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Sample records for teredinibacter turnerae t7901

  1. The complete genome of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901: an intracellular endosymbiont of marine wood-boring bivalves (shipworms.

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    Joyce C Yang

    Full Text Available Here we report the complete genome sequence of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901. T. turnerae is a marine gamma proteobacterium that occurs as an intracellular endosymbiont in the gills of wood-boring marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms. This species is the sole cultivated member of an endosymbiotic consortium thought to provide the host with enzymes, including cellulases and nitrogenase, critical for digestion of wood and supplementation of the host's nitrogen-deficient diet. T. turnerae is closely related to the free-living marine polysaccharide degrading bacterium Saccharophagus degradans str. 2-40 and to as yet uncultivated endosymbionts with which it coexists in shipworm cells. Like S. degradans, the T. turnerae genome encodes a large number of enzymes predicted to be involved in complex polysaccharide degradation (>100. However, unlike S. degradans, which degrades a broad spectrum (>10 classes of complex plant, fungal and algal polysaccharides, T. turnerae primarily encodes enzymes associated with deconstruction of terrestrial woody plant material. Also unlike S. degradans and many other eubacteria, T. turnerae dedicates a large proportion of its genome to genes predicted to function in secondary metabolism. Despite its intracellular niche, the T. turnerae genome lacks many features associated with obligate intracellular existence (e.g. reduced genome size, reduced %G+C, loss of genes of core metabolism and displays evidence of adaptations common to free-living bacteria (e.g. defense against bacteriophage infection. These results suggest that T. turnerae is likely a facultative intracellular ensosymbiont whose niche presently includes, or recently included, free-living existence. As such, the T. turnerae genome provides insights into the range of genomic adaptations associated with intracellular endosymbiosis as well as enzymatic mechanisms relevant to the recycling of plant materials in marine environments and the production

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0202 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0202 ref|YP_003073356.1| PT repeat/fibro-slime domain protein [Teredin...ibacter turnerae T7901] gb|ACR12989.1| PT repeat/fibro-slime domain protein [Teredinibacter turnerae T7901] YP_003073356.1 6e-23 39% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0179 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0179 ref|YP_003073356.1| PT repeat/fibro-slime domain protein [Teredin...ibacter turnerae T7901] gb|ACR12989.1| PT repeat/fibro-slime domain protein [Teredinibacter turnerae T7901] YP_003073356.1 1e-17 45% ...

  4. Pharmacognostic Investigations On Turnera ulmifolia | Kumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using toluene:ethylacetate:glacial acetic acid (15:4:1) on spraying 0.5% anisaldehyde followed by heating for 5minutes at 105°C. Phytochemically, the plant was found to contain alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins. Keywords: Turnera ulmifolia, Turneraceae, Ash ...

  5. CARIOTIPOS DE ESPECIES DE TURNERA (TURNERACEAE

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    Viviana G. Solis Neffa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el cariotipo de 6 especies de Turnera. El cariotipo de T.melochioides (Leiocarpae, 2n = 2x = 14, está compuesta por 10 m + 4sm. En T.grandiflora, T.candida, T.scabra, T.hermannioides y T.Joelii (Canaligerae, todos con 2n = 2x = 10, la fórmula cariotípica es 8m + 2sm. Estas especies se distinguen por la longitud del cromosoma, el tamaño y la posición de los satélites y por los índices de asimetría. T.scabra con citotipo autopoliploide muestra cromosomas más cortos y cariotipos más simétrico. En informes anteriores son confirmados 6 taxones.

  6. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Turnera chamaedrifolia Cambess. e Turnera subulata Sm. (Turneraceae

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    Danila de Araújo Barbosa

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico comparativo entre as folhas de Turnera chamaedrifolia Cambess. e Turnera subulata Sm. (Turneraceae, espécies cujas folhas são usadas na medicina popular. As identificações botânicas e as morfodiagnoses macroscópicas foram realizadas após estudos morfológicos. Para as morfodiagnoses microscópicas realizaram-se secções paradérmicas e transversais de folhas (lâmina e pecíolo, que foram posteriormente clarificadas em hipoclorito (1% e coradas com safranina hidroalcoólica e safrablue. As duas espécies compartilham o mesmo tipo de estômato, paracítico, entretanto, T. chamaedrifolia possui folhas com a epiderme hipoestomática, com células de paredes ondeadas; o mesofilo dorsiventral; e a vascularização do pecíolo com três feixes nas porções distal e mediana, e apenas um feixe na proximal. Em T. subulata a epiderme é anfi-hipoestomática, com paredes sinuosas; mesofilo isobilateral; e a vascularização do pecíolo possui um feixe na porção distal e três feixes nas porções mediana e proximal. A morfologia das estruturas vegetativas e reprodutivas associada à anatomia foliar são caracteres distintivos para estas espécies.

  7. NECTARIOS EXTRAFLORALES EN TURNERA, SERIES CANALIGERAE y LEIOCARPAE

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    Ana María González

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la anatomía de los nectarios extraflorales de diecisiete especies de Turnera, pertenecientes a Canaligerae y series Leiocarpae. Los nectarios foliares nacen en el ápice del pecíolo o en la base de las láminas foliares, son discoides, cupular with a rim surrounding a cup. Aunque el tamaño y la morfología son variables entre las especies, la estructura de los nectarios es básicamente la misma. Están compuestos por una epidermis secretora, que consiste en 1-4 capas de células columnares. Detrás de este tejido, por lo general hay 2-8 capas de parénquima glandular. El cuerpo del nectario está formado por ground parenchyma; drusas de oxalato de calcio y idioblastos taninos son abundantes en esta zona. El aporte vascular proviene del paquete pecíolo mediano. Es proporcionada por 1 ó 2 paquetes laterales que se ramifican en varias ocasiones en la parénquima baja del nectario. En todos los nectarios estudiados el tejido vascular termina como hebras aisladas de floema entre las células de la parénquima secretora. Por primera vez, tracheoids se describen en nectarios; estos elementos eran conocidos solamente en el vetillas de hojas de angiospermas. La mayoría de las especies de la serie Canaligerae, tienen «poros» en la epidermis secretora, que es de hecho, una protuberancia determinado por la parénquima glandular, la superficie es plana o crateriforme.Una cutícula densa cubre la epidermis, sólo en el centro de los «poros» es lo suficientemente delgada como para permitir la extrusión de néctar. En ninguna de las especies se observó ruptura de la cutícula. En los nectarios Leiocarpae el «poro» está menos desarrollado o ausente.

