Sample records for terahertz time domain

  1. A wavefront analyzer for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, E.; Brossard, M.; Fauche, P.


    We report on the development of a terahertz wavefront sensor able to determine the optical aberrations of a terahertz time-domain spectrometer. The system measures point-by-point the amplitude and phase of the terahertz electric field in a given plane. From this measurement, we reconstruct...... the terahertz wavefront and calculate its Zernike coefficients. In particular, we especially show that the focus spot of the spectrometer suffers from optical aberrations such as remaining defocus, first and second order astigmatisms, as well as spherical aberration. This opens a route to wavefront correction...... for improved terahertz imaging and spectroscopy....

  2. Papyrus imaging with terahertz time domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Labaune, J.; Jackson, J. B.; Pagès-Camagna, S.; Duling, I. N.; Menu, M.; Mourou, G. A.


    Terahertz time domain spectroscopic imaging (THz-TDSI) is a non-ionizing, non-contact and non-destructive measurement technique that has been recently utilized to study cultural heritage artifacts. We will present this technique and the results of non-contact measurements of papyrus texts, including images of hidden papyri. Inks for modern papyrus specimens were prepared using the historical binder, Arabic gum, and two common pigments used to write ancient texts, carbon black and red ochre. The samples were scanned in reflection at normal incidence with a pulse with a spectral range between 0.1 and 1.5 THz. Temporal analysis of the signals provides the depths of the layers, and their frequency spectra give information about the inks.

  3. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...

  4. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  5. Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy for Structure-II Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeya, Kei; Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao


    For the nondestructive inspection of gas hydrates, terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) was applied to tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and propane hydrate. The absorption of propane hydrate monotonically increases with frequency, similar to the case of ice, while THF hydrate has a charact......For the nondestructive inspection of gas hydrates, terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) was applied to tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate and propane hydrate. The absorption of propane hydrate monotonically increases with frequency, similar to the case of ice, while THF hydrate has...

  6. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Bernd M.; Hoffmann, Matthias; Helm, Hanspeter


    We use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to measure the far-infrared dielectric function of two artificial RNA single strands, composed of polyadenylic acid (poly-A) and polycytidylic acid (poly-C). We find a significant difference in the absorption between the two types of RNA strands...

  7. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils (United States)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek


    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft Composites Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (United States)


    butterfly hidden beneath various colors of paint [34]. A separate application uses THz TDS to detect foreign bodies in chocolate bars, including metallic...widths that were measured were much wider in the time domain and much lower in amplitude than the advertised values in the Ekspla manual. Figure 16...2067- 2069. 40. Jordens, C., Koch, M. (2008). Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Optical Engineering 47(3

  9. Detection of Ionic liquid using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Shangjian; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cunlin


    Terahertz (THz, THz+1012Hz) spectroscopy is a far-infrared analytical technology with spectral bands locating between microware and infrared ranges. Being of excellent transmission, non-destruction and high discrimination, this technology has been applied in various fields such as physics, chemistry, nondestructive detection, communication, biomedicine public security. Terahertz spectrum is corresponding with vibration and rotation of liquid molecules, which is suitable to identify and study the liquid molecular dynamics. It is as a powerful spectral detection technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is widely used in solution detection. can enable us to extract the material parameters or dielectric spectrum that show material micro-structure and dynamics by measuring amplitude and phase from coherent terahertz pulses. Ionic liquid exists in most biological tissues, and it is very important for life. It has recently been suggested that near-fired terahertz ionic contrast microscopy can be employed to image subtle changes in ionic concentrations arising from neuronal activity. In this paper, we detected Ionic liquid with different concentrations at room temperature by THz-TDS technique in the range of 0.2-1.5 THz. The liquid cell with a thickness of 0.2mm is made of quartz. The absorption coefficient, refractive index and dielectric function of solutions can be extracted based on THz-TDS. We use an expanded model for fitting the dielectric function based on a combination of a Debye relation for the anions and cations. We find A linear increase of the real and imaginary part of the dielectric function compared with pure water with increasing ion concentrations. A good agreement between the model and the experimental results is obtained. By means of dielectric relaxation process, it was found that the characteristic time of molecular movement and the information related to the liquid molecular structure and movement was obtained.

  10. Terahertz Radar Imaging Based on Time-domain Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ming-gui


    Full Text Available This study uses time domain terahertz radar system to discuss systematic imaging studies on the scaled models based on the improved Back-Projection (BP algorithm. We image the scaled models with different shapes and are able to distinguish spatial gaps as small as 6 mm. The Theoretical calculation predicts that the lateral resolution and the axial resolution can be as high as 0.125 mm. Center enhancement and background rings caused by the algorithm in the imaging results are also qualitatively analyzed and are proposed methods to overcome this problem.

  11. Time domain terahertz electro- and magneto-optic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, G P


    sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r = 0 centre dot 19m sub e and m sub p sub a sub r sub a sub l sub l sub e sub l = 0 centre dot 90m sub e. The temperature dependence of the cyclotron resonance was measured over the range 5K to 80 K, and a peak is found at approx 30 K which can be explained in terms of ionised and neutral impurity scattering at temperatures below 30 K and by phonon scattering above 30 K. The measurement of small amplitude ferromagnetic resonance oscillations in the time domain in thin films of permalloy (78), iron and cobalt has been achieved by using the time resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect. A stripline device was fabricated to provide an out of plane broadband magnetic pulse with a peak strength of approx 5 Oe. The observed frequencies are shown to agree well with the established theory. A time domain terahertz spectrometer and a bolometer have been used to study the coherent THz radiation emitted from n- and p-type InAs surfaces illuminated by femtosecond near infrared pulses. The magn...

  12. Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy of artificial skin (United States)

    Corridon, Peter M.; Ascázubi, Ricardo; Krest, Courtney; Wilke, Ingrid


    Time-domain Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is currently evaluated as a novel tool for medical imaging and diagnostics. The application of THz-pulse imaging of human skin tissues and related cancers has been demonstrated recently in-vitro and in-vivo. With this in mind, we present a time-domain THz-transmission study of artificial skin. The skin samples consist of a monolayer of porous matrix of fibers of cross-linked bovine tendon collagen and a glycosaminoglycan (chondroitin-6-sulfate) that is manufactured with a controlled porosity and defined degradation rate. Another set of samples consists of the collagen monolayer covered with a silicone layer. We have measured the THz-transmission and determined the index of refraction and absorption of our samples between 0.1 and 3 THz for various states of hydration in distilled water and saline solutions. The transmission of the THz-radiation through the artificial skin samples is modeled by electromagnetic wave theory. Moreover, the THz-optical properties of the artificial skin layers are compared to the THz-optical properties of freshly excised human skin samples. Based on this comparison the potential use of artificial skin samples as photo-medical phantoms for human skin is discussed.

  13. Investigation of aqueous alcohol and sugar solutions with reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Merbold, Hannes


    We give a detailed analysis of a general realization of reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The method is self-referenced and applicable at all incidence angles and for all polarizations of the incident terahertz radiation. Hence it is a general method for the determination...

  14. Time-Domain Terahertz Reflection Holograhic Tomography Nondestructive Evaluation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a single-sided time-domain terahertz reflection holographic tomographic imaging (TD-THz RHT) nondestructive...

  15. Time-resolved single-shot terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrafast irreversible processes (United States)

    Zhai, Zhao-Hui; Zhong, Sen-Cheng; Li, Jun; Zhu, Li-Guo; Meng, Kun; Li, Jiang; Liu, Qiao; Peng, Qi-Xian; Li, Ze-Ren; Zhao, Jian-Heng


    Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy is suitable for spectroscopic diagnostics of ultrafast events. However, the study of irreversible or single shot ultrafast events requires ability to record transient properties at multiple time delays, i.e., time resolved at single shot level, which is not available currently. Here by angular multiplexing use of femtosecond laser pulses, we developed and demonstrated a time resolved, transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique, where burst mode THz pulses were generated and then detected in a single shot measurement manner. The burst mode THz pulses contain 2 sub-THz pulses, and the time gap between them is adjustable up to 1 ns with picosecond accuracy, thus it can be used to probe the single shot event at two different time delays. The system can detect the sub-THz pulses at 0.1 THz-2.5 THz range with signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ˜400 and spectrum resolution of 0.05 THz. System design was described here, and optimizations of single shot measurement of THz pulses were discussed in detail. Methods to improve SNR were also discussed in detail. A system application was demonstrated where pulsed THz signals at different time delays of the ultrafast process were successfully acquired within single shot measurement. This time resolved transient terahertz time domain spectroscopy technique provides a new diagnostic tool for irreversible or single shot ultrafast events where dynamic information can be extracted at terahertz range within one-shot experiment.

  16. Crystallization of amorphous lactose at high humidity studied by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (United States)

    McIntosh, Alexander I.; Yang, Bin; Goldup, Stephen M.; Watkinson, Michael; Donnan, Robert S.


    We report the first use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to study the hydration and crystallization of an amorphous molecular solid at high humidity. Lactose in its amorphous and monohydrate forms exhibits different terahertz spectra due to the lack of long range order in the amorphous material. This difference allowed the transformation of amorphous lactose to its monohydrate form at high humidity to be studied in real time. Spectral fitting of frequency-domain data allowed kinetic data to be obtained and the crystallization was found to obey Avrami kinetics. Bulk changes during the crystallization could also be observed in the time-domain.

  17. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.


    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  18. Linearity of Air-Biased Coherent Detection for Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Wrisberg, Emil Astrup


    The performance of air-biased coherent detection (ABCD) in a broadband two-color laser-induced air plasma system for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been investigated. Fundamental parameters of the ABCD detection, including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range (DR), and lin......The performance of air-biased coherent detection (ABCD) in a broadband two-color laser-induced air plasma system for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been investigated. Fundamental parameters of the ABCD detection, including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), dynamic range (DR...

  19. Stratified dispersive model for material characterization using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. (United States)

    van Mechelen, J L M; Kuzmenko, A B; Merbold, H


    We propose a novel terahertz material analysis approach that provides highly accurate material parameters and can be used for industrial quality control. The method treats the inspected material within its environment locally as a stratified system and describes the light-matter interaction of each layer in a realistic way. The approach is illustrated in the time-domain and frequency-domain for two potential fields of implementation of terahertz technology: quality control of (coated) paper sheets and car paint multilayers, both measured in humid air.

  20. Structure dynamics of the proton in liquid water probed with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielrooij, K.J.; Timmer, R.L.A.; Bakker, H.J.; Bonn, M.


    We study the hydration of protons in liquid water using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and polarization-resolved femtosecond midinfrared pump-probe spectroscopy. We observe that the addition of protons leads to a very strong decrease of the dielectric response of liquid water that corresponds to

  1. Contactless graphene conductance measurements: the effect of device fabrication on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Bøggild, Peter


    We perform contactless full-wafer maps of the electrical conductance of a 4-inch wafer of single-layer CVD graphene using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both before and after deposition of metal contacts and fabrication of devices via laser ablation. We find that there is no significant chang...

  2. Fra Angelico’s painting technique revealed by terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza


    We have investigated with terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) the well-known Lamentation over the dead Christ panel painting (San Marco Museum, Florence) painted by Fra Giovanni Angelico within 1436 and 1441. The investigation provided a better understanding of the construction and gilding...

  3. Miniaturized Time Domain Terahertz Non Destructive Evaluation for In-Orbit Inspection of Inflatable Habitats and Thermal Protection Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Picometrix's time-domain terahertz (TD-THz) non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technology could be used to inspect space flight structures such as inflatable space...

  4. Dielectric relaxation processes in ethanol/water mixtures measured with attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Yada, Hiriyuki; Arikawa, Takashi

    We use attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-ATR) to characterize the dielectric relaxation processes of 10 different ethanol/water mixtures at 25°C with ethanol mole fractions of 0-100%.......We use attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-ATR) to characterize the dielectric relaxation processes of 10 different ethanol/water mixtures at 25°C with ethanol mole fractions of 0-100%....

  5. Time-Domain Terahertz Computed Axial Tomography NDE System (United States)

    Zimdars, David


    NASA has identified the need for advanced non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods to characterize aging and durability in aircraft materials to improve the safety of the nation's airline fleet. 3D THz tomography can play a major role in detection and characterization of flaws and degradation in aircraft materials, including Kevlar-based composites and Kevlar and Zylon fabric covers for soft-shell fan containment where aging and durability issues are critical. A prototype computed tomography (CT) time-domain (TD) THz imaging system has been used to generate 3D images of several test objects including a TUFI tile (a thermal protection system tile used on the Space Shuttle and possibly the Orion or similar capsules). This TUFI tile had simulated impact damage that was located and the depth of damage determined. The CT motion control gan try was designed and constructed, and then integrated with a T-Ray 4000 control unit and motion controller to create a complete CT TD-THz imaging system prototype. A data collection software script was developed that takes multiple z-axis slices in sequence and saves the data for batch processing. The data collection software was integrated with the ability to batch process the slice data with the CT TD-THz image reconstruction software. The time required to take a single CT slice was decreased from six minutes to approximately one minute by replacing the 320 ps, 100-Hz waveform acquisition system with an 80 ps, 1,000-Hz waveform acquisition system. The TD-THZ computed tomography system was built from pre-existing commercial off-the-shelf subsystems. A CT motion control gantry was constructed from COTS components that can handle larger samples. The motion control gantry allows inspection of sample sizes of up to approximately one cubic foot (.0.03 cubic meters). The system reduced to practice a CT-TDTHz system incorporating a COTS 80- ps/l-kHz waveform scanner. The incorporation of this scanner in the system allows acquisition of 3D

  6. Bacillus spores and their relevant chemicals studied by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Tang, Jianhua; Yang, Bin; Llewellyn, Ian; Cutler, Ronald R.; Donnan, Robert S.


    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy has been used to investigate 0.2-2.2 THz transmission responses of Bacillus spores and their related chemical components. Whilst no THz signatures could be clearly associated with either sporulated cells or their chief chemical components, differing degrees of signal attenuation and frequency-dependent light scattering were observed depending on spore composition and culture media. The observed monotonic increase in absorption by spores over this THz spectral domain is mainly from Mie scattering and also from remnant water bound to the spores.

  7. Measurement of electron paramagnetic resonance using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kozuki, Kohei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori


    We present a frequency-domain electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement system using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. A crossed polarizer technique is utilized to increase the sensitivity in detecting weak ESR signals of paramagnets caused by magnetic dipole transitions between magnetic sublevels. We demonstrate the measurements of ESR signal of paramagnetic copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate with uniaxial anisotropy of the g-factor under magnetic fields up to 10 T. The lineshape of the obtained ESR signals agrees well with the theoretical predictions for a powder sample with the uniaxial anisotropy.

  8. [The error analysis and experimental verification of laser radar spectrum detection and terahertz time domain spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Tao; Li, Jing-Wen; Sun, Zhi-Hui


    Terahertz waves (THz, T-ray) lie between far-infrared and microwave in electromagnetic spectrum with frequency from 0.1 to 10 THz. Many chemical agent explosives show characteristic spectral features in the terahertz. Compared with conventional methods of detecting a variety of threats, such as weapons and chemical agent, THz radiation is low frequency and non-ionizing, and does not give rise to safety concerns. The present paper summarizes the latest progress in the application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to chemical agent explosives. A kind of device on laser radar detecting and real time spectrum measuring was designed which measures the laser spectrum on the bases of Fourier optics and optical signal processing. Wedge interferometer was used as the beam splitter to wipe off the background light and detect the laser and measure the spectrum. The result indicates that 10 ns laser radar pulse can be detected and many factors affecting experiments are also introduced. The combination of laser radar spectrum detecting, THz-TDS, modern pattern recognition and signal processing technology is the developing trend of remote detection for chemical agent explosives.

  9. Optimal methodologies for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of traditional pigments in powder form (United States)

    Ha, Taewoo; Lee, Howon; Sim, Kyung Ik; Kim, Jonghyeon; Jo, Young Chan; Kim, Jae Hoon; Baek, Na Yeon; Kang, Dai-ill; Lee, Han Hyoung


    We have established optimal methods for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of highly absorbing pigments in powder form based on our investigation of representative traditional Chinese pigments, such as azurite [blue-based color pigment], Chinese vermilion [red-based color pigment], and arsenic yellow [yellow-based color pigment]. To accurately extract the optical constants in the terahertz region of 0.1 - 3 THz, we carried out transmission measurements in such a way that intense absorption peaks did not completely suppress the transmission level. This required preparation of pellet samples with optimized thicknesses and material densities. In some cases, mixing the pigments with polyethylene powder was required to minimize absorption due to certain peak features. The resulting distortion-free terahertz spectra of the investigated set of pigment species exhibited well-defined unique spectral fingerprints. Our study will be useful to future efforts to establish non-destructive analysis methods of traditional pigments, to construct their spectral databases, and to apply these tools to restoration of cultural heritage materials.

  10. Vibrational frequencies of anti-diabetic drug studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Du, S. Q.; Li, H.; Xie, L.; Chen, L.; Peng, Y.; Zhu, Y. M.; Li, H.; Dong, P.; Wang, J. T.


    By using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, the absorption spectra of seven anti-diabetic pills have been investigated. For gliquidone, glipizide, gliclazide, and glimepiride, an obvious resonance peak is found at 1.37 THz. Furthermore, to overcome the limit of density functional theory that can analyze the normal mode frequencies of the ground state of organic material, we also present a method that relies on pharmacophore recognition, from which we can obtain the resonance peak at 1.37 THz can be attributed to the vibration of sulfonylurea group. The results indicate that the veracity of density functional theory can be increased by combining pharmacophore recognition.

  11. Multichannel terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system at 1030 nm excitation wavelength. (United States)

    Brahm, Anika; Wilms, Annika; Dietz, Roman J B; Göbel, Thorsten; Schell, Martin; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas


    We present Terahertz (THz) imaging with a 1D multichannel time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) system which operates with a photoconductive array of 15 detection channels excited by a 1030 nm femtosecond fiber laser. The emitter and detector are photoconductive antennas based on InGaAs/InAlAs multi-layer heterostructures (MLHS). We characterized the THz optics and the resolution of the system. The performance is demonstrated by the multichannel imaging of two samples. A simultaneous measurement of 15 THz pulses with a pixel pitch of 1 mm increases the measurement speed of the TDS system by factor 15.

  12. The Detection of Water Flow in Rectangular Microchannels by Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Song, Yan; Zhao, Kun; Zuo, Jian; Wang, Cuicui; Li, Yizhang; Miao, Xinyang; Zhao, Xiaojing


    Flow characteristics of water were tested in a rectangular microchannel for Reynolds number (Re) between 0 and 446 by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Output THz peak trough intensities and the calculated absorbances of the flow were analyzed theoretically. The results show a rapid change for Re flow beginning nearly at Re = 250. Then this finding is confirmed in the plot of the flow resistant. Our results demonstrate that the THz-TDS could be a valuable tool to monitor and character the flow performance in microscale structures.

  13. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of magnons in antiferromagnetic MnF2(Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Bristow, Alan D.; Bas, Derek A.; Borisov, Pavel; Lederman, David


    Antiferromagnets are an important class of ordered spin systems, common in spintronic applications and providing a testbed for studying magnetism. Recently, the injection of magnons - coherent spin waves - has been explored by broadband terahertz pulses in antoferromagnets, such as MnO. Here, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used to detect magnon resonances in MnF2, which is a model antiferromagnet with uniaxial anisotropy and a Néel temperature of 67 K. Temperature dependence of a one-magnon resonances is examined from 5 K to 70 K. The center frequency of the one-magnon is recorded below the Néel temperature and fit to a Brillouin function. It is found that the degree of correlation between neighboring spins is j = 1.1. Namely, a weak correlation and appropriately modeled by mean-field theory befitting this simple system. From low temperature to room temperature, a two-magnon resonance is observed to broaden and strengthen as the temperature increases. Two-magnon modes arise due to zone-edge magnons being stimulated with -k and +k momenta and do not require magnetic ordering. Over this same temperature range, THz transients are used to monitor the time-of flight through the crystal, the refractive index, the internal energy and the heat capacity. Overall these quantities decrease with decreasing temperature, with behavior that falls into three regimes: a thermal dominated region above the Néel temperature, a magnetic regime below the Néel temperature; and a hyperfine interaction region at temperatures below 6 K. The latter is the first direct observation of the hyperfine interaction using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

  14. Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Filtenborg, Troels; Fukunaga, Kaori


    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for imaging a hidden portrait and other subsurfacecomposition layers of an 18th century (18C) easel painting by Nicolai Abildgaard, the most important 18CDanish neoclassical painter of historical and mythological subjects. For the first time......, a real hidden portraiton an easel painting has been imaged by THz-TDI, with an unexpected richness of detail. THz C- andB-scans have been compared with images obtained by x-ray radiography and invasive cross-sectional imaging,leading to a deeper understanding of the strengths and limitations...... in practical applications of the technique. Interfaces between layers ofthe painting have been successfully imaged, contributing substantially to the understanding of the structure of the painting....

  15. Time-domain electric field enhancement on micrometer scale in coupled split ring resonator upon terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hoffmann, Matthias


    We present here a novel design for a coupled split ring resonator antenna optimized for time-domain electric field enhancement in the 0.1 to 1 terahertz (THz) range. The antenna is designed to be sensitive to the incident field polarization and seeks to avoid metal damage due to electron bombardm...

  16. Analysis of a seventeenth-century panel painting by reflection terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Filtenborg, Troels; Skou-Hansen, Jacob


    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for nondestructive visualization of a hidden painting and other subsurface composition layers of a seventeenth-century panel painting belonging to the National Gallery of Denmark. Plan-type and cross-sectional scans realized by THz have been...

  17. Rapid analysis of tetracycline hydrochloride solution by attenuated total reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. (United States)

    Qin, Jianyuan; Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin


    Despite numerous methods for the detection of antibiotic residues, they are usually destructive and require tedious pre-treatment. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is an emerging technology that has advantages for analyzing chemical and biological compounds since THz waves are very sensitive to the molecular vibrational modes. Here we incorporated attenuated total reflection technique into the THz-TDS and demonstrated that this technology (ATR THz-TDS) allowed to determine the complex refractive indices of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) solutions with high accuracy and could be used to predict their concentrations. Our results from the simple linear regression models indicated that the complex refractive index exhibited a monotonic decrease with an increase in the TCH concentration. This study will provide new knowledge about the concentration determination of a liquid sample that couldn't be elucidated with the conventional THz-TDS technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation diagnosis of transformer insulating oils with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Kang, Seung Beom; Kim, Won-Seok; Chung, Dong Chul; Joung, Jong Man; Kwak, Min Hwan


    We report the frequency-dependent complex optical constants, refractive index and absorption, and complex dielectric properties over the frequency range from 0.2 to 3.0 THz for aged power transformer mineral insulating oils. These results have been obtained using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and demonstrate the double-Debye relaxation behavior of the mineral insulating oil. The measured complex optical and dielectric characteristics can be important benchmarks for liquid molecular dynamics and theoretical studies of insulating oils. Due to clear differences in THz responses of aged mineral insulating oils, THz-TDS can be used as a novel on-site diagnostic technique to monitor the insulation condition in aged power transformers and may be valuable alternative to characterize other developing eco-friendly insulating oils and industrial liquids.

  19. Cancellation of Fabry-Perot interference effects in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of optically thin samples (United States)

    Fastampa, Renato; Pilozzi, Laura; Missori, Mauro


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is increasingly used in many fields of research. For strongly absorbing materials with refraction index close to 1, optical parameters at terahertz frequencies are most conveniently quantified using transmission measurements through thin samples. Unfortunately, extracting optical parameters from raw data implies the use and/or development of complicated numerical data processing procedures. In this work we present an efficient computational procedure for extracting the optical parameters in very thin samples (≲100 μ m) from transmission terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In our procedure, we are able to successfully remove from raw data the Fabry-Perot interference effects, which are commonly recognized to be the leading cause of inaccuracy in the extracted parameters, introducing fictitious oscillations in their frequency dependence. The procedure is based on the Davidenko method to identify the roots of complex functions used to numerically solve the implicit equation obtained by equating the experimental and theoretical transfer functions. The advantage of the method is the possibility of obtaining the roots using the numerical solution of a system of real differential equations using standard mathematical packages. In addition, we show that complete removal of the Fabry-Perot oscillations is achieved by including in the computational procedure, besides the sample thickness, the instrumental error on the starting instant of the terahertz signal sampling. This error could be common to many terahertz time-domain systems, especially those using optical fibers. This correction is necessary in general to preserve the terahertz spectroscopic features in the extracted optical parameters for strongly absorbing materials with refraction index close to 1, such as water, biological matter, and several organic materials.

