI-Dansensor OPT-5000. Oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of polylactide...... (PLA) and nanoclay-reinforced PLA films, as well as polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PE/PET) and polypropylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PP/PET) laminated films were determined at 23°C and 50% relative humidity using each of these instruments. No significant differences were observed...

  15. Wicking and flooding of liquids on vertical porous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Jin; Choi, Jin Woo; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Chang, Young Soo; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Ho-Young

    2015-03-01

    When one brings a wet paintbrush into contact with a vertical watercolor paper, the paint may wick into the porous sheet completely or run down to ruin the art. We study a simple model of this spreading dynamics of liquids on hydrophilic porous sheets under the effects of gravity, using a capillary as a liquid source and thin fabrics of non-woven polyethylene terephthalate. Upon finding the maximum flow rate, Qw, that can be absorbed into the fabric, we show that the model can be used to obtain an estimate of the in-plane permeability of fabrics in a simpler manner than the conventional schemes. The shape of a wetting area that grows when the flow rate exceeds Qw to lead to rivulet formation is also theoretically given. The nose shape of the wetting front is shown to be time-invariant, while its profile depends on the properties of the liquid and the fabric. This study can be applied to understand and improve the liquid absorption behavior of hygiene items, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning equipments, and fuel cell membranes in addition to elucidating the mundane painting activity.

  16. Study of oxygen scavenging PET-based films activated by water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 - 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In this work an active barrier system consisting of a thin and transparent film based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. Dynamic oxygen absorption measurements were performed at different values of relative humidity and temperature, pointing out that humidity is a key factor in activating the oxidation of the polymer sample. Moreover, the thermal and optical properties of the films were investigated and a good correlation was found between the crystallinity increase and the consequent transparency reduction occurring after the oxygen absorption.

  17. Study of oxygen scavenging PET-based films activated by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana

    2016-05-01

    In this work an active barrier system consisting of a thin and transparent film based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. Dynamic oxygen absorption measurements were performed at different values of relative humidity and temperature, pointing out that humidity is a key factor in activating the oxidation of the polymer sample. Moreover, the thermal and optical properties of the films were investigated and a good correlation was found between the crystallinity increase and the consequent transparency reduction occurring after the oxygen absorption.

  18. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both...

  19. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  20. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  1. Effects of plasma polymerized para-xylene intermediate layers on characteristics of flexible organic light emitting diodes fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyuhyung; Kho, Samil; Jung, Donggeun; Boo, Jin-hyo

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of flexible organic light emitting diodes (FOLEDs) with the plasma polymerized para-xylene (PPpX) intermediate layer were investigated. For the purpose of reducing moisture permeation through plastic substrates, a PPpX intermediate layer was inserted between FOLEDs and the plastic substrates. As the concentration of C-H bonding in the PPpX film deposited at 25 deg. C was increased, PPpX films showed increased transmittance. Surface morphologies of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) covered with the PPpX intermediate layer were improved compared to PET without PPpX on it. Due to the highly cross-linked network structure in the plasma polymer film, water vapor permeability of PET substrates with the PPpX intermediate layer of 75 nm was decreased compared to PET substrates without PPpX on it. FOLEDs with the PPpX intermediate layer showed improved optical and electrical characteristics as well as lifetimes than FOLEDs without the PPpX intermediate layer

  2. The spectral stability of several sunscreening agents on stratum corneum sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Westerhof, W.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Ris, A. J.; Hische, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    Synopsis Film layers of seventeen commercially available sunscreen products and sixteen active ingredients on stratum corneum sheets were spectrophotometrically monitored before and after simulated solar irradiation. Fixed irradiation doses were given within the daily terrestrial limits. From the

  3. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  4. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  5. Trials of separation of the rare-earth elements on the way of fractional precipitation of terephthalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzyska, W. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    A possibility of the rare-earth elements separation on the way of fractional precipitation of terephthalates in the presence of a complexing agent was studied. Selecting an appropriate quantity of the complexing agent, it is possible to obtain fractions differing in their composition. In the first fractions the light lanthanides accumulate, whereas in the last one accumulate Y and heavy lanthanides. The advantage of this method is that the terephthalic acid can be regenerated practically in 100%.

  6. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  7. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  8. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  9. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  10. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  11. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  12. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  13. The development of PVC-laminated steel sheet by an electron beam curing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuhara, Ken-ichi; Koshiishi, Kenji; Tomosue, Takao; Mori, Koji; Honma, Nobuyuki

    1988-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film-laminated steel sheets are used for household electric appliances and building materials. Those are produced usually by pressing a PVC film onto a steel sheet imediately after a themosetting adhesive has been applied to the sheet and curing. However, a major problem of this method is that the appearance of the PVC films such as gloss and embossment changes during pressing due to the heat that is required for causing bonding, therefore, the development of an adhesive which can be cured at lower temperature is necessary. Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed PVC film-laminated steel sheets for which electron beam (EB) curable adhesives are used to overcome this problem. The advantage of these adhesives is that they can be quickly cured at room temperature. The production procedure of PVC-laminated steel sheets by EB curing is outlined. But this method has encountered two problems: poor adhesion between substrates and adhesive due to the residual stress, and the deterioration of the PVC films due to EB irradiation. EB curable adhesives are mainly composed of acrylic ester oligomers and monomers, and thier adhesion was improved by organic pretreatment. On the other hand, EB-proof PVC films were developed. The general properties of PVC-laminated steel sheets produced by EB curing are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Electrochemical pulsed deposition of platinum nanoparticles on indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate as a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Tsai, Chuen-Horng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a pulsed-mode electrochemical deposition (Pulse-ECD) technique was employed to deposit platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) on the indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET) substrate as a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The characteristic properties of the Pulse-ECD PtNPs were prepared and compared to the traditional (electron beam) Pt film. The surface morphologies of the PtNPs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). The FE-SEM results showed that our PtNPs were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PET flexible substrates via the Pulse-ECD technique. The AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of the pulsed PtNPs influenced the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs, due to the high specific surface area of PtNPs which enhanced the catalytic activities for the reduction (I 3 − to I − ) of redox electrolyte. In combination with a N719 dye-sensitized TiO 2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSCs with the PtNPs flexible counter electrode showed a PCE of 4.3% under the illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm −2 ). The results demonstrated that the Pulse-ECD PtNPs are good candidate for flexible DSSCs. - Highlights: • We used indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate as a flexible substrate. • We utilized pulse electrochemical deposition to deposit platinum nanoparticles. • We synthesized a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • The power conversion efficiency of DSSC was measured to be 4.3%

  15. Physical and dielectric properties of irradiated polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, H.; Okamoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of high-energy electron irradiation in air and in nitrogen on the physical and dielectric properties of polypropylene and poly(ethylene terephthalate) has been studied by measurements of electric strength, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, tensile strength, gel fraction and molecular weight distribution. Electric strength of polypropylene was improved by irradiation, while dielectric properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) were virtually unaffected by irradiation of 1.0-20 Mrad. Possible mechanisms for increasing electric strength are discussed from the point of view of degradation and oxidation taking place simultaneously with crosslinking of polypropylene. The maximum dose level to improve the electric strength of polypropylene is determined to be about 5 Mrad. (author)

  16. Chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate. Application to the synthesis of multiblock copolyesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Malek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycling of the poly(ethylene terephthalate, (PET, has been successfully carried out by glycolysis in the presence of bis (2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET resulting in the formation of hydroxytelechelic oligomers. These oligomers were then treated with carboxytelechelic poly(ε-caprolactone oligomers of Mn = 2300 and Mn = 730 g•mol–1 molecular weight, in the absence or presence of the titanium tetrabutyloxide (Ti(OBu4 as a catalyst to get multiblock copolyesters. The chemical structure of the synthesized copolyesters was investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy. Moreover the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to explore their thermal properties. The ester-ester interchange reaction was observed between the two oligopolyesters, was studied and discussed in detail.

  17. Dynamic modeling and control of industrial crude terephthalic acid hydropurification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi; Zhong, Weimin; Liu, Yang; Luo, Na; Qian, Feng [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) is critical to the development of the polyester industry. PTA production consists of p-xylene oxidation reaction and crude terephthalic acid (CTA) hydropurification. The hydropurification process is necessary to eliminate 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (4-CBA), which is a harmful byproduct of the oxidation reaction process. Based on the dynamic model of the hydropurification process, two control systems are studied using Aspen Dynamics. The first system is the ratio control system, in which the mass flows of CTA and deionized water are controlled. The second system is the multivariable predictive control-proportional-integral-derivative cascade control strategy, in which the concentrations of 4-CBA and carbon monoxide are chosen as control variables and the reaction temperature and hydrogen flow are selected as manipulated variables. A detailed dynamic behavior is investigated through simulation. Results show that the developed control strategies exhibit good control performances, thereby providing theoretical guidance for advanced control of industry-scale PTA production.

  18. The mechanical properties of brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste as sand replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Bazilah Azmi, Nurul; Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Shahidan, Shahiron; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2018-03-01

    This research focuses on the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. This study aims to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, only RCA 25% with 0.5% PET achieve lower strength than normal bricks while others showed a high strength. However, all design mix reaches strength more than 7N/mm2 as expected. Besides that, the most favorable mix design that achieves high compressive strength is 75% of RCA with 0.5% PET.

  19. Polyesters production from the mixture of phthalic acid, terephthalic and glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.L.S.; Oliveira, J.C.; Miranda, C.S.; Boaventura, J.S.; Jose, N.M.; Carvalho, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerin, a byproduct of biodiesel is currently an environmental and economic problem for producers of this renewable fuel in Brazil and in others parts of the world. In order to offer new proposals for recovery, it is used for the manufacture of polyesters used in applications in diverse areas such as construction and automobile industry. This work reports the production of polymer from the mixture of terephthalic and phthalic acid in three different proportions. The polyesters showed good thermal stability, analyzed by TGA and DSC, with an increase proportional to the terephthalic acid content. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the samples are semi crystalline polymers. The micrographs indicated the presence of a smoother surface in the polyester that has a larger amount of phthalic acid, as reported in the literature. Therefore, the materials showed good thermal properties and morphological characteristics, so it consists in a new alternative to use glycerin. (author)

  20. Poly(butylene terephthalate) based novel achiral stationary phase investigated under supercritical fluid chromatography conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kanji; Shibata, Tohru; Shinkura, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Atsushi

    2018-05-11

    Poly(butylene terephthalate) based novel stationary phase (SP), composed of planar aromatic phenyl group together with ester group monomer units, was designed for supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) use. As expected from its structure, this phase shows planarity recognition of isomeric aromatics and closely similar compounds. Interestingly, for most analytes, the retention behavior of this SP is significantly distinct from that of the 2-ethylpyridine based SPs which is among the most well-known SFC dedicated phases. Although the poly(butylene terephthalate) is coated on silica gel, the performance of the column did not change by using extended range modifiers such as THF, dichloromethane or ethyl acetate and column robustness was confirmed by cycle durability testing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  2. Flexo-green Polypyrrole – Silver nanocomposite films for thermoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Meetu; Singh, Ajay; Samanta, Soumen; Debnath, A.K.; Aswal, D.K.; Muthe, K.P.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Flexible PPy-Ag films prepared via environment friendly photo-polymerization in aqueous medium exhibited a record figure-of-merit of ∼7.4 × 10 −3 at 335 K among reported PPy based composites due to unique combination of high electrical and low thermal conductivity with increasing content of Ag nanoparticles. A proto-type thermoelectric power generator exhibiting output voltage of 6 mV has been demonstrated using these flexible PPy-Ag films. - Highlights: • Polypyrrole-silver (PPy-Ag) nanocomposites films were prepared on flexible BOPET sheet. • Ag particles anchored between PPy chains improve electrical transport but suppress thermal transport. • This work demonstrates highest figure-of-merit (∼7.4 × 10 −3 at 335 K) among PPy based materials. • A prototype thermoelectric power generator exhibiting output voltage of 6 mV has been fabricated using PPy-Ag films. - Abstract: Conducting polymers offer various advantages over inorganic thermoelectric materials such as eco-friendliness, a reduced manufacturing cost, flexibility, low thermal conductivity and amenability to tuning of electrical properties through doping; have recently drawn much attention for conversion of low temperature waste heat (≤150 °C) into electricity. In this study, we investigated the thermoelectric properties of hybrid films of polypyrrole and silver (PPy-Ag). These films were prepared on biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) flexible substrates by eco-friendly one pot photo-polymerization method using aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) as photo initiator. Detailed characterization of the samples revealed that morphology of composite films reorganized with the change in AgNO 3 concentration during synthesis. Increasing AgNO 3 concentrations resulted in PPy films containing Ag nanoparticles, nanoclusters as well as macroclusters. With alteration in concentration and size of Ag particles in PPy matrix, it has been observed that the

  3. Novel method to deposit metal particles on transition metal oxide films and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qinmin; Wang Min; Wang Hongbo; Zhao Jianwei; Yin Geping

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to modify the surfaces of transition metal oxides (MO) film-electrode was proposed in this study. At first, a monolayer of terephthalic acid was covalently bonded to the surfaces of Cu 2 O films. Then silver (Ag) particles were electrodeposited on the monolayer-grafted films by a potential-step process. The resulting Ag-Cu 2 O films exhibited improved electrochemical performance as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries compared to the original Cu 2 O films. An increase in electrical contact between Cu 2 O particles was considered to be responsible for the improvement in the electrochemical properties

  4. Tensile and fatigue behaviors of printed Ag thin films on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Gi-Dong; Won, Sejeong; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2012-01-01

    Flexible electronics using nanoparticle (NP) printing has been highlighted as a key technology enabling eco-friendly, low-cost, and large-area fabrication. For NP-based printing to be used as a successive alternative to photolithography and vacuum deposition, stretchability and long term reliability must be considered. This paper reports the stretchability and fatigue behavior of 100 nm thick NP-based silver thin films printed on polyethylene-terephthalate substrate and compares it to films deposited by electron-beam evaporation. NP-based films show stretchability and fatigue life comparable to evaporated films with intergranular fracture as the dominant failure mechanism.