  8. NECTARIOS EXTRAFLORALES EN TURNERA, SERIES CANALIGERAE y LEIOCARPAE

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    Ana María González

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En este trabajo se describe la anatomía de los nectarios extraflorales de diecisiete especies de Turnera, pertenecientes a Canaligerae y series Leiocarpae. 
    Los nectarios foliares nacen en el ápice del pecíolo o en la base de las láminas foliares, son discoides, cupular with a rim surrounding a cup. Aunque el tamaño y la morfología son variables entre las especies, la estructura de los nectarios es básicamente la misma. 
    Están compuestos por una epidermis secretora, que consiste en 1-4 capas de células columnares. Detrás de este tejido, por lo general hay 2-8 capas de parénquima glandular. 
    El cuerpo del nectario está formado por ground parenchyma; drusas de oxalato de calcio y idioblastos taninos son abundantes en esta zona. 
    El aporte vascular proviene del paquete pecíolo mediano. Es proporcionada por 1 ó 2 paquetes laterales que se ramifican en varias ocasiones en la parénquima baja del nectario. 
    En todos los nectarios estudiados el tejido vascular termina como hebras aisladas de floema entre las células de la parénquima secretora. 
    Por primera vez, tracheoids se describen en nectarios; estos elementos eran conocidos solamente en el vetillas de hojas de angiospermas. 
    La mayoría de las especies de la serie Canaligerae, tienen «poros» en la epidermis secretora, que es de hecho, una protuberancia determinado por la parénquima glandular, la superficie es plana o crateriforme.
    Una cutícula densa cubre la epidermis, sólo en el centro de los «poros» es lo suficientemente delgada como para permitir la extrusión de néctar. 
    En ninguna de las especies se observó ruptura de la cutícula. En los nectarios Leiocarpae el «poro» está menos desarrollado o ausente.

  9. CRUZAMIENTOS INTRA E INTERESPECIFICOS EN TURNERA , SERIE CANALIGERAE

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    María Mercedes Arbo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Canaligerae es una de las 9 series del género Turnera. Las especies de esta serie tienen la morfología floral más avanzada, y son la única serie conocida hasta ahora con número básico x = 5. Un programa de cruzamientos controlados se llevó a cabo entre  13 especies, cuatro de ellos con citotipos diploides y tetraploides,totalizando 17 accesiones de las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de América. La producción de híbridos se utilizó para determinar el grado de afinidad entre las entidades. La producción de los híbridos no viables, buenas semillas que no germinan, semillas vanas y el éxito de los cruces no fueron considerados como fracasos Sólo la producción de híbridos viables fue consideradas como éxitos. De las 136 combinaciones posibles (contando cada cruce y su recíproco a ser una cruz 53 híbridos y fracasos 83 fueron recuperados. La capacidad de cruzamiento entre las especies diploides indica que las especies con flores de color azul-blanca (T.caerulea, T.sunnamensis y T.grandiflora son un grupo estrechamente relacionado, y lo mismo ocurre con las especies de flores amarillas (T.scabra, T.subulata, T. Krapovickasii y T.concinna. Las especies con flores de color azul-blanco son genéticamente aisladas no sólo de las especies con flores amarillas, sino también del resto de las especies estudiadas aquí. T.coriacea y T.hermannioides parecen estar también genéticamente aisladas del resto de las especies consideradas aquí. T.aff.coriacea y T.hermannioides parecen también estar genéticamente aisladas del resto de las especies consideradas aquí. Por otro lado, los híbridos intraespecíficos entre citotipos señala la continuidad genética entre los individuos 2x y 4x que pertenecen a la misma especie. Alopolyploids (T.grandidentata, T.orientalis, T.ulmifolia y T. Aurelii tener una gama más amplia de cruzabilidad probablemente debido a la presencia de genomas diferentes en sus cromosomas

  10. Gastroprotective activities of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. revisited: Role of arbutin.

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    Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Salga, Muhammad Saleh; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-05-07

    Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult. has been used for the treatment of several human disorders including peptic ulcer. The current study is an attempt to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activities of arbutin, a major constituent of Turnera diffusa on two ulcer models. The possible involvement of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and mucus barrier mechanism has been investigated. Effects of arbutin on ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content and histochemistry, gross and histological gastric lesions, nitric oxide, cytokines levels (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), were evaluated in aspirin or ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. Acute toxicity of arbutin was also examined in rodent model. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of the compound on normal liver cells (WRL-68). Pre-treatment with arbutin or omeprazole protected the gastric mucosa as seen by reduction in ulcer area and mucosal content, reduced or absence of edema, inflammation and leucocytes infiltration on both models. Arbutin significantly (PArbutin did not produce significant inhibition of NO. This natural compound has modulated the levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and TNF-α. No in vitro or in vivo toxicities for arbutin were observed. Thus it can be concluded that Turnera diffusa possesses anti-ulcer activity, which could be attributed to lipid peroxidation inhibitory, immuno modulatory and anti-oxidant mechanisms of arbutin but not to the intervention with nitric oxide inflammation pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical constituents isolated from turnera subulata Sm. and electrochemical characterization of phaeophytin b

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    Brito Filho, Severino Goncalves de; Fernandes, Marianne Guedes; Souza, Maria de Fatima Vanderlei de, E-mail: mfvanderlei@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2014-07-01