  20. Enhanced Measurement of Paper Basis Weight Using Phase Shift in Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengbao Fan


    Full Text Available THz time-domain spectroscopy has evolved as a noncontact, safe, and efficient technique for paper characterization. Our previous work adopted peak amplitude and delay time as features to determine paper basis weight using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. However, peak amplitude and delay time tend to suffer from noises, resulting in degradation of accuracy and robustness. This paper proposes a noise-robust phase-shift based method to enhance measurements of paper basis weight. Based on Fresnel Formulae, the physical relationship between phase shift and paper basis weight is formulated theoretically neglecting multiple reflections in the case of normal incidence. The established formulation indicates that phase shift correlates linearly with paper basis weight intrinsically. Subsequently, paper sheets were stacked to fabricate the samples with different basis weights, and experimental results verified the developed mathematical formulation. Moreover, a comparison was made between phase shift, peak amplitude, and delay time with respect to linearity, accuracy, and noise robustness. The results show that phase shift is superior to the others.

  1. Analysis of propagation properties of terahertz hollow-optical fiber by using time-domain spectroscopy and application for THz wave remote spectroscopy (United States)

    Ito, K.; Katagiri, T.; Matsuura, Y.


    Terahertz pulse propagation in hollow optical fibers is investigated by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. From evaluation of transmission loss spectra of hollow optical fiber, it is found that TM11 mode propagates as well as TE11 mode that is the lowest order mode in terahertz metal-hollow fiber. Short-time Fourier transform is also applied for investigation of mode properties and as a result, it is confirmed that the interference peaks in the loss spectra are due to mode mixing in hollow optical fibers. Finally we performed a terahertz wave remote spectroscopy using the hollow optical fiber and acquired a clear transmission spectrum of the theophylline.

  2. Mean estimation empirical mode decomposition method for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy de-noising. (United States)

    Qiao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xinming; Ren, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Dandan; Cao, Guohua; Li, Lijuan


    The wavelet-domain de-noising technique has many applications in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). However, it requires a complex procedure for the selection of the optimal wavelet basis and threshold, which varies for different materials. Inappropriate selections can lead to de-noising failure. Here, we propose the Mean Estimation Empirical Mode Decomposition (ME-EMD) de-noising method for THz-TDS. First, the THz-TDS signal and the collected reference noise are decomposed into the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs); second, the maximum and mean absolute values of the noise IMF amplitudes are calculated and defined as the adaptive threshold and adaptive estimated noise value, respectively; finally, these thresholds and estimated noise values are utilized to filter the noise from the signal IMFs and reconstruct the THz-TDS signal. We also calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and mean square error (MSE) for the ME-EMD method, the "db7" wavelet basis, and the "sym8" wavelet basis after de-noising in both the simulation and the real sample experiments. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrated that the new ME-EMD method is a simple, effective, and high-stability de-noising tool for THz-TDS pulses. The measured refractive index curves are compared before and after de-noising and demonstrated that the de-noising process is necessary and useful for measuring the optical constants of a sample.

  3. Magnetization-free measurements of spin orientations in orthoferrites using terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suemoto, Tohru, E-mail:; Nakamura, Keita; Kurihara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Laser and Synchrotron Research Center, Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)


    The spin orientation during spin reorientation phase transition in a weak ferromagnetic orthoferrite Dy{sub x}Er{sub 1−x}FeO{sub 3} (x = 0.7) has been studied by using terahertz time domain spectroscopy under zero and weak external magnetic fields. The spin orientation angle was deduced from the ratio of the absorption intensity of quasi-ferromagnetic and quasi-antiferromagnetic modes, which appear around 0.25 and 0.4 THz, respectively. Between 11.4 and 17.9 K, this material showed a rotation-type reorientation transition rather than Morin-type transition. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the orientation angle of the magnetic moment was found to follow a simple model assuming a linear temperature dependence of the anisotropy parameter. It has been also shown that this method is insensitive to the domain structure with opposite polarity and that it allows measurement without macroscopic magnetization.

  4. Artworks characterization at THz frequencies: preliminary results via the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco


    In the research field of art and archaeology, scientific observation and analysis are hugely demanded to gather as more information as possible on the materials and techniques used to create artworks as well as in previous restoration actions. In this frame, diagnostic tools exploiting electromagnetic waves deserve massive interest tanks to their ability to provide non-invasive and possibly contactless characterization of the investigated objects. Among the electromagnetic diagnostic technologies, those working at frequencies belonging to the 0.1-10 THz range are currently deserving an increased attention since THz waves are capable of penetrating into optically opaque materials (up to the preparation layers), without direct contact and by involving sufficiently low energy to be considered as perfectly non-invasive in practice [1,2]. Moreover, being THz non-ionizing radiations, a moderate exposure to them implies minor long term risks to the molecular stability of the historical artifact and humans. Finally, recent developments of THz technology have allowed the commercialization of compact, flexible and portable systems. One of them is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) developed by Z-Omega, acquired by the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA) in 2013. This system works in the range from 60GHz to 3THz with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz, it is equipped with fiber optic coupled transmitting and receiving probes and, few months ago, has been potentiated by means of an automatic positioning system enabling to scan a 150mm x 150mm area. In the frame of the IREA research activities regarding cultural heritage, the FICO system is currently adopted to perform both spectroscopy and imaging, which are the two kind of analysis wherein THz technology can be profitably explored [3]. In particular, THz spectroscopy is used to distinguish different artists materials by exploiting their peculiar fingerprint in the absorption

  5. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadi, Chandu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlOxNb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic.

  6. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and quantitative analysis of metal gluconates. (United States)

    Li, Shaoxian; Yang, Jingqi; Zhao, Hongwei; Yang, Na; Jing, Dandan; Zhang, Jianbing; Li, Qingnuan; Han, Jiaguang


    A series of metal gluconates (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) were investigated by terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy. The absorption coefficients and refractive indices of the samples were obtained in the frequency range of 0.5-2.6 THz. The gluconates showed distinct THz characteristic fingerprints, and the dissimilarities reflect their different structures, hydrogen-bond networks, and molecular interactions. In addition, some common features were observed among these gluconates, and the similarities probably come from the similar carbohydrate anion group. The X-ray powder diffraction measurements of these metal gluconates were performed, and the copper(II) gluconate was found to be amorphous, corresponding to the monotonic increase feature in the THz absorption spectrum. The results suggest that THz spectroscopy is sensitive to molecular structure and physical form. Binary and ternary mixtures of different gluconates were quantitatively analyzed based on the Beer-Lambert law. A chemical map of a tablet containing calcium D-gluconate monohydrate and α-lactose in the polyethylene host was obtained by THz imaging. The study shows that THz technology is a useful tool in pharmaceutical research and quality control applications.

  7. Anisotropic percolation conduction in elastomer-carbon black composites investigated by polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Okano, Makoto; Fujii, Misako; Watanabe, Shinichi


    We investigated the draw ratio (DR) dependence of the anisotropic dielectric function and conductivity of styrene butadiene rubbers (SBRs) with different carbon black (CB) concentrations by polarization-sensitive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. From the frequency dependence of the conductivity in the unstretched SBRs ranging from direct current to terahertz frequencies, it is found that the SBR with a CB concentration above 30 wt. % exhibits percolation conductivity. We investigated the spectral shape of the dielectric function and conductivity of the SBR samples below and above the percolation threshold for two representative DRs in the terahertz frequency region. We found that the DR dependence of the spectral shape is well explained by the effective medium approximation, except for the sample with the CB concentration above 30 wt. % under the unstretched condition. The conductivity in that sample remarkably changes in the low terahertz frequency region, which suggests a change in the CB network by deformation. The investigation of the dielectric anisotropy and percolation conductivity using our polarization technique can be applied to a wide range of elastomer composites.

  8. Fast and non-destructive pore structure analysis using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. (United States)

    Markl, Daniel; Bawuah, Prince; Ridgway, Cathy; van den Ban, Sander; Goodwin, Daniel J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Gane, Patrick; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Zeitler, J Axel


    Pharmaceutical tablets are typically manufactured by the uni-axial compaction of powder that is confined radially by a rigid die. The directional nature of the compaction process yields not only anisotropic mechanical properties (e.g. tensile strength) but also directional properties of the pore structure in the porous compact. This study derives a new quantitative parameter, Sa, to describe the anisotropy in pore structure of pharmaceutical tablets based on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements. The Sa parameter analysis was applied to three different data sets including tablets with only one excipient (functionalised calcium carbonate), samples with one excipient (microcrystalline cellulose) and one drug (indomethacin), and a complex formulation (granulated product comprising several excipients and one drug). The overall porosity, tablet thickness, initial particle size distribution as well as the granule density were all found to affect the significant structural anisotropies that were observed in all investigated tablets. The Sa parameter provides new insights into the microstructure of a tablet and its potential was particularly demonstrated for the analysis of formulations comprising several components. The results clearly indicate that material attributes, such as particle size and granule density, cause a change of the pore structure, which, therefore, directly impacts the liquid imbibition that is part of the disintegration process. We show, for the first time, how the granule density impacts the pore structure, which will also affect the performance of the tablet. It is thus of great importance to gain a better understanding of the relationship of the physical properties of material attributes (e.g. intragranular porosity, particle shape), the compaction process and the microstructure of the finished product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Finite-difference time-domain analysis of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Cooke, David G.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    probe pulse and can be determined solely by the pump pulse duration. Our method is found to reproduce complicated two-dimensional transient conductivity maps exceedingly well, demonstrating the power of the time-domain numerical method for extracting ultrafast and dynamic transport parameters from time...

  10. Application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to quantitative analysis of imidacloprid in rice samples (United States)

    Chen, Zewei; Zhang, Zhuoyong; Zhu, Ruohua; Xiang, Yuhong; Yang, Yuping; Harrington, Peter B.


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been utilized as an effective tool for quantitative analysis of imidacloprid in rice powder samples. Unlike previous studies, our method for sample preparation was mixing imidacloprid with rice powder instead of polyethylene. Then, terahertz time domain transmission spectra of these mixed samples were measured and the absorption coefficient spectra of the samples with frequency range extending from 0.3 to 1.7 THz were obtained. Asymmetric least square (AsLS) method was utilized to correct the slope baselines that are presented in THz absorption coefficient spectra and improve signal-to-noise ratio of THz spectra. Chemometrics methods, including partial least squares (PLS), support vector regression (SVR), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and backward interval partial least squares (biPLS), were used for quantitative model building and prediction. To achieve a reliable and unbiased estimation, bootstrapped Latin partition was chosen as an approach for statistical cross-validation. Results showed that the mean value of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for PLS (0.5%) is smaller than SVR (0.7%), these two methods were based on the whole absorption coefficient spectra. In addition, PLS performed a better performance with a lower RMSEP (0.3%) based on the THz absorption coefficient spectra after AsLS baseline correction. Alternatively, two methods for variable selection, namely iPLS and biPLS, yielded models with improved predictions. Comparing with conventional PLS and SVR, the mean values of RMSEP were 0.4% (iPLS) and 0.3% (biPLS) by selecting the informative frequency ranges. The results demonstrated that an accurate quantitative analysis of imidacloprid in rice powder samples could be achieved by terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that THz time-domain spectroscopy can be used for quantitative determinations of other

  11. Spectroscopic study of Alzheimer's amyloid fibrils using terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Euna; Kim, Jeonghoi; Han, Younho; Moon, Kiwon; Lim, Meehyun; Han, Haewook; Park, Joonhyuck; Kim, Sungjee [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    Alzheimer's disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by extensive amyloid deposition. Amyloid deposits contain the abundant fibrils formed by amyloid β protein (Aβ). Because amyloid fibrils are associated with amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, prion disease, Parkinson's disease, senile systemic amyloidosis and Huntington's disease, there has been considerable interest within the biomedical and biochemical research communities. In transmission electron microscopic (TEM)images, amyloid firils are 0.1∼10μm long and approximately 10nm wide. Amyloid fibrils commonly exhibit self assembled filaments, often described as twisted or parallel assemblies of finer protofilaments. They are formed by the spontaneous aggregation of a wide variety of peptides and proteins. Structural studies of amyloid fibrils have revealed that the common structural motif of virtually all amyloid fibrils consists of cross β sheets in which the peptide strands are arranged perpendicular to the long axis of the fiber. But little was known until recently about the molecular level structures of amyloid fibils. Therefore, spectroscopic investigation of both amyloid fibrils and Aβ at the molecular level can provide the significant evidence for the molecular understanding of amyloidogenesis and for the development of innovative therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. We used terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)to investigate both Aβ and amyloid fibril. THz TDS, developed over the last two decades, is a powerful tool to extract the properties of biomaterials and provides unique spectral signatures of biomolecules within 0.1∼10THz, which exists between microwave and infrared frequency range. Current interest in THz radiation arises from its capability of probing the delocalized collective vibrational modes in proteins. Studying the collective modes of proteins in THz frequency range can play an

  12. Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, P Haring [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 24, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Brucherseifer, M [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 24, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Nagel, M [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 24, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Kurz, H [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, RWTH Aachen, Sommerfeldstr. 24, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bosserhoff, A [Institut fuer Pathologie, Universitaet Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Buettner, R [Institut fuer Pathologie, Universitaetsklinikum Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)


    A label-free sensing approach for the label-free characterization of genetic material with terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves is presented. Time-resolved THz analysis of polynucleotides demonstrates a strong dependence of the complex refractive index of DNA molecules in the THz frequency range on their hybridization state. By monitoring THz signals one can thus infer the binding state (hybridized or denatured) of oligo- and polynucleotides, enabling the label-free determination the genetic composition of unknown DNA sequences. A broadband experimental proof-of-principle in a free-space analytic configuration, as well as a higher-sensitivity approach using integrated THz sensors reaching femtomol detection levels and demonstrating the capability to detect single-base mutations, are presented. The potential application for next generation high-throughput label-free genetic analytic systems is discussed.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of crystallized-particle size in lactose-powder by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Sakura; Imai, Yoh; Tonouchi, Masayoshi


    Transmission-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to evaluate crystallized lactose particle of size below 30 μm, which is far too small compared to the wavelength of incident terahertz (THz)-wave. The THz-absorption spectrum of lactose is successfully deconvoluted by Lorentzian to two spectra with peaks at 17.1 cm-1 (0.53 THz) and 45.6 cm-1 (1.37 THz) derived from α-lactose monohydrate, and a spectrum at 39.7 cm-1 (1.19 THz) from anhydrous β-lactose after removal of the broad-band spectrum by polynomial cubic function. Lactose is mainly crystallized into α-lactose monohydrate from the supersaturated solution at room temperature with a small amount of anhydrous β-lactose below 4%. The absorption feature is dependent on the crystallized particle size and the integrated intensity ratio of the two absorptions due to α-lactose monohydrate is correlated in linear for the size.

  14. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza


    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to pr...

  15. Wavelength Selection Method Based on Differential Evolution for Precise Quantitative Analysis Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Chen, Weidong; Lian, Feiyu; Ge, Hongyi; Guan, Aihong


    Quantitative analysis of component mixtures is an important application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and has attracted broad interest in recent research. Although the accuracy of quantitative analysis using THz-TDS is affected by a host of factors, wavelength selection from the sample's THz absorption spectrum is the most crucial component. The raw spectrum consists of signals from the sample and scattering and other random disturbances that can critically influence the quantitative accuracy. For precise quantitative analysis using THz-TDS, the signal from the sample needs to be retained while the scattering and other noise sources are eliminated. In this paper, a novel wavelength selection method based on differential evolution (DE) is investigated. By performing quantitative experiments on a series of binary amino acid mixtures using THz-TDS, we demonstrate the efficacy of the DE-based wavelength selection method, which yields an error rate below 5%.

  16. Discrimination and identification of RDX/PETN explosives by chemometrics applied to terahertz time-domain spectral imaging (United States)

    Bou-Sleiman, J.; Perraud, J.-B.; Bousquet, B.; Guillet, J.-P.; Palka, N.; Mounaix, P.


    Detection of explosives has always been a priority for homeland security. Jointly, terahertz spectroscopy and imaging are emerging and promising candidates as contactless and safe systems. In this work, we treated data resulting from hyperspectral imaging obtained by THz-time domain spectroscopy, with chemometric tools. We found efficient identification and sorting of targeted explosives in the case of pure and mixture samples. In this aim, we applied to images Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to discriminate between RDX, PETN and mixtures of the two materials, using the absorbance as the key-parameter. Then we applied Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) to each pixel of the hyperspectral images to sort the explosives into different classes. The results clearly show successful identification and categorization of the explosives under study.

  17. Flexibility and non-destructive conductivity measurements of Ag nanowire based transparent conductive films via terahertz time domain spectroscopy. (United States)

    Hwang, Gyujeong; Balci, Soner; Güngördü, M Zeki; Maleski, Alex; Waters, Joseph; Lee, Sunjong; Choi, Sangjun; Kim, Kyoungkook; Cho, Soohaeng; Kim, Seongsin M


    Highly stable and flexible transparent electrodes are fabricated based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) on both polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) and polyimide (PI) substrates. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was utilized to probe AgNW films while bended with a radius 5 mm to discover conductivity of bended films which was further analyzed through Drude-Smith model. AgNW films experience little degradation in conductivity (<3%) before, after, and during 1000 bending cycles. Highly stable AgNW flexible electrodes have broad applications in flexible optoelectronic and electronic devices. THz-TDS is an effective technique to investigate the electrical properties of the bended and flattened conducting films in a nondestructive manner.

  18. Leaf water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana monitored in-vivo using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Castro-Camus, E.; Palomar, M.; Covarrubias, A. A.


    The declining water availability for agriculture is becoming problematic for many countries. Therefore the study of plants under water restriction is acquiring extraordinary importance. Botanists currently follow the dehydration of plants comparing the fresh and dry weight of excised organs, or measuring their osmotic or water potentials; these are destructive methods inappropriate for in-vivo determination of plants' hydration dynamics. Water is opaque in the terahertz band, while dehydrated biological tissues are partially transparent. We used terahertz spectroscopy to study the water dynamics of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparing the dehydration kinetics of leaves from plants under well-irrigated and water deficit conditions. We also present measurements of the effect of dark-light cycles and abscisic acid on its water dynamics. The measurements we present provide a new perspective on the water dynamics of plants under different external stimuli and confirm that terahertz can be an excellent non-contact probe of in-vivo tissue hydration.

  19. Determination of the optical properties of melanin-pigmented human skin equivalents using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Lipscomb, Dawn; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Wilmink, Gerald J.


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) methods have been utilized in previous studies in order to characterize the optical properties of skin and its primary constituents (i.e., water, collagen, and keratin). However, similar experiments have not yet been performed to investigate whether melanocytes and the melanin pigment that they synthesize contribute to skin's optical properties. In this study, we used THz-TDS methods operating in transmission geometry to measure the optical properties of in vitro human skin equivalents with or without normal human melanocytes. Skin equivalents were cultured for three weeks to promote gradual melanogenesis, and THz time domain data were collected at various time intervals. Frequency-domain analysis techniques were performed to determine the index of refraction (n) and absorption coefficient (μa) for each skin sample over the frequency range of 0.1-2.0 THz. We found that for all samples as frequency increased, n decreased exponentially and the μa increased linearly. Additionally, we observed that skin samples with higher levels of melanin exhibited greater n and μa values than the non-pigmented samples. Our results indicate that melanocytes and the degree of melanin pigmentation contribute in an appreciable manner to the skin's optical properties. Future studies will be performed to examine whether these contributions are observed in human skin in vivo.

  20. Terahertz frequency spectrum characterization of coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometer (United States)

    Zhao, Ji; Zhang, Liang-liang; Luo, Yi-man; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhao, Yue-jin


    Terahertz wave which can provide innovative sensing and imaging techniques can obtain spectroscopic information unavailable at other wavelengths. The terahertz air-biased-coherent-detection (ABCD) method can achieve the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor to produce field-induced optical second harmonic photons. Therefore, the intense terahertz wave generated and detected by the laser-induced air plasma provides a promising ultra-broadband terahertz source and sensor for spectroscopy and imaging technique. Aiming at that purpose, an understanding of the frequency spectrum characterization of terahertz pulse is crucial. In this work, we investigated the variation of the THz pulse bandwidth measured through the third harmonic generation using the coherent detection scheme, by increasing the optical probe pulse power and biased electric field. A bandwidth broadening of the measured THz pulse is observed by increasing either the probe pulse power or the bias voltage strength. We speculate that a pulse shape change of the probe beam and a saturation effect during the second-harmonic generation might cause the bandwidth broaden with probe power. To further investigate the mechanism, we fixed the power of probe laser at 150mW and changed the bias voltage. The results show that the frequency spectrum width becomes wider gradually with the increasing of the bias voltage. A theoretical explaination shows that the bandwidth broadening with bias field might be introduced by a pulse shape change of the bias field induced second harmonic wave. This study reveals that we can control THz intensity and bandwidth by changing probe power and bias voltage in the ABCD system.

  1. Inspection of panel paintings beneath gilded finishes using terahertz time-domain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Cosentino, Antonino; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Scientific analysis of panel paintings could provide key information to art historians and conservators about the composition and condition of the constituent layers. Knowledge of the structure, stratigraphy, and condition of the subsurface layers of these objects is highly relevant to conservation...... of subsurface 3D images and stratigraphic images (B-scans). The technique is contactless and non-invasive, and has been successfully applied to investigation of panel paintings. Regarding gilded panel paintings, the extremely high reflectivity of metals at submillimeter wavelengths generally precludes...... in the terahertz range, due to the skin effect. The thickness of gold leaf, a fraction of a micrometer, matches the skin depth of gold in the terahertz frequency range covered by THz-TDI devices. We therefore investigated and imaged subsurface features of panel paintings through gilded finishes with THz...

  2. Rapid and precise determination of zero-field splittings by terahertz time-domain electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Ozel, I Ozge; Belvin, Carina A; Li, Xian; Skorupskii, Grigorii; Sun, Lei; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Dincă, Mircea; Gedik, Nuh; Nelson, Keith A


    Zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters are fundamentally tied to the geometries of metal ion complexes. Despite their critical importance for understanding the magnetism and spectroscopy of metal complexes, they are not routinely available through general laboratory-based techniques, and are often inferred from magnetism data. Here we demonstrate a simple tabletop experimental approach that enables direct and reliable determination of ZFS parameters in the terahertz (THz) regime. We report time-domain measurements of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals associated with THz-frequency ZFSs in molecular complexes containing high-spin transition-metal ions. We measure the temporal profiles of the free-induction decays of spin resonances in the complexes at zero and nonzero external magnetic fields, and we derive the EPR spectra via numerical Fourier transformation of the time-domain signals. In most cases, absolute values of the ZFS parameters are extracted from the measured zero-field EPR frequencies, and the signs can be determined by zero-field measurements at two different temperatures. Field-dependent EPR measurements further allow refined determination of the ZFS parameters and access to the g -factor. The results show good agreement with those obtained by other methods. The simplicity of the method portends wide applicability in chemistry, biology and material science.

  3. Complex Permittivity of Ionic Liquid Mixtures Investigated by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Mou, Sen; Rubano, Andrea; Paparo, Domenico


    Ionic liquids are salts found in their liquid state at ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of ionic liquids can be tailored by selecting constituent cation and anion from numerous available ions. The physicochemical properties can be further tuned by mixing different neat ionic liquids. Reported data of ionic liquid mixtures reveal that frequently investigated properties such as density, viscosity, and thermal stability follow corresponding mixing laws. Complex permittivity in the interval of terahertz frequencies is of great importance to understand the molecular interactions and the solvation dynamics which drive the macroscopic properties of ionic liquids; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are few reports about the mixing behavior of complex permittivity in ionic liquid mixtures. In this contribution, binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoulium iodide ([C4C1im]I) and 1-butyl-3- methylimidazoulium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated in the terahertz spectral range, and the resulting low-energy spectra are analyzed in order to clarify the mixing laws at play. The results show that the complex permittivity of mixtures of [C4C1im]I and ([C4C1im][NTf2] obeys a linear mixing law.

  4. Inspection of Asian Lacquer Substructures by Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kohzuma, Yoshei


    Lacquering is considered one of the most representative Asian artistic techniques. While the decorative part of lacquerwares is the lacquer itself, their substructures serve as the backbone of the object itself. Very little is known about these hidden substructures. Since lacquerwares are mostly...... by inspecting the substructures of Asian lacquerwares by means of THz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Three different kinds of Asian lacquerwares were examined by THz-TDI, and the outcomes have been compared with those obtained by standard X-radiography. THz-TDI provides unique information on lacquerwares...