  5. Tensile and fatigue behaviors of printed Ag thin films on flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Gi-Dong; Won, Sejeong; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2012-11-01

    Flexible electronics using nanoparticle (NP) printing has been highlighted as a key technology enabling eco-friendly, low-cost, and large-area fabrication. For NP-based printing to be used as a successive alternative to photolithography and vacuum deposition, stretchability and long term reliability must be considered. This paper reports the stretchability and fatigue behavior of 100 nm thick NP-based silver thin films printed on polyethylene-terephthalate substrate and compares it to films deposited by electron-beam evaporation. NP-based films show stretchability and fatigue life comparable to evaporated films with intergranular fracture as the dominant failure mechanism.

  6. Controlled change of transport properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes by plasma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L I; Dmitriev, S N; Drachev, A I; Gilman, A B; Lazea, A; Dinescu, G

    2007-01-01

    A process of plasma polymerization of dimethylaniline and acrylic acid vapours on the surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track membranes has been investigated. The surface and hydrodynamic properties of the composite membranes produced in this case have been studied. It is shown that the water permeability of the obtained polymeric membranes can be controlled by changing the filtrate pH. Membranes with such properties can be used for controllable drug delivery and in sensor control

  7. Characterization of products from pyrolysis of coal with the addition of polyethylene terephthalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Bičáková, Olga; Sýkorová, Ivana; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Melegy, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 154, DEC 15 (2016), 123-131 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : pyrolysis * sub-bituminous coal * polyethylene terephthalate * coke Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.752, year: 2016

  8. Deformation mechanisms of a porous structure of the poly(ethylene terephthalate) nuclear track membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The deformation mechanisms of a porous structure of the nuclear track membrane made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) are investigated in the temperature range from 333 to 473 K. It is shown that the pore size of the membrane can both decrease and increase. The analytical equation based on the Alfrey mechanical approach to the relaxation deformation of polymers describes the experimental data satisfactorily over the whole range of temperatures and pore radii of the membranes. 21 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Response to Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-08-19

    Yang et al suggest that the use of low-crystallinity poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) exaggerates our results. However, the primary focus of our study was identifying an organism capable of the biological degradation and assimilation of PET, regardless of its crystallinity. We provide additional PET depolymerization data that further support several other lines of data showing PET assimilation by growing cells of Ideonella sakaiensis. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Comment on "A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Lei

    2016-08-19

    Yoshida et al (Report, 11 March 2016, p. 1196) reported that the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade and assimilate poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). However, the authors exaggerated degradation efficiency using a low-crystallinity PET and presented no straightforward experiments to verify depolymerization and assimilation of PET. Thus, the authors' conclusions are rather misleading. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Structural insight into molecular mechanism of poly(ethylene terephthalate) degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Seongjoon; Cho, In Jin; Seo, Hogyun; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Sagong, Hye-Young; Shin, Tae Joo; Choi, So Young; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Plastics, including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), possess many desirable characteristics and thus are widely used in daily life. However, non-biodegradability, once thought to be an advantage offered by plastics, is causing major environmental problem. Recently, a PET-degrading bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis, was identified and suggested for possible use in degradation and/or recycling of PET. However, the molecular mechanism of PET degradation is not known. Here we report the crystal ...

  12. Structure-Property of Metal Organic Frameworks Calcium Terephthalates Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Mou, Chengxu; Sun, Yang; Liu, Wei; Deng, Qijiu; Li, Jingze

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: Effects of hydration water in calcium terephthalates anodes on the structure, operational voltage and electrochemical performance are systematically studied. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Metal organic frameworks CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O and CaC 8 H 4 O 4 are applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. •Appearance of hydration water leads different crystallography structures and electrochemical performance. •Anhydrous CaC 8 H 4 O 4 has a spacious ordered layer structure, a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction and a higher transparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O. -- Abstract: Metal organic frameworks have attracted considerable interest as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In this paper, the metal organic frameworks hydrated calcium terephthalate (CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O) and anhydrous calcium terephthalate (CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ) as anodes for lithium ion batteries are comparatively studied. Crystallography and local chemical bond analysis are combined to interpret the structure-property of calcium terephthalates. Results show that the anhydrous CaC 8 H 4 O 4 has a spacious ordered layer structure and a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O

  13. Phase Separation and Elastic Properties of Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate)-block-poly(Ethylene Oxide) Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Piesowicz; Sandra Paszkiewicz; Anna Szymczyk

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PTT-b-PEOT) copolymers with different compositions of rigid PTT and flexible PEOT segments were synthesized via condensation in the melt. The influence of the block length and the block ratio on the micro-separated phase structure and elastic properties of the synthesized multiblock copolymers was studied. The PEOT segments in these copolymers were kept constant at 1130, 2130 or 3130 g/mol, whereas the PTT content varied...

  14. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert

    2016-07-01

    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  15. Morphology and mechanical properties of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/potato starch blends in the presence of synthesized reactive compatibilizer or modified poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dafu; Wang, Hao; Xiao, Huining; Zheng, Anna; Yang, Yang

    2015-06-05

    The biodegradable poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)(PBAT)/thermoplastic starch (TPS) composite has received considerable attention because of the environmental concerns raised by solid waste disposal. However, the application of PBAT/TPS blends was limited due to the poor mechanical properties originating from the incompatibility between PBAT and TPS. In this work, two approaches were developed to improve the mechanical properties of PBAT/TPS blends. One approach is to use compatibilizers, including the synthesized reactive compatibilizer - a styrene-maleic anhydride-glycidyl methacrylate (SMG) terpolymer, and the commercial compatibilizer (Joncryl-ADR-4368). The chemical structures of SMG were analyzed with (1)H NMR and FT-IR. The other approach is to use the modified PBAT (M-PBAT) to replace part of PBAT in the PBAT/TPS blends. M-PBATs with higher molecular weight were obtained via reactive extrusion of PBAT in the presence of a chain extender. The better dispersion of TPS in PBAT was observed in SEM images when using M-PBAT, leading to the higher tensile strength and elongation at break of PBAT/TPS blends. However, the elongation at break decreased in the presence of compatibilizer (SMG or 4368), though the tensile strength remained in a similar level or slightly higher. Overall, the tensile strength and the elongation at break of the resulting biodegradable PBAT/M-PBAT/TPS blends (TPS=40wt%) were above 27.0MPa and 500%, respectively, which is promising for various applications, including packaging and agricultural mulching films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural insight into molecular mechanism of poly(ethylene terephthalate) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Seongjoon; Cho, In Jin; Seo, Hogyun; Son, Hyeoncheol Francis; Sagong, Hye-Young; Shin, Tae Joo; Choi, So Young; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2018-01-26

    Plastics, including poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), possess many desirable characteristics and thus are widely used in daily life. However, non-biodegradability, once thought to be an advantage offered by plastics, is causing major environmental problem. Recently, a PET-degrading bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis, was identified and suggested for possible use in degradation and/or recycling of PET. However, the molecular mechanism of PET degradation is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of I. sakaiensis PETase (IsPETase) at 1.5 Å resolution. IsPETase has a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad at its active site and contains an optimal substrate binding site to accommodate four monohydroxyethyl terephthalate (MHET) moieties of PET. Based on structural and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, the detailed process of PET degradation into MHET, terephthalic acid, and ethylene glycol is suggested. Moreover, other PETase candidates potentially having high PET-degrading activities are suggested based on phylogenetic tree analysis of 69 PETase-like proteins.

  17. Molecular structure and vibrational spectra of Bis(melaminium) terephthalate dihydrate: A DFT computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanak, Hasan; Marchewka, Mariusz K.; Drozd, Marek

    2013-03-01

    The experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of Bis(melaminium) terephthalate dihydrate were studied. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the Bis(melaminium) terephthalate dihydrate and its deuterated analogue were recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of Bis(melaminium) terephthalate dihydrate in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The results of the optimized molecular structure are presented and compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction. The molecule contains the weak hydrogen bonds of Nsbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯N and Osbnd H⋯O types, and those bonds are calculated with DFT method. In addition, molecular electrostatic potential, frontier molecular orbitals and natural bond orbital analysis of the title compound were investigated by theoretical calculations. The lack of the second harmonic generation (SHG) confirms the presence of macroscopic center of inversion.

  18. Static liquid permeation cell method for determining the migration parameters of low molecular weight organic compounds in polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoon S; Koontz, John L; Juskelis, Rima O; Zhao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The migration of low molecular weight organic compounds through polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was determined by using a custom permeation cell assembly. Fatty food simulant (Miglyol 812) was added to the receptor chamber, while the donor chamber was filled with 1% and 10% (v/v) migrant compounds spiked in simulant. The permeation cell was maintained at 40°C, 66°C, 100°C or 121°C for up to 25 days of polymer film exposure time. Migrants in Miglyol were directly quantified without a liquid-liquid extraction step by headspace-GC-MS analysis. Experimental diffusion coefficients (DP) of toluene, benzyl alcohol, ethyl butyrate and methyl salicylate through PET film were determined. Results from Limm's diffusion model showed that the predicted DP values for PET were all greater than the experimental values. DP values predicted by Piringer's diffusion model were also greater than those determined experimentally at 66°C, 100°C and 121°C. However, Piringer's model led to the underestimation of benzyl alcohol (Áp = 3.7) and methyl salicylate (Áp = 4.0) diffusion at 40°C with its revised "upper-bound" Áp value of 3.1 at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PET (<70°C). This implies that input parameters of Piringer's model may need to be revised to ensure a margin of safety for consumers. On the other hand, at temperatures greater than the Tg, both models appear too conservative and unrealistic. The highest estimated Áp value from Piringer's model was 2.6 for methyl salicylate, which was much lower than the "upper-bound" Áp value of 6.4 for PET. Therefore, it may be necessary further to refine "upper-bound" Áp values for PET such that Piringer's model does not significantly underestimate or overestimate the migration of organic compounds dependent upon the temperature condition of the food contact material.

  19. Antimicrobial coatings on polyethylene terephthalate based on curcumin/cyclodextrin complex embedded in a multilayer polyelectrolyte architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlar, Ilya; Droby, Samir; Rodov, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Bacterial contamination is a growing concern worldwide. The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial coating based on curcumin-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film as a support matrix. After a pre-treatment aimed to provide sufficient electric charge to the PET surface, it was electrostatically coated with repeated multilayers comprising alternately deposited positively-charged poly-l-lysine (PLL) and negatively-charged poly-l-glutamic acid (PLGA) and carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CMBCD). The coatings had an architecture (PLL-PLGA) 6 -(PLL-PLGA-PLL-CMBCD) n , with the number of repeated multilayers n varying from 5 to 20. The CMBCD molecules were either covalently cross-linked using carbodiimide crosslinker chemistry or left unbound. The surface morphology, structure and elemental composition of the coatings were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. To impart antimicrobial properties to the coatings they were loaded with a natural phenolic compound curcumin forming inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin. The non-cross-linked coatings showed bactericidal activity towards Escherichia coli in the dark, and this activity was further enhanced upon illumination with white light. Curcumin was released from the non-cross-linked coatings into an aqueous medium in the form of cyclodextrin inclusion complex. After the cross-linking, the coating lost its dark antimicrobial activity but retained the photodynamic properties. Stabilized cross-linked curcumin-loaded coatings can serve a basis for developing photoactivated antimicrobial surfaces controlling bacterial contamination and spread. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  1. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  3. Fundamentals of a liquid (soap) film tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beizaie, M. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science; Gharib, M. [Graduate Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    1997-06-13

    The continuously running liquid film tunnel is a novel device suitable for the study of two-dimensional flows. In this innovation, the films start from a reservoir, run over a horizontal or non-horizontal wire frame and get pulled/washed by a water sheet or by gravity of liquid film. How-ever, despite the simple design and widespread application of LFT, its working mechanisms are not well understood. In the present work, an experimental effort for explaining these mechanisms is reported. The results show that both film velocities and film flow rates increase with water sheet velocity up to a saturation level. This behavior is described via a force balance between the shear force produced by the water sheet and the opposing pulling force of reservoir and boundary layer frictions. The results also show that the average film thickness depends on the surfactant concentration. This is as predicted by a model based on Langmuir`s adsorption theory, in which the liquid film contains two external monolayers of surfactant and a slab of surfactant solution in between. When a film is drawn from the reservoir to the water sheet, the surfactant molecules start migrating from the former to the latter. To restore the thermodynamic equilibrium, the dragged film pulls more surfactant due to Marangoni elasticity, and thus a flow is established. The film flow soon reaches an equilibrium rate as required by the force balance mentioned above. (orig.). With 18 figs.

  4. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  5. Flexible Transparent Electrode of Hybrid Ag-Nanowire/Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Thin Film on PET Substrate Prepared Using H2/Ar Low-Damage Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsien Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ H2/Ar low-damage plasma treatment (H2/Ar-LDPT to reduce graphene oxide (GO coating on a polymer substrate—polyethylene terephthalate (PET—with the assistance of atomic hydrogen (Hα at low temperature of 70 °C. Four-point probing and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrate that the conductivity and transmittance can be controlled by varying the H2/Ar flow rate, treatment time, and radio-frequency (RF power. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the Hα intensity depends on these processing parameters, which influence the removal of oxidative functional groups (confirmed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to yield reduced GO (rGO. To further improve the conductivity while maintaining high transmittance, we introduce silver nanowires (AgNWs between rGO and a PET substrate to obtain a hybrid rGO/AgNWs/PET with a sheet resistance of ~100 Ω/sq and 81% transmittance. In addition, the hybrid rGO/AgNWs thin film also shows high flexibility and durability and is suitable for flexible and wearable electronics applications.

