Sample records for teratology

  1. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate. (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael


    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. 40 CFR 79.63 - Fertility assessment/teratology. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fertility assessment/teratology. 79.63... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.63 Fertility assessment/teratology. (a) Purpose. Fertility assessment/teratology is an in vivo study designed to provide...

  3. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn? (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Schepens-Franke, A N; van Asten, J J A; Bosboom, D G H; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K; Kozicz, T L; Ruiter, D J; Oostra, R-J; Klein, W M


    To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all. In order to verify diagnoses and to enrich their educational and scientific value, we imaged 41 out of the 72 teratological specimens present in the collection of our Anatomy and Pathology Museum in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Additionally, contemporary dysmorphological insights and 3D models are implemented in the teratology education of medical students and residents. Full-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value. • To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections • To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens • To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens • To recognise specific internal dysmorphology in several congenital anomalies.

  4. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.L.; Schepens-Franke, A.N.; Asten, J.J.A. van; Bosboom, D.G.H.; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K.; Kozicz, T.; Ruiter, D.J.; Oostra, R.J.; Klein, W.M.


    OBJECTIVES: To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are

  5. [From teratology to mythology: ancient legends]. (United States)

    Stahl, A; Tourame, P


    The mythology of the Greeks and Romans is full of monsters of fiction: giants, cyclops, centaurs, hydras, Gorgons… The accounts of travelers, reproduced in the Natural History of Pline l'Ancien reported the existence, in distant countries, of men with a dog's head (baboons), of men with a single tall foot (sciapode), beings whose face is embedded in the chest (or acephala blemmyes), to which must be added a wide variety of men with no mouth, no nose, or equipped with giant ears or feet turned backwards, as well as hermaphrodites. Teratology reports on monstrous births, which have constituted the factual basis from which the imagination conceived adults whose morphology corresponds to the monsters of legend. Newborns sirenomelia were behind the legend of sciapode and sirens. Cyclopia have inspired the legend of the cyclops. Anencephaly probably explains the description of headless or blemmyes. The genesis of the legend of baboons may have multiple origins: firstly the existence of people suffering from congenital hypertrichosis, on the other hand, the influence of Egyptian mythology where the god Anubis has a dog's head. The acardiac fetus may explain some monstrous forms, features the work of Hieronymus Bosch. The significance of the monsters of legend, their genesis, their persistence through the ages is complex. By approaching teratology, we added a new field of exploration of real monsters of antiquity and Middle Ages. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. An updated history of the Teratology Society. (United States)

    Shepard, Thomas H; Barr, Mason; Brent, Robert L; Hendrickx, Andrew; Kochhar, Devendra; Oakley, Godfrey; Scott, William J; Rogers, John M


    The 49-year history of the Teratology Society is reviewed. An abbreviated history is outlined in table form, with listings of the Warkany Lectures, the Continuing Education Courses, and officers of the society. The original article was updated to include the years 2000 to 2010. A year-by-year description of the events is given, including the scientific and social content of the annual meetings and changes in the business of the society, in many cases using comments from the past presidents. The valuable and unique diversity of the members is discussed and illustrated, presenting the disciplines and main research areas of the presidents. The number of submitted abstracts and the various categories are tabulated, averaging the number and type over successive periods. A significant increase in the number of abstracts dealing with epidemiology and developmental biology is evident. The society's development is compared to that of a human, and the question was asked by Shephard et al. (2000): Have we reached the maturational stage of old age or senescence, or is the society still maturing gracefully? This question needs further discussion by all the members. By 2010, many positive changes are happening to revitalize the society. During the past 50 years, we have developed the scientific basis to prevent birth defects caused by rubella, alcoholism, and folate deficiency, as well as other prenatal exposures. We are now taking advantage of advances in many fields to begin shaping the Teratology Society of the 21st century. We must now engage in political battles to obtain the resources needed to conduct further research and to implement prevention programs, as well as to provide care and rehabilitation for persons with birth defects. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Digital data and the 19th century teratology collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baljet, B.; Oostra, R. J.


    The golden age of descriptive teratology (congenital anomalies) was between 1750 and 1850. During that period, the study of human congenital malformations, especially those dramatic examples designated as 'monsters', attracted special attention. One of the finest collections in this field was Museum

  8. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history. (United States)

    Adams, Jane


    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Thomas H. Shepard, M.D., pioneer in embryology and teratology. (United States)

    Fantel, Alan G; Polifka, Janine E; Oakley, Godfrey P


    Dr. Thomas H. Shepard died on October 3, 2016 at the age of 93. He was a major figure in the fields of teratology, embryonic and fetal pathology, and pediatrics. He was beloved by his colleagues as he was by the many students and fellows whom he taught, mentored and befriended. His contributions to teratology are extraordinary and he is greatly missed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A History of the Teratology Society -With Updates 2000-2010 (United States)

    Background: The 49-year history of the Teratology Society is reviewed. An abbreviated history is outlined in table form, along with listings of the Warkany Lectures, the Continuing Education Courses, and officers of the Society. The original article was updated to include the yea...


    The Teratology Society Public Affairs Committee Symposium was held on June 21, 1998, during the Society's annual meeting in San Diego, California. The symposium was organized and chaired by Dr. Carole Kimmel. The sysmposium was designed to consider the medical, social, and ethi...

  12. The teratology society 2012-2017 strategic plan: pushing the boundaries. (United States)

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Lau, Christopher; Schellpfeffer, Michael A; Stodgell, Christopher J; Carney, Edward W


    The Teratology Society held its fourth strategic planning session in Albuquerque, NM, April 10-12, 2012, and launched the 2012-2017 Strategic Plan in conjunction with the 2012 annual meeting in Baltimore, MD. Building on the energy of the successful implementation of prior strategic plans (San Diego, 2007; Nashville,TN 2002; Cincinnati, OH 1998), session participants worked to identify barriers to success as a scientific society, as well as impending challenges and opportunities to which the Society needs to respond. The following report provides an overview of the Strategic Planning process, objectives, activities, and conclusions. A total of 23 members were present at the session, and the group included representation from Council, various committees, and different member constituencies. This plan, Pushing the Boundaries, and its three strategic intents: Broaden Our Identity, Expand Our Membership, and Increase Our Influence, will drive the direction of the Teratology Society for the next five years. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A core syllabus for the teaching of embryology and teratology to medical students. (United States)

    Fakoya, Francis A; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida; Sharma, Deepak; Moxham, Bernard J


    Clinical relevance in the teaching of biomedical sciences within health care courses presupposes that there is internationally agreed core material within the curricula. However, with the exception of a syllabus for neuroanatomy and gross anatomy of the head and neck for medical students, core syllabuses within many of the specialized anatomical sciences have yet to be developed. The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists aims to formulate internationally accepted core syllabuses for all anatomical sciences disciplines initially using Delphi Panels that comprise anatomists, scientists, and clinicians who evaluate syllabus content. Here, the suggestions of a Delphi Panel for embryology and teratology are presented prior to their publication on the website of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists. Hence, to obtain a more definitive syllabus, it is required that anatomical and embryological/teratological societies, as well as individual anatomists, embryologists and clinicians, freely comment upon, elaborate and amend, this draft syllabus. The goal is to set internationally recognized standards and thereby provide guidelines concerning embryological and teratological knowledge when involved with course development. Clin. Anat. 30:159-167, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Frederik Ruysch (1638–1731): Historical perspective and contemporary analysis of his teratological legacy (United States)

    Boer, Lucas; Radziun, Anna B.


    The Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) in Saint Petersburg is the oldest museum in Russia. It keeps the remains of the anatomical collection of the world‐famous 17th century Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch. This unique collection was bought and shipped in 1717 by Czar Peter the Great, and presently still comprises more than 900 specimens, a modest number of which concerns specimens with congenital anomalies. We searched for teratological clues in the existing collection and in all his descriptions and correspondence regarding specimens and cases he encountered during his career as doctor anatomiae and chief instructor of the surgeons and midwives in Amsterdam. A total of 63 teratological specimens and case descriptions were identified in this legacy, including some exceedingly rare anomalies. As it turns out, Ruysch was the first to describe several of the conditions we encountered, including intracranial teratoma, enchondromatosis, and Majewski syndrome. Although his comments pose an interesting view on how congenital anomalies were scientifically perceived in early 18th century Europe, Ruysch mostly refrained from explaining the causes of the conditions he encountered. Instead, he dedicated himself to careful descriptions of his specimens. Almost 300 years after his demise, Ruysch's legacy still impresses and inspires both scientists and lay men. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27126916

  15. Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731): Historical perspective and contemporary analysis of his teratological legacy. (United States)

    Boer, Lucas; Radziun, Anna B; Oostra, Roelof-Jan


    The Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) in Saint Petersburg is the oldest museum in Russia. It keeps the remains of the anatomical collection of the world-famous 17th century Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch. This unique collection was bought and shipped in 1717 by Czar Peter the Great, and presently still comprises more than 900 specimens, a modest number of which concerns specimens with congenital anomalies. We searched for teratological clues in the existing collection and in all his descriptions and correspondence regarding specimens and cases he encountered during his career as doctor anatomiae and chief instructor of the surgeons and midwives in Amsterdam. A total of 63 teratological specimens and case descriptions were identified in this legacy, including some exceedingly rare anomalies. As it turns out, Ruysch was the first to describe several of the conditions we encountered, including intracranial teratoma, enchondromatosis, and Majewski syndrome. Although his comments pose an interesting view on how congenital anomalies were scientifically perceived in early 18th century Europe, Ruysch mostly refrained from explaining the causes of the conditions he encountered. Instead, he dedicated himself to careful descriptions of his specimens. Almost 300 years after his demise, Ruysch's legacy still impresses and inspires both scientists and lay men. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Teratologic cranio-encephalic effects of chronic thinner inhalation in progenitors, in rats and humans]. (United States)

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Villeda-Hernández, J; Méndez-Armenta, M


    Inhalation of thinner by youngsters and adolescents is an increasing drug abuse problem in Mexico. It presents serious repercussions upon socio-economic, cultural, legal and health (neurologic and psychiatric) problems. We report a comparative study in humans and rats which demonstrate the embryotoxic and craneo encephalic teratologic effects in the children and brood of progenitors who have chronically inhaled thinner (in the case of pregnant women, before, at the beginning and throughout pregnancy). Inhaled thinner passes directly to the blood stream and crosses the placentary barrier freely reaching the embryo. It may cause craneal bone and partial or total encephalon agenesia, added to macro and microscopic lesions secondary to direct aggression to the neuroepithelial germ cells. Abortions and premature labor with weight and size underdeveloped products and placentary hemorrhages occur. Usually these die, but if they survive they show trascendental mental retardation, as well as neurologic and psychiatric sequels.

  17. Rapid and simple procedure for visualization of amphibian skeletons for teratological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, S.M. Jr.; Dugan, T.S.; Dumont, J.N.


    A method for Alizarin red S and Alcian blue 8GX double staining of ossified and cartilagenous skeletal components has been developed for late larval and newly metamorphosed stages of Xenopus laevis. This technique, which utilizes fixed specimens, employs hydrogen peroxide bleaching, potassium hydroxide maceration, and ethanol/glycerin clearing, has proved convenient with many possible stopping points and the capability of producing assayable skeletons in only two and one-half days. The method routinely produces stained skeletons with excellent contrast and brilliant colors for photographics. This procedure was developed in conjunction with the use of late larvae of Xenopus as teratological test animals. The sensitivity and uniformity of response of this biological system and the capabilities of this skeletal technique provide an excellent system for the study of teratogenic effects on the development of ossified bone and skeletal conformation.

  18. Effects of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on general reproductive performance and teratology in rats. (United States)

    Mello, Fernanda B; Jacobus, Daniela; Carvalho, Kelly; Mello, João R B


    Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) possesses several medicinal properties and it is used in folk medicine with antipyretic, antimicrobial and antimutagenic properties. This plant is one of the 10 most noxious weeds in the world. Lantana poisoning have caused severe economic losses and was the major cause of livestock mortality and morbidity. In this article we report the effects of hydroalcoholic extract from Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves on fertility, general reproductive performance and teratology in the rat. The data showed that the extract interfered in the frequency of fetal skeleton anomalies from dams treated with the extract and induced embryotoxicity as indicated by post-implantation loss, without any signs of maternal toxicity. The other parameters evaluated did not suggest modifications.

  19. The role of teratology information services in screening for teratogenic exposures: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Chambers, Christina


    Teratology Information Services (TIS) located throughout the world have long played a key role in screening for potential new human teratogens. Using a basic prospective cohort study design, TIS recruit pregnant women from among callers to the Services who have had an exposure of interest and at the same time identify an unexposed comparison group from the same pool of callers. Women in both groups are followed to pregnancy outcome and a range of adverse outcomes including major congenital anomalies, birth size, pregnancy loss, and preterm delivery are evaluated, while controlling for potential confounding. Particularly for rare exposures or newly marketed medications, TIS may be uniquely suited to gathering this information in a timely and efficient fashion. The primary limitation of these studies is the unknown representativeness of the volunteer sample, and the typical small to moderate sample sizes. Methods to increase the proportion of exposed pregnancies that are recruited should be developed. However, small sample size TIS studies, especially when considering new or rare exposures, often fulfill the important function of providing some reassurance to women who have already had the exposure of interest by ruling out major risks for teratogenicity, that is, on the order of thalidomide. Collaborations across TIS nationally and internationally help to address the sample size challenges. A formal collaboration between the TIS cohort study model with a case-control study design is also underway and will provide complementary strengths. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Studies of the toxicological potential of capsinoids: IX. Teratology studies of dihydrocapsiate in rats and rabbits. (United States)

    Bernard, Bruce K; Watanabe, Eri; Kodama, Terutaka; Tsubuku, Shoji; Otabe, Akira; Ikeya, Masamichi; Matsuoka, Tetsuya; Masuyama, Takeshi


    In order to determine the safety of dihydrocapsiate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl 8-methylnonanoate; CAS no. 205687-03-2), teratology studies were conducted in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (18 to 20 animals per group) and pregnant New Zealand white rabbits (20 to 21 animals per group). The test substance was administered by gavage for 11 days, from days 7 to 17 of gestation in rats, and for 13 days from days 6 to 18 of gestation in rabbits, at dose levels of 0 (vehicle), 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day. In the rat study, no deaths occurred in any group and there were no test substance-related changes or abnormalities in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, or gross pathological findings. There were no test substance-related changes in the number of corpora lutea, number of implantations, index of implantations, index of embryofetal deaths, and number, sex ratio, or body weight of live fetuses at the end of the gestation period and there were no abnormalities in the placentae of live fetuses. There were no test substance-related abnormalities or variations in the external, skeletal, or visceral examinations of live fetuses. There were no abnormalities in ossification. En toto, it was concluded there were no teratogenic effects in the rat study. In the rabbit study, there were no test substance-related effects on clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, or necropsy findings in any group. There were neither test substance-related abortions nor test substance-related effects on the number of corpora lutea, number of implantations, or implantation index in any group. There were no test substance-related effects on the number of dead embryos/fetuses, the number, sex ratio, or body weight of live fetuses, or gross pathological finding of placentae. There were no test substance-related external abnormalities, or incidence of visceral or skeletal abnormalities or variations, and there were no test substance-related effects on the progress of ossification in any

  1. Teratology studies of lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: Effects of lewisite in rats and rabbits: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Sasser, L B; Rommereim, R L; Cushing, J A; Buschbom, R L; Kalkwarf, D R


    Lewisite was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Maternal animals were weighed periodically, and, at necropsy (20 dg (days of gestation) in rats and 30 dg in rabbits), were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performances; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defect. In rats, a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg did not induce toxic or teratogenic responses in maternal and fetal body weights and a significant reduction in the number if viable fetuses were evident. In rabbit studies maternal mortality occurred in all but one of the lewisite treatment groups and ranged from 13% to 100% at dose levels of 0.07 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. This mortality rate limited the sample size and impaired the detection of statistical significance among treatments. However, at the lowest dose level of the teratology study (0.07 mg/kg, maternal mortality was the only indicator of lewisite toxicity; at the highst dose (0.6 mg/kg), significant findings included 86% maternal mortality, a decrease in maternal body weight gains and an increase in the incidence of fetal stunting, although only a tendency in decreased fetal body weights was observed. These results suggest that maternal mortality was the most important factor in predicting the induction of maternal and fetal effects and, therfore, a ''no observable effect level'' in maternal animals and their fetuses would be between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg in rats and less than 0.07 mg/kg in rabbits. 50 refs., 6 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Teratology studies of lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: Effects of lewisite in rats and rabbits: Final report: Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Cushing, J.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Kalkwarf, D.R.


    Lewisite was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Maternal animals were weighed periodically, and, at necropsy (20 dg (days of gestation) in rats and 30 dg in rabbits), were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performances; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg did not induce toxic or teratogenic responses in maternal animals or their fetuses. At 2.0 mg/kg, 10% maternal mortality, trends in decreased maternal and fetal body weights and a significant reduction in the number of viable fetuses were evident. In rabbit studies, maternal mortality occured in all but one of the lewisite treatment groups and range from 13% to 100% at dose levels of 0.07 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. This mortality rate limited the sample size and impaired the detection of statistical significance among treatments. However, at the lowest dose level of the teratology study (0.07 mg/kg), maternal mortality was the only indicator of lewisite toxicity; at the highest dose (0.6 mg/kg), significant findings included 86% maternal mortality, a decrease in maternal body weight gains and an increase in the incidence of fetal stunting, although only a tendency in decreased fetal body weights was observed. These results suggest that maternal mortality was the most important factor in predicting the induction of maternal and fetal effects and, therefore, a ''no observable effect level'' in maternal animals and their fetuses would be between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg in rats and less than 0.07 mg/kg in rabbits. Part 2 contains 6 appendices.

  3. A glance at Spanish embryology and teratology during the XX century through the academic life of Francisco Orts-Llorca (1905-1993). (United States)

    Aréchaga, Juan; Jiménez-Collado, Juan; Ruano-Gil, Domingo


    Francisco Ort-Llorca (1905-1993) was one of the most outstanding Spanish embryologists of the XX century. He was disciple of Henri Rouvire in Paris (France), Alfred Fischel in Vienna (Austria), Walther Vogt in Munich (Germany) and Pedro Ara in Madrid (Spain). From 1935, he was professor of Human Anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine of Cadiz, belonged then to the University of Seville (accidentally, in the University of Valencia, during the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1939) and, later on, at the Faculty of Medicine of Madrid (Complutense University) from 1954 to 1975. He was internationally recognized in anatomical sciences and stood out for his contributions to descriptive and experimental Embryology and Teratology, particularly in those aspects connected to the normal and pathological development of the heart and visual organs.

  4. Who seeks Teratology Information Service's advice? Assessing the risk of selection bias in observational cohort studies on drug risks in pregnancy. (United States)

    Beck, Evelin; Lechner, Anna; Schaefer, Christof


    All women of reproductive age should have access to Teratology Information Services (TIS). Observational cohort studies based on TIS data are one of the most important sources for risk characterization of drugs during pregnancy. A selection in TIS populations towards higher socioeconomic level would compromise the TIS' goal of health prevention and the quality of research. The aim of this study is to investigate in which respect Berlin TIS enquirers are different from the general female population of reproductive age in Germany. 5,239 women aged between 20 and 39 were compared with the general female population of reproductive age in Germany. Medium- and high-level educated women tend to be overrepresented among TIS enquirers. TIS should strive towards reaching subpopulations with poor access to health care. TIS-based observational studies require appropriate comparison cohorts from the same data pool with similar procedures of ascertainment to reduce the risk of selection bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies of the toxicological potential of capsinoids: IV. Teratology studies of CH-19 Sweet extract in rats and rabbits. (United States)

    Bernard, Bruce K; Watanabe, Eri; Kodama, Terutaka; Tsubuku, Shoji; Otabe, Akira; Katsumata, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Tetsuya; Masuyama, Takeshi


    In order to evaluate the safety of CH-19 Sweet extract that contains capsinoids, teratology studies were conducted in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (20 rats per group) and pregnant New Zealand white rabbits (17 to 22 animals per group). The test substance was administered to rats by gavage for 11 days on gestation days 7 to 17 at doses of 0 (vehicle), 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 ml/kg and to rabbits for 13 days on gestation days 6 to 18 at doses of 0 (vehicle), 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ml/kg. As the concentration of capsinoids in CH-19 Sweet extract was 72.2 to 75.05 mg/ml, the resulting dose of capsinoids administered to rats was 90.25, 180.5, and 361 mg/kg, and to rabbits was 18.76, 37.53, and 75.05 mg/kg in the vehicle, low-, mid-, and high-dose groups, respectively. In the rat study, no deaths occurred in any group and there were no test substance-related changes or abnormalities in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, or gross pathological findings. There were no test substance-related changes in the number of corpora lutea, number or index of implantations, index of embryofetal deaths, number of live fetuses, sex ratio, fetal body weight at the end of the gestation period, or abnormalities in the placenta of live fetuses. There were no test substance-related abnormalities or variations in the external, skeletal, or visceral examinations of live fetuses. It was concluded that the test article caused neither teratogenic effects nor abnormalities in the progression of ossification. In the rabbit study, there were no test substance-related effects on clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, or necropsy findings. There were neither test substance-related abortions nor test substance-related effects on the number of corpora lutea, or number or index of implantations. There were no test substance-related effects on the number of dead embryos/fetuses, the number of live fetuses, sex ratio, body weight of live fetuses, or gross pathological finding in the placentas

  6. Experimental methods in behavioral teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, G.


    Efforts are made to develop toxicological techniques with which new behavioral teratogens can be recognized. The review describes the most important experimental methods which are presently explored, and which are based on a rich body of knowledge accumulated by experimental psychologists. Most of the tests were developed with small animals, mostly with rats. They range from the rather straightforward determination of various reflexes to complex behavioral situations involving mechanical devices, operant conditioning techniques and procedures evaluating social behavior. In applying these methods in routine toxicology, it is important to remember, that many behavioral effects determined in newborn and adult animals are subtle. Moreover, they are influenced by a large variety of environmental factors affecting the health and the behavior of the mothers and of the offspring in the early and later phases of development. Therefore, the experiments must be conducted under highly standardized conditions and must be controlled rigorously. It is concluded that the best experimental strategy for the evaluation of potential behavioral teratogens is not yet established. Therefore, it would be premature to decide on a fixed protocol to be included in routine animal safety experiments for drugs and other chemical substances.

  7. Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists. Summary of a symposium presented at the annual meeting of the neurobehavioral teratology society, June, 2009. (United States)

    Bushnell, Philip J; Kavlock, Robert J; Crofton, Kevin M; Weiss, Bernard; Rice, Deborah C


    The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy based upon in vitro tests, in silico models and evaluations of toxicity at the human population level. These goals are intended to set in motion changes that will transform risk assessment into a process in which adverse effects on public health are predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and data from suites of high-throughput in vitro tests. The potential roles for whole-animal testing in this futuristic vision are both various and undefined. A symposium was convened at the annual meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico in June, 2009 to discuss the potential challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists in developing and/or altering this strategy toward the ultimate goal of protecting public health from hazardous chemicals. R. Kavlock described the NRC vision, introduced the concept of the 'toxicity pathway' (a central guiding principle of the NRC vision), and described the current status of an initial implementation this approach with the EPA's ToxCast(R) program. K. Crofton described a pathway based upon disruption of thyroid hormone metabolism during development, including agents, targets, and outcomes linked by this mode of action. P. Bushnell proposed a pathway linking the neural targets and cellular to behavioral effects of acute exposure to organic solvents, whose predictive power is limited by our incomplete understanding of the complex CNS circuitry that mediates the behavioral responses to solvents. B. Weiss cautioned the audience regarding a pathway approach to toxicity testing, using the example of the developmental toxicity of phthalates, whose effects on mammalian sexual differentiation would

  8. Toxicological and teratological studies of azanidazole. (United States)

    Tammiso, R; Olivari, G; Coccoli, C; Garzia, G; Vittadini, G


    A toxicological study of 4-[(E)-2-(1-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethenyl]-2-pyrimidinamine (azanidazole, Triclose), a new systemic antitrichomonas agent, was run in laboratory animals in order to evaluate its safety. Studies also covered the effects of azanidazole on reproduction in rats treated prior to mating, on fetal development in rabbits and rats, and on fetal survival and growth in rats treated with it during late pregnancy and lactation. The obtained data indicate that azanidazole was well tolerated when administered as a single dose or repeated daily doses for six months. Furthermore, no adverse reproductive effects and no evidence of teratogenic activity were observed in all of the tested animal species. Survival indices were not affected, and body weight of progeny was normal in all studies on reproduction and peri- and post-natal toxicity.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology. (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.


    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Akbulut


    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio has easy reproductive capacity and transparent embryos and therefore generally preffered for scientific studies as a vertebrate model. Because of bisphenol A is produced too much and used for making plastics, many organisms including human are exposed to this substance. Bisphenol A has estrogenic activity and thus it effects fertility. So, in our study, effects of low doses of bisphenol A (4mg/L and 8 mg/L on embryo and larva development was investigated.

