WorldWideScience

Sample records for teratology

  1. Teratology testing under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  2. Burnei's disease: teratological spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriliu, S T; Ghiță, R A; El Nayef, T; Burnei, A; Olaru-Barbilian, C R

    2015-01-01

    Teratological spondylolysis is a pathological entity noted for the first time in the specialty literature by Gh. Burnei in "The Spine Journal", in September 25, 2014. This disease was described in a short presentation of the first case treated by the author. The aim of this paper was to expose in a didactic manner the main characteristic aspects of Burnei's disease: embryological, clinical, imaging and treatment data and also to make known this pathological entity with all its pathognomonic diagnostic elements. This paper was based on data obtained after analyzing 2 cases of teratological spondylolysis: a 18-year-old patient with triple L3-L5 teratological spondylolysis with Pang 1 spinal dysraphism and a 1-year-old child with teratological spondylolysis and retrospondylolisthesis.

  3. Reporting of teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory toxicology report is an unusual document that requires a particular skill to write. The report must be clear, accurate, concise, and focused. A clear and direct writing style is required. The end-users of the report will hope to find the information they seek with as little effort as possible. Few, or none, will read the entire document. The author should aim to appease the user by obliging him to read as little text and turn as few pages as possible. This chapter gives tips and guidance on how to present the experimental data and write the narrative text in the final study report for a teratology study.

  4. Teratology studies in the minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    The minipig is a suitable species for regulatory teratology testing and may be regarded as an alternative to the rabbit, dog, and primate. The first successful regulatory teratology studies in the minipig were performed in the 1990s. It became clear that minipigs have several benefits over the other non-rodents, as they are purpose-bred for laboratory use, they are sexually mature at approximately 5 months of age, and they produce multiple offspring. The minipig has subsequently gained regulatory acceptance in the teratology testing of new drugs.

  5. An Overview of Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ana M; Dos Anjos Pires, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic principles of teratology, beginning with its definition, the critical point for teratogenesis to occur and the most evident etiological agents to improve the understanding of this science.Teratology is a recent science that began in the early twentieth century, and has greatly improved over the recent years with the advancements in molecular biology, toxicology, animal laboratory science, and genetics, as well as the improvement on the knowledge of the environmental influences.Nevertheless, more work is required to reduce the influence of hazardous products that could be deleterious during pregnancy, thus reducing teratogenic defects in the newborn. While some teratogenic defects are attributed to their agents with certainty, the same for a lot of other such defects is lacking, necessitating consistent studies to decipher the influence of various teratogenic agents on their corresponding teratogenic defects. It is here that the laboratory animal science is of great importance both in the present and in the future.

  6. Teratology studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Mariline; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size of the rat are advantages for teratogenicity testing. The study designs are well defined in the regulatory guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. Teratology studies address maternal- and embryo-toxicity following exposure during the period of organogenesis. This chapter describes the design and conduct of a teratology study in the rat in compliance with the regulatory guidelines. The procedures for the handling and housing of the pregnant animals, the caesarean examinations and the sampling of fetuses for morphological examinations are described. The utility and design of preliminary studies and the inclusion of satellite animals in the main study for toxicokinetic sampling are discussed.

  7. Teratology - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujházy, Eduard; Mach, Mojmír; Navarová, Jana; Brucknerová, Ingrid; Dubovický, Michal

    2012-12-01

    Teratology is the science that studies the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of abnormal development. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of modern teratology. Development of knowledge and society led to the recognition that causes of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs) might be caused by various mechanical effects, foetal diseases, and retarded or arrested development of the embryo and foetus. Based on the analysis of the historical development of hypotheses and theories representing a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the six Wilson's fundamental principles of teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realise that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in CDDs. Moreover, the classical toxicologic monotonic dose-response paradigm recently has been challenged by the so-called "low dose-hypothesis", particularly in the case of endocrine active substances. These include some pesticides, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and bisphenol A. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 65 to 70% of all congenital defects classified as having an unknown etiology. Today CDDs include any birth defect, either morphological, biochemical, or behavioural.

  8. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Burnei’s disease: teratological spondylolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriliu, ST; Ghiță, RA; El Nayef, T; Burnei, A; Olaru-Barbilian, CR

    2015-01-01

    Teratological spondylolysis is a pathological entity noted for the first time in the specialty literature by Gh. Burnei in “The Spine Journal”, in September 25, 2014. This disease was described in a short presentation of the first case treated by the author. The aim of this paper was to expose in a didactic manner the main characteristic aspects of Burnei’s disease: embryological, clinical, imaging and treatment data and also to make known this pathological entity with all its pathognomonic diagnostic elements. This paper was based on data obtained after analyzing 2 cases of teratological spondylolysis: a 18-year-old patient with triple L3-L5 teratological spondylolysis with Pang 1 spinal dysraphism and a 1-year-old child with teratological spondylolysis and retrospondylolisthesis. PMID:26664464

  10. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  11. Educating the medical community through a teratology newsletter.

    OpenAIRE

    Guttmacher, A E; Allen, E F

    1993-01-01

    To educate a geographically and professionally diverse group of health care providers about teratology in an economic and efficient manner, we developed a locally written and distributed teratology newsletter. Response to the newsletter, from readers as well as from our staff and funding agencies, suggests that such a newsletter can be a valuable tool in educating medical communities about teratology.

  12. Educating the medical community through a teratology newsletter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, A E; Allen, E F

    1993-01-01

    To educate a geographically and professionally diverse group of health care providers about teratology in an economic and efficient manner, we developed a locally written and distributed teratology newsletter. Response to the newsletter, from readers as well as from our staff and funding agencies, suggests that such a newsletter can be a valuable tool in educating medical communities about teratology. PMID:8434594

  13. The principles of teratology: are they still true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jan M

    2010-10-01

    James Wilson originally proposed a set of "Principles of Teratology" in 1959, the year before he helped to found the Teratology Society. By 1977, when these Principles were presented in a more definitive form in Wilson and Fraser's Handbook of Teratology, they had become a standard formulation of the basic tenets of the field. Wilson's Principles have continued to guide scientific research in teratology, and they are widely used in teaching. Recent advances in our knowledge of the molecular and cellular bases of embryogenesis serve only to provide a deeper understanding of the fundamental developmental mechanisms that underlie Wilson's Principles of Teratology. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  15. Mammalian Genetics and Teratology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The work of the Mammalian Genetics and Teratology Section includes research in mutagenesis, basic genetics, reproductive biology, and teratogenesis involving basic studies, method development, including exploration of the biological material, and testing. The basic studies make good use of the genetic material accumulated in mutagenesis experiments of various kinds, or of the findings of mutagenesis experiments themselves. In the latter category is the finding of a repair system in the fertilized egg. The genetics of repair competency or deficiency are now under study. A linear relationship between gene dosage and level of expression of an enzyme has been demonstrated. Opportunities for the study of gene action are provided by a number of X-autosome translocations which continue to be discovered in the course of mutagenesis experiments. In these rearrangements, X-chromosome inactivation extends to neighboring autosomal loci. Considerable progress has been made in developing the skeletal mutation system, which provides information on dominants that is highly useful for risk assessment. A sensitive-indicator test is now under development which will make the screening for skeletal mutations much faster and easier. Method development has also progressed on the in vivo somatic-mutation test now being widely used as an in vivo screen for mutagens. Another method developed here is the numerical sex-chromosome anomaly (NSA) test for nondisjunction. The NSA method is being used to explore the effects of female age on chromosome loss and nondisjunction. A model for estimating the misclassification error was experimentally established for the heritable translocation test. A rapid, easy, and sensitive in vivo screening test for teratogenesis was developed. An in vitro teratogenic prescreen being developed makes use of teratocarcinoma-derived cell lines

  16. Teratology in cultural documents and today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gert-Horst

    2004-12-01

    Teratology is the science of congenital malformations. The incidence of birth defects amounts to 2-3%, but it doubles postnatal owing to the fact that many dysfunctions are not discernible at birth. Congenital malformations were already known in ancient cultures, records from Assyrian and Babylonian astrologists as well as from physicians and philosophers of the Hippocratic era are testifying it. In medieval times they were recognized as supernatural phenomenons, terata, from what the term TERATOLOGY derived. In the eyes of the superstitious people affected stillborns were regarded as monster, symbol of devil or miracle. The foundation of anatomy as a science by Vesalius marked the beginning of a reorientation. In the 17th century, when the age of enlightenment began, ideas concerning the origin of birth defects became more objective. Original studies dealing with congenital malformations became common in the 18th century. Fundamental discoveries made by microscopy placed Teratology on a truly scientific basis. Significant impetus was grown to teratological research with the discovery of Gregg (1941) that German measles (rubella virus) of pregnant women caused birth defects in the embryo and the contergan disaster (1959--1962). Congenital malformations originate from genetic factors (single gene defects and chromosomal aberrations) and environmental factors, such as radiation, drugs, chemicals, and infectious agents. The susceptibility of teratogen depends on the period of embryonal development, which is classified into gametogenesis, blastogenesis, embryogenesis and fetogenesis. The Food and Drug Administration of the USA published guidelines for teratogenetic testing (1966). There are in-vivo and in-vitro-test programmes, the latter became of increasing importance owing to the large number of chemicals to be tested and the activities of opponents against animal experiments. Although great advances were made, the problem remained to transfer results from in

  17. Radiological imaging of teratological fetuses: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Lucas L; Schepens-Franke, A N; van Asten, J J A; Bosboom, D G H; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, K; Kozicz, T L; Ruiter, D J; Oostra, R-J; Klein, W M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the advantages of radiological imaging of a collection of full-term teratological fetuses in order to increase their scientific and educational value. BACKGROUND : Anatomical museums around the world exhibit full-term teratological fetuses. Unfortunately, these museums are regularly considered as "morbid cabinets". Detailed dysmorphological information concerning the exhibited specimens is often lacking. Moreover, fetuses with severe and complex congenital anomalies are frequently diagnosed incompletely, incorrectly or not at all. In order to verify diagnoses and to enrich their educational and scientific value, we imaged 41 out of the 72 teratological specimens present in the collection of our Anatomy and Pathology Museum in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Additionally, contemporary dysmorphological insights and 3D models are implemented in the teratology education of medical students and residents. Full-term teratological fetuses have become increasingly rare and deserve a prominent place in every anatomical museum; they are suitable for contemporary teratological research and education. Modern radiological techniques markedly enhance their scientific and didactic value. • To explore the scientific and educational potential of institutionalised teratological collections • To understand the additional value of radiological imaging in diagnosing teratological specimens • To learn about the specific settings of MRI parameters when scanning fixed specimens • To recognise specific internal dysmorphology in several congenital anomalies.

  18. Prenatal drug exposure and teratological risk: one-year experience of an Italian Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Straface, Gianluca; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-02-01

    Concern about exposure to drugs, radiation, or infection during pregnancy occur often because pregnancy is not always planned. A teratology information service offers rapid scientific counseling to all those worried about prenatal exposure. The aim of this study is to present data on the most common pharmaceutical products responsible for teratogenic risk in the one-year experience of a teratology information service in Italy. The survey was conducted among 8664 callers who contacted our Teratology Information Service in Rome between January and December 2006. Data on maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal health status, and details of exposure (dose and timing) were collected and stored in a specific data base. Scientific counseling on prenatal exposure was given to the caller by a specialized service operator, specifying the type of risk and suggesting appropriate tests for prenatal diagnosis. Most of the people called regarding drug exposure; increased risk was present in only 5% of the pregnant women calling during pregnancy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first category that are actually considered of increased risk to the fetus. The second category is represented by antiepileptic drugs. This experience confirms previous data that there is a high teratological risk perception among both women and physicians. The drugs estimated to present increased risk are medications used for chronic neurological diseases, mainly mood disorders and epilepsy. Preconceptional counseling for these women could be an effective strategy to prevent such exposure and to improve maternal and fetal outcome.

  19. Teratology – past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Mojmír; Navarová, Jana; Brucknerová, Ingrid; Dubovický, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Teratology is the science that studies the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of abnormal development. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of modern teratology. Development of knowledge and society led to the recognition that causes of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs) might be caused by various mechanical effects, foetal diseases, and retarded or arrested development of the embryo and foetus. Based on the analysis of the historical development of hypotheses and theories representing a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the six Wilson′s fundamental principles of teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realise that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in CDDs. Moreover, the classical toxicologic monotonic dose-response paradigm recently has been challenged by the so-called “low dose-hypothesis”, particularly in the case of endocrine active substances. These include some pesticides, dioxins, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), and bisphenol A. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 65 to 70% of all congenital defects classified as having an unknown etiology. Today CDDs include any birth defect, either morphological, biochemical, or behavioural. PMID:23554558

  20. A mixed model framework for teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, Johan; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2009-10-01

    A mixed model framework is presented to model the characteristic multivariate binary anomaly data as provided in some teratology studies. The key features of the model are the incorporation of covariate effects, a flexible random effects distribution by means of a finite mixture, and the application of copula functions to better account for the relation structure of the anomalies. The framework is motivated by data of the Boston Anticonvulsant Teratogenesis study and offers an integrated approach to investigate substantive questions, concerning general and anomaly-specific exposure effects of covariates, interrelations between anomalies, and objective diagnostic measurement.

  1. The effectiveness of Teratology Information Services (TIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Koren, Gideon; Einarson, Adrienne; Ungar, Wendy J

    2007-02-01

    Women and their health care providers have few reliable sources of information regarding the safety of exposures in pregnancy and lactation. Evidence-based information on these topics is provided by Teratology Information Services (TIS). Access to TIS, however, is limited in many regions, and many services have difficulty maintaining ongoing funding. The objective of this review is to highlight published reports of the effectiveness of TIS in improving maternal and neonatal health. A search of the Pub Med and Econ Lit databases was performed with no date restriction, using the search terms teratology, information, counseling, pregnancy, effectiveness, birth defects. Information disseminated from TIS has been shown to prevent congenital malformations, unnecessary pregnancy terminations, and occupational risks. TIS support optimal nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and optimal drug therapy in pregnancy and breast-feeding. In addition, they correct misperceptions of risk and facilitate knowledge transfer and translation. TIS have the potential to provide health care cost savings. TIS are vital services in supporting optimal maternal and neonatal health. A formal economic evaluation of TIS is required in order to inform resource allocation decision-making and continued funding of these services.

  2. [From teratology to mythology: ancient legends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, A; Tourame, P

    2010-12-01

    The mythology of the Greeks and Romans is full of monsters of fiction: giants, cyclops, centaurs, hydras, Gorgons… The accounts of travelers, reproduced in the Natural History of Pline l'Ancien reported the existence, in distant countries, of men with a dog's head (baboons), of men with a single tall foot (sciapode), beings whose face is embedded in the chest (or acephala blemmyes), to which must be added a wide variety of men with no mouth, no nose, or equipped with giant ears or feet turned backwards, as well as hermaphrodites. Teratology reports on monstrous births, which have constituted the factual basis from which the imagination conceived adults whose morphology corresponds to the monsters of legend. Newborns sirenomelia were behind the legend of sciapode and sirens. Cyclopia have inspired the legend of the cyclops. Anencephaly probably explains the description of headless or blemmyes. The genesis of the legend of baboons may have multiple origins: firstly the existence of people suffering from congenital hypertrichosis, on the other hand, the influence of Egyptian mythology where the god Anubis has a dog's head. The acardiac fetus may explain some monstrous forms, features the work of Hieronymus Bosch. The significance of the monsters of legend, their genesis, their persistence through the ages is complex. By approaching teratology, we added a new field of exploration of real monsters of antiquity and Middle Ages. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. A hitchhiker's guide to the older literature of descriptive teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, J Bruce

    2007-12-15

    Though relatively neglected in the age of molecular biology, the older literature of teratology includes superb illustrations and descriptions of malformations, and other information of permanent value to science and medicine. Accessing that literature can be challenging, as most is in works that are rare, published in languages other than English, and not available in digital form. This article describes some valuable sources of information concerning the antiquarian literature of descriptive teratology. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Funding for teratology information services: up, down, and all around.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Dee

    2012-08-01

    Funding for Teratology Information Services has been an ongoing struggle over the 25 years of its existence. Traditional and novel funding mechanisms have been explored with varying success. The importance of providing teratology risk assessment and counseling to all women of reproductive age is now an established health care objective. Sufficient and stable funding for these services is essential. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mini-review: history of organized teratology information services in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen-Mitchell, M; Martinez, L; Gallegos, S; Robertson, J; Carey, J C

    2000-04-01

    A history of the Organization of Teratology Information Services (OTIS) is presented in context of the history of teratology information services. During the late 1970s, teratology information services grew out of the need for current and accurate information about fetal effects of environmental exposures in pregnancy. Over the next decade, teratology information services networked and collaborated, developing their own professional organization. A description of the activities of OTIS is described. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. An updated history of the Teratology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Thomas H; Barr, Mason; Brent, Robert L; Hendrickx, Andrew; Kochhar, Devendra; Oakley, Godfrey; Scott, William J; Rogers, John M

    2010-05-01

    The 49-year history of the Teratology Society is reviewed. An abbreviated history is outlined in table form, with listings of the Warkany Lectures, the Continuing Education Courses, and officers of the society. The original article was updated to include the years 2000 to 2010. A year-by-year description of the events is given, including the scientific and social content of the annual meetings and changes in the business of the society, in many cases using comments from the past presidents. The valuable and unique diversity of the members is discussed and illustrated, presenting the disciplines and main research areas of the presidents. The number of submitted abstracts and the various categories are tabulated, averaging the number and type over successive periods. A significant increase in the number of abstracts dealing with epidemiology and developmental biology is evident. The society's development is compared to that of a human, and the question was asked by Shephard et al. (2000): Have we reached the maturational stage of old age or senescence, or is the society still maturing gracefully? This question needs further discussion by all the members. By 2010, many positive changes are happening to revitalize the society. During the past 50 years, we have developed the scientific basis to prevent birth defects caused by rubella, alcoholism, and folate deficiency, as well as other prenatal exposures. We are now taking advantage of advances in many fields to begin shaping the Teratology Society of the 21st century. We must now engage in political battles to obtain the resources needed to conduct further research and to implement prevention programs, as well as to provide care and rehabilitation for persons with birth defects. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A history of the Teratology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, T H; Barr, M; Brent, R L; Hendrickx, A; Kochhar, D; Oakley, G; Scott, W J

    2000-11-01

    The 39-year history of the Teratology Society is reviewed. An abbreviated history is outlined in table form, along with listings of the Warkany Lectures, the postgraduate courses, and officers of the Society. A year-by-year description of the events, including the scientific and social content of the annual meetings and changes in the business of the Society, is given, in many cases using comments from the past presidents. The valuable and unique diversity of the members is discussed and illustrated, presenting the disciplines and main research area of the presidents. The number of submitted abstracts and the various categories are tabulated, averaging the number and type over four periods. Within the past 10 years, a significant increase in the number of abstracts dealing with epidemiology and developmental biology is evident. The Society's development is compared with that of a human, and the question is asked: Have we reached the maturational stage of old age or senescence, or is the Society still maturing gracefully? This question needs further discussion by all the members. During the past 40 years, we have developed the scientific basis to prevent birth defects caused by rubella, alcoholism, and folate deficiency, as well as many other prenatal exposures. We must now engage in the political battles to obtain the resources needed to conduct further research and to implement the prevention programs, as well as to provide care and rehabilitation for persons with birth defects. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Digital data and the 19th century teratology collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baljet, B.; Oostra, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The golden age of descriptive teratology (congenital anomalies) was between 1750 and 1850. During that period, the study of human congenital malformations, especially those dramatic examples designated as 'monsters', attracted special attention. One of the finest collections in this field was Museum

  9. Studies in tropical teratology, 2nd Series, No. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, H.J.

    1937-01-01

    Dr J. J. Smith is best known by his studies about Orchidaceae. But since 1904 he published regularly in collaboration with Dr J. C. Costerus in the ”Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg“, the results of their researches in teratology of tropical plants. Some years ago, Dr J. J. Smith was so

  10. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Teratology on the crossroads: historical aspects and modern approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujházy, Eduard; Mach, Mojmír; Navarová, Jana; Dubovický, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Teratology is the science of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs), overt or latent defects of the organism resulting from the effect of internal and external factors on developmental processes. In this article the significance and position of present-day teratology is discussed in the context of development of this branch of science and related disciplines. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of teratology. Based on the analysis of the historical development of theses and theories that represent a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the fundamental principles of experimental and clinical teratology. The aim of observing these principles is to get insight into developmental relations and to understand mechanisms of action on the level of cell populations (elementary morphogenetic processes), tissues and organs. It is important to realize that any negative intervention into the normal course of these processes, either on genetic or non-genetic basis, inevitably leads to a sequence of subsequent changes resulting in the development of congenital developmental disorders. Despite modern approaches of molecular biology and genetics, along with top diagnostic techniques, we are still not able to identify the actual cause in more than 50% of all congenital defects. One-half of the unidentified cases are referred to as "multifactorial", a term that is rather ambiguous. It either means that some of the basic principles of teratogenesis still escape our attention, or the interpretation of some of the well known principles might be misleading. A third possibility is rather pessimistic. The development of the individual is so sophisticated and dependent on a delicate network of a multitude of factors mutually affecting each other that it is extremely prone to give rise to a plethora of spontaneous errors which are unpredictable and impossible to prevent. Nevertheless, the long and

  12. Cost effectiveness of teratology counseling - the Motherisk experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    While the benefits of evidence-based counseling to large numbers of women and physicians are intuitively evident, there is an urgent need to document that teratology counseling, in addition to improving the quality of life of women and families, also leads to cost saving. The objective of the present study was to calculate the cost effectiveness of the Motherisk Program, a large teratology information and counseling service at The Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto. We analyzed data from the Motherisk Program on its 2012 activities in two domains: 1) Calculation of cost-saving in preventing unjustified pregnancy terminations; and 2) prevention of major birth defects. Cost of pregnancy termination and lifelong cost of specific birth defects were identified from primary literature and prorated for cost of living for the year 2013. Prevention of 255 pregnancy terminations per year led to cost savings of $516,630. The total estimated number of major malformations prevented by Motherisk counseling in 2012 was 8.41 cases at a total estimated cost of $9,032,492. With an estimated minimum annual prevention of 8 major malformations, and numerous unnecessary terminations of otherwise- wanted pregnancies, a cost saving of $10 million can be calculated. In 2013 the operating budget of Motherisk counseling totaled $640,000. Even based on the narrow range of activities for which we calculated cost, this service is highly cost- effective. Because most teratology counseling services are operating in a very similar method to Motherisk, it is fair to assume that these results, although dependent on the size of the service, are generalizable to other countries.

  13. [Wilson's principles--a base of modern teratology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, Franciszek; Bełzek, Artur; Szumiło, Justyna; Dudka, Jarosław; Korobowicz, Agnieszka; Tokarska, Edyta; Klepacz, Lidia; Bełzek, Marta; Klepacz, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Wilson's principles were formulated after thalidomide tragedy. They become a fundamental for teratological studies with drugs and other factors that may disturb fetal development. It is postulated that susceptibility to teratogen depends on the genotype and developmental stage of the conceptus. Teratogenic agents act in specific manner on developing cells and tissues. The exposition depends on the agent's nature and availability. Manifestations of deviant development depends on the dosage and exposure frequency. In case of abnormal development the final manifestations include death of embryo or fetus, malformation, growth retardation and functional disorder.

  14. Thomas H. Shepard, M.D., pioneer in embryology and teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantel, Alan G; Polifka, Janine E; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2017-06-01

    Dr. Thomas H. Shepard died on October 3, 2016 at the age of 93. He was a major figure in the fields of teratology, embryonic and fetal pathology, and pediatrics. He was beloved by his colleagues as he was by the many students and fellows whom he taught, mentored and befriended. His contributions to teratology are extraordinary and he is greatly missed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [The Teratology Information Service: medicines during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Loes C; de Swart, Irene W; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2016-01-01

    Many women use medication during pregnancy. Both the healthcare professional and the pregnant woman often have many questions about the possible adverse effects of the medication that are not always answered in the product information. The Teratology Information Service (TIS), a part of the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, is a centre of expertise in the field of the safety of medication use and other external influences during spermatogenesis, pregnancy and lactation. The TIS collects, interprets, and disseminates information that can contribute to patient care. Healthcare professionals can contact the TIS for information and individual risk assessments. In this article we discuss the background and positioning of the TIS, the characteristics of telephone consultations, the collection of data and the considerations that are important for the use of medication during pregnancy and lactation.

  16. Paternal exposure and counselling: experience of a Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Visconti, Daniela; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    We describe paternal exposure and counselling in a selected population calling to an Italian Teratology Information Service (TIS). The majority of callers asked for paternal drug exposure (76%, drugs except chemotherapy) and treatment for cancer (17%, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). Others asked for exposure to diagnostic radiations (4%), recreational drugs (2%) and occupational chemicals (1%). Among paternal drugs neurological compounds, immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral agents were the main reasons for calling. In humans, there are no evidences of birth defects after paternal exposures, but to minimize any possible risk, counselling in men exposed to radio and chemotherapy should recommend delaying conception for at least 3 months after the end of the therapy. Male patients treated with drugs, whose teratogenic potential has been well assessed or suspected for maternal exposure, should be advised to practice effective birth control during therapy and up to one or two cycles of spermatogenesis and to avoid semen contact with vaginal walls during first trimester of pregnancy.

  17. The contribution of new findings and ideas to the old principles of teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Although the last generally accepted concept of principles of teratology was issued more than 30 years ago, the cause of less than 50% of all congenital anomalies is known and no substantial change in their incidence has been observed worldwide. In the meantime, powerful techniques of molecular biology as well as many sophisticated preventive measures have been introduced with marginal effects on the overall birth defects numbers. In this paper, we follow the history of basic concepts of teratology starting with Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Dareste, followed in the 20th century by James Wilson. Since that time no bright and completely new idea, which would deserve the name principle, has emerged. The advanced molecular studies support the long-existing principles and disclose the great variability of individuals and their responses to adverse exposures. In this way, the future of teratology counseling may be seen in a deep analysis of any individual case.

  18. EUROPEAN TERATOLOGY INFORMATION SERVICE: EXPERIENCE, PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations are still the important medical and social issue. They take the second place among the reasons for the infant mortality and cause up to 18,3% of disablement cases among the children. Exogenous factors, effecting the growing fetus, are very essential along with the genetic matters among the reasons for the congenital malformations. The importance of information on the teratogenic potential of the medications is acknowledged by the doctors from various countries. The article outlines the information on entis activity — European network of teratology information services — a non profit organization, rendering consulting services to the pregnant women and medical staff, regarding the embryo and fetotoxic actions of the medications. The authors highlight the history of entis, its objectives, principles of operation and consulting algorithm and list the basic scientific publications by the entis members for the recent years. The article deals with the most obvious problems, which the organization members face, first of all — the quality of the information they receive. The authors also provide the substantiation for the necessity to develop such an information service in Russia and express hope for the successful development of the entis subsidiary they formed in Moscow.Key words: congenital malformations, medications, pregnancy, embryotoxicity.

  19. Teratology Public Affairs Committee position paper: maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R

    2006-02-01

    Compared to normal-weight women, obese women have an increased risk of infertility and pregnancy complications. The most consistently described pregnancy complications are hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic events, and cesarean section. Fetal and neonatal complications may include congenital malformations, macrosomia, and shoulder dystocia. The literature suggests that women with a body mass index (BMI) >or=30 have approximately double the risk of having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) compared to normal-weight women, and the increased risk associated with higher maternal body weight does not appear to be modified by folic acid supplementation. The Public Affairs Committee of the Teratology Society supports the public health initiatives identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2004 and the research initiatives identified by the National Institutes of Health in 2004. The Public Affairs Committee recommends that clinicians counsel women about appropriate caloric intake and exercise and that health-care providers educate parents about appropriate childhood nutrition. Breast-feeding should be encouraged based on evidence of a protective effect against childhood obesity, as well as other health advantages. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. TERATOLOGY SOCIETY 1998 PUBLIC AFFAIRS COMMITTEE SYMPOSIUM: THE NEW THALIDOMIDE ERA: DEALING WITH THE RISKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Teratology Society Public Affairs Committee Symposium was held on June 21, 1998, during the Society's annual meeting in San Diego, California. The symposium was organized and chaired by Dr. Carole Kimmel. The sysmposium was designed to consider the medical, social, and ethi...

  1. History and highlights of the teratological collection in the Museum Anatomicum of Leiden University, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Lucas L.; Boek, Peter L. J.; van Dam, Andries J.; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2018-01-01

    The anatomical collection of the Anatomical Museum of Leiden University Medical Center (historically referred to as Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavae) houses and maintains more than 13,000 unique anatomical, pathological and zoological specimens, and include the oldest teratological

  2. The teratology society 2012-2017 strategic plan: pushing the boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Lau, Christopher; Schellpfeffer, Michael A; Stodgell, Christopher J; Carney, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    The Teratology Society held its fourth strategic planning session in Albuquerque, NM, April 10-12, 2012, and launched the 2012-2017 Strategic Plan in conjunction with the 2012 annual meeting in Baltimore, MD. Building on the energy of the successful implementation of prior strategic plans (San Diego, 2007; Nashville,TN 2002; Cincinnati, OH 1998), session participants worked to identify barriers to success as a scientific society, as well as impending challenges and opportunities to which the Society needs to respond. The following report provides an overview of the Strategic Planning process, objectives, activities, and conclusions. A total of 23 members were present at the session, and the group included representation from Council, various committees, and different member constituencies. This plan, Pushing the Boundaries, and its three strategic intents: Broaden Our Identity, Expand Our Membership, and Increase Our Influence, will drive the direction of the Teratology Society for the next five years. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Teratology Society 2007 strategic planning session: a desire to inspire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    On April 18-20, 2007, the Teratology Society held its third strategic planning session (SPS) in San Diego, CA. The purpose of this session was to build on the successful work generated by the previous strategic plans [Nashville, TN 2002 and Cincinnati, OH 1997] and importantly, to provide a path forward to inspire the Society, create deeper connections with members that speak to their individual passion for the science of teratology and to increase the Society's visibility within the larger scientific community. The following summary report provides an overview of the session's pre-work, objective, and discussions. A total of 24 attendees were present at the session. The group included representation from Council, various committees and different members constituencies. This plan and the activities subsequent to the session will provide a path forward for our Society for the next five years.

  4. Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae: insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörken, Veit Martin; Rudall, Paula J

    2018-01-01

    Both wild-type and teratological seed cones are described in the monoecious conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis and compared with those of other Cupressaceae sensu lato and other conifers. Some Cupressaceae apparently possess a proliferation of axillary structures in their cone scales. In our interpretation, in Glyptostrobus each bract of both typical and atypical seed cones bears two descending accessory shoots, interpreted here as seed scales (ovuliferous scales). The primary seed scale is fertile and forms the ovules, the second is sterile and forms characteristic tooth-like structures. The bract and the two axillary seed scales are each supplied with a single distinct vascular bundle that enters the cone axis as a separate strand; this vasculature also characterises the descending accessory short shoots in the vegetative parts of the crown. In wild-type seed cones, the fertile seed scale is reduced to its ovules, and the ovules are always axillary. In contrast, the ovules of some of the teratological seed cones examined were located at the centre of the cone scale. An additional tissue found on the upper surface of the sterile lower seed scale is here interpreted as the axis of the fertile seed scale. Thus, the central position of the ovules can be explained by recaulescent fusion of the upper fertile and lower sterile seed scales. In several teratological cone scales, the ovules were enveloped by an additional sterile tissue that is uniseriate and represents an epidermal outgrowth of the fertile seed scale. Close to the ovules, the epidermis was detached from lower tissue and surrounded the ovule completely, except at the micropyle. These teratological features are potentially significant in understanding seed-cone homologies among extant conifers.

  5. Understanding the cone scale in Cupressaceae: insights from seed-cone teratology in Glyptostrobus pensilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Martin Dörken

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Both wild-type and teratological seed cones are described in the monoecious conifer Glyptostrobus pensilis and compared with those of other Cupressaceae sensu lato and other conifers. Some Cupressaceae apparently possess a proliferation of axillary structures in their cone scales. In our interpretation, in Glyptostrobus each bract of both typical and atypical seed cones bears two descending accessory shoots, interpreted here as seed scales (ovuliferous scales. The primary seed scale is fertile and forms the ovules, the second is sterile and forms characteristic tooth-like structures. The bract and the two axillary seed scales are each supplied with a single distinct vascular bundle that enters the cone axis as a separate strand; this vasculature also characterises the descending accessory short shoots in the vegetative parts of the crown. In wild-type seed cones, the fertile seed scale is reduced to its ovules, and the ovules are always axillary. In contrast, the ovules of some of the teratological seed cones examined were located at the centre of the cone scale. An additional tissue found on the upper surface of the sterile lower seed scale is here interpreted as the axis of the fertile seed scale. Thus, the central position of the ovules can be explained by recaulescent fusion of the upper fertile and lower sterile seed scales. In several teratological cone scales, the ovules were enveloped by an additional sterile tissue that is uniseriate and represents an epidermal outgrowth of the fertile seed scale. Close to the ovules, the epidermis was detached from lower tissue and surrounded the ovule completely, except at the micropyle. These teratological features are potentially significant in understanding seed-cone homologies among extant conifers.