  6. Preparation of multilayer graphene sheets and their applications for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatami, Atsushi; Tachibana, Masamitsu; Yagi, Takashi; Murakami, Mutsuaki

    2018-05-01

    Multilayer graphene sheets were prepared by heat treatment of polyimide films at temperatures of up to 3000 °C. The sheets consist of highly oriented graphite layers with excellent mechanical robustness and flexibility. Key features of these sheets include their high thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction, good mechanical properties, and high carbon purity. The results suggest that the multilayer graphene sheets have great potential for charge stripping foils that persist even under the highest ion beam intensities irradiation and can be used for accelerator applications.

  7. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Transparent, flexible SERS substrates were prepared using techniques compatible with well-established silicon device technologies. • The SERS substrates exhibit high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The high performance is related with the quasi-three-dimensional structure of the PET. • In-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects was achieved by this SERS substrate. - Abstract: Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 10 6 was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  8. Transparent, flexible surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates based on Ag-coated structured PET (polyethylene terephthalate) for in-situ detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zewen, E-mail: zuozewen@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Zhu, Kai; Gu, Chuan; Wen, Yibing; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Transparent, flexible SERS substrates were prepared using techniques compatible with well-established silicon device technologies. • The SERS substrates exhibit high sensitivity and good reproducibility. • The high performance is related with the quasi-three-dimensional structure of the PET. • In-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects was achieved by this SERS substrate. - Abstract: Transparent, flexible surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were fabricated by metalization of structured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. The resultant Ag-coated structured PET SERS substrates were revealed to be highly sensitive with good reproducibility and stability, an enhancement factor of 3 × 10{sup 6} was acquired, which can be attributed mainly to the presence of plentiful multiple-type hot spots within the quasi-three-dimensional surface of the structured PET obtained by oxygen plasma etching. In addition, detections of model molecules on fruit skin were also carried out, demonstrating the great potential of the Ag-coated structured PET in in-situ detection of analyte on irregular objects. Importantly, the technique used for the preparation of such substrate is completely compatible with well-established silicon device technologies, and large-area fabrication with low cost can be readily realized.

  9. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yslas, Edith I., E-mail: eyslas@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F.; Barbero, César A. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Rivarola, Viviana A. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina)

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines.

  10. Growth and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lee, Jongin; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Yi, Junsin; Song, Woo-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by d.c. magnetron sputtering as the front and back electrical contact for applications in flexible displays and optoelectronic devices. In addition, ITO powder was used for sputter target in order to reduce the cost and time of the film formation processes. As the sputtering power and pressure increased, the electrical conductivity of ITO films decreased. The films were increasingly dark gray colored as the sputtering power increased, resulting in the loss of transmittance of the films. When the pressure during deposition was higher, however, the optical transmittance improved at visible region of light. ITO films deposited onto PET have shown similar optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, in comparison with films onto glass substrate. High quality films with resistivity as low as 2.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm and transmittance over 80% have been obtained on to PET substrate by suitably controlling the deposition parameters

  11. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  12. Investigations of heavy ion tracks in polyethylene naphthalate films

    CERN Document Server

    Starosta, W; Sartowska, B; Buczkowski, M

    1999-01-01

    The heavy ion beam (with fluence 3x10 sup 8 ion/cm sup 2) from a cyclotron has been used for irradiation of thin polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) films. Latent tracks in these polymeric films have been sensitized by UV radiation and then chemically etched in NaOH solution. The etching process parameters have been controlled by the electroconductivity method. After etching, parameters of samples have been examined by SEM and bubble point methods (Coulter[reg] Porometer II instrument). Results have shown good quality of PEN track membranes with pore sizes in the range: 0.1 - 0.5 mu m. The described procedure is known for thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Taking into consideration that PEN films have got better mechanical, thermal, gas barrier as well as better chemical resistance properties in comparison with PET films, the possibility of application of such membranes is much wider.

  13. Perforation of metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  14. Evaluation of essential work of fracture in a dual phase high strength steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, D.; Perez, L. I.; Lara, A.; Casellas, D.; Prado, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Fracture toughness of advanced high strength steels (AHSS), can be used to optimize crash behavior of structural components. However it cannot be readily measured in metal sheet because of the sheet thickness. In this work, the Essential Work of Fracture (EWF) methodology is proposed to evaluate the fracture toughness of metal sheets. It has been successfully applied in polymers films and some metal sheets. However, their information about the applicability of this methodology to AHSS is relatively scarce. In the present work the fracture toughness of a Dual Phase (strength of 800 MPa) and drawing steel sheets has been measured by means of the EWF. The results show that the test requirements are met and also show the clear influence of notch radii on the measured values, specially for the AHSS grade. Thus, the EWF is postulated as a methodology to evaluate the fracture toughness in AHSS sheets. (Author) 18 refs.

  15. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  16. Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Sodium Hydroxide on the Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirjalili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out, together with the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate, using sodium hydroxide to increase surface activity and enhance nanoparticle adsorption. Polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide in an ultrasonic bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confi rmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The self-cleaning property of treated fabrics was evaluated through discolouring using methylene blue stain under solar irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against common pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound-treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

  17. Plastic Degradation and Its Environmental Implications with Special Reference to Poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing global consumption and their natural resistance to degradation, plastic materials and their accumulation in the environment is of increasing concern. This review aims to present a general overview of the current state of knowledge in areas that relate to biodegradation of polymers, especially poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET. This includes an outline of the problems associated with plastic pollution in the marine environment, a description of the properties, commercial manufacturing and degradability of PET, an overview of the potential for biodegradation of conventional polymers and biodegradable polymers already in production.

  18. Characterization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) detector to search for rare events in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, S.; Maulik, A.; Raha, Sibaji; Sara, Swapan; Syam, D.

    2015-01-01

    A particular brand of commercially available plastic, identified as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been used as a Nuclear Track Detector (NTD) to detect heavy charged particles. It was found that PET has a much higher detection threshold compared to other commercially available NTDs, making PET particularly suitable for detecting rare events in cosmic rays. To characterize and calibrate PET, systemetic studies were carried out using ions from various accelerators in India and Europe. Results of those studies have shown that PET can be effectively used as a charge particle detector with good energy and charge resolution. (author)

  19. Analysis of polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic bottle jointing system using finite element method (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, N. A.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    For almost all injection molding applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic was analyzed the strength, durability and stiffness of properties by using Finite Element Method (FEM) for jointing system of wood furniture. The FEM was utilized for analyzing the PET jointing system for Oak and Pine as wood based material of furniture. The difference pattern design of PET as wood jointing furniture gives the difference value of strength furniture itself. The results show the wood specimen with grooves and eclipse pattern design PET jointing give lower global estimated error is 28.90%, compare to the rectangular and non-grooves wood specimen of global estimated error is 63.21%.

  20. Ultrathin Hydrophobic Coatings Obtained on Polyethylene Terephthalate Materials in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide with Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeeva, T. Yu.; Prorokova, N. P.

    2018-02-01

    The surface properties of ultradisperse polytetrafluoroethylene coatings on polyethylene terephthalate materials modified in a supercritical carbon dioxide medium with co-solvent additions (aliphatic alcohols) were analyzed. An atomic force microscopy study revealed the peculiarities of the morphology of the hydrophobic coatings formed in the presence of co-solvents. The contribution of the co-solvents to the formation of the surface layer with a low surface energy was evaluated from the surface energy components of the modified polyester material. The stability of the coatings against dry friction was analyzed.

  1. STUDIES ON POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)- POLY ( TETRAMETHYLENE ETHER ) MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMER.Ⅰ. COM POSITIONAL HOMOGENEITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yongjian; YING Qicong; WU Meiyan; QIAN Renyuan

    1991-01-01

    The compositional homogeneity of a poly (ethylene terephthalate )-poly (tetramethylene ether)multiblock copolymer sample with low content of hard segment was examined by GPC, TLC, and solubility method. The copolymer sample was found to have a uniform composition as a function of elution volume over the major portion of sample from GPC method. However within one elution fraction, the copolymer chains, although having the same hydrodynamic volume, may have some difference in composition. Two fractions with different composition were obtained by precipitation in ethanol. Some low molar mass copolymers were also separated by a TLC technique from the copolymer sample.

  2. Electrical conduction in 100 keV Kr+ ion implanted poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P. K.; Kumar, V.; Gupta, Renu; Mahendia, S.; Anita, Kumar, S.

    2012-06-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples have been implanted to 100 keV Kr+ ions at the fluences 1×1015-- 1×1016 cm-2. From I-V characteristics, the conduction mechanism was found to be shifted from ohmic to space charge limited conduction (SCLC) after implantation. The surface conductivity of these implanted samples was found to increase with increasing implantation dose. The structural alterations in the Raman spectra of implanted PET samples indicate that such an increase in the conductivity may be attributed to the formation of conjugated double bonded carbonaceous structure in the implanted layer of PET.

  3. Thermal degradation and isothermal crystalline behavior of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Liu; Shu Guang Bian; Min Xiao; Shuan Jin Wang; Yue Zhong Meng

    2009-01-01

    Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)(PTT)is an excellent fiber material.Its thermal degradation and isothermal crystalline behaviors were in this study investigated using thermogravimetric analysis(TGA),thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(TGA-FTIR)analysis,differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)and X-ray diffraction(XRD).The thermal degradation mechanism of PTT follows Mclafferty rearrangement principle.The PTT with intrinsicviscosity(IV)of 0.74 dL/g has a maximum crystallinity of about 55%at 190℃,as demonstrated by DSC and XRD measurements consistently.

  4. Non-toxic poly(ethylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites with enhanced barrier properties

    KAUST Repository

    Hayrapetyan, Suren

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the technological need for poly(ethylene terephthalate) materials with improved barrier properties together with the requirement for sustainability this study focuses on an eco-friendly sulfonated polyester as clay compatibilizer to facilitate polymer mixing during melt compounding. We demonstrate that the nanocomposites based on sulfonated polyester are a reliable alternative to their imidazolium counterparts, exhibiting enhanced properties (water vapor and UV transmission), without sacrificing the excellent transparency, clarity and mechanical strength of the matrix. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of polymer blends from glycerol, fumaric acid and of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S. de A.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer blends based on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(glycerol fumarate) polyesters were prepared in different PET concentrations. The PET powder was dispersed during the poly(glycerol fumarate) synthesis at 260 deg C. The resulting blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of the materials was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The morphology was studies by scanning electron microscopy. The blends were clearly immiscible. The possibility of (interfacial) compatibilization of the PET domains, caused by transesterification reactions between PET and glycerol were discussed. (author)

  6. Low-Temperature Fabrication of Robust, Transparent, and Flexible Thin-Film Transistors with a Nanolaminated Insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Park, Junhong; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jeong Woo; Jeon, Yongmin; Shin, Jeong Bin; Nam, Minwoo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2018-05-09

    The lack of reliable, transparent, and flexible electrodes and insulators for applications in thin-film transistors (TFTs) makes it difficult to commercialize transparent, flexible TFTs (TF-TFTs). More specifically, conventional high process temperatures and the brittleness of these elements have been hurdles in developing flexible substrates vulnerable to heat. Here, we propose electrode and insulator fabrication techniques considering process temperature, transmittance, flexibility, and environmental stability. A transparent and flexible indium tin oxide (ITO)/Ag/ITO (IAI) electrode and an Al 2 O 3 /MgO (AM)-laminated insulator were optimized at the low temperature of 70 °C for the fabrication of TF-TFTs on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The optimized IAI electrode with a sheet resistance of 7 Ω/sq exhibited the luminous transmittance of 85.17% and maintained its electrical conductivity after exposure to damp heat conditions because of an environmentally stable ITO capping layer. In addition, the electrical conductivity of IAI was maintained after 10 000 bending cycles with a tensile strain of 3% because of the ductile Ag film. In the metal/insulator/metal structure, the insulating and mechanical properties of the optimized AM-laminated film deposited at 70 °C were significantly improved because of the highly dense nanolaminate system, compared to those of the Al 2 O 3 film deposited at 70 °C. In addition, the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) was used as the active channel for TF-TFTs because of its excellent chemical stability. In the environmental stability test, the ITO, a-IGZO, and AM-laminated films showed the excellent environmental stability. Therefore, our IGZO-based TFT with IAI electrodes and the 70 °C AM-laminated insulator was fabricated to evaluate robustness, transparency, flexibility, and process temperature, resulting in transfer characteristics comparable to those of an IGZO-based TFT with a 150 °C Al 2 O 3

  7. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Investigation of magnetic anisotropy and role of underlayer in obliquely sputtered metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisfi, A.; Nguyen, L.T.; Lodder, J.C.; Williams, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Co and Co-Ni films have been obliquely sputtered on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with and without Cr underlayer. The spin-reorientation observed in films directly deposited on PET is related to the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Co (FCC) and change in microstructure from columns to elongated nuclei. Cr underlayer enhances magnetic anisotropy due to HCP structure of Co, which dominates the shape of columns. The double switching in Co/Cr films grown at 70 deg. is a consequence of low packing density of Cr columns of the underlayer

  9. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@csu.edu.cn [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Duan, Tao [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  10. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming; Duan, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  11. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of hybrid inorganic-organic Tb(III)-terephthalate containing layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalenskaite, A.; Salak, A. N.; Ferreira, M. G. S.; Skaudzius, R.; Kareiva, A.

    2018-06-01

    Mg3/Al1 and Mg3Al1-xTbx layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated with terephthalate anion were synthesized using sol-gel method. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy (FLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Tb3+ substitution effects in the Mg3Al1-xTbx LDHs were investigated by changing the Tb3+ concentration in the cation layers. The study indicates that the organic guest-terephthalate in the interlayer spacing of the LDH host influences the luminescence of the hybrid inorganic-organic materials.