  11. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.


    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents. Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits (United States)


    objective. The purpose of our study was to determine developmental effects in pregnant rats and rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard during the gesta ...gain depression during gesta - tion, or because of fetal failure to gain weight or secondary fetal immaturity as a result of large litter size. Retarded

  13. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.


    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. In ovo toxico-teratological effects of aluminum on embryonic chick heart and vascularization. (United States)

    ElMazoudy, Reda H; Bekhet, Gamal A


    In spite of extensive research and persistent arguments, the mechanism of aluminum (Al) toxicity is still obscure. It is firmly established that aluminum is a potent neurotoxicant. So, the aim based on is aluminum damage chicken heart, as well as the vitelline circulation. In the first 3 days of incubation (D0-D2), 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg aluminum chloride/0.3 ml avian saline was injected into the center of each viable fertilized egg yolk (AL1, AL2, and AL3 groups, respectively). Control eggs were either uninjected (AL0) or injected (ALS, 0.3 ml saline). Crown rump length was significantly decreased, while, embryonic mortalities, growth delay, as well as congenital heart defects were increased in the eggs injected 2.0 or 4.0 mg of Al. Although no relationship is clear about the embryonic mortality induced by Al in chicken embryos to the dose concentration, the higher mortality occurs in early developmental stages in developing chick embryos. Furthermore, chick embryos exposed to 4.0 mg/Al showed a high incidence of defects of ventricular septation and ventricular myocardium. Configuration and density of branched vitelline vessels were also significantly deteriorated after injection with 4.0 mg/Al. It concluded that Al is a cardiac teratogen for a chick in a dose-dependent way. These data highlight a novel approach for aluminum in congenital cardiovascular defects. Therefore, further research is needed to explain the teratogenicity of Al on the embryonic heart development.

  15. Embryo culture in teratological surveillance and serum proteins in development. Progress report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, N.W.


    Research progress for the period 1979-1980 is reported. The feasibility of using rat embryo cultures to test the teratogenic activity of serum was studied. The mechanisms regulating the synthesis of serum proteins were investigated. (ACR)

  16. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of n-hexane in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.


    Gestational exposure to n-hexane resulted in an increase in the number of resorbed fetuses for exposure groups relative to the control group; however, the increases were not directly correlated to exposure concentration. The differences were statistically significant for the 200-ppM with respect to total intrauterine death (early plus late resorptions), and with respect to late resorptions for the 5000-ppM group. A small, but statistically significant, reduction in female (but not male) fetal body weight relative to the control group was observed at the 5000-ppM exposure level. There were no exposure-related increases in any individual fetal malformation or variation, nor was there any increase in the incidence of combined malformations or variations. Gestational exposure of CD-1 mice to n-hexane vapors appeared to cause a degree of concentration-related developmental toxicity in the absence of overt maternal toxicity, but the test material was not found to be teratogenic. This developmental toxicity was manifested as an increase in the number of resorptions per litter for all exposure levels, and as a decrease in the uterine: extra-gestational weight gain ratio at the 5000-ppM exposure level. Because of the significant increase in the number of resorptions at the 200-ppM exposure level, a no observable effect level (NOEL) for developmental toxicity was not established for exposure of mice to 200, 1000 or 5000-ppM n-hexane vapors. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of n-hexane in rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.


    The straight chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent used in industrial, academic, and smaller commercial environments. The significant opportunity for women of child-bearing age to be exposed to this chemical prompted the undertaking of a study to assess the developmental toxicity of n-hexane in an animal model. Timed-pregnant (30 animals per group) and virgin (10 animals per group) Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0 (filtered air), 200, 1000, and 5000 ppM n-hexane (99.9% purity) vapor in inhalation chambers for 20 h/day for a period of 14 consecutive days. Sperm-positive females were exposed for 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg) and virgins were exposed concurrently for 14 consecutive days. The day of sperm detection was designated as 0 dg for mated females. Adult female body weights were monitored prior to, throughout the exposure period, and at sacrifice. Uterine, placental, and fetal body weights were obtained for gravid females at sacrifice. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded as live fetus, early or late resorption, or dead. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 16 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Quantitative indicators of teratological variability of Kazakhstan tulips in nature and in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivashchenko


    Full Text Available Тhe various ability to form anomalies in 26 species of wild tulips based on years of research was established. Species with minimal (less than 1.5% and the maximum inclination to teratogenesis (≤ 3.5% were identified. Also the different degrees of increasing in the number of teratomas (from double to ten times in the conditions of introduction of different species were found.

  19. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.


    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  20. Identifying Key Events in AOPs for Embryonic Disruption using Computational Toxicology (European Teratology Society - AOP symp.) (United States)

    Addressing safety aspects of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing; however, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation require alternative approaches to traditional animal studies. Newer in vitro and in s...

  1. Cytogenetic and teratological effects of mancozeb pre natal exposure on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Castro


    Full Text Available Studies were conducted on the dam’s fertility and pup viability, litter physical and motor development and chromosomal analysis with female rats exposed to different concentrations of mancozeb, at initial and organogenesis periods of pregnancy. The exposure did not interfere with the pregnant females or their estrous cycle but resulted in retarded physical development, with exception of the vaginal opening and tests descent; which were in advance. The litter body weight was not affected. The examination of swimming performance indicated an initial impairment and a posterior recovery. The observed chromosome damage in dams and pups was found to enhance with the fungicide’s concentration. The results obtained led to the conclusion that even in the absence of maternal signs of toxicity, mancozeb could be related to some genetic damage and teratogenic risk to the population exposed.Foram realizados estudos abordando aspectos relativos a fertilidade, alterações cromossômicas e desenvolvimento da prole de ratas expostas ao fungicida mancozeb em diferentes períodos da prenhez. A exposição não interferiu com a fertilidade ou o ciclo estral das fêmeas, mas ocasionou retardo no desenvolvimento físico dos filhotes, com exceção da descida dos testículos e abertura vaginal que sofreram adiantamento. O peso dos filhotes não foi alterado. O desempenho dos filhotes no teste de natação foi inicialmente prejudicado, mas posteriormente se eqüivaleu ao do grupo controle. Houve ainda alterações cromossômicas, diretamente proporcionais ao aumento da dose empregada. Os resultados indicam que mesmo na ausência de sinais de toxicidade materna, o mancozeb pode estar relacionado a alterações genéticas e risco teratológico nas populações expostas.

  2. In vitro data and in silico models for computational toxicology (Teratology Society ILSI HESI workshop) (United States)

    The challenge of assessing the potential developmental health risks for the tens of thousands of environmental chemicals is beyond the capacity for resource-intensive animal protocols. Large data streams coming from high-throughput (HTS) and high-content (HCS) profiling of biolog...

  3. Commentary: will analyzing the epigenome yield cohesive principles of ethanol teratology? (United States)

    Miranda, Rajesh C


    This commentary discusses the impact of the manuscript by Zhou et al., titled "Alcohol Alters DNA Methylation Patterns and Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Differentiation," published in the April 2011 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (volume 35, issue 4, pages 1-12). In this manuscript, the authors present intriguing evidence from a genome scale analysis of promoter DNA methylation patterns in a class of neural crest stem cells associated with dorsal root ganglia, showing that ethanol essentially prevents epigenetic programming associated with neural stem cell differentiation. This manuscript presents several interesting and novel pieces of data and raises important questions for future research. The implications of these data for our understanding of the etiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.


    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Computational embryology as an integrative platform for predictive DART (45th Conf of Europ Teratology Society) (United States)

    Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. For example, the USEPA lists more than 85,000 chemicals on its inventory of substances that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (T...

  6. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.


    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Effects of perinatal exposure to Zamzam water on the teratological studies of the mice offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel


    Full Text Available Zamzam water is well documented for plenty of medicinal value for curing illness. In the present study, the effects of perinatal consumption of Zamzam and normal drinking water by the pregnant mice on their offspring’s physical parameters, early sensory motor reflexes, locomotor activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the homogenize brain tissue and blood parameters were compared. To achieve that; Zamzam water was given to female Swiss-Webster strain mice as the only source of drinking fluid and the control animals were administered plain tap water. Treatment started from the first day of pregnancy and continued until the postnatal day fifteen of delivery. All offspring were subjected to various tests. The rate of body weight gain remained relatively unaffected until the second week of weaning period, however; in the last week the offspring exposed to Zamzam water gained significant body weight as compared to their control offspring. Furthermore, the opening of eyes and appearance of body hairs in Zamzam exposed pups remained unaffected as compared to the controls. The sensory motor reflexes in Zamzam exposed pups after birth and during the first two weeks of weaning period were significantly increased. Locomotor Activity Test performed in the male and female offspring after weaning period showed a significant decrease in the male and increase in the female on most of the elements of this test due to Zamzam exposure. AChE activity in the homogenized brain tissue and blood parameters were unaffected as compared to the controls, the present Zamzam effects in the offspring are possibly via in utero action and/or via mother’s milk.

  8. Effects of perinatal exposure to Zamzam water on the teratological studies of the mice offspring. (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem Mohammad


    Zamzam water is well documented for plenty of medicinal value for curing illness. In the present study, the effects of perinatal consumption of Zamzam and normal drinking water by the pregnant mice on their offspring's physical parameters, early sensory motor reflexes, locomotor activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the homogenize brain tissue and blood parameters were compared. To achieve that; Zamzam water was given to female Swiss-Webster strain mice as the only source of drinking fluid and the control animals were administered plain tap water. Treatment started from the first day of pregnancy and continued until the postnatal day fifteen of delivery. All offspring were subjected to various tests. The rate of body weight gain remained relatively unaffected until the second week of weaning period, however; in the last week the offspring exposed to Zamzam water gained significant body weight as compared to their control offspring. Furthermore, the opening of eyes and appearance of body hairs in Zamzam exposed pups remained unaffected as compared to the controls. The sensory motor reflexes in Zamzam exposed pups after birth and during the first two weeks of weaning period were significantly increased. Locomotor Activity Test performed in the male and female offspring after weaning period showed a significant decrease in the male and increase in the female on most of the elements of this test due to Zamzam exposure. AChE activity in the homogenized brain tissue and blood parameters were unaffected as compared to the controls, the present Zamzam effects in the offspring are possibly via in utero action and/or via mother's milk.

  9. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.


    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

  10. Use of the cricket embryo (Acheta domesticus) as an invertebrate teratology model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, B.T.


    Embryos of the cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) have been shown by bioassay to develop gross morphological abnormalities after exposure to a number of complex organic mixtures as well as to display a critical period of teratogen sensitivity and an ability to metabolize xenobiotics during development. Because the assay is simple, inexpensive, short-term (less than two weeks), and objective, it could be useful as an in vivo screen in an hierarchical approach to teratogen detection. Further investigation of cricket embryo responses to known teratogens is needed to establish the predictive value of this assay. 25 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Congenital anomalies in the teratological collection of Museum Vrolik in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. II: Skeletal dysplasias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Baljet, B.; Dijkstra, P. F.; Hennekam, R. C.


    The Museum Vrolik collection of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the University of Amsterdam, founded by Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), consists of more than five thousand specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology, and congenital

  12. Zebrafish embryos as models for embryotoxic and teratological effects of chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Lixin; Ho, Nga Yu; Alshut, Rüdiger; Legradi, J.B.; Weiss, Carsten; Reischl, Markus; Mikut, Ralf; Liebel, Urban; Müller, Ferenc; Strähle, Uwe


    The experimental virtues of the zebrafish embryo such as small size, development outside of the mother, cheap maintenance of the adult made the zebrafish an excellent model for phenotypic genetic and more recently also chemical screens. The availability of a genome sequence and several thousand

  13. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft


    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the population......-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 38,151 pregnant women who had babies without any defects (population control group), 2632 (6.9%) had been treated with ampicillin. Of 22,865 pregnant women who had offspring with congenital abnormalities (case patients......), 1643 (7.2%) had been treated with ampicillin (crude odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.2). Of 812 mothers who were delivered of babies affected by Down syndrome (patient control subjects), 61 (7.5%) had ampicillin treatment, and these were also compared with the case group. Results...

  14. Congenital anomalies in the teratological collection of Museum Vrolik in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. V: conjoined and acardiac twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Baljet, B.; Verbeeten, B. W.; Hennekam, R. C.


    The Museum Vrolik collection of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, founded by Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), consists of more than 5,000 specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology,

  15. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the Love Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Cutler, D.S.; Antrim, L.; Houston, D.; Tumasonis, C.; Kaminsky, L.S. (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))


    The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The teratogenic potential of OPL was determined in two inbred and one hybrid mouse strain which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was orally administered in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation to C57BL/6J mice (Ahb/Ahb) at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) females, which were mated with either DBA/2J or C57BL/6J males, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J mice, which express a high-affinity Ah receptor that avidly binds TCDD, the ED50's of OPL for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 0.44 and 0.11 g OPL kg-1 day-1, respectively. Maternal mortality was 5% at the highest dose. In DBA/2J fetuses, which express a low-affinity receptor, neither treatment-related cleft palate nor hydronephrosis was induced by dose levels that caused 36% maternal mortality. In hybrid D2B6F1 fetuses, the incidence of cleft palate reached only 8% at 2 g OPL kg-1 day-1 but the ED50 for hydronephrosis was 0.76 g OPL kg-1 day-1. TCDD was similarly administered to pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 micrograms kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J mice at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 micrograms kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J fetuses, the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 4.6 and 0.73 microgram TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. In DBA/2J fetuses the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 15.0 and 6.4 micrograms TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. Both the OPL and TCDD caused maternal hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy in all strains, but increased only C57BL/6J fetal weights. OPL decreased the number of fetuses per C57BL/6J dam at the two highest doses but there were no other reproductive effects in any of the groups.

  16. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B


    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Lutsevich


    Full Text Available The safe use of drugs during pregnancy is essential to optimize the health of both pregnant woman and her future child. At the same time obstetrician-gynecologists often face the lack of evidence-based information on the use of drugs and leave the issue to the woman herself — whether the treatment benefit to the mother outweighs risks to the unborn child — relying on the limited amount of scientific data. Preconception discussion of actual risks and safe treatment reduces patient fears and maximizes the emphasis on the therapy safety. At the same time, the lack of adequate information on safety for the majority of drugs used by pregnant women combined with the need to make appropriate treatment decisions and communicate drug risk information to a potentially vulnerable population is the most challenging and critical issue of pregnant women's health.

  18. Congenital anomalies in the teratological collection of Museum Vrolik in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. I: Syndromes with multiple congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Baljet, B.; Dijkstra, P. F.; Hennekam, R. C.


    The Museum Vrolik collection of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the University of Amsterdam, founded by Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), consists of more than 5,000 thousand specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology, and congenital

  19. Comparative musculoskeletal anatomy of chameleon limbs, with implications for the evolution of arboreal locomotion in lizards and for teratology. (United States)

    Molnar, Julia L; Diaz, Raul E; Skorka, Tautis; Dagliyan, Grant; Diogo, Rui


    Chameleon species have recently been adopted as models for evo-devo and macroevolutionary processes. However, most anatomical and developmental studies of chameleons focus on the skeleton, and information about their soft tissues is scarce. Here, we provide a detailed morphological description based on contrast enhanced micro-CT scans and dissections of the adult phenotype of all the forelimb and hindlimb muscles of the Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and compare these muscles with those of other chameleons and lizards. We found the appendicular muscle anatomy of chameleons to be surprisingly conservative considering the remarkable structural and functional modifications of the limb skeleton, particularly the distal limb regions. For instance, the zygodactyl autopodia of chameleons are unique among tetrapods, and the carpals and tarsals are highly modified in shape and number. However, most of the muscles usually present in the manus and pes of other lizards are present in the same configuration in chameleons. The most obvious muscular features related to the peculiar opposable autopodia of chameleons are: (1) presence of broad, V-shaped plantar and palmar aponeuroses, and absence of intermetacarpales and intermetatarsales, between the digits separated by the cleft in each autopod; (2) oblique orientation of the superficial short flexors originating from these aponeuroses, which may allow these muscles to act as powerful adductors of the "super-digits"; and (3) well-developed abductor digiti minimi muscles and abductor pollicis/hallucis brevis muscles, which may act as powerful abductors of the "super-digits." © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.


    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  1. Inhibition of trimethadione and dimethadione teratogenicity by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid: a unifying hypothesis for the teratologic effects of hydantoin anticonvulsants and structurally related compounds. (United States)

    Wells, P G; Nagai, M K; Greco, G S


    Teratogenicity of the anticonvulsant phenytoin may be due in part to its bioactivation by prostaglandin synthetase, forming a reactive free radical intermediate. We examined whether teratogenicity of the structurally similar oxazolidinedione anticonvulsants, trimethadione and its N-demethylated metabolite dimethadione, could be inhibited by the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Trimethadione, 700 or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip), was given to pregnant CD-1 mice during (Gestational Days 12 and 13) or before (Days 11 and 12) the critical period of susceptibility to phenytoin-induced fetal cleft palates. Dimethadione was given similarly on Days 11 and 12, or 12 and 13, in a dose (900 mg/kg ip) that was equimolar to 1000 mg/kg of trimethadione. ASA, 10 or 1 mg/kg ip, was given 2 hr before trimethadione or dimethadione on Days 11 and 12, and before trimethadione on Day 11 only. Dams were killed on Day 19 and fetuses were examined for anomalies. Either dose of trimethadione given on Days 12 and 13 was negligibly teratogenic, as evidenced by a non-dose-related, 1.1% mean incidence of fetal cleft palates. However, when given earlier on Days 11 and 12, trimethadione 1000 mg/kg caused an 8.9% incidence of cleft palates (p less than 0.05). Similarly, dimethadione caused a 3.9-fold higher incidence of cleft palates when given earlier on Days 11 and 12 (17.3-34.9%) than on Days 12 and 13 (4.4%) (p less than 0.05). At equimolar doses, dimethadione caused a 1.9- to 3.9-fold higher incidence of cleft palates compared to trimethadione (p less than 0.05), suggesting that dimethadione may be the proximate teratogen. Either dose of ASA given on both days before trimethadione totally prevented cleft palates, and ASA 10 mg/kg given only on Day 11 reduced the incidence of trimethadione-induced cleft palates to 1.1% (p less than 0.05). ASA reduced the incidence of cleft palates caused by dimethadione given on Days 11 and 12 from 34.9 to 20.3% (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that the teratogenic potential of trimethadione may depend at least in part upon its prior N-demethylation to dimethadione, which then can be bioactivated by prostaglandin synthetase to a teratogenic reactive intermediate, possibly involving a free radical located in the oxazolidinedione ring. This would provide a unifying hypothesis for the teratogenicity of hydantoins, as well as structurally related teratogens like trimethadione, which lack the molecular configuration necessary for the formation of a teratogenic arene oxide intermediate.

  2. Dinosaurs, Chameleons, Humans, and Evo-Devo Path: Linking Étienne Geoffroy's Teratology, Waddington's Homeorhesis, Alberch's Logic of "Monsters," and Goldschmidt Hopeful "Monsters". (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Guinard, Geoffrey; Diaz, Raul E


    Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research." As all of us have recently been involved, independently, in works related in some way or another with evolution and developmental anomalies, we decided to join our different perspectives and backgrounds in the present contribution for this special issue. Specifically, we provide a brief historical account on the study of the links between evolution, development, and pathologies, followed by a review of the recent work done by each of us, and then by a general discussion on the broader developmental and macroevolutionary implications of our studies and works recently done by other authors. Our primary aims are to highlight the strength of studying developmental anomalies within an evolutionary framework to understand morphological diversity and disease by connecting the recent work done by us and others with the research done and broader ideas proposed by authors such as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Waddington, Goldschmidt, Gould, and Per Alberch, among many others to pave the way for further and much needed work regarding abnormal development and macroevolution. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Toxicology and teratology studies routinely utilize animal models to determine the potential for chemical and physical agents to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity, including birth defects such as cleft palate. The standardized teratology screen typically tests co...

  4. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology. (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  5. 40 CFR 799.9370 - TSCA prenatal developmental toxicity. (United States)


    ..., except legal holidays. (1) Aliverti, V.L. et al. The extent of fetal ossification as an index of delayed.... Prenatal ossification in rabbits as indicative of fetal maturity. Teratology. 11:313-320 (1974). (6) Fritz, H. and Hess, R. Ossification of the rat and mouse skeleton in the perinatal period. Teratology. 3...

  6. 76 FR 8370 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the NTP Board... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the... from recognized authorities knowledgeable in fields such as toxicology, pharmacology, pathology... toxicology, neurotoxicology, immunotoxicology, reproductive toxicology or teratology, and biostatistics...

  7. [Vaginal and postpregnancy inflamations, risks of their treatment for fetus]. (United States)

    Manaková, E; Hubicková Heringová, L


    Paper describes risks of gynaecological inflamations and their treatment for the successful course of pregnancy. Review. Czech Teratology Information Service, 3. LF UK, Praha. The article refers the most common types of vaginal inflamation and gives recommendation for the appropriate treatment that is safe for embryo or fetus according to advice of Teratology Information Service. Vaginal inflamation during pregnancy represents risks of abortion, miscarriage or prematurity. For the treatment, we have to take in consideration the age of pregnancy and we should use the drugs, that are safe during this period. It is necessary always to compare risks resulting from disorder and from drugs used.

  8. Toxicology services in Libya: the present and the future

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was evident during the 'methanol crisis' in March 2013 in Tripoli (3). Though official data are ... humanitarian mission during the aforementioned crisis and sent a team to Tripoli. They reported that 'the health ... Teratology and medicines in lactation specialist advisory service. • The service will provide advice on the ...

  9. Detection of G1138A Mutation of the FGFR3 Gene in Tooth Material from a 180-Year-Old Museological Achondroplastic Skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Lucas L.; Naue, Jana; de Rooy, Laurens; Oostra, Roelof-Jan


    Throughout the last four centuries, many anatomical museums across the world have collected teratological specimens that became precious objects. These can be regarded as spirits of the past which have captured the morphology of diseases through time. These valuable and irreplaceable specimens can

  10. 40 CFR 799.9630 - TSCA developmental neurotoxicity. (United States)


    ... Teratology 10:237-244 (1988). (4) Campbell, B.A. and Haroutunian, V. Effects of age on long-term memory... separation as an external sign of pubertal development in the male rat. Biology of Reproduction 17:298-303... fetal period. Neurobehavioral Toxicology 1:129-135 (1979). (20) Spear, N.E. and Campbell, B.A. (eds...

  11. The Violation of Childhood: A Review of Possible Effects on Development of Toxic Chemical and Nuclear Waste. (United States)

    Evans, Roy

    Emphasizing that for any known teratogen no safe dosage level exists, this case-illustrated review identifies the bases for current concern about the pollution of the environment, reflects on the promise and complexities of the emerging disciplines of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology, and describes existing evidence of teratogenic…

  12. Biology Division progress report, June 1, 1980-July 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Highlights of progress for the period June 1980 through July 1982 are summarized. Discussions of projects are presented under the following headings: molecular and cellular sciences; cellular and comparative mutagenesis; mammalian genetics and teratology; toxicology; and carcinogenesis. In addition this report includes an outline of educational activities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual technical reports for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  13. Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Hook.: una forma teratológica con himenóforo porado


    Castro Cerceda, María Luisa


    Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Hook.: a teratologic form with porate hymenophore. Several samples of Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Hook. with porate hymenophore were found in Portugal. They are de cribed, as having evident pares in the hymenium, supporting hymenial structures (basidia and spores) that are fully developed.

  14. [The effect of meclofenoxate on the growth, fertility and number of offspring in Wistar rats]. (United States)

    Neumann, H J


    In experiments with rats concerning teratological aspects of meclofenoxate it was demonstrated that this drug reduces the teratogenicity in Wistar rats. Meclofenoxate leads in the fetuses of rats to a significant increase of the weight when the dams were treated prenatally with the ester. Besides, meclofenoxate causes in continuous series of generations an increase of fertility which results in a higher number of offsprings.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 1, 2006 ... February2006 EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL 95. East African Medical Iournal Vol 83 N0. 2 February ... community health, and a university nursing college with midwifery option. The maternity unit of the .... of births defects among livebirths in Singapore. Teratology. 1992; 46: 277-281. Ahuka O.L. ...

  16. Challenges of congenital malformations: an African perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide historically, the role of the supernatural had been in the forefront of etiological considerations but has changed with advances in embryology and teratology. It has, however, remained a part of many societies and cultures especially in Africa. Purpose: The aim of this review article is to highlight the psychosocial ...

  17. The status of diabetic embryopathy


    Eriksson, Ulf J.; Wentzel, Parri


    Diabetic embryopathy is a theoretical enigma and a clinical challenge. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetic pregnancy carry a significant risk for fetal maldevelopment, and the precise reasons for the diabetes induced teratogenicity are not clearly identified. The experimental work in this field has revealed a partial, however complex, answer to the teratological question, and we will review some of the latest suggestions.