    Turnera subulata Sm., known as 'Chanana' or 'flor-do-Guaruja' in Brazilian folklore, is a plant species belonging to the subfamily Turneroideae of family Passifloraceae, which is used for various medicinal purposes in Brazil. The phytochemical study conducted here led to the isolation and identification of ten compounds present in T. subulata: two mixtures of steroids, sitosterol and stigmasterol (nonglycosylated and glycosylated); a mixture of flavonoids, 5,7,4′-trihidroxiflavona-8-C-α-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3′,4′-tetrahidroxiflavona-8-C-α-glucopyranosidel; and four phaeophytins, phaeophytin purpurin-18-phytyl ester, a rare natural product, phaeophytin a , 13{sup 2}-hydroxy-(13{sup 2}-S)-phaeophytin a , and phaeophytin b Phaeophytin b exhibited electrochemical activity similar to that of phthalocyanines. (author)

  12. Anatomía y desarrollo del fruto en Piriqueta y Turnera (Turneraceae Anatomy and development of fruits in Piriqueta and Turnera (Turneraceae

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    Ana Maria Gonzalez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analiza la anatomía, estructura y desarrollo de los frutos en 12 especies de Piriqueta y 30 especies de Turnera; con el objetivo de identificar la estructura involucrada en la dehiscencia y verificar la existencia de patrones en la organización del fruto entre las especies analizadas. El ovario es sincárpico, tricarpelar, unilocular con placentación parietal, presentando la misma estructura en todas las especies. Ambas epidermis carpelares son uniestratificadas y tienen estomas, el mesófilo es parenquimático con 3 haces dorsales y 3 marginales. Durante el desarrollo del fruto, la epidermis externa forma un epicarpo papiloso en las especies de Piriqueta. El mesocarpio deriva de los estratos medios del ovario, formando un estrato mecánico de braquiesclereidas. Estas esclereidas pueden organizarse como un cilindro continuo determinando frutos de superficie lisa o agruparse en nidos, unidos o no, determinando así frutos granulares, verrugosos, o tuberculados. Las cápsulas son loculicidas, con línea de dehiscencia formada por macroesclereidas dispuestas longitudinalmente en el fruto, paralelas al haz carpelar dorsal. Se concluye que los diferentes tipos de pericarpio son un rasgo post-fecundación, dado que la estructura del ovario es exactamente la misma en todas las especies analizadas. Se analiza la anatomía del fruto en relación al esquema taxonómico actualizado.The aims of this work were to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the fruits of 12 species of Piriqueta and 30 species of Turnera; to identify the structures related to the process of dehiscence of the capsule; and to verify the occurrence of standards carpological structure between the studied species. The ovary is 3-carpellar, syncarpous, unilocular with parietal placentation and has the same anatomical structure in all studied species. The outer and inner epidermises are single-layered with stomata; the ovarian mesophyll is composed by

  13. Anti-anxiety Activity Studies on Homoeopathic Formulations of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward

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    Suresh Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward (Turneraceae has been traditionally used for the treatment of anxiety neurosis, and as an aphrodisiac. Mother tinctures (85% ethanol extracts of T. aphrodisiaca have also been used for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. In the present investigation, T. aphrodisiaca mother tinctures formulated by three reputed manufacturers of homoeopathic medicines (NLK, DWSG and SBL were evaluated for their anxiolytic activity. Dried mother tinctures of T. aphrodisiaca were subjected to anxiolytic activity evaluation at various doses, i.e. 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 mg/kg p.o. in mice using elevated plus maze apparatus. Dried mother tinctures exhibited significant anxiolytic activity at 50 mg/kg (NLK, 75 mg/kg (DWSG and 125 mg/kg (SBL, respectively, with reference to control as well as standard (diazepam, 2 mg/kg p.o.. Mother tinctures of T. aphrodisiaca available in the market, have significant anxiolytic activity. Amongst the three mother tinctures of T. aphrodisiaca analyzed, the dry residue of NLK possesses the highest amount of anxiolytic constituent(s. To ensure uniformity and consistency of biological effects in herbal formulations, these should be standardized on the basis of bioactive markers. The authors are actively involved in isolating the bioactive constituent(s from T. aphrodisiaca so that the plant can be standardized on the basis of biologically active constituent(s.

  14. Acute Hypoglycemic and Antidiabetic Effect of Teuhetenone A Isolated from Turnera diffusa

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    Aída Parra-Naranjo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic degenerative disease that causes long-term complications and represents a serious public health problem. Turnera diffusa (damiana is a shrub that grows throughout Mexico and is traditionally used for many illnesses including diabetes. Although a large number of plant metabolites are known, there are no reports indicating which of these are responsible for this activity, and this identification was the objective of the present work. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanolic extract obtained from the aerial part of T. diffusa, teuhetenone A was isolated and identified as the main metabolite responsible for the plant’s hypoglycemic activity. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity of this metabolite were determined. Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities were evaluated in a murine model of diabetes in vivo, by monitoring glucose levels for six hours and comparing them with levels after administering various controls. Teuhetenone A was not cytotoxic at the tested concentrations, and did not show inhibitory activity in the glucosidase test, and the in vivo assays showed a gradual reduction in glucose levels in normoglycemic and diabetic mice. Considering these results, we suggest that teuhetenone A has potential as an antidiabetic compound, which could be further submitted to preclinical assays.