  12. Preparation of poly(ethylene terephthalate/layered double hydroxide nanocomposites by in-situ polymerization and their thermal property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Jiao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Terephthalate (TA intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs were synthesized using hydroxides as raw materials, and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET/LDH nanocomposites with different contents of TA intercalated LDHs were prepared by in-situ polymerization. The structure, morphology and thermal property of PET/LDH nanocomposites were investigated. The TA intercalated LDHs were partially exfoliated and well dispersed in PET matrix. The PET/LDH nanocomposites exhibit enhanced thermal stability relative to pure PET, confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis results. The results of differential scanning calorimetry suggest that LDH nanoparticles could effectively promote the nucleation and crystallization of PET.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of FC Films Coated on PET Substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mei-lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorocarbon (FC films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET plates and PET fabrics respectively by a radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE as a target. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the morphology, structure and composition of the obtained FC films. The hydrophobicity and uvioresistant properties of the FC film coated fabric were studied. The results show that the FC films were successfully deposited on the PET substrates by a RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films are made up of four components -CF3, -CF2-, CF- and -C-. The proportions of the four components and surface morphologies of the deposited films vary with the sputtering conditions. Compared with the original fabric samples, the hydrophobicity of the FC film coated fabrics is quite good and improved significantly.

  14. Optical properties of flexible fluorescent films prepared by screen printing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we prepared a fluorescent film comprised phosphors and silicone on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a screen printing technology. The effects of mesh number and weight ratio of phosphors to silicone on the optical properties of the flexible films were investigated. The results indicate that the emission intensity of the film increase as the mesh decreased from 400 to 200, but the film surface gradually becomes uneven. The fluorescent film with high emission intensity and smooth surface can be obtained when the weight ratio of phosphor to gel is 2:1, and mesh number is 300. The luminous efficiency of the fabricated LEDs combined the fluorescent films with 460 nm Ga(InN chip module can reach 75 lm/W. The investigation indicates that the approach can be applied in the remote fluorescent film conversion and decreases the requirements of the particle size and the dispersion state of fluorescent materials.

  15. Optical properties of flexible fluorescent films prepared by screen printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ke, Taiyan; Chen, Shuijin; He, Xin; Zhang, Mei; Li, Dong; Deng, Jinfeng; Zeng, Qingguang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we prepared a fluorescent film comprised phosphors and silicone on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using a screen printing technology. The effects of mesh number and weight ratio of phosphors to silicone on the optical properties of the flexible films were investigated. The results indicate that the emission intensity of the film increase as the mesh decreased from 400 to 200, but the film surface gradually becomes uneven. The fluorescent film with high emission intensity and smooth surface can be obtained when the weight ratio of phosphor to gel is 2:1, and mesh number is 300. The luminous efficiency of the fabricated LEDs combined the fluorescent films with 460 nm Ga(In)N chip module can reach 75 lm/W. The investigation indicates that the approach can be applied in the remote fluorescent film conversion and decreases the requirements of the particle size and the dispersion state of fluorescent materials.

  16. Laser micromachining of indium tin oxide films on polymer substrates by laser-induced delamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, David A; Dreier, Adam L

    2009-01-01

    A Q-switched neodymium : yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd : YAG) laser was used to ablate indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films from polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Film damage and partial removal with no evidence of a melt zone was observed above 1.7 J cm -2 . Above the film removal threshold (3.3 J cm -2 ) the entire film thickness was removed without substrate damage, suggesting that ablation was a result of delamination of the film in the solid phase. Measurements of ablated fragment velocities near the ablation threshold were consistent with calculations of velocities caused by stress-induced delamination of the ITO film, except for a high velocity component at higher fluences. Nanosecond time-resolved shadowgraph photography revealed that the high velocity component was a shock wave induced by the rapid compression of ambient air when the film delaminated.

  17. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  18. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  19. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  20. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  1. Strain and mechanical properties of the VCM multilayer sheet and their composites using the digital speckle correlation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dehai; Xie, Guizhong; Li, Yanqin; Liu, Jianxiu

    2015-09-01

    The digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) is introduced to solve the challenging problems in the related geometric measurement. Theoretical calculations of strain are deduced using the DSCM. Corresponding strains along x and y directions are obtained from uniaxial tension experiments and digital speckle measurements, using the VCM nondeep drawing multilayer sheet, the VCM deep-drawing multilayer sheet, clad films, nondeep drawing substrate, and deep-drawing substrate sheet as the targeted experimental objects. The results show that the maximum strains along the x direction of the VCM nondeep drawing multilayer sheet, the VCM deep-drawing multilayer sheet, clad film, nondeep drawing substrate, and deep-drawing substrate sheet are 68.473%, 48.632%, 91.632%, 50.784% and 40.068%, respectively, while the maximum strains along the y direction are -2.657%, -15.381%, 2.826%, -9.780% and -7.783%, respectively. The mechanical properties of the VCM multilayer sheet are between those of the substrate and clad film, while mechanical properties of the VCM deep-drawing multilayer sheet are superior to those of the VCM nondeep drawing multi-layer sheet.

  2. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  3. Prototypical model for tensional wrinkling in thin sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Davidovitch, B.; Schroll, R. D.; Vella, D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    The buckling and wrinkling of thin films has recently seen a surge of interest among physicists, biologists, mathematicians, and engineers. This activity has been triggered by the growing interest in developing technologies at ever-decreasing scales and the resulting necessity to control the mechanics of tiny structures, as well as by the realization that morphogenetic processes, such as the tissue-shaping instabilities occurring in animal epithelia or plant leaves, often emerge from mechanical instabilities of cell sheets. Although the most basic buckling instability of uniaxially compressed plates was understood by Euler more than two centuries ago, recent experiments on nanometrically thin (ultrathin) films have shown significant deviations from predictions of standard buckling theory. Motivated by this puzzle, we introduce here a theoretical model that allows for a systematic analysis of wrinkling in sheets far from their instability threshold. We focus on the simplest extension of Euler buckling that exhibits wrinkles of finite length--a sheet under axisymmetric tensile loads. The first study of this geometry, which is attributed to Lamé, allows us to construct a phase diagram that demonstrates the dramatic variation of wrinkling patterns from near-threshold to far-from-threshold conditions. Theoretical arguments and comparison to experiments show that the thinner the sheet is, the smaller is the compressive load above which the far-from-threshold regime emerges. This observation emphasizes the relevance of our analysis for nanomechanics applications.

  4. Prototypical model for tensional wrinkling in thin sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Davidovitch, B.

    2011-10-31

    The buckling and wrinkling of thin films has recently seen a surge of interest among physicists, biologists, mathematicians, and engineers. This activity has been triggered by the growing interest in developing technologies at ever-decreasing scales and the resulting necessity to control the mechanics of tiny structures, as well as by the realization that morphogenetic processes, such as the tissue-shaping instabilities occurring in animal epithelia or plant leaves, often emerge from mechanical instabilities of cell sheets. Although the most basic buckling instability of uniaxially compressed plates was understood by Euler more than two centuries ago, recent experiments on nanometrically thin (ultrathin) films have shown significant deviations from predictions of standard buckling theory. Motivated by this puzzle, we introduce here a theoretical model that allows for a systematic analysis of wrinkling in sheets far from their instability threshold. We focus on the simplest extension of Euler buckling that exhibits wrinkles of finite length--a sheet under axisymmetric tensile loads. The first study of this geometry, which is attributed to Lamé, allows us to construct a phase diagram that demonstrates the dramatic variation of wrinkling patterns from near-threshold to far-from-threshold conditions. Theoretical arguments and comparison to experiments show that the thinner the sheet is, the smaller is the compressive load above which the far-from-threshold regime emerges. This observation emphasizes the relevance of our analysis for nanomechanics applications.

  5. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  6. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lunbiao; Shi Yuan; Dai Guidong; Pan Hongxin; Chen Jianfeng; Song Ling; Wang Shouling; Chang, Hebron C.; Sheng Hongbing; Wang Xinru

    2006-01-01

    The effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was examined. Male Wistar rats were initiated by injection of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg b.w. ip) twice a week for 4 weeks, then given basal diet containing 5% TPA, 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) or 1% TPA for the next 22 weeks, and then euthanized. 5% TPA treatment induced a high incidence of urinary bladder calculi and a large amount of precipitate. Though 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and 1% TPA treatment did not induce urinary bladder calculi formation, they resulted in a moderate increase in urinary precipitate. Histological examination of urinary bladder revealed that MNU-5% TPA treatment resulted in a higher incidence of simple hyperplasia, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia), papilloma and cancer than MNU control. MNU-5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and 1% TPA treatment increased slightly the incidence of simple hyperplasia and PN hyperplasia (not statistically significant). The major elements of the precipitate are phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chloride, calcium and TPA. The present study indicated that the calculi induced by TPA had a strong promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the precipitate containing calcium terephthalate (CaTPA) may also have weak promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  7. Cell Proliferation on Polyethylene Terephthalate Treated in Plasma Created in SO2/O2 Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Recek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Samples of polymer polyethylene terephthalate were exposed to a weakly ionized gaseous plasma to modify the polymer surface properties for better cell cultivation. The gases used for treatment were sulfur dioxide and oxygen of various partial pressures. Plasma was created by an electrodeless radio frequency discharge at a total pressure of 60 Pa. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed weak functionalization of the samples’ surfaces with the sulfur, with a concentration around 2.5 at %, whereas the oxygen concentration remained at the level of untreated samples, except when the gas mixture with oxygen concentration above 90% was used. Atomic force microscopy revealed highly altered morphology of plasma-treated samples; however, at high oxygen partial pressures this morphology vanished. The samples were then incubated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Biological tests to determine endothelialization and possible toxicity of the plasma-treated polyethylene terephthalate samples were performed. Cell metabolic activity (MTT and in vitro toxic effects of unknown compounds (TOX were assayed to determine the biocompatibility of the treated substrates. The biocompatibility demonstrated a well-pronounced maximum versus gas composition which correlated well with development of the surface morphology.

  8. Mechanical and thermal properties of date palm leaf fiber reinforced recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Alireza; Madadi Ardekani, Sara; Al-Maadeed, Mariam A.; Hassan, Azman; Wahit, Mat Uzir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel natural fiber reinforced recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) composite was prepared. • Mechanical performance and thermal behavior of the composites were investigated. • Composites with improved toughness and strength were achieved. - Abstract: Development of a recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PETr) reinforced with surface treated date palm leaf fiber (DPLF) composites with enhanced mechanical properties have been studied. Surface modified date palm leaf fiber reinforced PETr composites were prepared using twin-screw extruder followed by injection molding and the influence of the DPLF content on the mechanical and thermal behavior of the PETr matrix was evaluated. Upon the addition of fibers, remarkable enhancements in the mechanical properties of the composites were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images taken from DPLF fibers showed significant enhancements in the fiber’s surface topography after the surface treatment process. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the addition of DPLF to PETr matrix increased the composites toughness. The crystallization behavior of the samples, analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated an increase in the onset crystallization temperature and showed a higher degree of crystallinity of the composites as compared to PETr, demonstrating that DPLF particles could act as nucleating agents. The results point to the composite’s potential in wider indoor applications

  9. Effect of the Linker in Terephthalate-Functionalized Conducting Redox Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Huang, Xiao; Gogoll, Adolf; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The combination of high capacity redox active pendent groups and conducting polymers, realized in conducting redox polymers (CRPs), provides materials with high charge storage capacity that are electronically conducting which makes CRPs attractive for electrical energy storage applications. In this report, six polythiophene and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT)-based CRPs with a diethyl terephthalate unit covalently bound to the polymer chain by various linkers have been synthesized and characterized electrochemically. The effects of the choice of polymer backbone and of the nature of the link on the electrochemistry, and in particular the cycling stability of these polymers, are discussed. All CRPs show both the doping of the polymer backbone as well as the redox behavior of the pendent groups and the redox potential of the pendent groups in the CRPs is close to that of corresponding monomer, indicating insignificant interaction between the pendant and the polymer backbone. While all CRPs show various degrees of charge decay upon electrochemical redox conversion, the PEDOT-based CRPs show significantly improved stability compared to the polythiophene counterparts. Moreover, we show that by the right choice of link the cycling stability of diethyl terephthalate substituted PEDOT-based CRPs can be significantly improved.

  10. Effect of oral administration of terephthalic acid on testicular functions of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lunbiao; Dai Guidong; Xu Lichun; Wang Shouling; Song Ling; Zhao Renzhen; Xiao Hang; Zhou Jianwei; Wang Xinru

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on testicular functions of rats, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered TPA in diet at the levels 0 (control), 0.2, 1 and 5% for 90 days. Testicular functions were assessed by histopathology, testicular sperm head counts, daily sperm production, sperm motility (measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis, CASA), biochemical indices (marker testicular enzymes), and serum testosterone. Oral feeding with terephthalic acid did not cause body and testes weight loss in TPA-treated groups. Histopathologically, damages of spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells were observed by electron microscope, testicular sperm head counts, daily sperm production, and activities of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were decreased significantly in the 5% TPA group. The motility of spermatozoa was reduced significantly in all treated groups, which was correlated with administration doses. Serum testosterone concentrations were not declined in treated groups. In conclusion, TPA can cause impairment of testicular functions. The primary sites of action may be spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells. The results of the present study provide first information of TPA on testicular functions in male rats

  11. HPLC study of migration of terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid from PET bottles into edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Limbo, Sara; Shoeibi, Shahram; Mazinani, Somayeh

    2014-08-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers for food oil packaging were evaluated with a newly established determination method for terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA). The analysis of monomers, TPA and IPA that migrate from PET bottles into oils was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Three types of commercial oils (sunflower oil, canola oil and blended oil which included sunflower oil, soy bean oil and cottonseed oil) were bottled in PET containers. These samples were incubated for 10 days at 49 °C as accelerated test condition. The means of recovery for this method varied from 70% to 72% and from 101% to 111% for TPA and IPA, respectively. The results showed that the amounts of specific migration of TPA and IPA into the samples conform to European Union legislation that identifies specific migration limits. More important, the results highlighted a different behavior of migration as a function of the fatty acid profile. Previous investigations have been performed with food simulants such as HB307 or 20% ethanol but our study used real food samples and determined trace amounts of the migrated compounds. Further investigation will be needed to better explain the influence of fatty acid conformation on migration of PET monomers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Characterization of microbial consortia in a terephthalate-degrading anaerobic granular sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Liu, W T; Tseng, I C; Cheng, S S

    2001-02-01

    The microbial composition and spatial distribution in a terephthalate-degrading anaerobic granular sludge system were characterized using molecular techniques. 16S rDNA clone library and sequence analysis revealed that 78.5% of 106 bacterial clones belonged to the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria; the remaining clones were assigned to the green non-sulfur bacteria (7.5%), Synergistes (0.9%) and unidentified divisions (13.1%). Most of the bacterial clones in the delta-Proteobacteria formed a novel group containing no known bacterial isolates. For the domain Archaea, 81.7% and 18.3% of 72 archaeal clones were affiliated with Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum, respectively. Spatial localization of microbial populations inside granules was determined by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting the novel delta-proteobacterial group, the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, and the hydrogenotrophic Methanospirillum and members of Methanobacteriaceae. The novel group included at least two different populations with identical rod-shape morphology, which made up more than 87% of the total bacterial cells, and were closely associated with methanogenic populations to form a nonlayered granular structure. This novel group was presumed to be the primary bacterial population involved in the terephthalate degradation in the methanogenic granular consortium.