  18. Does topical isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital malformations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yılmaz


    Full Text Available A 34-year-old patient learned that she was 7 weeks pregnant while she was using topical isotretinoin + erythromycin gel for acne treatment and referred to Izmir Katip Celebi University Teratology Information Service for information regarding the risk of teratogenicity. Systemic use of isotretinoin is well-known for its teratogenic effects and case reports suggesting possible teratogenic effects regarding topical exposure to retinoids in pregnancy exist in the literature. However, findings reported in four prospective controlled studies do not suggest an increased congenital malformation risk in case of inadvertent exposure during pregnancy. This manuscript aims to give a summary and evaluation of available data for counseling pregnant patients regarding the possible teratogenic risk of inadvertent topical isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy. It also aims to emphasize the importance of increasing communication between pregnant patients, clinicians and teratology information services for the benefit of mother and unborn.

  19. Pharmacotherapy and Pregnancy: Highlights from the Second International Conference for Individualized Pharmacotherapy in Pregnancy


    Haas, David M.; Hebert, Mary F.; Soldin, Offie P.; Flockhart, David A.; Madadi, Parvaz; Nocon, James J.; Chambers, Christina D.; Hankins, Gary D.; Clark, Shannon; Wisner, Katherine L; Li, Lang; Renbarger, Jamie L.; Learman, Lee A.


    To address provider struggles to provide evidence-based, rational drug therapy to pregnant women, a second conference was convened to highlight the current research in the field. Speakers from academic centers and institutions spoke about: the unique physiology and pathology of pregnancy; pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy; thyroid disorders in pregnancy; pharmacogenetics in pregnancy; the role of CYP2D6 in pregnancy; treating addiction in pregnancy; the power of teratology n...

  20. Biofuels E0, E15, E85 Neurophysiology Data (United States)

    Visual, auditory, somatosensory, and peripheral nerve evoked responses.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Herr , D., D. Freeborn , L. Degn , S.A. Martin, J. Ortenzio, L. Pantlin, C. Hamm , and W. Boyes. Neurophysiological Assessment of Auditory, Peripheral Nerve, Somatosensory, and Visual System Function After Developmental Exposure to Gasoline, E15 and E85 Vapors. NEUROTOXICOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 54: 78-88, (2016).

  1. Assessment of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, propylene glycol, polysorbate 80, and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin for use in developmental and reproductive toxicology studies. (United States)

    Enright, Brian P; McIntyre, Barry S; Thackaberry, Evan A; Treinen, Kimberley A; Kopytek, Stephan J


    A series of studies were conducted to assess Polysorbate 80 (PS80), Propylene Glycol (PG), and Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD), when compared with Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (MC) in developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART) studies. In the rat fertility study, 20 mg/kg MC, 10 mg/kg PS80, 1,000 mg/kg PG, 500 mg/kg HPβCD or 1,000 mg/kg HPβCD were administered orally before/during mating, and on gestation Day (GD) 0-7, followed by an assessment of embryonic development on GD 14. In the rat and rabbit teratology studies, the doses of MC, PS80, PG, and HPβCD were the same as those in the fertility study. In these teratology studies, pregnant females were dosed during the period of organogenesis, followed by an assessment of fetal external, visceral, and skeletal development. In the rat fertility and rat teratology studies, PS80, PG, and HPβCD did not exhibit toxicity, when compared with MC. Similarly, in the rabbit teratology study, there was no PS80 or PG-related toxicity, when compared with MC. However, individual rabbits in the 500 and 1,000 mg/kg HPβCD groups exhibited maternal toxicity, which included stool findings, decreased food consumption, and body weight gain. Furthermore, one rabbit each in the 500 and 1,000 mg/kg HPβCD groups exhibited evidence of abortion, which was considered secondary to maternal toxicity. Although HPβCD was not well tolerated in rabbits at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg, PS80 and PG were comparable to MC and should be considered for use in developmental and reproductive toxicology studies. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. First Record of Anisoptera (Insecta: Odonata) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese Amber. (United States)

    Schädel, Mario; Bechly, Günter


    The fossil dragonfly Burmalindenia imperfecta gen. et sp. nov. is described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber as the first record of the odonate suborder Anisoptera for this locality and one of the few records from amber in general. The inclusion comprises two fragments of the two hind wings of a dragonfly. The fossil can be attributed to a new genus and species of the family Gomphidae, presumably in the subfamily Lindeniinae, and features a strange teratological phenomenon in its wing venation.

  3. A Computer Model Predicting the Thermal Response to Microwave Radiation (United States)


    J. Congenital malformation in the rat following induced hyperthermia during gestation. Teratology 1:173-178 (1959). 5. Kriticos, H. N., and H. P... muscle material with a Vitek probe; these measurements were made by John Burr and were described in a DD I JAN. 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE...56 3.5.1. Description of Structures to be Studied . . . . . . . . 56 3.5.2. Microwave Heating of a Muscle -Equivalent Sphere . . . . 57 3.5.3. Mic

  4. Development of Azeotropic Blends to Replace TCE and nPB in Vapor Degreasing Operations (United States)

    2016-12-21 Tuv-Sud.Co Carl Wolf Ultronix Royce Stauffer Ultronix Judy Goetz Ultronix Art...days. Rat inhalation teratology study: Minor effects to fetus (delayed ossification and skeletal anomalies) at 3449 ppm, 6 hr/day for 14 days. Dog ...TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION - Continued) in dogs exposed to 1000 or 5000 ppm. The cardiac sensitization potential was not evaluated at or

  5. Developmental studies of Hanford miniature swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Rommereim, D.N.; Beamer, J.L.; Buschbom, R.L.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.


    Evaluations of reproductive and developmental toxicology, including teratology, were included as part of a broad screening study in Hanford Miniature swine (HMS) to detect effects of exposure to electric fields. One group (E) was exposed to a uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric field for 20 h/day, 7 days/week; sham-exposed (SE) swine were housed in a separate, environmentally equivalent building. The first generation (F0) gilts were bred after 4 months of study; some were killed for teratologic assays at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced an F1 generation of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters (teratologic assays and live births) was similar in the E and SE groups. The F0 females, which produced the F1 generation, were bred again after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg. Malformation incidence in E litters (75%) was significantly greater than in SE litters (29%). No consistent differences in litter size, fetal mass, or mass of fetal organs were detected. The F1 gilts were bred at 18 months of age; defective offspring were found in significantly more of the E litters (71%) than in SE litters (33%). These F1 females were bred again 10 months later and teratologic assays were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the E and SE groups (70% and 73%, respectively). There appears to be an association between chronic exposure to a strong electric field and developmental effects in swine, although the change in incidence of malformations between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it impossible to conclude unequivocally that there is a cause-and-effect relation.

  6. The Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Scientific Session (5th) Abstracts, (United States)


    group (SE) was sham-exposed. The F gilts were bred after 4 months on study; son» were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg) and...significantly greater than in SE (29%). The F, gilts were bred at 18 months of age; defective offspring were found in signifi- cantly more of the E litters (71...field strength; microcomputers operate feedback circuits to regulate field Intensity and record exposure conditions. Instrumentation to automatically

  7. The status of diabetic embryopathy. (United States)

    Eriksson, Ulf J; Wentzel, Parri


    Diabetic embryopathy is a theoretical enigma and a clinical challenge. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetic pregnancy carry a significant risk for fetal maldevelopment, and the precise reasons for the diabetes-induced teratogenicity are not clearly identified. The experimental work in this field has revealed a partial, however complex, answer to the teratological question, and we will review some of the latest suggestions.

  8. Animal models for human behavioral deficiencies during development. (United States)

    Elsner, J


    Often considered to be a subdiscipline of neurotoxicology, experimental behavioral teratology has difficulties to be acknowledged by its own right. Results obtained in the laboratory concerning purely behavioral effects induced by low level prenatal exposure to substances are often doubted to contain any relevance with respect to humans. This doubt is based on many debates going on in the numerous extrapolation steps between observed effects on animal behavior and human psychopathology. Taking the inverse path, extrapolation from a typical human behavioral syndrome (minimal brain dysfunction) to observations which can be made on laboratory animals, the following main debates are discussed: the psychology debate (behaviorism--perceptionism--cognitivism); the psychopathology debate (hyperactivity--attention deficit--tactile-kinesthetic perception deficiency--sensory integration deficits); the relevance debate (behavior is reprogrammable software--behavioral deficits may reflect undetectable hardware defects); the interpretation debate (behavioral teratogenicity is chemical imprinting--behavioral disturbances due to chemicals reflect neurotoxicity); the intelligence debate (IQ decrements--attention deficits); the developmental delay debate (the relevance of a delay in the behavioral development); the sensitivity debate (behavior is the most sensitive measure in toxicology--the brain redundancy and plasticity compensates subtle deficiencies); the statistics debate (gather as many behavioral variables as possible--stay simple and measure only one aspect of behavior); the regulation debate (behavioral teratology should be regulated in detail--tests should not be prescribed). It is attempted to find rational solutions for these debates which menace to jeopardize the very existence of behavioral teratology.

  9. Is Global Anoxia an Alternative Cause for the Hirnantian Mass Extinction? (United States)

    De Weirdt, Julie; Vandenbroucke, Thijs; Emsbo, Poul; McLaughlin, Patrick; Delabroye, Aurélien; Munnecke, Axel; Desrochers, André


    Cooling and glacial episodes have long been considered the main driver of Late Ordovician-Silurian (mass) extinction events that coincide with δ13Ccarb excursions. However, emerging evidence for protracted cooling during most of the Ordovician and the misalignment between major regressions and faunal turnovers in the Upper Ordovician, suggests a more complex relation between glaciations and extinctions. Emsbo et al. (2010, GSA Abstracts with Programs) demonstrated dramatic enrichments in redox sensitive metals during the early Wenlock Ireviken extinction event and suggested ocean anoxia as an alternative kill-mechanism. Vandenbroucke et al. (2015, Nature Communications), built on this idea and recorded a similar increase of redox-sensitive metals at the onset of the mid-Pridoli extinction event, coinciding with peak abundances of malformed (teratological) fossil microplankton (acritarchs and chitinozoans). By analogy with metal-induced malformations in modern marine microplankton, teratology might serve as an independent proxy for monitoring changes in the metal concentration of the Palaeozoic ocean. These data from the Ireviken and Pridoli events are the foundation for the hypothesis that many, if not all, of these Late Ordovician-Silurian extinctions are caused by large-scale 'oceanic anoxic events'. Here, we are testing this hypothesis for the most devastating extinction event in this series, the Hirnantian mass extinction. Bulk rock samples spanning the Hirnantian strata of Anticosti Island were geochemically analysed. Our choice of sections is guided by the presence of teratological acritarchs (Delabroye et al., 2012, Rev. Pal. Pal.) that overlap the base of the extinction horizon. Revealing similar results as in our the previous studies, the new XRF data show distinct peaks in redox sensitive metals, supporting ocean anoxia and metal pollution as an important factor in the Hirnantian extinction, if not its fundamental cause.

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, D.L. (ed.)


    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers; (2) dose-effect relationship studies of carcinogenesis from both nuclear materials and complex mixtures; (3) microbial mutagenesis studies with 6-aminochrysene and benzo(a)pyrene in coal-derived complex mixtures; and (4) a variety of studies relating to noncarcinogenic and nonmutagenic endpoints, including teratology, perinatal studies and studies to determine absorption, metabolism, and doses to critical tissues and organs of coal-derived mixtures and radionuclides. Items have been individually abstracted for the data base. (ACR)

  11. On the multivariate probit model for exchangeable binary data with covariates. (United States)

    Stefanescu, Catalina; Turnbull, Bruce W


    This paper considers the use of a multivariate binomial probit model for the analysis of correlated exchangeable binary data. The model can naturally accommodate both cluster and individual level covariates, while keeping a fairly flexible intracluster association structure. We discuss Bayesian estimation when a sample of independent clusters of varying sizes are available, and show how Gibbs sampling may be used to derive the posterior densities of parameters. The methodology is illustrated with two examples: the first involves epidemiological data from a study of familial disease aggregation; the second uses teratological data from a developmental toxicity application.

  12. Injection technique and scanning electron microscopic study of the arterial pattern of the 20 gestation days (G20) rat fetus. (United States)

    Navarro, M; Carretero, A; Canut, L; Perez-Aparicio, F J; Cristofol, C; Manesse, M; Sautet, J; Arboix, M; Ruberte, J


    A technique to obtain microvascular corrosion casts of the G20 rat fetus and the normal pattern of the main arteries of the G20 rat fetus are described. The casts were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The arterial pattern is similar to that described in the adult; however, several variations have been found. It is concluded that the use of vascular corrosion casts studied by SEM may be particularly helpful to observe the extremely small arteries of rat fetuses. Moreover, we suggest that this technique may be useful in practical teratological studies.

  13. Morphostructural changes of Fritillaria meleagris L. individuals in different growing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Andrik


    Full Text Available The variation of 26 biomorphological parameters of Fritillaria meleagrisindividuals has been studied in different ecological and coenotical conditions, as well as under anthropogenic pressure (i.e. grazing, recreational pressure – trampling, picking flowers for bouquets, and flooding of habitats. Comparison of theF. meleagrisindividuals from the different habitats by the complex of morphological parameters confirmed its differentiation on forest and meadow ecoelements. Pasture and recreational pressure cause the development of smaller individuals with low vitality and teratological changes in flower. The most variable parameters in plants from different growth conditions are the next: leaf length and width, the width of inner tepals and plant height.

  14. Prenatal imaging of a fetus with the rare combination of a right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a giant omphalocele. (United States)

    Nonaka, Ayasa; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Kido, Saki; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko


    A co-existing right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and omphalocele is rare. We present images of a fetus diagnosed with this rare combination of anomalies. Early neonatal death occurred immediately after full-term birth due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In this case, disturbance of chest wall development due to the omphalocele rather than the diaphragmatic hernia was considered as the main cause of lung hypoplasia. Our experience suggests that caution should be exercised for severe respiratory insufficiency in a neonate with an omphalocele and diaphragmatic hernia, even in the absence of an intra-thoracic liver, one of the indicators of poor outcome for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. [The anatomy of Johann Samuel Eduard d'Alton (1803-1854)--his life and work in Halle (Saale)]. (United States)

    Zwiener, Sabine; Göbbel, Luminita; Schultka, Rüdiger


    After the death of Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), Eduard d'Alton was appointed to be his successor. From 1834 to 1854, he was Professor of Anatomy and head of the "Anatomisches Theater" at the University of Halle. In the literature we can only find little details about him. The aim is to investigate his life and work. Before he came to Halle, he was first professor at the Academy of Arts in Berlin. Then few years later he received the professorship of anatomy and physiology at the Friedrich-Wilhelm-University in Berlin. During his work as anatomist and physiologist in Halle he was rector twice, in 1845 and 1846. d'Alton worked very accurately and highly engaged. He supported the students' education very conscientiously but, since he was strict and exacting at the same time, he was not very popular. His extraordinary drawings of human and comparative anatomy earned him great recognition. In 1850, he published the "Handbuch der menschlichen Anatomie". d'Alton was mainly engaged in comparative anatomy, embryology and teratology and performed experimental embryological tests. In 1853, he published a catalogue of teratological preparations many of which can still be found in the Anatomical Collections in Halle.

  16. Developmental neurotoxicity guideline study: issues with methodology, evaluation and regulation. (United States)

    Tsuji, Ryozo; Crofton, Kevin M


    Recently social concerns have been increasing about the effects of environmental factors on children's health, especially on their nervous systems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have published testing guidelines for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Approximately 110 guideline studies have been conducted to date. Importantly, information from these studies has provided data critical for regulatory decisions for a number of chemicals. However, the DNT guidelines do not always satisfy all stakeholders because of some uncertainties in their methodology, evaluation, and regulation. Methodological issues include incomplete harmonization between EPA and OECD guidelines, criticisms of the methodology for learning and memory testing, and unspecified positive control substances. Potential artifacts in morphometric neuropathological measures, criteria for observation measures, uncertainty of postnatal offspring exposure, especially in feeding studies, and extrapolation of data from rats to humans are major evaluation issues. In addition, there is some uncertainty in the use of an additional safety factor for susceptibility of infants and children. Moreover, the DNT guidelines have extensive time and cost requirements, use large numbers of animals, and there is a limited set of laboratories that can conduct the study. This paper reviews some of these issues and summarizes discussions from the symposium 'Developmental neurotoxicity testing: Scientific approaches towards the next generation to protecting the developing nervous system of children' held at the 2011 annual meeting of the Japanese Teratology Society. © 2012 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2012 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. The safety of proton pump inhibitors in pregnancy: a multicentre prospective controlled study. (United States)

    Diav-Citrin, O; Arnon, J; Shechtman, S; Schaefer, C; van Tonningen, M R; Clementi, M; De Santis, M; Robert-Gnansia, E; Valti, E; Malm, H; Ornoy, A


    Proton pump inhibitors are used to treat gastro-oesophageal reflux and peptic ulcers. Gastro-oesophageal reflux is a common condition in pregnancy. Human pregnancy experience with lansoprazole or pantoprazole is very limited. More data exist on the safety of omeprazole in pregnancy. To assess the safety of proton pump inhibitors in pregnancy. The rate of major anomalies was compared between pregnant women exposed to omeprazole, lanzoprazole, or pantoprazole and a control group counselled for non-teratogens. The study design is a multicentre (n = 8), prospective, controlled study of the European Network of Teratology Information Services. We followed up 295 pregnancies exposed to omeprazole [233 in the first trimester (T1)], 62 to lansoprazole (55 in T1) and 53 to pantoprazole (47 in T1), and compared pregnancy outcome to that of 868 European Network of Teratology Information Services controls. The rate of major congenital anomalies did not differ between the exposed and control groups [omeprazole nine of 249 (3.6%), lansoprazole two of 51 (3.9%) and pantoprazole one of 48 (2.1%) vs. controls 30 of 792 = 3.8%]. No differences were found when exposure was limited to the first trimester after exclusion of genetic, cytogenetic or infectious anomalies. This study suggests that proton pump inhibitors do not represent a major teratogenic risk in humans.

  18. Pharmacotherapy and pregnancy: highlights from the Second International Conference for Individualized Pharmacotherapy in Pregnancy. (United States)

    Haas, David M; Hebert, Mary F; Soldin, Offie P; Flockhart, David A; Madadi, Parvaz; Nocon, James J; Chambers, Christina D; Hankins, Gary D; Clark, Shannon; Wisner, Katherine L; Li, Lang; Renbarger, Jamie L; Learman, Lee A


    To address provider struggles to provide evidence-based, rational drug therapy to pregnant women, a second conference was convened to highlight the current research in the field. Speakers from academic centers and institutions spoke about: the unique physiology and pathology of pregnancy; pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy; thyroid disorders in pregnancy; pharmacogenetics in pregnancy; the role of CYP2D6 in pregnancy; treating addiction in pregnancy; the power of teratology networks to inform clinical decisions; the use of anti-depressants in pregnancy; and how to utilize computer-based modeling to aid with individualized pharmacotherapy in pregnancy. The Conference highlighted several areas of collaboration with the current Obstetrics Pharmacology Research Units Network (OPRU) and hoped to stimulate further collaboration and knowledge in the area with the common goal to improve the ability to safely and effectively use individualized pharmacotherapy in pregnancy.

  19. [The terata on the world map of Richard de Haldingham (about 1280). An attempt at an interpretation]. (United States)

    Schierhorn, H


    Richard de Haldingham's world map originates from the years about 1280 and is preserved in the cathedral of Hereford/Hereforshire (England). This map is a curious and in its type an old rare document for the early history of teratology. Richard's map not only reflects the antique view of universe during the Roman emperor Augustus Caesar, but also demonstrates plenty of mythical creatures and human monstrosities. As far as possible these terata (and imaginary monsters) are related to recent wellknown malformations. Their figurative representations are "raised" and idealized; they are situated above all in regions "far away". About it Richard as well as the other antique and medieval authors are tending to generalize (a single observed mis-shapen man becomes in the tradition during long years or centuries to a whole family or tribe of cyclops or nyctalops for instance).

  20. Brain and arterial abnormalities following prenatal X-ray irradiation in mice assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and angiography. (United States)

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Murase, Kenya


    The present study aimed to quantitatively characterize changes in the whole brain and arterial morphology in response to prenatal ionizing irradiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) were used to evaluate brain and arterial abnormalities in 8-week-old male mice prenatally exposed to X-ray radiation at a dose of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy on embryonic day (E) 13. Irradiated mice demonstrated decreased brain volume, increased ventricular volume, and arterial malformation. Additionally, MRA signal intensity and arterial thickness in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and basilar artery were lower in radiation-exposed mice than in control mice. MRI and MRA are useful tools for assessing brain and arterial abnormalities after prenatal exposure to radiation. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  1. On the classification of congenital thumb hypoplasia. (United States)

    Tonkin, M A


    In 1937, Müller introduced the concept of a teratological sequence of thumb hypoplasia with increasing severity from mild deficiency, through severe deficiency, to thumb absence. Blauth subsequently detailed five specific grades. In 1992, Manske and McCarroll altered Blauth's classification such that Grade 3 was sub-divided into Grades 3A and 3B, according to a presence or absence of the proximal metacarpal. Buck-Gramcko added a Grade 3C in which there was only a remnant metacarpal head. This article investigates their publications and those of others to identify 'who said what' and clarify the definitions of grades of thumb hypoplasia. A modification of Blauth's classification is proposed, which retains the integrity of the concept of Müller and the skeletal and soft tissue grading of Blauth, but which also incorporates the disparate anomalies that may present in Grades 2 and 3 hypoplastic thumbs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica


    Granados-Zúñiga, Jorge; Pazos Sanou, Liliana


    Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunología, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 19...

  3. Paternal exposure to methotrexate and pregnancy outcomes. (United States)

    Beghin, Delphine; Cournot, Marie-Pierre; Vauzelle, Catherine; Elefant, Elisabeth


    To assess the risk of major malformation in the case of paternal exposure to methotrexate (MTX) at the time of conception. Using prospective data of our Teratology Information Service, we analyzed outcomes of paternal MTX exposure at the time of conception or up to 3 months before conception. We report on the outcomes of 42 pregnancies involving 40 men treated with MTX at the time of conception. Twenty-three men were treated for an inflammatory disease (54.8%), 9 for psoriasis (21.4%), and 8 for a malignant disease (19.0%). Weekly dosages varied between 7.5 mg and 30 mg. The pregnancies resulted in 36 live births, 3 spontaneous abortions, and 3 voluntary abortions. No congenital malformation was observed at birth. Based on our results and case reports in literature, paternal MTX exposure at the time of conception does not seem to raise any major concern for offspring.

  4. Novel nucleotide mutation leading to a recurrent amino acid alteration in SH3BP2 in a patient with cherubism. (United States)

    Sangu, Noriko; Shimosato, Tsuyoshi; Inoda, Hirosato; Shimada, Shino; Shimojima, Keiko; Ando, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki


    Cherubism is a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive facial deformity caused by non-neoplastic bone lesions in the mandible and/or the maxilla. Src homology-3 binding protein 2 gene (SH3BP2) has been found to be the responsible gene, with alterations in six amino acids noted in patients with this condition. Recently, mutations in this domain have been found to cause stabilization of SH3BP2 by uncoupling with tankyrase. In this study, we identified a new 2-bp mutation that led to a recurrent amino acid change in a sporadic case of cherubism. Our findings indicate that it is important to understand the pattern of progress in typical cherubism. © 2013 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2013 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. History and status of embryology and developmental biology at Polish Medical Faculties and Schools. (United States)

    Bartel, Hieronim


    In Poland, medical embryology (both scientific research and teaching of the subject) has traditionally involved Chairs of Histology and Embryology rather than Obstetrics and Gynecology. Before World War II, the most buoyant centers for embryological research among the five universities at the time (in Warsaw, Krakow, Poznan, Lvov and Vilnius), were the Chairs of Embryology and Histology at Medical Faculties of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow and the University of Vilnius. After World War II, eleven Medical Academies (Universities of Medicine) came into being (Warsaw, Krakow, Poznan, Lodz, Gdansk, Bialystok, Bydgoszcz, Szczecin, Wroclaw, Katowice and Lublin). They conduct scientific research on normal development of the human embryo as well as teratology studies. In the XX century, eminent medicine-related embryologist included professors Emil Godlewski Jr., Stanislaw Hiller and Stefan Baginski.