  6. Development, anatomy, and genetic control of some teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Jabbour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Teratological organisms originate from developmental anomalies, and exhibit structures and a body organization that deviate from the species standard. These monsters give essential clues about the formation and evolutionary significance of the wild-type groundplan. We focus on flower terata, which can be affected in their sterile and/or fertile organs, with special emphasis on the Ranunculaceae. The diversity of perianth shapes and organizations in flowers of this family is huge, and is even increased when anomalies occur during organo- and/or morphogenesis. To begin with, we synthesize the observations and research conducted on the Ranunculacean floral terata, following the most recent phylogenetic framework published in 2016 by our team. Then, we report results regarding the morphology of developing meristems, the anatomy of buds, and the genetic control of selected teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers. We focus on species and horticultural varieties belonging to the genera Aquilegia, Delphinium, and Nigella. Wildtype flowers of these species are actinomorphic (Aquilegia, Nigella or zygomorphic (Delphinium, spurred (Aquilegia, Delphinium or with pocket-like petals (Nigella. Last, we discuss the evolutionary potential of such teratological phenotypes when they occur in the wild.

  7. Categorization of fetal external findings in developmental toxicology studies by the Terminology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yuko; Ooshima, Yojiro; Chihara, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Michio; Katsumata, Yoshihiro; Shiota, Kohei

    2018-05-01

    Categorization of fetal external findings in common laboratory animals, intended to make the agreement at Berlin Workshop in 2014 more practical, was proposed by the Terminology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society at the Workshop in the 55th Japanese Teratology Society Annual Meeting in 2015. In the Workshop, 73 external findings, which had been categorized as "Gray zone" anomalies but not as "Malformation" or "Variation" in the 2014 Berlin Workshop, were discussed and classified as Malformation, "Non-structural abnormality," Variation, and "Not applicable." The proposal was based on the results of a survey conducted in 2014, where 20 facilities (including pharmaceutical, chemical, and pesticide companies and contract laboratories) and 2 selected expert teratologists in Japan were asked for their opinions on the categorization of these findings. Based on the discussion, Japanese Teratology Society members have agreed that 42 out of the 73 findings can be classified as Malformations (38), Non-structural abnormalities (3), Malformations/Non-structural abnormalities (1), and Variations (0), while the remaining 31 findings were recommended to be categorized as Not applicable for fetuses. The details of the classification are shown on the website of the Japanese Teratology Society (http://www.umin.ac.jp/cadb/External.pdf). © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  8. New teratological examples in Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera, with a compilation of previous teratological records Nuevos ejemplos teratológicos en Staphylinidae neotropicales (Insecta: Coleoptera, con una compilación de registros teratológicos previos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Asiain

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teratology is the study of malformations that affect various organisms and may cause taxonomic confusion. The goal of this work is to compile the previously published information about malformations in species of Staphylinidae, to describe 10 teratological cases that have not been previously recorded in neotropical species of this family, and to point out the high frequency of these malformations in the studied specimens. The previously recorded cases were obtained from review of 13 papers, and the studied specimens were obtained on loan from several collections. In total, 43 teratological cases were compiled for Staphylinidae, belonging to 39 species from 8 subfamilies. Ten teratological cases are described for specimens from Belonuchus, Agrodes and Plochionocerus. One of them occurs in B. apiciventris, 2 in A. elegans, 3 in P. humeralis, 3 in P. fulgens and 1 in P. splendens. Most of the anomalies affect the antennae (7 cases, but teratologies that affect mandibles (1 case, midlegs (1 case and pronotum (1 case are also presented.Teratología es el estudio de las malformaciones que afectan a distintos organismos y que pueden causar confusiones taxonómicas. El objetivo del presente estudio es recopilar la información previamente publicada sobre teratologías en especies de Staphylinidae, dar a conocer 10 casos de anomalías presentes en especies neotropicales de esta familia que no han sido reportadas con anterioridad, así como resaltar la alta frecuencia de estas deformaciones en los organismos estudiados. Los casos previamente reportados se obtuvieron de la revisión de 13 trabajos, mientras que los ejemplares estudiados proceden del préstamo de organismos de distintas colecciones. Se recopiló un total de 43 casos teratológicos para Staphylinidae, pertenecientes a 39 especies de ocho subfamilias. Se describen 10 casos teratológicos en ejemplares de Agrodes, Plochionocerus y Belonuchus, 2 de ellos se presentaron en A. elegans, 1 en B

  9. Drug safety in pregnancy: utopia or achievable prospect? Risk information, risk research and advocacy in Teratology Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Christof

    2011-03-01

    Even though from preclinical testing to drug risk labeling, the situation with drugs in pregnancy has improved substantially since the thalidomide scandal, there is still an increasing need to provide healthcare professionals and patients with updated individualized risk information for clinical decision making. For the majority of drugs, clinical experience is still insufficient with respect to their safety in pregnancy. There is often uncertainty in how to interpret the available scientific data. Based on 20 years of experience with Teratology Information Services (TIS) cooperating in the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) methods of risk interpretation, follow-up of exposed pregnancies through the consultation process and their evaluation is discussed. Vitamin K antagonists, isotretinoin and angiotensin (AT) II-receptor-antagonists are presented as examples of misinterpretation of drug risks and subjects of research based on observational clinical data recorded in TIS. As many TIS are poorly funded, advocacy is necessary by establishing contacts with decision makers in health politics and administration, informing them of the high return in terms of health outcomes and cost savings provided by TIS as reference institutions in clinical teratology. © 2011 The Author. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. Toxicological study on the safety of DTPA as a drug, (1). Teratological study in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1983-03-01

    In order to clarify the safety of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA recommended to use as drugs in the therapeutic removal of incorporated radionuclides from the human body, the teratological study on these two agents was carried out in rats as one of a series of the toxicological tests. The teratological effects of DTPA were observed because the fetus is highly susceptible to any drug. The pregnant females of Wistar rat were injected subcutaneously daily on days 9-13 of gestation with 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 H.D. (H.D. = human dose, 1 H.D. = 30..mu..mol/kg body weight) of Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA, respectively. In the dams, no toxic effects were observed. In the fetuses, the decrease of the survival rate was observed in only the group injected daily with 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. Some cases of gross defects of fetuses: the exencephaly, microphthalmia, anophthalmia and fusion of ribs were observed in the groups injected daily with 12, 24 and 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. The results obtained show that Ca-DTPA should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, no toxic effects of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA observed in the dams or of Zn-DTPA even in the fetuses indicate that these agents can be used by a radiation worker who usually is an adult man.

  11. Czech Teratology Information Service: comparison of treatments by psychotropic and antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manáková, Eva; Hubicková-Heringová, Lucie; Jelínek, Richard

    2006-12-01

    Care, treatment and follow-up in psychiatric and epileptic pregnant women were compared with women inquiring Czech Teratology Information Service (CZTIS) due to other exposure to drugs during pregnancy. Data were collected by CZTIS, member of European Network of Teratology Information Services from 1996. Exposed groups were compared with pregnant women exposed to drugs which were not classified as major teratogens or hyperthermia. Groups do not vary in age, reproductive history and other parameters. We observed higher frequency of miscarriage and voluntary termination of pregnancy in the group of psychiatric patients. The number of malformation in prospective follow-up cases was lower than in control group. Chronic diseases as epilepsy or psychiatric disorders have to be treated during pregnancy. Women should obtain accurate information about possible risk before pregnancy. Co-operation is needed in these cases. Physicians should keep in mind that appropriate information is to be given to the patient according to her disease, education and comprehension of the problem. If there is any doubt they should organize help for their patients.

  12. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2010-06-01

    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and international governmental testing guidelines. The Segment II (developmental toxicity) study design, described in rodents and rabbits, has evolved with additional enhanced endpoints and better descriptions, mechanistic insights, range-finding studies, and toxico/pharmacokinetic ADME information (especially for pharmaceuticals). Society members were also involved in the development of the current screening assays and tests for endocrine disruptors (beginning in 1996) and are now involved with developing new testing guidelines (e.g., the extended one-generation protocol), and evaluating the current test guidelines and new initiatives under ILSI/HESI sponsorship. New initiatives include ToxCast from the U.S. EPA to screen, prioritize, and predict toxic chemicals by high throughput and high-content in vitro assays, bioinformation, and modeling to reduce (or eliminate) in vivo whole animal studies. Our Society and its journal have played vital roles in the scientific and regulatory accomplishments in birth defects research over the past 50 years and will continue to do so in the future. Happy 50th anniversary! (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. [POETRYAND TERATOLOGY: LORENZO MASCHERONI'S "INVITO A LESBIA CIDONIA" IN ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carla, Garbarino; Valentina, Cani; Stefano, Maretti; Paolo, Mazzarello

    2015-01-01

    In 1793 Lorenzo Mascheroni, appointed to the chair of Mathematics at the University of Pavia and well-known poet, wrote "L'invito di Dafni Orobiano a Lesbia Cidonia". In the poem he described the beauty of the University of Pavia and its wonders gathered in the scientific collections of the museums. From the beginning, one of the glass cases of the Museum for the History of the University of Pavia shows some of the preparations described in the Mascheroni's verses. In addition to some fossils, human teratological preparations are also exposed: they recall the verses of the poem dedicated to the description of "monstrous" preparations. However, after a detailed scientifc and historical research, the traditional association of the exposed anatomical preparations with the verses is questioned.

  14. [Teratologic cranio-encephalic effects of chronic thinner inhalation in progenitors, in rats and humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Villeda-Hernández, J; Méndez-Armenta, M

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of thinner by youngsters and adolescents is an increasing drug abuse problem in Mexico. It presents serious repercussions upon socio-economic, cultural, legal and health (neurologic and psychiatric) problems. We report a comparative study in humans and rats which demonstrate the embryotoxic and craneo encephalic teratologic effects in the children and brood of progenitors who have chronically inhaled thinner (in the case of pregnant women, before, at the beginning and throughout pregnancy). Inhaled thinner passes directly to the blood stream and crosses the placentary barrier freely reaching the embryo. It may cause craneal bone and partial or total encephalon agenesia, added to macro and microscopic lesions secondary to direct aggression to the neuroepithelial germ cells. Abortions and premature labor with weight and size underdeveloped products and placentary hemorrhages occur. Usually these die, but if they survive they show trascendental mental retardation, as well as neurologic and psychiatric sequels.

  15. Comments from the Behavioral Teratology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals, proposal for a new guideline 426, developmental neurotoxicity study, draft document (September 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yoshihiro; Ema, Makoto; Fujiwara, Michio; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Inouye, Minoru; Iwase, Takayuki; Kihara, Takahide; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Oi, Akihide; Ooshima, Yojiro; Otani, Hiroki; Shinomiya, Mitsuhiro; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Yamashita, Keisuke H; Tanimura, Takashi

    2004-09-01

    In September 2003, a new revision of the draft guideline (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) was distributed. The draft guideline consists of 51 paragraphs and an appendix. The National Coordinators were requested to arrange national expert reviews of the guideline proposal in their member countries. The member of the Behavioral Teratology (BT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed and commented on the draft Test Guideline proposal. The BT Committee of the JTS also commented that the International Collaborative Study to validate this protocol should be definitely performed. These comments were sent to the OECD Secretariat. The BT Committee of the JTS expects that the comments are useful for further discussion.

  16. Clinical teratology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Of particular importance in teratogenesis is the time of exposure to the offending environmental agent, route of exposure, and genotype of the embryo and the mother. The major teratogens include irradiation, maternal infections, other illnesses in pregnancy (diabetes, thyroid disease, maternal phenylketonuria, virilizing diseases), a host of pharmacologic agents and environmental contaminants. Teratogen exposure carries the potential for cancer in later life. Several sources of information on teratogens are now available

  17. Clinical teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.K.

    1983-12-01

    Of particular importance in teratogenesis is the time of exposure to the offending environmental agent, route of exposure, and genotype of the embryo and the mother. The major teratogens include irradiation, maternal infections, other illnesses in pregnancy (diabetes, thyroid disease, maternal phenylketonuria, virilizing diseases), a host of pharmacologic agents and environmental contaminants. Teratogen exposure carries the potential for cancer in later life. Several sources of information on teratogens are now available.

  18. Sperm characteristics and teratology in rats following vas deferens occlusion with RISUG and its reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, N K; Suthar, R; Khandelwal, A; Goyal, S; Ansari, A S; Manivannan, B

    2010-02-01

    The functional success of the reversal of vas occlusion by styrene maleic anhydride (RISUG), using the solvent vehicle, Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO), has been investigated. Reversal with DMSO was carried out in Wistar albino rats 90 days after bilateral vas occlusion. The body weight, organ weight, sperm characteristics, fertility test and teratology, including skeletal morphology were evaluated in vas occlusion and reversal animals and in F(1) progenies to assess the functional success of the occlusion and reversal. Body weight, organ weight and the cauda epididymal sperm characteristics of vas occlusion and reversal animals and of F(1) progenies were comparable to control. Ejaculated spermatozoa in the vaginal smear showed detached head/tail, acrosomal damage, bent midpiece, bent tail and morphological aberrations in sperm head after vas occlusion, which returned to normal, 90 days after reversal. Monthly fertility test, post-injection showed 0% fertility, which improved gradually and 100% fertility was achieved 90 days after reversal. The fertility/pregnancy/implantation record and skeletal morphology of the offspring were comparable to control. The results suggest functional success and safety of vas occlusion reversal by DMSO.

  19. Providing information regarding exposures in pregnancy: a survey of North American Teratology Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Einarson, Adrienne; Goodstadt, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2008-04-01

    Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide information on exposures during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Maintaining ongoing funding is a challenge. The purpose was to gather descriptive information on current TIS operations. All North American TIS (16 American, 2 Canadian) completed a detailed survey. Service goal ranked as most important was correction of risk misperceptions. Inquiries were primarily for medications (mean 43.5%, S.D. 14.1), lactation exposures, and workplace exposures. Median employees per TIS: three (range 1-12.5). Two TIS only counsel health care professionals (HCPs). Main callers to remaining TIS were pregnant women (mean 46.8%, S.D. 22.8), physicians, and nurses. Calls per week varied (median 20, range 4-600). Median annual budget: US dollars 69,000 (range dollars 3000-335,000). Seventeen TIS collect patient data for research. This survey was the first to document TIS operations in North America and demonstrates a spectrum of clinical and research activities, and provides data for a future cost-benefit analysis of TIS.

  20. Teratology study of amide derivatives of branched aliphatic carboxylic acids with 4-aminobenzensulfonamide in NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yuko; Okada, Akinobu; Noyori, Hiroko; Okamura, Ai; Hen, Naama; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Fujiwara, Michio

    2013-08-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), widely used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorders, and migraine prophylaxis, is known to cause neural tube and skeletal defects in humans and animals. Aminobenzensulfonamide derivatives of VPA with branched aliphatic carboxylic acids, namely 2-methyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-pentanamide (MSP), 2-ethyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-butyramide (ESB), 2-ethyl-4-methyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-phenyl)-pentanamide (EMSP), and 2-ethyl-N-(4-sulfamoyl-benzyl)-butyramide (ESBB), have shown more potent anticonvulsant activity than VPA in preclinical testing. Here, we investigated the teratogenic effects of these analogous compounds of VPA in NMRI mice. Pregnant NMRI mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of either VPA at 1.8 or 3.6 mmol/kg, or MSP, ESB, EMSP, or ESBB at 1.8, 3.6, or 4.8 mmol/kg on gestation day (GD) 8. Cesarean section was performed on GD 18, and the live fetuses were examined for external and skeletal malformations. Compared with VPA, which induced neural tube defects (NTDs) in fetuses at 1.8 and 3.6 mmol/kg, the analog derivatives induced no NTDs at dose levels up to 4.8 mmol/kg (except for a single case of exencephaly at 4.8 mmol/kg MSP). Skeletal examination showed several abnormalities mainly at the axial skeletal level with VPA at 1.8 mmol/kg. Fused vertebrae and/or fused ribs were also observed with MSP, ESB, EMSP, and ESBB, they were less severe and seen at a lower incidence that those induced by VPA at the same dose level. In addition to exerting more potent preclinical antiepileptic activity, teratology comparison indicates that aminobenzensulfonamide analogs are generally more weakly teratogenic than VPA. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Managing fertile women under lithium treatment: the challenge of a Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Caterina; De Luca, Carmen; D'oria, Luisa; Licameli, Angelo; Nucci, Marta; Pellegrino, Marcella; Caruso, Alessandro; De Santis, Marco

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to review the literature regarding the management of fertile patients under lithium treatment for bipolar disorder and to report the experience of our Teratology Information Service over the past thirteen years in managing women treated with lithium during preconception, pregnancy and breastfeeding. This research focuses on a selective review of the literature and a retrospective survey has been carried out on fertile women under lithium treatment who called our service at A. Gemelli University Hospital in Rome from May 2002 to December 2015. A total of 140 women under lithium treatment called our TIS. A complete follow-up has been performed on 34 patients: 29 called during pregnancy and 5 called during preconception. None of the patients called during breastfeeding, while half of the patients were taking concomitant drugs during pregnancy. One major cardiac malformation (hypoplastic left heart syndrome) has been reported. No minor malformations have been detected. Twenty-one patients delivered a living child, with one premature neonate. Two patients underwent voluntary interruption of pregnancy and six patients had early spontaneous abortion. In one patient, intrauterine growth retardation occurred, but with no adverse neonatal outcomes. Four neonates experienced transient respiratory distress at birth. Two children developed mild to severe language delay, but normal motor development. Lithium treatment in fertile women is a very delicate topic, where risks and benefits of discontinuing therapy when women plan to become pregnant should be accurately evaluated. Thorough peri-conceptional counselling is crucial for the outcome of pregnancy and for maternal health status during preconception, gestation and breastfeeding.

  2. MicroRNAs and fetal brain development: Implications for ethanol teratology during the second trimester period of neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh eMiranda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a stereotypic cluster of fetal craniofacial, cardiovascular, skeletal and neurological deficits that are collectively termed the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Fetal ethanol exposure is a leading non-genetic cause of mental retardation. Mechanisms underlying the etiology of ethanol teratology are varied and complex. This review will focus on the developing brain as an important and vulnerable ethanol target. Near the end of the first trimester, and during the second trimester, fetal neural stem cells (NSCs produce most of the neurons of the adult brain, and ethanol has been shown to influence NSC renewal and maturation. We will discuss the neural developmental and teratological implications of the biogenesis and function of microRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that control the expression of gene networks by translation repression. A small but growing body of research has identified ethanol-sensitive miRNAs at different stages of NSC and brain maturation. While many microRNAs appear to be vulnerable to ethanol at specific developmental stages, a few, like the miR-9 family, appear to exhibit broad vulnerability to ethanol across multiple stages of NSC differentiation. An assessment of the regulation and function of these miRNAs provides important clues about the mechanisms that underlie fetal vulnerability to alterations in the maternal-fetal environment and yields insights into the genesis of FASD.

  3. Counselling pregnant women at the crossroads of Europe and Asia: effect of Teratology Information Service in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Karadaş, Barış; Küçüksolak, Gözde; Ediz, Bartu; Demir, Ömer; Sozmen, Kaan; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2017-08-01

    Background Previous studies from western countries demonstrated the effectiveness of Teratology Information Service (TIS) counselling in reducing the teratogenic risk perception of pregnant women. Objective To assess whether TIS counselling would be effective in reducing the teratogenic risk perception of the Turkish pregnant women. Setting A TIS (Terafar) operating in a university hospital in Turkey. Methods A cross-sectional survey study. Pregnant women with non-teratogenic medication exposures were asked to assign scores on visual analogue scales (VAS) in response to the questions aiming to measure their teratogenic risk perception. The mean score before and after counselling were compared and the associations with maternal socio-demographic characteristics were analysed using SPSS (Version 20.0). Main outcome measures The differences in the mean scores of the perception regarding the baseline risk of pregnancy, own teratogenic risk and the likelihood of termination of pregnancy before and after counselling and their possible associations with maternal socio-demographic characteristics. Results 102 pregnant women participated in the study. The counselling significantly reduced the mean own teratogenic risk perception score and the mean score for the likelihood of termination of pregnancy whereas the mean baseline risk perception score was not significantly changed. Pregnancy week <8 and the exposed number of active ingredients <3 were significantly associated with the difference in the mean score for the likelihood of termination of pregnancy. Conclusions TIS counselling lowers the teratogenic risk perception of Turkish pregnant women and increases their likelihood to continue the pregnancy as it does in the western countries.

  4. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Role on the Biochemical, Histological and Teratological Changes Induced in Diabetic Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 called Cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal function of the brain, nervous system, cell division and for the formation of blood. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vitamin B 12 intake on radiation induced damage in diabetic mothers.Diabetes was induced in female rats by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg b.wt. dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received vitamin B 12 0.1 mg/100 g b.wt. from the 1st up to 19th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.6 Gy on the 7th and the 14th days of gestation. The increased incidence of malformations in diabetic pregnancy with an excess of free oxygen radicals in the embryos was recorded .Vitamin B12 supplementation to diabetic mother ameliorated radiation-induced damage which was obvious by diminishing the increase in glucose level, improving serum insulin level, glycogen content in the liver and ameliorating the decrease in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver of pregnant rats and their fetuses.In addition, vitamin B 12 treatment improved the decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) of fetuses and DNA content in the liver tissues. Moreover, vitamin B 12 treatment lead to the regeneration of normal architecture of maternal and fetuses hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that vitamin B 12 supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation effect which induced biochemical, histochemical, histological and teratological disorders.Furthermore, the results obtained showed that vitamin B 12 administration caused a protection to diabetic pregnant rats against embryo malformations induced by gamma rays

  5. Acute, reproductive toxicity and two-generation teratology studies of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2014-07-01

    The roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack are popularly sought as herbal medicinal supplements to improve libido and general health amongst the local ethnic population. The major quassinoids of E. longifolia improved spermatogenesis and fertility but toxicity studies have not been well documented. The reproductive toxicity, two generation of foetus teratology and the up-and-down acute toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats orally treated with quassinoid-rich E. longifolia extract (TAF273). The results showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 ) of TAF273 for female and male rats was 1293 and >2000 mg/kg, respectively. Fertility index and litter size of the TAF273 treated were significantly increased when compared with those of the non-treated animals. The TAF273-treated dams decreased in percentage of pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss and late resorption. No toxic symptoms were observed on the TAF273-treated pregnant female rats and their foetuses were normal. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from reproductive toxicity and teratology studies of TAF273 in rats was 100 mg/kg body weight/day, being more than 10-fold lower than the LD50 value. Thus, any human dose derived from converting the rat doses of 100 mg/kg and below may be considered as safe for further clinical studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Population genetical investigation of the level of mutagenesis and teratological events frequency in ecologically different regions of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashaganova, Zh.A.; Zhapbasov, R.; Kadyrova, N.Zh.; Karimbaeva, K.S.; Mamyrbaeva, A.N.; Altaeva, N.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Kazakhstan territory is unique including regions with radioactive pollution of Semipalatinsk nuclear test territory and storage of radioactive waste of uranium mines and metallurgy enterprises, and regions of drying Aral sea. These technogenic factors may cause some types of chromosome aberrations and developmental anomalies in mammals. The level of mutagenesis was estimated basing on chromosome aberrations and genomic mutation frequencies in bone marrow cells of natural rodents populations (Allactaga major Kern, Allactaga saltator Eversman, Cytellus eritrogenus Br.) and domestic animals (sheep, cattle, horse), which inhabit these regions. Sheep populations which are bred in the regions with different climatic conditions were used for teratological investigations. Different generations are met in the populations of mice family rodents caught in the nature. So studying the animals of different ages separately we can estimate the frequency of mutations in the animals of different age inhabiting the same radiation polluted regions. The frequency of chromosome abe rations in mice family rodents from such territories was twice as high as from the clear territories. In some animals chromosome aberration types characteristic for radiation mutagenesis (dicentrics, double acentric fragments) were found. High level of cytogenetical instability in somatic cells of agricultural animals which were bred on the pastures within former nuclear test territories for several generations may be caused by chronic radiation in low doses. The analysis of the spectrum of recorder chromosome aberrations in somatic cells and their dynamics in different animal species inhabiting for several generations these territories being chronically irradiated, allows us to investigate the direction of genetical evolution of mammals genofond structure induced by ecological factors. Comparative analysis of the frequencies of spontaneous abortuses, deadborn and newborn animals with innate

  7. Behavioral teratologic studies using microwave radiation: is there an increased risk from exposure to cellular phones and microwave ovens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensh, R P

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the investigations presented in this review was to determine if there are adverse effects due to chronic prenatal microwave exposure in rats at term and/or alterations in neonatal and adult offspring psychophysiologic development and growth. Following the establishment of a nonhyperthermal power density level of microwave radiation, pregnant rats were exposed throughout pregnancy to continuous wave 915 MHz, 2450 MHz, or 6000 MHz radiation at power density levels of 10, 20, or 35 mW/cm2, respectively. Teratologic evaluation included the following parameters: maternal weight and weight gain; mean litter size; maternal organ weight and organ weight/body weight ratios; body weight ratios of brain, liver, kidneys, and ovaries; maternal peripheral blood parameters including hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white cell counts; number of resorptions and resorption rate; number of abnormalities and abnormality rate; mean term fetal weight. Mothers were rebred, and the second, nonexposed litters were evaluated for teratogenic effects. Exposed offspring were evaluated using the following perinatal and adult tests: eye opening, surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, open field, activity wheel, swimming, and forelimb hanging. Offspring were also monitored for weekly weight and weight gain. Animals exposed to 915 MHz did not exhibit any consistent significant alterations in any of the above parameters. Exposure to 2450 MHz resulted only in a significantly increased adult offspring activity level compared to nonexposed offspring. Offspring exposed to 6000 MHz radiation exhibited an initial slight, but significant, retardation in term weight, while mothers had a significantly reduced monocyte count. No changes in any of the other term parameters were observed. A few postnatal parameters were affected in offspring exposed to 6000 MHz. Weekly weights were lower in the exposed offspring, but they recovered by the fifth week. Eye opening was

  8. A glance at Spanish embryology and teratology during the XX century through the academic life of Francisco Orts-Llorca (1905-1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchaga, Juan; Jiménez-Collado, Juan; Ruano-Gil, Domingo

    2009-01-01

    Francisco Ort-Llorca (1905-1993) was one of the most outstanding Spanish embryologists of the XX century. He was disciple of Henri Rouvire in Paris (France), Alfred Fischel in Vienna (Austria), Walther Vogt in Munich (Germany) and Pedro Ara in Madrid (Spain). From 1935, he was professor of Human Anatomy at the Faculty of Medicine of Cadiz, belonged then to the University of Seville (accidentally, in the University of Valencia, during the Spanish Civil War from 1936-1939) and, later on, at the Faculty of Medicine of Madrid (Complutense University) from 1954 to 1975. He was internationally recognized in anatomical sciences and stood out for his contributions to descriptive and experimental Embryology and Teratology, particularly in those aspects connected to the normal and pathological development of the heart and visual organs.

  9. Fetal behavioral teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Gerard H A; Mulder, Eduard J H; Tessa Ververs, F F

    2010-10-01

    Ultrasound studies of fetal motor behavior provide direct – in vivo – insight in the functioning of the motor component of the fetal central nervous system. In this article, studies are reviewed showing changes in the first timetable of appearance of fetal movements, changes in quality and/or quantity of movements and disturbances in the development of fetal behavioral states in case of endogenous malfunctions, maternal diseases and exogenous behavioral teratogens.

  10. International practices in the provision of teratology information: a survey of international teratogen information programmes and comparisons with the North American model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Rebecca L; Ungar, Wendy J; Einarson, Adrienne; Koren, Gideon

    2010-10-01

    Teratology Information Services (TIS) provide health care professionals and the public with information regarding the safety and/or risk of exposures during pregnancy and lactation, mainly via telephone consultations. An international comparison of clinical practices at TIS has never been conducted. The survey objective was to compare international TIS to North American TIS, with an aim to identify strengths and challenges that can lead to service improvement. Twenty-two international TIS were approached for participation during an international conference. TIS were surveyed on information in six categories: services, staffing, operations, data collection, knowledge transfer activities and additional information. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Statistical tests were conducted using SPSS®. Sixteen TIS from 12 countries participated. Survey results were compared with previously reported results from a similar survey of North American TIS (16 US, two Canadian). TIS exist in a variety of departments and settings, but most commonly are in university hospitals. Pregnant women were the most commonly counselled group worldwide. International TIS spent significantly more time fielding inquiries regarding medications, while North American TIS had a wider variety of inquiry categories. All TIS could improve budget tracking. Overall, service practices and goals were similar, although international TIS conducted more follow-up with service users than North American TIS. This report offers TIS the first ever opportunity to compare practices. Increased dialogue between TIS encourages sharing of best practices and improves the ability of these important public health programmes to support women and health care providers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Expression analysis of some genes regulated by retinoic acid in controls and triadimefon-exposed embryos: is the amphibian Xenopus laevis a suitable model for gene-based comparative teratology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Rossi, Federica; Bacchetta, Renato; Prati, Mariangela; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2011-06-01

    The use of nonmammal models in teratological studies is a matter of debate and seems to be justified if the embryotoxic mechanism involves conserved processes. Published data on mammals and Xenopus laevis suggest that azoles are teratogenic by altering the endogenous concentration of retinoic acid (RA). The expression of some genes (Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2) controlled by retinoic acid is downregulated in rat embryos exposed at the phylotypic stage to the triazole triadimefon (FON). In order to propose X. laevis as a model for gene-based comparative teratology, this work evaluates the expression of Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2 in FON-exposed X. laevis embryos. Embryos, exposed to a high concentration level (500 µM) of FON from stage 13 till 17, were examined at stages 17, 27, and 47. Stage 17 and 27 embryos were processed to perform quantitative RT-PCR. The developmental rate was never affected by FON at any considered stage. FON-exposed stage 47 larvae showed the typical craniofacial malformations. A significant downregulation of Gsc was observed in FON-exposed stage 17 embryos. Shh, Ptch-1, Msx2 showed a high fluctuation of expression both in control and in FON-exposed samples both at stages 17 and 27. The downregulation of Gsc mimics the effects of FON on rat embryos, showing for this gene a common effect of FON in the two vertebrate classes. The high fluctuation observed in the gene expression of the other genes, however, suggests that X. laevis at this stage has limited utility for gene-based comparative teratology. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Comparison of a modified mid-coronal sectioning technique and Wilson's technique when conducting eye and brain examinations in rabbit teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziejewski, Mary K; Solomon, Howard M; Rendemonti, Joyce; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    There are two methods used when examining fetal rabbit eyes and brain in teratology studies. One method employs prior fixation before serial sectioning (Wilson's technique) and the other uses fresh tissue (mid-coronal sectioning). We modified the mid-coronal sectioning technique to include removal of eyes and brain for closer examination and to increase the number of structures that can be evaluated and compared it to the Wilson's technique. We found that external examination of the head, in conjunction with either sectioning method, is equally sensitive in identifying developmental defects. We evaluated 40,401 New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch-Belted (DB) rabbit fetuses for external head alterations, of which 28,538 fetuses were further examined for eye and brain alterations using the modified mid-coronal sectioning method (16,675 fetuses) or Wilson's technique (11,863 fetuses). The fetuses were from vehicle control or drug-treated pregnant rabbits in embryo-fetal development studies conducted to meet international regulatory requirements for the development of new drugs. Both methods detected the more common alterations (microphthalmia and dilated lateral cerebral ventricles) and other less common findings (changes in size and/or shape of eye and brain structures). While both methods are equally sensitive at detecting common and rare developmental defects, the modified mid-coronal sectioning technique eliminates the use of chemicals and concomitant fixation artifacts that occur with the Wilson's technique and allows for examination of 100% intact fetuses thereby increasing potential for detecting eye and brain alterations as these findings occur infrequently in rabbits. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  14. The teratology testing of cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spézia, François; Barrow, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.

  15. Experimental methods in behavioral teratology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, G.

    1981-09-01

    Efforts are made to develop toxicological techniques with which new behavioral teratogens can be recognized. The review describes the most important experimental methods which are presently explored, and which are based on a rich body of knowledge accumulated by experimental psychologists. Most of the tests were developed with small animals, mostly with rats. They range from the rather straightforward determination of various reflexes to complex behavioral situations involving mechanical devices, operant conditioning techniques and procedures evaluating social behavior. In applying these methods in routine toxicology, it is important to remember, that many behavioral effects determined in newborn and adult animals are subtle. Moreover, they are influenced by a large variety of environmental factors affecting the health and the behavior of the mothers and of the offspring in the early and later phases of development. Therefore, the experiments must be conducted under highly standardized conditions and must be controlled rigorously. It is concluded that the best experimental strategy for the evaluation of potential behavioral teratogens is not yet established. Therefore, it would be premature to decide on a fixed protocol to be included in routine animal safety experiments for drugs and other chemical substances.