  15. Patterns of cytotype variation of Turnera sidoides subsp. pinnatifida (Turneraceae) in mountain ranges of central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, Gabriela; Sartor, María; Solís Neffa, Viviana G

    2011-01-01

    Cytogeographical variability among 564 plants from 26 populations of Turnera sidoides subsp. pinnatifida in mountain ranges of central Argentina was analysed with meiotic chromosome counts and flow cytometry and is described at regional and local scales. Populations were primarily tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), although diploid (2n = 2x = 14), hexaploid (2n = 2x = 42), and mixed populations of diploids and triploids (2n = 3x = 21) were also found. Diploids, triploids, and hexaploids were fewer in number and restricted to narrow areas, while tetraploids were the most common and geographically widespread cytotype. Diploids grew at higher altitudes and in colder and wet locations; tetraploids had the broadest ecological spectrum, while hexaploids occurred at the lowest altitudes and in drier conditions. The cytotypes were also spatially segregated at a microgeographical scale. Diploids grew in the piedmont, tetraploids were in the adjacent valley, and in the contact zone of both cytotypes, patches of diploids and triploids were found. At a regional scale, the distribution of the cytotypes may be governed by a combination of ecological and historical variables, while segregation in the contact zone may be independent of the selective environment because the cytotypes are unable to coexist as a result of reproductive exclusion. The role of triploids is also discussed.

  16. Cytotoxic Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Turnera diffusa Willd on Breast Cancer Cells

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    Avelino-Flores, María del Carmen; Cruz-López, María del Carmen; Jiménez-Montejo, Fabiola E.; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Turnera diffusa Willd, commonly known as Damiana, is employed in traditional medicine as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Its leaves and stems are used for flavoring and infusion. Damiana is considered to be safe for medicinal use by the FDA. Pharmacological studies have established the hypoglycemic, antiaromatase, prosexual, estrogenic, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of T. diffusa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxic effect of extracts and organic fractions of this plant on five tumor cell lines (SiHa, C-33, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D) and normal human fibroblasts. The results show that the methanolic extract (TdM) displayed greater activity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (with an IC50 of 30.67 μg/mL) than on the other cancer cell lines. Four organic fractions of this extract exhibited activity on this cancer cell line. In the most active fraction (F4), two active compounds were isolated, arbutin (1) and apigenin (2). This is the first report of a cytotoxic effect by T. diffusa on cancer cells. The IC50 values suggest that the methanolic extract of T. diffusa has potential as an anticancer therapy. PMID:25299247

  17. Herbal therapy associated with antibiotic therapy: potentiation of the antibiotic activity against methicillin – resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Turnera ulmifolia L

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    Lima Edeltrudes O

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus genus is widely spread in nature being part of the indigenous microbiota of skin and mucosa of animal and birds. Some Staphylococcus species are frequently recognized as etiological agents of many animal and human opportunistic infections This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of Turnera ulmifolia against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus – MRSA strain. Methods In this study an ethanol extract of Turnera ulmifolia L. and chlorpromazine were tested for their antimicrobial activity alone or in combination with aminoglycosides against an MRSA strain. Results The synergism of the ethanol extract and aminoglycosides were verified using microdillution method. A synergistic effect of this extract on gentamicin and kanamycin was demonstrated. Similarly, a potentiating effect of chlorpromazine on kanamycin, gentamicin and neomycin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. Conclusion It is therefore suggested that extracts from Turnera ulmifolia could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity, constituting a new weapon against the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics demonstrated in MRSA strains.

  18. CITOGENETICA DE HIBRIDOS ENTRE TURNERA GRANDIDENTATA (4x Y T. SUBULATA Y T. SCABRA (2x (TURNERACEAE

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    Aveliano Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Turnera subulata y T.scabra, 2n = 2x = 10, se cruzaron con T.grandidentata, 2n = 4x = 20, y los híbridos obtenidos se estudiaron citológicamente para determinar la relación entre estas especies. Todos los híbridos presentaron 2n = 3x = 15 y meiosis irregular. En T.subulata x T.grandidentata se hallo una asociación cromosómica media de 4,28 univalentes, 4,16 bivalentes y 0,73 trivalentes. T.scabra x T.grandidentata tuvieron una asociación cromosómica media de 4,53 univalentes, 4,42 bivalentes, 0,53 trivalentes y 0.03 cuadrivalents. El estudio citogenético de estos híbridos indica que estas tres especies tienen el mismo genoma básico. 
    Las fórmulas genómicas Asu Asu para T.subulata, Asc Asc para T.scabra y AgAgArAr para T.grandidentata fueron propuestas en trabajos anteriores. Las asociaciones y las configuraciones que se encuentran en los híbridos analizados en éste estudio avalan las fórmulas genómicas propuestas.

  19. Effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, in tests for adaptogenic activity

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    Andréia G. Bezerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess whether Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae, (TD, plant known in popular medicine as tonic and aphrodisiac, has other effects that are characteristic of an adaptogen substance, such as improvement of the memory and reduction of the damage caused by stress. We carried out an initial screening to detect a possible toxicity of the plant. In that phase of the study we used tests of observational screening; evaluation of acute toxicity; measurement of motor activity and motor coordination, and sleeping time induced by pentobarbital, and observed that the extract presented low toxicity and no stimulant or depressant effect on the animals. We then performed specific tests for the evaluation of an adaptogen effect. TD did not protect the stomach of the animals from the formation of ulcers, neither did it alter the plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone of the animals submitted to immobilization and cold. As regards the evaluation of memory in passive avoidance, TD did not inhibit scopolamine-induced amnesia. Additionally, the hydroalcoholic extract presented low antioxidant activity in vitro. In the models used, TD produced no changes in relation to a possible adaptogen effect.

  20. Yellow colored blooms of Argemone mexicana and Turnera ulmifolia mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and study of their antibacterial and antioxidant activity

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    Chandrasekhar, N.; Vinay, S. P.

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, AgNPs were prepared using a simple bio-reduction method. This is ecologically welcoming and cost-effective method. Yellow colored blooms concentrate of Argemone mexicana and Turnera ulmifolia are used as bio reducing agents in the study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and characterization of the nanoparticles was done by FTIR, SEM, XRD and EDX. The Antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles was tested against Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes. The phytochemical analysis of the blooms concentrate has shown the existence of saponins, alkaloids, amino acids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. In vitro anti-oxidant action of both A. mexicana and T. ulmifolia AgNPs were studied by DPPH assay and reducing power assay.