  13. Starch/polyester films: simultaneous optimisation of the properties for the production of biodegradable plastic bags

    OpenAIRE

    Olivato, J. B.; Grossmann, M. V. E.; Bilck, A. P.; Yamashita, F.; Oliveira, L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Blends of starch/polyester have been of great interest in the development of biodegradable packaging. A method based on multiple responses optimisation (Desirability) was used to evaluate the properties of tensile strength, perforation force, elongation and seal strength of cassava starch/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blown films produced via a one-step reactive extrusion using tartaric acid (TA) as a compatibiliser. Maximum results for all the properties were set as more des...

  14. Radiolysis of organic triphenylmethane, anthraquinone, xanthene, oxazine, thiazine, and azo dyes in polymers films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabarov, V.N.; Kozlov, L.L.; Molin, A.A.; Mekhanik, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the oxygen in the air and the temperature on radiochemical processes of decolorization of triphenylmethane, anthraquinone, xanthene, oxazine, thiazine, and azo dyes in polymer matrices of different chemical natures was studied. The rate of radiation decolorization for most of the dyes increases in irradiation in the presence of O 2 , which is hypothetically due to oxidation of the dye by singlet oxygen. The organic dyes exhibit the highest radiation stability in polyethylene terephthalate and polystyrene films

  15. An investigation of room temperature ''oxidized'' thin films of A1 for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegboyega, G.A.

    1985-12-01

    Sheet resistance and transmittance changes of thin films of A1 evaporated in high vacuum were measured during sorption of oxygen at room atmosphere. An increase of both sheet resistance and transmittance with a tendency to saturation has been observed. Evaluation of various thicknesses of the films for possible use as transparent electrode material for photovoltaic applications shows that for very thin films ( = 200 A) the ''oxidized'' films are superior. (author)

  16. Studies in Cup Drawing Behavior of Polymer Laminated Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagmi, M.; Jain, M.; Bruhis, M.; Nielsen, K.

    2011-08-01

    Axisymmetric deep drawing behavior of a polymer laminated sheet metal (PLSM) is investigated using an axisymmetric cup drawing test. PLSMs are of interest as a replacement for painted finishes for automotive applications as they have the potential to achieve good quality long lasting and aesthetically appealing surfaces on stamped parts. However, there is limited understanding of PLSMs in automotive deep drawing situations to produce complex 3-D parts. The tests are carried out using well-controlled, laboratory-based, dual-action, servo-hydraulic forming presses under blank-holder force and punch displacement control conditions. An optical strain mapping system is used to measure the surface strains (and to construct 3D strain maps) from the film side of the deformed samples for a range of forming conditions. Deep drawing characteristics such as punch load versus punch displacement traces, strain distribution along the cup profile, flange wrinkling and fracture characteristics are experimentally assessed for stainless steel-plastic film laminated sheet materials. Also the effect of lamination pressure on wrinkling and delamination is investigated for a decorative pressure sensitive adhesive film affixed to the stainless steel sheet.

  17. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  18. Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber-Optic Sensor Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mark; Qing, Xinlin

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic (HyPFO) sensor sheets are undergoing development. They are intended for use in nondestructive evaluation and long-term monitoring of the integrity of diverse structures, including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and large stationary ones. It is anticipated that the further development and subsequent commercialization of the HyPFO sensor systems will lead to economic benefits in the form of increased safety, reduction of life-cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, increased structural reliability, reduction of maintenance costs, and increased readiness for service. The concept of a HyPFO sensor sheet is a generalization of the concept of a SMART Layer(TradeMark), which is a patented device that comprises a thin dielectric film containing an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric actuator/sensors. Such a device can be mounted on the surface of a metallic structure or embedded inside a composite-material structure during fabrication of the structure. There is has been substantial interest in incorporating sensors other than piezoelectric ones into SMART Layer(TradeMark) networks: in particular, because of the popularity of the use of fiber-optic sensors for monitoring the "health" of structures in recent years, it was decided to incorporate fiber-optic sensors, giving rise to the concept of HyPFO devices.

  19. Universal Rim Thickness in Unsteady Sheet Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Dandekar, R.; Bustos, N.; Poulain, S.; Bourouiba, L.

    2018-05-01

    Unsteady fragmentation of a fluid bulk into droplets is important for epidemiology as it governs the transport of pathogens from sneezes and coughs, or from contaminated crops in agriculture. It is also ubiquitous in industrial processes such as paint, coating, and combustion. Unsteady fragmentation is distinct from steady fragmentation on which most theoretical efforts have been focused thus far. We address this gap by studying a canonical unsteady fragmentation process: the breakup from a drop impact on a finite surface where the drop fluid is transferred to a free expanding sheet of time-varying properties and bounded by a rim of time-varying thickness. The continuous rim destabilization selects the final spray droplets, yet this process remains poorly understood. We combine theory with advanced image analysis to study the unsteady rim destabilization. We show that, at all times, the rim thickness is governed by a local instantaneous Bond number equal to unity, defined with the instantaneous, local, unsteady rim acceleration. This criterion is found to be robust and universal for a family of unsteady inviscid fluid sheet fragmentation phenomena, from impacts of drops on various surface geometries to impacts on films. We discuss under which viscous and viscoelastic conditions the criterion continues to govern the unsteady rim thickness.

  20. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and sunflower head residue composites: Effects of composition and compatibilization on properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing the abundant byproducts generated from processing of agricultural materials has sustainable and cost–saving potential benefits. In this work, Sunflower Head Residues (SHR) in 3 different compositions were introduced into biodegradable Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) matrices...

  1. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  2. Curvature-induced stiffness and the spatial variation of wavelength in wrinkled sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Joseph D; Hohlfeld, Evan; King, Hunter; Huang, Jiangshui; Qiu, Zhanlong; Russell, Thomas P; Menon, Narayanan; Vella, Dominic; Davidovitch, Benny

    2016-02-02

    Wrinkle patterns in compressed thin sheets are ubiquitous in nature and technology, from the furrows on our foreheads to crinkly plant leaves, from ripples on plastic-wrapped objects to the protein film on milk. The current understanding of an elementary descriptor of wrinkles--their wavelength--is restricted to deformations that are parallel, spatially uniform, and nearly planar. However, most naturally occurring wrinkles do not satisfy these stipulations. Here we present a scheme that quantitatively explains the wrinkle wavelength beyond such idealized situations. We propose a local law that incorporates both mechanical and geometrical effects on the spatial variation of wrinkle wavelength. Our experiments on thin polymer films provide strong evidence for its validity. Understanding how wavelength depends on the properties of the sheet and the underlying liquid or elastic subphase is crucial for applications where wrinkles are used to sculpt surface topography, to measure properties of the sheet, or to infer forces applied to a film.

  3. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  4. Microstructure evolution of a dissimilar junction interface between an Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet joined by magnetic pulse welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoi, Takaomi, E-mail: itoi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Mohamad, Azizan Bin; Suzuki, Ryo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Okagawa, Keigo [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 Higashi ohi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    An Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet were lap joined by using magnetic pulse welding (MPW). Tensile tests were performed on the joined sheets, and a good lap joint was achieved at a discharge energy of > 0.9 kJ. The weld interface exhibited a wavy morphology and an intermediate layer along the weld interface. Microstructure observations of the intermediate layer revealed that the Ni coating region consisted of a Ni–Al binary amorphous alloy and that the Al sheet region contained very fine Al nanograins. Ni fragments indicative of unmelted residual Ni from the coating were also observed in parts of the intermediate layer. Formation of these features can be attributed to localize melting and a subsequent high rate cooling of molten Al and Ni confined to the interface during the MPW process. In the absence of an oxide film, atomic-scale bonding was also achieved between the intermediate layer and the sheet surfaces after the collision. MPW utilises impact energy, which affects the sheet surfaces. From the obtained results, good lap joint is attributed to an increased contact area, the anchor effect, work hardening, the absence of an oxide film, and suppressed formation of intermetallic compounds at the interface. - Highlights: •Good lap joint of an Al sheet and a Ni-coated Cu sheet was achieved by using magnetic pulse welding. •A Ni–Al binary amorphous alloy was formed as an intermediate layer at weld interface. •Atomic-scale bonding was achieved between the intermediate layer and the sheet surfaces.

  5. Controllable preparation of vertically standing graphene sheets and their wettability and supercapacitive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hai-Tao; Zou Fei; Gao Ge; Yu Ning; Yao Zhao-Hui; Shen Cheng-Min

    2016-01-01

    Vertically standing graphene (VSG) sheets have been fabricated by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The lateral size of VSG nanosheets could be well controlled by varying the substrate temperature. The higher temperature usually gives rise to a smaller sheet size. The wettability of VSG films was tuned between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity by means of oxygen and hydrogen plasma treatment. The supercapacitor electrode made of VSG sheets exhibited an ideal double-layer-capacitor feature and the specific capacitance reached a value up to 9.62 F·m −2 . (rapid communication)

  6. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  7. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  8. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  9. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  10. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  11. Film Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  12. In vitro Blood Compatibility of Polyethylene Terephthalate with Covalently Bounded Hirudin on Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang; WANG Jin; HUANG San

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET,Dacron) was modified by surface immobilization of hirudin with glutaraldehyde(GA) as coupling reagent to improve the blood compatibility.Hirudin-immobilizcd PETs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements.The blood compatibility of the PETs was evaluated by platelet adhesion evaluation and fibrinogen conformational change measurements in vitro.The results showed the decrease of platelet adhesion and activation on hirudinimmobilized PET with increasing of glutaraldehyde concentration.Fibrinogen experiment showed that fibrinogen adherence and conformational changes of PET-HRD were less than those of untreated PET,which made the materials difficult to form thrombus.The proper reason of blood compatibility improvement was low interface tension between hirudin-immobilized PETs and blood,as well as blood proteins,and low ratio of dispersive/polar component of the surface energy(γsd/γsp) and high hydrophilicity.

  13. Low-voltage electroosmotic pumping using polyethylene terephthalate track-etched membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ceming; Wang Lin [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue Jianming, E-mail: jmxue@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental investigations of electroosmotic (EO) pumping using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track-etched membrane at a low applied voltage. An EO pump based on PET track-etched membrane has been designed and fabricated. Pumping performance of the device is experimentally studied in terms of flow rate as a function of applied voltage and KCl aqueous concentration. The PET track-etched membrane EO pump can generate flow rates on the order of 10 {mu}l min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at several applied volts. The measured flow rate tends to decrease with increasing KCl aqueous concentration. In addition, we study the EO flow in cylindrical nanopore with use of a continuum model, composed of Nernst Planck equations, Poisson equation and Navier Stokes equations.

  14. Study on the synthesis of dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate by catalytic hydrogenation of dimethyl terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yuanhua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of polymer industry,1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol (CHDM occupies an important position especially for the synthesis of highly valued polyester products.In industry,CHDM is prepared from dimethyl terephthalate (DMT through a two-step hydrogenation process Palladium supported on magnesium oxide (Pd/MgO was prepared by animpregnation method and was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD,transmission electron microscope (TEM and scan electron microscope (SEM.During the hydrogenation of DMT to synthesize dimethyl 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate (DMCD,the as-prepared Pd/MgO was used as the catalyst with methyl acetate as the solvent.Under optimized reaction conditions (reaction temperature:180 ℃,reaction pressure:4.5 MPa,the conversion of DMT was 100% and the selectivity of DMCD was 99%.Such a catalyst shows a good potential in industrial applications.