  16. Behavioral toxicology in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists. Summary of a symposium presented at the annual meeting of the neurobehavioral teratology society, June, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Philip J; Kavlock, Robert J; Crofton, Kevin M; Weiss, Bernard; Rice, Deborah C

    2010-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies of Science recently published a report of its vision of toxicity testing in the 21st century. The report proposes that the current toxicity testing paradigm that depends upon whole-animal tests be replaced with a strategy based upon in vitro tests, in silico models and evaluations of toxicity at the human population level. These goals are intended to set in motion changes that will transform risk assessment into a process in which adverse effects on public health are predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and data from suites of high-throughput in vitro tests. The potential roles for whole-animal testing in this futuristic vision are both various and undefined. A symposium was convened at the annual meeting of the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society in Rio Grande, Puerto Rico in June, 2009 to discuss the potential challenges and opportunities for behavioral scientists in developing and/or altering this strategy toward the ultimate goal of protecting public health from hazardous chemicals. R. Kavlock described the NRC vision, introduced the concept of the 'toxicity pathway' (a central guiding principle of the NRC vision), and described the current status of an initial implementation this approach with the EPA's ToxCast(R) program. K. Crofton described a pathway based upon disruption of thyroid hormone metabolism during development, including agents, targets, and outcomes linked by this mode of action. P. Bushnell proposed a pathway linking the neural targets and cellular to behavioral effects of acute exposure to organic solvents, whose predictive power is limited by our incomplete understanding of the complex CNS circuitry that mediates the behavioral responses to solvents. B. Weiss cautioned the audience regarding a pathway approach to toxicity testing, using the example of the developmental toxicity of phthalates, whose effects on mammalian sexual differentiation would

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  18. The teratology testing of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  19. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  20. Behavioral Teratology Comes to the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackbill, Yvonne

    1987-01-01

    The article discusses types of teratogenic agents, (behavioral defects caused by toxic agents) behavioral targets, organismic vulnerability during growth spurts, teratogenic "routing" (path to the brain), exposure, and duration of effects. Lead is used as a paradigm of chemical neurotoxins known to affect cognitive and noncognitive…

  1. Teratology: from science to birth defects prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Erickson, J David; Reef, Susan E; Ross, Danielle S

    2009-01-01

    One of the goals of birth defects research is to better understand risk or preventive factors for birth defects so that strategies for prevention can be developed. In this article, we have selected four areas of birth defects research that have led to the development of prevention strategies. These areas include rubella virus as a cause of congenital rubella syndrome, folic acid as a preventive factor for neural tube defects, cytomegalovirus infection as a cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities, and alcohol as a cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. For each of these areas, we review key clinical and research findings that led to the identification of the risk or preventive factor, milestones in the development of prevention strategies, and the progress made thus far toward prevention.

  2. Comments from the Developmental Neurotoxicology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on the OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study, Draft Document (October 2006 version), and on the Draft Document of the Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Draft Test Guideline 426 on Developmental Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Fukui, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Michio; Fuji, Junichiro; Inouye, Minoru; Iwase, Takayuki; Kihara, Takahide; Oi, Akihide; Otani, Hiroki; Shinomiya, Mitsuhiro; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Yamashita, Keisuke H; Tanimura, Takashi

    2007-06-01

    In October 2006, a new revision of the draft guideline (OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426. Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) and Draft Document of the Retrospective Performance Assessment (RPA) of the Draft Test Guideline 426 on Developmental Neurotoxicity were distributed following incorporation of the results of the Expert Consultation Meeting in Tokyo on May 24-26, 2005. The draft guideline consists of 50 paragraphs and an appendix with 102 references; and the draft RPA consists of 37 paragraphs with 109 references. National coordinators were requested to arrange for national expert reviews of these draft documents in their member countries. Members of the Developmental Neurotoxicology (DNT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed, and commented on the draft Test Guideline Proposal. The DNT Committee of the JTS also commented on the draft document of the RPA. These comments were sent to the OECD Secretariat. The DNT Committee of the JTS expects the comments to be useful for the finalization of these draft documents.

  3. Computational and Organotypic Modeling of Microcephaly (Teratology Society)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microcephaly is associated with reduced cortical surface area and ventricular dilations. Many genetic and environmental factors precipitate this malformation, including prenatal alcohol exposure and maternal Zika infection. This complexity motivates the engineering of computation...

  4. TERATOLOGY v2.0 – building a path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unraveling the complex relationships between environmental factors and early life susceptibility in assessing the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes requires advanced knowledge of biological systems. Large datasets and deep data-mining tools are emerging resources for predictive...

  5. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obican, Sarah G; Jahnke, Gloria D; Soldin, Offie P; Scialli, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Fertility and irradiation: a preconceptional investigation in teratology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of preconceptional irradiation on female fertility were investigated in six groups of 35 nulliparous Swiss-Webster mice whole-body irradiated with single doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 300 rads of 60 Co. They were mated with nontreated males and killed on gestational day 18. The litters were recorded in the chronologic order of their occurrence within each group. The percentage of pregnancies decreased with the dose, while the prenatal loss increased. Up to 100 rads, the middle group of pregnancies was devoid of resorptions, fetal death, and congenital anomalies, thus giving rise to a ''maximum viability enclave.'' Beyond this level those three adverse effects were more or less homogeneously distributed over the whole period for which pregnancies were recorded. Exencephaly, microcephaly, and eye defects were the most frequent malformations. Among other sequelae, hypertrophy of the higher pole occurred in the left kidney in the surviving infertile females killed 5 months after treatment

  7. Teratological effects of Cr (vi) on liver of cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayybah, S.; Tanveer, A.

    2008-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio liver showed disturbed histological architecture due to prolonged exposure of various sublethal chromium hexavalent doses (25,50,75,100,125 and 150mg/l) in temporal dose pattern as compared to control. In treated fish liver shrunken hepatocytes (25, 50, 75, 100mg/l) with isolated vacuole (75. 100mg/I), pyknotic nuclei and ruptured canaliculi (125, 150mg/l) were observed while control showed normal tissue structure. (author)

  8. Development of a useful technique for analyzing behavioral teratologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Two measures of postnatal development are described in this paper: the PAC50 and AD50. These measures proved to be more sensitive than the use of means in the evaluation of three radiation studies involving postnatal developmental evaluation. PAC50 is the percent of achievement of a goal by litters or offspring in an experimental group at the age when 50% of the control litters or offspring attain that goal. AD50 is the age (acquisition day) at which 50% of the litters or offspring in each group attain a specified developmental goal. This methodology is a useful technique for analyzing selected behavioral data following in utero X-irradiation and may prove to be a sensitive means of determining postnatal alteration due to prenatal exposure to a variety of suspect agents

  9. TERATOLOGIC EFFECTS OF BISPHENOL A ON ZEBRAFISH (Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Akbulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish (Danio rerio has easy reproductive capacity and transparent embryos and therefore generally preffered for scientific studies as a vertebrate model. Because of bisphenol A is produced too much and used for making plastics, many organisms including human are exposed to this substance. Bisphenol A has estrogenic activity and thus it effects fertility. So, in our study, effects of low doses of bisphenol A (4mg/L and 8 mg/L on embryo and larva development was investigated.

  10. Teratological studies in defatted jojoba meal-supplemented rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Lievens, S; Van Boven, M; Vermaut, S; Decuypere, E

    2001-03-01

    To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal rodent food (control group); (b) normal rodent food supplemented with 3% defatted jojoba meal (jojoba group); or (c) normal rodent food pair-fed with the jojoba group (pair-fed group). The jojoba meal group showed approximately 30% inhibition of food intake. Ten rats from each group were killed on gestation day 21. Compared to the control group, foetal body weight was reduced in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups, with a greater reduction in the jojoba group. Skeletal ossification was retarded to the same extent in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups. The other 10 rats from each group were left to produce litters. Compared with controls, the body weight of the pups was lower in both the jojoba and pair-fed groups; the reduction was slightly greater in the jojoba group, but this difference disappeared after 1 week. The offspring showed no other abnormalities and reproduced normally. We conclude that, at the dose used, the retardation in foetal skeletal ossification, induced by jojoba meal supplementation during gestation, is due to food intake inhibition. Moreover, the lower birth weight of the young of jojoba-treated dams compared with the pair-fed group is merely due to a lower body weight gain during gestation.

  11. 40 CFR 79.63 - Fertility assessment/teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information on potential health hazards to the fetus arising from the mother's repeated inhalation exposure to... estrous cycle for a particular animal can be characterized by the general condition of the cells present in the vagina and the presence or absence of various cell types. Vaginal cytology evaluation means...

  12. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  13. Zebrafish embryos as models for embryotoxic and teratological effects of chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Lixin; Ho, Nga Yu; Alshut, Rüdiger; Legradi, J.B.; Weiss, Carsten; Reischl, Markus; Mikut, Ralf; Liebel, Urban; Müller, Ferenc; Strähle, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The experimental virtues of the zebrafish embryo such as small size, development outside of the mother, cheap maintenance of the adult made the zebrafish an excellent model for phenotypic genetic and more recently also chemical screens. The availability of a genome sequence and several thousand

  14. Glaucoma Drug Therapy in Pregnancy: Literature Review and Teratology Information Service (TIS) Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Marcella; D'Oria, Luisa; De Luca, Carmen; Chiaradia, Giacomina; Licameli, Angelo; Neri, Caterina; Nucci, Marta; Visconti, Daniela; Caruso, Alessandro; De Santis, Marco

    2018-01-01

    There are many contradictions about pregnancy and fetal/neonatal outcomes after topical use of timolol alone or timolol in combination with other antiglaucoma medications. Seventy-five pregnant women exposed to antiglaucoma medications were followed prospectively by phone interviews. 27 women used timolol as monotherapy, 48 women used timolol as a part of multidrug therapy. We selected a control group of 187 healthy pregnant women. Topical use of timolol alone or timolol in combination with other antiglaucoma medications does not influence pregnancy or fetal/neonatal outcomes. Beta-blocker is the first choice treatment for glaucoma in pregnancy but, when necessary, multidrug therapy should not to be excluded. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. In vitro data and in silico models for computational toxicology (Teratology Society ILSI HESI workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenge of assessing the potential developmental health risks for the tens of thousands of environmental chemicals is beyond the capacity for resource-intensive animal protocols. Large data streams coming from high-throughput (HTS) and high-content (HCS) profiling of biolog...

  16. Quantitative indicators of teratological variability of Kazakhstan tulips in nature and in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivashchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Тhe various ability to form anomalies in 26 species of wild tulips based on years of research was established. Species with minimal (less than 1.5% and the maximum inclination to teratogenesis (≤ 3.5% were identified. Also the different degrees of increasing in the number of teratomas (from double to ten times in the conditions of introduction of different species were found.

  17. Retrogressive development: transcendental anatomy and teratology in nineteenth-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan W H

    2014-01-01

    In 1855 the leading British transcendental anatomist Robert Knox proposed a theory of retrogressive development according to which the human embryo could give rise to ancestral types or races and the animal embryo to other species within the same family. Unlike monsters attributed to the older theory of arrested development, new forms produced by retrogression were neither imperfect nor equivalent to a stage in the embryo's development. Instead, Knox postulated that embryos contained all possible specific forms in potentia. Retrogressive development could account for examples of atavism or racial throwbacks, and formed part of Knox's theory of rapid (saltatory) species change. Knox's evolutionary theorizing was soon eclipsed by the better presented and more socially acceptable Darwinian gradualism, but the concept of retrogressive development remained influential in anthropology and the social sciences, and Knox's work can be seen as the scientific basis for theories of physical, mental and cultural degeneracy.

  18. Teratology study of derivatives of tetramethylcyclopropyl amide analogues of valproic acid in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Akinobu; Onishi, Yuko; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Yagen, Boris; Sobol, Eyal; Bialer, Meir; Fujiwara, Michio

    2006-06-01

    Although valproic acid (VPA) is used extensively for treating various kinds of epilepsies, it is well known that it causes neural tube and skeletal defects in both humans and animals. The amide and urea derivatives of the tetramethylcylcopropyl VPA analogue, N-methoxy-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (N-methoxy-TMCD) and 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarbonylurea (TMC-urea), were synthesized and shown to have a more potent anticonvulsant activity than VPA. The objective of this study was to investigate the teratogenic effects of these compounds in NMRI mice. Pregnant NMRI mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of either VPA, N-methoxy-TMCD, or TMC-urea at 1.8 and 3.6 mmol/kg on gestation day (GD) 8. Cesarean section was performed on GD 18. First, the live fetuses were examined to detect any external malformations, then their skeletons were double-stained for bone and cartilage and subsequently examined. Significant increases in fetal losses and neural tube defects were observed with administration of VPA at 3.6 mmol/kg when compared to the vehicle control. In contrast, upon cesarean section, there were no significant differences between either N-methoxy-TMCD or TMC-urea and the control groups for any parameter. Skeletal examination revealed that a number of the abnormalities were induced by VPA dose-dependently at high rates of incidence. These abnormalities were mainly at the axial skeletal level. However, lower frequencies of skeletal abnormality were observed with N-methoxy-TMCD and TMC-urea than with VPA. In addition to their more potent antiepileptic activity, these findings clearly indicate that N-methoxy-TMCD and TMC-urea are distinctly less teratogenic than VPA in NMRI mice.

  19. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and ∼30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Exploring the effects of acid mine drainage on diatom teratology using geometric morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenici, Adriana; Blanco, Saúl; Borrego-Ramos, María; Momeu, Laura; Baciu, Călin

    2017-10-01

    Metal pollution of aquatic habitats is a major and persistent environmental problem. Acid mine drainage (AMD) affects lotic systems in numerous and interactive ways. In the present work, a mining area (Roșia Montană) was chosen as study site, and we focused on two aims: (i) to find the set of environmental predictors leading to the appearance of the abnormal diatom individuals in the study area and (ii) to assess the relationship between the degree of valve outline deformation and AMD-derived pollution. In this context, morphological differences between populations of Achnanthidium minutissimum and A. macrocephalum, including normal and abnormal individuals, were evidenced by means of valve shape analysis. Geometric morphometry managed to capture and discriminate normal and abnormal individuals. Multivariate analyses (NMDS, PLS) separated the four populations of the two species mentioned and revealed the main physico-chemical parameters that influenced valve deformation in this context, namely conductivity, Zn, and Cu. ANOSIM test evidenced the presence of statistically significant differences between normal and abnormal individuals within both chosen Achnanthidium taxa. In order to determine the relative contribution of each of the measured physico-chemical parameters in the observed valve outline deformations, a PLS was conducted, confirming the results of the NMDS. The presence of deformed individuals in the study area can be attributed to the fact that the diatom communities were strongly affected by AMD released from old mining works and waste rock deposits.

  1. A population-based case-control teratologic study of ampicillin treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This was a study of the association between ampicillin treatment during pregnancy and prevalence of different congenital abnormalities. Study Design: The paired analysis of case patients with congenital abnormalities and matched population control subjects was performed in the populati...

  2. Teratological evaluation of pregnancy outcomes in Hungary after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeizel, Endre; Billege, Bela

    1988-01-01

    The monthly distribution of pregnancy outcomes such as induced abortions, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, newborns with birth weight under 2500 g, isolated congenital anomalies, identified multiple congenital anomaly syndromes including fetal radiation syndrome, and unidentified multiple congenital anomalies was evaluated in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident until Apr 1987. Only a somewhat higher rate of newborns with birth weight under 2500 g in May and June, 1986 was detected. It may have been due to premature labour caused by anxiety. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  3. Estimating Likelihood of Fetal In Vivo Interactions Using In Vitro HTS Data (Teratology meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tox21/ToxCast efforts provide in vitro concentration-response data for thousands of compounds. Predicting whether chemical-biological interactions observed in vitro will occur in vivo is challenging. We hypothesize that using a modified model from the FDA guidance for drug intera...

  4. Exploiting Redundant Measurement of Dose and Developmental Outcome: New Methods from the Behavioral Teratology of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of new statistical procedures in a study of the enduring effects of prenatal alcohol exposure upon the neurobehavioral development of some 500 children born in 1975-76. Explains how the Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology can summarize the data powerfully while avoiding familiar inferential pitfalls. (MDM)

  5. Identifying Key Events in AOPs for Embryonic Disruption using Computational Toxicology (European Teratology Society - AOP symp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing safety aspects of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing; however, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation require alternative approaches to traditional animal studies. Newer in vitro and in s...

  6. Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N D; Sharma, A K; Patil, R D; Rahman, S; Leishangthem, G D; Kumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals.

  7. Predictive teratology: teratogenic risk-hazard identification partnered in the discovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine-Rauch, K A

    2008-11-01

    Unexpected teratogenicity is ranked as one of the most prevalent causes for toxicity-related attrition of drug candidates. Without proactive assessment, the liability tends to be identified relatively late in drug development, following significant investment in compound and engagement in pre clinical and clinical studies. When unexpected teratogenicity occurs in pre-clinical development, three principle questions arise: Can clinical trials that include women of child bearing populations be initiated? Will all compounds in this pharmacological class produce the same liability? Could this effect be related to the chemical structure resulting in undesirable off-target adverse effects? The first question is typically addressed at the time of the unexpected finding and involves considering the nature of the teratogenicity, whether or not maternal toxicity could have had a role in onset, human exposure margins and therapeutic indication. The latter two questions can be addressed proactively, earlier in the discovery process as drug target profiling and lead compound optimization is taking place. Such proactive approaches include thorough assessment of the literature for identification of potential liabilities and follow-up work that can be conducted on the level of target expression and functional characterization using molecular biology and developmental model systems. Developmental model systems can also be applied in the form of in vitro teratogenicity screens, and show potential for effective hazard identification or issue resolution on the level of characterizing teratogenic mechanism. This review discusses approaches that can be applied for proactive assessment of compounds for teratogenic liability.

  8. Computational embryology as an integrative platform for predictive DART (45th Conf of Europ Teratology Society)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. For example, the USEPA lists more than 85,000 chemicals on its inventory of substances that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (T...

  9. A Gynandromorph and Teratological Case in Spilomicrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea, Diapriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Comério

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Este estudo relata a ocorrência de antenas com características femininas e masculinas em um exemplar fêmea de Spilomicrus sp. (Hymenoptera, Diaprioidea, Diapriidae coletado no Parque Estadual Intervales, Ribeirão Grande, São Paulo, Brasil, assim como malformações em uma das antenas, que são aqui descritas e ilustradas.

  10. A High-Throughput Screening Assay to Detect Thyroperoxidase Inhibitors (Teratology Society)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of the Endocrine Disruption Screening Program (EDSP21), the US EPA ToxCast program is developing assays to enable screening for chemicals that may disrupt thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is critical for TH synthesis and is a known target of thyroid-dis...

  11. Regulatory aspects of teratology: role of the Food and Drug Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, F.O.

    1982-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is a scientific regulatory agency whose consumer protection activities cover a wide range of products including foods and additives, and pesticide residues on foods; drugs; cosmetics; medical devices; and radiation-emitting electronic products. Amongst its concerns is the possible teratogen effects of regulated products to which the pregnant woman is exposed. The policies and programs of the agency directed toward reducing such risks to the unborn are reviewed. These measures include guidelines for animal reproduction studies and for clinical trials involving women to childbearing potential; labeling of products to disclose known or possible harm to the fetus or embryo; surveillance procedures designed to detect previously unsuspected adverse effects of marketed products; research activities designed to develop better understanding of developmental toxicology and improved techniques for detecting embryocidal and embryotoxic effects; and educational efforts directed both to professionals and the public regarding hazards to the unborn of agency-regulated products

  12. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Congenital anomalies in the teratological collection of Museum Vrolik in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. II: Skeletal dysplasias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Baljet, B.; Dijkstra, P. F.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Museum Vrolik collection of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the University of Amsterdam, founded by Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), consists of more than five thousand specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology, and congenital

  14. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  16. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of n-hexane in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Gestational exposure to n-hexane resulted in an increase in the number of resorbed fetuses for exposure groups relative to the control group; however, the increases were not directly correlated to exposure concentration. The differences were statistically significant for the 200-ppM with respect to total intrauterine death (early plus late resorptions), and with respect to late resorptions for the 5000-ppM group. A small, but statistically significant, reduction in female (but not male) fetal body weight relative to the control group was observed at the 5000-ppM exposure level. There were no exposure-related increases in any individual fetal malformation or variation, nor was there any increase in the incidence of combined malformations or variations. Gestational exposure of CD-1 mice to n-hexane vapors appeared to cause a degree of concentration-related developmental toxicity in the absence of overt maternal toxicity, but the test material was not found to be teratogenic. This developmental toxicity was manifested as an increase in the number of resorptions per litter for all exposure levels, and as a decrease in the uterine: extra-gestational weight gain ratio at the 5000-ppM exposure level. Because of the significant increase in the number of resorptions at the 200-ppM exposure level, a no observable effect level (NOEL) for developmental toxicity was not established for exposure of mice to 200, 1000 or 5000-ppM n-hexane vapors. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Recommendations for harmonization of data collection and analysis of developmental neurotoxicity endpoints in regulatory guideline studies: Proceedings of workshops presented at Society of Toxicology and joint Teratology Society and Neurobehavioral Teratology Society meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Abby A; Sheets, Larry P; Raffaele, Kathleen; Moser, Virginia; Hofstra, Angela; Hoberman, Alan; Makris, Susan L; Garman, Robert; Bolon, Brad; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Auer, Roland; Lau, Edmund; Vidmar, Thomas; Bowers, Wayne J

    2017-09-01

    The potential for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals may be evaluated using specific test guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines generate neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometric data that are evaluated by regulatory agencies globally. Data from these DNT guideline studies, or the more recent OECD extended one-generation reproductive toxicity guideline, play a pivotal role in children's health risk assessment in different world areas. Data from the same study may be interpreted differently by regulatory authorities in different countries resulting in inconsistent evaluations that may lead to inconsistencies in risk assessment decisions internationally, resulting in regional differences in public health protection or in commercial trade barriers. These issues of data interpretation and reporting are also relevant to juvenile and pre-postnatal studies conducted more routinely for pharmaceuticals and veterinary medicines. There is a need for development of recommendations geared toward the operational needs of the regulatory scientific reviewers who apply these studies in risk assessments, as well as the scientists who generate DNT data sets. The workshops summarized here draw upon the experience of the authors representing government, industry, contract research organizations, and academia to discuss the scientific issues that have emerged from diverse regulatory evaluations. Although various regulatory bodies have different risk management decisions and labeling requirements that are difficult to harmonize, the workshops provided an opportunity to work toward more harmonized scientific approaches for evaluating DNT data within the context of different regulatory frameworks. Five speakers and their coauthors with neurotoxicology, neuropathology, and regulatory toxicology expertise discussed issues of variability, data reporting and analysis, and expectations in DNT data that are encountered by regulatory authorities. In addition, principles for harmonized evaluation of data were suggested using guideline DNT data as case studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. SAFE USE OF DRUGS DURING PREGNANCY IN FOCUS OF INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE OF PHARMACOVIGILANCE SYSTEM AND TERATOLOGICAL INFORMATION SERVICE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Lutsevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe use of drugs during pregnancy is essential to optimize the health of both pregnant woman and her future child. At the same time obstetrician-gynecologists often face the lack of evidence-based information on the use of drugs and leave the issue to the woman herself — whether the treatment benefit to the mother outweighs risks to the unborn child — relying on the limited amount of scientific data. Preconception discussion of actual risks and safe treatment reduces patient fears and maximizes the emphasis on the therapy safety. At the same time, the lack of adequate information on safety for the majority of drugs used by pregnant women combined with the need to make appropriate treatment decisions and communicate drug risk information to a potentially vulnerable population is the most challenging and critical issue of pregnant women's health.

  1. Probing the ToxCastTM Chemical Library for Predictive Signatures of Developmental Toxicity - Poster at Teratology Society Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s ToxCast™ project is profiling the in vitro bioactivity of chemical compounds to assess pathway-level and cell-based signatures that correlate with observed in vivo toxicity. We hypothesize that cell signaling pathways are primary targets for diverse environmental chemicals ...

  2. Teratological studies of DTPA-CaNa3, DTPA-ZnNa3 and quinamic acid in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Meichu; Ruan Tianming; Tong Shungao

    1989-01-01

    DTPA-CaNa 3 , DTPA-ZnNa 3 and quinamic acid are effective chelating agents for removing actinide elements from the body. In this experiment, different doses of DTPA-CaNa 3 , DTPA-ZnNa 3 and quinamic acid were given to mice on gestation days 6-10. Eight groups of mice received 0.8 and 2.0 mM/kg of DTPA-CaNa 3 , 3.8, 7.6, and 11.4 mM/kg of DTPA-ZnNa 3 and 0.42, 2.1, and 4.2 mM/kg of quinamic acid. Hypetonic saline and isotonic saline were given to two control groups. DTPA-CaNa 3 and quinamidic acid were found to be much more toxic to fetus of mice than DTPA-ZnNa 3 . When the doses of DTPA-CaMa 3 and quinamidic acid were 20 times higher than the human dose, the number of resorbed fetus was increased and the number and weight of live fetus were reduced. The result of injection with 7.6 mM/kg (200 times of human dose)DTPA-ZnNa 3 and that of injection with isotonic saline are the same. Therefore, we suggest that the DTPA-CaNa 3 and quinamidic acid should not be given to pregnant woman, if chelation therapy is needed, while the much safer DTPA-ZnNa 3 could be used

  3. Comparative musculoskeletal anatomy of chameleon limbs, with implications for the evolution of arboreal locomotion in lizards and for teratology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Julia L; Diaz, Raul E; Skorka, Tautis; Dagliyan, Grant; Diogo, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Chameleon species have recently been adopted as models for evo-devo and macroevolutionary processes. However, most anatomical and developmental studies of chameleons focus on the skeleton, and information about their soft tissues is scarce. Here, we provide a detailed morphological description based on contrast enhanced micro-CT scans and dissections of the adult phenotype of all the forelimb and hindlimb muscles of the Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) and compare these muscles with those of other chameleons and lizards. We found the appendicular muscle anatomy of chameleons to be surprisingly conservative considering the remarkable structural and functional modifications of the limb skeleton, particularly the distal limb regions. For instance, the zygodactyl autopodia of chameleons are unique among tetrapods, and the carpals and tarsals are highly modified in shape and number. However, most of the muscles usually present in the manus and pes of other lizards are present in the same configuration in chameleons. The most obvious muscular features related to the peculiar opposable autopodia of chameleons are: (1) presence of broad, V-shaped plantar and palmar aponeuroses, and absence of intermetacarpales and intermetatarsales, between the digits separated by the cleft in each autopod; (2) oblique orientation of the superficial short flexors originating from these aponeuroses, which may allow these muscles to act as powerful adductors of the "super-digits"; and (3) well-developed abductor digiti minimi muscles and abductor pollicis/hallucis brevis muscles, which may act as powerful abductors of the "super-digits." © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An Evaluation of ToxCast Angiogenic Disruptors for Effects on Mitochondrial Bioactivity Profiles (Teratology Society Annual Meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiogenesis is a critical developmental process and a potential target for chemical teratogenesis. Over one-tenth of the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds have been shown to disrupt mitochondrial function [Attene-Ramos et al., 2015]. Previous studies utilizing ToxCast chemicals ...

  5. Teratological effects of exposure to 20 mT, 50 Hz magnetic fields in CD1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczuk, C.I.; Sienkiewicz, Z.J.; Robbins, L.; Butland, B.K.; Haylock, R.G.E.; Thomas, J.M.; Saunders, R.D.

    1992-09-01

    Pregnant CD1 mice were exposed or sham-exposed for all or nearly all of the period of gestation to a 20 mT, 50 Hz magnetic fields. Pre-implantation and post-implantation survival rates were assessed, and fetuses examined for the presence of gross external, internal and skeletal abnormalities. Other pregnancies were allowed to come to term and the offspring assessed for the appearance of certain developmental indices and reflexive behaviours; at a later stage, simple assessments of juvenile and adult behaviour were carried out. The study revealed no statistically significant field-dependent effects on pre-implantation or post-implantation survival, sex ratio, or the incidence of internal or skeletal abnormalities. Magnetic field exposure was, however, associated with longer and heavier fetuses at term with fewer external abnormalities and an increased incidence of one class of supernumerary ribs. The postnatal behaviour tests revealed two minor field-dependent effects. From a comparison with other studies, it was considered that most of the above effects were due to chance, a result of the spurious significance seen when large numbers of tests are analysed separately. However, the reduction in the number of external abnormalities in the exposed group was highly significant. This effect has not been reported in other studies and might reflect differences in the selection of exposed and sham-exposed groups; however, an effect of magnetic field exposure cannot be dismissed. In general, the results of the present and other studies of mice and rats suggest that exposure for the duration of pregnancy to power frequency magnetic fields and other extremely low frequency (ELF) fields of up to 20 mT does not increase the incidence of postnatal death or the incidence of gross external, internal or skeletal abnormalities. Similar conclusions can be derived from studies carried out by other authors about the possible effects on pregnancy outcome of exposure to RF fields of 18-20 kHz, which are typical of visual display units (VDUs). In particular, the reported effects of magnetic field exposure on the development of chick embryos were not corroborated. There were no adverse effects on postnatal development or behaviour. Thus, these studies lend no support to suggestions of increased rates of spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation following prenatal exposure to magnetic fields. However, a full assessment of risk to human health must also take into account the results of carefully conducted epidemiological studies. (author)

  6. EPA’s Children’s Environmental Health Roadmap: applying the 21st century vision to prenatal development (Teratology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the complex relationships between environmental exposures and early life susceptibility in assessing the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes requires advanced knowledge of biological systems. This broad research is one of several drivers for the Children’s Environme...

  7. New insights to ecology, ontogeny and teratology of Larger Benthic Foraminifera by biometrics based on microCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, A.; Fabienke, W.; Wolfgring, E.; Ferrández Cañadell, C.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    The main function of tests in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) is to provide their endosymbiotic algae with enough light to obtain net photosynthetic rates and to create sufficient accommodation space. To study the relation between these two factors and to understand how the cell reacts to growth and to the environment, the newly developed technique of X-ray micro-Computer-Tomography (microCT) allows measurement of all characters of complex tests without destruction. Growth studies on 48 specimens of living and fossil species have been performed. The volumes of the lumina have been calculated as well as further 2-dimensional parameters related to volumes as chamber height, chamber width and septal distance. The volumes of chamber lumina represent cell growth in their sequence, thus demonstrating interruptions, increase/decrease or oscillations in growth rates caused by external factors affecting growth during life time (e.g. seasons). Correlations between volumes and the one-dimensional parameters have been calculated to check the form of relationship. According to our results, some parameters seem to oscillate exactly as the volume (therefore accommodating it), while others seem to oscillate constantly around a given growth function. Concerning the palaeobiology, beside the study of specimens with 'normal' growth, thus not drastically affected by external factors, some interesting morphologies have been investigated. Pluriembryonal apparati as well as secondary equatorial layers have been segmented, extracted and quantified in almost 15 specimens of Cycloclypeus carpenteri, 8 twin specimens of nummulitids tests have been also investigated to show where and how the fusion starts and volumetric quantifications of each single spiral in multispiral grown test of some large Eocene Nummulitids has also been calculated to show in which way and when (ontogenetically) a new spiral starts. The combination of all measurements allows interpretation of different biological and environmental dependencies of LBF. Varying growth rates determines environmental abiotic (e.g. seasons, instantaneous events) and biotic influence (e.g. predation), leading to life time estimation for the fossil forms by comparison with their living relatives.

  8. A new paradigm in toxicology and teratology: altering gene activity in the absence of DNA sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamon-Buettner, Stella Marie; Borlak, Jürgen

    2007-07-01

    'Epigenetics' is a heritable phenomenon without change in primary DNA sequence. In recent years, this field has attracted much attention as more epigenetic controls of gene activities are being discovered. Such epigenetic controls ensue from an interplay of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and RNA-mediated pathways from non-coding RNAs, notably silencing RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). Although epigenetic regulation is inherent to normal development and differentiation, this can be misdirected leading to a number of diseases including cancer. All the same, many of the processes can be reversed offering a hope for epigenetic therapies such as inhibitors of enzymes controlling epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, and RNAi therapeutics. 'In utero' or early life exposures to dietary and environmental exposures can have a profound effect on our epigenetic code, the so-called 'epigenome', resulting in birth defects and diseases developed later in life. Indeed, examples are accumulating in which environmental exposures can be attributed to epigenetic causes, an encouraging edge towards greater understanding of the contribution of epigenetic influences of environmental exposures. Routine analysis of epigenetic modifications as part of the mechanisms of action of environmental contaminants is in order. There is, however, an explosion of research in the field of epigenetics and to keep abreast of these developments could be a challenge. In this paper, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms focusing on recent reviews and studies to serve as an entry point into the realm of 'environmental epigenetics'.