  1. Yellow colored blooms of Argemone mexicana and Turnera ulmifolia mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and study of their antibacterial and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, N.; Vinay, S. P.

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, AgNPs were prepared using a simple bio-reduction method. This is ecologically welcoming and cost-effective method. Yellow colored blooms concentrate of Argemone mexicana and Turnera ulmifolia are used as bio reducing agents in the study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and characterization of the nanoparticles was done by FTIR, SEM, XRD and EDX. The Antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles was tested against Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes. The phytochemical analysis of the blooms concentrate has shown the existence of saponins, alkaloids, amino acids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. In vitro anti-oxidant action of both A. mexicana and T. ulmifolia AgNPs were studied by DPPH assay and reducing power assay.

  2. Evaluation of thin-layer chromatography methods for quality control of commercial products containing Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis.

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    Ramírez-Durón, Rosalba; Ceniceros-Almaguer, Lucía; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Salazar-Cavazos, Ma de la Luz; Waksman de Torres, Noemi

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, plant-derived products with health claims are sold as herbal dietary supplements, and there are no rules for their legal quality control. Aesculus hippocastanum, Turnera diffusa, Matricaria recutita, Passiflora incarnata, and Tilia occidentalis are some of the major commercial products obtained from plants used in this region. In this paper, we describe the effectiveness of thin-layer chromatography methods to provide for the quality control of several commercial products containing these plants. Standardized extracts were used. Of the 49 commercial products analyzed, only 32.65% matched the chromatographic characteristic of standardized extracts. A significant number of commercial products did not match their label, indicating a problem resulting from the lack of regulation for these products. The proposed methods are simple, sensitive, and specific and can be used for routine quality control of raw herbals and formulations of the tested plants. The results obtained show the need to develop simple and reliable analytical methods that can be performed in any laboratory for the purpose of quality control of dietary supplements or commercial herbal products sold in Mexico.

  3. Boronated tartrolon antibiotic produced by symbiotic cellulose-degrading bacteria in shipworm gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshahawi, Sherif I; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Hanora, Amro; Han, Andrew W; Flores, Malem S; Vizzoni, Vinicius; Schrago, Carlos G; Soares, Carlos A; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Dan L; Schmidt, Eric W; Haygood, Margo G

    2013-01-22

    Shipworms are marine wood-boring bivalve mollusks (family Teredinidae) that harbor a community of closely related Gammaproteobacteria as intracellular endosymbionts in their gills. These symbionts have been proposed to assist the shipworm host in cellulose digestion and have been shown to play a role in nitrogen fixation. The genome of one strain of Teredinibacter turnerae, the first shipworm symbiont to be cultivated, was sequenced, revealing potential as a rich source of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of two macrodioloide polyketides belonging to the tartrolon class. Both compounds were found to possess antibacterial properties, and the major compound was found to inhibit other shipworm symbiont strains and various pathogenic bacteria. The gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of these compounds was identified and characterized, and the ketosynthase domains were analyzed phylogenetically. Reverse-transcription PCR in addition to liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry revealed the transcription of these genes and the presence of the compounds in the shipworm, suggesting that the gene cluster is expressed in vivo and that the compounds may fulfill a specific function for the shipworm host. This study reports tartrolon polyketides from a shipworm symbiont and unveils the biosynthetic gene cluster of a member of this class of compounds, which might reveal the mechanism by which these bioactive metabolites are biosynthesized.

  4. ESTUDIOS SISTEMÁTICOS EN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE. IV. SERIES LEIOCARPAE, CONCILIATAE Y SESSILIFOLIAE

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    María Mercedes Arbo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la revisión de la serie Leiocarpae Urb., seleccionándose a Turneracallosa Urb. como lectotypus. Esta serie tiene una distribución similar a la del género Turneraen América; presenta 55 especies, la mayoría de las cuales vive en la región biogeográficaChaqueña. Son nuevos los siguientes taxones: T. angelicae, T. dasytricha var. crinita,T. diamantinae, T. emendata, T. fissifolia, T. glabrata, T. gouveiana, T. humilis, T. iterata,T. jobertii, T. luetzelburgii var. dubia, T. melochioides var. rugosa, T. paradoxa, T. patens, T.rosulata, T. vallsii, T. venezuelana y T. vicaria. Se proponen también dos series nuevas,Conciliatae Arbo para T. rubrobracteata Arbo, una especie con una combinación inusual decaracteres, que no se ajusta a ninguna otra serie, y Sessilifoliae Arbo, incluyendoT. dichotoma y T. revoluta, que fueran excluídas de la serie Capitatae; el análisis comparativocon los miembros de Leiocarpae indica que tampoco pertenecen a la última serie. Sepresentan claves para identificar las series del género y las especies de cada serie tratada, asícomo descripciones morfológicas, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución

  5. RELACIONES GENOMICAS ENTRE CUATRO ESPECIES DIPLOIDES DE TURNERA CON FLORES AMARILLAS (SERIE CANALIGERAE

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    Aveliano Mercedes Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Los rasgos morfológicos y citogenéticos de los híbridos artificiales entre cuatro especies diploides (2n = 10: T.concinna, T.Krapovickasii, T.scabra y T.subulata han sido estudiados. Los híbridos fueron intermedios en varios caracteres, como el color de las flores, la longitud, la anchura y forma de las semillas, en algunos rasgos se parecían a uno o al otro padre.
    Todos los híbridos interespecíficos mostraron un alto porcentaje de PMC con cinco bivalentes. La meiosis de T.subulata x T.scabra fue regular (5 II. En los otros híbridos fue grabada una baja frecuencia de trivalentes o cuadrivalentes; estos trivalentes y cuadrivalentes son evidencia de translocaciones recíprocas. Puentes y fragmentos en anafase I y II muestran la presencia de inversiones paracéntricas.
    Los análisis morfológicos y citogenéticos de los híbridos indican una estrecha relación entre T.scabra y T.subulata y entre T.concinna y T.Krapovickasii respectivamente. Esta última especie tiene un par de cromosomas con satélites grandes. T.scabra y T.concinna están más alejadas.
    El estudio citogenético de todos los híbridos entre estas especies confirmaría que son taxones independientes. Ellos tienen el mismo genoma básico, que designamos Asu Asu de T. subulata, Asc Asc para T.scabra, Ak Ak para T. Krapovickasii y Ac Ac para T.concinna.