  5. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy allows contactless monitoring of grapevine water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzaga Santesteban


    Full Text Available Agriculture is the sector with the greatest water consumption, since food production is frequently based on crop irrigation. Proper irrigation management requires reliable information on plant water status, but all the plant-based methods to determine it suffer from several inconveniences, mainly caused by the necessity of destructive sampling or of alteration of the plant organ due to contact installation. The aim of this work is to test if THz time domain reflectance measurements made on the grapevine trunk allows contactless monitoring of plant status. The experiments were performed on a potted 14-years old plant, using a general purpose THz emitter receiver head.Trunk THz time-domain reflection signal proved to be very sensitive to changes in plant water availability, as its pattern follows the trend of soil water content and trunk growth variations. Therefore, it could be used to contactless monitor plant water status. Apart from that, THz reflection signal was observed to respond to light conditions which, according to a specifically designed girdling experiment, was caused by changes in the phloem. This latter results opens a promising field of research for contactless monitoring of phloem activity.

  6. Seeing Beyond the Painting Surface with Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): a signal separation method for extracting images of buried individual layers in paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Skou-Hansen, Jakob; Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica


    In this study, the 18C easel painting The Dying Messalina and her Mother, by Nicolai Abildgaard (Statens Museum for Kunst collection, Copenhagen, Denmark), has been investigated by Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) in reflection set-up. Despite the validity of traditional deconvolution...... of the acquired THz image. Interfaces between layers of the painting have been successfully imaged, contributing substantially to the understanding of the structure of the painting....

  7. Observation of Ultrafast Magnon Dynamics in Antiferromagnetic Nickel Oxide by Optical Pump-Probe and Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopies (United States)

    Kohmoto, T.; Moriyasu, T.; Wakabayashi, S.; Jinn, H.; Takahara, M.; Kakita, K.


    We have studied the ultrafast magnon dynamics in an antiferromagnetic 3d-transition-metal monoxide, nickel oxide (NiO), using optical pump-probe spectroscopy and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz damped magnon oscillations were observed in the Faraday rotation signal and in the transmitted THz electric field via optical pump-probe spectroscopy and THz-TDS, respectively. The magnon signals were observed in both the optical pump-probe spectroscopy and THz-TDS experiments, which shows that both Raman- and infrared-active modes are included in the NiO magnon modes. The magnon relaxation rate observed using THz-TDS was found to be almost constant up to the Néel temperature T N (= 523 K) and to increase abruptly near that temperature. This shows that temperature-independent spin-spin relaxation dominates up to T N . In our experiment, softening of the magnon frequency near T N was clearly observed. This result shows that the optical pump-probe spectroscopy and THz-TDS have high frequency resolution and a high signal to noise ratio in the THz region. We discuss the observed temperature dependence of the magnon frequencies using three different molecular field theories. The experimental results suggest that the biquadratic contribution of the exchange interaction plays an important role in the temperature dependence of the sublattice magnetization and the magnon frequency in cubic antiferromagnetic oxides.

  8. Observation of Ultrafast Magnon Dynamics in Antiferromagnetic Nickel Oxide by Optical Pump-Probe and Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopies (United States)

    Kohmoto, T.; Moriyasu, T.; Wakabayashi, S.; Jinn, H.; Takahara, M.; Kakita, K.


    We have studied the ultrafast magnon dynamics in an antiferromagnetic 3d-transition-metal monoxide, nickel oxide (NiO), using optical pump-probe spectroscopy and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz damped magnon oscillations were observed in the Faraday rotation signal and in the transmitted THz electric field via optical pump-probe spectroscopy and THz-TDS, respectively. The magnon signals were observed in both the optical pump-probe spectroscopy and THz-TDS experiments, which shows that both Raman- and infrared-active modes are included in the NiO magnon modes. The magnon relaxation rate observed using THz-TDS was found to be almost constant up to the Néel temperature T N (= 523 K) and to increase abruptly near that temperature. This shows that temperature-independent spin-spin relaxation dominates up to T N . In our experiment, softening of the magnon frequency near T N was clearly observed. This result shows that the optical pump-probe spectroscopy and THz-TDS have high frequency resolution and a high signal to noise ratio in the THz region. We discuss the observed temperature dependence of the magnon frequencies using three different molecular field theories. The experimental results suggest that the biquadratic contribution of the exchange interaction plays an important role in the temperature dependence of the sublattice magnetization and the magnon frequency in cubic antiferromagnetic oxides.

  9. Evaluation of Penicillium digitatum sterilization using non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Hiraoka, Takehiro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Takeda, Keigo; Ohta, Takayuki; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Kawase, Kodo; Ito, Masafumi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru


    Recently, the plasma sterilization has attracted much attention as a new sterilization technique that takes the place of spraying agricultural chemicals. The conventional methods for sterilization evaluation, was demanded to culture the samples for several days after plasma treatment. Then, we focused on Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). At the THz region, vibrational modes of biological molecules and fingerprint spectra of biologically-relevant molecules were also observed. In this study, our purpose was measurement of the fingerprint spectrum of the Penicillium digitatum (PD) spore and establishment of sterilization method by THz-TDS. The sample was 40mg/ml PD spore suspensions which dropped on cover glass. The atmospheric pressure plasma generated under the conditions which Ar gas flow was 3slm, and alternating voltage of 6kV was applied. The samples were exposed the plasma from 10mm distance for 10 minutes. We could obtain the fingerprint spectrum of the PD spore from 0.5 to 0.9THz. This result indicated the possibility of in-situ evaluation for PD sterilization using THz-TDS.

  10. History of Mexican Easel Paintings from an Altarpiece Revealed by Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (United States)

    Gomez-Sepulveda, A. M.; Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.; Radpour, R.; Koch-Dandolo, C. L.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Ascencio-Rojas, L. F.; Zarate, Alvaro; Hernandez, Gerardo; Gonzalez-Tirado, R. C.; Insaurralde-Caballero, M.; Castro-Camus, E.


    Four easel paintings attributed to Hermenegildo Bustos ( Purísima del Rincón, Guanajuato, Mexico), one of the most renowned painters of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Mexican art, have been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) and standard imaging techniques, such as near-IR reflectography and X-ray radiography. The archival sources and the recent studies on the paintings suggest that the artworks were created in the eighteenth century and underwent several modifications since then until the intervention of Bustos who authored the currently visible depictions. By combining the records of the paintings obtained by imaging with the different methodologies, aspects of the previous depictions and further details on the paintings' history have been revealed, with THz-TDI playing a key role in attributing a chronological evolution of the images. The paintings of Purísima are the first THz-TDI-scanned paintings belonging to the Mexican cultural heritage.

  11. Measuring tryptophan concentrations of aqueous solutions for cancer research using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with metal parallel-plate waveguides (United States)

    Giertzuch, Peter-Lasse; Khodaei, Yashar; Schubert, Maik-Hendrik; Hens, Korbinian; Sprenger, Thorsten; Opitz, Christiane; Beigang, René


    Recently the essential amino acid tryptophan has attracted attention in cancer research, as its metabolism regulates antitumor immune responses and tumor-intrinisic properties. Measurement techniques to determine tryptophan concentrations of aqueous solutions are therefore vastly important for ongoing research in this field. Recently, Terahertz spectroscopy has illustrated its high potential to be utilized for the characterization of bio-crystals and bio-molecules. We have developed a method to detect and quantify tryptophan based on the parallel-plate waveguide (PPWG) technology together with a commercially available terahertz time domain spectroscopy (TDS) system called "T-SPECTRALYZER F" providing a spectral bandwidth from 0.1 THz to 5 THz. As Terahertz waves are strongly absorbed by water, a measurement of aqueous solutions is a challenging task. In our setup, parallel-plate waveguides are used to detect low tryptophan concentrations, in principle, in solution. Drop-casting the solution into the waveguide forms a dry homogeneous film after evaporation of the solvent. A spectroscopic analysis of the transmission spectrum of the waveguide allows for a determination of the tryptophan concentration as the detection limit is drastically improved by the use of waveguides. In order to increase the detection sensitivity of this measurement technique the terahertz setup was encapsulated in a dry air box to reduce water vapor effects. Here we introduce the working mechanism of "TSPECTRALYZER F" and present the spectral evaluation procedures applied. Finally, we show the improvement of the detection sensitivity using a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system together with PPWG technology.

  12. Inspection of Asian Lacquer Substructures by Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) (United States)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kohzuma, Yoshei; Kiriyama, Kyoko; Matsuda, Kazutaka; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Lacquering is considered one of the most representative Asian artistic techniques. While the decorative part of lacquerwares is the lacquer itself, their substructures serve as the backbone of the object itself. Very little is known about these hidden substructures. Since lacquerwares are mostly composed of organic materials, such as urushi, wood, carbon black, and fabrics which are very X-ray transparent, standard X-ray radiography has some problems in achieving clear X-ray radiographic images. Therefore, we wanted to contribute to the understanding of the lacquer manufacturing technique by inspecting the substructures of Asian lacquerwares by means of THz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Three different kinds of Asian lacquerwares were examined by THz-TDI, and the outcomes have been compared with those obtained by standard X-radiography. THz-TDI provides unique information on lacquerwares substructures, aiding in the comprehension of the manufacturing technology yielding to these precious artefacts.

  13. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of amorphous and crystalline aluminum oxide nanostructures synthesized by thermal decomposition of AACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehboob, Shoaib, E-mail: [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, Mushtaq [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Jamil; Tanvir, Muhammad Tauseef [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Izhar [National Institute of Lasers and Optronics (NILOP), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hassan, Syed Mujtaba ul [National Center for Nanotechnology, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    The objective of this work is to study the changes in optical and dielectric properties with the transformation of aluminum ammonium carbonate hydroxide (AACH) to α-alumina, using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The nanostructured AACH was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the raw chemicals at 140 °C for 12 h. This AACH was then calcined at different temperatures. The AACH was decomposed to amorphous phase at 400 °C and transformed to δ* + α-alumina at 1000 °C. Finally, the crystalline α-alumina was achieved at 1200 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were employed to identify the phases formed after calcination. The morphology of samples was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed that the AACH sample had rod-like morphology which was retained in the calcined samples. THz-TDS measurements showed that AACH had lowest refractive index in the frequency range of measurements. The refractive index at 0.1 THZ increased from 2.41 for AACH to 2.58 for the amorphous phase and to 2.87 for the crystalline α-alumina. The real part of complex permittivity increased with the calcination temperature. Further, the absorption coefficient was highest for AACH, which reduced with calcination temperature. The amorphous phase had higher absorption coefficient than the crystalline alumina. - Highlights: • Aluminum oxide nanostructures were obtained by thermal decomposition of AACH. • Crystalline phases of aluminum oxide have higher refractive index than that of amorphous phase. • The removal of heavier ionic species led to the lower absorption of THz radiations.

  14. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique (United States)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna L.; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to provide insights as to the limits and potentials of the technique in detecting different kinds of underdrawings and paint layers. Constituent layers, construction techniques, and anomalies were identified and localized by interpreting the extracted THz dielectric stratigraphy.

  15. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters (United States)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial contribution in their characterization.

  16. Wall Painting Investigation by Means of Non-invasive Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI): Inspection of Subsurface Structures Buried in Historical Plasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Characterization of subsurface features of wall paintings is important in conservation and technical art history as well as in building archaeology and architecture fields. In this study, an area of the apsidal wall painting of Nebbelunde Church (Rødby, Denmark) has been investigated by means...... of terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI). Subsurface structures have been detected at different depths inside the lime-based plaster of the wall painting until approximately 1 cm from the surface. The surface morphology of the buried structures has been 3D imaged in detail, providing a substantial...

  17. Time-Domain TeraHertz Spectroscopy and Observational Probes of Prebiotic Interstellar Gas and Ice Chemistry (United States)

    McGuire, Brett Andrew

    ruled out a gas-phase route to the synthesis of the simplest amino acid in the ISM. A molecular mystery in the case of the carrier of a series of transitions was resolved using observational data toward a large number of sources, confirming the identity of this important carbon-chemistry intermediate B11244 as l-C3H+ and identifying it in at least two new environments. Finally, the doubly-nitrogenated molecule carbodiimide HNCNH was identified in the ISM for the first time through maser emission features in the centimeter-wavelength regime. In the laboratory, a TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectrometer was constructed to obtain the experimental spectra necessary to search for solid-phase species in the ISM in the THz region of the spectrum. These investigations have shown a striking dependence on large-scale, long-range (i.e. lattice) structure of the ices on the spectra they present in the THz. A database of molecular spectra has been started, and both the simplest and most abundant ice species, which have already been identified, as well as a number of more complex species, have been studied. The exquisite sensitivity of the THz spectra to both the structure and thermal history of these ices may lead to better probes of complex chemical and dynamical evolution in interstellar environments.

  18. Robust mapping of electrical properties of graphene from terahertz time-domain spectroscopy with timing jitter correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Wang, Ruizhi


    from internal reflections in a substrate, we are able to extract electrical properties irrespective of random time delays between pulses emitted in a THz-TDS setup. If such time delays are not accounted for they can significantly influence the extracted properties of the material. The technique...... is useful for a robust determination of electrical properties from THz-TDS measurements and is compatible with substrate materials where transients from internal reflections are well-separated in time....

  19. Estimation of Crystallinity of Nifedipine-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Solid Dispersion by Usage of Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and of X-Ray Powder Diffractometer. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Issei; Shimakura, Kemmaro; Kuroda, Hideki; Nakajima, Takehisa; Goto, Satoru; Makino, Kimiko


    Crystalline state of pharmaceutical materials is of great importance in preparation of pharmaceutics, because their physicochemical properties affect bioavailability, quality of products, therapeutic level and manufacturing process. In this study, we have estimated time-dependent changes of nifedipine in nifedipine-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solid dispersion by measuring terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), and compared their correlativity. Crystallinity of nifedipine-PVP solid dispersion was changed by storing the amorphous sample at 25°C-75°C and relative humidity of over 80% for 0.25-24.00 h. To compare the results of two types of measurements, we have used a general method of linear regression analysis. Crystallinities estimated using THz-TDS were plotted on the x-axis and that of XRPD were on the y-axis. From the result of the calculation, the correlativity of them was confirmed. THz-TDS has the capability of becoming the replacement of XRPD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. On Ultrafast Time-Domain TeraHertz Spectroscopy in the Condensed Phase: Linear Spectroscopic Measurements of Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics of Astrochemical Ice Analogs and Nonlinear TeraHertz Kerr Effect Measurements of Vibrational Quantum Beats (United States)

    Allodi, Marco A.

    Much of the chemistry that affects life on planet Earth occurs in the condensed phase. The TeraHertz (THz) or far-infrared (far-IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum (from 0.1 THz to 10 THz) has been shown to provide unique possibilities in the study of condensed-phase processes. The goal of this work is to expand the possibilities available in the THz region and undertake new investigations of fundamental interest to chemistry. Since we are fundamentally interested in condensed-phase processes, this thesis focuses on two areas where THz spectroscopy can provide new understanding: astrochemistry and solvation science. To advance these fields, we had to develop new instrumentation that would enable the experiments necessary to answer new questions in either astrochemistry or solvation science. We first developed a new experimental setup capable of studying astrochemical ice analogs in both the TeraHertz (THz), or far-Infrared (far-IR), region (0.3 - 7.5 THz; 10 - 250 wavenumbers) and the mid-IR (400 - 4000 wavenumbers). The importance of astrochemical ices lies in their key role in the formation of complex organic molecules, such as amino acids and sugars in space. Thus, the instruments are capable of performing variety of spectroscopic studies that can provide especially relevant laboratory data to support astronomical observations from telescopes such as the Herschel Space Telescope, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The experimental apparatus uses a THz time-domain spectrometer, with a 1750/875 nm plasma source and a GaP detector crystal, to cover the bandwidth mentioned above with 10 GHz (0.3 wavenumber) resolution. Using the above instrumentation, experimental spectra of astrochemical ice analogs of water and carbon dioxide in pure, mixed, and layered ices were collected at different temperatures under high-vacuum conditions with the goal of investigating the structure of the ice

  1. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time–domain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    515. *For correspondence. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time–domain spectroscopy. GUIFENG LIU a,b. , ZENGYAN ZHANG a. , SHIHUA MA a. , HONGWEI ZHAO a. ,. XIAOJING MA a and WENFENG WANG a,. * a. Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 ...

  2. Terahertz-Field-Induced Large Macroscopic Polarization and Domain-Wall Dynamics in an Organic Molecular Dielectric. (United States)

    Morimoto, T; Miyamoto, T; Yamakawa, H; Terashige, T; Ono, T; Kida, N; Okamoto, H


    A rapid polarization control in paraelectric materials is important for an ultrafast optical switching useful in the future optical communication. In this study, we applied terahertz-pump second-harmonic-generation-probe and optical-reflectivity-probe spectroscopies to the paraelectric neutral phase of an organic molecular dielectric, tetrathiafulvalene-p-chloranil and revealed that a terahertz pulse with the electric-field amplitude of ∼400  kV/cm produces in the subpicosecond time scale a large macroscopic polarization whose magnitude reaches ∼20% of that in the ferroelectric ionic phase. Such a large polarization generation is attributed to the intermolecular charge transfers and breathing motions of domain walls between microscopic neutral and ionic domains induced by the terahertz electric field.

  3. THz pulsed time-domain imaging of an oil canvas painting: a case study of a painting by Pablo Picasso (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kaori; Ikari, Tomofumi; Iwai, Kikuko


    The terahertz pulsed time-domain imaging technique and near-infrared observation were applied to investigate an oil painting on canvas by Pablo Picasso. The multilayer structure is clearly observed in cross-sectional image by terahertz pulsed time-domain imaging, and particular Cubism style lines were revealed under newly painted area by near-infrared image.

  4. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik

    This thesis describes time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements on various semiconductor nanostructures. The aim is to study the carrier dynamics in these nanostructures on a picosecond timescale. In a typical experiment carriers are excited with a visible or near-infrared pulse and by me......This thesis describes time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements on various semiconductor nanostructures. The aim is to study the carrier dynamics in these nanostructures on a picosecond timescale. In a typical experiment carriers are excited with a visible or near-infrared pulse...... and by measuring the transmission of a terahertz probe pulse, the photoconductivity of the excited sample can be obtained. By changing the relative arrival time at the sample between the pump and the probe pulse, the photoconductivity dynamics can be studied on a picosecond timescale. The rst studied semiconductor...... be signicantly reduced. Besides time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurement, optical transmission, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy experiments on black silicon are presented....

  5. Terahertz-range polar modes in domain-engineered BiFeO.sub.3./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Pasciak, Marek; Körbel, S.; Márton, Pavel


    Roč. 119, č. 5 (2017), 1-6, č. článku 057604. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectric domain walls * bismuth ferrite * terahertz spectroscopy * phonons * dielectric permittivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  6. Precise real-time polarization measurement of terahertz electromagnetic waves by a spinning electro-optic sensor. (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi


    We propose and develop a method to quickly and precisely determine the polarization direction of coherent terahertz electromagnetic waves generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The measurement system consists of a conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system with the electro-optic (EO) sampling method, but we add a new functionality in the EO crystal which is continuously rotating with the angular frequency ω. We find a simple yet useful formulation of the EO signal as a function of the crystal orientation, which enables a lock-in-like detection of both the electric-field amplitude and the absolute polarization direction of the terahertz waves with respect to the probe laser pulse polarization direction at the same time. The single measurement finishes around two periods of the crystal rotations (∼21 ms), and we experimentally prove that the accuracy of the polarization measurement does not suffer from the long-term amplitude fluctuation of the terahertz pulses. Distribution of the measured polarization directions by repeating the measurements is excellently fitted by a gaussian distribution function with a standard deviation of σ = 0.56°. The developed technique is useful for the fast direct determination of the polarization state of the terahertz electromagnetic waves for polarization imaging applications as well as the precise terahertz Faraday or Kerr rotation spectroscopy.

  7. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of charge carrier dynamics in the chalcogenide glass As30Se30Te40 [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Romanova, Elena A.; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil


    Broadband (1.6-18 THz) terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) were performed on a 54 mu m thick chalcogenide glass (As30Se30Te40) sample with a two-color laser-induced air plasma THz system in transmission and reflection modes, respectively. Two...... by the Drude-Smith conductivity model with a carrier scattering time of 12-17 fs, and we observe significant carrier localization effects. A fast refractive index change was observed 100 fs before the conductivity reached its maximum, with 2 orders of magnitude larger amplitude than expected for the optically...

  8. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.


    A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are

  9. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zeitler, Axel; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto


    "This book presents the current state of knowledge in the field of terahertz spectroscopy, providing a comprehensive source of information for beginners and experienced researchers alike whose interests lie in this area. The book aims to explain the fundamental physics that underpins terahertz  technology and to describe its key applications. Highlights of scientific research in the field of terahertz science are also outlined in some chapters, providing an overview as well as giving an insight into future directions for research.  Over the past decade terahertz spectroscopy has developed into one of the most rapidly growing areas of its kind, gaining an important impact across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Due to substantial advances in femtosecond laser technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has established itself as the dominant spectroscopic technique for experimental scientists interested in measurements at this frequency range. In solids and liquids THz radiation is in reso...

  10. Time Resolved Broadband Terahertz Relaxation Dynamics of Electron in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David G.

    We investigated the transient response of the solvated electron in water ejected by photodetachment from potassium ferrocyanide using time resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TSTS). Ultrabroadband THz transients are generated and detected by a two-color femtosecond-induced air plasma and air biased...... coherent detection, respectively. We find that the measured frequency dependent conductivity can be well described by a Drude-Smith model, supplemented by a Lorentz model oscillating near 5 THz....

  11. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest


    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...... polarization response when compared to traditional integral chargeability inversion. The quality of the inversion results has been assessed by a complete uncertainty analysis of the model parameters; furthermore, borehole information confirm the outcomes of the field interpretations. With this new accurate...

  12. Transient photoconductivity in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Cooke, David


    Terahertz conductivity of InGaN/GaN MQWs was studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Restoration of the built-in piezoelectric field leads to a nonexponential carrier density decay. Terahertz conductivity spectrum is described by the Drude-Smith......Terahertz conductivity of InGaN/GaN MQWs was studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Restoration of the built-in piezoelectric field leads to a nonexponential carrier density decay. Terahertz conductivity spectrum is described by the Drude-Smith...

  13. Real-time broadband terahertz spectroscopic imaging by using a high-sensitivity terahertz camera (United States)

    Kanda, Natsuki; Konishi, Kuniaki; Nemoto, Natsuki; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto


    Terahertz (THz) imaging has a strong potential for applications because many molecules have fingerprint spectra in this frequency region. Spectroscopic imaging in the THz region is a promising technique to fully exploit this characteristic. However, the performance of conventional techniques is restricted by the requirement of multidimensional scanning, which implies an image data acquisition time of several minutes. In this study, we propose and demonstrate a novel broadband THz spectroscopic imaging method that enables real-time image acquisition using a high-sensitivity THz camera. By exploiting the two-dimensionality of the detector, a broadband multi-channel spectrometer near 1 THz was constructed with a reflection type diffraction grating and a high-power THz source. To demonstrate the advantages of the developed technique, we performed molecule-specific imaging and high-speed acquisition of two-dimensional (2D) images. Two different sugar molecules (lactose and D-fructose) were identified with fingerprint spectra, and their distributions in one-dimensional space were obtained at a fast video rate (15 frames per second). Combined with the one-dimensional (1D) mechanical scanning of the sample, two-dimensional molecule-specific images can be obtained only in a few seconds. Our method can be applied in various important fields such as security and biomedicine.

  14. Time-reversed lasing in the terahertz range and its preliminary study in sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yun, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Huaqing [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Deng, Xiaohua [Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Guoping [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)


    Time-reversed lasing in a uniform slab and a grating structure are investigated in the terahertz range. The results show that both the uniform slab and grating can support terahertz time-reversed lasing. Nevertheless, due to the tunable effective refractive index, the grating structure can not only exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab, but also can realize significant absorption in a broader operating frequency range. Furthermore, applications of terahertz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are preliminarily studied in a single-channel coherent perfect absorber system. - Highlights: • Time-reversed lasing are investigated in the terahertz range. • The grating structure exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab. • THz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are studied.