  6. GLI3 mutations in syndromic and non-syndromic polydactyly in two Indian families. (United States)

    Patel, Rashmi; Singh, Chandra Bhan; Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Singh, Subodh Kumar; Ali, Akhtar


    The GLI3 protein is a zinc finger transcription factor, expressed early in development. The GLI3 gene exhibits allelic heterogeneity as mutations in this gene are associated with several developmental syndromic and non-syndromic polydactyly. The present study reports two cases: first, a familial case of Greig Cephalopolysyndactyly Syndrome (GCPS); the second is a sporadic case with both postaxial polydactyly (PAP) type A and B. Resequencing of GLI3 gene reveals a previously reported nonsense truncation mutation g.42007251G > A (p.R792X; rs121917714) in the GCPS family and a novel single nucleotide insertion g.42004239_42004240insA (p.E1478X) in the sporadic case of postaxial polydactyly (PAP). Both nonsense truncation mutations; p.R792X (GCPS) and p.E1478X (PAP) introduce a premature stop codon leading to loss of C-terminal domains. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  7. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in DYNC2H1 in a patient with severe short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III phenotype. (United States)

    Okamoto, Toshio; Nagaya, Ken; Kawata, Yumi; Asai, Hiroko; Tsuchida, Etsushi; Nohara, Fumikatsu; Okajima, Kazuki; Azuma, Hiroshi


    Short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III is an autosomal recessive lethal skeletal ciliopathy, which is phenotypically similar to nonlethal asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. Mutations in DYNC2H1 have been identified in both of these disorders, indicating that they are variants of a single disorder. However, short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III is the more severe variant. Here, we report novel compound heterozygous mutations in DYNC2H1 (p.E1894fsX10 and p.R3004C) in a patient with typical short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III phenotype. R3004 is located within the microtubule-binding domain of DYNC2H1, and its substitution is predicted to disrupt the interaction with microtubules. Considering the severe phenotype of our patient, our findings suggest that R3004 may be a key residue for the microtubule-binding affinity of dynein. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  8. [Frequency of congenital abnormalities in Hungary after the Chernobyl nuclear power accident]. (United States)

    Sándor, János; Métneki, Júlia; Szunyogh, Melinda; Siffel, Csaba


    The only positive result of earlier Hungarian teratological investigations on consequences of Chernobyl nuclear power station accident was the description of increased prevalence of birth with less than 2500 g body weight. It was attributed to the concern of the pregnant women, not to the direct effect of ionising radiation. The present study aimed to refine the earlier results by application of sensitive epidemiological techniques. The exposure data observed in the 150 districts of Hungary were correlated with the prevalence of Down syndrome by geographical information system and the monthly detected prevalences were analysed in the function of exposure. The ecological investigation on geographical inequalities revealed that there is no correlation between the district level exposure and Down syndrome prevalence. The time trend analysis on monthly data showed no exposure-related elevation of Down-syndrome occurrence. The results supported the earlier conclusions of the studies that the Chernobyl accident related exposure did not elicited detectable increase of Down syndrome.

  9. Nutritional role of folate. (United States)

    Ebara, Shuhei


    Folate functions as a coenzyme to transfer one-carbon units that are necessary for deoxythymidylate synthesis, purine synthesis, and various methylation reactions. Ingested folate becomes a functional molecule through intestinal absorption, circulation, transport to cells, and various modifications to its structure. Associations between nutritional folate status and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction have been reported. It has also been reported that maternal folate nutritional status is related to the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. It has also been recommended that folate be consumed in the diet to promote the maintenance of good health. To reduce the risk of NTDs, supplementation with folic acid (a synthetic form of folate) during the periconceptional period has also been recommended. This paper describes the basic features and nutritional role of folate. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. Association of achondroplasia with Down syndrome: difficulty in prenatal diagnosis by sonographic and 3-D helical computed tomographic analyses. (United States)

    Kaga, Akimune; Murotsuki, Jun; Kamimura, Miki; Kimura, Masato; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Kanno, Junko; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma


    Achondroplasia and Down syndrome are relatively common conditions individually. But co-occurrence of both conditions in the same patient is rare and there have been no reports of fetal analysis of this condition by prenatal sonographic and three-dimensional (3-D) helical computed tomography (CT). Prenatal sonographic findings seen in persons with Down syndrome, such as a thickened nuchal fold, cardiac defects, and echogenic bowel were not found in the patient. A prenatal 3-D helical CT revealed a large head with frontal bossing, metaphyseal flaring of the long bones, and small iliac wings, which suggested achondroplasia. In a case with combination of achondroplasia and Down syndrome, it may be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence prenatally without typical markers of Down syndrome. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  11. Nature or Artifice? Grafting in Early Modern Surgery and Agronomy. (United States)

    Savoia, Paolo


    In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi published a famous two-volume book on “plastic surgery.” The reconstructive technique he described was based on grafting skin taken from the arm onto the mutilated parts of the patient's damaged face – especially noses. This paper focuses on techniques of grafting, the “culture of grafting,” and the relationships between surgery and plant sciences in the sixteenth century. By describing the fascination with grafting in surgery, natural history, gardening, and agronomy the paper argues that grafting techniques were subject to delicate issues: to what extent it was morally acceptable to deceive the eye with artificial entities? and what was the status of the product of a surgical procedure that challenged the traditional natural/artificial distinction? Finally, this paper shows how in the seventeenth century grafting survived the crisis of Galenism by discussing the role it played in teratology and in controversies on the uses the new mechanistic anatomy.

  12. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vergara


    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.

  13. Cats, frogs, and snakes: early concepts of neural tube defects. (United States)

    Obladen, Michael


    Disturbed neurulation fascinated scientists of all times. In Egypt, anencephalic infants were venerated as animal-headed gods. Roman law required them to be killed. The medieval world held the mother responsible, either because of assumed imagination or "miswatching," or because of suspected intercourse with animals or devils. Modern embryology and teratology began with the use of the microscope by Malpighi in 1672. Details of neural tube closure were described by Koelliker in 1861 and by His in 1874. From 1822, genetic disease and familial recurrence due to insufficient nutrition were discerned and lower social class identified as a risk factor. It took a century to define the malnutrition as insufficient folate intake. The mandatory supplementation of folate in staple foods successfully reduced the incidence of neural tube defects in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Chile, but it was not adopted by most European countries.

  14. Survey on awareness of folic acid recognition and intake by female students. (United States)

    Matsuo, Takuya; Kagohashi, Yukiko; Senga, Yasuko; Fukuda, Hiromi; Shinozaki, Keiko; Takemori, Kumiko; Otani, Hiroki; Kondo, Atsuo


    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, studies have been conducted on female students of medical services, nutritional science, and nursery education that investigated the awareness of folic acid by using questionnaires. Many investigators have suggested the need to provide detailed information about the awareness of folic acid and knowledge about folic acid intake and neural tube defect risk reduction. The dietary habits of female students showed a positive correlation with their estimated folic acid intake, suggesting that improvements in dietary habits are associated with the consumption of folic acid. The importance of folic acid intake must be more aggressively promoted among female students. Thus, many learning opportunities should be provided for such students to help increase their folic acid intake. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. Emic accounts of a mystery illness: the Groote Eylandt syndrome. (United States)

    Cawte, J


    The Aboriginal people of Groote Eylandt, in the Northern Territory of Australia, are suffering from an unusual disease complex having neurological, psychiatric and teratological features, which admits no ready explanation. The island people at various times blame it on the spirits, or accuse enemies, or take some responsibility upon themselves. In this paper, 'emic' accounts of the illness (those current among the members of the society) are described in order to compare them with 'etic' accounts of those who study the society from the outside. Since emic views regulate people's behaviours toward illness, it is suggested these views should complement and inform etic views of researchers and therapists. This principle might apply to all mysterious or poorly understood illness.

  16. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. Public preferences for counseling regarding antidepressant use during pregnancy: a discrete choice experiment. (United States)

    Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Marshall, Deborah; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon


    Counseling about medication safety during pregnancy is delivered inconsistently. The objectives were to determine public preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for attributes of counseling regarding antidepressant use during pregnancy. Attributes reflected counseling via a telephone Teratology Information Service (TIS) or a visit to a general practitioner (GP). A discrete choice survey was conducted with volunteers recruited from the general public. Stated preferences and WTP for teratology counseling were described by six attributes: training of information provider (IP), method of contact, knowing the IP, confidence in the IP, helpfulness of information, and cost. Interactions of preferences with participant characteristics were examined. Of 175 participants, 85% were women and 91% had some college or university education. All attributes had a significant effect on choice. The most important attribute was the helpfulness of information received (WTP C$59 for very helpful information). Counseling via telephone by a trained specialist was preferred, as in a TIS. It was preferred, however, to speak with a provider known to the user (WTP C$43) which is common in a GP setting. Maximum willingness to pay for very helpful information was less for respondents with less education. Respondents who stated that an antidepressant exposure would make them anxious about the pregnancy were willing to pay more for all attributes. The results suggest that TIS is the preferred model for counseling regarding to antidepressant use during pregnancy. The public valued information that was helpful and preferred receiving information in nontraditional formats; however, familiarity with the provider was important. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Systematic procedure for the classification of proven and potential teratogens for use in research. (United States)

    Eltonsy, Sherif; Martin, Brigitte; Ferreira, Ema; Blais, Lucie


    Although there is strong evidence that some medications are teratogenic, the current lists of teratogens to be used in research are outdated. The objective of this study was to develop an updatable and systematic procedure to the classification of medications proven and potentially teratogenic in the first trimester of pregnancy, for use in research. We developed a two-step procedure for teratogen classification. Step 1 includes classifying the medications from Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: a Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk (9th ed.) into two provisional lists: (1) teratogenic medications, and (2) potentially teratogenic medications. We also searched other references to add other medications. In Step 2, the Teratology Information System (TERIS) database was searched, and the medication was classified as teratogenic or potentially teratogenic according to a newly developed scheme. Expert consensus was used if a medication was not recorded in TERIS. A total of 114 medications were identified in Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: a Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk, with 57 medications in each provisional list. Seventy-eight medications were identified in other sources. A total of 135 medications were included in Step 2; the TERIS scheme classified 23 medications, and 112 medications required expert opinion. The two experts agreed on 78.6% of the medications (kappa = 0.63). We identified 91 teratogenic and 81 potentially teratogenic medications. Using reliable references, we established a systematic procedure to the classification of medications with evidence of or potential teratogenic risk. These exhaustive lists will be useful in teratology research and related fields. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Błaszczyk


    Full Text Available Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detectedRabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used Quick

  20. Acute alcohol exposure during mouse gastrulation alters lipid metabolism in placental and heart development: Folate prevention. (United States)

    Linask, Kersti K; Han, Mingda


    Embryonic acute exposure to ethanol (EtOH), lithium, and homocysteine (HCy) induces cardiac defects at the time of exposure; folic acid (FA) supplementation protects normal cardiogenesis (Han et al., , ; Serrano et al., ). Our hypothesis is that EtOH exposure and FA protection relate to lipid and FA metabolism during mouse cardiogenesis and placentation. On the morning of conception, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were placed on either of two FA-containing diets: a 3.3 mg health maintenance diet or a high FA diet of 10.5 mg/kg. Mice were injected a binge level of EtOH, HCy, or saline on embryonic day (E) 6.75, targeting gastrulation. On E15.5, cardiac and umbilical blood flow were examined by ultrasound. Embryonic cardiac tissues were processed for gene expression of lipid and FA metabolism; the placenta and heart tissues for neutral lipid droplets, or for medium chain acyl-dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein. EtOH exposure altered lipid-related gene expression on E7.5 in comparison to control or FA-supplemented groups and remained altered on E15.5 similarly to changes with HCy, signifying FA deficiency. In comparison to control tissues, the lipid-related acyl CoA dehydrogenase medium length chain gene and its protein MCAD were altered with EtOH exposure, as were neutral lipid droplet localization in the heart and placenta. EtOH altered gene expression associated with lipid and folate metabolism, as well as neutral lipids, in the E15.5 abnormally functioning heart and placenta. In comparison to controls, the high FA diet protected the embryo and placenta from these effects allowing normal development. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:749-760, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. DNA oxidation as a potential molecular mechanism mediating drug-induced birth defects: phenytoin and structurally related teratogens initiate the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro and in vivo in murine maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues. (United States)

    Liu, L; Wells, P G


    M), reflected their murine teratogenic potency. Given the relatively low activities of cytochromes P450, compared to PHS and LPOs, in human and rodent embryonic tissues, these data support the potential teratological importance of peroxidase-catalysed bioactivation of xenobiotics with structural similarities to phenytoin. These studies provide the first evidence that peroxidase-catalysed embryonic DNA oxidation may constitute a critical molecular mechanism mediating the teratogenicity of phenytoin and related drugs and environmental chemicals, and suggest the potential teratological importance of additional embryonic processes, such as DNA repair and tumor suppressor genes, as determinants of susceptibility.

  2. Evaluation of the perinatal, postnatal and teratogenic effects of cocoa powder and theobromine in Sprague-Dawley/CD rats. (United States)

    Tarka, S M; Applebaum, R S; Borzelleca, J F


    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cocoa powder (CP) and theobromine (TBR) on perinatal and postnatal parameters and to assess their potential teratogenicity in the rat. In the peri/postnatal study, CP was given at 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5% in the diet throughout gestation and lactation (postnatal day 21). In the teratology study, rats were given diets containing 0, 2.5 or 5.0% CP or 0.0675 or 0.135% TBR on days 6-19 of gestation. The CP-treated dams in the peri/postnatal study consumed significantly more food than did the controls during gestation. Weight gain was increased only in the 5.0 and 7.5% CP groups during lactation. Litter size was reduced slightly at 7.5% CP and pup survival was slightly decreased at 5.0 and 7.5% CP but none of these reductions was statistically significant. However, small but statistically significant decreases in pup body weights were noted in all treatment groups throughout lactation. In the teratology studies, rats given 2.5 or 5.0% CP or 0.0675 or 0.135% TBR consumed significantly more food than did the controls and the CP-treated dams gained significantly more weight. The percentage of pregnant dams and the mean number of corpora lutea were not affected by either CP or TBR. Foetuses exposed to 0.135 TBR had a significantly higher incidence of incompletely ossified or absent sternebrae and pubic bones, indicating a delay in osteogenesis. On the basis of the survival of treated offspring in the peri/postnatal study, these effects were not considered to be deleterious to either growth or survival. The effects are similar to those that have been reported elsewhere and been considered to indicate potential maternal or foetal toxicity that is unrelated to a specific compound/treatment. We conclude that any variations observed in these studies may be attributed to this non-specific maternal toxicity and are not related to the ingestion of either CP or TBR. The major methylxanthine found in the serum after CP or TBR ingestion was

  3. Diatom diversity and response in metal-polluted river environment: preliminary reports from Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, Italy) (United States)

    Capello, Marco; Tolotti, Raffaella; Bernabè, Dimitri; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Cutroneo, Laura


    Mineral content and physico-chemical properties of the freshwaters are the main factors affecting both algal assemblages and distributions, while presence of dissolved silicon, low water conductivity, and rocky-mountain habitats host benthic diatom assemblages of high species richness. It is shown that diatoms are sensible to the freshwater acidification (used as pH indicators in acid waters), environmental and climate changes, river organic load, and heavy metal water pollution. For this characteristic, diatoms are among the major biological markers for a variety of environmental and stratigraphic applications. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses (assemblage analyses) together with biotic indices as well as morphological and ultrastructure parameterisation provide tools for detailed environmental control and paleo-environmental reconstructions. Severe environmental problems are typically caused by "abandoned mine" and are consequences of the cessation of the mining activity with a lack in infrastructure maintenance. The mine waters which flow into the Gromolo Torrent are almost acidic (pH varying from 2.4 to 5) and enriched in heavy metals and SO42-. This pollution is caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes that interest the Libiola mining area, known as a typical example of active AMD processes. The aim of this work is: 1) to characterise the local benthic diatom assemblages along the acidic mine effluents that discharge from Libiola mine, the entire Gromolo torrent course, and in the marine area off the torrent mouth; 2) to identify the main diatom biomarker taxa; 3) to highlight striking situations of equilibrium-disequilibrium in the algal communities, and 4) to point out types and frequency of some teratologies affecting specific diatom taxa as a response to environmental stressors (such as metal-metalloid enrichment). A total of 17 diatom samples was collected and examined, including some marine samples. Diatoms were collected in the

  4. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.


    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  5. The art and science of teratogen risk communication. (United States)

    Conover, Elizabeth A; Polifka, Janine E


    Despite scientific advances in clinical teratology, exposures during pregnancy still cause great anxiety and misunderstanding. Patients and health care providers are frequently called upon to determine the health implications of scientific studies, which may involve limited and contradictory data. These findings are often conveyed numerically, which is a particularly difficult form of information for both patients and their health providers to understand and interpret. Almost half of the general population (and a substantial minority of physicians) have difficulty with numeracy. Patients with low numeracy tend to interpret information in an absolute manner and ignore uncertainty, have more difficulty using numeric information to inform their choices, and are more easily influenced by emotion and the format used in presenting information. Formats involved in conveying probability include positive or negative framing, use of relative versus absolute risk, and ratios and percentages. Health providers should communicate risk analysis in a fashion that facilitates comprehension and results in informed behavior. This is more likely to be achieved when risks are conceptualized as more than just numbers, and are considered in the context of individuals' life circumstances and values. Most teratogen risk communication is done over the telephone; this presents both advantages and challenges. Strategies are suggested to improve risk communication. These include avoiding the use of relative risk, using a consistent denominator, framing the information in a variety of ways (positive vs. negative), using verbal qualifiers judiciously, and employing visual aids. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Odontoblasts: Specialized hard-tissue-forming cells in the dentin-pulp complex. (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Okiji, Takashi


    Odontoblasts are specialized cells that produce dentin and exhibit unique morphological characteristics; i.e., they extend cytoplasmic processes into dentinal tubules. While osteoblasts, which are typical hard-tissue-forming cells, are generated from mesenchymal stem cells during normal and pathological bone metabolism, the induction of odontoblasts only occurs once during tooth development, and odontoblasts survive throughout the lives of healthy teeth. During the differentiation of odontoblasts, signaling molecules from the inner enamel epithelium are considered necessary for the differentiation of odontoblast precursors, i.e., peripheral dental papilla cells. If odontoblasts are destroyed by severe external stimuli, such as deep caries, the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells into odontoblast-like cells is induced. Various bioactive molecules, such as non-collagenous proteins, might be involved in this process, although the precise mechanisms responsible for odontoblast differentiation have not been fully elucidated. Recently, our knowledge about the other functional activities of odontoblasts (apart from dentin formation) has increased. For example, it has been suggested that odontoblasts might act as nociceptive receptors, and surveillance cells that detect the invasion of exogenous pathogens. The regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex has recently gained much attention as a promising future treatment modality that could increase the longevity of pulpless teeth. Finally, congenital dentin anomalies, which are concerned with the disturbance of odontoblast functions, are summarized. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  7. Neural tube defects: Risk factors and preventive measures. (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Matsuo, Takuya; Morota, Nobuhito; Kondo, Atsuya S; Okai, Ikuyo; Fukuda, Hiromi


    For the last 25 years, it has been proven that the occurrence or recurrence of neural tube defects can be prevented with the administration of folic acid before and early pregnancy. At present, over 80 countries in the world, except Japan, have mandated the fortification of wheat flour and/or rice with folic acid, which has resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of neural tube defects. In 2000, the Japanese government recommended folic acid 400 μg daily for young women of childbearing age and women who are planning to conceive. In 2002, the government started to present information about the importance of folic acid in the development of fetuses in the Mother-Child Health Booklet annually. Despite these endeavors, the prevalence of neural tube defects has remained unchanged. We discuss the risk factors of neural tube defects and propose preventive measures to decrease the number of neonates with neural tube defects. We believe that the government should implement the fortification of staple food with folic acid very soon, which will eventually decrease not only the neonatal mortality and morbidity, but also the economic burden on our health care system. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  8. Folate receptors and neural tube closure. (United States)

    Saitsu, Hirotomo


    Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most common human congenital malformations, affecting 0.5-8.0/1000 of live births. Human clinical trials have shown that periconceptional folate supplementation significantly decreases the occurrence of NTD in offspring. However, the mechanism by which folate acts on NTD remains largely unknown. Folate receptor (Folr) is one of the three membrane proteins that mediate cellular uptake of folates. Recent studies suggest that mouse Folr1 (formerly referred to as Fbp1) is essential for neural tube closure. Therefore, we examined spatial and temporal expression patterns of Folr1 in developing mouse embryos, showing a close association between Folr1 and anterior neural tube closure. Transient transgenic analysis was performed using lacZ as a reporter; we identified a 1.1-kb enhancer that directs lacZ expression in the neural tube and optic vesicle in a manner that is similar to endogenous Folr1. The 1.1-kb enhancer sequences were highly conserved between humans and mice, suggesting that human FOLR1 is associated with anterior neural tube closure in humans. Several experimental studies in mice and human epidemiological and genetics studies have suggested that folate receptor abnormalities are involved in a portion of human NTDs, although the solo defect of FOLR1 did not cause NTD. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Hypospadias: Prevalence, birthweight and associated major congenital anomalies. (United States)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester


    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birthweight and associated major congenital anomalies. It is a population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence of 16.9 per 10 000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (P hypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68%) while cases with associated major congenital anomalies were less likely to have mild hypospadias (42%) (P Hypospadias was associated with VLBW and the severity of the defect was related to the presence of major congenital anomalies. The prevalence of hypospadias has increased during the study period. The relation to VLBW could indicate a causal relationship for hypospadias or a shared pathogenic factor. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. Using biofilms for monitoring metal contamination in lotic ecosystems: The protective effects of hardness and pH on metal bioaccumulation. (United States)

    Leguay, Sébastien; Lavoie, Isabelle; Levy, Jacqueline L; Fortin, Claude


    Biofilms can make good bioindicators and biomarkers, offering a convenient tool to monitor metal contamination in streams that results from mine tailing sites. Biofilm metal content (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) as well as diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies (diatom abnormalities) were determined for biofilms from rivers with a variety of physicochemical properties across a metal contamination gradient. The results of metal accumulation were highly consistent from year to year, with significant relationships between calculated free metal ion concentrations and biofilm metal contents for samples from different rivers. This indicates the "universal nature" of the metal accumulation process in biofilms. The authors observed that protons and major cations protected against metal accumulation. A very low number of diatom taxa were found at the most contaminated sites, and the highest proportions of deformities were observed at these sites. However, it was difficult to distinguish the effect of metal contamination from the effect of other parameters, especially pH. The results suggest that the development of biofilm-based proxies for metal bioavailability is useful and that incorporation of the effects of hardness and pH in this metal contamination monitoring tool is important. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1489-1501. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Expanding the mutation and clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome. (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan H; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Eid, Maha M; Tosson, Angie M S; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; Abdel Azeem, Amira A; Farag, Mona K; Mehrez, Mennat I; Gaber, Khaled R


    Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia syndrome are rare autosomal recessive genetic disorders representing the extremes of the spectrum of severity of the same condition, caused by mutations in ESCO2 gene. We report three new patients with Roberts syndrome from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families. All patients presented with growth retardation, mesomelic shortening of the limbs more in the upper than in the lower limbs and microcephaly. Patients were subjected to clinical, cytogenetic and radiologic examinations. Cytogenetic analysis showed the characteristic premature separation of centromeres and puffing of heterochromatic regions. Further, sequencing of the ESCO2 gene identified a novel mutation c.244_245dupCT (p.T83Pfs*20) in one family besides two previously reported mutations c.760_761insA (p.T254Nfs*27) and c.764_765delTT (p.F255Cfs*25). All mutations were in homozygous state, in exon 3. The severity of the mesomelic shortening of the limbs and craniofacial anomalies showed variability among patients. Interestingly, patient 1 had abnormal skin hypopigmentation. Serial fetal ultrasound examinations and measurements of long bones diagnosed two affected fetuses in two of the studied families. A literature review and case comparison was performed. In conclusion, we report a novel ESCO2 mutation and expand the clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  12. Functional bisporangiate cones in Pinus johannis (Pinaceae): Implications for the evolution of bisexuality in seed plants. (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Whipple, Amy V; Piñero, Daniel; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Domínguez, C A


    Bisexuality (male and female function in one structure) has been reported as a key innovation of angiosperms. Although there are several reports of "teratological" bisporangiate (bisexual) cones in gymnosperms, there have been none on the viability of their ovules and pollen. Analyses of the development and arrangement of female and male structures on bisporangiate cones of Pinus johannis enables us to gain insight on the origin of bisexuality in seed plants, for both angiosperms and gymnosperms. Viability of bisporangiate cones was assayed by performing manual crosses and using anatomical and histological methods. We determined that bisporangiate cones of P. johannis produce functional pollen and ovules. Male and female organs occupy basal and apical positions, respectively, the same positions found in almost all bisporangiate strobili in gymnosperms and bisexual flowers in angiosperms. The viability and spatial distribution of female and male organs of bisporangiate cones and their frequent occurrence in gymnosperms suggest a common mechanism in all seed plants for the production of bisporangiate structures. This idea is further supported by the presence of homologous genes for sexual organ identity in gymnosperms and angiosperms as reported by other authors. The lack of bisporangiate structure in gymnosperms may be primarily due to selection to avoid inbreeding rather than to genetic constraint.