  9. Congenital anomalies in the teratological collection of Museum Vrolik in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. IV: closure defects of the neural tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Baljet, B.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Museum Vrolik collection of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the University of Amsterdam, founded by Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), consists of more than 5,000 specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology, and congenital anomalies.

  10. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  11. A population-based case-control teratologic study of furazidine, a nitrofuran-derivative treatment during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, A E; Rockenbauer, M; Sørensen, H T; Olsen, J

    2000-04-01

    To study human teratogenic potential of furazidine treatment during pregnancy. Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. 38,151 pregnant women who had newborn infants without any defects (population control group) and 22,865 pregnant women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. In the case group, 157 (0.7%) and in the control group, 254 (0.7%) pregnant women were treated with furazidine. The case-control pair analysis did not indicate a teratogenic potential of furazidine use during the second to third months of gestation, i.e. in the critical period for major congenital abnormalities. Treatment with furazidine during pregnancy did not show teratogenic risk to the fetus.

  12. Congenital anomalies in the teratological collection of Museum Vrolik in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. V: conjoined and acardiac twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Baljet, B.; Verbeeten, B. W.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Museum Vrolik collection of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, founded by Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), consists of more than 5,000 specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology,

  13. Editorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Special Issue: 38th Annual Conference of the European Teratology Society 5-8th September, 2010 Barcelona, Spain......Special Issue: 38th Annual Conference of the European Teratology Society 5-8th September, 2010 Barcelona, Spain...

  14. High incidence of teratologic changes in Plantago Lanceolata L. seedlings of the fifth post-disaster reproduction within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolova, N.P.; Popova, O.N.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    It was for the first time that of the fifth year of monitoring of Plantago Lanceolata L., reproduced within the thirty kilometer zone of Chernobyl NPP disaster, the authors discovered incidence of seedlings with various morphological abnormalities. It is suggested that the damages observed are related to the cumulative effect of radiation

  15. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system

  16. Toxicology and teratology of the active ingredients of professional therapy MuscleCare products during pregnancy and lactation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Fox, Colleen; Koren, Gideon

    2015-03-05

    The rates of muscle aches, sprains, and inflammation are significantly increased during pregnancy. However, women are afraid to use systemic analgesics due to perceptions of fetal risks. Thus, topical products are important alternatives to consider for those women. Of interest, Professional Therapy MuscleCare (PTMC) has shown to be effective in alleviating the myofascial pain as reported in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded comparative clinical study of five topical analgesics. However, to date, there is no complete review or long-term safety studies on the safety of these products during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, the aim of this article was to review toxicological, developmental, and reproductive effects associated with the use of PTMC products. We performed a systematic review on safety of PTMC from all toxicological articles investigating the effects of PTMC's ingredients. This search was conducted through medical and toxicological databases including, Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline, and Micromedix. Both reported and theoretical adverse effects were extensively reviewed. Of the 1500 publications reviewed, 100 papers were retrieved and included in the review. Although some ingredients in PTMC products might cause adverse reproductive effects at high systemic doses, these doses are hundreds to thousands fold greater than those systemically available from topical use at the recommended maximum dose (i.e. 10 g/day). This study provides evidence that, when used as indicated, PTMC is apparently safe for pregnant women and their unborn babies as well as for breastfed infants.

  17. Dinosaurs, Chameleons, Humans, and Evo-Devo Path: Linking Étienne Geoffroy's Teratology, Waddington's Homeorhesis, Alberch's Logic of "Monsters," and Goldschmidt Hopeful "Monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Guinard, Geoffrey; Diaz, Raul E

    2017-05-01

    Since the rise of evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) in the 1980s, few authors have attempted to combine the increasing knowledge obtained from the study of model organisms and human medicine with data from comparative anatomy and evolutionary biology in order to investigate the links between development, pathology, and macroevolution. Fortunately, this situation is slowly changing, with a renewed interest in evolutionary developmental pathology (evo-devo-path) in the past decades, as evidenced by the idea to publish this special, and very timely, issue on "Developmental Evolution in Biomedical Research." As all of us have recently been involved, independently, in works related in some way or another with evolution and developmental anomalies, we decided to join our different perspectives and backgrounds in the present contribution for this special issue. Specifically, we provide a brief historical account on the study of the links between evolution, development, and pathologies, followed by a review of the recent work done by each of us, and then by a general discussion on the broader developmental and macroevolutionary implications of our studies and works recently done by other authors. Our primary aims are to highlight the strength of studying developmental anomalies within an evolutionary framework to understand morphological diversity and disease by connecting the recent work done by us and others with the research done and broader ideas proposed by authors such as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Waddington, Goldschmidt, Gould, and Per Alberch, among many others to pave the way for further and much needed work regarding abnormal development and macroevolution. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sublethal effects of tritium on aquatic systems. Ecological effects of lithium and beryllium on aquatic communities. Teratological effects of low-level magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.; Skalaski, J.R.; Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the sublethal effects of tritium on the relatively radiosensitive immune process of the rainbow trout suggest that a higher RBE value than is now recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may be required. Studies included an evaluation of potential toxicity of lithium on embryological life of rainbow trout and an assessment of fate and effects of lithium in artificial stream habitats. Levels of lithium necessary to cause an observed effect would have to be at least three orders of magnitude above observed background. Studies on teratogenic effects of low-level magnetic fields address the need to assess the potential harmful effects of magnetic fields on attendant personnel working in the transport and hot cell areas of fusion reactors

  19. Development of the central nervous system functions in rat pups prenatally exposed to alcohol (study on the behavioural teratology of ethanol in CFY rat pups).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotzky, K; Ungváry, G; Szeberényi, J M; Kiss, A

    1988-01-01

    As a model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) the rate of the maturation of the functions of the central nervous system was studied in the offspring of pregnant CFY rats receiving (from the 7th-15th day of gestation) either oral ethanol treatment or liquid diet containing ethanol. Both types of exposure caused numerous behavioural impairments, besides high perinatal mortality also the opening of the eyes and ears, and the appearance of postural reflexes were delayed. The newborn rats could be characterized by hyperactivity and weak motor coordination. The learning capacity, the avoidance conditioned reflexes was the poorest in the case of the offspring of mothers kept on liquid diet, containing alcohol, the latency of the conditioned response was significantly lenghtened. During reconditioning, in the case of the sexually already mature pups, the weakest performance was observed in the offspring of mothers having received oral alcohol treatment. This findings indicated, on one hand, that the retardation ceased and, on the other, that the learning and memory impairments caused by oral alcohol exposure was persistent. Following prenatal alcohol exposure carried out by different methods the neurotoxic effect, the retardation of the rate of maturation of the central nervous functions, and the adaptive mechanisms were all affected to different extent. Besides alcohol exposure also other factors (relative protein insufficiency, malnutrition) may be involved in the pathomechanism of the above mentioned phenomena.

  20. Congenital anomalies in the teratological collection of Museum Vrolik in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. III: primary field defects, sequences, and other complex anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Baljet, B.; Verbeeten, B. W.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Museum Vrolik collection of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology of the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, founded by Gerardus Vrolik (1775-1859) and his son Willem Vrolik (1801-1863), consists of more than 5,000 specimens of human and animal anatomy, embryology, pathology,

  1. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  2. Who is at Risk for Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Preeclampsia and Eclampsia About NICHD Research Information Find a ... 2006. Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology , 88, 1008–1016. Livingston, G. & Cohn, D. ( ...

  3. La teratogenesis causada por el uso de anticonvulsivos incluidos en el listado de medicamentos del P.O.S. en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Medina Osorio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review mechanics of teratology, pharmacocinetic and pharmacodinamic of the anti-convulsives drugs are analyzed; we present special attention to pregnancy and therapeutic alternatives for pregnancy women with convulsive syndrome.

  4. 77 FR 27067 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... care professionals play a crucial role in identifying women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy... they might be familiar with the teratology and clinical presentation of FASDs, they report feeling less...

  5. 77 FR 58843 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    .... All of these effects have lifelong implications. Health care professionals play a crucial role in... surveys of multiple provider types that although they might be familiar with the teratology and clinical...

  6. The Etiology of Cleft Palate: a 50 year search for mechanistic and molecular understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dates of special, historical significance, such as the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Teratology Society, prompt a desire to pause and look back and contemplate where we began, how far we have come, and consider the future for our scientific endeavors. The study of the e...

  7. Cognitive and Social Development In Preschool Children Born To Women Using Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Olofsson, May

    2012-01-01

    influence childhood development in addition to the teratological effect of prenatal substance exposure. This study explores the long-term developmental consequences in children from birth to age 7 born to women using substances and are in treatment. A series of t tests were performed to explore group...

  8. Founding Editorial: Embryology — An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richardson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Embryology domain of TheScientificWorld and outline the scope and aims. We argue for an interdisciplinary approach to problems in develop-mental biology. Three areas are identified as being of particular relevance to this domain: evolutionary developmental biology, teratology, and descriptive or experimental embryology.

  9. Cleft Palate in Infants Exposed to Lamotrigine During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Infants with major malformations bom to 791 women who had taken lamotrigine as monotherapy during the first trimester of pregnancy, and had enrolled in the North American AED Pregnancy Registry, were identified in a study at the Genetics and Teratology Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, and Boston University School of Medicine, MA.

  10. Irregularities in the development of male and female gametophytes in the greenhouse carnation (Dianthus caryophpllus L. cv. William Sim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zenkteler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that numerous teratological transformations of the pistils and stamens account for the complete or partial female and male sterility in D. caryaphyllus L. cv. William Sim. Moreover, the degeneration of generative organs was accompanied by irregularities in the development of macro-and microsporogenesis.

  11. Een merkwaardige monstruositeit bij Erica tetralix L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkman, J.J.

    1967-01-01

    A description is given of an anomalous form of Erica tetralix with normal and teratological flowers on the same plant. The latter lack stamina, but have a normal pistillum; the corolla consists of four small, green choripetalous leaves without glandular hairs (fig. 1, d).

  12. The Violation of Childhood: A Review of Possible Effects on Development of Toxic Chemical and Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roy

    Emphasizing that for any known teratogen no safe dosage level exists, this case-illustrated review identifies the bases for current concern about the pollution of the environment, reflects on the promise and complexities of the emerging disciplines of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology, and describes existing evidence of teratogenic…

  13. Biology Division progress report, June 1, 1980-July 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Highlights of progress for the period June 1980 through July 1982 are summarized. Discussions of projects are presented under the following headings: molecular and cellular sciences; cellular and comparative mutagenesis; mammalian genetics and teratology; toxicology; and carcinogenesis. In addition this report includes an outline of educational activities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual technical reports for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  14. An anocellar polistine wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae from Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Lohrmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable teratological female of Polistes (Fuscopolistes dorsalis neotropicus Bequaert, 1940 (Vespidae: Polistinae is described and illustrated. The specimen lacks all three external dorsal ocelli but is normally developed in almost every other aspect. Additionally, similar findings in other Hymenoptera are briefly discussed, as are the consequences and the reasons that might cause the random loss of ocelli.

  15. Does topical isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital malformations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yılmaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old patient learned that she was 7 weeks pregnant while she was using topical isotretinoin + erythromycin gel for acne treatment and referred to Izmir Katip Celebi University Teratology Information Service for information regarding the risk of teratogenicity. Systemic use of isotretinoin is well-known for its teratogenic effects and case reports suggesting possible teratogenic effects regarding topical exposure to retinoids in pregnancy exist in the literature. However, findings reported in four prospective controlled studies do not suggest an increased congenital malformation risk in case of inadvertent exposure during pregnancy. This manuscript aims to give a summary and evaluation of available data for counseling pregnant patients regarding the possible teratogenic risk of inadvertent topical isotretinoin exposure during pregnancy. It also aims to emphasize the importance of increasing communication between pregnant patients, clinicians and teratology information services for the benefit of mother and unborn.

  16. The world of gods and the body of man: mythological origins of modern anatomical terms

    OpenAIRE

    Karenberg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    A number of designations for human body structures derive from classical mythology. These eponyms in the vocabulary ofmacroscopic anatomy and teratology (e.g., Achilles tendon, Ammon’s horn, cyclopia and sirenomelia) have not been systematically investigated until now. This paper therefore provides an overview of this fringe component of anatomical vocabulary, analyzes the medical history of several terms and formulates hypotheses as to why such creative etymologies have come into being.In ad...

  17. OHVIRA syndrome: rare cause of chronic vaginal discharge in an unmarried female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Aruna; Raghunandan, Chitra; Yadav, Reena; Tomer, Shaili; Anand, Rama

    2011-09-01

    Chronic vaginal discharge in adolescent and young females, not responding to antibiotics, can pose a diagnostic dilemma for many gynecologists and general practitioners. Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of a 22-year-old unmarried female with this syndrome presenting with chronic purulent vaginal discharge. The uniqueness about the case is its much delayed presentation. © 2011 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  18. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia with localized aggressive periodontitis and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlan, Sumaiah Abdulbaqi

    2015-11-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited medical condition that implies defects in steroid biosynthesis. The dental findings of a female patient with CAH are reported. The patient suffered from severe periodontal tissue destruction, obvious enamel defects, as well as some occlusal problems. The management approach is presented and the possibility of interrelation of her dental findings with her medical condition is discussed. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  19. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VERGARA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.

  20. Risks of radiation during pre- and postnatal development - recent recommendations of international organizations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devik, F.

    1979-01-01

    The sections of the ICRP recommendations relevant to pregnancy from 1957 onwards are quoted and discussed. The Council Directive of the European Communities of 1. June 1976 conforms closely with the ICRP. The US NCRP view differs somewhat from the ICRP and is quoted and compared with the ICRP recommendation, and found to be more restrictive. However it raises problems of sex discrimination which the ICRP does not. The general principles of teratology are briefly stated. (JIW)

  1. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Wistar rats (36) were exposed daily throughout pregnancy to a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 of 6000-MHz microwave radiation (11), sham irradiated (10), or used as control animals (15). Litters were culled to a maximum of eight F 1 /sub a/ offspring/litter (total = 124) on Postnatal Day 1 and subjected to a series of reflex tests beginning Day 3. Mothers were rebred 10 days after weaning. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 263 F 1 /sub b/ offspring. Weekly weights were recorded for 298 F 1 /sub a/ offspring. At 60 days, behavioral testing was initiated on 121 offspring. At 90 days, offspring were bred within/across groups. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 659 F 2 term fetuses. Organ weight analyses were completed on 17 mothers and 181 F 1 /sub a/ adult offspring, and blood analyses on 21 mothers and 131 offspring. Sex differences within groups were observed in four behavioral tests and in blood data. Significant differences between groups were observed for: F 1 /sub b/ term fetal weight; F 1 /sub a/ eye opening, postnatal growth to the fifth week, water T-maze and open field test results; and several organ/body weight ratios. These results indicate that exposure to 6000-MHz radiation at this power density level may result in subtle long-term neurophysiologic alterations not detectable at term using conventional morphologic teratologic procedures

  2. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: ► Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. ► Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. ► Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. ► Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  3. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal phychophysiologic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Wistar rats (36) were exposed daily throughout pregnancy to a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 of 6000-MHz microwave radiation (11), sham irradiated (10), or used as control animals (15). Litters were culled to a maximum of eight F 1 /sub a/ offspring/litter (total = 124) on Postnatal Day 1 and subjected to a series of reflex tests beginning Day 3. Mothers were rebred 10 days after weaning. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 263 F 1 /sub b/ offspring. Weekly weights were recorded for 298 F 1 /sub a/ offspring. At 60 days, behavioral testing was initiated on 121 offspring. At 90 days, offspring were bred within/across groups. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 659 F 2 term fetuses. Organ weight analyses were completed on 17 mothers and 181 F 1 /sub a/ adult offspring, and blood analyses on 21 mothers and 131 offspring. Sex differences within groups were observed in four behavioral tests and in blood data. Significant differences between groups were observed for: F 1 /sub b/ term fetal weight; F 1 /sub a/ eye opening, postnatal growth to the fifth week, water T-maze and open field test results; and several organ/body weight ratios. These results indicate that exposure to 6000-MHz radiation at this power density level may result in subtle long-term neurophysiologic alterations not detectable at term using conventional morphologic teratologic procedures

  4. Developmental biology and the study of malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A F

    1976-05-01

    Experimental work on abnormal conditions of incubation in the chick has been undertaken to acquire a scientific approach to malformations. More precise experiments on causing abnormalities had a common origin with experimental embryology. Progress in experimental teratology during the last 50 years is reviewed in a commentary on the 4 principles formulated by Stockard in 1921. The results of cytogenetical studies in man and in other organisms have led to the tracing of some relationships between them. Present knowledge concerning malformations of the neural tube, originating either experimentally, spontaneously, or phenotypically, has been presented and the teratological implications of some recent theories on the expression of the genotype are discussed in particular reference to problems of hormones as teratogens, the implication of carbohydrate metabolism, and teratogenesis. It is speculated that teratogenesis is possibly related to cationic balance in early development and that 1 factor retarding progress in the understanding of malformations is the tendency toward the development of teratology in an adequately close relationship with other branches of cell biology.

  5. Mutagenesis and Teratogenesis Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: studies on chromosome damage and indirect indicators of genetic damage; cytogenetic, embryological, and biochemical studies of mutants in mammals; studies on mammalian gonads in relation to mutagenic effects; systems for detecting mutagenic effects of chemicals; processes in repair of damage to DNA; methods for detecting mutations that result in proteins with altered amino acid sequences; recombination in Drosophila; DNA repair processes in bacteria; development of a sensitive teratological prescreen; teratogenic end points in amphibians; and development of a method for long-term culture of Xenopus oocytes

  6. Evaluation of fetal dose from megavoltage irradiation of the knee and neonate followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, R.P.; Nair, T.K.; El-Akkad, S.

    1983-01-01

    A 24-yr-old female patient who was to undergo radiation therapy management for a recurrent low-grade fibrosarcoma on her right knee was found to be 9 weeks pregnant. The patient and her relatives insisted on carrying the pregnancy to maturity, despite undergoing irradiation of her right knee for local control of her disease and to take the teratological risk, if any, that it entails. This paper discusses the measurement of scattered dose in water, fetal dose estimation in an Alderson-Rando human phantom and possible ways of minimizing it

  7. Evaluation of fetal dose from megavoltage irradiation of the knee and neonate followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, R.P.; Nair, T.K.M.; El-Akkad, S.

    1983-01-01

    A 24-yr-old female patient who was to undergo radiation therapy management for a recurrent low-grade fibrosarcoma on her right knee was found to be 9 weeks pregnant. The patient and her relatives insisted on carrying the pregnancy to maturity, despite undergoing irradiation of her right knee for local control of her disease and to take the teratological risk, if any, that it entails. This paper discusses the measurement of scattered dose in water, fetal dose estimation in an Alderson--Rando human phantom and possible ways of minimizing it

  8. Radioactive 63Ni in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Applications of 63 Ni in biological research are reviewed, with emphasis upon recent investigations of nickel metabolism and toxicology in experimental animals. The radiochemistry of 63 Ni is summarized, including consideration of the preparation of certain 63 Ni compounds (e.g. 63 Ni(CO) 4 and 63 Ni 3 S 2 ) that are of current interest in toxicology, teratology and cancer research. Practical guidance is given regarding the detection and determination of 63 Ni in biological materials by autoradiography and liquid scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  9. Injuries to embryo and foetus from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devik, F.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is given of experimental and clinical evidence for tetatological effects of ionising radiation, against the background of general teratology. International and national recommendations and regulations for the protection of the conceptus are quoted. As to interruption of a pregnancy following an unintended exposure, it is pointed out that much of the present evidence points to a dose in the order of 0.1Gy (10 rads) as a dose which may be considered as a practical threshold for the induction of congenital defects. (Auth.)

  10. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, D.L.

    1985-02-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers; (2) dose-effect relationship studies of carcinogenesis from both nuclear materials and complex mixtures; (3) microbial mutagenesis studies with 6-aminochrysene and benzo[a]pyrene in coal-derived complex mixtures; and (4) a variety of studies relating to noncarcinogenic and nonmutagenic endpoints, including teratology, perinatal studies and studies to determine absorption, metabolism, and doses to critical tissues and organs of coal-derived mixtures and radionuclides. Items have been individually abstracted for the data base

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 1. Biomedical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, D.L. (ed.)

    1985-02-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) evaluation of possible health effects among nuclear workers; (2) dose-effect relationship studies of carcinogenesis from both nuclear materials and complex mixtures; (3) microbial mutagenesis studies with 6-aminochrysene and benzo(a)pyrene in coal-derived complex mixtures; and (4) a variety of studies relating to noncarcinogenic and nonmutagenic endpoints, including teratology, perinatal studies and studies to determine absorption, metabolism, and doses to critical tissues and organs of coal-derived mixtures and radionuclides. Items have been individually abstracted for the data base. (ACR)

  12. Prenatal imaging of a fetus with the rare combination of a right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a giant omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Ayasa; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Kido, Saki; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2014-11-01

    A co-existing right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and omphalocele is rare. We present images of a fetus diagnosed with this rare combination of anomalies. Early neonatal death occurred immediately after full-term birth due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In this case, disturbance of chest wall development due to the omphalocele rather than the diaphragmatic hernia was considered as the main cause of lung hypoplasia. Our experience suggests that caution should be exercised for severe respiratory insufficiency in a neonate with an omphalocele and diaphragmatic hernia, even in the absence of an intra-thoracic liver, one of the indicators of poor outcome for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  13. Occupational radiation hazards during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devik, F.

    1979-01-01

    The general principles in teratology are discussed and it is pointed out that ionising radiation is only one of many agents with teratogenic effects. Human experience with radiation induced congenital malformations is insufficient to warrant conclusions about dose and effect. The teratogenic effects are then discussed in more detail and indications of radiation doses said to produce these are given. The question of a threshold dose is briefly discussed, as is the possibility of carcinogenesis. Finally precautions to be taken and the recommendations of the ICRP and the CEC are presented. (JIW)

  14. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  15. Developmental mechanisms of the tympanic membrane in mammals and non-mammalian amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Masaki; Kitazawa, Taro; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Hirai, Tamami; Iseki, Sachiko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The tympanic membrane is a thin layer that originates from the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesenchyme. Molecular-genetic investigations have revealed that interaction between epithelial and mesenchymal cells in the pharyngeal arches is essential for development of the tympanic membrane. We have recently reported that developmental mechanisms underlying the tympanic membrane seem to be different between mouse and chicken, suggesting that the tympanic membrane evolved independently in mammals and non-mammalian amniotes. In this review, we summarize previous studies of tympanic membrane formation in the mouse. We also discuss its formation in amniotes from an evolutionary point of view. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  16. Coffin-Siris syndrome and cardiac anomaly with a novel SOX11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Ehara, Eiji; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2017-08-08

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is characterized by growth deficiency, intellectual disability, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and hypoplastic nails of the fifth fingers and/or toes. Variants in the genes encoding subunits of the BAF complex as well as in SOX11 encoding the transcriptional factor under the control of BAF complex are associated with CSS. We report a new patient with a novel SOX11 mutation. He showed the CSS phenotype and coarctation of the aorta. Sox11 is known to be associated with cardiac outflow development in mouse studies. Therefore, cardiac anomalies might be an important complication in patients with SOX11 mutations. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. Reproductive studies with the anti-inflammatory agent, piroxicam: modification of classical protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, J; Stadler, J; Kessedjian, M J; Monro, A M

    1984-02-14

    Reproductive toxicology studies were conducted in rabbits and rats given piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAI), orally at 2, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day. In teratology studies there was neither drug-related embryotoxicity nor teratogenicity. As piroxicam, like other NSAI, affects parturition in rats and leads to a progressive toxicity in lactating females, standard protocols were modified: dams of the female fertility study were treated from 2 weeks prior to mating until day 6 of gestation and females of the post-natal toxicity study were treated from parturition until day 12 of lactation. No other adverse effects on reproduction, fertility and postnatal development were observed.

  18. Toxicological study on the safety of DTPA as a drug, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Iida, Haruzo

    1983-01-01

    In order to clarify the safety of Ca-DTPA and Zn-DTPA recommended to use as drugs in the therapeutic removal of incorporated radionuclides from the human body, the teratological study on these two agents was carried out in rats as one of a series of the toxicological tests. The teratological effects of DTPA were observed because the fetus is highly susceptible to any drug. The pregnant females of Wistar rat were injected subcutaneously daily on days 9-13 of gestation with 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 H.D. (H.D. = human dose, 1 H.D. = 30μmol/kg body weight) of Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA, respectively. In the dams, no toxic effects were observed. In the fetuses, the decrease of the survival rate was observed in only the group injected daily with 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. Some cases of gross defects of fetuses: the exencephaly, microphthalmia, anophthalmia and fusion of ribs were observed in the groups injected daily with 12, 24 and 36 H.D. of Ca-DTPA. The results obtained show that Ca-DTPA should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, no toxic effects of either Ca-DTPA or Zn-DTPA observed in the dams ana of Zn-DTPA even in the fetuses indicate that these agents can be used by a radiation worker who usually is an adult man. (author)

  19. Ionizing radiation and the conceptus: neurophysiologic effects of prenatal X-radiation on offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of the literature precedes the presentation of a radiation behavioral teratology study. The various types of radiation and the units of measure used in radiation biology are discussed. The concept of the radiation-induced teratogenic ''triad'' of growth retardation, malformation, and death is presented. A discussion of stage- and dose-dependent sensitivity to prenatal irradiation is followed by an introduction to behavioral teratology as a new interdisciplinary area of investigation, emphasizing postnatal psychophysiologic analyses of the effects of prenatal exposure. In the present study, rats were exposed to an acute dosage level of 0.6 Gy (60 RAD) X-radiation on day 9 or 17 of gestation. The neonates were given five neonatal reflex tests, observed for the appearance of four physiologic markers, and, as young adults, subjected to three of six behavioral tests. The irradiated offspring exhibited retarded postnatal growth and altered reflex and behavioral activity. These results indicate that irradiation at a dosage level which does not cause overt morphologic malformations at birth does result in altered postnatal growth and psychophysiologic development

  20. Congenital transverse deficiency of the tibia and fibula: a report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, N.; Nakase, T.; Sahara, W.; Ochi, T.; Okumura, E.; Sato, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report two similar, but unrelated, patients with congenital bilateral partial deficiencies of the tibia and fibula associated with intact feet. In both patients, the tibia and fibula were absent on initial radiographs, while the femur and the tarsal bones were well developed and there was bilateral teratologic dislocation of the hips. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggested the presence of cartilaginous remnants of the tibia and fibula. There were multidirectional instabilities in the knees and ankles. The clinical and radiological features of these cases are distinct from those of congenital longitudinal deficiency of the tibia, in which the fibula is always preserved, and from longitudinal deficiency of the fibula, in which the tibia is present and the foot is usually involved. We suggest that the bilateral partial deficiencies of the tibia and fibula associated with the intact foot and teratologic dislocation of the hips is a single-entity disorder, possibly categorized as an intercalary transverse deficiency of the lower limb. (orig.)

  1. Pregnancy and lactation advice: How does Australian Product Information compare with established information resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma; Hotham, Elizabeth; Hotham, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Product information is a popular medicines information resource; however, there is some evidence that its pregnancy and lactation information is overconservative, which can lead to inadequate treatment of pregnant and lactating women. A thorough analysis of pregnancy and lactation information within Australian Product Information and Consumer Medicines Information was performed. The statements within these resources were compared with established clinical resources: Australian Medicines Handbook, Therapeutic Guidelines, South Australian Perinatal Practice Guidelines, Organization of Teratology Information Specialists, LactMed, Motherisk and the Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Medicines Guide published by the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne. Product Information was found to be the most cautious resource, with 44.5% of pregnancy recommendations and 69% of lactation recommendations reviewed being more conservative than other resources. Product Information is an imperfect and often overconservative reference for pregnant and lactating women. Health professionals are urged to review established clinical resources to inform decision making.

  2. Surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, I; Keino, H; Taniguchi, M

    1997-04-01

    Whole-embryo culture systems are useful in the fields of not only embryology but also teratology, toxicology, pharmacology, and physiology. Of the many advantages of whole-embryo culture, we focus here on the surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos. Whole-embryo culture allows us to manipulate mammalian embryos, similarly to fish, amphibian and avian embryos. Many surgical experiments have been performed in mammalian embryos in vitro. Such surgical manipulation alters the destiny of morphogenesis of the embryos and can answer many questions concerning developmental issues. As an example of surgical manipulation using whole-embryo culture systems, one of our experiments is described. Microsurgical electrocauterization of the deep preaxial mesodermal programmed cell death zone (fpp) in the footplate prevented the manifestation of polydactyly in genetic polydactyly mouse embryos (Pdn/Pdn), in which fpp was abolished.

  3. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS): Studies of honey bees exposed to 2.45 GHz continuous wave electromagnetic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, N. E.; Westerdahl, B. B.

    1980-01-01

    Post treatment brood development was normal and teratological effects were not detected at exposures of 3 to 50 mw sq cm for 30 minutes. Post treatment survival, longevity, orientation, navigation, and memory of adult bees were also normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw sq cm for 30 minutes. Post treatment longevity of confined bees in the laboratory was normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw sq cm for 24 hours. Thermoregulation of brood nest, foraging activity, brood rearing, and social interaction were not affected by chronic exposure to 1 mw sq cm during 28 days. In dynamic behavioral bioassays the frequency of entry and duration of activity of unrestrained, foraging adult bees was identical in microwave exposed areas versus control areas.

  4. Thermographic analysis of waveguide-irradiated insect pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard G.; Hammer, Wayne C.

    1982-01-01

    Pupae of the insect Tenebrio molitor L. were thermographically imaged during waveguide irradiation through longitudinal slots. T. molitor pupae have been subjects of microwave-induced teratology for a number of years, but until now the smallness of the insect has prevented detailed dosimetry. High-resolution thermographic imaging equipment was used to obtain the magnitude and spatial distribution of absorbed microwave energy at three frequencies, 1.3, 5.95, and 10 GHz. The detail of the thermal images obtained is sufficient to show the differential heating of structures as small as a single insect leg. Results show that the electrical properties of the head, thorax, and abdomen are sufficiently different to seriously impair the usefulness of any theoretical dosimetric model of homogeneous composition. Some general features of correlation with a slab model in waveguide are given.

  5. Evaluation of a patient with classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to a 9q34 duplication affecting COL5A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yukiko; Ohashi, Ikuko; Naruto, Takuya; Ida, Kazumi; Enomoto, Yumi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagai, Jun-Ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2018-03-09

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scarring, and joint hypermobility. The condition typically results from mutations in COL5A1 or COL5A2 leading to the functional haploinsufficiency. Here, we report of a 24-year-old male with mild intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and a phenotype consistent with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome classical type. A copy number variant-calling algorithm from panel sequencing data identified the deletions exons 2-11 and duplications of exons 12-67 within COL5A1. Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed a 94 kb deletion at 9q34.3 involving exons 2-11 of COL5A1, and a 3.4 Mb duplication at 9q34.3 involving exons 12-67 of COL5A1. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  6. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vergara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.

  7. Pregnancy in epileptic patients: comparison between well-established therapeutic strategies and opportunities coming from new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pizzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Treating women affected by epilepsy during pregnancy is challenging.  Clinicians have to consider both the teratogenic effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs and the risk of seizure recurrence. Pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy are rapid and conspicuous so that the serum concentration of drugs can be modified and the effectiveness of AEDs cannot be guaranteed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of Major Congenital Malformation (MCM associated with AEDs treatment during the first trimester of pregnancy. We collected data from 338 patients who contacted the Teratology Information Services of XXX University Hospital and we found that only the variable monotherapy vs politherapy had statistical significance for MCM. More studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of newer AEDs.

  8. Establishing the Embryonic Axes: Prime Time for Teratogenic Insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Sadler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A long standing axiom in the field of teratology states that the teratogenic period, when most birth defects are produced, occurs during the third to eighth weeks of development post-fertilization. Any insults prior to this time are thought to result in a slowing of embryonic growth from which the conceptus recovers or death of the embryo followed by spontaneous abortion. However, new insights into embryonic development during the first two weeks, including formation of the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and left-right axes, suggests that signaling pathways regulating these processes are prime targets for genetic and toxic insults. Establishment of the left-right (laterality axis is particularly sensitive to disruption at very early stages of development and these perturbations result in a wide variety of congenital malformations, especially heart defects. Thus, the time for teratogenic insults resulting in birth defects should be reset to include the first two weeks of development.