  15. Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ramjan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Al - Naib, Ibraheem A. I. [PHILIPPS UNIV; Koch, Martin [PHILIPPS UNIV; Zhang, Weili [OKLAHOMA STATE UNIV


    Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, we report an experimental observation of three distinct resonances in split ring resonators (SRRs) for both vertical and horizontal electric field polarizations at normal incidence. Breaking the symmetry in SRRs by gradually displacing the capacitive gap from the centre towards the comer of the ring allows for an 85% modulation of the fundamental inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance. Increasing asymmetry leads to the evolution of an otherwise inaccessible high quality factor electric quadrupole resonance that can be exploited for bio-sensing applications in the terahertz region.

  16. Resonant Excitation of Terahertz Surface Plasmons in Subwavelength Metal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Zhang


    Full Text Available We present a review of experimental studies of resonant excitation of terahertz surface plasmons in two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength metal holes. Resonant transmission efficiency higher than unity was recently achieved when normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, hole dimensions, dielectric function of metals, polarization dependence, and array film thickness on resonant terahertz transmission in metal arrays were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. In particular, extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated in arrays of subwavelength holes made even from Pb, a generally poor metal, and having thickness of only one-third of skin depth. Terahertz surface plasmons have potential applications in terahertz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and development of integrated plasmonic components for terahertz generation and detection.

  17. Terahertz time-lapse imaging of hydration in physiological tissues (United States)

    Bennett, David B.; Taylor, Zachary D.; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Sung, Shijun; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Brown, Elliott R.


    This study describes terahertz (THz) imaging of hydration changes in physiological tissues with high water concentration sensitivity. A fast-scanning, pulsed THz imaging system (centered at 525 GHz; 125 GHz bandwidth) was utilized to acquire a 35 mm x 35 mm field-of-view with 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm pixels in less than two minutes. THz time-lapsed images were taken on three sample systems: (1) a simple binary system of water evaporating from a polypropylene towel, (2) the accumulation of fluid at the site of a sulfuric acid burn on ex vivo porcine skin, and (3) the evaporative dehydration of an ex vivo porcine cornea. The diffusion-regulating behavior of corneal tissue is elucidated, and the correlation of THz reflectivity with tissue hydration is measured using THz spectroscopy on four ex vivo corneas. We conclude that THz imaging can discern small differences in the distribution of water in physiological tissues and is a good candidate for burn and corneal imaging.

  18. Windowing of THz time-domain spectroscopy signals: A study based on lactose (United States)

    Vázquez-Cabo, José; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Rubiños-López, Óscar; López-Santos, José María; Martín-Ramos, Pablo


    Time-domain spectroscopy has established itself as a reference method for determining material parameters in the terahertz spectral range. This procedure requires the processing of the measured time-domain signals in order to estimate the spectral data. In this work, we present a thorough study of the properties of the signal windowing, a step previous to the parameter extraction algorithm, that permits to improve the accuracy of the results. Lactose has been used as sample material in the study.

  19. Mobile charge generation dynamics in P3HT: PCBM observed by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale.......Ultra-broadband time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy is used to examine the sub-ps conductivity dynamics of a conjugated polymer bulk heterojunction film P3HT:PCBM. We directly observe mobile charge generation dynamics on a sub-100 fs time scale....

  20. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of conjugated polymer/CdSe nanorod composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Lek, Jun Y.; Krebs, Frederik C


    report ultrafast carrier dynamics in hybrid CdSe nanorod / poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction films measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, and compare to the well studied P3HT/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. Both films show an improved peak ultrafast carrier dynamics in hybrid CdSe nanorod / poly(3-hexythiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction films measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, and compare to the well studied P3HT/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. Both films show an improved peak...

  1. Atomic-Scale Time and Space Resolution of Terahertz Frequency Acoustic Waves (United States)

    Reed, Evan J.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Kim, Ki-Yong; Glownia, James H.


    Using molecular dynamics simulations and analytics, we find that strain waves of terahertz frequencies can coherently generate radiation when they propagate past an interface between materials with different piezoelectric coefficients. By considering AlN/GaN heterostructures, we show that the radiation is of detectable amplitude and contains sufficient information to determine the time dependence of the strain wave with potentially subpicosecond, nearly atomic time and space resolution. We demonstrate this phenomenon within the context of high amplitude terahertz frequency strain waves that spontaneously form at the front of shock waves in GaN crystals.

  2. Investigating murals with terahertz reflective tomography (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technology has been proposed to be used in the non-invasive detection of murals. THz-TDS images provide structural data of the sample that cannot be obtained with other complementary techniques. In this paper, two types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by the terahertz reflected time domain spectroscopy imaging system. These preset defects include a leaf slice and a slit built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. With this THz tomography, different defects with the changes of optical thickness and their relative refractive index have been identified. The application of reflective pulsed terahertz imaging has been extended to the defect detection of the murals.

  3. Simultaneous reference and differential waveform acquisition in time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Cooke, David; Fujiwara, Masazumi


    We present a new method for data acquisition in time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments. Our approach is based on simultaneous collection of reference and differential THz scans. Both the optical THz generation beam and the pump beam are modulated at two different frequencies that are no...

  4. Terahertz near-field microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knab, J.R.; Adam, A.J.L.; Chakkittakandy, R.; Planken, P.C.M.


    Using near-field, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we investigate how the addition of a dielectric material into a subwavelength-diameter, cylindrical waveguide affects its transmission properties. The THz electric near-field is imaged with deep subwavelength resolution as it emerges

  5. Real-Time, Single-Shot Temporal Measurements of Short Electron Bunches, Terahertz CSR and FEL Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Berden, G; Van der Meer, A F G


    Electro-optic detection of the Coulomb field of electron bunches is a promising technique for single-shot measurements of the bunch length and shape in the sub-picosecond time domain. This technique has been applied to the measurement of 50 MeV electron bunches in the FELIX free electron laser, showing the longitudinal profile of single bunches of around 650 fs FWHM [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 114802 (2004)]. The method is non-destructive and real-time, and therefore ideal for online monitoring of the longitudinal shape of single electron bunches. At FELIX we have used it for real-time optimization of sub-picosecond electron bunches. Electro-optic detection has also been used to measure the electric field profiles of far-infrared (or terahertz) optical pulses generated by the relativistic electrons. We have characterised the far-infrared output of the free electron laser, and more recently, we have measured the temporal profile of terahertz optical pulses generated at one of the bending magnets.

  6. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in physics, chemistry, and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    In the recent years there has been a tremendous increasing interest in the far-infrared, or THz spectral region. The field of THz photonics has broadened its scope from source- and detector development into application areas in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Today researchers and compani...

  7. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of crystalline and aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Møller, Uffe; Eichhorn, Finn


    We use ab-initio density-functional perturbation theory together with THz spectroscopy for precise prediction and assignment of vibrational modes in molecular crystals. We show that THz spectroscopy is useful for analysis of liquids and food products....

  8. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time-domain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... absorption coefficients of the components in each mixture were linearly proportional to their concentrations in the mixture. The results from analysis were in agreement with actual values with a relative error of less than 7%. The quantitative method will help in the detection of illegal drugs, poisons and dangerous materials ...

  9. THz time-domain spectroscopy of human skin tissue for in-body nanonetworks


    Chopra, Nishtha; Yang, Ke; Qammer H. Abbasi; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Philpott, Mike; Alomainy, Akram


    This paper presents experimental study of real human skin material parameter extraction based on terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy in the band 0.1-2.5 THz. Results in this paper show that electromagnetic properties of the human skin distinctively affect the path loss and noise temperature parameters of the communication link, which are vital for channel modeling of in-body nanonetworks. Refractive index and absorption coefficient values are evaluated for dermis layer of the human skin....

  10. Statistical Mechanics of Time Domain Ensemble Learning


    Miyoshi, Seiji; Uezu, Tatsuya; Okada, Masato


    Conventional ensemble learning combines students in the space domain. On the other hand, in this paper we combine students in the time domain and call it time domain ensemble learning. In this paper, we analyze the generalization performance of time domain ensemble learning in the framework of online learning using a statistical mechanical method. We treat a model in which both the teacher and the student are linear perceptrons with noises. Time domain ensemble learning is twice as effective ...

  11. High sensitivity photonic time-stretch electro-optic sampling of terahertz pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Szwaj, Christophe; Parquier, Marc Le; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Tordeux, Marie-Agnès; Bielawski, Serge


    Single-shot recording of terahertz electric signals has recently become possible at high repetition rates, by using the photonic time-stretch electro-optic sampling (EOS) technique. However the moderate sensitivity of time-stretch EOS is still a strong limit for a range of applications. Here we present a variant enabling to increase the sensitivity of photonic time-stretch for free-propagating THz signals. A key point is to integrate the idea presented in Ref. [Ahmed et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013114 (2014)], for upgrading classical time-stretch systems. The method is tested using the high repetition rate terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation source (CSR) of the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. The signal-to-noise ratio of our terahertz digitizer could thus be straightforwardly improved by a factor $\\approx 6.5$, leading to a noise-equivalent input electric field below $1.25$~V/cm inside the electro-optic crystal, over the 0-300~GHz band (i.e, 2.3~$\\mu$V/cm/$\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}}$). The sensitivity is...

  12. Real time imaging analysis using a terahertz quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array


    Buchanan, Kevin William.


    It is widely published that the terahertz (THz) spectral range has potential for imaging in the fields of military and security applications. The Sensors Research Laboratory previously achieved real-time imaging of concealed objects using a 1mW quantum cascade laser (QCL) and an uncooled vanadium oxide/silicon nitride based microbolometer. This thesis introduces an amorphous silicon based microbolometer with improved NETD in the 8-12 micrometer infrared spectral range. The QCL is usually oper...

  13. Optical time-domain mixer (United States)

    Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.


    We simulate an optical time-domain mixer that can be used to make a photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) or a digital demodulator for high-speed optical communications signals. In the basic mixer, a high frequency RF signal modulates a repetitively chirped optical carrier; this RF/optical waveform then is dispersed in one transverse dimension, and imaged onto a 2-dimensional transparency or spatial light modulator whose pixels are modulated with randomly chosen transmission or reflection coefficients (the optical mixing matrix). Following transmission through or reflection from the mixing matrix, the optical waveform from each row of the matrix is recombined and directed to a photodiode and electronics that integrate over the repetition period of the chirped source. Finally, each of these signals is digitized by an independent ADC sampling at a rate equal to the pulse repetition rate of the chirp source. A digital replica of the input RF signal can be recovered by digital signal processing from the digital output of the ADCs and the values of the transmission or reflection coefficients of the mixing matrix. The effective sampling rate is given by the number of pixels per row of the mixing matrix times the repetition rate of the chirp source while the effective resolution is controlled by the resolution of the electronic ADCs and the distortions introduced by the optical mixing process.

  14. Terahertz transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    The electronic transport dynamics of graphene charge carriers at femtosecond (10-15 s) to picosecond (10-12 s) time scales are investigated using terahertz (1012 Hz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The technique uses sub-picosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation to gauge the electrodynamic...

  15. Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Gallot, Guilhem


    The authors demonstrate the direct, noninvasive and time resolved imaging of functional frog auricular fibers by ionic contrast terahertz (ICT) near field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative, time-dependent measurement of ionic flow during auricular muscle electrical activity, and opens the way of direct noninvasive imaging of cardiac activity under stimulation. ICT microscopy technique was associated with full three-dimensional simulation enabling to measure precisely the fiber sizes. This technique coupled to waveguide technology should provide the grounds to development of advanced in vivo ion flux measurement in mammalian hearts, allowing the prediction of heart attack from change in K+ fluxes.

  16. Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer (United States)

    Cao, Yuqi; Huang, Pingjie; Li, Xian; Ge, Weiting; Hou, Dibo; Zhang, Guangxin


    At present, many researchers are exploring biological tissue inspection using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) techniques. In this study, based on a modified hard modeling factor analysis method, terahertz spectral unmixing was applied to investigate the relationships between the absorption spectra in THz-TDS and certain biomarkers of gastric cancer in order to systematically identify gastric cancer. A probability distribution and box plot were used to extract the distinctive peaks that indicate carcinogenesis, and the corresponding weight distributions were used to discriminate the tissue types. The results of this work indicate that terahertz techniques have the potential to detect different levels of cancer, including benign tumors and polyps.

  17. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji


    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  18. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Ruth M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cole, Bryan E [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wallace, Vincent P [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pye, Richard J [Department of Dermatology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Arnone, Donald D [TeraView Limited, 302/304 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Linfield, Edmund H [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. High Sensitivity Terahertz Detection through Large-Area Plasmonic Nano-Antenna Arrays (United States)

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Jarrahi, Mona


    Plasmonic photoconductive antennas have great promise for increasing responsivity and detection sensitivity of conventional photoconductive detectors in time-domain terahertz imaging and spectroscopy systems. However, operation bandwidth of previously demonstrated plasmonic photoconductive antennas has been limited by bandwidth constraints of their antennas and photoconductor parasitics. Here, we present a powerful technique for realizing broadband terahertz detectors through large-area plasmonic photoconductive nano-antenna arrays. A key novelty that makes the presented terahertz detector superior to the state-of-the art is a specific large-area device geometry that offers a strong interaction between the incident terahertz beam and optical pump at the nanoscale, while maintaining a broad operation bandwidth. The large device active area allows robust operation against optical and terahertz beam misalignments. We demonstrate broadband terahertz detection with signal-to-noise ratio levels as high as 107 dB. PMID:28205615

  20. Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. (United States)

    Baxter, Jason B; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A


    The terahertz absorption coefficient, index of refraction, and conductivity of nanostructured ZnO have been determined using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, a noncontact optical probe. ZnO properties were measured directly for thin films and were extracted from measurements of nanowire arrays and mesoporous nanoparticle films by applying Bruggeman effective medium theory to the composite samples. Annealing significantly reduces the intrinsic carrier concentration in the ZnO films and nanowires, which were grown by chemical bath deposition. The complex-valued, frequency-dependent photoconductivities for all morphologies were found to be similar at short pump-probe delay times. Fits using the Drude-Smith model show that films have the highest mobility, followed by nanowires and then nanoparticles, and that annealing the ZnO increases its mobility. Time constants for decay of photoinjected electron density in films are twice as long as those in nanowires and more than 5 times those for nanoparticles due to increased electron interaction with interfaces and grain boundaries in the smaller-grained materials. Implications for electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells are discussed.

  1. Time domain NMR applied to food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Voda, A.; Witek, M.M.; As, van H.


    Time-domain NMR is being used throughout all areas of food science and technology. A wide range of one- and two-dimensional relaxometric and diffusometric applications have been implemented on cost-effective, robust and easy-to-use benchtop NMR equipment. Time-domain NMR applications do not only

  2. Polarization-maintaining reflection-mode THz time-domain spectroscopy of a polyimide based ultra-thin narrow-band metamaterial absorber. (United States)

    Astorino, Maria Denise; Fastampa, Renato; Frezza, Fabrizio; Maiolo, Luca; Marrani, Marco; Missori, Mauro; Muzi, Marco; Tedeschi, Nicola; Veroli, Andrea


    This paper reports the design, the microfabrication and the experimental characterization of an ultra-thin narrow-band metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies. The metamaterial device is composed of a highly flexible polyimide spacer included between a top electric ring resonator with a four-fold rotational symmetry and a bottom ground plane that avoids misalignment problems. Its performance has been experimentally demonstrated by a custom polarization-maintaining reflection-mode terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system properly designed in order to reach a collimated configuration of the terahertz beam. The dependence of the spectral characteristics of this metamaterial absorber has been evaluated on the azimuthal angle under oblique incidence. The obtained absorbance levels are comprised between 67% and 74% at 1.092 THz and the polarization insensitivity has been verified in transverse electric polarization. This offers potential prospects in terahertz imaging, in terahertz stealth technology, in substance identification, and in non-planar applications. The proposed compact experimental set-up can be applied to investigate arbitrary polarization-sensitive terahertz devices under oblique incidence, allowing for a wide reproducibility of the measurements.

  3. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment Method (United States)

    Clements, Keith


    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  4. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU


    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  5. Calculation and Study of Graphene Conductivity Based on Terahertz Spectroscopy (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodong; Hu, Min; Zhou, Jun; Liu, Shenggang


    Based on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system and two-dimensional scanning control system, terahertz transmission and reflection intensity mapping images on a graphene film are obtained, respectively. Then, graphene conductivity mapping images in the frequency range 0.5 to 2.5 THz are acquired according to the calculation formula. The conductivity of graphene at some typical regions is fitted by Drude-Smith formula to quantitatively compare the transmission and reflection measurements. The results show that terahertz reflection spectroscopy has a higher signal-to-noise ratio with less interference of impurities on the back of substrates. The effect of a red laser excitation on the graphene conductivity by terahertz time-domain transmission spectroscopy is also studied. The results show that the graphene conductivity in the excitation region is enhanced while that in the adjacent area is weakened which indicates carriers transport in graphene under laser excitation. This paper can make great contribution to the study on graphene electrical and optical properties in the terahertz regime and help design graphene terahertz devices.

  6. Terahertz Real-Time Off-Axis Digital Holography with Zoom Function (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Han, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Lei; Shi, Wei


    We present a terahertz (THz) real-time digital holographic system with zoom function worked at 0.17 THz. The magnification factor ranges from 1 to 2. In the imaging experiment, the resolution is 2 mm with the magnification factor of 1.2. A metal sheet with F-shaped hollow is used as a sample, and its THz holograms are reconstructed by our developed algorithm based on the angular spectrum theorem, and the qualities of the THz images under different conditions are compared. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61575161 and 61427814, the Foundation of Shaanxi Key Science and Technology Innovation Team under Grant No 2014KTC-13, the Special Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No 2013T60883, and the Equipment Pre-research Fund Project of China under Grant No 9140C370504140C37175.

  7. Magnified time-domain ghost imaging (United States)

    Ryczkowski, Piotr; Barbier, Margaux; Friberg, Ari T.; Dudley, John M.; Genty, Goëry


    Ghost imaging allows the imaging of an object without directly seeing this object. Originally demonstrated in the spatial domain, it was recently shown that ghost imaging can be transposed into the time domain to detect ultrafast signals, even in the presence of distortion. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a temporal ghost imaging scheme which generates a 5× magnified ghost image of an ultrafast waveform. Inspired by shadow imaging in the spatial domain and building on the dispersive Fourier transform of an incoherent supercontinuum in an optical fiber, the approach overcomes the resolution limit of standard time-domain ghost imaging generally imposed by the detectors speed. The method can be scaled up to higher magnification factors using longer fiber lengths and light source with shorter duration.

  8. Domain-Reversed Lithium Niobate Single-Crystal Fibers are Potentially for Efficient Terahertz Wave Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu


    Full Text Available Nonlinear frequency conversion remains one of the dominant approaches to efficiently generate THz waves. Significant material absorption in the THz range is the main factor impeding the progress towards this direction. In this research, a new multicladding nonlinear fiber design was proposed to solve this problem, and as the major experimental effort, periodic domain structure was introduced into lithium niobate single-crystal fibers by electrical poling. The introduced periodic domain structures were nondestructively revealed using a crossly polarized optical microscope and a confocal scanning optical microscope for quality assurance.

  9. Ultra-broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy of common polymers using THz air photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D’Angelo, Francesco; Mics, Zoltán; Bonn, Mischa


    index across the entire spectroscopy window, revealing the high potential of these polymers for applications in THz photonics such as ultra-broadband polymer-based dielectric mirrors, waveguides, and fibers. Resonant high-frequency polar vibrational modes are observed and assigned in polymers PA6......Terahertz-range dielectric properties of the common polymers low-density polyethylene (LDPE), cyclic olefin/ethylene copolymer (TOPAS®), polyamide-6 (PA6), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon®) are characterized in the ultra-broadband frequency window 2-15 THz, using a THz time......-domain spectrometer employing air-photonics for the generation and detection of single-cycle sub-50 fs THz transients. The time domain measurements provide direct access to both the absorption and refractive index spectra. The polymers LDPE and TOPAS® demonstrate negligible absorption and spectrally-flat refractive...

  10. Study of terahertz intensity dependence on time resolved dynamic fringes in the interferometric autocorrelation setup (United States)

    Venkatesh, M.; Chaudhary, A. K.


    Terahertz signal is generated from Low temperature gallium arsenide photoconductive dipole antennas (gap = 5μm, length = 20μm) by focusing 15 fs laser pulses and applying 12V DC across it. Terahertz intensity is detected by Pyroelectric detector (THZ1.5MB-USB). The collinear autocorrelation arrangement provides dynamic fringes which are allowed to be incident on photoconductive antennas to study the variation in terahertz intensity with respect to delay between laser pulses. Interestingly, the profile of THz intensity variation was similar to interferometric autocorrelation signal of laser pulses. The THz power attenuation with its propagation distance in atmosphere was measured.

  11. Characteristic impedance: frequency or time domain approach? (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Umar; Colebank, Mitchel; Schreier, David; Tabima Martinez, Diana Marcela; Haider, Mansoor A; Chesler, Naomi C; Olufsen, Mette S


    Characteristic impedance (Zc) is an important component in the theory of hemodynamics. It is a commonly used metric of proximal arterial stiffness and pulse wave velocity. Calculated using simultaneously measured dynamic pressure and flow data, estimates of Zc can be obtained using methods based on frequency or time domain analysis. Applications of these methods under different physiological and pathological conditions in species with different body sizes and heart rates show that the two approaches do not always yield the same result. Considering the interpretation and role of Zc as an important hemodynamic parameter, we have investigated the discrepancies between frequency and time domain estimates accounting for uncertainties associated with experimental processes and physiological conditions. We have used published data measured in different species including humans, dogs and mice, to investigate: (a) the effects of time delay and signal noise in the pressure-flow data, (b) uncertainties about the blood flow conditions, (c) and the periodicity of the cardiac cycle versus breathing cycle, on the frequency and time domain estimates of Zc, and (d) if discrepancies observed under different hemodynamic conditions can be eliminated. We have shown that the frequency and time domain estimates are not equally sensitive to certain characteristics of hemodynamic signals including phase lag between pressure and flow, signal to noise ratio and the end of systole retrograde flow. The discrepancies between two types of estimates are inherent due to their intrinsically different mathematical expressions and therefore it is impossible to define a criterion to resolve such discrepancies. We propose that the frequency and time domain estimates of Zc should be further assessed as two different hemodynamic parameters in a future study. © 2017 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  12. Structural Time Domain Identification Toolbox User's Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    This manual describes the Structural Time Domain Identification toolbox for use with MA TLAB. This version of the tool box has been developed using the PC-based MA TLAB version 4.2c, but is compatible with prior versions of MATLAB and UNIX-based versions. The routines of the toolbox are the so...

  13. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf


    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  14. Terahertz Real-Time Imaging Uncooled Arrays Based on Antenna-Coupled Bolometers or FET Developed at CEA-Leti (United States)

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme; Nicolas, Jean-Alain


    Sensitive and large-format terahertz focal plane arrays (FPAs) integrated in compact and hand-held cameras that deliver real-time terahertz (THz) imaging are required for many application fields, such as non-destructive testing (NDT), security, quality control of food, and agricultural products industry. Two technologies of uncooled THz arrays that are being studied at CEA-Leti, i.e., bolometer and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors (FET), are able to meet these requirements. This paper reminds the followed technological approaches and focuses on the latest modeling and performance analysis. The capabilities of application of these arrays to NDT and security are then demonstrated with experimental tests. In particular, high technological maturity of the THz bolometer camera is illustrated with fast scanning of large field of view of opaque scenes achieved in a complete body scanner prototype.

  15. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC


    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  16. Characteristic analysis of a photoexcited metamaterial perfect absorber at terahertz frequencies (United States)

    Bing, Pibin; Huang, Shichao; Li, Zhongyang; Yu, Zhou; Lu, Ying; Yao, Jianquan


    The absorption characteristics of a photoexcited metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies were analyzed in this study. Filling photosensitive semiconductor silicon into the gap between the resonator arms leads to modulation of its electromagnetic response through a pump beam which changes conductivity of silicon. Comparisons of terahertz absorbing properties which were caused by different thicknesses and dielectric constants of polyimide, cell sizes and widths of SRRs, and lengths and conductivities of the photosensitive silicon, were studied by using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) from 0.4 THz to 1.6 THz. The results of this study will facilitate the design and preparation of terahertz modulator, filters and absorbers.

  17. Scattering of terahertz radiation from oriented carbon nanotube films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Schroeder, Nicholas


    Session title: IThC-THz Interactions with Condensed Matter. We report on the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to measure scattering from multi-walled carbon nanotubes aligned normal to the film plane. Measurements indicate scattering from the nanotubes is significantly stronger than...