  15. Study of the radiosterilization dose effect on properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) - PET recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoldi, Ana Beatriz Godoy; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e; Rosario, Salmo Cordeiro do

    2002-01-01

    The packing are in constant development, in function, especially, the process of globalization. The opening of the brazilian market after currency stabilization, caused technological innovations, change of habits and costumes of the population and environmental matters. Year after year, because of cost reductions, it became more extreme the hard study of the polymeric materials and their copolymers, their possible blends and their recycling, always seeking a better wrapping of the products, especially when it concerns to the food, increasing its shelf life. The process of sterilization of foods and modification of polymers through radiation are targets of growing interest by of the current industries linked to the nutrition and packing sectors. The objective of this paper is to discuss the application of the radiation (electron beam) in the sterilization of packings of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, evaluating the possible effects on their properties. (author)

  16. Interface detection in poly-ethylene terephthalate-metal laminates using variable energy positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Galindo, R.; Schut, H.; Veen, A. van; Rastogi, R.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thin coatings of poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) on metal ('laminates') have been studied with a variable energy positron annihilation technique. A correlation between PET crystallinity and the positron annihilation parameter S related to the free volume in the polymer is found. It is shown that buried interfaces in these systems may be detected provided the S parameter of the polymer coating is lower than that of the substrate and higher than that of the surface. Also it is found that large positron diffusion lengths in the substrate favour interface detection. Further, changes in S parameter of PET-metal laminates were measured during uniaxial deformation and shown to be in qualitative accordance with a very simple model description that accounts for changes in free volume in PET during plastic deformation as well as the area fraction of cracks occurring in the PET

  17. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    High-melting-temperature poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was successfully introduced into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre-prepared PET/high density polyethylene (HDPE) microfibrillar blends (MFBs) in the second extrusion at the temperature for processing HDPE. Addition of 25% in situ formed PET microfibers obviously increased the mechanical properties of HDPE, and more significant enhancement by the in situ formed recycled PET microfibers was observed for the recycled HDPE. Adding 2% E-GMA improved the compatibility between matrix and microfibers in MFBs, resulting further enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent addition of 40% wood flour did not influence the size and morphology of PET microfibers, and improved the comprehensive mechanical properties of MFBs. The wood flour increased the crystallinity level of HDPE in the compatibilized MFB in which PET phase did not crystallize. The storage modulus of MFB was greatly improved by wood flour. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Scanning electron microscopic study of hazardous waste flakes of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by aminolysis and ammonolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Alok, E-mail: aljymittal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (A Deemed University), Bhopal 462051 (India); Soni, R.K.; Dutt, Krishna; Singh, Swati [Department of Chemistry, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut 250004 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste flakes were degraded with aqueous methylamine and aqueous ammonia, respectively at room temperature in the presence and absence of quaternary ammonium salt as a catalyst for different periods of time. The aminolysed and ammonolysed PET samples were investigated for the surface morphology with the help of scanning electron micrograph (SEM). It shows that the semi-crystalline PET waste samples reduce to monodisperse rods before fully degradation to the end products. The presence of the catalyst provides site for degradation of PET waste and enhances the rate of degradation. The SEM shows early developments of fissures in comparison to the one in absence of quaternary ammonium salt used as catalyst.

  19. Scanning electron microscopic study of hazardous waste flakes of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by aminolysis and ammonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Alok; Soni, R.K.; Dutt, Krishna; Singh, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste flakes were degraded with aqueous methylamine and aqueous ammonia, respectively at room temperature in the presence and absence of quaternary ammonium salt as a catalyst for different periods of time. The aminolysed and ammonolysed PET samples were investigated for the surface morphology with the help of scanning electron micrograph (SEM). It shows that the semi-crystalline PET waste samples reduce to monodisperse rods before fully degradation to the end products. The presence of the catalyst provides site for degradation of PET waste and enhances the rate of degradation. The SEM shows early developments of fissures in comparison to the one in absence of quaternary ammonium salt used as catalyst.

  20. Effect of calcium-ozone treatment on chemical and biological properties of polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Ahmed Nafis; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-05-01

    Ozone (O3 ) treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in distilled water was performed in the presence and absence of calcium (Ca(2+) ). PET was oxidized and thus carboxylic and hydroxyl functional groups were introduced on its surface after O3 treatment, regardless of the presence or absence of Ca(2+) . In the case of O3 treatment with Ca(2+) , PET surface was modified with Ca(2+) . Ca(2+) immobilization was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometric analysis. Hydrophilicity was investigated by measuring contact angles (CA). CA of PET decreased significantly after ozonation. Surface topography of PET before and after ozone treatment was observed by scanning electron microscopy, and showed no morphological changes. In vitro studies showed enhanced rat bone marrow cell responses on the O3 -treated PET surface. Ca(2+) -O3 oxidation at 37°C for 6 h is expected to be an effective method to fabricate PET with good biocompatibility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characterization polyethylene terephthalate nanocomposites mixing with nano-silica and titanium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Mircea A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET based nanocomposites containing nano-silica (Aerosil (Degusa and titanium oxide (TiO2 (Merk were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica and titanium oxide on properties of the resulting nanocomposites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The possible interaction between nano-silica and titanium oxide particles with PET functional groups at bulk and surface was elucidated by transmission of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. AFM studies of the resulting nanocomposites showed an increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. SEM images illustrated that nano-silica particles have tendency to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix much more than titanium oxide powder.

  2. Guiding of slow Ne7+ ions through nanocapillaries in insulating polyethylene terephthalate: Incident current dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Hellhammer, R.; Bundesmann, J.; Fink, D.; Kanai, Y.; Kambara, T.; Ikeda, T.; Hoshino, M.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The transmission of highly charged ions through nanocapillaries in insulating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymers was investigated. In experiments at laboratories in RIKEN (Japan) and HMI (Germany) different detection methods were applied to study the ion current dependence in a wide range covering two orders of magnitude. At HMI an electrostatic ion spectrometer was used and at RIKEN a two-dimensional position sensitive detector was implemented. New PET samples with parallel capillaries and low density were manufactured. For tilted capillaries, the ions are guided along the capillary axis, since the majority of ions are deflected in a charge patch created in the capillary entrance. The results provide insights into the mechanisms of capillary guiding. The fraction of transmitted ions was found to be nearly independent on the incident ion current indicating a sudden increase in the discharge current depleting the entrance charge patch. The experimental results were well-reproduced by model calculations based on a nonlinear (exponential) expression for the discharge current

  3. Influence of laser surface modifying of polyethylene terephthalate on fibroblast cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, H.; Dadsetan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Attempts have been made to evaluate the changes in physical and chemical properties of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface due to laser irradiation. These changes have been investigated from viewpoints of microstructuring and its effect on fibroblast cell behavior. The surfaces of PET were irradiated using CO 2 and KrF excimer pulsed laser. The changes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements. The data from ATR-FTIR spectra showed that the crystallinity in the surface region decreased due to the CO 2 and excimer laser irradiation. SEM observations showed that specific microstructures were created on the PET surface due to laser irradiation. In order to study biocompatibility and cell behavior, we utilized standard in vitro L929-fibroblast cell culture system. Fibroblast cell adhesion and spreading were significantly correlated to the morphology and wettability of the laser irradiated PET surface

  4. Development of high shrinkage polyethylene terephthalate (PET) shape memory polymer tendons for concrete crack closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teall, Oliver; Pilegis, Martins; Sweeney, John; Gough, Tim; Thompson, Glen; Jefferson, Anthony; Lark, Robert; Gardner, Diane

    2017-04-01

    The shrinkage force exerted by restrained shape memory polymers (SMPs) can potentially be used to close cracks in structural concrete. This paper describes the physical processing and experimental work undertaken to develop high shrinkage die-drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET) SMP tendons for use within a crack closure system. The extrusion and die-drawing procedure used to manufacture a series of PET tendon samples is described. The results from a set of restrained shrinkage tests, undertaken at differing activation temperatures, are also presented along with the mechanical properties of the most promising samples. The stress developed within the tendons is found to be related to the activation temperature, the cross-sectional area and to the draw rate used during manufacture. Comparisons with commercially-available PET strip samples used in previous research are made, demonstrating an increase in restrained shrinkage stress by a factor of two for manufactured PET filament samples.

  5. Plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles by pulsed corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    A pulsed power supply was used to generate a corona discharge on a polyethylene terephthalate bottle, to conduct plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure. Before generating such a discharge, minute quantities of water were attached to the inner surface of the bottle and to the surface of a high voltage (HV) electrode inserted into the bottle. Next, high-voltage pulses of electricity were discharged between electrodes for 6.0s, while rotating the bottle. The resulting spore log reduction values of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the inner surface of the bottle were 5.5 and 6 or higher, respectively, and those on the HV electrode surface were each 6 or higher for both strains. The presence of the by-products gaseous ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric ions resulting from the electrical discharge was confirmed.

  6. Preparation and characterization of polymer blends based on recycled PET and polyester derived by terephthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, L.; Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Luporini, S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally friendly materials, made from industrial waste, are being increasingly used as a solution to the growing amount of waste generated by society, but also as a cheaper alternative to replace conventional materials for use in construction. In this work were investigated the properties of polymer blends based on recycled PET and a polyester derived from terephthalic acid and glycerin, a co-product of biodiesel. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC, FTIR and SEM. The polyester synthesized showed a degradation event near 300 deg C. The blends with higher ratio of PET showed thermal behavior similar to pure PET. The X-ray diffraction showed that the polymer blends are semicrystalline materials. The micrographs presents the presence of a smooth surface, indicating the possibility of miscibility between the arrays. Therefore, the blending makes possible the fabrication of low-cost materials with applications in several areas. (author)

  7. Research on permeability of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes modified in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.N.; Kravets, L.I.; Sleptsov, V.V.; Elinson, V.M.; Potryasaj, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes subjected to the plasma RF-discharge treatment in air have been investigated. The effect of the treatment conditions in plasma on the structure and the properties of the membranes formed in the gas-discharge etching has been studied. It has been figured out that the influence of the air plasma on the membranes under study leads to a formation of asymmetric membranes with a higher flow rate, the structure and chemical composition of their superficial layer are changed. It is shown that the presence of the modified layer on the surface of the membranes causes changing their hydrodynamic characteristics - water permeability of the membranes treated in plasma in a greater degree depends upon pH of the filtered solution. (author)

  8. The effect of hot multistage drawing on molecular structure and optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminoddin Haji

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mechanical and structural parameters related to the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers drawn at hot multistage have been investigated. The changes in optical parameters upon changing draw ratio are used to obtain the mechanical orientation factors and , various orientation functions f2(θ, f4(θ and f6(θ, and amorphous and crystalline orientation functions (f a and f c. Also, the numbers of random links between the network junction points (N1, the average optical orientation (Fav, and the distribution function of segment ω(cos θ were calculated. In addition, an empirical formula was suggested to correlate changes in the birefringence with the draw ratio and its constants were determined. The study demonstrated change on the molecular orientation functions and structural parameters upon hot multistage drawing. Significant variations in the characteristic properties of the drawn PET fibers were due to reorientation of the molecules caused by applied heat and external tension.

  9. UTILIZING WASTE PLASTIC POLYPROPYLENE AND POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE AS ALTERNATIVE AGGREGATES TO PRODUCE LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBRAHIM H. ALFAHDAWI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, there is an increasing need for the fabrication of mortar and concrete that can be characterised as sustainable and environmentally friendly. Ideally, this concrete should be inexpensive, lightweight, and outstanding in terms of its physical and mechanical specifications. Plastic materials have increasingly been used in the fabrication of different types of concrete admixtures and mortar constituents. These plastic materials take the form of fillers or shredded fibres derived from polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of plastic materials presents the following benefits: (i enhanced mixture quality and (ii a reduction in the amount of accumulated single-use plastic materials that negatively impact the environment. This work reviews several previous studies on the utilisation and preparations of plastic materials and their effects on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Other topics, including hardened concrete, fresh concrete, application, and thermo-physical characteristics, are also elaborated.

  10. Research on Permeability of Poly(ethylene) Terephthalate Track Membranes Modified in Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, S N; Sleptsov, V V; Elinson, V M; Potrjasaj, V V

    2001-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes subjected to the plasma RF-discharge treatment in air have been investigated. The effect of the treatment conditions in plasma on the structure and the properties of the membranes formed in the gas-discharge etching has been studied. It has been figured out that the influence of the air plasma on the membranes under study leads to a formation of asymmetric membranes with a higher flow rate, the structure and chemical composition of their superficial layer are changed. It is shown that the presence of the modified layer on the surface of the membranes causes changing their hydrodynamic characteristics - water permeability of the membranes treated in plasma in a greater degree depends upon {pH} of the filtered solution.

  11. Research on water permeability of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes modified with plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L.I.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Sleptsov, V.V.; Elinson, V.M.; Potryasay, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes subjected to effect of plasma of the RF-discharge in air have been investigated. The influence conditions of a plasma treatment on the surface properties and hydrodynamic characteristics of the membranes has been studied. It has been found that the effect of the air plasma on the researched membranes results in a formation of asymmetric track membranes with a higher flow rate, the structure and chemical composition of their superficial layer are changed. It was shown that the availability of the modified layer on the membrane surface caused changing in their hydrodynamic characteristics - the water permeability of the membranes, processed in plasma, in a greater degree depends upon pH of a filtered solution. (author)

  12. The use of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-poly(aniline) composite for trypsin immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caramori, S.S. [Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Goias, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: samanthabio@hotmail.com; Fernandes, K.F. [Laboratorio de Quimica de Proteinas, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Goias, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiania-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents trypsin immobilisation on strips of poly(ethylene terephthalate)-poly(aniline), activated with glutaraldehyde (PET-PANIG) composite. The photomicrography of the material showed changes corresponding to the chemical modifications produced in the steps of synthesis. The immobilisation process was very efficient under optimal conditions (18.6%). The immobilised and free enzyme presented the same pH and temperature optimum. PET-PANIG-trypsin was able to hydrolyse casein, albumin, gelatine, and skimmed milk. Km{sub app} value for PET-PANIG-trypsin was very close to Km of the free enzyme for casein. Immobilised trypsin showed higher stability than the free enzyme, with 100% activity after 14 days of storage at 4 deg. C and 100% operational stability after 4 cycles of use.

  13. Combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the infrared absorption spectra of polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, S.M.; ElBially, A.; Elshourbaguie, S.

    1991-01-01

    The combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the intensities of infrared absorption bands of polyethylene terephthalate, particularly the bands sensitive to conformational changes, were studied. The results revealed that solvent treatment of PET results in significant changes in the intensities of its infrared absorption bands and the exposure of PET to gamma radiation in the presence of solvents helps in the appearance of the two bands at 1550 and 1630 cm . Also, the combined effect of solvents and gamma irradiation on the intensities of the absorption bands is greater than the effect of each agent alone. The extent of the induced changes depends on the nature of solvent and the applied dosage. Further more, for any given solvent or dosage, the rate of change of the intensities of the trans band is not equal to that of the gauche bands.3 fig

  14. Rheological Properties and Foaming Behavior of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalates) Modified with Pyromellitic Dianhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao-Ping; Xin, Chun-Ling; Guo, Ya-Feng; Luo, Yi-Wei; He, Ya-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Improving the melt viscoelasticity of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a well-known method to obtain foamable PET. The aim of this study is to prepare high melt strength PET and evaluate the influence of rheological properties of PET on the foaming behavior. For this purpose, pyromelliticdianhydride was used as the chain extender to modify a linear PET through melt reactive processing. The rheological properties of the unmodified and modified PETs were measured by a dynamic rheometer. Results showed that the modified PET had higher complex viscosity than the unmodified one. Furthermore, the batch foaming by using supercritical CO2 as a blowing agent was carried to evaluate the foamability of modified PETs. It was found that an enlarged foaming temperature window was obtained for modified PETs compared to unmodified PET. Moreover, the modified PETs foams exhibited higher expansion ratio, smaller cell size and higher cell density at high temperatures than the neat PET.