  9. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis of aberrant cowrie shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luta, A.M.; Kravchenko, I.I.; Dunnam, F.E.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.; Meyer, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the irregular growth and coloring of aberrant rostrate and melanistic cowrie shells are the result of intensification of the melanain biochemical pathway caused by an overabundance of spin-stabilizing heavy metals. PIXE measurements have shown no pattern in elemental composition to stand out as a distinct difference between the normal and aberrant shells. Therefore, no evidence was found in the shell to corroborate the role of heavy metals in causing these teratologies. The absence of heavy element abundance in rostrate and melanistic shells does not exclude the possible role that these elements play within the soft tissue, as these metals may be too large to pass through membrane channels into the extracellular space where shell deposition occurs

  10. MR microscopy as a research modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Yoon Seong; Yi, Jung Han; Cho, Zang Hee

    1988-01-01

    A combination of high gradient (0.46mT/cm) and small radiofrequency coils (8cm diameter) was used to obtain images with effective thickness of 2.0mm and pixel dimensions as small as 196 μ in the live chick embryo and surgically resected human femoral head with avascular necrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio was sufficient to allow identification of major anatomical structures of live chick embryo and delineation of osteonecrotic segment in femoral head. The changes of signal intensity in necrotic femoral head was well correlated with histopathologic findings. MR microscopy is considered as a good research modality in the field of embryology, teratology and MR tissue characterization

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on the hatchability and embryonic development of quail eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlany, P.; Sinkovicsne Hlubik, I.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on the embryonic development of quail and hen's eggs was examined. The goals of the examinations were to determine the LD 50 and LD 100 values, to establish the effect of single and multiple irradiation on embryonic development and to get some information on the embryonation of eggs produced by quails and their progeny grown from irradiated eggs. It was shown that 200 rad dose has significant stimulation effect of the hatching results of quail eggs. The LD 50 and LD 100 values were about 800 to 850 rad and 1600 rad, respectively. Repeated irradiation on the progeny-generations proved to be unambiguously deleterious on embryonation. High doses changed the rhythm of embryonal mortality, showing a peak under the irradiation and in the first three days of incubation, and significantly enhanced the number of teratological types. (author)

  12. Gamma-rays irradiation of greenwood cuttings cherry varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of irradiation of greenwood cuttings of the sweet cherry grafted varieties Napoleon, Drogans Gelbe and Ryzhdavishka Belvitsa, performed at 2500 R. The treated buds have been treated on rootstocks in a nursery and trees have been raised from the grafts in a planting. Different teratological alterations were observed in shoots of most trees developed from treated buds such as fasciations, bi-, tre-, and tetra-furcation as well as branchlets with a pseudodichotomical ramification. Several forms, having a very good fruit bearing and lower strength of growth than the initial varieties, were selected. A large number of slightly growing mutagenous forms were established of the Drogans Gelbe variety. Their fruits do not differ substantially from those of the initial varieties. (author)

  13. Association of achondroplasia with Down syndrome: difficulty in prenatal diagnosis by sonographic and 3-D helical computed tomographic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akimune; Murotsuki, Jun; Kamimura, Miki; Kimura, Masato; Saito-Hakoda, Akiko; Kanno, Junko; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Kure, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Ikuma

    2015-05-01

    Achondroplasia and Down syndrome are relatively common conditions individually. But co-occurrence of both conditions in the same patient is rare and there have been no reports of fetal analysis of this condition by prenatal sonographic and three-dimensional (3-D) helical computed tomography (CT). Prenatal sonographic findings seen in persons with Down syndrome, such as a thickened nuchal fold, cardiac defects, and echogenic bowel were not found in the patient. A prenatal 3-D helical CT revealed a large head with frontal bossing, metaphyseal flaring of the long bones, and small iliac wings, which suggested achondroplasia. In a case with combination of achondroplasia and Down syndrome, it may be difficult to diagnose the co-occurrence prenatally without typical markers of Down syndrome. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  14. [Human abnormalities--their importance in the world view during antiquity and the early Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J N

    1992-01-01

    In consideration of the experience that also in our present day society the development of a handicapped baby is understood by some as the visible result of a morally guilty behaviour of the parents, the present study raises the question, whether the identification of physical appearance and moral attitude has been in a certain historical epoch the preferred approach in science for understanding the origin of human malformations. After the treatment of the teratological theories in greek medicine and aristotelian natural philosophy the question of the origin of human malformation is examined in Pliny's "Historia naturalis" and Augustine's "De civitate dei". A comparison between the theories presented shows that the moral interpretation of human malformation is an inevitable consequence of the augustinian theological thinking.

  15. Human malformations induced by environmental noxae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, W.C.; Angerpointner, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews congenital malformations in humans and presents possible causes. 60% of all malformations are a result of environmental and other factors; i.e. not hereditary or caused by a disease of the mother. The teratogenic effects of ionizing radiation, drugs, alcohol, polyvinyl chloride and trichlorophenol are discussed as well as the effect of the mother's working in certain fields, e.g. clinical laboratories or printing offices; in the latter case the teratogenic noxae are still unknown. Efficient research requires centralized storage of all data on children born with malformations and on the mother's health situation during pregnancy, and the legislator is asked to do so while observing the law on data protection. Foundation of a German Institute of Teratology is recommended. In order to intensify research, it is suggested to set up groups or departments for research on malformations in some major paediatric hospitals. (MG) [de

  16. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Granados Zúñiga; Liliana Pazos Sanou

    1998-01-01

    Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunología, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 19...

  17. Utility of finger maze test for learning and memory abilities in infants of cynomolgus monkeys exposed to thiamazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ayumi; Arima, Akihiro; Kato, Hirohito; Ebihara, Shizufumi

    2014-11-01

    A new type of learning and memory test using a finger maze was conducted in infant cynomolgus monkeys that were exposed to thiamazole (2 and 3.5 mg/kg per day to pregnant animals orally) during the fetal period (gestational days 120 to 150). We modified Tsuchida's original finger maze test method by reducing the number of trials per day and simplifying the criteria for achievement of training, and we added a long-term memory test. In the memory test, thiamazole-exposed infants required greater time to complete the finger maze test than the control infants although no effect was noted in the training or learning test. The results suggest that an impaired long-term memory could be detected by our modified finger maze test. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  18. Clinical utility of an array comparative genomic hybridization analysis for Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagihashi, Tatsuhiko; Torii, Chiharu; Takahashi, Reiko; Omori, Mikimasa; Kosaki, Rika; Yoshihashi, Hiroshi; Ihara, Masahiro; Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Yamamoto, Junichi; Takahashi, Takao; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2014-11-01

    To reveal the relation between intellectual disability and the deleted intervals in Williams syndrome, we performed an array comparative genomic hybridization analysis and standardized developmental testing for 11 patients diagnosed as having Williams syndrome based on fluorescent in situ hybridization testing. One patient had a large 4.2-Mb deletion spanning distally beyond the common 1.5-Mb intervals observed in 10/11 patients. We formulated a linear equation describing the developmental age of the 10 patients with the common deletion; the developmental age of the patient with the 4.2-Mb deletion was significantly below the expectation (developmental age = 0.51 × chronological age). The large deletion may account for the severe intellectual disability; therefore, the use of array comparative genomic hybridization may provide practical information regarding individuals with Williams syndrome. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  19. MR microscopy as a research modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Yoon Seong [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jung Han; Cho, Zang Hee [Korea Advanced insititute of Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    A combination of high gradient (0.46mT/cm) and small radiofrequency coils (8cm diameter) was used to obtain images with effective thickness of 2.0mm and pixel dimensions as small as 196 {mu} in the live chick embryo and surgically resected human femoral head with avascular necrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio was sufficient to allow identification of major anatomical structures of live chick embryo and delineation of osteonecrotic segment in femoral head. The changes of signal intensity in necrotic femoral head was well correlated with histopathologic findings. MR microscopy is considered as a good research modality in the field of embryology, teratology and MR tissue characterization.

  20. Nature or Artifice? Grafting in Early Modern Surgery and Agronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    In 1597, Gaspare Tagliacozzi published a famous two-volume book on “plastic surgery.” The reconstructive technique he described was based on grafting skin taken from the arm onto the mutilated parts of the patient's damaged face – especially noses. This paper focuses on techniques of grafting, the “culture of grafting,” and the relationships between surgery and plant sciences in the sixteenth century. By describing the fascination with grafting in surgery, natural history, gardening, and agronomy the paper argues that grafting techniques were subject to delicate issues: to what extent it was morally acceptable to deceive the eye with artificial entities? and what was the status of the product of a surgical procedure that challenged the traditional natural/artificial distinction? Finally, this paper shows how in the seventeenth century grafting survived the crisis of Galenism by discussing the role it played in teratology and in controversies on the uses the new mechanistic anatomy.

  1. Etiological study on isolated esophageal atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szendrey, T; Danyi, G; Czeizel, A

    1985-01-01

    A study group of 160 index patients with isolated esophageal atresia, a control group of 160 matched healthy controls, and the first-degree relatives of patients and controls were examined; epidemiological, family planning, teratological, and genetic data were obtained by personal interview in the study and control groups. One half of the index patients were male. Intrauterine growth retardation, a higher proportion of mothers under 19 or over 30 years of age, and less skilled professions of the parents were found in the study group. There were more extramarital conceptions, more pregnancies in spite of the use of contraceptive pills, and more delayed conceptions in index patients mothers. The teratogens studied did not have an obvious pathological effect here. The sib occurrence of isolated esophageal atresia was 0.43%, which did not correspond well to the expected figure of 1.34% based on the polygenic model.

  2. XPC gene mutations in families with xeroderma pigmentosum from Pakistan; prevalent founder effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Ambreen; Basit, Sulman; Gul, Ajab; Batool, Lilas; Hussain, Abrar; Afzal, Sibtain; Ramzan, Khushnooda; Ahmad, Jamil; Wali, Abdul

    2018-03-23

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by hyperpigmentation, premature skin aging, ocular and cutaneous photosensitivity, and increased risk of skin carcinoma. We investigated seven consanguineous XP families with nine patients from Pakistan. All the Patients exhibited typical clinical symptoms of XP since first year of life. Whole genome SNP genotyping identified a 14 Mb autozygous region segregating with the disease phenotype on chromosome 3p25.1. DNA sequencing of XPC gene revealed a founder homozygous splice site mutation (c.2251-1G>C) in patients from six families (A-F) and a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1399C>T; p.Gln467*) in patients of family G. This is the first report of XPC mutations, underlying XP phenotype, in Pakistani population. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. Dysmorphic choroid plexuses and hydrocephalus associated with increased nuchal translucency: early ultrasound markers of de novo thanatophoric dysplasia type II with cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Palmisano, Marcella; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Ventura, Alessandro; Baldi, Maurizia; Baffico, Ave Maria

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) type II presenting in the first trimester with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and cloverleaf skull (Kleeblattschaedel) have been scantly reported in the medical record. Abnormal choroid plexus has been seen in association with fetal anomalies. Here we described a case of increased NT associated with indented choroid plexuses, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull in a fetus subsequently diagnosed at early second trimester to carry a de novo mutation encoding for TD type II. The findings of dysmorphic choroid plexus, early onset hydrocephalus and cloverleaf skull at first trimester scan may be early, useful ultrasound markers of TD type II. Molecular analysis to control for possible overlapping syndromes were performed and resulted negative. Postmortem X-ray and 3D-CT scan confirmed the cloverleaf skull, narrow thorax, straight femur with rhizomelic shortening of the limbs and the presence of a communicating hydrocephalus. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  4. Down syndrome and personalized medicine: changing paradigms from genotype to phenotype to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B

    2013-03-01

    Personalized Medicine represents a paradigm shift in the conceptual framework of research and clinical care. This shift argues that Down syndrome is a treatable condition, and therefore we must invest in research to improve outcomes. Individuals with Down syndrome have varying levels of increased risk for a number of co-morbidities, including infantile spasms and early onset Alzheimer's disease. We will review research in these associated conditions to show how investigators are attempting to identify biomarkers, including genomic, epigenomic, proteomic and metabolomic "signatures" that will predict who may be at risk to develop a specific co-morbidity prior to onset and will provide novel targets for therapeutic development. This Personalized Medicine approach will permit predictive and preventive approaches for individuals at increased risk for co-morbidities. The support for clinical trials among individuals with Down syndrome is beginning to overcome the "culture of intractability" that has surrounded this disorder. © 2012 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2012 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. Una momia en el salón. Los museos anatómicos domésticos del doctor Velasco (1854-1874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Gómez, Luis Ángel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the two anatomical museums organized by Dr. Pedro González Velasco in his own homes in nineteenth-century Madrid. We analyze the circumstances that made possible the formation of the centers, which were related to the study and teaching of anatomy and to some Velasco’s political projects of regeneration and modernization of Spanish Medicine. We explore its collections (of anatomy, teratology, zoology, ethnography and “curiosities” and we try to show how Velasco used his museums with both teaching and sociopolitical objectives. Finally, it is clear that without the formation of these little museums it would not have been possible for Velasco the construction of his great Anthropological Museum, in 1875, which now houses the National Museum of Anthropology.El artículo estudia los museos anatómicos organizados por el doctor Pedro González Velasco en dos de sus domicilios particulares en el Madrid decimonónico. Se revisan las circunstancias que hacen posible su creación, vinculadas tanto con el estudio y la docencia de la anatomía como con los proyectos políticos de regeneración y modernización de la Medicina española que trata de poner en marcha su propietario. Se comentan sus singulares colecciones (de anatomía, teratología, zoología, etnografía y curiosidades diversas y se analiza la proyección docente y sociopolítica de ambos centros, sin cuya existencia no hubiera sido posible que Velasco construyera poco después su gran Museo Antropológico, sede del actual Museo Nacional de Antropología en Madrid.

  6. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms in teratogenesis involving reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Peter G.; Bhuller, Yadvinder; Chen, Connie S.; Jeng, Winnie; Kasapinovic, Sonja; Kennedy, Julia C.; Kim, Perry M.; Laposa, Rebecca R.; McCallum, Gordon P.; Nicol, Christopher J.; Parman, Toufan; Wiley, Michael J.; Wong, Andrea W.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental pathologies may result from endogenous or xenobiotic-enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules and/or alter signal transduction. This minireview focuses upon several model drugs (phenytoin, thalidomide, methamphetamine), environmental chemicals (benzo[a]pyrene) and gamma irradiation to examine this hypothesis in vivo and in embryo culture using mouse, rat and rabbit models. Embryonic prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) and lipoxygenases bioactivate xenobiotics to free radical intermediates that initiate ROS formation, resulting in oxidation of proteins, lipids and DNA. Oxidative DNA damage and embryopathies are reduced in PHS knockout mice, and in mice treated with PHS inhibitors, antioxidative enzymes, antioxidants and free radical trapping agents. Thalidomide causes embryonic DNA oxidation in susceptible (rabbit) but not resistant (mouse) species. Embryopathies are increased in mutant mice deficient in the antioxidative enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), or by glutathione (GSH) depletion, or inhibition of GSH peroxidase or GSH reductase. Inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice are partially protected. Inhibition of Ras or NF-kB pathways reduces embryopathies, implicating ROS-mediated signal transduction. Atm and p53 knockout mice deficient in DNA damage response/repair are more susceptible to xenobiotic or radiation embryopathies, suggesting a teratological role for DNA damage, consistent with enhanced susceptibility to methamphetamine in ogg1 knockout mice with deficient repair of oxidative DNA damage. Even endogenous embryonic oxidative stress carries a risk, since untreated G6PD- or ATM-deficient mice have increased embryopathies. Thus, embryonic processes regulating the balance of ROS formation, oxidative DNA damage and repair, and ROS-mediated signal transduction may be important determinants of teratological risk

  7. The role of the pediatrician in preventing congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L

    2011-10-01

    • The development of new knowledge and new diagnostic techniques and technology as well as the sophistication of epidemiology studies and maturation of the fields of clinical genetics and clinical teratology have revolutionized the field of reproductive and developmental biology.• Advances have enabled physicians and scientists to determine the causes of developmental abnormalities and, therefore, discover methods of prevention. The process of evaluation is based on the knowledge base developed over the past 50 years.• Although genetic abnormalities are responsible for a significant proportion of reproductive and developmental deleterious effects, a larger proportion of these effects are due to unknown causes.• Environmental causes are less frequent, although many of the environmental effects as well as many of the genetic effects can be prevented through genetic counseling and preconceptual planning. Effective treatment and amelioration of developmental effects also have improved.• More than 50 environmental drugs, chemicals, maternal diseases, infections, nutritional abnormalities, and physical agents can affect reproduction deleteriously and result in CMs.Theoretically, all these causes are preventable.• Throughout the developing world, the addition of folic acid and iodine could prevent tens of thousands of birth defects and developmental abnormalities.• In the United States, the opportunity for prevention can be introduced at the population level and by addressing individual patients’ clinical problems.• If a mother of a malformed infant had some type of exposure during pregnancy, such as a diagnostic radiologic examination or medication, the consulting physician should not support or suggest the possibility of a causal relationship before performing a complete evaluation. If a pregnant woman who has not yet delivered had some type of exposure during pregnancy, the consulting physician should not support or suggest the possibility that the

  8. Diatom diversity and response in metal-polluted river environment: preliminary reports from Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Marco; Tolotti, Raffaella; Bernabè, Dimitri; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Cutroneo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Mineral content and physico-chemical properties of the freshwaters are the main factors affecting both algal assemblages and distributions, while presence of dissolved silicon, low water conductivity, and rocky-mountain habitats host benthic diatom assemblages of high species richness. It is shown that diatoms are sensible to the freshwater acidification (used as pH indicators in acid waters), environmental and climate changes, river organic load, and heavy metal water pollution. For this characteristic, diatoms are among the major biological markers for a variety of environmental and stratigraphic applications. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses (assemblage analyses) together with biotic indices as well as morphological and ultrastructure parameterisation provide tools for detailed environmental control and paleo-environmental reconstructions. Severe environmental problems are typically caused by "abandoned mine" and are consequences of the cessation of the mining activity with a lack in infrastructure maintenance. The mine waters which flow into the Gromolo Torrent are almost acidic (pH varying from 2.4 to 5) and enriched in heavy metals and SO42-. This pollution is caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes that interest the Libiola mining area, known as a typical example of active AMD processes. The aim of this work is: 1) to characterise the local benthic diatom assemblages along the acidic mine effluents that discharge from Libiola mine, the entire Gromolo torrent course, and in the marine area off the torrent mouth; 2) to identify the main diatom biomarker taxa; 3) to highlight striking situations of equilibrium-disequilibrium in the algal communities, and 4) to point out types and frequency of some teratologies affecting specific diatom taxa as a response to environmental stressors (such as metal-metalloid enrichment). A total of 17 diatom samples was collected and examined, including some marine samples. Diatoms were collected in the

  9. SEMEN QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBIT BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Błaszczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detectedRabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used Quick

  10. Counseling patients exposed to ionizing radiation during pregnancy El asesoramiento de pacientes expuestas a radiaciones ionizantes durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Brent

    2006-09-01

    testes. Counseling patients requires knowledge of embryology, genetics, radiation teratology, and the principles of teratology in order for the counselor to provide sympathetic, accurate, scholarly advice.Los físicos que trabajan en el ámbito de la salud y los clínicos que tienen conocimientos de radiología tienen la responsabilidad de asesorar a las mujeres de edad fecunda acerca de los riesgos reproductivos de la exposición a radiaciones ionizantes antes de la concepción o durante el embarazo. Es importante entender que las personas legas albergan muchas nociones equivocadas acerca de los riesgos asociados con ese tipo de radiaciones. Muchas pacientes que ya se han sometido o serán sometidas a algún tipo de prueba radiológica les temen a los correspondientes riesgos reproductivos y a las posibles consecuencias de estas pruebas diagnósticas para el desarrollo fetal. Según estudios epidemiológicos y con animales, un alto grado de exposición a radiaciones ionizantes puede provocar un aborto, anomalías congénitas, retraso del crecimiento, muerte fetal y cáncer. A salvedad de esto último, hay umbrales de exposición establecidos en relación con cada uno de estos problemas, y una exposición por debajo de ciertas dosis de radiación no se asocia con ninguna elevación del riesgo de sufrir daños reproductivos o del desarrollo. El umbral de exposición asociado con anomalías congénitas durante la etapa del desarrollo de mayor vulnerabilidad es de 0,2 Gy, y el umbral en el caso del retraso del crecimiento y del aborto espontáneo es aun mayor. No obstante, la pérdida de un embrión puede ocurrir incluso a dosis bajas durante las fases del desarrollo que preceden a la implantación o en la fase presomática (el llamado período de "todo o nada". Esta es la etapa en que un embrión corre un mayor riesgo de morir que de sobrevivir con malformaciones. El período de mayor vulnerabilidad para la inducción de retraso mental dura desde la octava hasta la

  11. Studies concerning the effects of low level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and adult behaviour in the Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.; Vogel, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine pregnant Wistar strain rats were sham irradiated or given a 0.1 or 0.2 Gy exposure of X-radiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. Twenty-seven were killed at term for teratologic analysis. The remaining mothers raised their young. At 60 days of age the 252 offspring were randomly assigned three of six tests: open field, swimming, hanging, activity wheel, water T-maze, or conditioned avoidance response. Male offspring exposed at the 0.2 Gy level exhibited retarded growth only during the first few weeks of postnatal life. Female offspring exposed on the 17th day to 0.2 Gy X-radiation were growth retarded throughout the test period. Postnatal growth rates were not significantly different between the irradiated and control groups. There were no significant alterations in adult behaviour due to prenatal X-irradiation. There were sex differences in activity wheel and forelimb hanging performance, unrelated to radiation exposure. These results indicate that prenatal low level X-irradiation on the 9th or 17th day of gestation dose not result in significant alterations in rat adult behavioural performance but prenatal growth retardation persists postnatally. Growth may be a more sensitive indicator of the effects of prenatal exposure than postnatal behaviour. (author)

  12. Sequence-dependent toxicity and small bowel mucosal injury in neonatal mice treated with low doses of 5-azacytidine and X-irradiation at the late organogenesis stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmahl, W.

    1983-01-01

    A combined treatment of pregnant mice on day 12 of gestation with both azacytidine and X-irradiation in low doses induces sequence-dependent histological effects. These effects, in turn, induce different symptomatic signs if evaluated either prenatally or neonatally. In the azacytidine treatment/X-irradiation sequence the malformations of the fetal forebrain are predominant. Consequently, these dams show a high incidence in the stillbirth rate. Conversely, the X-irradiation/azacytidine treatment schedule leads only to a mild brain hypoplasia, and does not cause an increased stillbirth rate. In these offspring, however, a severe impairment of small bowel epithelial proliferation capacity was found. This is linked to an outstanding neonatal mortality within 48 h after birth. The pathogenesis of these sequence-dependent effects can be attributed to a selective vulnerability of cells in different stages of the generation cycle. This comprises a high degree of cytolethality affecting the S/G 2 -stage cells in azacytidine/X-irradiation treatment and the G 1 /S-stage cells in the reverse combinations (Schmahl 1979). The present observations show the validity of a teratological assay in providing a detailed analysis of the cell kinetic responses after combined noxious influences. (orig.)

  13. Constant-dose microwave irradiation of insect pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard G.

    Pupae of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor L. were subjected to microwave irradiation for 1.5-24 hours at power density levels adjusted to produce a total dosage of approximately 1123 J/g in each insect for every experiment. Insects without visible blemishes were exposed in a standing wave irradiation system such that half of them were exposed in the plane of maximum electric field (E field) and the other half were exposed in the plane of maximum magnetic field (H field). Both E field and H field insects exhibited nearly the same specific absorption rate (SAR) for pupal orientation parallel to the magnetic field vector at 5.95 GHz. Irradiations were conducted both with and without the use of a ventilating fan to control the temperature rise in the irradiation chamber. Abnormal development as a result of the microwave exposure was seen only in the high-power, short-duration experiment without chamber ventilation. This result suggests a thermal interaction mechanism for explanation of observed microwave-induced abnormalities. A study of the time course of the average temperature rise in the irradiated insects indicates that teratological effects for this configuration have a temperature threshold of approximately 40°C.

  14. Prevalence and distribution of congenital abnormalities in Turkey: differences between the prenatal and postnatal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztarhan, Kazim; Gedikbasi, Ali; Yildirim, Dogukan; Arslan, Oguz; Adal, Erdal; Kavuncuoglu, Sultan; Ozbek, Sibel; Ceylan, Yavuz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of cases associated with congenital abnormalities during the following three periods: pregnancy, birth, and the neonatal period. This was a retrospective study of cases between 2002 and 2006. All abnormal pregnancies, elective terminations of pregnancies, stillbirths, and births with congenital abnormalities managed in the Neonatology Unit were classified based on the above distribution scheme. During the 5-year study period, 1906 cases with congenital abnormalities were recruited, as follows: 640 prenatally detected and terminated cases, with most abnormalities related to the central nervous system, chromosomes, and urogenital system (56.7%, 12.7%, and 8.9%, respectively); 712 neonates with congenital abnormalities (congenital heart disease [49.2%], central nervous system abnormalities [14.7%], and urogenital system abnormalities [12.9%]); and hospital stillbirths, of which 34.2% had malformations (220 prenatal cases [34.4%] had multiple abnormalities, whereas 188 liveborn cases [26.4%] had multiple abnormalities). The congenital abnormalities rate between 2002 and 2006 was 2.07%. Systematic screening for fetal anomalies is the primary means for identification of affected pregnancies. © 2010 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2010 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. Dentomaxillofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yumiko; Baba, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takuya; Ohkuma, Mizue; Moriyama, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective hospital-based study was to elucidate the dentomaxillofacial characteristics of ectodermal dysplasia. Six Japanese individuals (one male and five female; age range, 12.7-27.2 years) underwent comprehensive examinations, including history recording, cephalometric analysis, panoramic radiography, and analysis of dental models. All the subjects had two or more major manifestations for clinical diagnosis of ectodermal dysplasia (e.g., defects of hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands). They presented hypodontia (mean number of missing teeth, 9.5; range, 5-14), especially in the premolar region, and enamel dysplasia. Five subjects had bilateral molar occlusion, whereas one subject had unilateral molar occlusion. The common skeletal features were small facial height, maxillary hypoplasia, counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, and mandibular protrusion. Interestingly, the maxillary first molars were located in higher positions and the upper anterior facial height was smaller than the Japanese norm. The results suggest that vertical and anteroposterior maxillary growth retardation, rather than lack of occlusal support due to hypodontia, leads to reduced anterior facial height in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  16. Drinking water guideline for ethylene thiourea, a metabolite of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frakes, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides are the most heavily used pesticides in Maine. Ethylene thiourea (ETU) is a metabolite and environmental decomposition product of these compounds, is highly water soluble, and has been detected in groundwater in the state. ETU is a recognized animal carcinogen and teratogen. When administered in the diet, ETU produced a significant increase in thyroid carcinomas in rats in two studies. Two strains of mice fed ETU in the diet developed an increased incidence of hepatomas and a slight increase in lymphomas. Application of the linearized multistage model resulted in virtually safe doses (10(-5) lifetime cancer risk) of 0.25 to 1.6 micrograms/kg/day. The major teratologic effect has been the development of hydrocephalus and other CNS defects postnatally, resulting in a high mortality rate among the offspring. The NOEL for this effect was 5 mg/kg in a single oral dose. Retarded parietal ossification was observed at 5 mg/kg/day. Serious nononcogenic thyroid effects, such as goiter, decreased 131I uptake, and reduced thyroxine production, have been observed. Thyroid hyperplasia was produced at doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg/day ETU ingested in the diet. Based on protection against thyroid and/or liver tumors and alteration in thyroid function, the recommended Drinking Water Guideline for ETU is determined to be 3 ppb. This will also provide protection against developmental effects, since these occur at doses that are one to two orders of magnitude higher. 37 references

  17. Microwave effects in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardalhon, M.; Averbeck, D.; Berteaud, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were set up to investigate the effects of open space microwave irradiation of the millimeter (73 GHz) and the centimeter (17 GHz) range in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the wild type strain Paris and the strain delta carrying melanitic tumors in the 3rd larval stage, in the pupae and the adults. The power densities were up to 100mW.cm -2 for 73 GHz and about 60 mW.cm -2 for microwaves at 17 GHz. After 2h exposure to microwaves of 17 GHz or 73 GHz the hatching of the irradiated eggs and their development were normal. In a few cases there was a tendency towards a diminution of the survival of eggs treated at different stages, of larvae treated in the stages 1, 2 and 3 and of treated pupae. However, this was not always statistically significant. The microwave treatment did not induce teratological changes in the adults. A statistical analysis brought about slight diminutions in the incidence and multiplicity of tumors in adult flies. When wild type females were exposed to microwaves of 17 GHz for 16 or 21 h and crossed with untreated males we observed a marked increase in fertility as compared to untreated samples. The viability and tumor incidence in the offspring was not affected. Similar results were obtained when microwaves treated males were crossed with untreated females

  18. Assessment of Cytotoxicity, Fetotoxicity, and Teratogenicity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth Barks Aqueous Extract

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    Lia de Barros Leite Albuquerque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific assessment of harmful interactions of chemicals over the entire reproductive cycle are divided into three segments based on the period: from premating and mating to implantation (I, from implantation to major organogenesis (II, and late pregnancy and postnatal development (III. We combined the segments I and II to assess Plathymenia reticulata aqueous extract safety. In order to investigate reproductive toxicity (segment I, pregnant rats received orally 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg of extract, daily, during 18 days. These concentrations were determined by a preliminary in vitro LD50 test in CHO-k1 cells. A control group received deionized water. The offspring was removed at the 19th day, by caesarean, and a teratology study (segment II was carried out. The corpora lutea, implants, resorptions, live, and dead fetuses were then counted. Placenta and fetuses were weighted. External and visceral morphology were provided by the fixation of fetuses in Bouin, whereas skeletal analysis was carried out on the diaphanizated ones. The increase in the weights of placenta and fetuses was the only abnormality observed. Since there was no sign of alteration on reproduction parameters at our experimental conditions, we conclude that P. reticulata aqueous extract is safe at 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg and is not considered teratogenic.

  19. Linkage between the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database, the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, and other Danish registries as a tool for the study of drug safety in pregnancy

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    Pedersen LH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars H Pedersen,1,2 Olav B Petersen,1,2 Mette Nørgaard,3 Charlotte Ekelund,4 Lars Pedersen,3 Ann Tabor,4 Henrik T Sørensen3 1Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Fetal Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: A linked population-based database is being created in Denmark for research on drug safety during pregnancy. It combines information from the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database (with information on all prescriptions reimbursed in Denmark since 2004, the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, the Danish National Registry of Patients, and the Medical Birth Registry. The new linked database will provide validated information on malformations diagnosed both prenatally and postnatally. The cohort from 2008 to 2014 will comprise 589,000 pregnancies with information on 424,000 pregnancies resulting in live-born children, ~420,000 pregnancies undergoing prenatal ultrasound scans, 65,000 miscarriages, and 92,000 terminations. It will be updated yearly with information on ~80,000 pregnancies. The cohort will enable identification of drug exposures associated with severe malformations, not only based on malformations diagnosed after birth but also including those having led to termination of pregnancy or miscarriage. Such combined data will provide a unique source of information for research on the safety of medications used during pregnancy. Keywords: malformations, teratology, therapeutic drug monitoring, epidemiological methods, registries

  20. Corpuscular radiation and congenital anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinji; Yajima, Akira

    1983-01-01

    Many explorations have been done by our antecessors to find out about the congenital anomalies which might be caused by X-ray or γ-ray and experimental teratological researches have also been done, with some results. However, there have been less systematic studies on corpuscular radiation. Neutron ray is a radioactive ray no electrically-charged equally as photon (X-ray, γ-ray). With an equal dosage of it as photon's, its localized energy is high so that it is different in RBE, OER, etc. In heavy charged particle (proton ray, He ion, Ne ion, π-meson ray), there is the characteristic that the energy increases at around the deepest spot within the range rather than at the point of injection into a system, which is called Bragg peak. The type and energy of this radiation reflected in the uniqueness in energy distribution, in ionization density and in LET makes it the most important radioactive biological parameter. At this paper, we shall review the types of radioactive rays and discuss the congenital anomalies (teratogenecity) including the experimental results obtained by application of our proton ray. (author)

  1. Effect of prenatal and postnatal microwave exposures on relative activity of SDH of brain and liver in newborn mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Huai; Yao Gengdong; Zhou Shiyun

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant mice were irradiated with 3 GHz pulse microwave at 8 mW/cm 2 (SAR 3.0-3.5 mW/g) and part of their offspring were irradiated at 1 mW/cm 2 . The effects on the mitochondria marker enzyme SDH of brain and liver in the newborn mice were observed. SDH was quanlitatively determined by microspectrophotometry. The results show that a decrease in the relative activity of SDH in brain was induced by either prenatal or postnatal microwave exposure (p < 0.01). The greatest decrease in the relative activity of SDH occurred in the offspring exposed both prenatally and postnatally. The similar but less changes in the activity of SDH occurred in liver of these mice. The results indicate that the brain SDH is a sensitive index to observe the subtle metabolic alterations which can not be detected using conventional morphologic teratologic procedures. It is suggested that pregnant women should be protected from high power density microwave exposure

  2. Comment on the case report “Possible association between acetazolamide administration during pregnancy and multiple congenital malformations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin-Arslan E

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Elif Keskin-Arslan,1,2 Yusuf Cem Kaplan1,2 1Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Izmir Katip Celebi University, 2Terafar – Izmir Katip Celebi University Teratology Information, Training and Research Center, Izmir, Turkey We read with interest the case report in the April 2016 issue of Drug Design Development and Therapy by Al-Saleem and Al-Jobair.1 The authors have presented a boy with oligodontia, ectrodactyly, and syndactyly who was exposed to acetazolamide in utero. Although the discussion was well balanced with a mention to possible confounders such as family and obstetric history and lack of a genetic analysis, two important papers regarding prenatal exposure to acetazolamide were not cited by the authors. In this letter, we would like to mention these studies in order to expand the current context provided by Al-Saleem and Al-Jobair.1View the original paper by Al-Saleem and Al-Jobair

  3. A Review of the Teratogenic Factors Effect on Embryo

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    Manzarbanoo Shojaei fard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Teratology is a branch of embryology science that studies causes, mechanisms and abnormal pattern development. Embryo growth traumatic factors during pregnancy are called teratogens that some teratogens pass the placental barrier and cause adverse effect during development stages and malformation, however a drug may improve general health of the mother, but it might be poisonous for embryo and cause diverse malformation. Since study of embryo health and risk factor in this stage is important, the aim of this review article was the investigation of some types of teratosgens (such as radiation, infectious agents, heat disorders, maternal conditions and particularly the effect of teratogenic drugs on embryo including some legal drugs (such as acetaminophen, thalidomide, acyclovir, sedatives and anticonvulsants and illegal drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and marijuana. Conclusion: In general, teratogens depending on the type and duration of exposure in pregnancyperiod, adversely affect embryo and cause various disorders. A better understanding of these teratogens can contribute to prevent these defects, since many other drugs with similar effects and lower teratogenicity can be used to improve mothers’ health.