  6. GENOMIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO SPECIES OF TURNERA HEXAPLOID, T. ORIENTALIS AND T. VELUTINA, AND A DIPLOID, T.GRANDIFLORA (TURNERACEAE SERIES TURNERA RELACIONES GENÓMICAS ENTRE DOS ESPECIES HEXAPLOIDES DE TURNERA, T. ORIENTALIS y T. VELUTINA, Y UNA DIPLOIDE, T. GRANDIFLORA (TURNERACEAE, SERIE TURNERA

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    Aveliano Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    We hybridized two hexaploid species (2n=6x=30 T. orientalis and T. velutina and one diploid species (2n=2x=10, T. grandiflora. These species had regular meiosis forming 15 II the hexaploids and 5 11 the diploid. One hexaploid, 2n=6x=30 (T. orientalis x T. velutina, one pentaploid, 2n=5x=25 (T. orientalis x T. grandiflora and one tetraploid, 2n=4x=20 (T. velutina x T. grandiflora hybrids were obtained and studied cytologically to deter ine their genomic relationships. Meiotic behavior in the T. orientalis x T. velutina hybrid was very irregular, with many laggard chromosomes and bridges at AI and AII. Mean pairing relationships were 10,38 I,9,66 II,0,07III and 0,03 IV. The hybrid T. orientalisx T. grandiflora presented irregular meiosis. Mean pairing relationships were 14,66 I and 5,16 II. T. velutina x T. grandiflora presented the most irregular meiosis, with mean pairing relationships of 6,94 I, 6,42 II an 0,05 IV. The three hybrids were sterile. The genome constitution of T. orientalis is AºAºBBBºBº and of T. grandiflora is Cg Cg. On the basis of chromosome associations in the hybrids, we propose the genomic formula AAAvAvCvCv for T. velutina. One genome of T. orientalis is similar to one of the three genomes of T. velutina. The latter species shows one genome similar to the genome of T. grandiflora. Both T. orientalis and T. velutina are segmentary alohexaploids
    Hemos hibridizado dos especies hexaploides (2n = 6x = 30 T. orientalis y T. velutina y una especie diploide (2n = 2x = 10, T. grandiflora. Estas especies habían meiosis regular la formación de 15 II de la hexaploides y 5 11 diploide el. Una hexaploide, 2n = 6x = 30 (T. orientalis x T. velutina, un pentaploide, 2n = 5x = 25 (T. orientalis x T. grandiflora y un tetraploide, 2n = 4x = 20 (x T. velutina T . grandiflora híbridos se han obtenido y estudiado citológicamente para disuadir a sus relaciones INE genómica.comportamiento meiótico en el T. orientalis x T. velutina híbridos fue muy irregular, con muchos cromosomas rezagados y puentes en AI y AII. relaciones de asociación media fueron 10,38 I, II, 9,66, 0,07 y 0,03 III, IV. El híbrido T. orientalisx grandiflora T. presentó la meiosis irregular. relaciones de asociación media fueron 14,66 I y II 5,16. T. velutina x grandiflora T. presentó la meiosis más irregular, con una media de relaciones de asociación de 6,94 I, II y IV 6,42 0,05. Los tres híbridos eran estériles. La constitución del genoma de T. orientalis es A º A º BBB º B º y de T. grandiflora es Cg Cg. Sobre la base de las asociaciones de cromosomas en los híbridos, se propone la fórmula genómica AAAvAvCvCv de T. velutina. Un genoma de T. orientalis es similar a uno de los tres genomas de T. velutina. Esta última especie muestra un genoma similar al genoma de T. grandiflora. Tanto T. orientalis y T. velutina alohexaploids segmentaria

  7. Antimicrobial Synergic Effect of Allicin and Silver Nanoparticles on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for a number of botanical extracts including Salvia officinalis,. Eucalyptus globulus, Coleus forskohlii, Arctostaphylos uva‑ursi, Coptis chinensis, Turnera diffusa, Anemopsis californica, Larrea tridentata and A. sativum.[15] Similarly, the methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum, Crocus sativus and Nerium oleander as well as ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15630-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chromosome 25. 59 4e-07 (Q7M9C0) RecName: Full=Magnesium transport protein corA; &BX571... 59 5e-07 BA000043_1584(...T7901, com... 47 0.002 (Q8D2T1) RecName: Full=Magnesium transport protein corA; &BA000... 47 0.002 CP000469_647(...AAC00-1, com... 45 0.011 ( Q58439 ) RecName: Full=Magnesium transport protein corA; &H6442... 45 0.011 CR543861_362(...subsp. doyl... 39 0.45 (Q66FY7) RecName: Full=Magnesium transport protein corA; &(Q8ZA... 39 0.45 AE017180_3302(...gryphiswaldens... 39 0.76 (Q65VT3) RecName: Full=Magnesium transport protein corA; &AE016... 39 0.76 CP000712_3602(

  9. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  10. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