  18. Quasi-near field terahertz generation and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakkittakandy, R.; Corver, J.A.W.M.; Planken, P.C.M.


    We describe a simple terahertz (THz) time domain spectrometer with a bandwidth extending up to 7.5 THz. We show that by keeping the generation and detection crystals close to each other a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved without using lock-in detection and dry nitrogen flushing. The

  19. Time Domain Diffraction by Composite Structures (United States)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Frongillo, Marcello


    Time domain (TD) diffraction problems are receiving great attention because of the widespread use of ultra wide band (UWB) communication and radar systems. It is commonly accepted that, due to the large bandwidth of the UWB signals, the analysis of the wave propagation mechanisms in the TD framework is preferable to the frequency domain (FD) data processing. Furthermore, the analysis of transient scattering phenomena is also of importance for predicting the effects of electromagnetic pulses on civil structures. Diffraction in the TD framework represents a challenging problem and numerical discretization techniques can be used to support research and industry activities. Unfortunately, these methods become rapidly intractable when considering excitation pulses with high frequency content. This contribution deals with the TD diffraction phenomenon related to composite structures containing a dielectric wedge with arbitrary apex angle when illuminated by a plane wave. The approach is the same used in [1]-[3]. The transient diffracted field originated by an arbitrary function plane wave is evaluated via a convolution integral involving the TD diffraction coefficients, which are determined in closed form starting from the knowledge of the corresponding FD counterparts. In particular, the inverse Laplace transform is applied to the FD Uniform Asymptotic Physical Optics (FD-UAPO) diffraction coefficients available for the internal region of the structure and the surrounding space. For each observation domain, the FD-UAPO expressions are obtained by considering electric and magnetic equivalent PO surface currents located on the interfaces. The surface radiation integrals using these sources is assumed as starting point and manipulated for obtaining integrals able to be solved by means of the Steepest Descent Method and the Multiplicative Method. [1] G. Gennarelli and G. Riccio, "Time domain diffraction by a right-angled penetrable wedge," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol

  20. Multiplexed coded time domain sampling with metamaterials. (United States)

    Nadell, Christian C; Fan, Kebin; Suen, Jonathan Y; Padilla, Willie J


    The far infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum often necessitates the use of thermal detectors that, by nature, typically have poor response times and diminished sensitivities, at least compared to adjacent bands. However, many signals of interest contain frequency components far too fast to be reliably measured with such detectors, and hence expensive and inefficient alternatives are brought to bear. Here we propose and experimentally validate a new method leveraging the speed and scalability of dynamic metamaterial modulators to encode high-frequency signal components at a lower frequency, making them reliably measurable with thermal detectors that would otherwise be too slow. An optimal weighing scheme design in the time domain is realized, the result being an imaging system whose time resolution is independent of detector speed and is rather limited only by the speed of the modulator and the reproducibility of the signal of interest.

  1. Terahertz sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shumyatsky, Pavel; Alfano, Robert R


    We present an overview and history of terahertz (THz) sources for readers of the biomedical and optical community for applications in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, imaging, and spectroscopy...

  2. Temperature dependent terahertz properties of Ammonium Nitrate (United States)

    Rahman, Abdur; Azad, Abul; Moore, David

    Terahertz spectroscopy has been demonstrated as an ideal nondestructive method for identifying hazardous materials such as explosives. Many common explosives exhibit distinct spectral signatures at terahertz range (0.1-6.0 THz) due to the excitations of their low frequency vibrational modes. Ammonium nitrate (AN), an easily accessible oxidizer often used in improvised explosive, exhibits strong temperature dependence. While the room temperature terahertz absorption spectrum of AN is featureless, it reveals distinct spectral features below 240 K due to the polymorphic phase transition. We employed terahertz time domain spectroscopy to measure the effective dielectric properties of AN embedded in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder. The dielectric properties of pure AN were extracted using three different effective medium theories (EMT), simple effective medium approach, Maxwell-Garnett (MG) model, and Bruggeman (BR) model. In order to understand the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties, we varied the sample temperature from 5K to 300K. This study indicates presence of additional vibrational modes at low temperature. These results may greatly enhance the detectability of AN and facilitate more accurate theoretical modeling.

  3. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in a parallel-plate waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    The parallel plate waveguide (PPWG), formed by two conducting parallel plates separated by a distance on the order of the wavelength of the propagating light, has shown itself to be a near ideal terahertz interconnect exhibiting low loss and dispersionless propagation.[1] It is also a useful tool...

  4. Exploration of the Time Domain (Abstract) (United States)

    Djorgovski, G.


    (Abstract only) Time-domain astronomy is one of the most active and growing areas of astronomical research today, thanks to the new generation of synoptic sky surveys, and leading to LSST. Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS; is systematically exploring and characterizing the variable sky since 2008, with the archival data going back to 2005. The survey covers the total area of 33,000 deg2, down to 19±21 mag per exposure, with time baselines from 10 min to 10 years, and growing; there are now typically 200±400 exposures per pointing, and coadded images reach deeper than 23 magnitude. The survey has so far detected over 13,000 unique, high-amplitude transients, including 4,000 confirmed or likely supernovae, nearly 2,000 CVs (the great majority of them previously uncatalogued), about 4,000 blazars and other flaring AGN, and a broad variety of other types of objects. Many of these objects can benefit from a follow-up by the amateur community. CRTS is intended to be a data resource for the entire astronomical community. We have a completely open data policy: all discovered transient events are published in real time with no proprietary delay period, and all data are made public, in order to better serve the entire community, and maximize the scientific returns. This includes an archive of 500 million light curves, which are being updated continuously. This is an unprecedented data set for the exploration of the time domain, in terms of the area, depth, and temporal coverage. Numerous scientific projects have been enabled by this data stream, including: discoveries of ultraluminous and otherwise peculiar SNe; unusual CVs and dwarf novae; mapping of the structure in the Galactic halo using RR Lyrae; variability-based discovery of AGN and probes of their physics; and so on.

  5. THz time-domain spectroscopy on plant oils and animal fats (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Guo, Lantao; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xi Cheng


    Terahertz (THz) radiation, generated by ultra short laser pulses, occupies a broad band on electromagnetic spectrum chart. This radiation band belongs to far-infrared. It is a new research field of studying THz radiation interacting with materials especially with biomaterials. The paper shows experimental results of five plant oil samples from different kind of plants and two kinds of animal fat samples by using THz-TDS (THz time-domain spectroscopy) technology. The refraction indices and the absorption coefficients of these samples are measured in the range from 0.2 to 2.0 THz. The results show that different oils have different refraction indices. For oil samples, refraction indices decrease slowly while their coefficients of absorption increase with the increases of THz frequency. For the animal fat samples, the refraction indices show almost no change while the absorption coefficients increase with the increasing THz frequency. The absorption coefficients increase with the increasing temperature.

  6. Rotation commensurate echo of asymmetric molecules—Molecular fingerprints in the time domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesnokov, E. N., E-mail: [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kubarev, V. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Koshlyakov, P. V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)


    Using the pulses of terahertz free electron laser and ultra-fast Schottky diode detectors, we observed the coherent transients within a free induction decay of gaseous nitrogen dioxide NO{sub 2}. The laser excited different sub-bands of rotation spectra of NO{sub 2} containing about 50–70 lines. The free induction signal continued more than 30 ns and consisted of many echo-like bursts duration about 0.2 ns. Unlike the similar effect observed previously for linear and symmetric top molecules, the sequence of echo bursts is not periodic. The values for delay of individual echo are stable, and the set of these delays can be considered as a “molecular fingerprint” in the time domain.

  7. Uncooled Terahertz real-time imaging 2D arrays developed at LETI: present status and perspectives (United States)

    Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme; Dussopt, Laurent; Nicolas, Jean-Alain; Monnier, Nicolas; Sicard, Gilles; Siligaris, Alexandre; Hiberty, Bruno


    As for other imaging sensor markets, whatever is the technology, the commercial spread of terahertz (THz) cameras has to fulfil simultaneously the criteria of high sensitivity and low cost and SWAP (size, weight and power). Monolithic silicon-based 2D sensors integrated in uncooled THz real-time cameras are good candidates to meet these requirements. Over the past decade, LETI has been studying and developing such arrays with two complimentary technological approaches, i.e. antenna-coupled silicon bolometers and CMOS Field Effect Transistors (FET), both being compatible to standard silicon microelectronics processes. LETI has leveraged its know-how in thermal infrared bolometer sensors in developing a proprietary architecture for THz sensing. High technological maturity has been achieved as illustrated by the demonstration of fast scanning of large field of view and the recent birth of a commercial camera. In the FET-based THz field, recent works have been focused on innovative CMOS read-out-integrated circuit designs. The studied architectures take advantage of the large pixel pitch to enhance the flexibility and the sensitivity: an embedded in-pixel configurable signal processing chain dramatically reduces the noise. Video sequences at 100 frames per second using our 31x31 pixels 2D Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) have been achieved. The authors describe the present status of these developments and perspectives of performance evolutions are discussed. Several experimental imaging tests are also presented in order to illustrate the capabilities of these arrays to address industrial applications such as non-destructive testing (NDT), security or quality control of food.

  8. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy (United States)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy


    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  9. Coherent combining pulse bursts in time domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvanauskas, Almantas


    A beam combining and pulse stacking technique is provided that enhances laser pulse energy by coherent stacking pulse bursts (i.e. non-periodic pulsed signals) in time domain. This energy enhancement is achieved by using various configurations of Fabry-Perot, Gires-Tournois and other types of resonant cavities, so that a multiple-pulse burst incident at either a single input or multiple inputs of the system produces an output with a solitary pulse, which contains the summed energy of the incident multiple pulses from all beams. This disclosure provides a substantial improvement over conventional coherent-combining methods in that it achieves very high pulse energies using a relatively small number of combined laser systems, thus providing with orders of magnitude reduction in system size, complexity, and cost compared to current combining approaches.

  10. An effective way to reduce water absorption to terahertz (United States)

    Wu, Yaxiong; Su, Bo; He, Jingsuo; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shengbo; Zhang, Cunlin


    Since many vibrations and rotational levels of biomolecules fall within the THz band, THz spectroscopy can be used to identify biological samples. In addition, most biomolecules need to maintain their biological activity in a liquid environment, but water as polar substance has strong absorption to the THz wave. Thus, it is difficult to detect the sample information in aqueous solution using THz wave. In order to prevent the information of biological samples were masked in the solution, many research methods were used to explore how to reduce the water absorption of terahertz. In this paper, we have developed a real-time chemical methodology through transmission Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system. The material of Zeonor 1020r is used as substrate and cover plate, and PDMS as channel interlayer. The transmission of the empty microfluidic chip is more than 80% in the range of 0.2-2.6 THz by THz-TDS system. Then, experiments were carried out using chips, which were filled with different volumes of 1, 2- propanediol, and it has been proved that the microfluidic chip could reduce the water absorption of terahertz. Finally, in order to further explore the reduction of terahertz to water absorption, we inject different concentrations of electrolyte to the chip. The results show that with the addition of different electrolytes, terahertz transmission line has evident changes. It can be taken into account that the electrolyte has different effects about the hydrogen bonds in the aqueous solution. Some of them can promote water molecules clusters, while others destroy them. Based on the basis of microfluidic chip, the discovery of this phenomenon can provide a way that reduces water absorption of terahertz. This work has laid a solid foundation for the subsequent study in reducing water absorption of terahertz.

  11. FDTD-based quantitative analysis of terahertz wave detection for multilayered structures. (United States)

    Tu, Wanli; Zhong, Shuncong; Shen, Yaochun; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Ligang


    Experimental investigations have shown that terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) is able to quantitatively characterize a range of multilayered media (e.g., biological issues, pharmaceutical tablet coatings, layered polymer composites, etc.). Advanced modeling of the interaction of terahertz radiation with a multilayered medium is required to enable the wide application of terahertz technology in a number of emerging fields, including nondestructive testing. Indeed, there have already been many theoretical analyses performed on the propagation of terahertz radiation in various multilayered media. However, to date, most of these studies used 1D or 2D models, and the dispersive nature of the dielectric layers was not considered or was simplified. In the present work, the theoretical framework of using terahertz waves for the quantitative characterization of multilayered media was established. A 3D model based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is proposed. A batch of pharmaceutical tablets with a single coating layer of different coating thicknesses and different refractive indices was modeled. The reflected terahertz wave from such a sample was computed using the FDTD method, assuming that the incident terahertz wave is broadband, covering a frequency range up to 3.5 THz. The simulated results for all of the pharmaceutical-coated tablets considered were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using a commercial TPI system. In addition, we studied a three-layered medium to mimic the occurrence of defects in the sample.

  12. Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; Wu, Yuhao; Gauch, John; Campbell, Lucas K.; El-Shenawee, Magda


    This work presents the application of terahertz imaging to three-dimensional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast cancer tumors. The results demonstrate the capability of terahertz for in-depth scanning to produce cross section images without the need to slice the tumor. Samples of tumors excised from women diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma are investigated using a pulsed terahertz time domain imaging system. A time of flight estimation is used to obtain vertical and horizontal cross section images of tumor tissues embedded in paraffin block. Strong agreement is shown comparing the terahertz images obtained by electronically scanning the tumor in-depth in comparison with histopathology images. The detection of cancer tissue inside the block is found to be accurate to depths over 1 mm. Image processing techniques are applied to provide improved contrast and automation of the obtained terahertz images. In particular, unsharp masking and edge detection methods are found to be most effective for three-dimensional block imaging.

  13. Domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyn Grzegorz M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is a commonly-used software package for comparing a query sequence to a database of known sequences; in this study, we focus on protein sequences. Position-specific-iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST iteratively searches a protein sequence database, using the matches in round i to construct a position-specific score matrix (PSSM for searching the database in round i + 1. Biegert and Söding developed Context-sensitive BLAST (CS-BLAST, which combines information from searching the sequence database with information derived from a library of short protein profiles to achieve better homology detection than PSI-BLAST, which builds its PSSMs from scratch. Results We describe a new method, called domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST (DELTA-BLAST, which searches a database of pre-constructed PSSMs before searching a protein-sequence database, to yield better homology detection. For its PSSMs, DELTA-BLAST employs a subset of NCBI’s Conserved Domain Database (CDD. On a test set derived from ASTRAL, with one round of searching, DELTA-BLAST achieves a ROC5000 of 0.270 vs. 0.116 for CS-BLAST. The performance advantage diminishes in iterated searches, but DELTA-BLAST continues to achieve better ROC scores than CS-BLAST. Conclusions DELTA-BLAST is a useful program for the detection of remote protein homologs. It is available under the “Protein BLAST” link at Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Nick V. Grishin, and Frank Eisenhaber.

  14. Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory. (United States)

    Lee, J W; Seo, M A; Park, D J; Jeoung, S C; Park, Q H; Lienau, Ch; Kim, D S


    We report on a perfect transmission in one-dimensional metallic structure using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Fabry-Perot resonance appearing in spectral region below first Rayleigh minimum strongly enhances transmission up to over ninety-nine percent. Theoretical calculations reveal that under the perfect transmission condition, a symmetric eigenmode inside the slits is excited and a funneling of all incident energy onto the slits occurs, resulting in large energy concentration equivalent to the inverse sample coverage and high near-field enhancement of electric and magnetic field intensities. Our work opens way toward near-field terahertz amplification, applicable to high-field terahertz spectroscopy.

  15. Helicity-dependent terahertz emission spectroscopy of topological insulator S b2T e3 thin films (United States)

    Tu, Chien-Ming; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Ping; Chuang, Pei-Yu; Lin, Ming-Yu; Cheng, Cheng-Maw; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Wu, Kaung-Hsiung; Huang, Jung-Chun A.; Pong, Way-Faung; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Luo, Chih-Wei


    We report on helicity-dependent terahertz emissions that originate from the helicity-dependent photocurrents in topological insulator S b2T e3 thin films due to ultrafast optical excitation. The polarity of the emitted terahertz radiation is controlled by both the incident angle and the helicity of optical pulses. Using an unprecedented decomposition-recombination procedure in the time domain, the signals of the Dirac fermions are fully separated from bulk contributions. These results provide insights into the optical coupling of topological surface states and open up opportunities for applying helicity-dependent terahertz emission spectroscopy in spintronics.

  16. Contrast in Terahertz Images of Archival Documents—Part I: Influence of the Optical Parameters from the Ink and Support


    Bardon, T.; May, R. K.; Jackson, J. B.; Beentjes, G.; de Bruin, G.; Taday, P. F.; Strlič, M.


    This study aims to objectively inform curators when terahertz time-domain (TD) imaging set in reflection mode is likely to give well-contrasted images of inscriptions in a complex archival document and is a useful non-invasive alternative to current digitisation processes. To this end, the dispersive refractive indices and absorption coefficients from various archival materials are assessed and their influence on contrast in terahertz images from historical documents is explored. Sepia ink an...

  17. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.


    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  18. How Swift is redefining time domain astronomy (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.


    NASA's Swift satellite has completed ten years of amazing discoveries in time domain astronomy. Its primary mission is to chase gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but due to its scheduling flexibility it has subsequently become a prime discovery machine for new types of behavior. The list of major discoveries in GRBs and other transients includes the long-lived X-ray afterglows and flares from GRBs, the first accurate localization of short GRBs, the discovery of GRBs at high redshift (z > 8), supernova shock break-out from SN Ib, a jetted tidal disruption event, an ultra-long class of GRBs, high energy emission from flare stars, novae and supernovae with unusual characteristics, magnetars with glitches in their spin periods, and a short GRB with evidence of an accompanying kilonova. Swift has developed a dynamic synergism with ground based observatories. In a few years gravitational wave observatories will come on-line and provide exciting new transient sources for Swift to study.

  19. Terahertz antenna technology for space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Balamati; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    This book explores the terahertz antenna technology towards implementation of compact, consistent and cheap terahertz sources, as well as the high sensitivity terahertz detectors. The terahertz EM band provides a transition between the electronic and the photonic regions thus adopting important characteristics from these regimes. These characteristics, along with the progress in semiconductor technology, have enabled researchers to exploit hitherto unexplored domains including satellite communication, bio-medical imaging, and security systems. The advances in new materials and nanostructures such as graphene will be helpful in miniaturization of antenna technology while simultaneously maintaining the desired output levels. Terahertz antenna characterization of bandwidth, impedance, polarization, etc. has not yet been methodically structured and it continues to be a major research challenge. This book addresses these issues besides including the advances of terahertz technology in space applications worldwide,...

  20. Terahertz Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bründermann, Erik; Kimmitt, Maurice FitzGerald


    Research and development in the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has expanded very rapidly during the past fifteen years due to major advances in sources, detectors and instrumentation. Many scientists and engineers are entering the field and this volume offers a comprehensive and integrated treatment of all aspects of terahertz technology. The three authors, who have been active researchers in this region over a number of years, have designed Terahertz Techniques to be both a general introduction to the subject and a definitive reference resource for all those involved in this exciting research area.

  1. Entropy of geoelectrical time series in the natural time domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramírez-Rojas


    Full Text Available Seismic electric signals (SES have been considered precursors of strong earthquakes, and, recently, their dynamics have been investigated within the Natural Time Domain (NTD (Varotsos et al., 2004. In this paper we apply the NTD approach and the chaotic map signal analysis to two geoelectric time series recorded in a seismically very active area of Mexico, where two strong earthquakes, M=6.6 and M=7.4, occurred on 24 October 1993 and 14 September 1995, respectively. The low frequency geoelectric signals measured display periods with dichotomic behavior. Our findings point out to an increase of the correlation degree of the geoelectric signals before the occurrence of strong earthquakes; furthermore, the power spectrum and entropy in NTD are in good agreement with the results published in literature. Our results were validated by the analysis of a chaotic map simulated time series, which revealed the typical characteristics of artificial noise.

  2. Analysis of tiltrotor whirl flutter in time and frequency domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Shin, SanJoon; Kim, Taehyoun


    flexible wing modes. Numerical results are obtained in both time and frequency domains. Generalized eigenvalue solution is utilized to estimate the whirl flutter stability in the frequency domain, and Runge-Kutta method is used to analyze it in time domain. The effects of varying the pylon spring stiffness...

  3. Terahertz deconvolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Gillian C; Bowen, John W; Labaune, Julien; Jackson, J-Bianca; Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Roberts, John; Mourou, Gerard; Menu, Michel


    The ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample using terahertz pulsed reflection imaging and spectroscopy has traditionally been resolution limited by the pulse width available...

  4. Time-domain modeling of electromagnetic diffusion with a frequency-domain code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.; Wirianto, M.; Slob, E.C.


    We modeled time-domain EM measurements of induction currents for marine and land applications with a frequency-domain code. An analysis of the computational complexity of a number of numerical methods shows that frequency-domain modeling followed by a Fourier transform is an attractive choice if a

  5. A new principle technic for the transformation from frequency domain to time domain (United States)

    Gao, Ben-Qing


    A principle technic for the transformation from frequency domain to time domain is presented. Firstly, a special type of frequency domain transcendental equation is obtained for an expected frequency domain parameter which is a rational or irrational fraction expression. Secondly, the inverse Laplace transformation is performed. When the two time-domain factors corresponding to the two frequency domain factors at two sides of frequency domain transcendental equation are known quantities, a time domain transcendental equation is reached. At last, the expected time domain parameter corresponding to the expected frequency domain parameter can be solved by the inverse convolution process. Proceeding from rational or irrational fraction expression, all solving process is provided. In the meantime, the property of time domain sequence is analyzed and the strategy for choosing the parameter values is described. Numerical examples are presented to verify the proposed theory and technic. Except for rational or irrational fraction expressions, examples of complex relative permittivity of water and plasma are used as verification method. The principle method proposed in the paper can easily solve problems which are difficult to be solved by Laplace transformation.

  6. Terahertz imaging for styrofoam inspection (United States)

    Pradarutti, B.; Riehemann, S.; Notni, G.; Tünnermann, A.


    Imaging of styrofoam with the help of ultrashort Terahertz pulses is investigated. With a combination of pulse amplitude and time delay imaging it is possible to speed up the measurement about two orders of magnitudes.

  7. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.


    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  8. Anti-reflection coating design for metallic terahertz meta-materials (United States)

    Pancaldi, Matteo; Freeman, Ryan; Hudl, Matthias; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Urazhdin, Sergei; Vavassori, Paolo; Bonetti, Stefano


    We demonstrate a silicon-based, single-layer anti-reflection coating that suppresses the reflectivity of metals at near-infrared frequencies, enabling optical probing of nano-scale structures embedded in highly reflective surroundings. Our design does not affect the interaction of terahertz radiation with metallic structures that can be used to achieve terahertz near-field enhancement. We have verified the functionality of the design by calculating and measuring the reflectivity of both infrared and terahertz radiation from a silicon/gold double layer as a function of the silicon thickness. We have also fabricated the unit cell of a terahertz meta-material, a dipole antenna comprising two 20-nm thick extended gold plates separated by a 2 $\\mu$m gap, where the terahertz field is locally enhanced. We used the time-domain finite element method to demonstrate that such near-field enhancement is preserved in the presence of the anti-reflection coating. Finally, we performed magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements on a single 3-nm thick, 1-$\\mu$m wide magnetic wire placed in the gap of such a dipole antenna. The wire only occupies 2\\% of the area probed by the laser beam, but its magneto-optical response can be clearly detected. Our design paves the way for ultrafast time-resolved studies, using table-top femtosecond near-infrared lasers, of dynamics in nano-structures driven by strong terahertz radiation.

  9. Terahertz pulsed imaging for the monitoring of dental caries: a comparison with x-ray imaging (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Kamburoglu, Kıvanc; Altan, Hakan


    Dental caries in sliced samples are investigated using terahertz pulsed imaging. Frequency domain terahertz response of these structures consistent with X-ray imaging results show the potential of this technique in the detection of early caries.

  10. Time-domain boundary conditions for outdoor ground surfaces (United States)

    Collier, Sandra L.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. Keith; Marlin, David H.


    Finite-difference time-domain techniques are promising for detailed dynamic simulations of sound propagation in complex atmospheric environments. Success of such simulations requires the development of new techniques to accurately handle the reflective and absorptive properties of a porous ground. One method of treating the ground boundary condition in the time domain [Salomons et al., Acta Acust. 88, 483-492 (2002)] is to use modified fluid dynamic equations, where the ground is considered as a porous medium described by its physical properties. However, this approach significantly increases computation time, as the domain must be extended into the ground and a large number of grid points are needed. Standard impedance models for the ground boundary condition are frequency-domain models, which generally are non-causal [Y. H. Berthelot, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 1736-1739 (2001)]. The development of a time-domain boundary condition from these models requires removing the singularity from the impedance equation when transforming from the frequency domain to the time domain. Alternatively, as the impedance boundary condition is a flux equation, a time-domain boundary condition can be derived from first principles, using the physical properties of the ground. We report on our development of a time-domain ground boundary condition.