  13. Characterization of a developmental toxicity dose-response model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustman, E.M.; Wellington, D.G.; Smith, W.P.; Kimmel, C.A.


    The Rai and Van Ryzin dose-response model proposed for teratology experiments has been characterized for its appropriateness and applicability in modeling the dichotomous response data from developmental toxicity studies. Modifications were made in the initial probability statements to reflect more accurately biological events underlying developmental toxicity. Data sets used for the evaluation were obtained from the National Toxicology Program and U.S. EPA laboratories. The studies included developmental evaluations of ethylene glycol, diethylhexyl phthalate, di- and triethylene glycol dimethyl ethers, and nitrofen in rats, mice, or rabbits. Graphic examination and statistical evaluation demonstrate that this model is sensitive to the data when compared to directly measured experimental outcomes. The model was used to interpolate to low-risk dose levels, and comparisons were made between the values obtained and the no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) divided by an uncertainty factor. Our investigation suggests that the Rai and Van Ryzin model is sensitive to the developmental toxicity end points, prenatal deaths, and malformations, and appears to model closely their relationship to dose.

  14. Effect of endosulfan on immunological competence of layer birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Singh


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates. Results: There was a significant decrease in levels of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds fed with endosulfan as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with endosulfan as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from endosulfan-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. Conclusion: The exposure to endosulfan in limited oral dosage was able to exhibit hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting cautious usage of endosulfan insecticide in poultry sheds.

  15. Monsters and the case of L. Joseph: André Feil's thesis on the origin of the Klippel-Feil syndrome and a social transformation of medicine. (United States)

    Belykh, Evgenii; Malik, Kashif; Simoneau, Isabelle; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Lei, Ting; Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Byvaltsev, Vadim A; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C


    André Feil (1884-1955) was a French physician best recognized for his description, coauthored with Maurice Klippel, of patients with congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, a condition currently known as Klippel-Feil syndrome. However, little is known about his background aside from the fact that he was a student of Klippel and a physician who took a keen interest in describing congenital anomalies. Despite the relative lack of information on Feil, his contributions to the fields of spinal disease and teratology extended far beyond science to play an integral role in changing the misguided perception shrouding patients with disfigurements, defects, deformities, and so-called monstrous births. In particular, Feil's 1919 medical school thesis on cervical abnormalities was a critical publication in defying long-held theory and opinion that human "monstrosities," anomalies, developmental abnormalities, and altered congenital physicality were a consequence of sinful behavior or a reversion to a primitive state. Indeed, his thesis on a spinal deformity centering on his patient, L. Joseph, was at the vanguard for a new view of a patient as nothing less than fully human, no matter his or her physicality or appearance.

  16. Free radical intermediates of phenytoin and related teratogens. Prostaglandin H synthase-catalyzed bioactivation, electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry, and photochemical product analysis. (United States)

    Parman, T; Chen, G; Wells, P G


    Phenytoin and related xenobiotics can be bioactivated by embryonic prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) to a teratogenic free radical intermediate. The mechanism of free radical formation was evaluated using photolytic oxidation with sodium persulfate and by EPR spectrometry. Characterization of the products by mass spectrometry suggested that phenytoin photolyzes to a nitrogen-centered radical that rapidly undergoes ring opening to form a carbon-centered radical. PHS-1 was incubated with teratogen (phenytoin, mephenytoin, trimethadione, phenobarbital, and major metabolites) or its vehicle and the free radical spin trap alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, and incubations were analyzed by EPR spectrometry. There was no alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone radical adduct in control incubations. For phenytoin, a putative unstable nitrogen-centered radical adduct and a stable carbon-centered radical adduct were detected. Free radical spin adducts also were detected for all other teratogens and metabolites except carbamazepine. The PHS inhibitor eicosatetraynoic acid abolished the free radical EPR signal. Incubation of 2'-deoxyguanosine with phenytoin and PHS-1 resulted in a 5-fold increase in its oxidation to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. This is the first direct chemical evidence for PHS-catalyzed bioactivation of phenytoin and related teratogens to a free radical intermediate that initiates DNA oxidation, which may constitute a common molecular mechanism of teratologic initiation.

  17. A Review of the Teratogenic Factors Effect on Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzarbanoo Shojaei fard


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Teratology is a branch of embryology science that studies causes, mechanisms and abnormal pattern development. Embryo growth traumatic factors during pregnancy are called teratogens that some teratogens pass the placental barrier and cause adverse effect during development stages and malformation, however a drug may improve general health of the mother, but it might be poisonous for embryo and cause diverse malformation. Since study of embryo health and risk factor in this stage is important, the aim of this review article was the investigation of some types of teratosgens (such as radiation, infectious agents, heat disorders, maternal conditions and particularly the effect of teratogenic drugs on embryo including some legal drugs (such as acetaminophen, thalidomide, acyclovir, sedatives and anticonvulsants and illegal drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and marijuana. Conclusion: In general, teratogens depending on the type and duration of exposure in pregnancyperiod, adversely affect embryo and cause various disorders. A better understanding of these teratogens can contribute to prevent these defects, since many other drugs with similar effects and lower teratogenicity can be used to improve mothers’ health.

  18. Effects of neonatal fluoxetine exposure on behavior across development in rats selectively bred for an infantile affective trait. (United States)

    Zimmerberg, Betty; Germeyan, Sierra C


    Infants born to women with depressive symptoms are at higher risk for insecure attachment and behavioral problems. Thus current medical practice is to continue psychotropic medication of pregnant women with depression despite concerns about its behavioral teratology. There are few animal studies focused on long-term behavioral effects of prenatal antidepressant exposure; in addition, studies have not looked at individual differences in baseline affective state as a source of response variability. In this study, fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), was administered to male and female rat pups from postnatal days 2-7 to model exposure to antidepressants in the human third trimester. Four behavioral measures were conducted from the neonatal to adult age periods in Low and High lines selectively bred for their rate of ultrasonic vocalizations after brief maternal separation. Neonatal fluoxetine administration decreased distress calls in both lines, but to a greater extent in High line rats than Low line. Neonatal fluoxetine also impaired motor coordination in neonates. Neonatal fluoxetine administration decreased social behavior in both juvenile and adult subjects. Fluoxetine-related reductions in anxiety behavior were not observed at the two older ages. As expected, High line subjects displayed more anxiety behavior than Low line subjects at all three test ages. These results suggest that there are may be significant behavioral consequences of antidepressant use during late pregnancy on offspring maternal attachment and social behavior, with implications for increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Counseling patients exposed to ionizing radiation during pregnancy El asesoramiento de pacientes expuestas a radiaciones ionizantes durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Brent


    testes. Counseling patients requires knowledge of embryology, genetics, radiation teratology, and the principles of teratology in order for the counselor to provide sympathetic, accurate, scholarly advice.Los físicos que trabajan en el ámbito de la salud y los clínicos que tienen conocimientos de radiología tienen la responsabilidad de asesorar a las mujeres de edad fecunda acerca de los riesgos reproductivos de la exposición a radiaciones ionizantes antes de la concepción o durante el embarazo. Es importante entender que las personas legas albergan muchas nociones equivocadas acerca de los riesgos asociados con ese tipo de radiaciones. Muchas pacientes que ya se han sometido o serán sometidas a algún tipo de prueba radiológica les temen a los correspondientes riesgos reproductivos y a las posibles consecuencias de estas pruebas diagnósticas para el desarrollo fetal. Según estudios epidemiológicos y con animales, un alto grado de exposición a radiaciones ionizantes puede provocar un aborto, anomalías congénitas, retraso del crecimiento, muerte fetal y cáncer. A salvedad de esto último, hay umbrales de exposición establecidos en relación con cada uno de estos problemas, y una exposición por debajo de ciertas dosis de radiación no se asocia con ninguna elevación del riesgo de sufrir daños reproductivos o del desarrollo. El umbral de exposición asociado con anomalías congénitas durante la etapa del desarrollo de mayor vulnerabilidad es de 0,2 Gy, y el umbral en el caso del retraso del crecimiento y del aborto espontáneo es aun mayor. No obstante, la pérdida de un embrión puede ocurrir incluso a dosis bajas durante las fases del desarrollo que preceden a la implantación o en la fase presomática (el llamado período de "todo o nada". Esta es la etapa en que un embrión corre un mayor riesgo de morir que de sobrevivir con malformaciones. El período de mayor vulnerabilidad para la inducción de retraso mental dura desde la octava hasta la

  20. Polytocus focus: Uterine position effect is dependent upon horn size. (United States)

    McLaurin, Kristen A; Mactutus, Charles F


    Understanding the variability caused by uterine position effects in polytocus species, such as rats, may enhance prenatal animal models for the study of drug and environmental agents. The primiparous litters of 42 intact female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Uterine position, fetal body weight, and fetal brain (wet) weight were recorded on gestation day (GD) 20 (GD 0=sperm positive). Uterine position effect for brain and body weight varied depending upon horn size. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between horn size (and, to a lesser extent, litter size) and fetal weight applied to both body and brain weight measures. There were no statistical differences in brain and body weights between the left and right uterine horns. The position of the uterine horn (left vs. right) and litter size did not influence the uterine position effect in the rat. Collectively, the present data suggest the presence of a significant uterine position effect. Prenatal differences based on uterine position provide an untapped opportunity to increase our understanding of developmental neurotoxicological and teratological studies that employ a polytocus species as an animal model. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An automated double staining procedure for bone and cartilage. (United States)

    Miller, D M; Tarpley, J


    Differential skeletal staining is an important part of developmental toxicologic studies. Traditionally these studies have required time-consuming differentiation of one or both stains used and careful attention to the maceration step to prevent specimen destruction. We present a fully automated protocol which does not require differentiation of either dye and incorporates a controlled maceration step which is highly reproducible. This has resulted in high quality staining that is reproducible, stable, and can be done in volume with minimal personnel time. The process involves the staining of skinned, eviscerated specimens fixed in 95% ethanol. Using an automated tissue processor, the specimen is stained in alcian blue for 24 hr, macerated in 3% potassium hydroxide for 24 hr and stained with murexide for 24 hr. The specimens are cleared and preserved in glycerol. Within three days specimens have red stained bone and blue stained cartilage. The procedure was developed using 20-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses to evaluate the feasibility of using the procedure for teratology studies involving the fetal skeleton. Evenly stained specimens can be examined within three days and stored for years without loss of staining.

  2. Cypermetherin toxic effects on spermatogenesis and male mouse reproductive organs. (United States)

    Dahamna, S; Bencheikh, F; Harzallah, D; Boussahel, S; Belgeit, A; Merghem, M; Bouriche, H


    Cypermetherin has been implicated in the development of a variety of reproductive disorders in humans and infertility in wild life, where it increases the death rate of the offspring and induces aggressiveness (Elbetieha et al., 2001). Studies in workers exposed to handling of agro pesticides indicate that they have defects in their reproduction capabilities characterized by infertility and/or a decrease in the fertilizing potential, fetal death. In this study, mice weighing 30-35 g were used, separated in 3 groups, (1) control (2) vehicle (oil) and (3) experimental (Cypermetherin and oil). The animals were gavaged by 1/5, 1/20 LD50 for 2 and 4 weeks respectively, and with 1/5 LD50 for 12 weeks, then sacrificed. Epididymal spermatozoa were evaluated with respect to quantity, motility and morphology. The histology of testis and epididymis was also studied. Sperm count decreased by around 20% in treated animals compared with control. Teratology observations showed a clear modification of sperm morphology, especially the flagella. Testicular and epididymal morphology was also impaired. It is concluded that Cypermetherin may cause morphological and functional alteration of the male reproductive tract.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian ICLEANU


    Full Text Available Congenital hip luxation is a disorder which evolves in time. Teratological hip dislocation is a distinct form of hip luxation, which usually appears with other disorders. These hips are dislocated before birth. In this thesis we will try to elaborate a recovery program, through physical exercises, which will help us realize our treatment objectives: diminishing articular stiffness, increasing articular mobility, increasing muscle strength, recalibration of agonist and antagonist balances and reeducating gait. The specific objectives of the study consist of the particularization of the recovery programs based on age, illness stage (dysplasia or luxation and either surgical or non-surgical intervention. To show the importance of physiotherapy in gait rehabilitation of a child with hip dislocation we started from the hypothesis: using an adequate rehabilitation program after an individualized methodology, optimizes the functional recovery and ensures the gains of hip stability and the formation of an engram of gait as close as it could be to the normal one. We present a case of neurological congenital hip dislocation where the treatment initiated early is showing good results. Results obtained are significantly different and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient has better biomechanical results for the hip.

  4. Introduction: biomarkers in neurodevelopment toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.


    The search for markers of toxicant exposure and effect upon the development of organisms presents a set of challenges that differ in many ways from those encountered in the study of markers in reproduction or pregnancy. These latter two fields specify a relatively narrow set of organs or biological systems. The term development, on the other hand, can apply to any organ system, or to any set of phenomena that changes in an ordered way over time. For this reason the papers presented in the session on development were chosen to narrow the focus to neurodevelopmental markers, as such markers may be altered by neurotoxic exposure. In attempting to meet this task, the authors have been able to select a group of investigators who work at the leading edges of their respective fields of developmental neuroanatomy, neurotoxicology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, and infant development. The notion that toxicants could affect behavior certainly is not new. Recent knowledge that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral observation might provide early markers of effect has given rise to two new fields: behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS): studies of honey bees exposed to 2. 45 GHz continuous-wave electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B


    A system for small animal exposure was developed for treating honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in brood and adult stages, with 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at selected power densities and exposure times. Post-treatment brood development was normal and teratological effects were not detected at exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment survival, longevity, orientation, navigation, and memory of adult bees were also normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment longevity of confined bees in the laboratory was normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 24 hours. Thermoregulation of brood nest, foraging activity, brood rearing, and social interaction were not affected by chronic exposure to 1 mw/cm/sup 2/ during 28 days. In dynamic behavioral bioassays the frequency of entry and duration of activity of unrestrained, foraging adult bees was identical in microwave-exposed (5 to 40 mw/cm/sup 2/) areas versus control areas.

  6. Fabricating a face: the essence of embryology in the dental curriculum. (United States)

    Sperber, G H


    The current explosive growth in developmental biology, fuelled by the almost completed sequencing of the human genome, is bound to have a profound impact upon the practice of medicine and dentistry in the twenty-first century. No other discipline more accurately reflects this impact than embryology, which combines the basic and clinical sciences of genetics, ontogeny, phylogeny, teratology, and syndromology into the essence of modern medical and dental practice. The advent of in vitro fertilization, chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, prenatal ultrasonography, intrauterine surgery, and stem cell therapy has vaulted the previously esoteric subject of embryology into clinical consciousness. All these aforementioned procedures require an intimate knowledge of the different stages of development. The alphabet soup of acronyms that now peppers papers proclaiming the genetics and characteristics of various growth factors and cytokines (e.g., FGF, TGFalpha) are all based upon an understanding of the developmental mechanisms occurring in the embryo and subsequently in wound healing and oncology. Congenital abnormalities ranging from lethal syndromes to dental malocclusions cannot be diagnosed, treated, cured, or prognosticated upon without a sound conceptualization of embryology. Computer technology has revolutionized the understanding and teaching of embryology by portraying developmental phenomena as three-dimensional model images in sequential depictions of changes proceeding in the fourth dimension of time. Embryology must now form the essential core of the basic sciences in medical and dental curricula. Future dental practice will become rooted in the genetics and morphogenesis of facial fabrication.

  7. The attitudes of medical students in Europe toward the clinical importance of embryology. (United States)

    Moxham, Bernard John; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida; Standley, Henrietta; Brenner, Erich; Plaisant, Odile; Brichova, Hana; Pais, Diogo; Stabile, Isobel; Borg, Jordy; Chirculescu, Andy


    Although there have been many studies reporting the attitudes of medical students to the clinical importance of gross anatomy, little is known about their opinions concerning the clinical importance of embryology. Using Thurstone and Chave methods to assess attitudes, nearly 1,600 medical students across Europe in the early stages of their training provided responses to a survey that tested the hypothesis that they do not regard embryology as highly clinically relevant. Indeed, we further proposed that student attitudes to gross anatomy are much more positive than those toward embryology. Our findings show that our hypotheses hold, regardless of the university and country surveyed and regardless of the teaching methods employed for embryology. Clearly, embryology has a significant part to play in medical education in terms of understanding prenatal life, of appreciating how the organization of the mature human body has developed, and of providing essential information for general medical practice, obstetrics and pediatrics, and teratology. However, while newly recruited medical students understand the importance of gross anatomy in the development of professional competence, understanding the importance of embryology requires teachers, medical educationalists, and devisors of medical curricula to pay special attention to informing students of the significant role played by embryology in attaining clinical competence and achieving the knowledge and understanding of the biomedical sciences that underpins becoming a learned member of a health care profession. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Correlation between lung to thorax transverse area ratio and observed/expected lung area to head circumference ratio in fetuses with left-sided diaphragmatic hernia. (United States)

    Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Murata, Masaharu; Sasahara, Jun; Ishii, Keisuke; Mitsuda, Nobuaki


    Observed/expected lung area to head circumference ratio (o/e LHR) and lung to thorax transverse area ratio (LTR) are the sonographic indicators of postnatal outcome in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), and they are not influenced by gestational age. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between these two parameters in the same subjects with fetal left-sided CDH. Fetuses with left-sided CDH managed between 2005 and 2012 were included. Data of LTR and o/e LHR values measured on the same day prior to 33 weeks' gestation in target fetuses were retrospectively collected. The correlation between the two parameters was estimated using the Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient, and linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between them. Data on 61 measurements from 36 CDH fetuses were analyzed to obtain a Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient of 0.74 with the following linear equation: LTR = 0.002 × (o/e LHR) + 0.005. The determination coefficient of this linear equation was sufficiently high at 0.712, and the prediction accuracy obtained with this regression formula was considered satisfactory. A good linear correlation between the LTR and the o/e LHR was obtained, suggesting that we can translate the predictive parameters for each other. This information is expected to be useful to improve our understanding of different investigations focusing on LTR or o/e LHR as a predictor of postnatal outcome in CDH. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Fertility, developmental toxicity and teratogenicity in albino rats treated with methanol sub-fraction of Carica papaya seeds. (United States)

    Shrivastava, S; Ansari, A S; Lohiya, N K


    To evaluate the status of fertility, developmental stages during gestation and teratological changes, if any, following oral administration of methanol sub-fraction (MSF) of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in rats. The MSF was administered at the doses of 50 mg contraceptive dose (CD), 100 mg (2× CD), 250 mg (5× CD) and 500 mg (10× CD)/kg body wt/day along with vehicle-treated control using 10 male and 20 female Wistar rats in each group. Necropsies were performed one day before the expected parturition. Status of gravid/non-gravid uterus, the number of corpora lutea in the ovary, implantation status, fetal wellbeing, fetal resorption, fetal body weight, external, visceral and skeletal malformations were recorded. Pregnancies were recorded in vehicle-treated control animals and in the animals treated with 50 mg/kg body wt/day. The animals treated with 2× CD, 5× CD and 10× CD did not get pregnant. The fetuses and the status of the ovary, uterus and implantation, fetal body weight, soft tissues and skeletal structures were recorded normal. Data were comparable to those of control. The results suggest that the test substance had no developmental toxicity and teratogenicity which could affect pregnancy, implantation and gestation.

  10. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters? (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno


    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself.

  11. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of major congenital anomalies for pregnancies in Japan: A nationwide birth cohort study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study. (United States)

    Nishigori, Hidekazu; Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Toshie; Mizuno, Satoshi; Metoki, Hirohito; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Zen; Sakurai, Kasumi; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Yaegashi, Nobuo


    We analyzed data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), on the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) use during pregnancy and the risk of developing of major congenital anomalies in Japan. JECS is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. The study includes 95 994 single pregnant women and their offspring. Among them, 172 used any SSRI up to the 12th gestational week. Crude analyses show a significantly increased incidence of upper limb, abdominal, and urogenital abnormalities. In particular, the incidence of microcephaly, hydrencephalus, esophageal atresia, small intestinal atresia, and achondroplasia was significantly higher with than without exposure to these substances. On multivariate analyses, urogenital abnormality was significant (odds ratio 3.227; 95% confidence interval: 1.460-7.134). This Japanese nationwide birth cohort survey clarified that the use of any SSRI until the 12th gestational week was associated with urogenital abnormality in children. The survey for association with minor classification abnormality needs further examination in Japan. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  12. Systemic and maxillofacial characteristics of 11 Japanese children with Russell-Silver syndrome. (United States)

    Sato, Chiemi; Ogawa, Takuya; Tsuge, Risa; Shiga, Momotoshi; Tsuji, Michiko; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Moriyama, Keiji


    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a congenital anomaly characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, typical facial features, fifth-finger clinodactyly, and skeletal asymmetry. Although data on intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation have been reported, there are few reports concerning the typical maxillofacial morphology in individuals with RSS. The aim of this study was to describe the details of this systemic condition and to characterize maxillofacial morphology based on cephalograms in 11 Japanese patients (age range, 3.9-12.0 years) with RSS. All 11 individuals had intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. In addition, most showed mandibular retrognathia and relative macrocephaly. Lateral cephalogram measurements showed that mandibular retrognathia resulted from short mandibular body length, whereas the depth of the cranial base was close to normal. Although asymmetry of hand, foot, and limb length were present in most individuals, obvious facial asymmetry was not common. Differences between left and right skeletal and dental age were not observed, indicating that children with RSS might show asymmetry because of quantitative differences in skeletal growth rather than delayed growth rate. Our findings not only provide important information about the maxillofacial characteristics of RSS, but also help to clarify the association between these characteristics and genetics, which will add to the body of information on clinical symptoms. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  13. Pluripotent stem cells are protected from cytomegalovirus infection at multiple points: implications of a new pathogenesis for congenital anomaly caused by cytomegalovirus. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hideya


    In humans, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most significant cause of intrauterine infections that cause congenital anomalies. Intrauterine infection with human CMV is thought to be responsible for a variety of abnormalities, including mental retardation, microcephaly, developmental delay, seizure disorders, and cerebral palsy, depending on the timing of the fetal infection, the infectious route, and the virulence of the virus. In addition to the adaptive immune system, the embryo has potential resistance to CMV during early embryogenesis. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are more resistant to CMV than most other cell types, although the mechanism responsible for this resistance is not well understood. ES cells allow approximately 20-fold less murine CMV (MCMV) DNA to enter the nucleus than mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and this inhibition occurs in a multistep manner. In situ hybridization showed that ES cell nuclei had significantly less MCMV DNA than MEF nuclei. This finding appears to be supported by the fact that ES cells express less heparan sulfate, β1-integrin, and vimentin and have fewer nuclear pores than differentiated cells such as MEF. This may reduce the ability of MCMV to attach to and enter the cellular membrane, translocate to the nucleus, and cross the nuclear membrane in pluripotent stem cells (ES-induced pluripotent stem cells). This finding may indicate a new pathogenesis for the congenital anomaly caused by CMV. © 2012 The Author. Congenital Anomalies © 2012 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. Free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage in the mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity. (United States)

    Parman, T; Wiley, M J; Wells, P G


    The sedative drug thalidomide ([+]-alpha-phthalimidoglutarimide), once abandoned for causing birth defects in humans, has found new therapeutic license in leprosy and other diseases, with renewed teratological consequences. Although the mechanism of teratogenesis and determinants of risk remain unclear, related teratogenic xenobiotics are bioactivated by embryonic prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) to a free-radical intermediates that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative damage to DNA and other cellular macromolecules. Similarly, thalidomide is bioactivated by horseradish peroxidase, and oxidizes DNA and glutathione, indicating free radical-mediated oxidative stress. Furthermore, thalidomide teratogenicity in rabbits is reduced by the PHS inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid, indicating PHS-catalyzed bioactivation. Here, we show in rabbits that thalidomide initiates embryonic DNA oxidation and teratogenicity, both of which are abolished by pre-treatment with the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). In contrast, in mice, a species resistant to thalidomide teratogenicity, thalidomide does not enhance DNA oxidation, even at a dose 300% higher than that used in rabbits, providing insight into an embryonic determinant of species-dependent susceptibility. In addition to their therapeutic implications, these results constitute direct evidence that the teratogenicity of thalidomide may involve free radical-mediated oxidative damage to embryonic cellular macromolecules.