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    Verloove, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum chrysotrichum, Tecoma stans, Tipuana tipu, Urochloa mutica, U. plantaginea y Washingtonia se citan por primera vez para las Islas Canarias, mientras que Alopecurus myosuroides, Amaranthus blitoides, Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Heliotropium curassavicum, Leonotis nepetifolia, Medicago lupulina, Parkinsonia aculeata, Physalis peruviana, Phytolacca americana y Turnera ulmifolia son nuevas para la flora de la isla de Gran Canaria. Finalmente, se confirma la presencia de Paspalum vaginatum, P. distichum y Cortaderia selloana en Gran Canaria.Trabajos recientes de campo en Gran Canaria han facilitado el descubrimiento de nuevas localidades para plantas vasculares no nativas. Agave attenuata, Antigonon leptopus, Atriplex nummularia, Cascabela thevetia, Cenchrus echinatus, Cuscuta campestris, Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Dysphania anthelmintica (hasta ahora confundida con D. ambrosioides, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gossypium barbadense, Lablab purpureus, Lemna minuta, Opuntia leucotricha, Passiflora edulis, Pennisetum glaucum, Phaseolus acutifolius, Pluchea carolinensis, Prosopis juliflora, Salvia microphylla, Schinus terebinthifolius, Senna spectabilis, Solanum

  11. Atividade biológica de extratos de espécies do Rio Grande do Norte em sementes de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sely Silveira Maia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 O objetivo no presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de várias espécies na germinação e crescimento de plântulas de alface. Foram utilizados seis extratos: E1 – flores de Turnera subulata Smith, E2 - folhas de Turnera subulata Smith, E3 – folhas de Croton sonderianus Muell. Arg,  E4 – folhas de Ipomoea asarifolia (Ders. Roem. & Schult., E5 – flores de Ipomoea triloba L., E6 – flores de Centrosema brasilianum L. Benth. e E7 – testemunha. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições com 20 sementes. As características avaliadas foram a porcentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação, o comprimento da parte aérea e o comprimento da raiz.  Os extratos E5, E1, E2 e E6, promoveram efeito negativo no IVG. O desenvolvimento das radículas de plântulas de alface foi mais afetado na presença dos extratos E5 e E6. O extrato E5 tem efeito alelopático negativo sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface e o extrato E3 tem efeito positivo no comprimento da raiz das plântulas. Os efeitos alopáticos dos extratos foram mais evidentes no índice de velocidade de germinação e desenvolvimento das plântulas. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  12. Bee community of a beach dune ecosystem on Maranhão Island, Brazil

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    Patricia Maia Correia de Albuquerque

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The bee-plant community in a beach dune ecosystem in north-eastern of Brazil was studied concerning phenology and floral preference. The bees visited thirty-three species of 20 families of plants. The most visited species were Vernonia arenaria (Asteraceae, Chamaecrista hispidula (Caesalpiniaceae, Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae and Turnera melochioides (Turneraceae. Fifty-five percent of plants presented an annual or long flowering period (from 5 to 7 months. The largest number of species blooming was observed from March to August (dry season, corresponding to the period of greatest abundance and diversity of bees. Based on the range of floral sources used by the dominant bees, three guilds of bees were noted: bees with a restricted range of floral sources: Melitoma segmentaria, Centris tarsata, Centris flavifrons, Ceratinula sp.; moderate generalists: Megachile (Leptorachis sp., Euglossa cordata, Augochlorella sp., Eulaema nigrita and Xylocopa frontalis; and generalists: Xylocopa cearensis, Apis mellifera, Exomalopsis analis and Pseudaugochloropsis pandora.A comunidade de abelhas silvestres de um ecossistema de dunas de praia do nordeste do Brasil foi estudada quanto a fenologia e preferência por recursos florais. As abelhas visitaram trinta e três espécies de 20 familias de plantas. As espécies mais visitadas foram Vernonia arenaria (Asteraceae, Chamaecrista hispidula (Caesalpiniaceae, Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae e Turnera melochioides (Turneraceae. Cinquenta e cinco porcento das plantas apresentaram um padrão de florescimento anual ou longo (de 5 a 7 meses. O maior número de espécies floridas foi observada de março a agosto (estação seca, que é o período de maior abundância e diversidade de abelhas. Com base na utilização dos recursos florais pelas abelhas predominantes, três guildas foram observadas: abelhas com uma utilização restrita de recursos polínicos: Melitoma segmentaria, Centris tarsata, Centris

  13. Dispersal of deep-sea larvae from the intra-American seas: simulations of trajectories using ocean models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Craig M; He, Ruoying; Emlet, Richard B; Li, Yizhen; Qian, Hui; Arellano, Shawn M; Van Gaest, Ahna; Bennett, Kathleen C; Wolf, Maya; Smart, Tracey I; Rice, Mary E

    2012-10-01

    Using data on ocean circulation with a Lagrangian larval transport model, we modeled the potential dispersal distances for seven species of bathyal invertebrates whose durations of larval life have been estimated from laboratory rearing, MOCNESS plankton sampling, spawning times, and recruitment. Species associated with methane seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and/or Barbados included the bivalve "Bathymodiolus" childressi, the gastropod Bathynerita naticoidea, the siboglinid polychaete tube worm Lamellibrachia luymesi, and the asteroid Sclerasterias tanneri. Non-seep species included the echinoids Cidaris blakei and Stylocidaris lineata from sedimented slopes in the Bahamas and the wood-dwelling sipunculan Phascolosoma turnerae, found in Barbados, the Bahamas, and the Gulf of Mexico. Durations of the planktonic larval stages ranged from 3 weeks in lecithotrophic tubeworms to more than 2 years in planktotrophic starfish. Planktotrophic sipunculan larvae from the northern Gulf of Mexico were capable of reaching the mid-Atlantic off Newfoundland, a distance of more than 3000 km, during a 7- to 14-month drifting period, but the proportion retained in the Gulf of Mexico varied significantly among years. Larvae drifting in the upper water column often had longer median dispersal distances than larvae drifting for the same amount of time below the permanent thermocline, although the shapes of the distance-frequency curves varied with depth only in the species with the longest larval trajectories. Even species drifting for >2 years did not cross the ocean in the North Atlantic Drift.