  11. Conversion of Dielectric Data from the Time Domain to the Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Durman


    Full Text Available Polarisation and conduction processes in dielectric systems can be identified by the time domain or the frequency domain measurements. If the systems is a linear one, the results of the time domain measurements can be transformed into the frequency domain, and vice versa. Commonly, the time domain data of the absorption conductivity are transformed into the frequency domain data of the dielectric susceptibility. In practice, the relaxation are mainly evaluated by the frequency domain data. In the time domain, the absorption current measurement were prefered up to now. Recent methods are based on the recovery voltage measurements. In this paper a new method of the recovery data conversion from the time the frequency domain is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the recovery voltage transient based on the Maxwell equation for the current density in a dielectric. Unlike the previous published solutions, the Laplace fransform was used to derive a formula suitable for practical purposes. the proposed procedure allows also calculating of the insulation resistance and separating the polarisation and conduction losses.

  12. A statistical package for computing time and frequency domain analysis (United States)

    Brownlow, J.


    The spectrum analysis (SPA) program is a general purpose digital computer program designed to aid in data analysis. The program does time and frequency domain statistical analyses as well as some preanalysis data preparation. The capabilities of the SPA program include linear trend removal and/or digital filtering of data, plotting and/or listing of both filtered and unfiltered data, time domain statistical characterization of data, and frequency domain statistical characterization of data.

  13. Geometric phase shaping of terahertz vortex beams. (United States)

    Minasyan, Amalya; Trovato, Clément; Degert, Jérôme; Freysz, Eric; Brasselet, Etienne; Abraham, Emmanuel


    We propose a topological beam-shaping strategy of terahertz (THz) beams using geometric phase elements made of space-variant birefringent slabs. Quasi-monochromatic THz vortex beams are produced and characterized both in amplitude and phase from the reconstructed real-time two-dimensional imaging of the electric field. Nonseparable superpositions of such vortex beams are also obtained and characterized by two-dimensional polarimetric analysis. These results emphasize the versatility of the spin-orbit electromagnetic toolbox to prepare on-demand structured light endowed with polarization-controlled orbital angular momentum content in the THz domain, which should find many uses in future THz technologies.

  14. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of highly doped ZnO and ITO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tianwu; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof


    The broadband complex conductivities of transparent conducting oxides (TCO), namely aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) and tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), were investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the frequency range from 0.5 to 18 THz using a...

  15. Precise Ab-initio prediction of terahertz vibrational modes in crystalline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Clark, Stewart J.


    We use a combination of experimental THz time-domain spectroscopy and ab-initio density functional perturbative theory to accurately predict the terahertz vibrational spectrum of molecules in the crystalline phase. Our calculations show that distinct vibrational modes found in solid-state materials...

  16. Evaluation of Damping Using Time Domain OMA Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajric, Anela; Brincker, Rune; Georgakis, Christos T.


    Time Domain (ITD), Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm (ERA) and the Polyreference Time Domain (PTD). The response of a two degree-of-freedom (2DOF) system is numerically established from specified modal parameters with well separated and closely spaced modes. Two types of response are considered, free...

  17. Alternating Direction Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain Acoustic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A time domain numerical technique is presented for the modelling of acoustic wave phenomena. The technique is an adaptation of the alternating direction implicit finite difference time domain method. The stability condition for the algorithm is given. Simple illustrations of propagation in an infinite homogeneous medium are ...

  18. Design PID controllers for desired time-domain or frequency-domain response. (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Xi, Yugeng; Yang, Genke; Xu, Xiaoming


    Practical requirements on the design of control systems, especially process control systems, are usually specified in terms of time-domain response, such as overshoot and rise time, or frequency-domain response, such as resonance peak and stability margin. Although numerous methods have been developed for the design of the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, little work has been done in relation to the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses. In this paper, we study the following problem: Given a nominal stable process with time delay, we design a suboptimal PID controller to achieve the required time-domain response or frequency-domain response for the nominal system or the uncertain system. An H(infinity) PID controller is developed based on optimal control theory and the parameters are derived analytically. Its properties are investigated and compared with that of two developed suboptimal controllers: an H2 PID controller and a Maclaurin PID controller. It is shown that all three controllers can provide the quantitative time-domain and frequency-domain responses.



  20. Structural Time Domain Identification (STDI) Toolbox for Use with MATLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune


    The Structural Time Domain Identification (STDI) toolbox for use with MATLABTM is developed at Aalborg University, Denmark, based on the system identification research performed during recent years. By now, a reliable set of functions offers a wide spectrum of services for all the important steps...... of multivariate time domain system identification of time-variant as well as time-invariant civil engineering structures from ambient testing data. A graphical user interface (GUI) is also developed to make the toolbox more user friendly....

  1. Structural Time Domain Identification (STDI) Toolbox for Use with MATLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune

    The Structural Time Domain Identification (STDI) toolbox for use with MATLABTM is developed at Aalborg University, Denmark, based on the system identification research performed during recent years. By now, a reliable set of functions offers a wide spectrum of services for all the important steps...... of multivariate time domain system identification of time-variant as well as time-invariant civil engineering structures from ambient testing data. A graphical user interface (GUI) is also developed to make the toolbox more user friendly....

  2. Transformation Algorithm of Dielectric Response in Time-Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu


    Full Text Available A transformation algorithm of dielectric response from time domain to frequency domain is presented. In order to shorten measuring time of low or ultralow frequency dielectric response characteristics, the transformation algorithm is used in this paper to transform the time domain relaxation current to frequency domain current for calculating the low frequency dielectric dissipation factor. In addition, it is shown from comparing the calculation results with actual test data that there is a coincidence for both results over a wide range of low frequencies. Meanwhile, the time domain test data of depolarization currents in dry and moist pressboards are converted into frequency domain results on the basis of the transformation. The frequency domain curves of complex capacitance and dielectric dissipation factor at the low frequency range are obtained. Test results of polarization and depolarization current (PDC in pressboards are also given at the different voltage and polarization time. It is demonstrated from the experimental results that polarization and depolarization current are affected significantly by moisture contents of the test pressboards, and the transformation algorithm is effective in ultralow frequency of 10−3 Hz. Data analysis and interpretation of the test results conclude that analysis of time-frequency domain dielectric response can be used for assessing insulation system in power transformer.

  3. Determination of alcohol- and sugar concentration in aqueous solutions using reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Merbold, H; Folkenberg, J R


    We use self-referencing reflection THz spectroscopy to measure the alcohol- and sugar concentration with high precision in small volumes of aqueous solutions, independent of carbonation and the contents of yeast or other small organic particles.......We use self-referencing reflection THz spectroscopy to measure the alcohol- and sugar concentration with high precision in small volumes of aqueous solutions, independent of carbonation and the contents of yeast or other small organic particles....

  4. Contribution of Reflection Terahertz Time Domain-Imaging (THz-TDI) to Imaging Analysis of Artworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Fukunaga, Kaori; Kohzuma, Y.

    Different kind s of artefacts (easel painting, panel paintings and Asian lacquerwares) have been scanned by THz - TDI and results have been compared with those obtained by others standard imaging techniques (x-ray radiography, cross sectional imaging, technical photography) .......Different kind s of artefacts (easel painting, panel paintings and Asian lacquerwares) have been scanned by THz - TDI and results have been compared with those obtained by others standard imaging techniques (x-ray radiography, cross sectional imaging, technical photography) ....

  5. Characterization of LO Coating Durability Using Time-Domain Terahertz Reflectivity (United States)


    surfaces. Dark regions marked by the black arrows show the formation of porous microstructures on the imperfection in the sprayed on coating (bubble) is present has been circled so that the changes from degradation can be looked at more closely. ( structures on the surfaces. Dark regions marked by the black arrows show the formation of porous microstructures on the surface. Our proposed

  6. Quantitative terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and analysis in chemistry and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    crystals and biological material. In order to obtain quantitative results great care in the analysis of the experimental data is required. I will discuss common pitfalls in the analysis of THz-TDS data as well as the influence of electronic and laser noise on the results of a THz-TDS experiment....

  7. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  8. Multicriteria Optimization of Antennas in Time-Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lacik


    Full Text Available An original approach to the time-domain multicriteria optimization of antennas is presented. For a given excitation pulse, the time-domain objective function takes the “time-domain impedance matching”, distortion of responses at the feeding point and in a desired radiating direction (with respect to the excitation pulse, and the radiated energy in the desired direction into account. The objective function is tested on the optimization of a bow-tie antenna using the particle swarm optimization. The proposed approach is suitable for the design of broadband antennas.

  9. Broadband terahertz dynamics of propylene glycol monomer and oligomers (United States)

    Koda, Shota; Mori, Tatsuya; Kojima, Seiji


    We investigated the broadband terahertz spectra (0.1-5.0 THz) of glass-forming liquids, propylene glycol (PG), its oligomers poly (propylene glycol)s (PPGs), and poly (propylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PPG-de) using broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and low-frequency Raman scattering. The numerical value of the dielectric loss at around 1.5 THz, which is the peak position of broad peaks in all samples, decreased as the molecular weight increased. Furthermore, the peak at around 1.5 THz is insensitive to the molecular weight. For PPGs, the side chain effect of the oligomer was observed in the terahertz region. Based on the experimental and calculation results for the PPGs and PPG-de, whose end groups are epoxy groups, the beginnings of the increases in the observed dielectric loss above 3.5 THz of the PPGs are assigned to the OH bending vibration. The higher value of the dielectric loss in the terahertz region for the PPG-de can be the tail of a broad peak located in the MHz region. The difference between the Raman susceptibility and dielectric loss reflects the difference in the observable molecular dynamics between the infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  10. Solid-state reaction between p-benzoquinone and 4,4'-biphenol: a THz time-domain spectroscopic study (United States)

    Liu, Guifeng; Zhao, Hongwei; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Wenfeng


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was employed to record the progress of the reaction between p-benzoquinone (BQ) and 4,4'-biphenol (4BP) in the solid state. Through the THz-TDS, distinct absorption peaks of reactants and products were obtained. Sample preparations in the solid state, with and without grinding, influenced the conversion kinetics. Several kinetic equations or models were tried to fit the reaction data. A kinetic rate constant was obtained, with the reaction observed to be consistent with diffusion-controlled mechanisms. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses were also used to characterize the solid-state reaction and products. The study shows that THz spectroscopy is a promising tool in evaluating the complex formation through solid-state reactions.

  11. Time-domain metric reconstruction for self-force applications (United States)

    Barack, Leor; Giudice, Paco


    We present a new method for calculation of the gravitational self-force (GSF) in Kerr geometry, based on a time-domain reconstruction of the metric perturbation from curvature scalars. In this approach, the GSF is computed directly from a certain scalarlike self-potential that satisfies the time-domain Teukolsky equation on the Kerr background. The approach is computationally much cheaper than existing time-domain methods, which rely on a direct integration of the linearized Einstein's equations and are impaired by mode instabilities. At the same time, it retains the utility and flexibility of a time-domain treatment, allowing calculations for any type of orbit (including highly eccentric or unbound ones) and the possibility of self-consistently evolving the orbit under the effect of the GSF. Here we formulate our method, and present a first numerical application, for circular geodesic orbits in Schwarzschild geometry. We discuss further applications.

  12. Robust phase-domain transmission line representation based on time-domain fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Diana M.; Neves, Washington L.A. [Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG), Electrical Engineering Department, Av Aprigio Veloso, 882 Campina Grande, PB 58.109-970 (Brazil); Boaventura, Wallace do C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Electrical Engineering Department, Av Antonio Carlos, 6627 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG 31.270-010 (Brazil)


    This work presents a methodology for deriving a phase-domain transmission line representation based on time-domain fitting. A polynomial matrix in the discrete-time domain describes the resulting model. The robustness of the representation, its stability and passivity, is attained by imbedding a set of constraints in the solution of the fitting equations, which are solved using quadratic programming. Results demonstrating from transient simulations the features of the derived representation are presented for the case of an asymmetric, untransposed two-phase transmission line. (author)

  13. Aberration correction for time-domain ultrasound diffraction tomography (United States)

    Mast, T. Douglas


    Extensions of a time-domain diffraction tomography method, which reconstructs spatially dependent sound speed variations from far-field time-domain acoustic scattering measurements, are presented and analyzed. The resulting reconstructions are quantitative images with applications including ultrasonic mammography, and can also be considered candidate solutions to the time-domain inverse scattering problem. Here, the linearized time-domain inverse scattering problem is shown to have no general solution for finite signal bandwidth. However, an approximate solution to the linearized problem is constructed using a simple delay-and-sum method analogous to "gold standard" ultrasonic beamforming. The form of this solution suggests that the full nonlinear inverse scattering problem can be approximated by applying appropriate angle- and space-dependent time shifts to the time-domain scattering data; this analogy leads to a general approach to aberration correction. Two related methods for aberration correction are presented: one in which delays are computed from estimates of the medium using an efficient straight-ray approximation, and one in which delays are applied directly to a time-dependent linearized reconstruction. Numerical results indicate that these correction methods achieve substantial quality improvements for imaging of large scatterers. The parametric range of applicability for the time-domain diffraction tomography method is increased by about a factor of 2 by aberration correction. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  14. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  15. Application of Terahertz Radiation to the Detection of Corrosion under the Shuttle's Thermal Protection System (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anastasi, Robert F.; Smith, Stephen W.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Walker, James L.; Lomness, Janice K.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Winfree, William P.; Russell, Richard W.


    There is currently no method for detecting corrosion under Shuttle tiles except for the expensive process of tile removal and replacement; hence NASA is investigating new NDE methods for detecting hidden corrosion. Time domain terahertz radiation has been applied to corrosion detection under tiles in samples ranging from small lab samples to a Shuttle with positive results. Terahertz imaging methods have been able to detect corrosion at thicknesses of 5 mils or greater under 1" thick Shuttle tiles and 7-12 mils or greater under 2" thick Shuttle tiles.

  16. Time domain modeling of tunable response of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokopeva, Ludmila; Emani, Naresh K.; Boltasseva, Alexandra


    We present a causal numerical model for time domain simulations of the optical response of graphene. The dielectric function is approximated with a conductivity term, a Drude term and a number of the critical points terms.......We present a causal numerical model for time domain simulations of the optical response of graphene. The dielectric function is approximated with a conductivity term, a Drude term and a number of the critical points terms....

  17. Ultrabroadband terahertz conductivity of Si nanocrystal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Meldrum, A.; Jepsen, P. Uhd


    The terahertz conductivity of silicon nanoparticles embedded in glass with varying density is studied with ultra-broadband terahertz spectroscopy on picosecond time scales following fs optical excitation. The transition from relatively isolated charge carriers to densities which allow inter...... the applicability of this simple model to the conductivity of nanoparticle ensembles over the entire THz spectral window....

  18. Three Dimensional Energy Transmitting Boundary in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro eNakamura


    Full Text Available Although the energy transmitting boundary is accurate and efficient for the FEM earthquake response analysis, it could be applied in the frequency domain only. In the previous papers, the author proposed an earthquake response analysis method using the time domain energy transmitting boundary for two dimensional problems. In this paper, this technique is expanded for three dimensional problems. The inner field is supposed to be a hexahedron shape and the approximate time domain boundary is explained, first. Next, two dimensional anti-plane time domain boundary is studied for a part of the approximate three dimensional boundary method. Then, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are confirmed by example problems.

  19. Time domain Rankine-Green panel method for offshore structures (United States)

    Li, Zhifu; Ren, Huilong; Liu, Riming; Li, Hui


    To solve the numerical divergence problem of the direct time domain Green function method for the motion simulation of floating bodies with large flare, a time domain hybrid Rankine-Green boundary element method is proposed. In this numerical method, the fluid domain is decomposed by an imaginary control surface, at which the continuous condition should be satisfied. Then the Rankine Green function is adopted in the inner domain. The transient free surface Green function is applied in the outer domain, which is used to find the relationship between the velocity potential and its normal derivative for the inner domain. Besides, the velocity potential at the mean free surface between body surface and control surface is directly solved by the integration scheme. The wave exciting force is computed through the convolution integration with wave elevation, by introducing the impulse response function. Additionally, the nonlinear Froude-Krylov force and hydrostatic force, which is computed under the instantaneous incident wave free surface, are taken into account by the direct pressure integration scheme. The corresponding numerical computer code is developed and first used to compute the hydrodynamic coefficients of the hemisphere, as well as the time history of a ship with large flare; good agreement is obtained with the analytical solutions as well as the available numerical results. Then the hydrodynamic properties of a FPSO are studied. The hydrodynamic coefficients agree well with the results computed by the frequency method; the influence of the time interval and the truncated time is investigated in detail.

  20. Terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    In this presentation I will review methods for spectroscopy in the THz range, with special emphasis on the practical implementation of the technique known ad THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz-TDS has revived the old field of far-infrared spectroscopy, and enabled a wealth of new activit...

  1. Thermal Loss of High-Q Antennas in Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain Solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    High-Q structures pose great challenges to their loss simulations in Time Domain Solvers (TDS). Therefore, in this work the thermal loss of high-Q antennas is calculated both in TDS and Frequency Domain Solver (FDS), which are then compared with each other and with the actual measurements....... The thermal loss calculation in FDS is shown to be more accurate for high-Q antennas....

  2. Selective detection of bacterial layers with terahertz plasmonic antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Berrier, Audrey; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Bergquist, Jonas; Rivas, Jaime Gómez


    Current detection and identification of micro-organisms is based on either rather unspecific rapid microscopy or on more accurate complex, time-consuming procedures. In a medical context, the determination of the bacteria Gram type is of significant interest. The diagnostic of microbial infection often requires the identification of the microbiological agent responsible for the infection, or at least the identification of its family (Gram type), in a matter of minutes. In this work, we propose to use terahertz frequency range antennas for the enhanced selective detection of bacteria types. Several microorganisms are investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy: a fast, contactless and damage-free investigation method to gain information on the presence and the nature of the microorganisms. We demonstrate that plasmonic antennas enhance the detection sensitivity for bacterial layers and allow the selective recognition of the Gram type of the bacteria.

  3. Broadband Beamspace DOA Estimation: Frequency-Domain and Time-Domain Processing Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shefeng


    Full Text Available Frequency-domain and time-domain processing approaches to direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation for multiple broadband far field signals using beamspace preprocessing structures are proposed. The technique is based on constant mainlobe response beamforming. A set of frequency-domain and time-domain beamformers with constant (frequency independent mainlobe response and controlled sidelobes is designed to cover the spatial sector of interest using optimal array pattern synthesis technique and optimal FIR filters design technique. These techniques lead the resulting beampatterns higher mainlobe approximation accuracy and yet lower sidelobes. For the scenario of strong out-of-sector interfering sources, our approaches can form nulls or notches in the direction of them and yet guarantee that the mainlobe response of the beamformers is constant over the design band. Numerical results show that the proposed time-domain processing DOA estimator has comparable performance with the proposed frequency-domain processing method, and that both of them are able to resolve correlated source signals and provide better resolution at lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and lower root-mean-square error (RMSE of the DOA estimate compared with the existing method. Our beamspace DOA estimators maintain good DOA estimation and spatial resolution capability in the scenario of strong out-of-sector interfering sources.

  4. Using random response input in Ibrahim Time Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Brincker, R.


    In this paper the time domain technique Ibrahim Time Domain (ITD) is used to analyze random time data. ITD is known to be a technique for identification of output only systems. The traditional formulation of ITD is claimed to be limited, when identifying closely spaced modes, because of the techn....... In this article it is showed that when using the modified ITD random time data can be analyzed. The application of the technique is displayed by a case study, with simulations and experimental data....


    Brownlow, J. D.


    The need for statistical analysis often arises when data is in the form of a time series. This type of data is usually a collection of numerical observations made at specified time intervals. Two kinds of analysis may be performed on the data. First, the time series may be treated as a set of independent observations using a time domain analysis to derive the usual statistical properties including the mean, variance, and distribution form. Secondly, the order and time intervals of the observations may be used in a frequency domain analysis to examine the time series for periodicities. In almost all practical applications, the collected data is actually a mixture of the desired signal and a noise signal which is collected over a finite time period with a finite precision. Therefore, any statistical calculations and analyses are actually estimates. The Spectrum Analysis (SPA) program was developed to perform a wide range of statistical estimation functions. SPA can provide the data analyst with a rigorous tool for performing time and frequency domain studies. In a time domain statistical analysis the SPA program will compute the mean variance, standard deviation, mean square, and root mean square. It also lists the data maximum, data minimum, and the number of observations included in the sample. In addition, a histogram of the time domain data is generated, a normal curve is fit to the histogram, and a goodness-of-fit test is performed. These time domain calculations may be performed on both raw and filtered data. For a frequency domain statistical analysis the SPA program computes the power spectrum, cross spectrum, coherence, phase angle, amplitude ratio, and transfer function. The estimates of the frequency domain parameters may be smoothed with the use of Hann-Tukey, Hamming, Barlett, or moving average windows. Various digital filters are available to isolate data frequency components. Frequency components with periods longer than the data collection interval

  6. Modeling Microwave Structures in Time Domain Using Laguerre Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on time domain modeling of microwave structures by the method of moments. Two alternative schemes with weighted Laguerre polynomials are presented. Thanks to their properties, these schemes are free of late time oscillations. Further, the paper is aimed to effective and accurate evaluation of Green's functions integrals within these schemes. For this evaluation, a first- and second-order polynomial approximation is developed. The last part of the paper deals with modeling microstrip structures in the time domain. Conditions of impedance matching are derived, and the proposed approach is verified by modeling a microstrip filter.

  7. Measurement of plasma densities by dual frequency multichannel boxcar THz time domain spectroscopy (United States)

    Meier, St. M.; Tsankov, Ts V.; Luggenhölscher, D.; Czarnetzki, U.


    In this paper we show the development and the application of the terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS) diagnostic technique for the determination of plasma densities in low-pressure discharges. A commercially available system was modified to reach a better signal-to-noise ratio. For that the THz emitter and the detection method were changed and a fast lock-in amplifier was used to reach 38 MHz lock-in frequency. These modifications in a combination with the novel method of dual frequency multichannel boxcar embedded as a feature in the lock-in amplifier allowed us to make also time-resolved measurements. The temporal resolution can potentially go down to 100 ps and is limited only by the spectral range that needs to be recovered for the measurement of low electron densities. Further, the cause of artefacts found in all THz TDS based systems, but not understood until now, is identified and explained. As an application the electron densities in inductively coupled plasmas sustained in a magnetic multi-cusp chamber are determined. Results from steady-state discharges in noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) and time-resolved measurements in pulsed discharges in Ar and Ne are presented. The technique is benchmarked against microwave interferometry with good agreement in the applicability range of both techniques. The THz TDS performs reliably also in much denser plasmas where standard microwave interferometry fails. The lower limit for the technique is at a line-integrated electron density of 1012 cm-2, corresponding to about 1011 cm-3 for typical plasma dimensions.

  8. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of electrically conductive metal-organic frameworks doped with redox active species (United States)

    Alberding, Brian G.; Heilweil, Edwin J.


    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are three-dimensional coordination polymers that are well known for large pore surface area and their ability to adsorb molecules from both the gaseous and solution phases. In general, MOFs are electrically insulating, but promising opportunities for tuning the electronic structure exist because MOFs possess synthetic versatility; the metal and organic ligand subunits can be exchanged or dopant molecules can be introduced into the pore space. Two such MOFs with demonstrated electrical conductivity are Cu3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)2, a.k.a HKUST-1, and Cu[Ni(pyrazine-2,3-dithiolate)2]. Herein, these two MOFs have been infiltrated with the redox active species 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and iodine under solution phase conditions and shown to produce redox products within the MOF pore space. Vibrational bands assignable to TCNQ anion and triiodide anion have been observed in the Mid-IR and Terahertz ranges using FTIR Spectroscopy. The MOF samples have been further investigated by Time-Resolved Terehertz Spectroscopy (TRTS). Using this technique, the charge mobility, separation, and recombination dynamics have been followed on the picosecond time scale following photoexcitation with visible radiation. The preliminary results show that the MOF samples have small inherent photoconductivity with charge separation lifetimes on the order of a few picoseconds. In the case of HKUST-1, the MOF can also be supported by a TiO2 film and initial results show that charge injection into the TiO2 layer occurs with a comparable efficiency to the dye sensitizer N3, [cis-Bis(isothiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato ruthenium(II)], and therefore this MOF has potential as a new light absorbing and charge conducting material in photovoltaic devices.