  4. Applying Evolutionary Genetics to Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maxwell C. K.; Procter, Andrew C.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Robert; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Siddall, Mark E.; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models. We review five molecular systems of stress response and update 18 consensual cell-cell signaling pathways that are the hallmark for early development, organogenesis, and differentiation; and revisit the principles of teratology in light of recent advances in high-throughput screening, big data techniques, and systems toxicology. Multiscale systems modeling plays an integral role in the evolutionary approach to cross-species extrapolation. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative bioinformatics are both valuable tools in identifying and validating the molecular initiating events that account for adverse developmental outcomes in humans. The discordance of susceptibility between test species and humans (ontogeny) reflects their differences in evolutionary history (phylogeny). This synthesis not only can lead to novel applications in developmental toxicity and risk assessment, but also can pave the way for applying an evo-devo perspective to the study of developmental origins of health and disease. PMID:28267574

  5. Enhancement of NMRI Mouse Embryo Development In vitro

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    Abedini, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the systematic studies used in the development of human embryo culture media have been done first on mouse embryos. The general use of NMRI outbred mice is a model for toxicology, teratology and pharmacology. NMRI mouse embryo exhibit the two-cell block in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of four kinds of culture media on the development of zygotes (NMRI after embryo vitrification. One-cell mouse embryos were obtained from NMRI mice after superovulation and mating with adult male NMRI mice. And then randomly divided into 4 groups for culture in four different cultures media including: M16 (A, DMEM/Ham, F-12 (B, DMEM/Ham's F-12 co-culture with Vero cells(C and DMEM/Ham's F-12 co-culture with MEF cells (D. Afterward all of the embryos were vitrified in EFS40 solution and collected. Results of our study revealed, more blastocysts significantly were developed with co-culture with MEF cells in DMEM/Ham's F-12 medium. More research needed to understand the effect of other components of culture medium, and co-culture on NMRI embryo development.

  6. Low-dose radiation as an environmental agent affecting intrauterine development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    The low-dose radiation effects which have been recognized in mammalian teratological studies are direct injuries to the particularly radiosensitive tissues of embryo and fetus, and increased incidences of spontaneous malformations and minor anomalies. The lowest radiation doses for manifestation of those effects in mice and rats are: 5 rad for resorption of preimplantation embryos; 5-10 rad for acute cytological changes such as pyknosis, cytoplasmic degeneration and mitotic delay; 5 rad for increasing frequency of spontaneous minor anomalies of the skeleton; 15-20 rad for malformations of the eye, brain and spinal cord; 20-25 rad for histogenetic and functional disorders of the central nervous system; and 20-25 rad for impaired fertility. Pregnant women who are subject to X-ray examination are much concerned about potential hazard of radiation to their offspring in utero. The above experimental findings suggest that the possibility of teratogenic effects of diagnostic radiation on human embryos and fetuses is extremely low, and probably negligible, given the proper dose control measures. (author)

  7. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. I. Morphologic analysis at term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six pregnant Wistar strain albino rats were exposed throughout pregnancy to 6000-MHz microwave radiation at a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 or were used as controls. The irradiation did not cause a significant increase in maternal body temperature as measured by a rectal thermocouple. The rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: home cage control (5), anechoic chamber control (10), sham-irradiated concurrent control (10), and irradiated (11). All animals were killed on the 22nd day of gestation, and maternal tissues were removed and weighed and maternal blood samples were taken. The 384 resultant fetuses and their placentas were individually weighed, fixed, and dissected to determine normality. Teratologic evaluation included the following parameters: maternal weight and weight gain; mean litter size; maternal organ weight and organ weight/body weight ratios; body weight ratios of brain, liver, kidneys, and ovaries; maternal peripheral blood parameters including hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white cell counts; number of resorptions and resorption rate; number of abnormalities and abnormality rate; mean term fetal weight. The irradiated fetuses exhibited slight but statistically significant growth retardation at term. Term maternal monocyte count was also significantly depressed. No other parameters differed between the control groups and the irradiated group

  8. Application of ionising radiation to the pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmar, E.

    1975-01-01

    Pharmacons, commonly called 'Drugs', are subject to a many-sided procedure of development before they are released on the market and reach the patient. Again and again they are submitted to controls for safety reasons and at least seven (sometimes nine or ten) years pass before the active substance has made its way from chemistry through many trials with animals in experimental pathology and through the laboratories of the biochemistry department. Ionising radiation is used in each field of drug research as an additional method for obtaining information. In chemistry the structure of molecules can be detected by X-ray diffraction, and the active component elucidated. In the teratology section of experimental pathology the foetus just before delivery and newborn animals are X-rayed. This is in order to find out skeletal malformations that might have occurred during feeding of the substance in question during gestation. In biochemistry the pharmacon is labelled with a suitable radioactive isotope. Its way through the body can then be followed by measuring absorption rate, distribution, binding and elimination. It is also important to explore the influence of the drug on the organism and the reverse - how the pharmacon is influenced by the organism. This means examining the metabolites of the drug and the mechanism of action by means of serial auto-radiography and clearance or excretion studies. Gamma rays are employed for sterilisation of ointment tubes and vials just before filling. Sterilisation of the pharmacon is discussed. (author)

  9. Late-onset Pompe disease with complicated intracranial aneurysm: a Chinese case report

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    Zhang B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bin Zhang,1,2,* Yuying Zhao,1,3,* Junling Liu,1,4 Ling Li,1 Jingli Shan,1 Dandan Zhao,1 Chuanzhu Yan1,3 1Laboratory of Neuromuscular Disorders and Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 2Department of Neurology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong, 3Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education, Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 4Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease caused by genetic defects of acid maltase. This disease could be divided into two forms: infantile and late-onset, which mainly affect cardiac, respiratory, and skeletal muscle systems. Late-onset patients mainly show symptoms of skeletal muscle involvement, but recent reports have found that the central nervous system was also affected in some patients. Herein, we report a case of a female, adolescent-onset Pompe patient, who was diagnosed with complicated intracranial aneurysm in adulthood. Keywords: Pompe disease, glycogen storage disease II, acid maltase, acid alpha-glucosidase, cerebrovascular disorders

  10. Low-dose x-radiation and congenital anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1983-01-01

    Among radiation effects on developing embryos and fetuses, occurrence of germinal mutation due to exposure of the gonads and postnatal manifestation of neoplasms are considered to be stochastic effects from the aspect of radiation protection. On the other hand, somatic effects such as teratogenic and embryo-toxic effects can be regarded as nonstochastic ones with threshold doses. In experimental teratological studies with mice and rats, the lowest radiation doses for manifestation of the non-stochastic somatic effects which have been recognized so far are:5 rad for resorption of preimplantation embryos; 5-10 rad for acute cytological changes such as pyknosis, cytoplasmic degeneration and mitotic delay; 5 rad for increasing frequency of spontaneous minor anomalies of the skeleton; 15-20 rad for malformations of the eye, brain and spinal cord; 20-25 rad for histogenetic and functional disorders of the central nervous system; and 20-25 rad for impaired fertility. Pregnant women who are subject to X-ray examinations are much concerned about potential hazard of radiation to their offspring in utero. The above experimental findings suggest that the possibility of non-stochastic somatic effects of diagnostic radiation on human embryos and fetuses is extremely low, and probably negligible, given the proper dose control measures. Possible effects which should be considered for risk evaluation of diagnostic exposure are two stochastic effects, carcinogenic and mutagenic. (author)

  11. The developmental toxicity of perfluoroalkyl acids and their derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Christopher; Butenhoff, John L.; Rogers, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have applications in numerous industrial and consumer products. Although the toxicology of some of these compounds has been investigated in the past, the widespread prevalence of PFOS and PFOA in humans, as demonstrated in recent bio-monitoring studies, has drawn considerable interest from the public and regulatory agencies as well as renewed efforts to better understand the hazards that may be inherent in these compounds. This review provides a brief overview of the perfluoroalkyl chemicals and a summary of the available information on the developmental toxicity of the eight-carbon compounds, PFOS and PFOA. Although the teratological potentials of some of these chemicals had been studied in the past and the findings were generally unremarkable, results from recent postnatal studies on developmental and reproductive indices have prompted consideration of their relevance to human health risk. Based on current understanding of the developmental effects of PFOS and PFOA in rodents, several avenues of research are suggested that would further support the risk assessment of these perfluorinated organic chemicals

  12. Prenatal irradiation and developmental disorders of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1987-01-01

    The radiation sensitivity of the brain of a growing fetus is higher than that of other organs and tissues. Of the various organs in the human body, the brain has the most complicated structure. The major features of developmental disorders of the brain, which are produced rather easily by external causes, are: (a) the sensitive period for developmental disorders is long, (b) undifferentiated nerve cells are sensitive to external causes and (c) such disorders leads to irreversible functional failures after birth. The malformation of the brain and its relations with the sensitivity are briefly described. Experiments with prenatal animals have shown that major developmental disorders of brain tissue include death of undifferentiated cells, lack of constituent neurons and disturbance in structure of the cortex, and that typical developmental abnormalities include dysgenetic hydrocephaly, microcephalia, etc. Teratological features of histogenetic disorders of the brain are then briefly outlined. Various experimental results on these and other disorders caused by radiations are presented and discussed. Data on fetuses exposed to radiations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki are also given and discussed. The last section of the report deals with risk evaluation. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Levonorgestrel used for emergency contraception during lactation-a prospective observational cohort study on maternal and infant safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakow-Farkash, Sharon; Gilad, Oded; Merlob, Paul; Stahl, Bracha; Yogev, Yariv; Klinger, Gil

    2013-02-01

    To identify possible effects of levonorgestrel used as an emergency contraceptive during breastfeeding on mothers and their infants. A prospective observational cohort study of all women who contacted the Teratology Information Service between January, 2005 and January, 2010. Breastfeeding women who used levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive (study group) were compared to breastfeeding women who used either ethynodiol diacetate or desogestrel (control group). Women were followed for 6-24 months. Main outcome measures were adverse maternal and infant effects and continuation of breastfeeding. We followed 71 of 128 study group women and 72 of 100 control group women. Maternal adverse effects were mainly vaginal bleeding, which was less frequent in the study vs. control group (16 of 71 vs. 27 of 72, p = 0.068). Decreased lactation was uncommon and similar in both groups. Breastfeeding was reinitiated within less than 8 h in 75% of the levonorgestrel group women. Adverse infant effects were rare (0 of 72 infants vs. 2 of 72 infants, p = 0.5 in the study vs. control group). Our findings support the safety of using levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive during lactation without the need for withholding breastfeeding.

  14. TREATMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL CONGENITAL HIP LUXATION

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    Iulian ICLEANU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hip luxation is a disorder which evolves in time. Teratological hip dislocation is a distinct form of hip luxation, which usually appears with other disorders. These hips are dislocated before birth. In this thesis we will try to elaborate a recovery program, through physical exercises, which will help us realize our treatment objectives: diminishing articular stiffness, increasing articular mobility, increasing muscle strength, recalibration of agonist and antagonist balances and reeducating gait. The specific objectives of the study consist of the particularization of the recovery programs based on age, illness stage (dysplasia or luxation and either surgical or non-surgical intervention. To show the importance of physiotherapy in gait rehabilitation of a child with hip dislocation we started from the hypothesis: using an adequate rehabilitation program after an individualized methodology, optimizes the functional recovery and ensures the gains of hip stability and the formation of an engram of gait as close as it could be to the normal one. We present a case of neurological congenital hip dislocation where the treatment initiated early is showing good results. Results obtained are significantly different and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient has better biomechanical results for the hip.

  15. Potency of maternal folic acid supplementation on gamma irradiation- induced histological and embryological anomalies in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation

  16. Toward a comparative retrospective analysis of rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, P T; Beken, S; Cappon, G D; Chen, C; Hoberman, A M; van der Laan, J W; Stewart, J; Piersma, A H

    2014-08-01

    Based on a proposal made at the ICH Workshop in Tallinn, Estonia (2010), the value of the rabbit embryo-fetal development (EFD) versus the rodent EFD was examined by the HESI DART group. A cross-industry data survey provided anonymised EFD and toxicokinetic data from EFD studies on over 400 marketed and unmarketed drugs (over 800 studies) that were entered by experts at RIVM into US EPA’s ToxRefDB style database. The nature and severity of findings at the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) are being reviewed to quantitate the frequency with which lesser signs of embryo-fetal effects (e.g., delays in ossification, minor changes in frequency of variants) are driving the LOAELs. Interpretation was based on exposure rather than administered dose. This paper provides an update of this ongoing project as discussed during a workshop of the European Teratology Society in Ispra, Italy (2013). This was the first presentation of the initial data set, allowing debate on future directions, to provide a better understanding of the implications of either delaying a rabbit EFD or waiving the need in particular circumstances.

  17. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, Anja C; Mulder, Eduard J H

    2006-01-01

    Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal exposure to maternal smoking, drinking and, to a lesser extent, cannabis use, information on neurobehavioral and cognitive teratogenic findings beyond these early ages is still quite limited. Furthermore, most studies have focused on prenatal exposure to heavy levels of smoking, drinking or cannabis use. Few recent studies have paid attention to low or moderate levels of exposure to these substances. This review endeavors to provide an overview of such studies, and includes animal findings and potential mechanisms that may explain the mostly subtle effects found on neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to either maternal smoking, alcohol or cannabis use is related to some common neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes, including symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity), increased externalizing behavior, decreased general cognitive functioning, and deficits in learning and memory tasks.

  18. First-trimester in utero exposure to anorectics: a French collaborative study with special reference to dexfenfluramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, T; Robert, E; Carlier, P; Bertolotti, E; Brun, A

    1992-01-01

    A collaborative study with 8 Teratology Information Centres was undertaken to collect data on anorectic exposures (amfepramone, clobenzorex, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, fenproporex) during pregnancy. Two hundred and ninety seven prospective enquiries were analysed of which 285 exposures occurred during the first trimester. Outcome of pregnancy was known for 164 of these cases. Voluntary or medical abortion was decided in 30 cases (18%), spontaneous abortion occurred in 14 cases (8.5%), extrauterine pregnancy in 1 patient and fetal death following drug abuse in another. A normal infant was delivered in 111 cases (68%). Low birthweight was identified in 1 case and neonatal complications in 2 cases. Various congenital abnormalities were noted in 4 cases (1 minor and 3 major), with no clear cause-effect relationship (2 amfepramone, 1 fenproporex and 1 dexfenfluramine). Although the number of exposed pregnancies in this cohort was too small to rule out any increase in teratogenic effects of anorectics, the results of this survey suggest that the risk for malformations, especially for dexfenfluramine is probably not greater than the 2-3% risk for pregnancies in the general population. Morover, these results provide substantial information for future enquiries about exposure to such medication during organogenesis.

  19. Effect of endosulfan on immunological competence of layer birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Kumar, Ashok; Chauhan, R S; Pankaj, P K

    2016-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of endosulfan insecticide after limited oral administration in White Leghorn layer chickens. A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given endosulfan in drinking water at 30 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-months. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from endosulfan offered birds were estimated at 15-day interval in layer birds and at monthly interval in chicks using immunological, biochemical parameters, and teratological estimates. There was a significant decrease in levels of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds fed with endosulfan as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with endosulfan as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from endosulfan-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. The exposure to endosulfan in limited oral dosage was able to exhibit hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting cautious usage of endosulfan insecticide in poultry sheds.

  20. Public health approach to birth defects: the Argentine experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Barbero, Pablo; Liascovich, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Birth defects are a global problem, but their impact is particularly severe in low and middle income countries, where the conditions for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation are more critical. The epidemiological transition in the infant mortality causes, and the concern of the community and the mass media about the teratogenic risk of environmental pollutants, has made health authorities aware of the importance of birth defects in Argentina. The objective of this paper is to outline those actions specifically taken in Argentina aimed at the prevention of birth defects at a national level. Firstly, we focus on birth defects in Argentina on a general basis, and then we present different laws and actions taken in terms of surveillance and public health programs, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Finally, we present the Teratology Information Service "Fetal Health Line", and the genetic services organization and health professionals training by the National Center of Medical Genetics and the National Program of Genetics Network. In conclusion, in the country, several programs focus on different approaches to the problem, and the challenge is to coordinate the teamwork between them. Finally, we list tips to address birth defects from the public health perspective.

  1. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS): studies of honey bees exposed to 2. 45 GHz continuous-wave electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B

    1980-12-01

    A system for small animal exposure was developed for treating honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in brood and adult stages, with 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at selected power densities and exposure times. Post-treatment brood development was normal and teratological effects were not detected at exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment survival, longevity, orientation, navigation, and memory of adult bees were also normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment longevity of confined bees in the laboratory was normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 24 hours. Thermoregulation of brood nest, foraging activity, brood rearing, and social interaction were not affected by chronic exposure to 1 mw/cm/sup 2/ during 28 days. In dynamic behavioral bioassays the frequency of entry and duration of activity of unrestrained, foraging adult bees was identical in microwave-exposed (5 to 40 mw/cm/sup 2/) areas versus control areas.

  2. Monsters and the case of L. Joseph: André Feil's thesis on the origin of the Klippel-Feil syndrome and a social transformation of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, Evgenii; Malik, Kashif; Simoneau, Isabelle; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Lei, Ting; Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Byvaltsev, Vadim A; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C

    2016-07-01

    André Feil (1884-1955) was a French physician best recognized for his description, coauthored with Maurice Klippel, of patients with congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, a condition currently known as Klippel-Feil syndrome. However, little is known about his background aside from the fact that he was a student of Klippel and a physician who took a keen interest in describing congenital anomalies. Despite the relative lack of information on Feil, his contributions to the fields of spinal disease and teratology extended far beyond science to play an integral role in changing the misguided perception shrouding patients with disfigurements, defects, deformities, and so-called monstrous births. In particular, Feil's 1919 medical school thesis on cervical abnormalities was a critical publication in defying long-held theory and opinion that human "monstrosities," anomalies, developmental abnormalities, and altered congenital physicality were a consequence of sinful behavior or a reversion to a primitive state. Indeed, his thesis on a spinal deformity centering on his patient, L. Joseph, was at the vanguard for a new view of a patient as nothing less than fully human, no matter his or her physicality or appearance.

  3. Direct radiological magnification in experimental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen Nautrup, C.; Berens von Rautenfeld, D.

    1991-01-01

    Some aspects of direct radiological magnification in experimental medicine are shown by teratological investigations of the fetal rat skeleton and by indirect lymphadenography in rabbits. A combination of microfocal radiography and high-resolution non-screen films or digital image processing allows the evaluation of structures with a minimum size of 5 μm. Pseudo-3D images correlate directly with scanning electron micrographs of equivalent casts. Therefore radiography with direct magnification can make difficult preparations and time-consuming staining processes unnecessary. Besides saving time, the main advantage of this method is the amount of new information it yields. For the first time, for example, the filling mechanism becomes visible even in minute vessels, such as the intranodal sinuses, which measure about 10 μm. Hitherto, we have only been able to infer this mechanism from histological specimens. A further benefit of direct radiological magnification over the conventional microscopical method is the smaller number of experimental animals needed. (orig.) [de

  4. Expanding the mutation and clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan H; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Eid, Maha M; Tosson, Angie M S; Shousha, Wafaa Gh; Abdel Azeem, Amira A; Farag, Mona K; Mehrez, Mennat I; Gaber, Khaled R

    2016-07-01

    Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia syndrome are rare autosomal recessive genetic disorders representing the extremes of the spectrum of severity of the same condition, caused by mutations in ESCO2 gene. We report three new patients with Roberts syndrome from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families. All patients presented with growth retardation, mesomelic shortening of the limbs more in the upper than in the lower limbs and microcephaly. Patients were subjected to clinical, cytogenetic and radiologic examinations. Cytogenetic analysis showed the characteristic premature separation of centromeres and puffing of heterochromatic regions. Further, sequencing of the ESCO2 gene identified a novel mutation c.244_245dupCT (p.T83Pfs*20) in one family besides two previously reported mutations c.760_761insA (p.T254Nfs*27) and c.764_765delTT (p.F255Cfs*25). All mutations were in homozygous state, in exon 3. The severity of the mesomelic shortening of the limbs and craniofacial anomalies showed variability among patients. Interestingly, patient 1 had abnormal skin hypopigmentation. Serial fetal ultrasound examinations and measurements of long bones diagnosed two affected fetuses in two of the studied families. A literature review and case comparison was performed. In conclusion, we report a novel ESCO2 mutation and expand the clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. Sirenomelia with a de novo balanced translocation 46,X,t(X;16)(p11.23;p12.3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Tanoshima-Takei, Miki; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Masuno, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Yukichi; Yamanaka, Michiko

    2012-06-01

    We report a female fetus with sirenomelia with 46,X,t(X;16)(p11.23;p12.3) de novo. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes were employed for narrowing down the breakpoint regions. On chromosome 16, the breakpoint was mapped in the region of RP11-453F10 (19 920 640-20 118 153 bp from 16pter). On chromosome X, the breakpoint was mapped in the region of RP11-794A15 (47 333 744-47 524 066 bp from Xpter). This is the first case report of sirenomelia associated with translocations. The abnormal phenotype, associated with a balanced translocation, was caused by deletion or breakage of dosage-sensitive genes of the breakpoint, disruption of an imprinted gene, or uniparental disomy. Although the parental origin of normal 16 and der(16) remained undetermined, this case will provide insight into the pathogenetic mechanism of sirenomelia. © 2011 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  6. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1994-01-01

    Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

  8. Lack of toxic effect of technical azadirachtin during postnatal development of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    2007-03-01

    Azadirachtin, a biopesticide has been evaluated for its possible toxic effects during postnatal development of rats over two generations. Rats were fed 100, 500 and 1000ppm technical azadirachtin through diet which is equivalent to 5, 25 and 50mg/kg body weight of rats. Technical azadirachtin has not produced any adverse effects on reproductive function and data were comparable to control animals over two generations. There were no toxicological effect in parent rats as evidenced by clinical signs of toxicity, enzymatic parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, S. bilirubin, S. cholesterol, total protein and histopathology of liver, brain, kidney and testes/ovary. The litters of F(1B) and F(2B) generations were devoid of any morphological, visceral and teratological changes. The percent cumulative loss and growth index of pups were also comparable to respective controls in successive growth period of 0, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days in two generations. There were no major malformations in fetuses while some insignificant minor skeletal variations like missing 5th sternebrae and bipartite thoracic centre found were not compound or dose related. No significant pathomorphological changes were observed in liver, kidney, brain and gonads of F(2B) pups. In conclusion rats fed technical azadirachtin showed no evidence of cumulative effects on postnatal development and reproductive performance over two generations. Absence of any major adverse reproductive effects in adults as well as in 21 days old pups of F(2B) generation suggest the safe use of technical azadirachtin as a biopesticide.

  9. Ameliorating role of chromium ingestion on biochemical, histological and trigluconate disorders induced by diabetes and / or gamma irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMADAN, F.L.; REZK, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element in human nutrition for the regulation of insulin action thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chromium intake on radiation-induced damage in diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female rats by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received chromium (20 mg/kg) from the 1st up to the 19 th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.3 Gy gamma radiation on the 6th and the 12 th day of gestation. Chromium treatment of diabetic mothers ameliorated radiation-induced damage, which was obvious by diminishing the increase of glucose, malonaldehyde (MDA), total cholesterol levels and by ameliorating the decrease of glutathione level in blood serum. In addition,chromium treatment ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in cholesterol levels of the fetuses. Moreover, chromium treatment led to the regeneration of the normal architecture of maternal hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that chromium supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical, histopathological and teratological disorders. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that chromium administration caused a significant protection to diabetic pregnant females against radiation-induced spontaneous abortion and embryo malformations

  10. Impact of monosodium glutamate and /or gamma irradiation on pregnant rats and their embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the destructive impact of the widely used nutritional flavouring agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and/or radiation stress on the female rats mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical and embryological morphological and histopathological lesions induced. MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, widely used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in modern nutrition. MSG (4 mg/rat) was daily administered subcutaneously to pregnant female rats from the 10 th to the 15 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy increments delivered every other day up to a cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. MSG and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum levels of lipid peroxides, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and sodium together with decreased calcium concentrations. consequently, the developing embryos in the uteri, due to their increased sensitivity, showed various teratological and histological impairments . MSG and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. moreover, embryonic histological examination revealed ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layer together with severely degenerated neurons

  11. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  12. Editorial brain malformation surveillance in the Zika era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The current surveillance systems for congenital microcephaly are necessary to monitor the impact of Zika virus (ZIKV) on the developing human brain, as well as the ZIKV prevention efforts. However, these congenital microcephaly surveillance systems are insufficient. Abnormalities of neuronal differentiation, development and migration may occur among infants with normal head circumference who have intrauterine exposure to ZIKV. Therefore, surveillance for congenital microcephaly does not ascertain many of the infants seriously impacted by congenital ZIKV infection. Furthermore, many infants with normal head circumference and with malformations of the brain cortex do not have clinical manifestations of their congenital malformations until several months to many years after birth, when they present with clinical manifestations such as seizures/epilepsy, developmental delays with or without developmental regression, and/or motor impairment. In response to the ZIKV threat, public health surveillance systems must be enhanced to ascertain a wide variety of congenital brain malformations, as well as their clinical manifestations that lead to diagnostic brain imaging. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:869–874, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27891785

  13. Evaluation and interpretation of maternal toxicity in Segment II studies: Issues, some answers, and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, John M.; Chernoff, Neil; Keen, Carl L.; Daston, George P.

    2005-01-01

    Biologically rational regulatory policies with regards to developmental toxicity are often based on the extrapolation of standard laboratory rodent bioassay results to the human population. Significantly contributing to the difficulty of this task is the possibility that general toxic effects on the maternal organism may affect the developing conceptus. This review examines maternal factors which may bear directly or indirectly upon developmental outcome, with emphasis on those of greatest relevance to the hazard assessment process. Standard teratology testing protocols call for top dosage levels that induce overt maternal toxicity, and the developmental effects of this toxicity (both alone, and with concurrent embryo/fetal insult) continue to present regulators with considerable interpretive difficulties. In response to these problems, there have been both research and literature review efforts dealing with the relationship of maternal and developmental toxicity. Maternally mediated developmental toxicity occurs with a number of agents, and toxicant-induced alterations in maternal physiology may affect the conceptus at dosages not causing overt maternal toxicity. Relevant studies are reviewed here, and suggestions for avenues of future research are offered including the identification of any syndromes of developmental effects occurring at maternally toxic levels irrespective of the causative agent, and experimental approaches for the characterization of maternal toxicity

  14. Effects of environmental enrichment on the activity of the amygdala in micrencephalic rats exposed to a novel open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Wakoto; Ehara, Ayuka; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Ueda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) mediates recovery from sensory, motor, and cognitive deficits and emotional abnormalities. In the present study, we examined the effects of EE on locomotor activity and neuronal activity in the amygdala in control and methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM)-induced micrencephalic rats after challenge in a novel open field. Control rats housed in EE (CR) showed reduced locomotor activity compared to rats housed in a conventional cage (CC), whereas hyperactivity was seen in MAM rats housed in a conventional cage (MC) and in MAM rats housed in EE (MR). Novel open field exposure in both CC and MC resulted in a marked increase in Fos expression in the anterior and posterior parts of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, basomedial nucleus, and medial nucleus, whereas these increases in expression were not observed in CR. The effect of EE on Fos expression in the amygdala was different in MR exposed to a novel open field compared to CR. Furthermore, we observed a quite different pattern of Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala between control and MAM rats. The present results suggest that neuronal activity in the amygdala that responds to anxiety is altered in MAM rats, especially when the rats are reared in EE. These alterations may cause behavioral differences between control and MAM rats. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  16. Education and certification of genetic counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsichti, L; Hadzipetros-Bardanis, M; Bartsocas, C S

    1999-01-01

    Genetic counseling is defined by the American Society of Human Genetics as a communication process which deals with the human problems associated with the occurrence, or risk of occurrence, of a genetic disorder in a family. The first graduate program (Master's degree) in genetic counseling started in 1969 at Sarah Lawrence College, NY, USA, while in 1979 the National Society of Genetic Counseling (NSGC) was established. Today, there are 29 programs in U.S.A. offering a Master's degree in Genetic Counseling, five programs in Canada, one in Mexico, one in England and one in S. Africa. Most of these graduate programs offer two year training, consisting of graduate courses, seminars, research and practical training. Emphasis is given in human physiology, biochemistry, clinical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular and biochemical genetics, population genetics and statistics, prenatal diagnosis, teratology and genetic counseling in relation to psychosocial and ethical issues. Certification for eligible candidates is available through the American Board of Medical Genetics (ABMG). Requirements for certification include a master's degree in human genetics, training at sites accredited by the ABMG, documentation of genetic counseling experience, evidence of continuing education and successful completion of a comprehensive ABMG certification examination. As professionals, genetic counselors should maintain expertise, should insure mechanisms for professional advancement and should always maintain the ability to approach their patients.

  17. A descriptive study to provide evidence of the teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine and ephedrine on cardiac- and liver-tissue of chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Van Der Schoor, Ciska; Taute, Helena; Bester, Megan Jean

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to drugs during pregnancy is a major concern, as some teratogenic compounds can influence normal foetal development. Although the use of drugs during pregnancy should generally be avoided, exposure of the developing foetus to teratogens may occur unknowingly since these compounds may be hidden in products that are being marketed as "all natural." The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine-a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of obesity-on the heart and liver tissue of chick embryos. Ephedrine was used as a positive control. The chick embryo model was chosen because it has been used in studying developmental and experimental biology and teratology with great success. The embryos were exposed to three different concentrations of sibutramine and ephedrine respectively. The results obtained revealed that both compounds exhibited embryotoxicity when compared to the control groups. Liver and heart tissue of the exposed embryos was severely affected by these compounds in a dose-related manner. Morphology similar to that of muscle dystrophy was observed in the heart, where the muscle tissue was infiltrated by adipose and connective tissue. Severe liver steatosis was also noted. A more in-depth investigation into the molecular pathways involved might provide more information on the exact mechanism of toxicity of these products influencing embryonic development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Introduction: biomarkers in neurodevelopment toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.

    1987-10-01

    The search for markers of toxicant exposure and effect upon the development of organisms presents a set of challenges that differ in many ways from those encountered in the study of markers in reproduction or pregnancy. These latter two fields specify a relatively narrow set of organs or biological systems. The term development, on the other hand, can apply to any organ system, or to any set of phenomena that changes in an ordered way over time. For this reason the papers presented in the session on development were chosen to narrow the focus to neurodevelopmental markers, as such markers may be altered by neurotoxic exposure. In attempting to meet this task, the authors have been able to select a group of investigators who work at the leading edges of their respective fields of developmental neuroanatomy, neurotoxicology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, and infant development. The notion that toxicants could affect behavior certainly is not new. Recent knowledge that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral observation might provide early markers of effect has given rise to two new fields: behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology.