  14. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in the community of Curral Velho, Luís Correia, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairla Lima Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants as medication in the state of Piauí, Brazil, has been a common practice passed from generation to generation. This study aimed to analyze the use of medicinal plants by residents of the community Curral Velho, in the municipality of Luís Correia, northern Piauí, Brazil, contributing to register and preserve the traditional botanical knowledge of the community under study and, as a consequence, the state’s. The survey of plant species used as a therapeutic resource was conducted through interviews with a semi-structured questionnaire applied to 38 informants. The plants were collected for scientific identification. Use value (UV, informant consensus factor (ICF, and relative importance (RI of species were determined. We registered 62 species, belonging to 38 families and 57 genera, and the Fabaceae family stood out. Aristolochia triangularis, Petiveria alliaceae, and Stachytarpheta cayennensis had the highest use values (UV = 3.0, and Turnera subulata was the most versatile. Out of the 10 bodily systems identified, those with higher concentration of medicinal species are related to the most ordinary illnesses as general signs (inflammation, fever, respiratory tract diseases, and genitourinary tract diseases. This survey enabled the identification of some relevant aspects concerning the use and knowledge of medicinal plants in the community under study. The diversity of medicinal plants known and the availability of plants in the very community suggest a correlation between use/knowledge of medicinal plants and their availability.

  15. Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Roman-Ramos, R; Flores-Saenz, J L; Aguirre-Garcia, F

    2002-06-01

    The hypoglycaemic activities of four water ethanol extracts (WEE) prepared from Bidens pilosa L., Salvia officinalis L., Psacalium peltatum H.B.K. (Cass) and Turnera diffusa Willd. were investigated in healthy and alloxan-diabetic mice. The WEE of S. officinalis significantly reduced the blood glucose of fasting normal mice 120 (15.7%) and 240 min (30.2%) after intraperitoneal administration (p peltatum and B. pilosa also significantly diminished glycaemia in healthy mice at 240 min (19.6% and 13.8%, respectively). In mildly diabetic mice, the WEE of P. peltatum lowered the basal blood glucose level 120 (16%) and 240 min (54%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The WEE of B. pilosa and S. officinalis also significantly diminished the hyperglycaemia in mildly diabetic mice at 240 mins (32.6% and 22.7%, respectively). The administration of these three extracts to animals with severe hyperglycaemia did not cause a significant decrease. The WEE of T. diffusa did not show any hypoglycaemic activity. Thus, three of the WEE studied conserved the hypoglycaemic activity originally detected in the traditional preparations of the studied antidiabetic plants. It appears that these extracts require the presence of insulin to show hypoglycaemic activity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the insecticidal activity of essential oils and their mixtures against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Natalia Ríos

    Full Text Available Abstract The search for new insecticides to control dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika vectors has gained relevance in the past decades. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal action of essential oils (EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus globulus, Cymbopogon nardus, Cymbopogon martinii, Lippia alba, Pelargonium graveolens, Turnera diffusa, and Swinglea glutinosa on Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The chemical components of the EOs were identified by linear retention indices and mass spectra. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 were determined by probit analysis using larvae of Ae. aegypti between the third and the fourth instars. All EOs achieved larvicidal activity at LC50 values lower than 115 mg/L. The lowest LC50 value (45.73 mg/L corresponded to T. vulgaris EO, whereas C. martinii EO showed the highest LC50 (LC50 = 114.65 mg/L. Some EO mixtures showed lower LC50 than oils used individually, such as the mixtures of L. origanoides + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 38.40 mg/L, T. diffusa + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 63.71 mg/L, and L. alba + S. glutinosa (LC50 = 48.87 mg/L. The main compounds of the EOs with highest larvicidal activity were thymol (42% and p-cymene (26.4%.

  17. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

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    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  18. Uso de plantas com finalidade medicinal por pessoas vivendo com HIV/ AIDS em terapia antirretroviral Use of plants with medicinal purposes by people living with HIV/ AIDS on antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Maria de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo observacional, transversal analítico realizado em ambulatório de referência do Estado do Maranhão-Brasil, no período de maio de 2009 a fevereiro de 2010, com o objetivo de estudar o uso de plantas com finalidade medicinal entre pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS, em uso de antirretrovirais. Um total de 339 pessoas respondeu um questionário abordando o uso de plantas e características demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais, relacionadas à soropositividade e ao uso de antirretrovirais. A prevalência de utilização de plantas foi de 34,81%. As mais utilizadas foram: Turnera ulmifolia (12,09%; Melissa officinalis (10,62%; Plectranthus barbatus (7,67%; Cymbopogan citratus (capim limão (4,72% e Mentha spp. (hortelã (2,36%. A maioria das pessoas (96,61% referiu melhora após a utilização. Um percentual de 75,42% dos usuários de plantas não informou essa prática ao médico. Entre os que informaram o uso, 55,17% afirmaram que o médico estava de acordo e somente uma pessoa foi orientada a interromper o uso (3,45%. Apenas um médico (3,45% indicou o uso de plantas. A análise ajustada evidenciou diferença para uso de plantas em relação ao sexo feminino (RP=1,58, 95% IC 1,15-2,15 p 0,004 e à orientação sexual do tipo homossexual (RP=0,63 IC 0,44-0,90 p 0,012. Este estudo aponta para a necessidade de melhor diálogo entre médico e pacientes sobre o uso de plantas com finalidade medicinal, alertando sobre possíveis perigos quando associados aos antirretrovirais, especialmente entre usuários do sexo feminino ou com prática do tipo homossexual.It is an observational, analytic study, developed at a hospital in Maranhao-Brazil, from May-2009 to February-2010. The objective was to study the use of plants with medicinal purpose in people living with HIV/AIDS and using retroviral therapy. A total of 339 (three hundred and thirty-nine people answered a questionnaire about the use of plants and demographic