  15. Rapid compression induced solidification of two amorphous phases of poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S M [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Liu, X R [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Su, L [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Huang, D H [Laboratory of High Pressure Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Li, L B [Foods Research Centre Unilever R and D, Vlaardingen Olivier van Noortlaan, 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2006-08-21

    Melts of poly(ethylene terephthalate) were solidified by rapid compression to 2 GPa within 20 ms and by a series of comparative processes including natural cooling, slow compressing and rapid cooling, respectively. By combining XRD and differential scanning calorimetry data of the recovered samples, it is made clear that rapid compression induces two kinds of amorphous phases. One is relatively stable and can also be formed in the slow compression and the cooling processes. Another is metastable and transforms to crystalline phase at 371 K. This metastable amorphous phase cannot be obtained by slow compression or natural cooling, and its crystallization temperature is remarkably different from that of the metastable amorphous phase formed in the rapid cooling sample.

  16. Poly(Butylene Terephthalate Based Composites Containing Alumina Whiskers: Influence of Filler Functionalization on Dielectric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Russo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT is one of the most widely used semicrystalline thermoplastics polyester because of its superior thermal and mechanical properties, high dimensional stability and excellent processability. In this research PBT-based nanocomposites, including various amounts (up to 10 wt% of commercial alumina whiskers, have been prepared by using a Brabender internal chamber mixer and analysed in terms of morphological features and dielectric properties. Specific attention has been focused on the effect of the filler functionalization considering 3-glycidoxy propylmethoxysilane (GPS or 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS as coupling agents. Tests, performed on compounds filled with neat and functionalized alumina whiskers, show a clear dependence of relative dielectric permittivity εr, invariance of dissipation factor (tgδ, and a sensible increase of volume electrical resistivity (ρv with the filler’s content and are encouraging for a future introduction of such composites in many electrical applications.

  17. Zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Zou, Jian; Chen, Shulin; Yang, Jingyi; Qing, Fangzhu; Gao, Peng; Li, Jingze

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Both of well-crystalline and amorphous zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 are synthesized and amorphous structure demonstrates a higher capacity and better cycling performance. - Highlights: • Crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 are obtained. • Both crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 have σ_e of 10"−"7 S m"−"1. • Lithium ion diffusion is the rate-determine process. • Amorphous has a high capacity and durable performance. • Amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 has a high apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient. - Abstract: Organic materials offer the advantages of cost-effective, environmental benignity, and molecular structural diversity as applications of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In fact, their lithium storage behaviors in terms of dynamics and kinetics intrinsically lie in ion migration in solids. Thus the solid forms including crystalline and amorphous states are crucial for the properties. In this study, a conventional carbonyl type organic material, namely zinc terephthalate (ZnC_8H_4O_4), is obtained in both well-crystalline and amorphous forms and applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. ZnC_8H_4O_4 with amorphous structure shows higher lithium storage capacity and better capacity retention compared with that of crystalline one. It is ascribed that the amorphous phase provides a higher lithium ion diffusion coefficient than the crystalline one under the conditions of similar electronic conductivity.

  18. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Greggio, F.Bersani; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Cuha, V.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, Marcos; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, Antonio; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, Piero; Morishima, Kunihiro; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, Klaus P.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, Max; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, Amina; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic counters and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting oscillations between mu neutrino and tau neutrino in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions ("refreshing") have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units ("ECC bricks"). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronic...

  19. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  20. Patterning of metallic electrodes on flexible substrates for organic thin-film transistors using a laser thermal printing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kun-Tso; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Ho, Jeng-Rong; Chen, Chih-Kant; Liu, Sung-Ho; Liao, Jin-Long; Cheng, Hua-Chi

    2011-01-01

    We report on a laser thermal printing method for transferring patterned metallic thin films on flexible plastic substrates using a pulsed CO 2 laser. Aluminium and silver line patterns, with micrometre scale resolution on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrates, are shown. The printed electrodes demonstrate good conductivity and fulfil the properties for bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors. In addition to providing the energy for transferring the film, the absorption of laser light results in a rise in the temperature of the film and the substrate. This also further anneals the film and softens the plastic substrate. Consequently, it is possible to obtain a film with better surface morphology and with its film thickness implanted in part into the plastic surface. This implantation reveals excellent characteristics in adhesion and flexure resistance. Being feasible to various substrates and executable at ambient temperatures renders this approach a potential alternative for patterning metallic electrodes.

  1. Tactile Sensing From Laser-Ablated Metallized PET Films

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-10-17

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and implementation of a novel sensor patch developed from commercial polyethylene terephthalate films metallized with aluminum on one side. The aluminum was ablated with laser to form interdigitated electrodes to make sensor prototypes. The interdigitated electrodes were patterned on the substrate with a laser cutter. Characterization of the prototypes was done to determine their operating frequency followed by experimentation. The prototypes have been used as a tactile sensor showing promising results for using these patches in applications with contact pressures considerably lesser than normal human contact pressure.

  2. Poly(lactic acid (PLA Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mallegni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT and poly(butylene succinate (PBS in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400 that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK. All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed mechanical properties dependent on the LAK content. In particular the tearing strength showed a maximum like trend in the investigated composition range. The films prepared with both kinds of blends showed a tensile strength in the range 12–24 MPa, an elongation at break in the range 150–260% and a significant crystallinity.

  3. On Jovian plasma sheet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, K.K.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate several models of Jovian plasma sheet structure by determining how well they organize several aspects of the observed Voyager 2 magnetic field characteristics as a function of Jovicentric radial distance. It is shown that in the local time sector of the Voyager 2 outbound pass (near 0300 LT) the published hinged-magnetodisc models with wave (i.e., models corrected for finite wave velocity effects) are more successful than the published magnetic anomaly model in predicting locations of current sheet crossings. They also consider the boundary between the plasma sheet and the magnetotail lobe which is expected to vary slowly with radial distance. They use this boundary location as a further test of the models of the magnetotail. They show that the compressional MHD waves have much smaller amplitude in the lobes than in the plasma sheet and use this criterion to refine the identification of the plasma-sheet-lobe boundary. When the locations of crossings into and out of the lobes are examined, it becomes evident that the magnetic-anomaly model yields a flaring plasma sheet with a halfwidth of ∼ 3 R J at a radial distance of 20 R J and ∼ 12 R J at a radial distance of 100 R J . The hinged-magnetodisc models with wave, on the other hand, predict a halfwidth of ∼ 3.5 R J independent of distance beyond 20 R J . New optimized versions of the two models locate both the current sheet crossings and lobe encounters equally successfully. The optimized hinged-magnetodisc model suggests that the wave velocity decreases with increasing radial distance. The optimized magnetic anomaly model yields lower velocity contrast than the model of Vasyliunas and Dessler (1981)

  4. SU-F-T-550: Radiochromic Plastic Thin Sheet Dosimeter: Initial Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K [London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON (United Kingdom); Adamovics, J [John Adamovics, Skillman, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Thin sheets, of a high sensitivity formulation of radiochromic dosimeter, Presage were prepared and evaluated for optical readout. Methods: Sheets of radiochromic polyurethane, 12 cm long, 10 cm wide and 0.2 cm thick were prepared with leuco crystal violet as the reporter molecule. Sample transmission was evaluated at a wavelength of 590 nm with in-house constructed instruments: optical cone beam laser CT scanner, fixed and scanning spot densitometers. Sample sequential irradiations to a total dose of 40 Gy were conducted with a modified, Theratron 60, cobalt radiotherapy machine at dose rates of 1 or 0.25 Gy per minute. Exposure to ambient and readout light was minimized to limit background photochromic signals. Samples were stored at 4°C. Optical activity was assessed from linearly polarized transmission images. Comparison sensitivity measurements with EBT3 film were conducted. Results: Samples were transparent, smooth and pale purple before irradiation. Radiochromic reaction was completed in less than 5 minutes. A linear dose response with a sensitivity of 0.5 cm-1Gy-1 was observed. Micrometer measurements found sheet thickness variations up to 20%. Uniform dose, 2 Gy attenuation images, correlated with local sheet thicknesses. Comparable measurements with EBT3 film were 3 times more sensitive at 1 Gy but above 15 Gy, EBT3 film had lower sensitivity than 0.2 cm thick Presage sheet dosimeter due to its non-linear response. Conclusion: Dose sensitivity provided a 10% decrease in transmission for a 1 Gy dose. Improvements in mold design are expected to allow production of sheets with less than 5% variation in thickness. Above, 10 Gy, Presage sheet dosimeter performance expected to exceed EBT3 film based on linearity, sensitivity, transparency and smoothness of samples. J Adamovics is owner of Heuris Inc.

  5. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  6. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin film oxygen barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Rawson, Ian; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of sodium montmorillonite clay and cationic polyacrylamide were grown on a polyethylene terephthalate film using layer-by-layer assembly. After 30 clay-polymer layers are deposited, with a thickness of 571 nm, the resulting transparent film has an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation ( 2 /day/atm). This low OTR, which is unprecedented for a clay-filled polymer composite, is believed to be due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay in polymeric mortar. With an optical transparency greater than 90% and potential for microwaveability, this thin composite is a good candidate for foil replacement in food packaging and may also be useful for flexible electronics packaging

  7. Plastic film materials for dosimetry of very large absorbed doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Abdel-Rahim, F.

    1985-01-01

    Most plastic films have limited response ranges for dosimetry because of radiation-induced brittleness, degradation, or saturation of the signal used for analysis (e.g. spectrophotometry) at high doses. There are, however, a few types of thin plastic films showing linearity of response even up...... to doses as high as 2 × 106 Gy (200 Mrad) without severe loss of mechanical properties. Among many candidate film types tested, those showing such resistance to radiation damage and continued response at such high doses are polyethylene terephthalate, high-density polyethylene, dyed polyvinylchloride......, the dyed polychlorostyrenes show essentially the same response to radiation-processing gamma-ray fields and to very high-intensity electron beams, and a relatively stable absorption spectrum at wavelengths for dosimetry analysis in the visible spectral region of ≈430 nm....

  8. Study of poli (ethylene tereftalate) thin films submitted to radiations by using permeation and spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, L.A.

    1986-06-01

    Properties of poly (ethylene terephthalate P.E.T. thin films submitted to electric discharges, electron, He + ion and proton beams were investigated using permeation technique, electronic paramagnetic resonance resonance (E.P.R.) and visible and infrared spectroscopies. Experimental apparatuses and procedures are described and the results of the analyses are presented and discussed. The existence of structural modifications in irradiated P.E.T. thin films is confirmed. It is shown that the kind of effects occuring in irradiated P.E.T. depends on the nature of the incident radiation. (author) [pt

  9. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  10. Dynamics of fluid lines, sheets, filaments and membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutris, N.

    1988-01-01

    We establish the dynamic equations of two types of fluid structures: 1) lines-filaments and 2) sheets-membranes. In the first part, we consider one-dimensional (line) and two-dimensional (sheet) fluid structures. The second part concerns the associated three- dimensional structures: filaments and membranes. In the third part, we establish the equations for thickened lines and thickened sheets. For that purpose, we introduce a thickness in the models of the first part. The fourth part concerns the thinning of the filament and the membrane. Then, by an asymptotic process, we deduce the corresponding equations from the equations of the second part in order to show the purely formal equivalence of the equations of the third and fourth parts. To obtain the equations, we make use of theorems whose proofs can be found in the appendices. The equations can be applied to many areas of interest: instabilities of liquid jets and liquid films, modelisation of interfaces between two different fluids as sheets or membranes, modelisation with the averaged equations over a cross section of single phase flows and two-phase flows in channels with a nonrectilinear axis such as bends or pump casings [fr

  11. Development of the Brazilian national sheet scintillator converter of neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Andre Luis Nunes

    2008-03-01

    Both the national domain of the technology for the separation of rare earth elements and the large reserves of these minerals in Brazilian territory, motivated the study of national sheets scintillators converter of neutrons, using a granular mixture Gd 2 O 3 -Zn S:Ag. Three methodologies were used for the manufacture of such sheets, namely: deposition done with a compressed-air gun on a sheet of cellulose type CG3460-3M; fusion of granular mixture with EVA in the mixing chamber and deposition of granular mixture on the substrate of EVA. It was used the flux of the order of 4,46 x 10 5 neutrons thermic/cm 2 .s, coming from the channel irradiation, J-9, of the reactor Argonauta/IEN/CNEN and the radiographic film AA-400 Kodak Industrex. The performances of national scintillator neutrons converter sheets were analyzed and the images obtained with the, demonstrated that the methodologies proposed are technically feasible and can contribute to the reduction of cost of this technique for NDA, but which lack optimization is aimed at increasing the number of photons of light to allow its use in neutrongraphies in Real Time (NRTR). (author)

  12. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  13. Optimal swimming of a sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  14. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  15. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    KAUST Repository

    Schroll, R. D.