  15. In vivo phenytoin-initiated oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in murine maternal hepatic and embryonic tissue organelles: potential molecular targets of chemical teratogenesis. (United States)

    Liu, L; Wells, P G


    The widely used anticonvulsant drug phenytoin may be bioactivated by peroxidases such as prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) to a reactive free radical intermediate that initiates teratogenesis. This in vivo study evaluated the potential molecular targets mediating phenytoin teratogenicity. In vivo phenytoin-induced oxidative tissue damage following bioactivation was quantified in both maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues from pregnant CD-1 mice using lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and degradation as indices. Pregnant mice were injected with a teratogenic dose of phenytoin, 65 mg/kg ip, during organogenesis on Gestational Day 12. alpha-Phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN), a free radical spin trapping agent, 41.5 mg/kg, or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase component of PHS, 10 mg/kg, were injected ip 2 hr before phenytoin treatment, and maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 8, and 24 hr. Phenytoin enhanced lipid peroxidation in maternal plasma, hepatic microsomes, cytosol, mitochondria, and nuclei and in embryonic microsomes, cytosol, and mitochondria (p teratogenicity by PBN and ASA, suggest that peroxidase-catalyzed bioactivation of phenytoin may initiate oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in embryonic tissues, with teratological consequences.

  16. Difference in apical and basal growth of the frontal bone primordium in Foxc1ch/ch mice. (United States)

    Machida, Akihiko; Okuhara, Shigeru; Harada, Kiyoshi; Iseki, Sachiko


    The frontal and parietal bones form the major part of the calvarium and their primordia appear at the basolateral region of the head and grow apically. A spontaneous loss of Foxc1 function mutant mouse, congenital hydrocephalus (Foxc1(ch/ch)), results in congenital hydrocephalus accompanied by defects in the apical part of the skull vault. We found that during the initiation stage of apical growth of the frontal bone primordium in the Foxc1(ch/ch) mouse, the Runx2 expression domain extended only to the basal side and bone sialoprotein (Bsp) and N-cadherin expression domains appeared only in the basal region. Fluorescent dye (DiI) labeling of the frontal primordium by ex-utero surgery confirmed that apical extension of the frontal bone primordium of the mouse was severely retarded, while extension to the basal side underneath the brain was largely unaffected. Consistent with this observation, decreased cell proliferation activity was seen at the apical tip but not the basal tip of the frontal bone primordium as determined by double detection of Runx2 transcripts and BrdU incorporation. Furthermore, expression of the osteogenic-related genes Bmp4 and-7 was observed only in the basal part of the meninges during the initiation period of primordium growth. These results suggest that a loss of Foxc1 function affects skull bone formation of the apical region and that Bmp expression in the meninges might influence the growth of the calvarial bone primordium. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. Skull shape evolution in durophagous carnivorans. (United States)

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Martín-Serra, Alberto


    In this article, we investigate convergent evolution toward durophagy in carnivoran skull shape using geometric morphometrics in a sample of living and extinct species. Principal components analysis indicate that, in spite of the different dietary resources consumed by durophages-that is, bone-crackers and bamboo-feeders-both groups of carnivorans share portions of skull phenotypic spaces. We identify by discriminant analyses a shared set of adaptations toward durophagy in the skull of carnivores. However, ancestral states indicate that although durophages reached similar phenotypes, the evolutionary pathways that they followed are different depending upon the family to which they belong. Furthermore, while the carnivoran cranium more closely reflects the nature of the resources consumed-that is, soft or hard and tough items-the mandible shows particular feeding adaptations-that is, bamboo or bone. This finding supports the interpretation that the mandible has more evolutionary plasticity than the cranium, which is more limited to evolve toward a particular feeding adaptation. However, we find that the shapes of the cranium and the mandible are highly integrated for the whole order Carnivora. Published studies of teratological cats and dogs indicate that the role of internal constraints in shaping this pattern of integration is absent or weak and malleable by selection. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. The electric and magnetic fields research and public information dissemination (EMF-RAPID) program. (United States)

    Moulder, J E


    In the United States, public concern that exposure to power-line fields was linked to cancer led to the establishment of a Congressionally mandated program, the Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination (EMF-RAPID) Program. A major goal of the program was to "determine whether or not exposures to electric and magnetic fields produced by the generation, transmission, and use of electrical energy affect human health". Between 1994 and 1998, the EMF-RAPID program spent approximately $41 million on biological research. Much of the work funded by the EMF-RAPID program has not yet been published in the peer-reviewed literature. The U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) asked that Radiation Research publish this special issue in an attempt to remedy this publication gap. The issue includes reviews of studies that were done to assess the biological plausibility of claims that power-frequency fields caused leukemia and breast cancer. The issue continues with two teratology studies and one immunology study. The section of the issue covering in vitro studies begins with an overview of the efforts NIEHS made to replicate a wide range of reported effects of power-frequency fields and continues with four papers reporting the absence of effects of power-frequency fields on the expression of stress-response genes and oncogenes. Other reports of in vitro studies and studies of mechanisms cover cytotoxicity, gap junction intracellular communication, calcium ion transport across the plasma membrane, and intracellular electric fields.

  19. Diabetes-induced effects on cardiomyocytes in chick embryonic heart micromass and mouse embryonic D3 differentiated stem cells. (United States)

    Mohammed, Omar J; Latif, Muhammad Liaque; Pratten, Margaret K


    Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is a considerable medical challenge, since it is related to ‎augmented morbidity and mortality concerns for both the fetus ‎and the pregnant woman. Records show that the etiology of diabetic ‎embryopathy is complicated, as many teratological factors might be involved ‎in the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced congenital malformation. ‎In this study, the potential cardiotoxic effect of hyperglycemia with hyperketonemia was investigated by using two in vitro models; primary chick embryonic cardiomyocytes and stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, where adverse effects were recorded in both systems. The cells were evaluated by changes in beating activity, cell activity, protein content, ROS production, DNA damage and differentiating stem cell migration. The diabetic formulae used produced an increase in DNA damage and a decline in cell migration in mouse embryonic stem cells. These results provide an additional insight into adverse effects during gestational diabetes mellitus and a recommendation for expectant mothers and maternity staff to monitor glycaemic levels months ahead of conception. This study also supports the recommendation of using antioxidants during pregnancy to prevent DNA damage by the production of ROS, which might result in heart defects as well as other developmental anomalies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Ntp technical report on toxicity, reproductive, and developmental studies of 60-Hz magnetic fields, administered by whole body exposure to F344/N rats, Sprague-Dawley rats, and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorman, G.A.


    Electric and magnetic fields are associated with the production, transmission, and use of electricity; thus the potential for human exposure is high. These electric and magnetic fields are predominantly of low frequency (60 Hz) and generally of low intensity. The prevailing view among physicists is that exposure to these low-frequency, low-intensity fields does not pose a health hazard. However, this view has been challenged by reports linking magnetic field exposure to the development of leukemia and other cancers. Because multiple epidemiologic studies suggested a potential for increased cancer rates with increasing exposure, and because of public concern, the effects of 60-Hz magnetic field exposure were examined in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in 8-week full-body-exposure studies. Animals were evaluated for hematology and clinical chemistry (rats only) parameters, pineal gland hormone concentrations, and histopathology. Additional studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats to examine teratologic and reproductive effects of magnetic field exposure.

  1. Constant-dose microwave irradiation of insect pupae (United States)

    Olsen, Richard G.

    Pupae of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor L. were subjected to microwave irradiation for 1.5-24 hours at power density levels adjusted to produce a total dosage of approximately 1123 J/g in each insect for every experiment. Insects without visible blemishes were exposed in a standing wave irradiation system such that half of them were exposed in the plane of maximum electric field (E field) and the other half were exposed in the plane of maximum magnetic field (H field). Both E field and H field insects exhibited nearly the same specific absorption rate (SAR) for pupal orientation parallel to the magnetic field vector at 5.95 GHz. Irradiations were conducted both with and without the use of a ventilating fan to control the temperature rise in the irradiation chamber. Abnormal development as a result of the microwave exposure was seen only in the high-power, short-duration experiment without chamber ventilation. This result suggests a thermal interaction mechanism for explanation of observed microwave-induced abnormalities. A study of the time course of the average temperature rise in the irradiated insects indicates that teratological effects for this configuration have a temperature threshold of approximately 40°C.

  2. Addressing concerns of pregnant and lactating women after the 2005 hurricanes: the OTIS response. (United States)

    Quinn, Dorothy; Lavigne, Sharon Voyer; Chambers, Christina; Wolfe, Lori; Chipman, Hope; Cragan, Janet D; Rasmussen, Sonja A


    Natural disasters are devastating for anyone affected, but pregnant and breastfeeding women often have specific concerns about the effects of certain exposures (such as infections, chemicals, medications, and stress) on their fetus or breastfed child. For this reason, the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) and the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered to provide information for women and healthcare professionals about the effects of exposures on pregnancy and breastfeeding after the hurricanes of 2005. This service expanded on OTIS's existing telephone counseling and fact sheets. Through this project, fact sheets were created to address specific potential concerns regarding exposures after the hurricanes. The OTIS national toll-free telephone number also was modified to accommodate questions regarding hurricane-related exposures, and several strategies were used to publicize this number as a resource for obtaining hurricane-related exposure information related to pregnancy and breastfeeding. This article describes OTIS's response after the 2005 hurricanes, the challenges encountered in implementing the response, and lessons learned that might be useful to improve the response to the unique needs of this special population after any disaster or public health emergency.

  3. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats. (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki


    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  4. Late-onset Pompe disease with complicated intracranial aneurysm: a Chinese case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang B


    Full Text Available Bin Zhang,1,2,* Yuying Zhao,1,3,* Junling Liu,1,4 Ling Li,1 Jingli Shan,1 Dandan Zhao,1 Chuanzhu Yan1,3 1Laboratory of Neuromuscular Disorders and Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 2Department of Neurology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong, 3Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education, Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 4Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease caused by genetic defects of acid maltase. This disease could be divided into two forms: infantile and late-onset, which mainly affect cardiac, respiratory, and skeletal muscle systems. Late-onset patients mainly show symptoms of skeletal muscle involvement, but recent reports have found that the central nervous system was also affected in some patients. Herein, we report a case of a female, adolescent-onset Pompe patient, who was diagnosed with complicated intracranial aneurysm in adulthood. Keywords: Pompe disease, glycogen storage disease II, acid maltase, acid alpha-glucosidase, cerebrovascular disorders

  5. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009. (United States)

    Russell, Liane B


    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  6. Developmental toxicity of L-selenomethionine in Macaca fascicularis. (United States)

    Tarantal, A F; Willhite, C C; Lasley, B L; Murphy, C J; Miller, C J; Cukierski, M J; Book, S A; Hendrickx, A G


    Forty pregnant long-tailed macaques were dosed via nasogastric intubation with 0, 25, 150, or 300 micrograms/kg of L-selenomethionine (Se) daily during organogenesis [Gestational Day (GD) 20-50]. Clinical examination of the dams, maternal body weights, sonographic evaluations, clinical chemistry screens, and measures of serum progesterone and urinary estrone conjugates were used as indicators of maternal and fetal status in all animals. The pregnancies of two to three dams from each dose group were followed until term (approximately GD 165); the remainder (N = 7/dose group) were scheduled for hysterotomy on GD 100 +/- 2. A standard teratologic evaluation was performed including visceral and skeletal examinations. Fetal liver, kidney, skin, and smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles were examined by light microscopy; heart muscle was also evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Neonates delivered at term remained with the dams and were removed periodically for morphometric, neurologic, behavioral, and ophthalmologic assessments on Days 1, 8, 15, 22, and 30 of age. Dose-dependent maternal toxicity as evidenced by anorexia, vomiting, and a significant reduction in body weight increased with increasing duration of Se exposure. One growth-retarded fetus was recovered on GD 131 from a compromised dam exposed to 25 micrograms/kg-day; one early embryonic death (GD 35) and two fetal deaths [GD 68 (followed by maternal death) and GD 123] occurred among animals dosed with 300 micrograms/kg-day. Pregnancy loss among treated animals was not significantly different from concurrent or historical controls. No statistically significant treatment-related effects were observed at necropsy on GD 100 +/- 2. One infant exposed to 150 micrograms/kg-day prenatally exhibited a unilateral cortical cataract, which may have been a spontaneous occurrence. The limited developmental effects observed and reported teratogenesis in nonmammalian species suggest that comparative pharmacokinetic

  7. Pregnancy outcome, thyroid dysfunction and fetal goitre after in utero exposure to propylthiouracil: a controlled cohort study (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Hila; Ornoy, Asher; Shechtman, Svetlana; Diav-Citrin, Orna


    AIMS Propylthiouracil (PTU) is presently considered to be the treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. It is known to cross the human placenta, and therefore may affect the fetus. The major aims of this study were to evaluate the rate of major anomalies and to report the rate of fetal goitre, accompanied by hypothyroidism, in fetuses/ newborns of mothers after in utero exposure to PTU. METHODS Prospective observational controlled cohort study of PTU-exposed pregnancies of women counselled by the Israeli Teratology Information Service between the years 1994 and 2004 compared with women exposed to nonteratogens. RESULTS We followed up 115 PTU-exposed pregnancies and 1141 controls. The rate of major anomalies was comparable between the groups [PTU 1/80 (1.3%), control 34/1066 (3.2%), P= 0.507]. Hypothyroidism was found in 9.5% of fetuses/neonates (56.8% of whom with goitre). Hyperthyroidism, possibly resulting from maternal disease, was found in 10.3%. Goitres prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound were successfully treated in utero by maternal dose adjustment. In most cases neonatal thyroid functions normalized during the first month of life without any treatment. Median neonatal birth weight was lower [PTU 3145 g (2655–3537) vs. control 3300 g (2968–3600), P= 0.018]. CONCLUSIONS PTU does not seem to be a major human teratogen. However, it could cause fetal/neonatal hypothyroidism with or without goitre. Fetal thyroid size monitoring and neonatal thyroid function tests are important for appropriate prevention and treatment. PMID:19843064

  8. Prenatal exposure to the fungicide dinocap causes behavioral torticollis, ballooning and cleft palate in mice, but not rats or hamsters. (United States)

    Gray, L E; Rogers, J M; Kavlock, R J; Ostby, J S; Ferrell, J M; Gray, K L


    The present study is an evaluation of the developmental toxicity of dinocap in three rodent species using an in vivo teratology screen. Our protocol uses postnatal viability, weight gain, and morphological and behavioral development through weaning to assess the developmental toxicity of compounds. Dinocap administered orally on days 7 to 16 of gestation to the CD-1 mouse resulted in increased postnatal mortality at 25 mg/kg/d (80% in block 1 and 40% in block 2). Many of the treated pups that died during the neonatal period were "ballooned" and had cleft palates. Although there was no treatment related mortality in the 12 mg/kg/d dosage group, 6% (14/226) of these mice and 24% (23/96) of the survivors from the 25 mg/kg/d dosage group displayed torticollis (a twisting of the neck resulting in an abnormal tilting of the head). These tilted-head mice held the head and forepart of the body tilted constantly to one side, both when resting and walking. The tilt was in either direction but was always constant for a given animal; in different mice, the angle varied considerably from almost 0 to 30 degrees. Some mice circled repeatedly in one direction in the home cage, others bobbed their heads and did back-flips, while others rolled over, always rolling in the same direction. In the hamster, developmental toxicity was seen at (100 and 200 mg/kg/d) or near (50 mg/kg/d) maternally toxic doses but no behavioral alterations were noted and none of the pups were ballooned.

  9. A raça como crime cívico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loic Wacquant


    Full Text Available By assuming a central role in the post-Keynesian government of racial division and poverty, the overgrown carceral system has become a preeminent force in the (remaking of race and citizenship in the United States. It not only signifies and enforces blackness through its practical conflation of color with criminality and devious violence. Much as slavery effected the “social death” of imported African captives and their descendants prior to abolition, the mass incarceration of African Americans induces the civic death of those it ensnares by extruding them from the social compact. Inmates are the target of a threefold movement of exclusionary closure that denies them access to institutionalized cultural capital, bars them from social redistribution, and disqualifies them from political participation. The felon disenfranchisement statutes that prohibit nearly 2 million black Americans from voting (recast them in the historic role of the living antithesis to the “model American.” The close kinship between the rhetoric and policy of political expurgation of convicts at century”s end and those of Negro exclusion in earlier eras suggests that blackness is best understood as America”s primeval civic felony in accord with the Durkheimian conception of crime as “an act” that “offends strong states of the collective conscience” – here America”s idealized representation of itself as the promised land of freedom, equality, and self-determination. By reactivating and updating the logic of racialized infamia, felon excommunication reminds us that caste division is a constitutive and not a teratological feature of American republicanism. It testifies to the stratified and restrictive complexion of American citizenship at the dawn of the new millennium.

  10. Structural and functional effects of developmental exposure to ethanol on the zebrafish heart. (United States)

    Dlugos, Cynthia A; Rabin, Richard A


    Fetal alcohol exposure during development results in a host of cardiac abnormalities including atrial and ventricular septal defects, teratology of Fallot, d-transposition of the great arteries, truncus arteriosus communis, and aortico-pulmonary window. The mechanisms behind these ethanol-induced deficits are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the zebrafish, a simple model in which heart development and the sequence of gene expression is well elucidated and comparable to that in higher vertebrates, is sensitive to developmental exposure of pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. Zebrafish eggs of the AB strain were raised in egg water or in 0.5% (v/v) ethanol solution for either 54 hpf (hours postfertilization) or 72 hpf. Heart pathology and volumes were evaluated on the latter group at 5 dpf (days postfertilization) on tissue sections from fixed larvae embedded in glycolmethacrylate. Heart rates were determined in embryos of 54 hpf and larvae of 5 dpf. The functional maturity of the heart's conducting system was measured by determining the response of ethanol-treated and control embryos and larvae to the adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol. Ethanol-induced alterations occurred in heart morphology and heart volume. A developmental lag in the isoproterenol response and the absence of carbachol-mediated bradycardia were also observed following ethanol treatment. These results show that exposure of the zebrafish to ethanol during development results in structural and functional changes in the heart that mimic malformations that occur in patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). These findings promote the zebrafish heart as a future model for investigating the mechanisms responsible for ethanol's adverse effects on vertebrate heart development.

  11. Valproic Acid-Induced Syringomyelia in Rat Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali


    Full Text Available Among antiepileptic drugs, valproic acid (VA is a well known teratogenic agent. Although axial skeletal malformations (vertebral column and limb defects have been described, its main target organ is neuroepithelium of neural tube. Therefore it seems that administration of VA during early pregnancy may affect on neural tube and adjacent tissues. The goal of present study was to determine whether there is a relationship between maternal valproic acid exposure and developmental changes during neural tube and notochord and their interactions.For this reason, on 9th day of gestation, wistar rats were treated with double dose of 600 mg/kg VA given once in the morning and another in the evening (in experimental group. The controls were received the same volume of normal saline by animal feeding. For teratological studies, fetuses were examined on 20th day of gestation and histological study were carried out.Our findings showed that in addition to some well known congenital malformations (such as axial skeletal defects and spina bifida there was an abnormal cavitation in cervical and thoracic segments of spinal cord (syringomyelia which was accompanied with a delay in determination of notochord at these levels. At these area, the syrinx (cyst is lined by compact glial tissue. In this kind of abnormality there is an atrophy of gray and white matter in the neighboring of syrinx in the spinal cord.These data revealed that, there is a strong association between maternal VA administration and risk for severe spinal cord defect such as syringomyelia and the same pathological changes might occur in human .

  12. Comparison of Ponseti versus surgical treatment in congenital talipes equinovarus. (United States)

    Clarke, Nicholas M P; Uglow, Michael G; Valentine, Katy M


    In the present study we compared the rate of relapse after conservative Ponseti treatment method with that of a historical cohort who underwent conventional operative treatment. From June 2002 to December 2004, 70 patients presented with 107 clubfeet and started Ponseti treatment. Of these 70 patients, 9 (15 feet) were excluded because of a teratologic deformity. Thus, 50 patients with 75 clubfeet were studied (41 [82%] boys and 9 [18%] girls). Data were compiled from the clinic assessment forms and patient notes. All cases resulting in recasting or additional operative procedures were regarded as failure of conservative treatment. The minimum follow-up period was 2 years or failure of the Ponseti method within this period. These data were then compared with the published data from the same center, regarding relapse after the 2-stage operative method. From 1988 to 1995, 86 patients had presented with 120 clubfeet and undergone operative treatment. Of the 86 patients, 68 (91 clubfeet; 48 boys and 20 girls) underwent the 2-stage operative procedure and were followed up to a mean age of 5.7 (range 2.2 to 9.6) years. The mean age at operative treatment was 8.9 months. The relapse rate of both treatment methods was compared for all feet in all Dimeglio grades. The relapse rate for Ponseti versus surgery was 18.2% versus 0% for grade 2, 36.2% versus 20.4% for grade 3, and 35.3% versus 65.4% for grade 4, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found. The Ponseti method is as valid as the 2-stage operative method for the treatment of clubfoot. The functional outcomes of the 2 treatment methods need to be compared. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is there a reduction of congenital abnormalities in the offspring of diabetic pregnant women after folic acid supplementation? A population-based case-control study. (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Dakhlaoui, Abdallah; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew A E


    The objective of the present study was to estimate the preventive effect of folic acid for structural birth defects (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CAs]) in the offspring of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1). The occurrence of medically recorded DM-1 in pregnant women who had malformed fetuses/newborns (cases) and delivered healthy babies (controls) with or without folic acid supplementation was compared in the population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities. The case group included 22,843 offspring, and there were 79 (0.35%) pregnant women with DM-1, while the control group comprised of 38,151 newborns, and 88 (0.23%) had mothers with DM-1. Case mothers with DM-1 associated with a higher risk of total rate of CAs in their offspring (OR with 95% CI: 1.5, 1.1-2.0) compared to the total rate of CAs in the offspring of non-diabetic case mothers. This higher risk can be explained by four specific types/groups of CAs: isolated renal a/dysgenesis; obstructive CA of the urinary tract; cardiovascular CAs; and multiple CAs, namely caudal dysplasia sequence. However, there was no higher rate of total CAs in the children of pregnant women with DM-1 after folic acid supplementation; in addition, neural-tube defect and renal a/dysgenesis did not occur. However, this benefit cannot be explained by the CA reduction effect of folic acid during the critical period of major CAs. In conclusion, there was a certain reduction in maternal teratogenic effect of DM-1 after folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, but the explanation of this effect requires further study. © 2011 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan


    Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel-stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis.

  15. Neonatal experiences with ethanol intoxication modify respiratory and thermoregulatory plasticity and affect subsequent ethanol intake in rats. (United States)

    Acevedo, María Belén; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Anunziata, Florencia; Haymal, Olga Beatriz; Molina, Juan Carlos


    Different studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of binge-like or chronic exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt period (third human gestational trimester) that in the rat corresponds to postnatal days (PDs) 3-10. The present study analyzed behavioral and physiological disruptions caused by relatively brief binge-like exposures (PDs 3, 5, and 7) with an ethanol dose lower (3.0 g/kg) than those frequently employed to examine teratological effects during this stage in development. At PD 9, pups were exposed to ethanol doses ranging between .0-3.0 g/kg and tested in terms of breathing patterns and thermoregulation. At PDs 11 and 12, ethanol intake was examined. The main findings were as follows: i) pre-exposure to the drug resulted in brief depressions in breathing frequencies and an exacerbated predisposition toward apneic episodes; ii) these effects were not dependent upon thermoregulatory alterations; iii) early ethanol treatment increased initial consumption of the drug which also caused a marked hypothermia that appeared to regulate a subsequent decrement in ethanol consumption; and iv) ethanol exposure retarded overall body growth and even one exposure to the drug (PD 9) was sufficient to reduce brain weights although there were no indications of microcephaly. In conjunction with studies performed during the late gestational period in the rat, the results indicate that relatively brief binge-like episodes during a critical window of brain vulnerability disrupts the respiratory network and exacerbates initial acceptance of the drug. In addition, ethanol treatments were not found to induce tolerance relative to respiratory and thermal disruptions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Context of culture: Critique of the primitive mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božilović Nikola


    Full Text Available The author of this paper has the intention to reach the new meaning and sense of the primitive mentality by analyzing it in early social communities. He also wants to point out the possible reflections of the spirit and consciousness of our ancestors on us, here and now. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a critical deliberation on anthropological conflicts which have arisen concerning the reasoning power of the so-called primitives. The crucial question lies in the following: Is the difference between the “primitive” and the “civilized” mentality fundamental or is it possible only to a certain degree. The author takes the notion of primitive mentality through time and points to the medieval understandings, which are occupied by teratological themes, then to the renaissance comprehension, which relies on the first experiential observations, and, finally, to the enlightenment ideas of exotic peoples out of which the myth of “the good savage” is born. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries introduce the notions of “people’s character” and “national spirit”. The opinions are polarized, on the one hand of ethnocentrism, carried by the prejudice of people and ethnic groups and, on the other hand, of cultural relativism, based on the understanding and appreciation of cultural differences. In the end, the author also recognizes the modern primitive man, one who is not ready to deal with the challenges of his age. The modern primitive recalls the spirits of the past, the surviving and anachronic models of behavior, unaware of the fact that these are the same models that he has ascribed to “savages”. However, while such thinking and acting was justified by the cultural level at which our ancestors had lived, the mental frame of the contemporary primitives is significantly in contrast with the high level of civilization development.