  9. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)


    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  10. A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber. (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Chen, Qin; Grant, James; Saha, Shimul C; Khalid, A; Cumming, David R S


    Metamaterial absorbers have attracted considerable attention for applications in the terahertz range. In this Letter, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz dual band metamaterial absorber that shows two distinct absorption peaks with high absorption. By manipulating the periodic patterned structures as well as the dielectric layer thickness of the metal-dielectric-metal structure, significantly high absorption can be obtained at specific resonance frequencies. Finite-difference time-domain modeling is used to design the structure of the absorber. The fabricated devices have been characterized using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer. The experimental results show two distinct absorption peaks at 2.7 and 5.2 THz, which are in good agreement with the simulation. The absorption magnitudes at 2.7 and 5.2 THz are 0.68 and 0.74, respectively.

  11. Modern EMC analysis I time-domain computational schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Kantartzis, Nikolaos V


    The objective of this two-volume book is the systematic and comprehensive description of the most competitive time-domain computational methods for the efficient modeling and accurate solution of contemporary real-world EMC problems. Intended to be self-contained, it performs a detailed presentation of all well-known algorithms, elucidating on their merits or weaknesses, and accompanies the theoretical content with a variety of applications. Outlining the present volume, the analysis covers the theory of the finite-difference time-domain, the transmission-line matrix/modeling, and the finite i

  12. MRTD (Multi Resolution Time Domain) Method in Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bushyager, Nathan; Balanis, Constantine


    Modern RF devices are built on a variety of technologies for a wide array of functionalities (cellular telephony, wireless data systems, radar, and many others). Design turnaround and performance gains found in the semiconductor device market are now expected in the RF circuit arena. Such work generally requires a full-wave electromagnetic simulator, and time domain techniques are particularly well suited to these devices.This lecture presents techniques that can be used to model complex microwave structures in multiresolution time domain method (MRTD). The authors' purpose is to present the M

  13. Transport processes in mixed conducting oxides: combining time domain experiments and frequency domain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.; den Otter, M.W.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.


    The conductivity relaxation (CR) method is often used for measuring the surface transfer rate, Ktr, and the bulk diffusion coefficient, $$\\tilde{D},$$ for oxygen transport in mixed conducting oxides (MIECs). The time domain analysis of the obtained CR response is rather complex and is based on

  14. Explicit solution of Calderon preconditioned time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda


    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving Calderon-preconditioned time domain integral equations is proposed. The scheme uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson and Buffa-Christiansen functions to discretize the domain and range of the integral operators and a PE(CE)m type linear multistep to march on in time. Unlike its implicit counterpart, the proposed explicit solver requires the solution of an MOT system with a Gram matrix that is sparse and well-conditioned independent of the time step size. Numerical results demonstrate that the explicit solver maintains its accuracy and stability even when the time step size is chosen as large as that typically used by an implicit solver. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Ultrabroadband THz time-domain spectroscopy of biomolecular crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenecker, Korbinian J.; Engelbrecht, Sebastian; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof


    Ultrabroadband THz time-domain spectroscopy based on two-color plasma generation and air biased coherent detection is used for the investigation of molecular dynamics of crystalline materials in the frequency range from 0.3 THz to 20 THz. We show that the spectral features in this extended freque...

  16. Time-domain description of behaviors over finite fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.


    We consider autonomous behaviors over a finite field with characteristic values that do not necessarily belong to the field. The time domain description of the behavior is given in a suitable field extension of the base field. The problem that we consider is how to derive a description completely

  17. Time-domain seismic reliability of nonlinear structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel reliability analysis technique is presented to estimate the reli- ability of real structural systems. Its unique feature is that the dynamic loadings can be applied in time domain. It is a nonlinear stochastic finite element logarithm combined with the response surface method (RSM). It generates the response sur-.

  18. Space-Time mapping of terahertz-induced electron field emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Kristensen, Thea M. B.; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof


    We present simulations and experiments showing how THz induced electron field emission from gold antennas can be mapped indirectly in space and time. Our simulations predict the spatiotemporal electron distribution after single-cycle THz-induced field emission. Two different experiments validate...... this through a time-accumulated, spatial electron mapping due to both short- and long-time irradiation with THz transients....

  19. Time Domain Partitioning of Electricity Production Cost Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, C.; Hummon, M.; Jones, W.; Hale, E.


    Production cost models are often used for planning by simulating power system operations over long time horizons. The simulation of a day-ahead energy market can take several weeks to compute. Tractability improvements are often made through model simplifications, such as: reductions in transmission modeling detail, relaxation of commitment variable integrality, reductions in cost modeling detail, etc. One common simplification is to partition the simulation horizon so that weekly or monthly horizons can be simulated in parallel. However, horizon partitions are often executed with overlap periods of arbitrary and sometimes zero length. We calculate the time domain persistence of historical unit commitment decisions to inform time domain partitioning of production cost models. The results are implemented using PLEXOS production cost modeling software in an HPC environment to improve the computation time of simulations while maintaining solution integrity.

  20. Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs: A Time Domain Perspective (United States)


    modes in these multimode waveguides. Further data demonstrate such interactions play a major role in the generation of combs, especially for normal...offers promise to replace traditional mode -locked laser combs and to substantially shrink the size of comb sources to the chip-level for applications...spatial modes in the few- moded waveguides from which the microresonators are fabricated. Time domain measurements show for the first time that under

  1. Differences between time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography in imaging tissues. (United States)

    Gao, W; Wu, X


    It has been numerously demonstrated that both time domain and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) can generate high-resolution depth-resolved images of living tissues and cells. In this work, we compare the common points and differences between two methods when the continuous and random properties of live tissue are taken into account. It is found that when relationships that exist between the scattered light and tissue structures are taken into account, spectral interference measurements in Fourier domain OCT (FDOCT) is more advantageous than interference fringe envelope measurements in time domain OCT (TDOCT) in the cases where continuous property of tissue is taken into account. It is also demonstrated that when random property of tissue is taken into account FDOCT measures the Fourier transform of the spatial correlation function of the refractive index and speckle phenomena will limit the effective limiting imaging resolution in both TDOCT and FDOCT. Finally, the effective limiting resolution of both TDOCT and FDOCT are given which can be used to estimate the effective limiting resolution in various practical applications. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Parallel time domain solvers for electrically large transient scattering problems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang


    Marching on in time (MOT)-based integral equation solvers represent an increasingly appealing avenue for analyzing transient electromagnetic interactions with large and complex structures. MOT integral equation solvers for analyzing electromagnetic scattering from perfect electrically conducting objects are obtained by enforcing electric field boundary conditions and implicitly time advance electric surface current densities by iteratively solving sparse systems of equations at all time steps. Contrary to finite difference and element competitors, these solvers apply to nonlinear and multi-scale structures comprising geometrically intricate and deep sub-wavelength features residing atop electrically large platforms. Moreover, they are high-order accurate, stable in the low- and high-frequency limits, and applicable to conducting and penetrable structures represented by highly irregular meshes. This presentation reviews some recent advances in the parallel implementations of time domain integral equation solvers, specifically those that leverage multilevel plane-wave time-domain algorithm (PWTD) on modern manycore computer architectures including graphics processing units (GPUs) and distributed memory supercomputers. The GPU-based implementation achieves at least one order of magnitude speedups compared to serial implementations while the distributed parallel implementation are highly scalable to thousands of compute-nodes. A distributed parallel PWTD kernel has been adopted to solve time domain surface/volume integral equations (TDSIE/TDVIE) for analyzing transient scattering from large and complex-shaped perfectly electrically conducting (PEC)/dielectric objects involving ten million/tens of millions of spatial unknowns.

  3. A statistical comparison of EEG time- and time-frequency domain representations of error processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, G.J.; Nap, T.S.; Schippers, E.E.; Cohen, M.X.


    Successful behavior relies on error detection and subsequent remedial adjustment of behavior. Researchers have identified two electrophysiological signatures of error processing: the time-domain error-related negativity (ERN), and the time-frequency domain increased power in the delta/theta

  4. Identification of frequency domain and time domain aeroelastic parameters for flutter analysis of flexible structures (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arindam Gan

    Flutter analysis of structures is usually done in frequency domain. Alternately, time-domain methods have been suggested. For frequency-domain flutter analysis, flutter derivatives are used that can be identified from section model testing in the wind tunnel. In time-domain analysis, the frequency-dependent aerodynamic self-excited forces expressed in flutter derivatives acting on the structure can be approximated in the Laplace domain by Rational functions. The art of efficient extraction of these aeroelastic parameters requires an elastic suspension system to capture coupled displacement and aerodynamic force time histories from wind tunnel testing of section models. A novel three-degree-of-freedom (DOF) suspension system has been developed for the wind-tunnel section model study of wind-excited vibrations of flexible structures. The extraction of flutter derivatives becomes more challenging when the number of DOF of section model increases from two to three. Since the work in the field of identifying all eighteen flutter derivatives has been limited, it has motivated the development of a new system identification method (Iterative least squares method or ILS method) to efficiently extract the flutter derivatives using a section model suspended by the three-DOF elastic suspension system. All eighteen flutter derivatives for a streamlined bridge deck and an airfoil section model were identified by using ILS approach. Flutter derivatives related to the lateral DOF were emphasized. For time-domain flutter analysis, Rational function approximation (RFA) approach involves approximation of the experimentally obtained flutter derivatives through 'multilevel linear and nonlinear optimization' procedure. This motivated the formulation of a system identification technique (Experimental extraction of Rational function coefficients or E2RFC) to directly extract the Rational function coefficients from wind tunnel testing. The current formulation requires testing of the model

  5. Terahertz metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoineete J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In this paper we present our recent developments in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and devices. Planar THz metamaterials and their complementary structures fabricated on suitable substrates have shown electric resonant response, which causes the band-pass or band-stop property in THz transmission and reflection. The operational frequency can be further tuned up to 20% upon photoexcitation of an integrated semiconductor region in the splitring resonators as the metamaterial elements. On the other hand, the use of semiconductors as metamaterial substrates enables dynamical control of metamaterial resonances through photoexcitation, and reducing the substrate carrier lifetime further enables an ultrafast switching recovery. The metamaterial resonances can also be actively controlled by application of a voltage bias when they are fabricated on semiconductor substrates with appropriate doping concentration and thickness. Using this electrically driven approach, THz modulation depth up to 80% and modulation speed of 2 MHz at room temperature have been demonstrated, which suggests practical THz applications.

  6. Modeling terahertz heating effects on water. (United States)

    Kristensen, Torben T L; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Jepsen, Peter U; Abbott, Derek


    We apply Kirchhoff's heat equation to model the influence of a CW terahertz beam on a sample of water, which is assumed to be static. We develop a generalized model, which easily can be applied to other liquids and solids by changing the material constants. If the terahertz light source is focused down to a spot with a diameter of 0.5 mm, we find that the steady-state temperature increase per milliwatt of transmitted power is 1.8?C/mW. A quantum cascade laser can produce a CW beam in the order of several milliwatts and this motivates the need to estimate the effect of beam power on the sample temperature. For THz time domain systems, we indicate how to use our model as a worst-case approximation based on the beam average power. It turns out that THz pulses created from photoconductive antennas give a negligible increase in temperature. As biotissue contains a high water content, this leads to a discussion of worst-case predictions for THz heating of the human body in order to motivate future detailed study. An open source Matlab implementation of our model is freely available for use at

  7. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in a parallel-plate waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    Time-resolved THz spectroscopy is a powerful tool to investigate photoconductivity dynamics in a wide variety of materials with sub-picosecond resolution, all without applying contacts to the material. This technique uses coherently detected and broadband pulses of far-infrared light, known as TH...

  8. Advances in spectral inversion of time-domain induced polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts in charg......The extraction of spectral information in the inversion process of time-domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) data is changing the use of the TDIP method. Data interpretation is evolving from a qualitative description of the subsurface, able only to discriminate the presence of contrasts...... in chargeability parameters, towards a quantitative analysis of the investigated media, which allows for detailed soil- and rock-type characterization. In this work a review of the recent advances in spectral inversion of TDIP data is presented, in terms of: supported IP parameterizations; modelling of transmitter...

  9. Molecular Frame Reconstruction Using Time-Domain Photoionization Interferometry (United States)

    Marceau, Claude; Makhija, Varun; Platzer, Dominique; Naumov, A. Yu.; Corkum, P. B.; Stolow, Albert; Villeneuve, D. M.; Hockett, Paul


    Photoionization of molecular species is, essentially, a multipath interferometer with both experimentally controllable and intrinsic molecular characteristics. In this work, XUV photoionization of impulsively aligned molecular targets (N2 ) is used to provide a time-domain route to "complete" photoionization experiments, in which the rotational wave packet controls the geometric part of the photoionization interferometer. The data obtained is sufficient to determine the magnitudes and phases of the ionization matrix elements for all observed channels, and to reconstruct molecular frame interferograms from lab frame measurements. In principle, this methodology provides a time-domain route to complete photoionization experiments and the molecular frame, which is generally applicable to any molecule (no prerequisites), for all energies and ionization channels.

  10. Lifetime, mobility, and diffusion of photoexcited carriers in ligand-exchanged lead selenide nanocrystal films measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. (United States)

    Guglietta, Glenn W; Diroll, Benjamin T; Gaulding, E Ashley; Fordham, Julia L; Li, Siming; Murray, Christopher B; Baxter, Jason B


    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have been used as building blocks for electronic and optoelectronic devices ranging from field-effect transistors to solar cells. Properties of the nanocrystal films depend sensitively on the choice of capping ligand to replace the insulating synthesis ligands. Thus far, ligands leading to the best performance in transistors result in poor solar cell performance, and vice versa. To gain insight into the nature of this dichotomy, we used time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements to study the mobility and lifetime of PbSe nanocrystal films prepared with five common ligand-exchange reagents. Noncontact terahertz spectroscopy measurements of conductivity were corroborated by contacted van der Pauw measurements of the same samples. The films treated with different displacing ligands show more than an order of magnitude difference in the peak conductivities and a bifurcation of time dynamics. Inorganic chalcogenide ligand exchanges with sodium sulfide (Na2S) or ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) show high mobilities but nearly complete decay of transient photocurrent in 1.4 ns. In contrast, ligand exchanges with 1,2-ethylenediamine (EDA), 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT), and tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) show lower mobilities but longer carrier lifetimes, resulting in longer diffusion lengths. This bifurcated behavior may explain the divergent performance of field-effect transistors and photovoltaics constructed from nanocrystal building blocks with different ligand exchanges.

  11. Terahertz (THZ) Imaging (United States)


    Especially for thin films of material the absorption and time delay of a THz pulse are mostly too low to be detected. 48. Nemec, H.; Kuzel, P.; Khazan, M...the summary) states that the use of thin ZnTe electro-optic sensors for coherent characterization of a freely propagating terahertz beam...on a GaAs wafer is determined by the diameter of the gating- 40 beam-induced thin photo carrier layer. With a dynamic aperture created on a GaAs

  12. The time resolved measurement of ultrashort terahertz-band electric fields without an ultrashort probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, D. A., E-mail:; Snedden, E. W. [Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, STFC Daresbury National Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Jamison, S. P. [Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, STFC Daresbury National Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)


    The time-resolved detection of ultrashort pulsed THz-band electric field temporal profiles without an ultrashort laser probe is demonstrated. A non-linear interaction between a narrow-bandwidth optical probe and the THz pulse transposes the THz spectral intensity and phase information to the optical region, thereby generating an optical pulse whose temporal electric field envelope replicates the temporal profile of the real THz electric field. This optical envelope is characterised via an autocorrelation based FROG (frequency resolved optical gating) measurement, hence revealing the THz temporal profile. The combination of a narrow-bandwidth, long duration, optical probe, and self-referenced FROG makes the technique inherently immune to timing jitter between the optical probe and THz pulse and may find particular application where the THz field is not initially generated via ultrashort laser methods, such as the measurement of longitudinal electron bunch profiles in particle accelerators.

  13. The time resolved measurement of ultrashort terahertz-band electric fields without an ultrashort probe (United States)

    Walsh, D. A.; Snedden, E. W.; Jamison, S. P.


    The time-resolved detection of ultrashort pulsed THz-band electric field temporal profiles without an ultrashort laser probe is demonstrated. A non-linear interaction between a narrow-bandwidth optical probe and the THz pulse transposes the THz spectral intensity and phase information to the optical region, thereby generating an optical pulse whose temporal electric field envelope replicates the temporal profile of the real THz electric field. This optical envelope is characterised via an autocorrelation based FROG (frequency resolved optical gating) measurement, hence revealing the THz temporal profile. The combination of a narrow-bandwidth, long duration, optical probe, and self-referenced FROG makes the technique inherently immune to timing jitter between the optical probe and THz pulse and may find particular application where the THz field is not initially generated via ultrashort laser methods, such as the measurement of longitudinal electron bunch profiles in particle accelerators.

  14. Adaptive imaging spectrometer in a time-domain filtering architecturedaptive Imaging Spectrometer in a Time-Domain Filtering Architecture (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Bhalotra, Sameer R.; Kung, Helen L.; Miller, David A. B.


    We demonstrate an imaging spectrometer with 30nm resolution that utilizes a novel time-domain filtering architecture. The architecture is based on a pixel by pixel integration of the interferogram signal mixed with reference waveforms. The system can be adapted in real time to discriminate between LED sources of different wavelengths, perform signal processing on the spectra, as well as discriminate between highly overlapping, broadband spectral features in a scene illuminated by a tungsten lamp. Unlike a conventional spectral signature discrimination system, which needs a dedicated computation subsystem running a discrimination algorithm, the time-domain filtering architecture embeds much of the computation in the filtering, which will aid the design of integrated miniaturized spectral signature discrimination systems.

  15. On time-domain and frequency-domain MMSE-based TEQ design for DMT transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Vanbleu, K; Moonen, M; Ysebaert, G; 10.1109/TSP.2005.851161


    We reconsider the minimum mean square error (MMSE) time-domain equalizer (TEQ), bitrate maximizing TEQ (BM-TEQ), and per-tone equalizer design (PTEQ) for discrete multitone (DMT) transmission and cast them in a common least-squares (LS) based framework. The MMSE- TEQ design criterion can be formulated as a constrained linear least-squares (CLLS) criterion that minimizes a time-domain (TD) error energy. From this CLLS-based TD-MMSE-TEQ criterion, we derive two new least-squares (LS) based frequency-domain (FD) MMSE-TEQ design criteria: a CLLS-based FD-MMSE-TEQ criterion and a so-called separable nonlinear LS (SNLLS) based FD-MMSE-TEQ design. Finally, the original BM-TEQ design is shown to be equivalent to a so-called iteratively-reweighted (IR) version of the SNLLS-based FD-MMSE-TEQ design. This LS-based framework then results in the following contributions. The new, IR-SNLLS-based BM-TEQ design criterion gives rise to an elegant, iterative, fast converging, Gauss-Newton-based design algorithm that exploits th...

  16. Finite difference time domain analysis of chirped dielectric gratings (United States)

    Hochmuth, Diane H.; Johnson, Eric G.


    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for solving Maxwell's time-dependent curl equations is accurate, computationally efficient, and straight-forward to implement. Since both time and space derivatives are employed, the propagation of an electromagnetic wave can be treated as an initial-value problem. Second-order central-difference approximations are applied to the space and time derivatives of the electric and magnetic fields providing a discretization of the fields in a volume of space, for a period of time. The solution to this system of equations is stepped through time, thus, simulating the propagation of the incident wave. If the simulation is continued until a steady-state is reached, an appropriate far-field transformation can be applied to the time-domain scattered fields to obtain reflected and transmitted powers. From this information diffraction efficiencies can also be determined. In analyzing the chirped structure, a mesh is applied only to the area immediately around the grating. The size of the mesh is then proportional to the electric size of the grating. Doing this, however, imposes an artificial boundary around the area of interest. An absorbing boundary condition must be applied along the artificial boundary so that the outgoing waves are absorbed as if the boundary were absent. Many such boundary conditions have been developed that give near-perfect absorption. In this analysis, the Mur absorbing boundary conditions are employed. Several grating structures were analyzed using the FDTD method.

  17. Efficient time-domain model of the graphene dielectric function (United States)

    Prokopeva, Ludmila J.; Kildishev, Alexander V.


    A honey-comb monolayer lattice of carbon atoms, graphene, is not only ultra-thin, ultra-light, flexible and strong, but also highly conductive when doped and exhibits strong interaction with electromagnetic radiation in the spectral range from microwaves to the ultraviolet. Moreover, this interaction can be effectively controlled electrically. High flexibility and conductivity makes graphene an attractive material for numerous photonic applications requiring transparent conducting electrodes: touchscreens, liquid crystal displays, organic photovoltaic cells, and organic light-emitting diodes. Meanwhile, its tunability makes it desirable for optical modulators, tunable filters and polarizers. This paper deals with the basics of the time-domain modeling of the graphene dielectric function under a random-phase approximation. We focus at applicability of Padé approximants to the interband dielectric function (IDF) of single layer graphene. Our study is centered on the development of a two-critical points approximation (2CPA) of the IDF within a single-electron framework with negligible carrier scattering and a realistic range of chemical potential at room temperature. This development is successfully validated by comparing reflection and transmission spectra computed by a numerical method in time-domain versus semi-analytical calculations in frequency domain. Finally, we sum up our results - (1) high-quality approximation, (2) tunability, and (3) second-order accurate numerical FDTD implementation of the 2CPA of IDF demonstrated across the desired range of the chemical potential to temperature ratios (4 - 23). Finally, we put forward future directions for time-domain modeling of optical response of graphene with wide range of tunable and fabrication-dependent parameters, including other broadening factors and variations of temperature and chemical potentials.

  18. Efficient Terahertz Plasmonic Absorbers with V-Grooves Using Highly Doped Silicon Substrate and Simple Wet-Etching Techniques (United States)

    Zhai, Mengfei; Yuan, Wei; Han, Zhanghua


    We experimentally demonstrate that at terahertz frequencies perfect plasmonic absorbers made from a 3D V-groove array in a highly doped silicon wafer can be easily realized using simple wet-etching process. The surface plasmon modes can be excited by the V-groove array and get decayed when they propagate along the silicon surface and enter the grooves, inducing a broadband near-zero dip in the reflection spectra. The reflection spectrum of the fabricated absorber is characterized using a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system, and the experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The high performance including high absorptivity and large bandwidth together with the easy fabrication processes presented in this paper make this plasmonic absorber promising for a wide range of practical applications in terahertz regime.

  19. Terahertz dielectric properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyethylene composites (United States)

    Dorozhkin, K. V.; Dunaevsky, G. E.; Sarkisov, S. Yu; Suslyaev, V. I.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Zhuravlev, V. A.; Sarkisov, Yu S.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Moseenkov, S. I.; Semikolenova, N. V.; Zakharov, V. A.; Atuchin, V. V.


    The terahertz dielectric properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyethylene (MWCNT/PE) composites prepared in different ways and with various contents of carbon nanotubes have been measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The experimental dielectric susceptibilities were modeled within effective medium approximation. The MWCNTs with average diameter of 9 nm produced by ethylene decomposition over FeCo catalyst were used in the experiments. Two types of composites were prepared by various mechanical mixing of MWCNT and polyethylene powders. The other two types of composites were fabricated employing ethylene polymerization on the MWCNTs before mechanical mixing with polyethylene powder. The samples with MWCNT concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 4 wt. % were prepared for each composite type. The measured dielectric susceptibilities were higher for composites made of nanotubes with preliminary polymerization of ethylene as compared to the composites produced by just mechanical mixing at equal concentrations of MWCNTs. It was also found that the dielectric susceptibilities of the MWCNT/PE composites can be satisfactory described within Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation at sufficient levels (>0.5–1 wt. %) of MWCNT contents. The obtained results confirm the possibility to produce MWCNT/PE composite materials with desired dielectric properties in terahertz range.

  20. Inspection of plastic weld joints with terahertz imaging (United States)

    Wietzke, S.; Krumbholz, N.; Jördens, C.; Baudrit, B.; Bastian, M.; Koch, M.