    2013-07-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical theory for the contact of liquid drops on solids. Our calculations and experiments show that the liquid-solid-vapor contact angle is modified from the Young angle, even though the elastic bulk modulus (E) of the sheet is so large that the ratio between the surface tension γ and E is of molecular size. This finding indicates a new elastocapillary phenomenon that stems from the high bendability of very thin elastic sheets rather than from material softness. We also show that the size of the wrinkle pattern that emerges in the sheet is fully predictable, thus resolving a puzzle in modeling "drop-on-a-floating-sheet" experiments and enabling a quantitative, calibration-free use of this setup for the metrology of ultrathin films. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  16. The fabrication and characterization of inkjet-printed polyaniline nanoparticle films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrin, Aoife; Ngamna, Orawan; O'Malley, Eimer; Kent, Nigel; Moulton, Simon E.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Smyth, Malcolm R.; Killard, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of electrodes modified with conducting polymer nanoparticle films, produced via inkjet printing. The polyaniline nanoparticle formulations were deposited via a desktop inkjet printer onto screen-printed carbon-paste electrodes (SPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and gold-PET and their morphology studied at a range of length scales using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The deposited films were found to form continuous polymer films depending upon film thickness, which was in turn dependent on the number of prints performed. The inkjet-printed films exhibited a smooth morphology on the SPEs at the micro-dimensional scale, as a result of the aggradation and coalescing of the nanoparticles upon deposition. The resulting modified electrodes were both conductive and electroactive, possessing good reversible polyaniline electrochemistry. Such a combination of materials and processing offers the potential of producing a range of low cost, solid state devices such as sensors, actuators and electrochromic devices

  17. Enhancement of electrical conductivity of ion-implanted polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of ion-implanted films of Nylon 66, Polypropylene (PP), Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) and mainly Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was determined by DC measurements at voltages up to 4500 V and compared with the corresponding values of pristine films. Measurements were made at 21 0 C +/- 1 0 C and 65 +/- 2% RH. The electrical conductivity of PET films implanted with F + , Ar + , or As + ions at energies of 50 keV increases by seven orders of magnitude as the fluence increases from 1 x 10 18 to 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 . The conductivity of films implanted with As + was approximately one order greater than those implanted with Ar + , which in turn was approximately one-half order greater than those implanted with F + . The conductivity of the most conductive film ∼1 S/m) was almost 14 orders of magnitude greater than the pristine PET film. Except for the three PET samples implanted at fluences near 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 with F + , Ar + , and As + ions, all implanted films were ohmic up to an electric field strength of 600 kV/m. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the three PET films implanted near a fluence of 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 was measured over the range of 80 K < T < 300 K

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-mechanical properties of spice packaging films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizani, Maryam [Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mizani1_2000@yahoo.com; Sheikh, Nasrin [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Application Research School, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Samad N. [Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, P.O. Box 19835-389, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gerami, Abas [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Farnaz A. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14155-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Physico-mechanical properties of two types of laminated films, commercially used for spice packaging, are investigated after gamma irradiation at 8, 10 and 15 kGy. Data showed that polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/linear low density polyethylene (PET/PET/LLDPE) was more resistant to radiation compared to biaxially oriented polypropylene/cast polypropylene (BOPP/CPP) and its barrier properties slightly improved up to 15 kGy. Oxygen transmission rate of BOPP/CPP was increased by 25%, and the melting peak temperature was decreased by 3.9% at 15 kGy, which may lead to oxidation of packaged spices and loss of their aroma/flavour, respectively.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on physico-mechanical properties of spice packaging films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizani, Maryam; Sheikh, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Samad N.; Gerami, Abas; Tavakoli, Farnaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Physico-mechanical properties of two types of laminated films, commercially used for spice packaging, are investigated after gamma irradiation at 8, 10 and 15 kGy. Data showed that polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene terephthalate/linear low density polyethylene (PET/PET/LLDPE) was more resistant to radiation compared to biaxially oriented polypropylene/cast polypropylene (BOPP/CPP) and its barrier properties slightly improved up to 15 kGy. Oxygen transmission rate of BOPP/CPP was increased by 25%, and the melting peak temperature was decreased by 3.9% at 15 kGy, which may lead to oxidation of packaged spices and loss of their aroma/flavour, respectively.

  20. Surface modification of PET film by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakudo, N.; Mizutani, D.; Ohmura, Y.; Endo, H.; Yoneda, R.; Ikenaga, N.; Takikawa, H.

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that thin diamond like carbon (DLC) coating is very Amsterdam, Theenhancing the barrier characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) against CO 2 and O 2 gases. However, coating technique has a problem of DLC-deposit peeling. In this research, we develop a new technique to change the PET surface into DLC by ion implantation instead of coating the surface with the DLC deposit. The surface of PET film is modified by plasma-based ion implantation using pulse voltages of 10 kV in height and 5 μs in width. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy shows that the specific absorption peaks for PET decrease with dose, that is, the molecules of ethylene terephthalate are destroyed by ion bombardment. Then, laser Raman spectroscopy shows that thin DLC layer is formed in the PET surface area

  1. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  2. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  3. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  4. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  5. The social balance sheet 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  6. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Hal?sz, Istv?n Zolt?n; B?r?ny, Tam?s

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity cha...

  7. The selective recycling of mixed plastic waste of polylactic acid and polyethylene terephthalate by control of process conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carné Sánchez, Arnau; Collinson, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    The glycolysis of postconsumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste was evaluated with catalysts of zinc acetate, zinc stearate and zinc sulfate, showing that zinc acetate was the most soluble and effective. The chemical recycling by solvolysis of polylactic acid (PLA) and PET waste in either methanol or ethanol was investigated. Zinc acetate as a catalyst was found to be necessary to yield an effective depolymerization of waste PLA giving lactate esters, while with the same reaction condit...

  8. The formation and growing properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber growing media after thermo-oxidative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.P.; Lin, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This research uses three kinds of recycled synthetic fibers that all possess excellent thermal plasticity property as raw material to develop a new firm cultivation media: polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and polypropylene. One can not only freely control plants cultivation growing condition by changing bulk density of the media, but also solve disposal problem after usage by applying thermal oxidative treatment during manufacturing processes. The water content, air permeability and formation conditions of these fiber growing media that are required in plants growing habitat were discussed, and compared the fallout with rockwool (RW) growing media that is commonly used at present days. The results indicated that the polyethylene terephthalate fiber media could attain best formation characteristics among these fibers at the same bulk density range. Furthermore, the fiber media that were thermo-oxidative treated at 240-260 deg. C could obtained above 90% total porosity, 23-49% air capacity and 48-68% water availability, water contents raised from 1735-1094 to 2145-1156% under bulk densities of 0.03-0.09 g/cm 3 , which conforms to the common plant growing habitat conditions. Its performance well surpasses the rockwool growing media. We also discovered that the thermo-oxidative treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber media could be easily broken down and become powdery by exerting pressure, thus greatly reduce its volume and effectively improve disposal processes that are difficult presently for the huge refuse create by rockwool

  9. Performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate with different mix design ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, N. B.; Khalid, F. S.; Irwan, J. M.; Mazenan, P. N.; Zahir, Z.; Shahidan, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study is focuses to the performance of composite sand cement brick containing recycle concrete aggregate and waste polyethylene terephthalate. The objective is to determine the mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water absorption of composite brick containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste and to determine the optimum mix ratio of bricks containing recycled concrete aggregate and polyethylene terephthalate waste. The bricks specimens were prepared by using 100% natural sand, they were then replaced by RCA at 25%, 50% and 75% with proportions of PET consists of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% by weight of natural sand. Based on the results of compressive strength, it indicates that the replacement of RCA shows an increasing strength as the strength starts to increase from 25% to 50% for both mix design ratio. The strength for RCA 75% volume of replacement started to decrease as the volume of PET increase. However, the result of water absorption with 50% RCA and 1.0% PET show less permeable compared to control brick at both mix design ratio. Thus, one would expect the density of brick decrease and the water absorption to increase as the RCA and PET content is increased.

  10. Film-based dual energy radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrik, J. M.; Pelc, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray energy-difference images are obtained simultaneously by exposing a body to a broad energy spectrum X-ray beam while a radiographic film package is disposed between front and rear X-ray intensifying screens. The film package has two superimposed films with a light-opaque sheet between them. The front screen, on which the polyenergetic image beam emerging from the body is incident, is excited to luminescence by X-ray photons predominantly in one energy band and the rear screen is excited predominantly by photons in another band. The light opaque sheet preferably contains X-ray filter material for additional filtering of photons to increase the fraction of protons at said other band to which the rear screen is sensitive. A shadowgraph of a marker is formed on the film emulsions during X-ray exposure to aid in matching congruent picture elements on each film when the developed films are being read out to obtain signals corresponding to their intensities. Notches in the edges of the films and sheet serve as a code for indicating the type of screens with which the package can be used

  11. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jessica S.; Schlenoff, Joseph B.; Keller, Thomas C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as ‘leader’ cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as ‘follower’ cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all

  12. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jessica S. [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Schlenoff, Joseph B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Keller, Thomas C.S., E-mail: tkeller@bio.fsu.edu [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as ‘leader’ cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as ‘follower’ cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all

  13. Up-cycling of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) to the biodegradable plastic PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Shane T; Runic, Jasmina Nikodinovic; Kaminsky, Walter; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P; Keely, Chris M; Blau, Werner; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-10-15

    The conversion of the petrochemical polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to a biodegradable plastic polyhydroxyal-kanoate (PHA) is described here. PET was pyrolised at 450 degrees C resulting in the production of a solid, liquid, and gaseous fraction. The liquid and gaseous fractions were burnt for energy recovery, whereas the solid fraction terephthalic acid (TA) was used as the feedstock for bacterial production of PHA. Strains previously reported to grow on TA were unable to accumulate PHA. We therefore isolated bacteria from soil exposed to PET granules at a PET bottle processing plant From the 32 strains isolated, three strains capable of accumulation of medium chain length PHA (mclPHA) from TA as a sole source of carbon and energy were selected for further study. These isolates were identified using 16S rDNA techniques as P. putida (GO16), P. putida (GO19), and P. frederiksbergensis (GO23). P. putida GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA composed predominantly of a 3-hydroxydecanoic acid monomer while P. frederiksbergensis GO23 accumulates 3-hydroxydecanoic acid as the predominant monomer with increased amounts of 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxydodecenoic acid compared to the other two strains. PHA was detected in all three strains when nitrogen depleted below detectable levels in the growth medium. Strains GO16 and GO19 accumulate PHA at a maximal rate of approximately 8.4 mg PHA/l/h for 12 h before the rate of PHA accumulation decreased dramatically. Strain GO23 accumulates PHA at a lower maximal rate of 4.4 mg PHA/l/h but there was no slow down in the rate of PHA accumulation over time. Each of the PHA polymers is a thermoplastic with the onset of thermal degradation occurring around 308 degrees C with the complete degradation occurring by 370 degrees C. The molecular weight ranged from 74 to 123 kDa. X-ray diffraction indicated crystallinity of the order of 18-31%. Thermal analysis shows a low glass transition (-53 degrees C) with a broad melting

  14. Static and high frequency magnetic properties of FeGa thin films deposited on convex flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ying; Zhan, Qingfeng; Dai, Guohong; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Huali; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Xie, Shuhong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetostrictive FeGa thin films were deposited on the bowed flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which were fixed on the convex mold. A compressive stress was induced in FeGa films when the PET substrates were shaped from convex to flat. Due to the effect of magnetostriction, FeGa films exhibit an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which could be enhanced by increasing the applied pre-strains on the substrates during growth. Consequently, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the films was significantly increased, but the corresponding initial permeability was decreased. Moreover, the films with pre-strains less than 0.78% exhibit a working bandwidth of microwave absorption about 2 GHz. Our investigations demonstrated a convenient method via the pre-strained substrates to tune the high frequency properties of magnetic thin films which could be applied in flexible microwave devices

  15. Static and high frequency magnetic properties of FeGa thin films deposited on convex flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Zhan, Qingfeng; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Dai, Guohong; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yiwei; Yang, Huali; Zhang, Yao; Xie, Shuhong; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Magnetostrictive FeGa thin films were deposited on the bowed flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which were fixed on the convex mold. A compressive stress was induced in FeGa films when the PET substrates were shaped from convex to flat. Due to the effect of magnetostriction, FeGa films exhibit an obvious in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy which could be enhanced by increasing the applied pre-strains on the substrates during growth. Consequently, the ferromagnetic resonance frequency of the films was significantly increased, but the corresponding initial permeability was decreased. Moreover, the films with pre-strains less than 0.78% exhibit a working bandwidth of microwave absorption about 2 GHz. Our investigations demonstrated a convenient method via the pre-strained substrates to tune the high frequency properties of magnetic thin films which could be applied in flexible microwave devices.

  16. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  17. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  18. Influence of Philosamia ricini silk fibroin components on morphology, secondary structure and thermal properties of chitosan biopolymer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasong, S; Nuanchai, K; Wilaiwan, S

    2009-09-15

    This study aimed to prepare Eri (Philosamia ricini) Silk Fibroin (SF)/chitosan (CS) blend films by a solvent evaporation method and to compare the blend films with both native SF and CS films. Influence of SF ratios on the morphology, secondary structure and thermal decomposition of the CS blend films were investigated. The native SF and CS films were uniform and homogeneous without phase separation. For the blend films, the uniform can be found less than 60% of SF composition. All of SF/CS blend films showed both SF and CS characteristics. FT-IR results showed that the blend films composed of both random coil and beta-sheet with predominant of beta-sheet form. Interaction of intermolecular between SF and CS have occurred which were measured by thermogravimetric thermograms. Increasing of SF contents was leading to the increase of beta-sheet structures which were enhanced the thermal stability of the CS blend films.

  19. The peeling behaviour of a graphene sheet on a nano-scale corrugated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems. (paper)

  20. Transparent and flexible heaters based on Al:ZnO degenerate semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roul, Monee K.; Obasogie, Brandon; Kogo, Gilbert; Skuza, J. R.; Mundle, R. M.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    We report on high performance transparent Al:ZnO (AZO) thin film heaters on flexible polymer (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass substrates which demonstrate low sheet resistivity. AZO thin films were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at low Ts (below 200 °C) on flexible, transparent polyethylene terephthalate substrates that show stable and reproducible results by applying low (pain/injury therapy smart windows, automobile window defrosters, and low-cost power electronics.