  19. Spastic quadriplegia in Down syndrome with congenital duodenal stenosis/atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Enomoto, Keisuke; Tominaga, Makiko; Furuya, Noritaka; Sameshima, Kiyoko; Iai, Mizue; Take, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Masato; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Michiko; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Masuno, Mitsuo

    2012-06-01

    Down syndrome is an autosomal chromosome disorder, characterized by intellectual disability and muscle hypotonia. Muscle hypotonia is observed from neonates to adulthood in Down syndrome patients, but muscle hypertonicity is extremely unusual in this syndrome. During a study period of nine years, we found three patients with severe spastic quadriplegia among 20 cases with Down syndrome and congenital duodenal stenosis/atresia (3/20). However, we could find no patient with spastic quadriplegia among 644 cases with Down syndrome without congenital duodenal stenosis/atresia during the same period (0/644, P quadriplegia among 17 patients with congenital duodenal stenosis/atresia without Down syndrome admitted during the same period to use as a control group (0/17, P quadriplegia in patients with Down syndrome. Long-term survival is improving, and the large majority of people with Down syndrome are expected to live well into adult life. Management and further study for the various problems, representing a low prevalence but serious and specific to patients with Down syndrome, are required to improve their quality of life. © 2012 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2012 Japanese Teratology Society.

  20. Developmental and behavioral effects of prenatal primidone exposure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, W J; Alexander, T D; Loftus, J T

    1996-12-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered primidone (PRM) by oral gavage on gestation days 8-17 in doses of 0.40, and 80 mg/kg. Although these doses of PRM did not produce significant differences in litter size, birth weight, mortality, date of attainment of developmental landmarks or measures of preweaning reflex and motor development, there were a number of significant differences that developed as the animals approached and entered adulthood. When tested as adults, the 80 mg/kg male rats showed a deficit in the performance of an eight-arm radial maze task. These same animals showed a significant reduction in open field activity when tested as adults. In addition, both male and female PRM-treated animals showed reduced body weights at different periods corresponding to onset of sexual maturation during development. These findings are consistent with the larger body of literature reporting on the neurobehavioral teratology of phenobarbital, including its ability to produce lesions in the hippocampus and endocrine dysfunction resulting in reproductive deficits. These results suggest that PRM produces its adverse effects as a result of its metabolism to phenobarbital, which in turn affects the limbic system.

  1. Blastogenetic associations: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Associations of anomalies, with VACTERL as the prototype, have been the source of much debate, including questions about the validity and definition of this category. Evidence is presented for a teratologic basis for associations involving interactions between disruptive events and specific vulnerabilities. Because the embryo is organized in time and space, differences in the timing, location, and severity of exposures will create variable sequelae for any specific vulnerability, creating associations. The blastogenetic stage of development involves distinct properties that affect the nature of associations arising during this time, including relatively undifferentiated developmental fields and causally nonspecific malformations. With this, single anomalies can be part of the spectrum of findings that comprise a specific association. A specific defect defines a subset of disturbances, biasing frequencies of other defects. Processes are basic, integrated, and general, so disruptions are often lethal, and can have multiple effects, accounting for high incidences of multiple anomalies, and overlaps between associations. Blastogenetic disturbances also do not affect the late "fine tuning" of minor anomalies, although pathogenetic sequences can occur. This model suggests that certain combinations of congenital anomalies can arise from causally nonspecific teratogenetic fields determined by timing, location, and vulnerabilities, rather than polytopic developmental fields. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Potency of maternal folic acid supplementation on gamma irradiation- induced histological and embryological anomalies in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezk, R G [Health Rad. Res., NCRRT, Cairo (Egypt); Ibrahim, M F [Rad. Biology Dept., NCRRT, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation.

  3. Odontoblasts: Specialized hard-tissue-forming cells in the dentin-pulp complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Okiji, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Odontoblasts are specialized cells that produce dentin and exhibit unique morphological characteristics; i.e., they extend cytoplasmic processes into dentinal tubules. While osteoblasts, which are typical hard-tissue-forming cells, are generated from mesenchymal stem cells during normal and pathological bone metabolism, the induction of odontoblasts only occurs once during tooth development, and odontoblasts survive throughout the lives of healthy teeth. During the differentiation of odontoblasts, signaling molecules from the inner enamel epithelium are considered necessary for the differentiation of odontoblast precursors, i.e., peripheral dental papilla cells. If odontoblasts are destroyed by severe external stimuli, such as deep caries, the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells into odontoblast-like cells is induced. Various bioactive molecules, such as non-collagenous proteins, might be involved in this process, although the precise mechanisms responsible for odontoblast differentiation have not been fully elucidated. Recently, our knowledge about the other functional activities of odontoblasts (apart from dentin formation) has increased. For example, it has been suggested that odontoblasts might act as nociceptive receptors, and surveillance cells that detect the invasion of exogenous pathogens. The regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex has recently gained much attention as a promising future treatment modality that could increase the longevity of pulpless teeth. Finally, congenital dentin anomalies, which are concerned with the disturbance of odontoblast functions, are summarized. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  4. Association of MEOX2 polymorphism with nonsyndromic cleft palate only in a Vietnamese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duy L; Imura, Hideto; Mori, Akihiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Niimi, Teruyuki; Ono, Maya; Sakuma, Chisato; Nakahara, Shinichi; Nguyen, Tham T H; Pham, Phuong T; Hoang, Viet; Tran, Van T T; Nguyen, Minh D; Natsume, Nagato

    2017-10-14

    To evaluate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs227493 in the MEOX2 gene and nonsyndromic cleft palate only, this research was conducted as a case-control study by comparing a nonsyndromic cleft palate only group with an independent, healthy, and unaffected control group who were both examined by specialists. Based on clinical examination and medical records, we analyzed a total of 570 DNA samples, including 277 cases and 293 controls, which were extracted from dry blood spot samples collected from both the Odonto and Maxillofacial Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City and Nguyen Dinh Chieu Hospital in Ben Tre province, respectively. The standard procedures of genotyping the specific SNP (rs2237493) for MEOX2 were performed on a StepOne Realtime PCR system with TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Significant statistical differences were observed in allelic frequencies (allele T and allele G) between the non-syndromic cleft palate only and control groups in female subjects, with an allelic odds ratio of 1.455 (95% confidence interval: 1.026-2.064) and P < 0.05. These study findings suggest that nonsyndromic isolated cleft palate might be influenced by variation of MEOX2, especially SNP rs2237493 in Vietnamese females. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B.

    2013-10-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  6. MiR-153 targets the nuclear factor-1 family and protects against teratogenic effects of ethanol exposure in fetal neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Chi Tsai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is an established cause of birth defects, including neurodevelopmental defects. Most adult neurons are produced during the second trimester-equivalent period. The fetal neural stem cells (NSCs that generate these neurons are an important but poorly understood target for teratogenesis. A cohort of miRNAs, including miR-153, may serve as mediators of teratogenesis. We previously showed that ethanol decreased, while nicotine increased miR-153 expression in NSCs. To understand the role of miR-153 in the etiology of teratology, we first screened fetal cortical NSCs cultured ex vivo, by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses, to identify cell-signaling mRNAs and gene networks as important miR-153 targets. Moreover, miR-153 over-expression prevented neuronal differentiation without altering neuroepithelial cell survival or proliferation. Analysis of 3′UTRs and in utero over-expression of pre-miR-153 in fetal mouse brain identified Nfia (nuclear factor-1A and its paralog, Nfib, as direct targets of miR-153. In utero ethanol exposure resulted in a predicted expansion of Nfia and Nfib expression in the fetal telencephalon. In turn, miR-153 over-expression prevented, and partly reversed, the effects of ethanol exposure on miR-153 target transcripts. Varenicline, a partial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist that, like nicotine, induces miR-153 expression, also prevented and reversed the effects of ethanol exposure. These data collectively provide evidence for a role for miR-153 in preventing premature NSC differentiation. Moreover, they provide the first evidence in a preclinical model that direct or pharmacological manipulation of miRNAs have the potential to prevent or even reverse effects of a teratogen like ethanol on fetal development.

  7. Growth, development, reproduction, physiological and behavioural studies on living organisms, human adults and children exposed to radiation from video displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverdure, A.M.; Surbeck, J.; North, M.O.; Tritto, J.

    2001-01-01

    Various living organisms, human workers and children were tested for any biological action resulting from exposure to radiation from video display terminals (VDTs). VDTs were powered by a 50-Hz alternating voltage of 220 V. Measured electric and magnetic fields were 13 V/M and 50 nT, respectively. Living organisms were maintained under their normal breeding conditions and control values were obtained before switching on the VDT. Various effects related to the irradiation time were demonstrated, i.e. growth delay in algae and Drosophila, a body weight deficiency in rats, abnormal peaks of mortality in Daphnia and Drosophila, teratological effects in chick embryos and behavioural disturbances in rats. The embryonic and neonatal periods showed a high sensitivity to the VDT radiation. In humans, after 4 h of working in front of a VDT screen, an increase in tiredness and a decrease in the resistance of the immune system were observed in workers. In prepubertal children, 20 min of exposure were sufficient to induce neuropsychological disturbances; pre-pubertal young people appear to be particularly sensitive to the effect of the radiation. In human testicular biopsies cultured in vitro for 24 h in front of a VDT screen, mitotic and meiotic disturbances, the appearance of degeneration in some aspects of the cells and significant disorganisation of the seminiferous tubules were demonstrated and related to modification of the metabolism of the sample. An experimental apparatus has been developed and tested that aims to prevent the harm from VDT radiation. Known commercially as the 'emf-Bioshield', it ensures effective protection against harmful biological effects of VDT radiation. (author)

  8. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  9. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.; Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively) following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.

  10. Modulation of phenytoin teratogenicity and embryonic covalent binding by acetylsalicylic acid, caffeic acid, and alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone: implications for bioactivation by prostaglandin synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.G.; Zubovits, J.T.; Wong, S.T.; Molinari, L.M.; Ali, S.

    1989-01-01

    Teratogenicity of the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin is thought to involve its bioactivation by cytochromes P-450 to a reactive arene oxide intermediate. We hypothesized that phenytoin also may be bioactivated to a teratogenic free radical intermediate by another enzymatic system, prostaglandin synthetase. To evaluate the teratogenic contribution of this latter pathway, an irreversible inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip), was administered to pregnant CD-1 mice at 9:00 AM on Gestational Days 12 and 13, 2 hr before phenytoin, 65 mg/kg ip. Other groups were pretreated 2 hr prior to phenytoin administration with either the antioxidant caffeic acid or the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (PBN). Caffeic acid and PBN were given ip in doses that respectively were up to 1.0 to 0.05 molar equivalents to the dose of phenytoin. Dams were killed on Day 19 and the fetuses were assessed for teratologic anomalies. A similar study evaluated the effect of ASA on the in vivo covalent binding of radiolabeled phenytoin administered on Day 12, in which case dams were killed 24 hr later on Day 13. ASA pretreatment produced a 50% reduction in the incidence of fetal cleft palates induced by phenytoin (p less than 0.05), without significantly altering the incidence of resorptions or mean fetal body weight. Pretreatment with either caffeic acid or PBN resulted in dose-related decreases in the incidence of fetal cleft palates produced by phenytoin, with maximal respective reductions of 71 and 82% at the highest doses of caffeic acid and PBN (p less than 0.05)

  11. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Our development of the homeotic-shift method as a sensitive and quantitative prescreen for teratogenesis has illustrated the advantages of using sensitive subpopulations. We have surveyed the teratology literature, particularly with regard to radiation, and find that the frequent lack of definition of subpopulations has led to a loss in sensitivity in the measurement of risk. An example is provided by the microcephaly data for Hiroshima. When we focused on the data for exposures during weeks 6 to 11 of pregnancy, the plot showed a steep dose-response curve (albeit with wide error bars due to the smallness of the samples). By contrast, the plot for exposure at any time during pregnancy (with different mixes of stages at each dose point) indicates a much shallower curve, of different shape at the lower end. Extrapolation to low doses could presumably be different from the two tabulations. This epidemiological study was a very large one, and the sample size and dose range are not likely to be duplicated for other agents. It is thus improbable that one will be able to deduce, from human data alone, critical periods for other endpoints. If one cannot do so - and therefore has to work with an array of exposed stages - the low-dose extrapolation will always be an underestimate as far as the real sensitive subpopulation is concerned. For experimental studies, careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure

  12. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Liane B

    2013-01-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  13. [Orthopedic management of spina bifida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, R

    2014-07-01

    Spina bifida is associated with congenital deformities, such as kyphosis, spinal malformations, teratological hip dislocations, clubfeet, vertical talus and also with acquired deformities due to muscle imbalance and impaired biomechanics. The degree of the acquired deformities and the mobility of the patient depend on the level of the spinal lesion. Neurological symptoms are mostly asymmetric and there is an inconsistent correlation between the anatomical level of the lesion and muscle function. Deficits of sensation are usually one to two levels lower than the motor level. An exact neurological diagnosis should not be made before the second or third year of life and an early prognosis about walking ability should be avoided. The level L3 and therefore function of the quadriceps is a functional milestone after which modified independent ambulation with the use of ankle foot orthoses (AFO) and crutches is possible. The basic principle is to support verticalization and gait even when loss of ambulation is later expected. It is also important to support and maintain sitting ability for high lesions, if necessary with correction of the spinal deformity. Findings in gait analysis have shifted the focus of treatment from radiological criteria to functional improvement, thus maintenance of the flexibility of the hip is the main goal of hip surgery. Reduction of the hip often leads to stiffness and has a high redislocation rate. Clubfoot deformities should be treated early and foot arthrodesis and stiffness have to be avoided. Another focus is the prevention of joint contracture by early prophylactic treatment. The purpose of management is to maximize the functional potential of the child. Subjective well-being, absence of pain, mobility and socialization are the main goals. This does not necessarily imply ambulation; nevertheless, verticalization and associated orthotic management is one major objective of the orthopedic management of spina bifida.

  14. Predicting the intrauterine fetal death of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Mai; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiromi; Mochizuki, Akihiko; Sekiguchi, Futoshi; Koshimizu, Naho; Itai, Toshiyuki; Odagami, Mizuha

    2018-01-11

    We investigated whether it was possible to predict the prognosis of fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy based on the degree of neck thickening. We retrospectively analyzed 57 singleton pregnancies with fetuses with cystic hygroma who were examined before the 22nd week of pregnancy. The fetuses were categorized according to the outcome, structural abnormalities at birth, and chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we proposed a new sonographic predictor with which we assessed neck thickening by dividing the width of the neck thickening by the biparietal diameter, which is expressed as the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio. The median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio in the intrauterine fetal death group (0.51) was significantly higher than that in the live birth group (0.27). No significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the structural abnormalities group at birth and the no structural abnormalities group, and no significant difference in the median cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio was found between the chromosomal abnormality group and the no chromosomal abnormality group. We used receiver operating characteristic analysis to evaluate the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio to predict intrauterine fetal death. When the cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio cut-off value was 0.5, intrauterine fetal death could be predicted with a sensitivity of 52.9% and a specificity of 100%. It is possible to predict intrauterine fetal death in fetuses with cystic hygroma in early pregnancy if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured. However, even if cystic hygroma width/biparietal diameter ratio is measured, predicting the presence or absence of a structural abnormality at birth or a chromosomal abnormality is difficult. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  15. Congenital ventricular septal defects and prenatal exposure to cyclooxygenase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Burdan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defects (VSDs are common congenital abnormalities which have been reported to be associated with maternal fever and various environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitors on heart defects. A retrospective statistical analysis was performed using data collected in our laboratory during various teratological studies carried out on albino CRL:(WIWUBR Wistar strain rats from 1997 to 2004. The observations were compared with concurrent and historic control data, as well as findings from other developmental toxicological studies with selective and nonselective COX-2 inhibitors. Despite the lack of significant differences in the frequency of VSDs between drug-exposed and control groups, statistical analysis by the two-sided Mantel-Haenszel test and historical control data showed a higher incidence of heart defects in offspring exposed to nonselective COX inhibitors (30.06/10,000. Unlike other specific inhibitors, aspirin (46.26/10,000 and ibuprofen (106.95/10,000 significantly increased the incidence of the VSD when compared with various control groups (5.38-19.72/10,000. No significant differences in length or weight were detected between fetuses exposed to COX inhibitors and born with VSD and non-malformed offsprings. However, a statistically significant increase of fetal body length and decrease of body mass index were found in fetuses exposed to COX inhibitors when compared with untreated control. We conclude that prenatal exposure to COX inhibitors, especially aspirin and ibuprofen, increased the incidence of VSDs in rat offspring but was not related to fetal growth retardation.

  16. Interkinetic nuclear migration in the mouse embryonic ureteric epithelium: Possible implication for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoya, Tomoyuki; Ogawa, Noriko; Nitta, Tetsuya; Rafiq, Ashiq Mahmood; Jahan, Esrat; Furuya, Motohide; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Udagawa, Jun; Otani, Hiroki

    2016-05-01

    Interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) is a phenomenon in which progenitor cell nuclei migrate along the apico-basal axis of the pseudostratified epithelium, which is characterized by the presence of apical primary cilia, in synchrony with the cell cycle in a manner of apical mitosis. INM is suggested to regulate not only stem/progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation but also organ size and shape. INM has been reported in epithelia of both ectoderm and endoderm origin. We examined whether INM exists in the mesoderm-derived ureteric epithelium. At embryonic day (E) 11.5, E12.5 and E13.5, C57BL/6J mouse dams were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and embryos were killed 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h later. We immunostained transverse sections of the ureter for BrdU, and measured the position of BrdU (+) nuclei in the ureteric epithelia along the apico-basal axis at each time point. We analyzed the distribution patterns of BrdU (+) nuclei in histograms using the multidimensional scaling. Changes in the nucleus distribution patterns suggested nucleus movement characteristic of INM in the ureteric epithelia, and the mode of INM varied throughout the ureter development. While apical primary cilia are related with INM by providing a centrosome for the apical mitosis, congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include syndromes linked to primary ciliary dysfunction affecting epithelial tubular organs such as kidney, ureter, and brain. The present study showed that INM exists in the ureteric epithelium and suggests that INM may be related with the CAKUT etiology via primary ciliary protein function. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. The similitude of some negative outcomes of Omega-3 to those of gamma radiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Yacoub, S.F.; Abdel Aziz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Even though it is established that manipulation of Omega-3, the essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, is beneficial during pregnancy for its well known antioxidant capacity, yet the present work aims at underscoring the adverse maternal biochemical and fetal teratological traits arising in consequence of excessive Omega-3 peri conceptional supplementation, some of which resemble various oxidative stress induced harmful effects of the prenatal maternal whole body gamma irradiation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. In the present study, adult Sprague Dawley female rats were randomized into 3 groups, one of which served as pregnant control (Group 1) whereas another one was orally administered with Omega-3 (0.5 g / kg /day) for 45 consecutive days (25 days preconception + 20 days of pregnancy) (Group 2) while the third group was subjected to 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on the 15th gestational day (Group 3). Five rats of each group were sacrificed after 20 days of gestation. The results revealed that both Omega-3 administration for 45 consecutive days or gamma radiation exposure resulted in a remarkable decrease in maternal blood Glutathione (GSH) content and Catalase accompanied by a significant elevation in maternal plasma Malonaldehyde (MDA), Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol levels when compared to the control group. Accordingly, the fetuses of the Omega-3 treated mothers, despite their lively active appearance, showed the occurrence of unexpected abnormal malformed extremities, sharing this phenomenon with the fetuses of the irradiated mother group who showed an exceptional high mortality rate together with higher incidence of recorded growth defects. Thus it can be speculated that Omega-3 over supplementation, may be inadvisable in pregnancy time in a manner relative to some extent to the maternal gamma irradiation prohibition.

  18. Re-evaluation of lung to thorax transverse area ratio immediately before birth in predicting postnatal short-term outcomes of fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Saki; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Sato, Yuka; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Miyoshi, Kina; Nagata, Kouji; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Kato, Kiyoko

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the lung-to-thorax transverse area ratio (LTR) immediately before birth is of diagnostic value for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in cases of isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We retrospectively reviewed the cases of fetal isolated left-sided CDH managed at our institution between April 2008 and July 2016. We divided the patients into two groups based on LTR immediately before birth, using a cut-off value of 0.08. We compared the proportions of subjects within the two groups who survived until discharge using Fisher's exact test. Further, using Spearman's rank correlation, we assessed whether LTR was correlated with length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and supplemental oxygen. Twenty-nine subjects were included (five with LTR < 0.08, and 24 with LTR ≥ 0.08). The proportion of subjects surviving until discharge was 40% (2/5) for patients with LTR < 0.08, as compared with 96% (23/24) for those with LTR ≥ 0.08. LTR measured immediately before birth was negatively correlated with the postnatal length of stay (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, rs = -0.486), and the duration of supplemental oxygen (rs = -0.537). Further, the duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in patients with a lower LTR value. LTR immediately before birth is useful for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH. In particular, patients with prenatal LTR value less than 0.08 are at increased risk of postnatal death. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  19. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  20. Prevalence of cleft lip and/or palate in children from Lodz between years 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, Bogusław; Fijałkowska, Marta

    2016-03-01

    Congenital malformations constitute a serious problem of both medical and social nature. Cleft lip and/or palate represent the most common congenital anomaly of the face that is why it is essential to know the real frequency of the described phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to determine the frequency of cleft lip and/or palate and the types of malformations that occurred in Lodz city between the years 1981-2010. Our clinic has been carrying on the studies concerning the incidence of cleft lip and/or palate since 1981. The Polish Registry of Congenital Malformations has been operating in Poland since 1 April 1997. The team has managed to obtain data, from the Registry, concerning the total number of all live born infants and the number of children with cleft lip and/or palate, who were born in Lodz, between 1998 and 2010. In years 1981-2010, 319 children, in 210 952 live born infants, were born with cleft lip and/or palate in Lodz. The isolated cleft palate was observed more frequently in girls and the unilateral cleft of lip and palate in boys. In all three decades palate clefts are more common whereas bilateral lip, alveolus and palate clefts are more infrequent. A small tendency to decrease in actual cleft lip and/or palate frequency among children, in the period of 30 years, is observed in Lodz. Over the years it has still been observed that the isolated cleft palate is the most common type of defect. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  1. Prevalence of orofacial clefts and risks for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in newborns at a university hospital from West Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Peña-Padilla, Christian; Olvera-Molina, Sandra; Orozco-Martín, Miriam A; García-Cruz, Diana; Ríos-Flores, Izabel M; Gómez-Rodríguez, Brian Gabriel; Rivas-Soto, Gemma; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús

    2018-02-19

    We determined the overall prevalence of typical orofacial clefts and the potential risks for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a university hospital from West México. For the prevalence, 227 liveborn infants with typical orofacial clefts were included from a total of 81,193 births occurred during the period 2009-2016 at the "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca" Civil Hospital of Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico). To evaluate potential risks, a case-control study was conducted among 420 newborns, including only those 105 patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (cases), and 315 infants without birth defects (controls). Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis expressed as adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals . The overall prevalence for typical orofacial clefts was 28 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval: 24.3-31.6), or 1 per 358 live births. The mean values for the prepregnancy weight, antepartum weight, and pre-pregnancy body mass index were statistically higher among the mothers of cases. Infants with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate had a significantly higher risk for previous history of any type of congenital anomaly (adjusted odds ratio: 2.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-5.1), history of a relative with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (adjusted odds ratio: 19.6; 95% confidence interval: 8.2-47.1), and first-trimester exposures to progestogens (adjusted odds ratio: 6.8; 95% CI 1.8-25.3), hyperthermia (adjusted odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-10.6), and common cold (adjusted odds ratio: 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-11.9). These risks could have contributed to explain the high prevalence of orofacial clefts in our region of Mexico, emphasizing that except for history of relatives with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, most are susceptible of modification. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  2. Developmental toxicology of radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Cross, F.T.; Mast, T.J.; Palmer, H.E.; James, A.C.; Thrall, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns about hazards associated with radon exposure in dwellings may be especially relevant to pregnant women, many of whom spend substantial amounts of time in their homes. There are few data concerning the placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution of inhaled radon and decay products or their effects on the conceptus. We performed a study in rats to determine if prenatal effects could be produced by prolonged inhalation exposures to high concentrations of radon throughout gestation. A group of 43 pregnant rats was exposed 18 h d -1 , at a rate of 124 working level months (WLM) per day, from 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg), of radon and daughters adsorbed onto ore dust. A group of 26 pregnant rats from the same shipment was exposed to a filtered-air atmosphere as controls. At 20 dg, the rats were removed from the chambers, killed, and necropsied. The fetuses were evaluated for the presence of toxic effects, which included detailed teratology protocols. These exposures did not produce detectable reproductive toxicity nor teratogenic change. Two other rats were removed from the radon chambers during the last day of exposure, and their tissues were analyzed to determine the distribution of radioactivity and for dosimetry. Samples from these rats suggested that the dose rates to the placenta were roughly threefold those to the fetus but were similar to those to the liver and femur of the pregnant rats. These data indicate that the dose to the conceptus from the decay of placentally transferred radon and its progeny is more important than the contribution of translocated decay products. Translocated radon decay products are an important source of radiation doses to placental structures, however, and may have most of the radioactivity content at birth

  3. Further development of semiconductography for low energy beta nuclides and its application for standard radioactive sources and in chemistry and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tykva, R.

    1975-05-01

    A method called semiconductography has been developed and applied to determine distribution of radionuclides emitting corpuscular radiation. This method is fully automated and is based on a programmed detection of the distribution of radionuclides by means of a special surface barrier silicon detector. Simultaneously with the record of the distribution of activity the contour of the sample can also be determined. A special technology has been developed for production of semiconductor detectors permitting detection of low-energy electrons at room temperature and under normal pressure. In comparison to the detectors from Ortec, U.S.A. and diffused silicon detectors from General Electric, U.S.A., the detectors developed by investigators under the research contract are superior in performance in determining the distribution of radionuclides including the low-energy beta-nuclides in tracer experiments in the life sciences. Compared to current ionisation, scintillation, spark chamber, and autoradiographic methods, semiconductography exhibits several special features. It has a high energy resolution permitting discrimination between radionuclides of energies close to each other (e.g., 14 C and 35 S) and determination of the volume distribution of radionuclides in a non-destructive manner. The results obtained under the contract show that in various life-sciences (biochemistry, molecular biology, embryology, teratology, botany, pharmacology), semiconductography with radionuclide-labelled compounds can offer better means to solve such problems which are difficult to approach by usual isotopic methods. The semiconductography has also been successfully used in the determination of non-homogeneity of planar reference sources and in production of labelled substances

  4. Malformations Induced in Pregnant Rats and their Fetuses Treated with Fluconazole and / or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the synergistic effect of antifungal (fluconazole) treatment and / or g-radiation stress on pregnant mothers and their developing embryos by evaluating the maternal biochemical changes, embryological and histopathological lesions. Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum azole antifungal medication used for the treatment of several types of fungal infections including common forms such as vaginal candidiasis. Fluconazole (50 mg/kg b.wt.) was daily administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats from the 4th to the 13th gestational days during which they were subjected to g-radiation at a dose level of 1 Gy given at the 6th day (post implantation period) and 1 Gy on the 12th day (organogenesis period) of gestation. The animals were dissected and examined on the 20th day of gestation (one day prior to praturation). Fluconazole and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and sodium (Na + ) level accompanied with a decline in potassium (K + ) concentration. The results showed that there was an elevation in the lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and heart tissues of pregnant rats. Meantime, the developing embryos in the uteri showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairments. Moreover, the fluconazole treatment and / or g-radiation harm effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. The examination of the endoskeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the center of vertebrae and appendages. In addition, the embryonic histological examinations revealed heart loss of normal architecture, the interstitial tissues were oedematous and containing necrotic cellular debris together with fibrosis of nerve cells in the brain

  5. Outcome of Angiotensin II Inhibition in Pregnant Irradiated Rats and their Embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F. L.; Ashry, Kh. M.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the synergism of losartan and or irradiation stress on the female rat mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical pathways during gestation and teratogenic effects on the embryos. Losartan is an angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist used to regulate blood pressure. Losartan (5 mg/kg b.wt day) was daily orally administrated to pregnant rats from the 6 th to 18 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy/4 times at the 9 th, 10 th, 11 th and 12 th days of gestation whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. Dual treatment of losartan and radiation resulted in increased maternal serum levels of creatinine and bilirubin.The developing embryos in the uteri due to their high sensitivity showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairment. Losartan and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations expressed as anopthalmia, kypophysis, subcutaneous haemorrhage and microtia as well as elevated intrauterium death and embryonic resorption. Moreover, the examination of endo skeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the vertebrae and edges. Also, maternal and embryonic histological examination revealed that losartan and gamma radiation induced injury to kidney tissue manifested in rupture and shrinkage of renal corpuscle, infiltration, disappearance of glomularies, while the kidney of fetuses showed loss of renal pattern. Results point out that losartan should be used with caution in women at the reproductive age and those occupationally exposed to irradiation

  6. Altered methanol embryopathies in embryo culture with mutant catalase-deficient mice and transgenic mice expressing human catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, unlike its acute toxicity in humans, are unclear, but may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). Embryonic catalase, although expressed at about 5% of maternal activity, may protect the embryo by detoxifying ROS. This hypothesis was investigated in whole embryo culture to remove confounding maternal factors, including metabolism of MeOH by maternal catalase. C57BL/6 (C57) mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Catb/J acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 4 mg/ml MeOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally. MeOH was embryopathic in C57 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed and turning, whereas hCat embryos were protected. Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to C3H WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. MeOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, with reduced anterior neuropore closure and head length only in catalase-deficient embryos. These data suggest that ROS may be involved in the embryopathic mechanism of methanol, and that embryonic catalase activity may be a determinant of teratological risk.

  7. Context of culture: Critique of the primitive mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božilović Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper has the intention to reach the new meaning and sense of the primitive mentality by analyzing it in early social communities. He also wants to point out the possible reflections of the spirit and consciousness of our ancestors on us, here and now. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a critical deliberation on anthropological conflicts which have arisen concerning the reasoning power of the so-called primitives. The crucial question lies in the following: Is the difference between the “primitive” and the “civilized” mentality fundamental or is it possible only to a certain degree. The author takes the notion of primitive mentality through time and points to the medieval understandings, which are occupied by teratological themes, then to the renaissance comprehension, which relies on the first experiential observations, and, finally, to the enlightenment ideas of exotic peoples out of which the myth of “the good savage” is born. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries introduce the notions of “people’s character” and “national spirit”. The opinions are polarized, on the one hand of ethnocentrism, carried by the prejudice of people and ethnic groups and, on the other hand, of cultural relativism, based on the understanding and appreciation of cultural differences. In the end, the author also recognizes the modern primitive man, one who is not ready to deal with the challenges of his age. The modern primitive recalls the spirits of the past, the surviving and anachronic models of behavior, unaware of the fact that these are the same models that he has ascribed to “savages”. However, while such thinking and acting was justified by the cultural level at which our ancestors had lived, the mental frame of the contemporary primitives is significantly in contrast with the high level of civilization development.

  8. Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to local anesthetics as part of dental treatment: A prospective comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagai, Aharon; Diav-Citrin, Orna; Shechtman, Svetlana; Ornoy, Asher

    2015-08-01

    Dental treatment and use of local anesthetics during pregnancy generally are considered harmless because of lack of evidence of adverse pregnancy effects. Data on the safety of dental treatment and local anesthetics during pregnancy are scant. Dental care is often a reason for concern both among women and their health care providers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of major anomalies after exposure to local anesthetics as part of dental care during pregnancy. The authors performed a prospective, comparative observational study at the Israeli Teratology Information Services between 1999 and 2005. The authors followed 210 pregnancies exposed to dental local anesthetics (112 [53%] in the first trimester) and compared them with 794 pregnancies not exposed to teratogens. The rate of major anomalies was not significantly different between the groups (4.8% versus 3.3%, P = .300). There was no difference in the rate of miscarriages, gestational age at delivery, or birth weight. The most common types of dental treatment were endodontic treatment (43%), tooth extraction (31%), and tooth restoration (21%). Most women (63%) were not exposed to additional medications. Approximately one-half (51%) of the women were not exposed to dental radiography, and 44% were exposed to radiation, mostly bite-wing radiography. This study's results suggest that use of dental local anesthetics, as well as dental treatment during pregnancy, do not represent a major teratogenic risk. There seems to be no reason to prevent pregnant women from receiving dental treatment and local anesthetics during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Monstrous Transformation of the Self: Translating Japanese Cyberpunk and the Posthuman into the Living World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orion Mavridou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neon-lit noir and technology-driven body horrors, oppressive metropolises and vast industrial landscapes, and in the midst of it all a fragile humanity struggling to maintain a semblance of itself in a post-human future —the world of cyberpunk is as visually stimulating as it is disturbing. Within its own subgenre, Japanese cyberpunk indulges further into this liminal imagery; featuring an ostensible fetish for futuristic teratology, it embodies its central conflict of “man vs. machine” in its protagonists’ bizarre and monstrous metamorphoses. In 1997, Final Fantasy VII presented gamers with a unique entry point into the insular realms of both East Asian RPGs and Japanese cyberpunk. Considered by many as the quintessential example of the Final Fantasy series and the archetypical cinematic videogame, Final Fantasy VII paints its own brand of a dystopian future with an eclectic range of visual influences, from Blade Runner and shōjo manga to Victorian gothic and religious symbolism. This article will be presenting a textual analysis of the aesthetics and visual evolution of Final Fantasy VII within the context of the wider Japanese cyberpunk subgenre, as well as reflecting on the outcomes of a practical study on the fan-driven crossmedia adaptation of the game’s visual language into costumed performance (i.e. cosplay. For the purposes of this research, the author went through the process of recreating and performing the costume and character of Vincent Valentine; one of the many player avatars in Final Fantasy VII, whose narrative arc is a characteristic example of the techno-scientific body horror, dehumanization and psychosexual repression which lie at the root of the Japanese cyberpunk ethos. Alongside the author’s close reading of the media text, this article offers an illustration of the researcher/cosplayer’s allegorical metamorphosis from the mundane into the extraordinary, from human into posthuman.