  17. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC


    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  18. Neurodevelopment of children prenatally exposed to selective reuptake inhibitor antidepressants: Toronto sibling study. (United States)

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Rovet, Joanne; Barrera, Maru; Streiner, David L; Feldman, Brian M


    The reproductive safety of selective reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants needs to be established to provide optimal control of maternal depression while protecting the fetus. To define a child's neurodevelopment following prenatal exposure to SRIs and to account for genetic and environmental confounders in a sibling design using the Toronto Motherisk prospective database. Intelligence and behavior of siblings prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs were assessed by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist, and Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised and subsequently compared. Mothers, diagnosed with depression using DSM-IV, were assessed for intelligence quotient (IQ) and for severity of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Prenatal drug doses and durations of exposure, child's age, child's sex, birth order, severity of maternal depression symptoms, and Full Scale IQ, the primary outcome measure, of both the mother and the child were considered in the analyses. Forty-five sibling pairs (ages 3 years to 6 years 11 months, prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs) did not differ in their mean ± SD Full Scale IQs (103 ± 13 vs 106 ± 12; P = .30; 95% CI, -7.06 to 2.21) or rates of problematic behaviors. Significant predictor of children's intelligence was maternal IQ (P = .043, β = 0.306). Severity of maternal depression was a significant predictor of Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing (P = .019, β = 0.366), Externalizing (P = .003, β = 0.457), and Total scores (P = .001, β = 0.494). Drug doses and durations of exposure during pregnancy did not predict any outcomes of interest in the exposed siblings. SRI antidepressants were not found to be neurotoxic. Maternal depression may risk the child's future psychopathology. The sibling design in behavioral teratology aids in separating the effects of maternal depression from those of SRIs, providing stronger

  19. Truncation and microdeletion of EVC/EVC2 with missense mutation of EFCAB7 in Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Saitoh, Makiko; Trinh, Huu Tung; Doan, Nguyen Minh Thien; Mizuno, Yoko; Seki, Masafumi; Sato, Yusuke; Ogawa, Seishi; Mizuguchi, Masashi


    Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC) is a ciliopathy with cardiac anomalies, disproportionate short stature, polydactyly, dystrophic nails and oral defects. To obtain further insight into the genetics of EvC, we screened EVC/EVC2 mutations in eight Vietnamese EvC patients. All the patients had a congenital heart defect with atypical oral and/or skeletal abnormalities. One had compound heterozygous EVC2 mutations: a novel mutation c.769G > T-p.E177X in exon 6 inherited from father and another previously reported c.2476C > T-p.R826X mutation in exon 14 inherited from mother. The EVC2 mRNA expression level was significantly lower in the patient and her parents compared to controls. Another case had a novel heterozygous EVC mutation (c.1717C > G-p.S572X) in exon 12, inherited from his father. Of note, the mother without any EVC mutation on Sanger sequencing showed a lower expression level of EVC mRNA compared with controls. SNP array analysis revealed that the patient and mother had a heterozygous 16.4 kb deletion in EVC. This patient also had a heterozygous novel variant in exon 9 of EFCAB7 (c.1171 T > C-p.Y391H), inherited from his father. The atypical cardiac phenotype of this patient and the father suggested that EFCAB7 may modify the phenotype by interacting with EVC. In conclusion, we detected two novel nonsense mutations and a partial deletion of EVC/EVC2 in two Vietnamese families with EvC. Moreover, we found in one family a missense mutation of EFCAB7, a possible modifier gene in EvC and its related disorders. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  20. The Monstrous Transformation of the Self: Translating Japanese Cyberpunk and the Posthuman into the Living World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orion Mavridou


    Full Text Available Neon-lit noir and technology-driven body horrors, oppressive metropolises and vast industrial landscapes, and in the midst of it all a fragile humanity struggling to maintain a semblance of itself in a post-human future —the world of cyberpunk is as visually stimulating as it is disturbing. Within its own subgenre, Japanese cyberpunk indulges further into this liminal imagery; featuring an ostensible fetish for futuristic teratology, it embodies its central conflict of “man vs. machine” in its protagonists’ bizarre and monstrous metamorphoses. In 1997, Final Fantasy VII presented gamers with a unique entry point into the insular realms of both East Asian RPGs and Japanese cyberpunk. Considered by many as the quintessential example of the Final Fantasy series and the archetypical cinematic videogame, Final Fantasy VII paints its own brand of a dystopian future with an eclectic range of visual influences, from Blade Runner and shōjo manga to Victorian gothic and religious symbolism. This article will be presenting a textual analysis of the aesthetics and visual evolution of Final Fantasy VII within the context of the wider Japanese cyberpunk subgenre, as well as reflecting on the outcomes of a practical study on the fan-driven crossmedia adaptation of the game’s visual language into costumed performance (i.e. cosplay. For the purposes of this research, the author went through the process of recreating and performing the costume and character of Vincent Valentine; one of the many player avatars in Final Fantasy VII, whose narrative arc is a characteristic example of the techno-scientific body horror, dehumanization and psychosexual repression which lie at the root of the Japanese cyberpunk ethos. Alongside the author’s close reading of the media text, this article offers an illustration of the researcher/cosplayer’s allegorical metamorphosis from the mundane into the extraordinary, from human into posthuman.

  1. Growth patterns of Chinese patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. (United States)

    Yang, Hongbo; Zhang, Mengqi; Song, Hongmei; Zhu, Huijuan; Pan, Hui


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the spontaneous development of growth and weight gain of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in Mainland China. We retrospectively analyzed 120 cases of PWS diagnosed from 1994 to 2014 in Mainland China. Scatter diagram of the growth data was compared to standardized growth curve. The length at birth was similar to the normal population and the mean birthweight is under the 50th centile of normal population. Heights in 43% (27/62) of patients had dropped off below the 3(rd) centile of their peers after 5 years of age. Weights in 65.9% (58/88) of patients had exceeded the 97(th) centile of their peers after 3 years of age. Early obesity is obvious in 92.9% (66/71) of patients with body mass index (BMI) up the 97(th) centile of their peers from 2-3 years of age. Final mean height is 149.3 ± 11.2 cm for females (n = 7) and 146.2 ± 9.8 cm for males (n = 6), showing 11.3 cm and 26.6 cm below the average height for normal Chinese girls and boys. The growth pattern of PWS in Mainland China is comparable to those in Caucasians. Early intervention with recombinant human growth hormone is warranted considering the early onset of growth retardation and obesity. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. Une masculinité en crise à la fin du XVIIe siècle ? La critique de l'efféminé chez La Bruyère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Corgnet


    Full Text Available L’efféminé est toujours un cas sexuel limite : homme aux airs féminins, il interroge l’innée de la nature sexuelle, critique les genres et leur définition explicitement physique. La fin du XVIIe siècle illustre cette tension chez les moralistes français et surtout chez La Bruyère dans ses Caractères où celui-ci interroge cette monstruosité générique à travers une analyse sémiologique. Mais cette tératologie n’est pas avant tout clinique mais sociale et morale : il nous avertit, par cet écart de genre, d’une corruption morale du monde tant par une sémiologie clinique que mythologique ovidienne ne cherchant pas le réalisme pathologique mais la filiation antique qui ante son ouvrage sur les Caractères Théophrastiens : philosophe plus que naturaliste.The effeminate is always a sexual limit case: man in the feminine sights, he questions the innate of the sexual nature, criticizes genders and their explicitly physical definition. The end of the XVIIth century illustrates this tension at the French moralists and especially in La Bruyère’s Characters where this one questions this generic monstrousness through a semiological analysis. But this teratology is not above all clinical but social and moral: he warns us, by this distance from gender, from a moral corruption of the world both by a clinical semiology and ovidian mythology not looking for the pathological realism but the antic filiation with Theophrast’s Characters : philosopher more than naturalist.

  3. Delayed ossification in Wistar rats induced by Morinda citrifolia L. exposure during pregnancy. (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Fernando Quallio; Marques, Ana Paula Bombonatto Mariano; Iwano, Ana Lívia; Golin, Munisa; De-Carvalho, Rosangela Ribeiro; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto


    Different products of plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) have been marketed and used around the world based on properties described by Polynesian people that use them for more than 2000 years. Marketing of these products is based on their presumptive phytotherapic properties. However there is little scientific evidence about their safety, especially when used during pregnancy. Evaluate the possible developmental toxicity of the noni fruit aqueous extract and commercial product of TAHITIAN NONI juice in rats exposed during pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed by gavage to 7, 30 and 300 mg/kg bw (body weight) of noni aqueous extract or to 0.4, 2 and 20 mL/kg bw (body weight) of noni juice between day 7 and day 15 of pregnancy. Caesarean sections were performed on day 20 of pregnancy and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Implantations sites and postimplantation losses were recorded. Fetuses were weighted and examined for externally visible anomalies. After, the fetuses were cleared with KOH and the bones stained with alizarin red. Skeletal alterations of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, forelimbs, hindlimbs, sternum, sings of delayed ossification and variations were examined in accordance with pre-defined criteria and identified using harmonized and internationally accepted nomenclature recommended by the International Federation of Teratology Societies. Exposure with extract and juice of Morinda citrifolia did not induce maternal toxicity at the tested doses, but induced delayed ossification in fetuses. The exposure of pregnant rats to aqueous extract or juice Morinda citrifolia during organogenesis period may induce adverse effects on the normal development of fetuses. These findings indicate the need for further studies with noni derivates preceding their use in pregnant women. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Will the Antarctic tardigradeAcutuncus antarcticusbe able to withstand environmental stresses related to global climate change? (United States)

    Giovannini, Ilaria; Altiero, Tiziana; Guidetti, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena


    Because conditions in continental Antarctica are highly selective and extremely hostile to life, its biota is depauperate, but well adapted to live in this region. Global climate change has the potential to impact continental Antarctic organisms because of increasing temperatures and ultraviolet radiation. This research evaluates how ongoing climate changes will affect Antarctic species, and whether Antarctic organisms will be able to adapt to the new environmental conditions. Tardigrades represent one of the main terrestrial components of Antarctic meiofauna; therefore, the pan-Antarctic tardigrade Acutuncus antarcticus was used as model to predict the fate of Antarctic meiofauna threatened by climate change. Acutuncus antarcticus individuals tolerate events of desiccation, increased temperature and UV radiation. Both hydrated and desiccated animals tolerate increases in UV radiation, even though the desiccated animals are more resistant. Nevertheless, the survivorship of hydrated and desiccated animals is negatively affected by the combination of temperature and UV radiation, with the hydrated animals being more tolerant than desiccated animals. Finally, UV radiation has a negative impact on the life history traits of successive generations of A. antarcticus , causing an increase in egg reabsorption and teratological events. In the long run, A. antarcticus could be at risk of population reductions or even extinction. Nevertheless, because the changes in global climate will proceed gradually and an overlapping of temperature and UV increase could be limited in time, A. antarcticus , as well as many other Antarctic organisms, could have the potential to overcome global warming stresses, and/or the time and capability to adapt to the new environmental conditions. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. On categorizations in analyses of alcohol teratogenesis. (United States)

    Sampson, P D; Streissguth, A P; Bookstein, F L; Barr, H M


    In biomedical scientific investigations, expositions of findings are conceptually simplest when they comprise comparisons of discrete groups of individuals or involve discrete features or characteristics of individuals. But the descriptive benefits of categorization become outweighed by their limitations in studies involving dose-response relationships, as in many teratogenic and environmental exposure studies. This article addresses a pair of categorization issues concerning the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure that have important public health consequences: the labeling of individuals as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) versus fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), and the categorization of prenatal exposure dose by thresholds. We present data showing that patients with FAS and others with FAE do not have meaningfully different behavioral performance, standardized scores of IQ, arithmetic and adaptive behavior, or secondary disabilities. Similarly overlapping distributions on measures of executive functioning offer a basis for identifying alcohol-affected individuals in a manner that does not simply reflect IQ deficits. At the other end of the teratological continuum, we turn to the reporting of threshold effects in dose-response relationships. Here we illustrate the importance of multivariate analyses using data from the Seattle, Washington, longitudinal prospective study on alcohol and pregnancy. Relationships between many neurobehavioral outcomes and measures of prenatal alcohol exposure are monotone without threshold down to the lowest nonzero levels of exposure, a finding consistent with reports from animal studies. In sum, alcohol effects on the developing human brain appear to be a continuum without threshold when dose and behavioral effects are quantified appropriately.

  6. Characterisation of neuronal and glial populations of the visual system during zebrafish lifespan. (United States)

    Arenzana, F J; Santos-Ledo, A; Porteros, A; Aijón, J; Velasco, A; Lara, J M; Arévalo, R


    During visual system morphogenesis, several cell populations arise at different time points correlating with the expression of specific molecular markers We have analysed the distribution pattern of three molecular markers (zn-1, calretinin and glial fibrillary acidic protein) which are involved in the development of zebrafish retina and optic tectum. zn-1 is a neural antigen expressed in the developing zebrafish central nervous system. Calretinin is the first calcium-binding protein expressed in the central nervous system of vertebrates and it is widely distributed in different neuronal populations of vertebrate retina, being a valuable marker for its early and late development. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is an astroglial marker, is a useful tool for characterising the glial environment in which the optic axons develop. We describe the expression profile changes in these three markers throughout the zebrafish lifespan with special attention to ganglion cells and their projections. zn-1 is expressed in the first postmitotic ganglion cells of the retina. Calretinin is observed in the ganglion and amacrine cells of the retina in neurons of different tectal bands and in axons of retinofugal projections. GFAP is localised in the endfeet of Müller cells and in radial processes of the optic tectum after hatching. A transient expression of GFAP in the optic nerve, coinciding with the arrival of the first calretinin-immunoreactive optic axons, is observed. As axonal growth occurs in these regions of the zebrafish visual pathway (retina and optic tectum) throughout the lifespan, a relationship between GFAP expression and the correct arrangement of the first optic axons may exist. In conclusion we provide valuable neuroanatomical data about the best characterised sensorial pathway to be used in further studies such as teratology and toxicology. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of caffeine administered at different temperatures on foetal development. (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Marek; Burdan, Franciszek; Olchowik, Grażyna; Tomaszewska, Monika


    An easy access to products containing caffeine makes it widely consumed to excess by the general population, including pregnant women. Beverages containing caffeine are consumed at different temperatures (iced, hot, room temperature). Caffeine easily passes through biological membranes, including the blood-brain barrier, the placental barrier, and can also enter the amniotic fluid, breast milk and semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caffeine's developmental toxicity, and the solution's temperature (both low and high) administered to pregnant female rats. Fertilized females were randomly divided into two main groups: an experimental (E) and a control group (C). The experimental groups received caffeine (30mg/day) in 10 (E1), 25 (E2) and 45(o)C (E3). The females in the control group were given water at the same temperature (C1, C2 and C3). On the day 21 of pregnancy, the pregnant females were killed by decapitation, using a specially prepared laboratory guillotine, after which the mothers' internal organs were weighed. Additionally, the offspring were examined using standard teratological methods. The study found that caffeine administered to pregnant females at a dose of 30mg/day and at the temperatures of 10°C, 25°C or 45°C did not produce any teratogenic effects. The only sign of its adverse effect was the appearance of developmental abnormalities in the form of haematomas and saturated bleeding in the internal organs. These changes most frequently occurred in foetuses of females which received caffeine at 10°C or 45°C.

  8. Clinical study of 459 polydactyly cases in China, 2010 to 2014. (United States)

    Xiang, Ying; Bian, Jingxia; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yunlan; Fu, Qihua


    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary limb malformations, involving additional digits on the hands and/or feet, which is a very attractive model to appreciate clinical and genetic heterogeneity. A high level of heterogeneity in polydactyly has been identified in different regions. However, such data of the medical literatures for Asian populations are relatively limited. This study was intended to shed light on the phenotypic manifestations of polydactyly in the recruited Chinese population and to characterize the medical literature on this condition. A total of 459 well-characterized polydactyly cases from Shanghai Children's Medical Center were recruited. Their phenotypes, inheritance patterns, and clinical heterogeneity were obtained from clinical medical records. It was found that 4.8% of cases were familial and 95.2% were sporadic. The proportions of preaxial and postaxial polydactyly types were 74.7% and 25.3%, respectively. In preaxial polydactyly, type I formed the overwhelming majority (95.9%). Among the postaxial polydactyly cases, type A was most prevalent at 69.8% and type B was witnessed in 30.2% of cases. Familial and sporadic polydactyly patients mainly had unilateral presentations. A total of 583 limbs with additional digits were recorded in the 459 subjects. Upper limb involvement was more common than lower, and right hand involvement was more common than left for preaxial polydactyly, and lower limb involvement was more common than upper in postaxial polydactyly. This cohort added useful clinical/epidemiological information to the polydactyly literature in the Chinese population and highlighted its marked clinical heterogeneity. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Foxc2CreERT2knock-in mice mark stage-specific Foxc2-expressing cells during mouse organogenesis. (United States)

    Amin, Mohammed Badrul; Miura, Naoyuki; Uddin, Mohammad Khaja Mafij; Islam, Mohammod Johirul; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Iseki, Sachiko; Kume, Tsutomu; Trainor, Paul A; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Aoto, Kazushi


    Foxc2, a member of the winged helix transcription factor family, is essential for eye, calvarial bone, cardiovascular and kidney development in mice. Nevertheless, how Foxc2-expressing cells and their descendent cells contribute to the development of these tissues and organs has not been elucidated. Here, we generated a Foxc2 knock-in (Foxc2 CreERT2 ) mouse, in which administration of estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen induces nuclear translocation of Cre recombinase in Foxc2-expressing cells. By crossing with ROSA-LacZ reporter mice (Foxc2 CreERT2 ; R26R), the fate of Foxc2 positive (Foxc2 + ) cells was analyzed through LacZ staining at various embryonic stages. We found Foxc2 + cell descendants in the supraoccipital and exoccipital bone in E18.5 embryos, when tamoxifen was administered at embryonic day (E) 8.5. Furthermore, Foxc2 + descendant cranial neural crest cells at E8-10 were restricted to the corneal mesenchyme, while Foxc2 + cell derived cardiac neural crest cells at E6-12 were found in the aorta, pulmonary trunk and valves, and endocardial cushions. Foxc2 + cell descendant contributions to the glomerular podocytes in the kidney were also observed following E6.5 tamoxifen treatment. Our results are consistent with previous reports of Foxc2 expression during early embryogenesis and the Foxc2 CreERT2 mouse provides a tool to investigate spatiotemporal roles of Foxc2 and contributions of Foxc2 + expressing cells during mouse embryogenesis. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J


    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  11. Genetic and environmental influence on diabetic rat embryopathy. (United States)

    Ejdesjö, A; Wentzel, P; Eriksson, U J


    We assessed genetic and environmental influence on fetal outcome in diabetic rat pregnancy. Crossing normal (N) and manifestly diabetic (MD) Wistar Furth (W) and Sprague-Dawley (L) females with W or L males yielded four different fetal genotypes (WW, LL, WL, and LW) in N or MD rat pregnancies for studies. We also evaluated fetal outcome in litters with enhanced or diminished severity of maternal MD state, denoted MD(+)WL and MD(-)LW. The MDWW litters had less malformations and resorptions (0 and 19%) than the MDLL litters (17 and 30%). The MDWL litters (0 and 8%) were less maldeveloped than the MDLW litters (9 and 22%), whereas the MD(+)WL (3 and 23%) and MD(-)LW (1 and 17%) litters showed increased and decreased dysmorphogenesis (compared with MDWL and MDLW litters). The pregnant MDW rats had lower serum levels of glucose, fructosamine, and branched-chain amino acids than the pregnant MDL rats, whereas the pregnant MD(+)W and MD(-)L rats had levels comparable with those of the MDL and MDW rats, respectively. The 8-iso-PGF2α levels of the malformed MDLW offspring were increased compared with the nonmalformed MDLW offspring. Diabetes decreased fetal heart Ret and increased Bmp-4 gene expression in the MDLW offspring and caused decreased GDNF and Shh expression in the malformed fetal mandible of the MDLW offspring. We conclude that the fetal genome controls the embryonic dysmorphogenesis in diabetic pregnancy by instigating a threshold level for the teratological insult and that the maternal genome controls the teratogenic insult by (dys)regulating the maternal metabolism.

  12. Maternal protein restriction that does not have an influence on the birthweight of the offspring induces morphological changes in kidneys reminiscent of phenotypes exhibited by intrauterine growth retardation rats. (United States)

    Yuasa, Ko; Kondo, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mino, Masaki; Takeshita, Ai; Okada, Toshiya


    Severe restriction of maternal protein intake to 6-8% protein diet results in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), low birthweight and high risk of metabolic syndrome in the adult life of the offspring. However, little information is available on the effects of maternal protein restriction on offspring under the conditions that does not have an influence on their birthweight of the offspring,. In the present study, pregnant rats were kept on a diet consisting of either 9% (low-protein, Lp rats) or 18% (normal-protein, Np rats) protein by weight/volume/etc. After birth, both Lp and Np rats were kept on a diet containing 18% protein. Neonatal body weight was significantly lower in Lp rats compared to Np rats from 4 days to 5 weeks after birth. While glomerular number per unit volume (1 mm(3) ) of the kidney (Nv) was comparable between Lp and Np rats 4 weeks after birth, the Nv was significantly decreased in Lp rats at 20 weeks after birth. Four and 20 weeks after birth, glomerular sclerosis index, interstitial fibrosis score, and ratio of ED1-positive cell ratio were all significantly higher in Lp compared to Np rats. Transforming growth factor-β1-positive cells were observed in the distal tubules in the kidney of 4- and 20-week-old Lp rats kidneys, but not in those of age-matched Np rats. Altogether, these findings revealed that maternal protein restriction that does not have an influence on the birthweight of the offspring, induces similar changes as those seen in the kidneys of IUGR neonates. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  13. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B.


    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  14. Consistency of maternal telephone administration of the asthma control test using postpartum recall compared to repeated measures during pregnancy. (United States)

    Xu, Ronghui; Li, Mofei; Johnson, Diana L; Luo, Yunjun; Chambers, Christina D


    Suboptimal asthma control during pregnancy may impact perinatal outcomes. U.S. guidelines recommend questionnaires to assess asthma control including the Asthma Control Test (ACT). It is unknown in a research setting to what extent recall differs by the time between symptom occurrence and the administration of the questionnaire. Between 2009-2014, 196 pregnant asthmatic women were recruited by the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) MotherToBaby Pregnancy Studies. Participants were administered the ACT at enrollment, gestational weeks 20 and 32, and shortly after delivery. The same women were also administered the ACT retrospectively at approximately 6 months postpartum. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the in-pregnancy and retrospective continuous ACT scores for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters were: 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.74), 0.61 (0.52, 0.70) and 0.65 (0.56, 0.72), respectively. When dichotomized into well-controlled asthma (ACT score ≥ 20) versus otherwise, the chi-square test for all three trimesters resulted in p values pregnancy (recall bias) influenced postpartum responses. The retrospectively recalled ACT score obtained postpartum was substantially different compared to in-pregnancy administration of the same questionnaire which could reflect test-retest variability as well as attenuation of recall. Documentation of the magnitude and direction of these differences could be useful in interpretation of the impact of asthma control when the ACT is used in retrospective case-control studies for pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Modulation of phenytoin teratogenicity and embryonic covalent binding by acetylsalicylic acid, caffeic acid, and alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone: implications for bioactivation by prostaglandin synthetase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.G.; Zubovits, J.T.; Wong, S.T.; Molinari, L.M.; Ali, S.