  10. A prospective study on fetal posterior cranial fossa assessment for early detection of open spina bifida at 11-13 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Semir; Altunyurt, Sabahattin; Keskinoglu, Pembe

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test three measurements: brain stem (BS), intracranial translucency (IT) and brain stem to occipital bone distance (BSOB), as well as one landmark: cisterna magna (CM) visibility, for early diagnosis of open spina bifida (OSB) in a low risk population. A prospective observational study was undertaken in a university hospital. A sample of 1479 women consented to participate between 20 September 2013 and 30 June 2015. Measurements were performed from the mid-sagittal view, as is routinely used for nuchal thickness assessment. CM visibility was assessed qualitatively as the third anechoic band in the posterior cranial fossa (PCF). All pregnancies were screened with a combination of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and second trimester anomaly scan and followed until delivery. Predictive values were calculated for each marker. We were able to diagnose two OSB cases and highly suspect one Dandy-Walker malformation case at the first trimester scan by the observation of PCF. PCF characteristics of OSB cases were increased BS diameter, increased BS-BSOB ratio and non-visualization of the CM. All the markers demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity but CM visibility reached the highest positive predictive value. Due to relatively high false positive rates, PCF measurements could not reach a satisfactory performance to validate their clinical use as a single marker. CM visibility has the advantage of being a qualitative marker and reduces the need for sophisticated and time-consuming measurements. Intracranial translucency and BS-BSOB ratio measurements should be used when the CM visibility is absent or in doubt. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  11. Une masculinité en crise à la fin du XVIIe siècle ? La critique de l'efféminé chez La Bruyère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Corgnet

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available L’efféminé est toujours un cas sexuel limite : homme aux airs féminins, il interroge l’innée de la nature sexuelle, critique les genres et leur définition explicitement physique. La fin du XVIIe siècle illustre cette tension chez les moralistes français et surtout chez La Bruyère dans ses Caractères où celui-ci interroge cette monstruosité générique à travers une analyse sémiologique. Mais cette tératologie n’est pas avant tout clinique mais sociale et morale : il nous avertit, par cet écart de genre, d’une corruption morale du monde tant par une sémiologie clinique que mythologique ovidienne ne cherchant pas le réalisme pathologique mais la filiation antique qui ante son ouvrage sur les Caractères Théophrastiens : philosophe plus que naturaliste.The effeminate is always a sexual limit case: man in the feminine sights, he questions the innate of the sexual nature, criticizes genders and their explicitly physical definition. The end of the XVIIth century illustrates this tension at the French moralists and especially in La Bruyère’s Characters where this one questions this generic monstrousness through a semiological analysis. But this teratology is not above all clinical but social and moral: he warns us, by this distance from gender, from a moral corruption of the world both by a clinical semiology and ovidian mythology not looking for the pathological realism but the antic filiation with Theophrast’s Characters : philosopher more than naturalist.

  12. Teratogenicity of recently introduced medications in human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, W Y; Friedman, J M

    2002-09-01

    To determine how long it takes after a new drug is marketed to establish whether or not its use by pregnant women is likely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk. We used standard clinical teratology resources to assess the teratogenic risks in human pregnancy of therapeutic treatment with 468 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 1980 and 2000. The teratogenic risk of each treatment was classified using the current online version of TERIS into one of three categories: 1) no risk, minimal risk, or unlikely to produce an increased risk; 2) associated with a small, moderate, or high risk; or 3) risk undetermined. We found that the teratogenic risk in human pregnancy was still undetermined for 91.2% of drug treatments approved in the United States between 1980 and 2000. The proportion of treatments classified as having an "undetermined" teratogenic risk was more than 80% for drugs approved for marketing 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, or 15-20 years ago, but the highest proportion of drugs with an "undetermined" teratogenic risk was found among those approved 15-20 years ago. The agreement between TERIS risk ratings and Food and Drug Administration Use-in-Pregnancy Categories for 163 drugs that had been assessed by both systems was poor (kappa +/- standard error = 0.082 +/- 0.042). We conclude that inadequate information is available for pregnant women and their physicians to determine whether the benefits exceed the teratogenic risks for most drug treatments introduced in the past 20 years.

  13. Neurodevelopment of children prenatally exposed to selective reuptake inhibitor antidepressants: Toronto sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Rovet, Joanne; Barrera, Maru; Streiner, David L; Feldman, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    The reproductive safety of selective reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants needs to be established to provide optimal control of maternal depression while protecting the fetus. To define a child's neurodevelopment following prenatal exposure to SRIs and to account for genetic and environmental confounders in a sibling design using the Toronto Motherisk prospective database. Intelligence and behavior of siblings prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs were assessed by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist, and Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised and subsequently compared. Mothers, diagnosed with depression using DSM-IV, were assessed for intelligence quotient (IQ) and for severity of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Prenatal drug doses and durations of exposure, child's age, child's sex, birth order, severity of maternal depression symptoms, and Full Scale IQ, the primary outcome measure, of both the mother and the child were considered in the analyses. Forty-five sibling pairs (ages 3 years to 6 years 11 months, prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs) did not differ in their mean ± SD Full Scale IQs (103 ± 13 vs 106 ± 12; P = .30; 95% CI, -7.06 to 2.21) or rates of problematic behaviors. Significant predictor of children's intelligence was maternal IQ (P = .043, β = 0.306). Severity of maternal depression was a significant predictor of Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing (P = .019, β = 0.366), Externalizing (P = .003, β = 0.457), and Total scores (P = .001, β = 0.494). Drug doses and durations of exposure during pregnancy did not predict any outcomes of interest in the exposed siblings. SRI antidepressants were not found to be neurotoxic. Maternal depression may risk the child's future psychopathology. The sibling design in behavioral teratology aids in separating the effects of maternal depression from those of SRIs, providing stronger

  14. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  15. Cellular alterations and enhanced induction of cleft palate after coadministration of retinoic acid and TCDD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and retinoic acid (RA) are both teratogenic in mice. TCDD is a highly toxic, stable environmental contaminant, while RA is a naturally occurring form of vitamin A. Exposure to TCDD induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate, and exposure to RA induces limb defects and cleft palate. Teratology studies previously have shown that the incidence of clefting is higher after exposure to RA + TCDD than would be observed for the same doses of either compound given alone. This study examines the cellular effects which result in cleft palate, after po administration on gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12 of RA + TCDD in corn oil (10 ml/kg total volume). Exposure on GD 10 to 6 micrograms TCDD + 40 mg RA/kg inhibited early growth of the shelves and clefting was due to a failure of shelves to meet and fuse. This effect on mesenchyme was observed in previous studies to occur after exposure on GD 10 to 40 mg/kg RA alone, but not after TCDD alone. After exposure on GD 12 to 6 micrograms TCDD + 80 mg RA/kg, clefting was due to a failure of shelves to fuse after making contact, because the medial cells differentiated into an oral-like epithelium. This response was observed in previous studies to occur after exposure to TCDD alone, but RA alone on GD 12 resulted in differentiation toward nasal-like cells. The interaction between TCDD and RA results in RA-like clefting after exposure on GD 10 and TCDD-like clefting after exposure on GD 12, and this clefting occurs at higher incidences than would occur after the same levels of either agent alone. After exposure on either GD 10 or 12 to RA + TCDD, the programmed cell death of the medial cells does not occur, and these cells continue to express EGF receptors and to bind 125I-EGF. The effects of RA and TCDD may involve modulation of the cells responses to embryonic growth and differentiation factors

  16. Short-term toxicity of hexavalent-chromium to epipsammic diatoms of a microtidal estuary (Río de la Plata): Responses from the individual cell to the community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licursi, M.; Gómez, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Diatom's nuclear abnormalities were significantly higher as consequence of chromium exposure. •Diatoms and chlorophytes increased in treatment microcosms. •Nitzschia palea proportion increased significantly in the treatment microcosms. -- Abstract: Diatoms are an integral and often dominant component of the benthic microalgal assemblage in estuarine and shallow coastal environments. Different toxic substances discharged into these ecosystems persist in the water, sediments, and biota for long periods. Among these pernicious agents, the toxicity in diatoms by metal is linked to different steps in the transmembrane and internal movements of the toxicant, causing perturbations in the normal structural and functional cellular components. These changes constitute an early, nontaxonomic warning signal that could potentially serve as an indicator of this type of pollution. The aim of this work was to study the environment-reflecting short-term responses at different levels of organization of epipsammic diatoms from the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina that had been exposed to hexavalent chromium within experimental microcosms. To this end we monitored: (i) changes in the proportion of the diatoms in relation to other algal groups at the biofilm community level; (ii) shifts in species composition at the diatom-assemblage level; (iii) projected changes in the densities of the most representative species at the population level through comparison of relative growth rates and generation times; and (iv) the cytological changes at the cellular and subcellular levels as indicated by the appearance of teratological effects on individuals and nuclear alterations. The epipsammic biofilms were exposed for 96 h to chromium at a concentration similar to that measured in highly impacted sites along the coast (80 μg L −1 ). Chromium pollution, at this concentration and short exposure time did not affect the algal biomass and density of these mature biofilms. The

  17. Prenatal cannabis exposure - The "first hit" to the endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kimberlei A; Hester, Allison K; McLemore, Gabrielle L

    As more states and countries legalize medical and/or adult recreational marijuana use, the incidences of prenatal cannabis exposure (PCE) will likely increase. While young people increasingly view marijuana as innocuous, marijuana preparations have been growing in potency in recent years, potentially creating global clinical, public health, and workforce concerns. Unlike fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, there is no phenotypic syndrome associated with PCE. There is also no preponderance of evidence that PCE causes lifelong cognitive, behavioral, or functional abnormalities, and/or susceptibility to subsequent addiction. However, there is compelling circumstantial evidence, based on the principles of teratology and fetal malprogramming, suggesting that pregnant women should refrain from smoking marijuana. The usage of marijuana during pregnancy perturbs the fetal endogenous cannabinoid signaling system (ECSS), which is present and active from the early embryonic stage, modulating neurodevelopment and continuing this role into adulthood. The ECSS is present in virtually every brain structure and organ system, and there is also evidence that this system is important in the regulation of cardiovascular processes. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) undergird a broad spectrum of processes, including the early stages of fetal neurodevelopment and uterine implantation. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive chemical in cannabis, enters maternal circulation, and readily crosses the placental membrane. THC binds to CB receptors of the fetal ECSS, altering neurodevelopment and possibly rewiring ECSS circuitry. In this review, we discuss the Double-Hit Hypothesis as it relates to PCE. We contend that PCE, similar to a neurodevelopmental teratogen, delivers the first hit to the ECSS, which is compromised in such a way that a second hit (i.e., postnatal stressors) will precipitate the emergence of a specific phenotype. In summary, we conclude that perturbations of the

  18. ULTRASTRUCTURAL MODIFICATIONS INDUCED BY DIRECT ACTION OF CU2+ UPON EARLY CHICK EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Checiu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratological testing of sulphonate phtalocyanine (an alimentary blue dye synthetized by the Center of Chemisty, Timisoara, shown a strong malformative effect of this compound upon early chick embryo (48 hours of incubation, (Sandor, Checiu, Prelipceanu, 1985. Dye administration on day 2 of incubation (44-48 hours revealed a high rate of embryo mortality and abnormal modification of caudal segment or even a total absence of caudal tail bud. Living embryos until day 7 of incubation showed a normal development of the anterior body part (head and trunk in contrast with posterior body part which presented an abnormal position of posterior limbs, tail and trunk aplasia. The dye with the some name produced in Germany did not show (in the some experimental conditions a malformative effect. The only difference between the two dyes was the presence of Cu2+ in our compound. It is well known that chemicals and physics factors (X rayes, insuline, hypoxy, D-Actinomycine, sucrose, etc. are noxious, inducing malformations of caudal segment (tail bud, urogenital and anorectal abnormalities associated with cardiac, facial and SNC malformations (Landauer 1953, Shepard 1973. Abnormalities of esophagus, urogenital and anorectal region associated with those of caudal axial skeleton and posterior limb buds are involved in caudal dysplasia syndrome (Duhamel 1961 cited by Roux and Martinet 1962. This syndrome is frequent (1:1000 in children of diabetic mothers (Warkany 1971. Experimental works on mice suggested implication of genetic factors in pathogenesis of this syndrome (Frye et all.1964 cited by Warkany 1971. Previous investigations (Checiu et all. 1966 revealed a caudal malformative syndrome in chick embryos induced by Cu2+. It is well known capacity of some heavy metal ions to affect the formation and desintegration reaction of free radicals. The aim of this paper is to present a morphological study of caudal malformative syndrome (Checiu et all. 1999 and an

  19. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Shadow Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Orekhova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently the institutional factors of economic development are updated. The problem of neutralizing the impact of informal institutions is becoming paramount. In order to develop adequate measures to influence the shadow economy and the development of the concept of anti-shadow policies requires a deep and comprehensive study of the shadow socio-economic processes in Russia. It is necessary to recognize the fact that the methods of struggle against the shadow economy have not yet had the desired effect, that implies the conclusion – the causes of the shadow economy have deep roots and are out of the sphere of economic relations. Shadow economic processes are the result of the behavioral characteristics of people, socio-psychological reasons as a consequence of the low cultural level, marginality, inefficient conjugation of institutions and culture, lack of confidence in the society, the specific characteristics of economic mentality, etc. Therefore, if the causes of the shadow relations are rooted in completely different spheres, then the methods of research should also belong to different sciences. The article considers the methodological possibilities in the study of the Russian shadow economy. The logical sequence of the shadow economy research includes empirical and theoretical stages. The level of the empirical phase of gathering facts about the shadow economy has a number of complexities and peculiarities. On a theoretical level there is necessity of multimethodological approach. The authors proved the usefulness of the methodological system and the results of research in the fields of sociology, psychology, criminology, statistics and mathematics, as well as related to the economy of sciences – economic psychology, behavioral economics, economic teratology, and others. The article proposes to carry out studies of the shadow economy at the different levels of architectonics of the institutional structure of shadow economy: the nano

  20. Association between CYP2D6 Genotypes and the Risk of Antidepressant Discontinuation, Dosage Modification and the Occurrence of Maternal Depression during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anick Bérard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Importance: Polymorphic expression of drug metabolizing enzymes affects the metabolism of antidepressants, and thus can contribute to drug response and/or adverse events. Pregnancy itself can affect CYP2D6 activity with profound variations determined by CYP2D6 genotype.Objective: To investigate the association between CYP2D6 genotype and the risk of antidepressant discontinuation, dosage modification, and the occurrence of maternal CYP2D6, Antidepressants, Depression during pregnancy.Setting: Data from the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS Antidepressants in Pregnancy Cohort, 2006–2010, were used. Women were eligible if they were within 14 completed weeks of pregnancy at recruitment and exposed to an antidepressant or having any exposures considered non-teratogenic.Main Outcomes and Measures: Gestational antidepressant usage was self-reported and defined as continuous/discontinued use, and non-use; dosage modification was further documented. Maternal depression and anxiety were measured every trimester using the telephone interviewer-administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Saliva samples were collected and used for CYP2D6 genotype analyses. Logistic regression models were used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: A total of 246 pregnant women were included in the study. The majority were normal metabolizers (NM, n = 204, 83%; 3.3% (n = 8 were ultrarapid metabolizers (UM, 5.7% (n = 14 poor metabolizers (PM, and 8.1% (n = 20 intermediate metabolizers (IM. Among study subjects, 139 women were treated with antidepressants at the beginning of pregnancy, and 21 antidepressant users (15% discontinued therapy during pregnancy. Adjusting for depressive symptoms, and other potential confounders, the risk of discontinuing antidepressants during pregnancy was nearly four times higher in slow metabolizers (poor or intermediate

  1. Short-term toxicity of hexavalent-chromium to epipsammic diatoms of a microtidal estuary (Río de la Plata): Responses from the individual cell to the community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licursi, M., E-mail: malena@ilpla.edu.ar; Gómez, N.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •Diatom's nuclear abnormalities were significantly higher as consequence of chromium exposure. •Diatoms and chlorophytes increased in treatment microcosms. •Nitzschia palea proportion increased significantly in the treatment microcosms. -- Abstract: Diatoms are an integral and often dominant component of the benthic microalgal assemblage in estuarine and shallow coastal environments. Different toxic substances discharged into these ecosystems persist in the water, sediments, and biota for long periods. Among these pernicious agents, the toxicity in diatoms by metal is linked to different steps in the transmembrane and internal movements of the toxicant, causing perturbations in the normal structural and functional cellular components. These changes constitute an early, nontaxonomic warning signal that could potentially serve as an indicator of this type of pollution. The aim of this work was to study the environment-reflecting short-term responses at different levels of organization of epipsammic diatoms from the Río de la Plata estuary, Argentina that had been exposed to hexavalent chromium within experimental microcosms. To this end we monitored: (i) changes in the proportion of the diatoms in relation to other algal groups at the biofilm community level; (ii) shifts in species composition at the diatom-assemblage level; (iii) projected changes in the densities of the most representative species at the population level through comparison of relative growth rates and generation times; and (iv) the cytological changes at the cellular and subcellular levels as indicated by the appearance of teratological effects on individuals and nuclear alterations. The epipsammic biofilms were exposed for 96 h to chromium at a concentration similar to that measured in highly impacted sites along the coast (80 μg L{sup −1}). Chromium pollution, at this concentration and short exposure time did not affect the algal biomass and density of these mature

  2. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in WNT genes with the risk of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafighdoost, Houshang; Hashemi, Mohammad; Asadi, Hossein; Bahari, Gholamreza

    2018-01-22

    and risk/protection of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Stratified analysis showed that WNT10a rs201002930 (c.392 C>T) significantly decreased the risk of cleft lip with cleft palate and cleft palate only. In summary, the results suggest an association between WNT genes polymorphisms and the risk nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. © 2018 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. Safety of a novel botanical extract formula for ameliorating allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever) is the most commonly occurring immunological disorder, and it affects 40 million men, women, and children in the United States. Symptomatically, it is an inflammation and irritation of the mucous membranes that line the nose. Allergy is defined as a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel botanical formulation, Aller-7/NR-A2, was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; it is a combination of medicinal plant extracts from Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. This novel formulation has demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell-stabilization activities. All of the doses for these toxicity studies were selected according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Acute toxicity of Aller-7 was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg. After 15 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed. No histopathological changes were observed in major vital organs. A similar study was conducted in Albino Wistar rats, which were sacrificed at the end of 15 days. No histopathological changes or toxicity was observed at up to 2 g/kg body weight. Subacute toxicity was conducted in Albino Wistar rats at a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight for 3 days, then at 180 mg/kg for the next 3 days, and then at 270 mg/kg for 3 weeks. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and tested; no toxicity was observed. In a subchronic toxicity study, there was no observed adverse effect level at 1 g/kg body weight in rats. In a teratological assay, at doses of 3.0 g/kg (20 times the recommended dose) and 1.8 g/kg, respectively, no

  4. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, G L; Hobbs, C H; Blair, L F; Barr, E B; Hahn, F F; Jaramillo, R J; Kubatko, J E; March, T H; White, R K; Krone, J R; Ménache, M G; Nikula, K J; Mauderly, J L; Van Gerpen, J; Merceica, M D; Zielinska, B; Stankowski, L; Burling, K; Howell, S

    2002-10-01

    chromatid exchanges in peripheral blood lymphocytes, fertility, reproductive toxicity, or teratology. This study demonstrated modest adverse effects at the highest exposure level, and none other than the expected physiological macrophage response to repeated particle exposure at the intermediate level.

  5. Assessing physiological tipping points in response to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S. T.; Dorey, N.; Lançon, P.; Thorndyke, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    Impact of near-future ocean acidification on marine invertebrates was mostly assessed in single-species perturbation experiment. Moreover, most of these experiments are short-term, only consider one life-history stage and one or few parameters. They do not take into account important processes such as natural variability and acclimation and evolutionary processes. In many studies published so far, there is a clear lack between the observed effects and individual fitness, most of the deviation from the control being considered as potentially negative for the tested species. However, individuals are living in a fluctuating world and changes can also be interpreted as phenotypic plasticity and may not translate into negative impact on fitness. For example, a vent mussel can survive for decades in very acidic waters despite a significantly reduced calcification compare to control (Tunnicliffe et al. 2009). This is possible thanks to the absence of predatory crabs as a result of acidic conditions that may also inhibit carapace formation. This illustrates the importance to take into account ecological interactions when interpreting single-species experiments and to consider the relative fitness between interacting species. To understand the potential consequence of ocean acidification on any given ecosystem, it is then critical to consider the relative impact on fitness for every interactive species and taking into account the natural fluctuation in environment (e.g. pH, temperature, food concentration, abundance) and discriminate between plasticity with no direct impact on fitness and teratology with direct consequence on survival. In this presentation, we will introduce the concept of "physiological tipping point" in the context of ocean acidification. This will be illustrated by some work done on sea urchin development. Embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis were exposed to a range of pH from 8.1 to 6.5. When exposed to low pH, growth

  6. Depression during pregnancy: views on antidepressant use and information sources of general practitioners and pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schobben Fred

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of antidepressants during pregnancy has increased in recent years. In the Netherlands, almost 2% of all pregnant women are exposed to antidepressants. Although guidelines have been developed on considerations that should be taken into account, prescribing antidepressants during pregnancy is still a subject of debate. Physicians and pharmacists may have opposing views on using medication during pregnancy and may give contradictory advice on whether or not to take medication for depression and anxiety disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated information sources used by general practitioners (GPs and pharmacists and their common practices. Methods A questionnaire on the use of information sources and the general approach when managing depression during pregnancy was sent out to 1400 health care professionals to assess information sources on drug safety during pregnancy and also the factors that influence decision-making. The questionnaires consisted predominantly of closed multiple-choice questions. Results A total of 130 GPs (19% and 144 pharmacists (21% responded. The most popular source of information on the safety of drug use during pregnancy is the Dutch National Health Insurance System Formulary, while a minority of respondents contacts the Dutch national Teratology Information Service (TIS. The majority of GPs contact the pharmacy with questions concerning drug use during pregnancy. There is no clear line with regard to treatment or consensus between GPs on the best therapeutic strategy, nor do practitioners agree upon the drug of first choice. GPs have different views on stopping or continuing antidepressants during pregnancy or applying alternative treatment options. The debate appears to be ongoing as to whether or not specialised care for mother and child is indicated in cases of gestational antidepressant use. Conclusion Primary health care workers are not univocal concerning therapy for

  7. Smoke, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use in an Italian population of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; De Luca, Carmen; Mappa, Ilenia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Angelo, Licameli; Cesari, Elena

    2011-11-01

    High-risk behaviours are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to drugs, infection or radiation is a cause of concern for pregnant women, who contact Teratology Information Services (TIS) to have a counseling but with an accurate medical history is possible to detect additional behavioural risk factors that can significantly interfere with pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to describe risk behaviours in a population of Italian women calling our TIS and to identify related maternal factors. Between December 2008 and January 2010 we collected data from 503 pregnant women calling our TIS (Telefono Rosso, Rome). We investigated about smoke, alcohol and abuse substances addiction and we also collected demographic data. Of the 503 women consenting to participate 34% were found to have an additional risk marker during the current pregnancy. Within this group were 22.7% (n=119) who reported smoking, the 17.7% (n=89) admitted to drink and 2 women (0.4%) used illicit drugs. In 13.7% of cases (n=69) reason for calling represented an exposure to teratogenic agents. Unmarried status and previous induced abortion represent a risk factor for all high-risk behaviours. Lower education (pdrugs (pconsumption. A lower parity was a risk factor for alcohol assumption (p=0.04). Women with high-risk behaviours tend to be exposed to more than a risk factor. Teratogen Information Services are an important system to identify women with pregnancy risk markers. These services should have the ability to provide risk reduction information to women who smoke cigarettes or with alcohol or drug use. In addition to the phone based information these women may benefit from referral back to their physician for assessment and management of substance use/abuse during pregnancy. Substance abuse risks are often underestimated by pregnant women. Single mothers or women with an history of terminations of pregnancy represents an high-risk population. Physicians

  8. Sobre corpos e monstros: algumas reflexões contemporâneas a partir da filosofia da diferença Sobre cuerpos y monstruos: algunas reflexiones contemporáneas About bodies and monsters: some contemporary reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Peixoto Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo geral discutir algumas relações entre o corpo e o fenômeno do monstro - teratológico ou ficcional -, procurando avaliar os abalos que a figura monstruosa provoca nos modelos de apreensão da subjetividade construídos prioritariamente a partir dos referenciais da representação e da identidade. Em termos mais específicos, partindo principalmente de autores alinhados à filosofia da diferença, são discutidas algumas possibilidades de subversão suscitadas pela monstruosidade em suas relações com o corpo, tais como as que ocorrem nos campos da ciência, da cultura, dos estudos de gênero e de uma política de subjetivação. O que se procura ressaltar em todas essas vertentes é que, ao afirmar sua diferença radical, a figura do monstro abre novas vias de acesso ao devir e à singularidade.Este artículo tiene como objetivo general discutir algunas relaciones entre el cuerpo y el fenómeno del monstruo - teratologico o ficcional -, buscando evaluar las conmociones que la figura monstruosa provoca en los modelos de aprehensión de la subjetividad construidos principalmente desde los referenciales de la representación y de la identidad. En términos más específicos, partiendo prioritariamente de autores alineados con la filosofía de la diferencia, si discuten diversas posibilidades de subversión suscitadas por la monstruosidad en sus relaciones con el cuerpo, tal como los que ocurren en los campos de la ciencia, de la cultura, de los estudios de género y de una política de subjetivación. El que si busca resaltar en todas estas vertientes es que, al afirmar su diferencia radical, la figura del monstruo abre nuevas maneras de acceso al devenir y a la singularidad.This work has as its general aim to argue about some relations between the body and the phenomenon of the monster - teratological or fictional -, trying to evaluate the shocks that the monstrous figure provokes in the models of apprehension of

  9. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    also been used as a morphological criterion to establish new taxa (e.g. Pliolepidina tobleri).A recent paper has demonstrated multiple embryos of the Recent Spiroclypeus carpenteri by means of microCT, and has discussed the possible causes of formation of tests with more than one proloculus: During asexual reproduction a large number of individuals are released from the mother's test into the environment. If the daughter cells do not manage to get sufficiently separated from each other, they may start to build several deuteroloculi around each other. Low water energy in the habitat of Spiroclypeus has been suspected by these authors to prevent the complete dispersion of juvenile forms and thus favouring the growth of forms with multiple embryos. The abundance of mud and of fragile algal and microbial mats in our facies (2) advocates for a low bottom water hydrodynamic regime for the samples in which practically all macrospheric forms observable in thin sections have multiple proloculi. Environmental factors other than water energy could also play a role: Many authors have reported teratological growth of benthic Foraminifera in hypersaline environments, or waters polluted by heavy metals. In our case, salinity could have been below normal marine values and both suspended and dissolved organic matter from tropical rivers could have "polluted" the habitat of Lepidocyclina by excess nutrients and heavy metals leached from basaltic rocks abundantly present in the Eocene drainage basin. Contemporaneous, distal offshore, flat Lepidocyclina accumulations totally lack multiple embryos. These facies also lack a detrital component and show current sorting/orientation of tests.

  10. Multiple information sources and consequences of conflicting information about medicine use during pregnancy: a multinational Internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Nordeng, Hedvig; Kokki, Esa; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Lupattelli, Angela; Vainio, Kirsti; Enlund, Hannes

    2014-02-20

    nothing. Factors significantly associated with not using medication as a consequence of conflicting information were being pregnant (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.28-2.41) or experiencing 3-4 health disorders (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.10-3.58). Women with no chronic diseases were more likely not to take medicines than women with ≥2 chronic diseases (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.47-3.45). Factors significantly associated with becoming anxious were >4 information sources (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.70-4.18) and residing in Eastern Europe (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.90). Almost all the pregnant women used multiple information sources when seeking information on taking medicines during pregnancy and one-fifth obtained conflicting information, leading to anxiety and the decision not to use the medication. Regional, educational, and chronic disease characteristics were associated with experiencing conflicting information and influenced the decision not to use medication or increased anxiety. Accurate and uniform teratology information should be made more available to the public.

  11. Ixodidas brasileiros e de alguns paizes limitrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão

    1936-01-01

    piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (an introduced species is now very common on the dog, over all the country. The author recommend to give popular names to some brazilian ticks in order to make them more acquainted with the non scientific people. The author gives a classification of the superfamilia Ixoidoidea and keys to the determination of the different species of brazilian ticks. He creates a new family of Nuttallielidae to the so interesting tick, described by Bedford with the name of Nuttaliella namaqua in South Africa, a new variety of Argas persicus, the Argas persicus var. dissimilis nov. var. owing to the differences on the segment and on the size and morphology of the peritrema. He describes also the female of Amblyomma fuscum Nn. A great part of the author's work deals with the biology, life conditions and parasitism of many of the brazilian ticks in accordance with his personal and from other author's researches, especially in reference to Argas persicus, Ornithodoros rostratus, O. brasiliensis, Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense, A. pseudoconcolor, A. auriculare, A. rotundatum (= A. agamum etc. The author gives a detailed report upon the parthenogenesis of A. rotundatum (A. agamum that he first described in 1912 and gives also many references to other species of brazilian ticks, to teratological forms etc. He also gives a detailed report of the geographical distribution of brazilian ticks and of the peculiar conditions of its parasitism. The last part of this article deals with references to the species of ticks of some of the South American Republics namely Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay and Venezuela. Amblyomma testudinis Conil, A. neumanni Ribaga 1902 (= A. furcula Dõnitz 1909 and A. parvitarsum Nn. 1899 (= A. altiplanum Dios 1917, are found only in Argentina. It is given a special bibliography dealing with the brazilian ticks and four text figures and one plate.

  12. Use of biological indexes of the common reed (Phragmites australis) seed progeny in the environmental safety of radioactive contaminated water bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavnyuk, A. [National Aviation University, Kiev (Ukraine); Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental protection requires effective monitoring system of radionuclide contamination and radiobiological effects as well as development of their prevention and minimizing measures for humans and biota. There is a majority of conventional techniques for living organisms' habitat quality assessment. One of the most widespread, convenient and accessible ones, is the seed progeny analysis, for example of conifers, cereals and wild herbaceous plants. Availability of vitality, growth, mutability indexes and abnormalities of vascular plant germs for environment quality express assessment was discussed in numerous publications. However, this point is studied insufficiently concerning aquatic vascular plants, forming communities playing significant role in radionuclides distribution in contaminated water bodies. Common reed (Phragmites australis (Trin) Ex. Steud) is a widespread species mostly dominating in air-aquatic vascular plant communities of freshwater bodies; it is a first-order {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr accumulating species. To assess the common reed germs growth indexes availability, seeds were sampled in polygon water bodies of different radionuclide contamination levels and 0.7-22 mcGy h{sup -1} total absorbed dose range, within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. In water bodies with background level of radionuclide contamination, for comparison, total absorbed dose varied in range of 0.03-0.3 mcGy h{sup -1}. Series of seeds germination experiments was carried out in laboratory conditions. Complex of germs indexes was investigated, conditionally divided into three groups: (1) Vitality indexes. In course of experiment series, vitality was assessed via germinating energy, germinating ability indexes, germination period (first and last germ appearance) and survivability study; (2) Growth indexes. Root and leaf length, occurrence of plant groups with different vegetative organs length were determined for germs growth speed assessment; (3) Teratological