    Teratogenicity of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin is thought to involve its bioactivation by cytochromes P-450 to a reactive arene oxide intermediate. We hypothesized that phenytoin also may be bioactivated to a teratogenic free radical intermediate by another enzymatic system, prostaglandin synthetase. To evaluate the teratogenic contribution of this latter pathway, an irreversible inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip), was administered to pregnant CD-1 mice at 9:00 AM on Gestational Days 12 and 13, 2 hr before phenytoin, 65 mg/kg ip. Other groups were pretreated 2 hr prior to phenytoin administration with either the antioxidant caffeic acid or the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). Caffeic acid and PBN were given ip in doses that respectively were up to 1.0 to 0.05 molar equivalents to the dose of phenytoin. Dams were killed on Day 19 and the fetuses were assessed for teratologic anomalies. A similar study evaluated the effect of ASA on the in vivo covalent binding of radiolabeled phenytoin administered on Day 12, in which case dams were killed 24 hr later on Day 13. ASA pretreatment produced a 50% reduction in the incidence of fetal cleft palates induced by phenytoin (p less than 0.05), without significantly altering the incidence of resorptions or mean fetal body weight. Pretreatment with either caffeic acid or PBN resulted in dose-related decreases in the incidence of fetal cleft palates produced by phenytoin, with maximal respective reductions of 71 and 82% at the highest doses of caffeic acid and PBN (p less than 0.05).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Checiu


    Full Text Available Teratological testing of sulphonate phtalocyanine (an alimentary blue dye synthetized by the Center of Chemisty, Timisoara, shown a strong malformative effect of this compound upon early chick embryo (48 hours of incubation, (Sandor, Checiu, Prelipceanu, 1985. Dye administration on day 2 of incubation (44-48 hours revealed a high rate of embryo mortality and abnormal modification of caudal segment or even a total absence of caudal tail bud. Living embryos until day 7 of incubation showed a normal development of the anterior body part (head and trunk in contrast with posterior body part which presented an abnormal position of posterior limbs, tail and trunk aplasia. The dye with the some name produced in Germany did not show (in the some experimental conditions a malformative effect. The only difference between the two dyes was the presence of Cu2+ in our compound. It is well known that chemicals and physics factors (X rayes, insuline, hypoxy, D-Actinomycine, sucrose, etc. are noxious, inducing malformations of caudal segment (tail bud, urogenital and anorectal abnormalities associated with cardiac, facial and SNC malformations (Landauer 1953, Shepard 1973. Abnormalities of esophagus, urogenital and anorectal region associated with those of caudal axial skeleton and posterior limb buds are involved in caudal dysplasia syndrome (Duhamel 1961 cited by Roux and Martinet 1962. This syndrome is frequent (1:1000 in children of diabetic mothers (Warkany 1971. Experimental works on mice suggested implication of genetic factors in pathogenesis of this syndrome (Frye et all.1964 cited by Warkany 1971. Previous investigations (Checiu et all. 1966 revealed a caudal malformative syndrome in chick embryos induced by Cu2+. It is well known capacity of some heavy metal ions to affect the formation and desintegration reaction of free radicals. The aim of this paper is to present a morphological study of caudal malformative syndrome (Checiu et all. 1999 and an

  17. Early application of the Ponseti casting technique for clubfoot correction in sick infants at the neonatal intensive care unit. (United States)

    Lebel, Ehud; Weinberg, Eliraz; Berenstein-Weyel, Tamar M; Bromiker, Ruben


    The treatment of congenital clubfoot has been changing rapidly since the mid-1990s with the worldwide use of the Ponseti method for serial casting and limited operative interventions. This method was first applied for isolated clubfeet and later on for other types of clubfoot (teratologic, residual, and neurogenic). Premature babies sustaining clubfoot commonly suffer from additional congenital and acquired medical problems. These may postpone clubfoot management until urgent issues are resolved. The current study describes early initiation of treatment of clubfoot in premature babies at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and their outcomes. The study group included all babies diagnosed with clubfoot and managed in the NICU (for any etiology) between 2006 and 2012. Management was based on the Ponseti protocol for serial casting. We also report on neonates who died in the NICU before or during treatment. We specifically describe adverse events of early casting and situations necessitating removal of casts or termination of treatment. We diagnosed and treated 20 neonates with clubfoot (four females and 16 males, 10 bilateral cases). Gestational age ranged from 27 weeks to term. Eight were identified with clubfoot by prenatal sonographic survey and 10 were diagnosed with a defined syndrome. Seven had respiratory support, including one with a chest drain (50%). Length of stay in the NICU ranged from 3 to 90 days. Four neonates died while in the NICU (all syndromatic). In the remaining 16 cases, treatment began as early as medically possible. The first cast was applied within the first week of life in 14 cases. A total of 75 casts were applied during the study period. Three casts (4%) were removed because of leg edema or a need for venous access. Casts were routinely replaced every 4-7 days. Achilles tenotomies were performed in the NICU for babies achieving satisfactory correction. At last follow-up, 10 children were independent walkers and six were nonambulatory

  18. Parental risk factors for oral clefts among Central Africans, Southeast Asians, and Central Americans. (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jane C; Ly, Stephanie; Magee, Kathleen S; Ihenacho, Ugonna; Baurley, James W; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Brindopke, Frederick; Nguyen, Thi-Hai-Duc; Nguyen, Viet; Tangco, Maria Irene; Giron, Melissa; Abrahams, Tamlin; Jang, Grace; Vu, Annie; Zolfaghari, Emily; Yao, Caroline A; Foong, Athena; DeClerk, Yves A; Samet, Jonathan M; Magee, William


    Several lifestyle and environmental exposures have been suspected as risk factors for oral clefts, although few have been convincingly demonstrated. Studies across global diverse populations could offer additional insight given varying types and levels of exposures. We performed an international case-control study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (133 cases, 301 controls), Vietnam (75 cases, 158 controls), the Philippines (102 cases, 152 controls), and Honduras (120 cases, 143 controls). Mothers were recruited from hospitals and their exposures were collected from interviewer-administered questionnaires. We used logistic regression modeling to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Family history of clefts was strongly associated with increased risk (maternal: OR = 4.7; 95% CI, 3.0-7.2; paternal: OR = 10.5; 95% CI, 5.9-18.8; siblings: OR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4-19.9). Advanced maternal age (5 year OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3), pregestational hypertension (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.1), and gestational seizures (OR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.4) were statistically significant risk factors. Lower maternal (secondary school OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2; primary school OR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.6-2.8) and paternal education (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5; and OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9, respectively) and paternal tobacco smoking (OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9) were associated with an increased risk. No other significant associations between maternal and paternal factors were found; some environmental factors including rural residency, indoor cooking with wood, chemicals and water source appeared to be associated with an increased risk in adjusted models. Our study represents one of the first international studies investigating risk factors for clefts among multiethnic underserved populations. Our findings suggest a multifactorial etiology including both maternal and paternal factors. © 2015 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Aunque no lo suficientemente conocida y difundida, la obra botánica de Darwin aportó una gran cantidad de evidencia empírica fundamental para el establecimiento de la revolución dar- winista. Se describe el desarrollo de esta obra, en especial con relación a los dos mentores de Darwin en botánica: J. S. Henslow y J. D. Hooker. Además de numerosos artículos y notas en sus diarios de viaje, su correspondencia y numerosos apartes de sus dos obras magnas El origen de las especies y selección natural, Darwin escribió siete libros relacionados con diversos aspectos de la botánica, incluída la polinización en orquídeas, la morfología y fisiología de plantas tre- padoras, la domesticación, las plantas insectívoras, la polinización, las formas florales, y los movimientos de las plantas. Cada uno de estos libros es ahora clásico en cada tema. La intro- ducción de la teoría evolutiva en la sistemática de plantas enriqueció los distintos sistemas de clasificación en los 70 años que siguieron a la publiación de El origen, lo cual está en estrecha relación con las preguntas, aún vigentes, acerca del origen y la diversificación temprana de las an- giospermas. A la vez, se revisa la influencia de las contribuciones botánicas de Darwin en las obras de autores en diversos países de Europa y América, y en disciplinas tan diversas y actuales como la biogeografía, la biología reproductiva en muy diversos grupos de plantas con flor, la citología y mecanismos de herencia en la célula vegetal, la teratología vegetal, las variaciones debidas a domesticación, y la reciente integración de evolución, genética y desarrollo en la disci- plina conocida como evo-devo.

  20. Depression during pregnancy: views on antidepressant use and information sources of general practitioners and pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schobben Fred


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of antidepressants during pregnancy has increased in recent years. In the Netherlands, almost 2% of all pregnant women are exposed to antidepressants. Although guidelines have been developed on considerations that should be taken into account, prescribing antidepressants during pregnancy is still a subject of debate. Physicians and pharmacists may have opposing views on using medication during pregnancy and may give contradictory advice on whether or not to take medication for depression and anxiety disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated information sources used by general practitioners (GPs and pharmacists and their common practices. Methods A questionnaire on the use of information sources and the general approach when managing depression during pregnancy was sent out to 1400 health care professionals to assess information sources on drug safety during pregnancy and also the factors that influence decision-making. The questionnaires consisted predominantly of closed multiple-choice questions. Results A total of 130 GPs (19% and 144 pharmacists (21% responded. The most popular source of information on the safety of drug use during pregnancy is the Dutch National Health Insurance System Formulary, while a minority of respondents contacts the Dutch national Teratology Information Service (TIS. The majority of GPs contact the pharmacy with questions concerning drug use during pregnancy. There is no clear line with regard to treatment or consensus between GPs on the best therapeutic strategy, nor do practitioners agree upon the drug of first choice. GPs have different views on stopping or continuing antidepressants during pregnancy or applying alternative treatment options. The debate appears to be ongoing as to whether or not specialised care for mother and child is indicated in cases of gestational antidepressant use. Conclusion Primary health care workers are not univocal concerning therapy for

  1. Malformations of calpionellid loricas recorded in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous pelagic carbonates of the Western Carpathians, Western Balcan, Mexico and Cuba - a tool for paleoenvironmental interpretation (United States)

    Reháková, Daniela; Michalík, Jozef; Lakova, Iskra; Petrova, Silviya; López-Martínez, Rafael


    Characteristic morphology and assemblage composition of of ancient planktonic ciliate protozoan loricas made of them a favourable tool for interregional correlation. They are playing a key role in the biostratigraphy of Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous sequences not only in areas lacking in ammonites. Detailed comparative analysis of calpionellid associations along all the Tethys shows variations in relative species abundance, variability, diversity changes and also in variability of their lorica structure. As oligotrophic organisms, they were sensitive to environmental perturbations such a change of the water temperature, chemistry, salinity and the nutrient supply. Mass occurrence of these microfossils was associated with shallow basins and with intrashelf elevations. These enviroments were characterized by a permanent current regime positively influencing the nutrient input. It is worth to mention, that the abundance and size of calpionellid loricas decrease towards the open sea - they are less frequent in deep basins, being very rare or seldom in reefal and lagoonal settings or in proximal settings with permanent river-influenced elevated nutrient level and with changes in surface water chemistry. Two diversity maxima were recorded within the Intermedia and the Oblonga subzones and two crisis were observed at the end of the Colomi Subzone and at the beginning of the Murgeanui Subzone. During the last mentioned events, deformations (aberrant morphology) were documented in Crassicollaria, Tintinnopsella and Praecalpionellites loricas (Reháková, 2000; Lakova and Petrova, 2013; López-Martínez et al., 2015). Teratological (malformed) tests may coincide either with metal poisoning or with salinity changes. Global climate changes could have been evoked by active volcanoes noted at this time (Casellato and Erba, 2015). Oxygen isotope data signalized late Tithonian cooling followed by a warming at the beginning of the Berriasian (Weissert and Erba, 2004). Huge

  2. Alcohol odor elicits appetitive facial expressions in human neonates prenatally exposed to the drug. (United States)

    Faas, Ana E; March, Samanta M; Moya, Pedro R; Molina, Juan C


    OH-Lem-EtOH sequence) and c) when merging both samples of babies, a positive and significant correlation was found between overall maternal absolute alcohol consumption per month and frequency of appetitive facial expressions elicited by alcohol odor. In conjunction with previous preclinical research, the present results indicate that human prenatal exposure to the drug that yields no evident teratological effects is sufficient to modify the hedonic value of alcohol's chemosensory attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Introduction and history of the Hungarian project for monitoring suicide attempts in pregnant women. (United States)

    Christian, M S; Czeizel, A E


    epidemiological approach in human teratology. It shows the feasibility of such studies and suggests that an international surveillance system of self-poisoned pregnant women would be useful to better estimate risk and benefit of drug use during pregnancy. It is envisioned that the information provided will assist physicians and mothers in making better decisions regarding drug exposure during pregnancy.

  4. [Effects of cytosine-arabinofuranoside on the development of reptilian embryos (Lacerta viridis, Laur. and Anguis fragilis, L.)]. (United States)

    Raynaud, A


    compared to structural modifications of the limbs of snake-like Reptilia, and the mechanisms involved in the two series are discussed. These results emphasize the interest of the use of drugs interfering with DNA synthesis, in the field of teratology and in the experimental study of regressive evolution.

  5. Smoke, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use in an Italian population of pregnant women. (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; De Luca, Carmen; Mappa, Ilenia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Angelo, Licameli; Cesari, Elena


    High-risk behaviours are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to drugs, infection or radiation is a cause of concern for pregnant women, who contact Teratology Information Services (TIS) to have a counseling but with an accurate medical history is possible to detect additional behavioural risk factors that can significantly interfere with pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to describe risk behaviours in a population of Italian women calling our TIS and to identify related maternal factors. Between December 2008 and January 2010 we collected data from 503 pregnant women calling our TIS (Telefono Rosso, Rome). We investigated about smoke, alcohol and abuse substances addiction and we also collected demographic data. Of the 503 women consenting to participate 34% were found to have an additional risk marker during the current pregnancy. Within this group were 22.7% (n=119) who reported smoking, the 17.7% (n=89) admitted to drink and 2 women (0.4%) used illicit drugs. In 13.7% of cases (n=69) reason for calling represented an exposure to teratogenic agents. Unmarried status and previous induced abortion represent a risk factor for all high-risk behaviours. Lower education (p<0.001) and use of neurological drugs (p<0.001) are related with cigarette consumption. A lower parity was a risk factor for alcohol assumption (p=0.04). Women with high-risk behaviours tend to be exposed to more than a risk factor. Teratogen Information Services are an important system to identify women with pregnancy risk markers. These services should have the ability to provide risk reduction information to women who smoke cigarettes or with alcohol or drug use. In addition to the phone based information these women may benefit from referral back to their physician for assessment and management of substance use/abuse during pregnancy. Substance abuse risks are often underestimated by pregnant women. Single mothers or women with an history of

  6. Association between CYP2D6 Genotypes and the Risk of Antidepressant Discontinuation, Dosage Modification and the Occurrence of Maternal Depression during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anick Bérard


    Full Text Available Importance: Polymorphic expression of drug metabolizing enzymes affects the metabolism of antidepressants, and thus can contribute to drug response and/or adverse events. Pregnancy itself can affect CYP2D6 activity with profound variations determined by CYP2D6 genotype.Objective: To investigate the association between CYP2D6 genotype and the risk of antidepressant discontinuation, dosage modification, and the occurrence of maternal CYP2D6, Antidepressants, Depression during pregnancy.Setting: Data from the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS Antidepressants in Pregnancy Cohort, 2006–2010, were used. Women were eligible if they were within 14 completed weeks of pregnancy at recruitment and exposed to an antidepressant or having any exposures considered non-teratogenic.Main Outcomes and Measures: Gestational antidepressant usage was self-reported and defined as continuous/discontinued use, and non-use; dosage modification was further documented. Maternal depression and anxiety were measured every trimester using the telephone interviewer-administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Saliva samples were collected and used for CYP2D6 genotype analyses. Logistic regression models were used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: A total of 246 pregnant women were included in the study. The majority were normal metabolizers (NM, n = 204, 83%; 3.3% (n = 8 were ultrarapid metabolizers (UM, 5.7% (n = 14 poor metabolizers (PM, and 8.1% (n = 20 intermediate metabolizers (IM. Among study subjects, 139 women were treated with antidepressants at the beginning of pregnancy, and 21 antidepressant users (15% discontinued therapy during pregnancy. Adjusting for depressive symptoms, and other potential confounders, the risk of discontinuing antidepressants during pregnancy was nearly four times higher in slow metabolizers (poor or intermediate

  7. Assessing physiological tipping points in response to ocean acidification (United States)

    Dupont, S. T.; Dorey, N.; Lançon, P.; Thorndyke, M. S.


    Impact of near-future ocean acidification on marine invertebrates was mostly assessed in single-species perturbation experiment. Moreover, most of these experiments are short-term, only consider one life-history stage and one or few parameters. They do not take into account important processes such as natural variability and acclimation and evolutionary processes. In many studies published so far, there is a clear lack between the observed effects and individual fitness, most of the deviation from the control being considered as potentially negative for the tested species. However, individuals are living in a fluctuating world and changes can also be interpreted as phenotypic plasticity and may not translate into negative impact on fitness. For example, a vent mussel can survive for decades in very acidic waters despite a significantly reduced calcification compare to control (Tunnicliffe et al. 2009). This is possible thanks to the absence of predatory crabs as a result of acidic conditions that may also inhibit carapace formation. This illustrates the importance to take into account ecological interactions when interpreting single-species experiments and to consider the relative fitness between interacting species. To understand the potential consequence of ocean acidification on any given ecosystem, it is then critical to consider the relative impact on fitness for every interactive species and taking into account the natural fluctuation in environment (e.g. pH, temperature, food concentration, abundance) and discriminate between plasticity with no direct impact on fitness and teratology with direct consequence on survival. In this presentation, we will introduce the concept of "physiological tipping point" in the context of ocean acidification. This will be illustrated by some work done on sea urchin development. Embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis were exposed to a range of pH from 8.1 to 6.5. When exposed to low pH, growth

  8. Short-term toxicity of hexavalent-chromium to epipsammic diatoms of a microtidal estuary (Río de la Plata): Responses from the individual cell to the community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licursi, M., E-mail:; Gómez, N.


    Highlights: •Diatom's nuclear abnormalities were significantly higher as consequence of chromium exposure. •Diatoms and chlorophytes increased in treatment microcosms. •Nitzschia palea proportion increased significantly in the treatment microcosms. -- Abstract: Diatoms are an integral and often dominant component of the benthic microalgal assemblage in estuarine and shallow coastal environments. Different toxic substances discharged into these ecosystems persist in the water, sediments, and biota for long periods. Among these pernicious agents, the toxicity in diatoms by metal is linked to different steps in the transmembrane and internal movements of the toxicant, causing perturbations in the normal structural and functional cellular components. These changes constitute an early, nontaxonomic warning signal that could potentially serve as an indicator of this type of pollution. The aim of this work was to study the environment-reflecting short-term responses at different levels of organization of epipsammic diatoms from the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina that had been exposed to hexavalent chromium within experimental microcosms. To this end we monitored: (i) changes in the proportion of the diatoms in relation to other algal groups at the biofilm community level; (ii) shifts in species composition at the diatom-assemblage level; (iii) projected changes in the densities of the most representative species at the population level through comparison of relative growth rates and generation times; and (iv) the cytological changes at the cellular and subcellular levels as indicated by the appearance of teratological effects on individuals and nuclear alterations. The epipsammic biofilms were exposed for 96 h to chromium at a concentration similar to that measured in highly impacted sites along the coast (80 μg L{sup −1}). Chromium pollution, at this concentration and short exposure time did not affect the algal biomass and density of these mature

  9. Metabolic interrelationships between arsenic and selenium. (United States)

    Levander, O A


    In 1938, Moxon discovered that arsenic protected against selenium toxicity. Since that time it has been shown that this protective effect of arsenic against selenium poisoning can be demonstrated in many different animal species under a wide variety of conditions. Antagonistic effects between arsenic and selenium have also been noted in teratologic experiments. Early metabolic studies showed that arsenic inhibited the expiration of volatile selenium compounds by rats injected with acutely toxic doses of both elements. This was puzzling since pulmonary excretion had long been regarded as a means by which animals could rid themselves of excess selenium. However, later work demonstrated that arsenic increased the biliary excretion of selenium. Not only did arsenic stimulate the excretion of selenium in the bile, but selenium also stimulated the excretion of arsenic in the bile. This increased biliary excretion of selenium caused by arsenic provides a reasonable rationale for the ability of arsenic to counteract the toxicity of selenium, although the chemical mechanism by which arsenic does this is not certain. The most satisfactory explanation is that these two elements react in the liver to form a detoxication conjugate which is then excreted into the bile. This is consistent with the fact that both arsenic and selenium each increase the biliary excretion of the other. Several other metabolic interactions between arsenic and selenium have been demonstrated in vitro, but their physiological significance is not clear. Although arsenic decreased selenium toxicity under most conditions, there is a pronounced synergistic toxicity between arsenic and two methylated selenium metabolites, trimethylselenonium ion or dimethyl selenide. The ecological consequences of these synergisms are largely unexplored, although it is likely that selenium methylation occurs in the environment. All attempts to promote or prevent selenium deficiency diseases in animals by feeding arsenic have

  10. Use of biological indexes of the common reed (Phragmites australis) seed progeny in the environmental safety of radioactive contaminated water bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavnyuk, A. [National Aviation University, Kiev (Ukraine); Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)


    Environmental protection requires effective monitoring system of radionuclide contamination and radiobiological effects as well as development of their prevention and minimizing measures for humans and biota. There is a majority of conventional techniques for living organisms' habitat quality assessment. One of the most widespread, convenient and accessible ones, is the seed progeny analysis, for example of conifers, cereals and wild herbaceous plants. Availability of vitality, growth, mutability indexes and abnormalities of vascular plant germs for environment quality express assessment was discussed in numerous publications. However, this point is studied insufficiently concerning aquatic vascular plants, forming communities playing significant role in radionuclides distribution in contaminated water bodies. Common reed (Phragmites australis (Trin) Ex. Steud) is a widespread species mostly dominating in air-aquatic vascular plant communities of freshwater bodies; it is a first-order {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr accumulating species. To assess the common reed germs growth indexes availability, seeds were sampled in polygon water bodies of different radionuclide contamination levels and 0.7-22 mcGy h{sup -1} total absorbed dose range, within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In water bodies with background level of radionuclide contamination, for comparison, total absorbed dose varied in range of 0.03-0.3 mcGy h{sup -1}. Series of seeds germination experiments was carried out in laboratory conditions. Complex of germs indexes was investigated, conditionally divided into three groups: (1) Vitality indexes. In course of experiment series, vitality was assessed via germinating energy, germinating ability indexes, germination period (first and last germ appearance) and survivability study; (2) Growth indexes. Root and leaf length, occurrence of plant groups with different vegetative organs length were determined for germs growth speed assessment; (3) Teratological

  11. Sobre corpos e monstros: algumas reflexões contemporâneas a partir da filosofia da diferença Sobre cuerpos y monstruos: algunas reflexiones contemporáneas About bodies and monsters: some contemporary reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Peixoto Junior


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo geral discutir algumas relações entre o corpo e o fenômeno do monstro - teratológico ou ficcional -, procurando avaliar os abalos que a figura monstruosa provoca nos modelos de apreensão da subjetividade construídos prioritariamente a partir dos referenciais da representação e da identidade. Em termos mais específicos, partindo principalmente de autores alinhados à filosofia da diferença, são discutidas algumas possibilidades de subversão suscitadas pela monstruosidade em suas relações com o corpo, tais como as que ocorrem nos campos da ciência, da cultura, dos estudos de gênero e de uma política de subjetivação. O que se procura ressaltar em todas essas vertentes é que, ao afirmar sua diferença radical, a figura do monstro abre novas vias de acesso ao devir e à singularidade.Este artículo tiene como objetivo general discutir algunas relaciones entre el cuerpo y el fenómeno del monstruo - teratologico o ficcional -, buscando evaluar las conmociones que la figura monstruosa provoca en los modelos de aprehensión de la subjetividad construidos principalmente desde los referenciales de la representación y de la identidad. En términos más específicos, partiendo prioritariamente de autores alineados con la filosofía de la diferencia, si discuten diversas posibilidades de subversión suscitadas por la monstruosidad en sus relaciones con el cuerpo, tal como los que ocurren en los campos de la ciencia, de la cultura, de los estudios de género y de una política de subjetivación. El que si busca resaltar en todas estas vertientes es que, al afirmar su diferencia radical, la figura del monstruo abre nuevas maneras de acceso al devenir y a la singularidad.This work has as its general aim to argue about some relations between the body and the phenomenon of the monster - teratological or fictional -, trying to evaluate the shocks that the monstrous figure provokes in the models of apprehension of

  12. Ixodidas brasileiros e de alguns paizes limitrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão


    piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (an introduced species is now very common on the dog, over all the country. The author recommend to give popular names to some brazilian ticks in order to make them more acquainted with the non scientific people. The author gives a classification of the superfamilia Ixoidoidea and keys to the determination of the different species of brazilian ticks. He creates a new family of Nuttallielidae to the so interesting tick, described by Bedford with the name of Nuttaliella namaqua in South Africa, a new variety of Argas persicus, the Argas persicus var. dissimilis nov. var. owing to the differences on the segment and on the size and morphology of the peritrema. He describes also the female of Amblyomma fuscum Nn. A great part of the author's work deals with the biology, life conditions and parasitism of many of the brazilian ticks in accordance with his personal and from other author's researches, especially in reference to Argas persicus, Ornithodoros rostratus, O. brasiliensis, Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, A. pseudoconcolor, A. auriculare, A. rotundatum (= A. agamum etc. The author gives a detailed report upon the parthenogenesis of A. rotundatum (A. agamum that he first described in 1912 and gives also many references to other species of brazilian ticks, to teratological forms etc. He also gives a detailed report of the geographical distribution of brazilian ticks and of the peculiar conditions of its parasitism. The last part of this article deals with references to the species of ticks of some of the South American Republics namely Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay and Venezuela. Amblyomma testudinis Conil, A. neumanni Ribaga 1902 (= A. furcula Dõnitz 1909 and A. parvitarsum Nn. 1899 (= A. altiplanum Dios 1917, are found only in Argentina. It is given a special bibliography dealing with the brazilian ticks and four text figures and one plate.