    Polymers cover the whole range from commodities to high-tech applications. Plastic products have also gained in importance for construction purposes. This draws the attention to joining techniques like welding. Common evaluation of the weld quality is mostly mechanical and destructive. Existing non-destructive techniques are mostly not entirely reliable or economically inefficient. Here, we demonstrate the potential of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy imaging as a non-destructive testing tool for the inspection of plastic weld joints. High-density polyethylene sheets welded in a lap joint with varying quality serve as samples for terahertz transmission measurements. Imperfections within the weld contact area can clearly be detected by displaying the transmitted intensity in a limited frequency range. Contaminations such as metal or sand are identified since they differ significantly from the polymer in the terahertz image. Furthermore, this new and promising technique is capable of detecting the boundaries of a weld contact area. Aside from revealing a contrast between a proper weld joint and no material connection, the size of an air gap between two plastic sheets can be determined by considering the characteristic frequency-dependent transmission through the structure: The spectral positions of the maxima and minima allow for the calculation of the air layer thickness.

  1. Astrophysics in the Era of Massive Time-Domain Surveys (United States)

    Djorgovski, G.

    Synoptic sky surveys are now the largest data producers in astronomy, entering the Petascale regime, opening the time domain for a systematic exploration. A great variety of interesting phenomena, spanning essentially all subfields of astronomy, can only be studied in the time domain, and these new surveys are producing large statistical samples of the known types of objects and events for further studies (e.g., SNe, AGN, variable stars of many kinds), and have already uncovered previously unknown subtypes of these (e.g., rare or peculiar types of SNe). These surveys are generating a new science, and paving the way for even larger surveys to come, e.g., the LSST; our ability to fully exploit such forthcoming facilities depends critically on the science, methodology, and experience that are being accumulated now. Among the outstanding challenges, the foremost is our ability to conduct an effective follow-up of the interesting events discovered by the surveys in any wavelength regime. The follow-up resources, especially spectroscopy, are already and, for the predictable future, will be severely limited, thus requiring an intelligent down-selection of the most astrophysically interesting events to follow. The first step in that process is an automated, real-time, iterative classification of events, that incorporates heterogeneous data from the surveys themselves, archival and contextual information (spatial, temporal, and multiwavelength), and the incoming follow-up observations. The second step is an optimal automated event prioritization and allocation of the available follow-up resources that also change in time. Both of these challenges are highly non-trivial, and require a strong cyber-infrastructure based on the Virtual Observatory data grid, and the various astroinformatics efforts. Time domain astronomy is inherently an astronomy of telescope-computational systems, and will increasingly depend on novel machine learning and artificial intelligence tools

  2. New Flutter Analysis Technique for Time-Domain Computational Aeroelasticity (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Lung, Shun-Fat


    A new time-domain approach for computing flutter speed is presented. Based on the time-history result of aeroelastic simulation, the unknown unsteady aerodynamics model is estimated using a system identification technique. The full aeroelastic model is generated via coupling the estimated unsteady aerodynamic model with the known linear structure model. The critical dynamic pressure is computed and used in the subsequent simulation until the convergence of the critical dynamic pressure is achieved. The proposed method is applied to a benchmark cantilevered rectangular wing.

  3. A multi-variance analysis in the time domain (United States)

    Walter, Todd


    Recently a new technique for characterizing the noise processes affecting oscillators was introduced. This technique minimizes the difference between the estimates of several different variances and their values as predicted by the standard power law model of noise. The method outlined makes two significant advancements: it uses exclusively time domain variances so that deterministic parameters such as linear frequency drift may be estimated, and it correctly fits the estimates using the chi-square distribution. These changes permit a more accurate fitting at long time intervals where there is the least information. This technique was applied to both simulated and real data with excellent results.

  4. CORRTEX: a compact and versatile system for time domain reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deupree, R.G.; Eilers, D.D.; McKown, T.O.; Storey, W.H.


    The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius versus Time EXperiments) system was designed to be an adaptable and versatile unit for performing time domain reflectometry (TDR). The system consists of a coaxial cable, a digital TDR, which uses a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, a power source or battery pack, and an output terminal or recording driver. Desirable criteria for the system are discussed as well as the operation of the CORRTEX system. The types of present applications of the CORRTEX system are summarized and data presented.

  5. Practical microstructured and plasmonic terahertz waveguides (United States)

    Markov, Andrey

    The terahertz frequency range, with frequencies lying between 100 GHz and 10 THz, has strong potential for various technological and scientific applications such as sensing, imaging, communications, and spectroscopy. Most terahertz (THz) sources are immobile and THz systems use free-space propagation in dry air where losses are minimal. Designing efficient THz waveguides for flexible delivery of broadband THz radiation is an important step towards practical applications of terahertz techniques. THz waveguides can be very useful on the system integration level when used for connection of the diverse THz point devices, such as sources, filters, sensor cells, detectors, etc. The most straightforward application of waveguides is to deliver electromagnetic waves from the source to the point of detection. Cumbersome free-space optics can be replaced by waveguides operating in the THz range, which could lead to the development of compact THz time domain spectroscopy systems. Other promising applications of THz waveguides are in sensing and imaging. THz waveguides have also been shown to operate in subwavelength regimes, offering mode confinement in waveguide structures with a size smaller than the diffraction limit, and thus, surpassing the resolution of free-space THz imaging systems. In order to design efficient terahertz waveguides, the frequency dependent loss and dispersion of the waveguide must be minimized. A possible solution would be to increase the fraction of mode power propagating through air. In this thesis, the usage of planar porous air/dielectric waveguides and metal wire/dielectric hybrid terahertz fibers will be discussed. First, I present a novel design of a planar porous low-loss waveguide, describe its fabrication, and characterize it in view of its potential applications as a low-loss waveguide and sensor in the THz spectral range. The waveguide structure features a periodic sequence of layers of thin (25-50 mum) polyethylene film that are separated

  6. Time-domain analysis of BWR core stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokomizo, Osamu


    A time-domain stability analysis program for boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs) has been developed and applied to analysis of a commercial size BWR. The program takes into account parallel channel effects. The model incorporates (a) one point neutron kinetics with weighted average reactivity feedback, (b) radial heat conduction and transfer in fuel rods, (c) fuel channel thermal hydraulics with quasi-equilibrium subcooled boiling approximation, and (d) recirculation hydrodynamics. Nonlinearity and parallel channel effects are examined through analyses of a commercial size BWR. Core behavior has been found virtually linear for small but finite amplitude oscillations, which proved the validity of frequency-domain stability analyses for finite disturbances. It has also been found that single channel analyses with core averaged thermal hydraulic properties give more stable results than parallel channel analyses.

  7. All-integrated terahertz modulators (United States)

    Degl'Innocenti, Riccardo; Kindness, Stephen J.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.


    Terahertz (0.1-10 THz corresponding to vacuum wavelengths between 30 μm and 3 mm) research has experienced impressive progress in the last few decades. The importance of this frequency range stems from unique applications in several fields, including spectroscopy, communications, and imaging. THz emitters have experienced great development recently with the advent of the quantum cascade laser, the improvement in the frequency range covered by electronic-based sources, and the increased performance and versatility of time domain spectroscopic systems based on full-spectrum lasers. However, the lack of suitable active optoelectronic devices has hindered the ability of THz technologies to fulfill their potential. The high demand for fast, efficient integrated optical components, such as amplitude, frequency, and polarization modulators, is driving one of the most challenging research areas in photonics. This is partly due to the inherent difficulties in using conventional integrated modulation techniques. This article aims to provide an overview of the different approaches and techniques recently employed in order to overcome this bottleneck.

  8. Applications of pattern classification to time-domain signals (United States)

    Bertoncini, Crystal Ann

    Many different kinds of physics are used in sensors that produce time-domain signals, such as ultrasonics, acoustics, seismology, and electromagnetics. The waveforms generated by these sensors are used to measure events or detect flaws in applications ranging from industrial to medical and defense-related domains. Interpreting the signals is challenging because of the complicated physics of the interaction of the fields with the materials and structures under study. Often the method of interpreting the signal varies by the application, but automatic detection of events in signals is always useful in order to attain results quickly with less human error. One method of automatic interpretation of data is pattern classification, which is a statistical method that assigns predicted labels to raw data associated with known categories. In this work, we use pattern classification techniques to aid automatic detection of events in signals using features extracted by a particular application of the wavelet transform, the Dynamic Wavelet Fingerprint (DWFP), as well as features selected through physical interpretation of the individual applications. The wavelet feature extraction method is general for any time-domain signal, and the classification results can be improved by features drawn for the particular domain. The success of this technique is demonstrated through four applications: the development of an ultrasonographic periodontal probe, the identification of flaw type in Lamb wave tomographic scans of an aluminum pipe, prediction of roof falls in a limestone mine, and automatic identification of individual Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags regardless of its programmed code. The method has been shown to achieve high accuracy, sometimes as high as 98%.

  9. Terahertz spectroscopic study of benzodiazepine sedative hypnotics (United States)

    Deng, Fusheng; Shen, Jingling; Wang, Xianfeng


    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to the pure active ingredient of three benzodiazepine sedative hypnotics with similar molecular structure. The absorption spectra of them are studied in the range of 0.2~2.6THz. Based on the experiment, the theoretical simulation results of diazepam, nitrazepam and clonazepam are got by the Gaussian03 package of DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* method in single-molecule models. The experimental results show that even if the molecular structure and medicine property of them are similar, the accurate identification of them can still be done with their characteristic absorption spectra. Theoretical simulation results are well consistent with the experimental results. It demonstrates that absorption peaks of them in THz range mainly come from intra-molecular forces and are less affected by the intermolecular interaction and crystal effects.ô

  10. Terahertz applications in cultural heritage: case studies (United States)

    Giovannacci, D.; Martos-Levif, D.; Walker, G. C.; Menu, M.; Detalle, V.


    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging is a non-destructive, non-contact, non-invasive technology emerging as a tool for the analysis of cultural heritage. THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) techniques have the ability to retrieve information from different layers within a stratified sample, that enable the identification of hidden sub-layers in the case of paints and mural paintings. In this paper, we present the THz TDS2 system developed in the European Commission's 7th Framework Program project CHARISMA [grant agreement no. 228330]. Bespoke single processing algorithms; including a deconvolution algorithm can be deployed to increase the resolution and the global performance of the system. The potential and impact of this work is demonstrated through two case studies of mural paintings, where the capability to reveal the stratigraphy of the artworks is demonstrated.

  11. Terahertz spectroscopy applied to food model systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe

    Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult to differ...... to differentiate between these types of water in subsequent quality controls. This thesis describes terahertz time-domain spectroscopy applied on aqueous food model systems, with particular focus on ethanol-water mixtures and confined water pools in inverse micelles.......Water plays a crucial role in the quality of food. Apart from the natural water content of a food product, the state of that water is very important. Water can be found integrated into the biological material or it can be added during production of the product. Currently it is difficult...

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Strong Low-Terahertz Absorption of Thymine (United States)

    Zhang, W.-D.; Bykhovski, A.; Deibel, J. A.; Brown, E. R.


    The absorption coefficient of a nucleobase-thymine-in powder form was measured with terahertz spectroscopy in both frequency- and time-domain experiments. For frequencies below 3 THz, a strong signature was observed at 1.27 THz. Furthermore, molecular-dynamic simulations were conducted to reveal that the 1.27 THz absorption signature is related to a transverse optical phonon mode. The simulations also indicated that bound water molecules are vital to the vibrational mode.

  13. Review of Near-Field Terahertz Measurement Methods and Their Applications : How to Achieve Sub-Wavelength Resolution at THz Frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.


    In the last decades, many research teams working at Terahertz frequencies focused their efforts on surpassing the diffraction limit. Numerous techniques have been investigated, combining methods existing at optic wavelength with THz system such as Time Domain Spectroscopy. The actual development led

  14. On the Analysis Methods for the Time Domain and Frequency Domain Response of a Buried Objects* (United States)

    Poljak, Dragan; Šesnić, Silvestar; Cvetković, Mario


    There has been a continuous interest in the analysis of ground-penetrating radar systems and related applications in civil engineering [1]. Consequently, a deeper insight of scattering phenomena occurring in a lossy half-space, as well as the development of sophisticated numerical methods based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, Finite Element Method (FEM), Boundary Element Method (BEM), Method of Moments (MoM) and various hybrid methods, is required, e.g. [2], [3]. The present paper deals with certain techniques for time and frequency domain analysis, respectively, of buried conducting and dielectric objects. Time domain analysis is related to the assessment of a transient response of a horizontal straight thin wire buried in a lossy half-space using a rigorous antenna theory (AT) approach. The AT approach is based on the space-time integral equation of the Pocklington type (time domain electric field integral equation for thin wires). The influence of the earth-air interface is taken into account via the simplified reflection coefficient arising from the Modified Image Theory (MIT). The obtained results for the transient current induced along the electrode due to the transmitted plane wave excitation are compared to the numerical results calculated via an approximate transmission line (TL) approach and the AT approach based on the space-frequency variant of the Pocklington integro-differential approach, respectively. It is worth noting that the space-frequency Pocklington equation is numerically solved via the Galerkin-Bubnov variant of the Indirect Boundary Element Method (GB-IBEM) and the corresponding transient response is obtained by the aid of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). The results calculated by means of different approaches agree satisfactorily. Frequency domain analysis is related to the assessment of frequency domain response of dielectric sphere using the full wave model based on the set of coupled electric field integral

  15. Time Domain Filtering of Resolved Images of Sgr A∗ (United States)

    Shiokawa, Hotaka; Gammie, Charles F.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.


    The goal of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is to provide spatially resolved images of Sgr A*, the source associated with the Galactic Center black hole. Because Sgr A* varies on timescales that are short compared to an EHT observing campaign, it is interesting to ask whether variability contains information about the structure and dynamics of the accretion flow. In this paper, we introduce “time-domain filtering,” a technique to filter time fluctuating images with specific temporal frequency ranges and to demonstrate the power and usage of the technique by applying it to mock millimeter wavelength images of Sgr A*. The mock image data is generated from the General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulation and the general relativistic ray-tracing method. We show that the variability on each line of sight is tightly correlated with a typical radius of emission. This is because disk emissivity fluctuates on a timescale of the order of the local orbital period. Time-domain filtered images therefore reflect the model dependent emission radius distribution, which is not accessible in time-averaged images. We show that, in principle, filtered data have the power to distinguish between models with different black-hole spins, different disk viewing angles, and different disk orientations in the sky.

  16. Time-Domain Analysis of Scrotal Thermoregulatory Impairment in Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas eIsmail


    Full Text Available Varicocele is a common male disease defined as the pathological dilatation of the pampiniform plexus and scrotal veins with venous blood reflux. Varicocele usually impairs the scrotal thermoregulation via a hemodynamic alteration, thus inducing an increase in cutaneous temperature. The investigation of altered scrotal thermoregulation by means of thermal infrared imaging has been proved to be useful in the study of the functional thermal impairment. In this study, we use the Control System Theory to analyze the time-domain dynamics of the scrotal thermoregulation in response to a mild cold challenge. Four standard time-domain dynamic parameters of a prototype second order control system (Delay Time, Rise Time, closed poles locations, steady state error and the static basal temperatures were directly estimated from thermal recovery curves. Thermal infrared imaging data from 31 healthy controls (HCS and 95 varicocele patients were processed. True-positive predictions, by comparison with standard echo color Doppler findings, higher than 87 % were achieved into the proper classification of the disease stage. The proposed approach could help to understand at which specific level the presence of the disease impacts the scrotal thermoregulation, which is also involved into normal spermatogenesis process.

  17. Time domain passivity controller for 4-channel time-delay bilateral teleoperation. (United States)

    Rebelo, Joao; Schiele, Andre


    This paper presents an extension of the time-domain passivity control approach to a four-channel bilateral controller under the effects of time delays. Time-domain passivity control has been used successfully to stabilize teleoperation systems with position-force and position-position controllers; however, the performance with such control architectures is sub-optimal both with and without time delays. This work extends the network representation of the time-domain passivity controller to the four-channel architecture, which provides perfect transparency to the user without time delay. The proposed architecture is based on modelling the controllers as dependent voltage sources and using only series passivity controllers. The obtained results are shown on a one degree-of-freedom setup and illustrate the stabilization behaviour of the proposed controller when time delay is present in the communication channel.

  18. Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes. (United States)

    Berry, C W; Wang, N; Hashemi, M R; Unlu, M; Jarrahi, M


    Even though the terahertz spectrum is well suited for chemical identification, material characterization, biological sensing and medical imaging, practical development of these applications has been hindered by attributes of existing terahertz optoelectronics. Here we demonstrate that the use of plasmonic contact electrodes can significantly mitigate the low-quantum efficiency performance of photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics. The use of plasmonic contact electrodes offers nanoscale carrier transport path lengths for the majority of photocarriers, increasing the number of collected photocarriers in a subpicosecond timescale and, thus, enhancing the optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency of photoconductive terahertz emitters and the detection sensitivity of photoconductive terahertz detectors. We experimentally demonstrate 50 times higher terahertz radiation powers from a plasmonic photoconductive emitter in comparison with a similar photoconductive emitter with non-plasmonic contact electrodes, as well as 30 times higher terahertz detection sensitivities from a plasmonic photoconductive detector in comparison with a similar photoconductive detector with non-plasmonic contact electrodes.

  19. Numerical time-domain simulation of diffusive ultrasound in concrete. (United States)

    Schubert, Frank; Koehler, Bernd


    Certain aspects of diffusive ultrasound fields in concrete are still unknown and thus, systematic parameter studies using numerical time-domain simulations of the ultrasonic propagation process could lead to further insights into theoretical and experimental questions. In the present paper, the elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used to simulate a diffusive reverberation measurement at a concrete specimen taking aggregates, pores, and viscoelastic damping explicitly into account. The numerical results for dissipation and diffusivity are compared with theoretical models. Moreover, the influence of air-filled pores in the cement matrix is demonstrated.

  20. Terahertz dielectric analysis and spin-phonon coupling in multiferroic GeV4S8 (United States)

    Warren, Matthew T.; Pokharel, G.; Christianson, A. D.; Mandrus, D.; Valdés Aguilar, R.


    We present an investigation of the multiferroic lacunar spinel compound GeV4S8 using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. We find three absorptions which either appear or shift at the antiferromagnetic transition temperature, TN=17 K , as S =1 magnetic moments develop on vanadium tetrahedra. Two of these absorptions are coupled to the magnetic state and one only appears below the Néel temperature, and is interpreted as a magnon. We also observe isosbestic points in the dielectric constant in both the temperature and frequency domains. Further, we perform an analysis on the isosbestic features to reveal an interesting collapse into a single curve as a function of both frequency and temperature, behavior which exists throughout the phase transitions. This analysis suggests the importance of spectral changes in the terahertz range which are linear in frequency and temperature.

  1. Acoustic Finite Element Calculations in the Time Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Skaarup

    The use of the finite element method (FEM) for making predictions for acoustic fields in the time domain is investigated. First, an introduction to FEM for acoustics is given. This includes a description of important present day algorithms and a derivation of FEM. The overall performance...... of these algorithms is then examined with particular emphasis on accuracy and computational costs. It is shown that the most important error is one that takes the form of a falsely predicted dispersion. The dispersion error can be reduced by using smaller elements and time steps, but this is very costly. Attempts...... and consequences of the dispersion error has been obtained. This led to a new method for determining the optimum element and time step size. The method is valuable because the present way of doing this is not theoretically well-founded....

  2. GPU acceleration of time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Nowotny, Thomas; Chen, Yu; Li, David Day-Uei


    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) plays a significant role in biological sciences, chemistry, and medical research. We propose a graphic processing unit (GPU) based FLIM analysis tool suitable for high-speed, flexible time-domain FLIM applications. With a large number of parallel processors, GPUs can significantly speed up lifetime calculations compared to CPU-OpenMP (parallel computing with multiple CPU cores) based analysis. We demonstrate how to implement and optimize FLIM algorithms on GPUs for both iterative and noniterative FLIM analysis algorithms. The implemented algorithms have been tested on both synthesized and experimental FLIM data. The results show that at the same precision, the GPU analysis can be up to 24-fold faster than its CPU-OpenMP counterpart. This means that even for high-precision but time-consuming iterative FLIM algorithms, GPUs enable fast or even real-time analysis.

  3. Terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguiding with periodic metallic cylinders

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ying


    We demonstrated a structure with periodic cylinders arranged bilaterally and a thin dielectric layer covered inside that supports bound modes of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies. This structure can confine the surface plasmon polaritons in the lateral direction, and at the same time reduce the field expansion into space. We examined and explored the characteristics of several different structures using scanning near-field terahertz microscopy. The proposed designs pave a novel way to terahertz waveguiding and may have important applications in the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at terahertz frequencies.

  4. Body waves separation in the time-frequency domain (United States)

    Herrera, R. H.; Tary, J.; Van der Baan, M.


    Arrival times of body waves generated by small magnitude microseismic events are usually very close and their limited bandwidth can cause even partial overlap in the time and frequency domains. The separation of P and S waves is then a challenging task that if solved could bring more insights about nature and location of the generating source. Differences in arrival times and frequency content of P and S waves can be seen by using time-frequency decomposition. The traditional time-frequency representation based on the Fourier Transform is limited by its trade-off between time and frequency resolutions, while other alternatives like the Wavelet Transform are still limited by the Heisenberg box. A new derivation of the Continuous Wavelet Transform, called Synchrosqueezing, stretches these boundaries using a mixture of the reassignment method with instantaneous frequency, giving a better frequency representation with improved time localization. Furthermore, all the individual components of the signal are separated in the time domain. This means that we are able to isolate the waveforms of a complex microseismic trace. Each spectral component can then be matched with a body wave plus its associated coda. Proper parameters have to be selected prior to the computation, such as the central frequency and bandwidth of the mother wavelet. We thus include a signal characterization first to find the best matching mother wavelet. In this paper we use the Synchrosqueezing transform to perform the time frequency representation of short brittle events recorded during microseismic experiments. Decomposition results for these examples show that the Synchrosqueezing transform outperforms the Short-Time Fourier Transform. The different components of each body waves (first arrival, coda, frequency components) can then be identified in the time-frequency plane. For some microseismic events, a first P-wave arrival is followed by another arrival at lower frequency that could be a P

  5. Time-domain diffuse optics: towards next generation devices (United States)

    Contini, Davide; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Arridge, Simon; Martelli, Fabrizio; Tosi, Alberto; Boso, Gianluca; Farina, Andrea; Durduran, Turgut; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Pifferi, Antonio


    Diffuse optics is a powerful tool for clinical applications ranging from oncology to neurology, but also for molecular imaging, and quality assessment of food, wood and pharmaceuticals. We show that ideally time-domain diffuse optics can give higher contrast and a higher penetration depth with respect to standard technology. In order to completely exploit the advantages of a time-domain system a distribution of sources and detectors with fast gating capabilities covering all the sample surface is needed. Here, we present the building block to build up such system. This basic component is made of a miniaturised source-detector pair embedded into the probe based on pulsed Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) as sources and Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) or Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as detectors. The possibility to miniaturized and dramatically increase the number of source detectors pairs open the way to an advancement of diffuse optics in terms of improvement of performances and exploration of new applications. Furthermore, availability of compact devices with reduction in size and cost can boost the application of this technique.

  6. Time-Domain Diversity in Ultra-Wideband MIMO Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Sibille


    Full Text Available The development of ultra-wideband (UWB communications is impeded by the drastic transmitted power limitations imposed by regulation authorities due to the “polluting” character of these radio emissions with respect to existing services. Technical solutions must be researched in order either to limit the level of spectral pollution by UWB devices or to increase their reception sensitivity. In the present work, we consider pulse-based modulations and investigate time-domain multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO diversity as one such possible solution. The basic principles of time-domain diversity in the extreme (low multipath density or intermediate (dense multipath UWB regimes are addressed, which predict the possibility of a MIMO gain equal to the product Nt×Nr of the numbers of transmit/receive antenna elements when the channel is not too severe. This analysis is confirmed by simulations using a parametric empirical stochastic double-directional channel model. They confirm the potential interest of MIMO approaches solutions in order to bring a valuable performance gain in UWB communications.

  7. Time domain NMR evaluation of poly(vinyl alcohol xerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Jorge da Rocha Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA-based chemically cross-linked xerogels, both neat and loaded with nanoparticulate hydrophilic silica (SiO2, were obtained and characterized mainly through time domain NMR experiments (TD-NMR. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD analyses were employed as secondary methods. TD-NMR, through the interpretation of the spin-lattice relaxation constant values and related information, showed both cross-linking and nanoparticle influences on PVA matrix. SiO2 does not interact chemically with the PVA chains, but has effect on its molecular mobility, as investigated via TD-NMR. Apparent energy of activation, spin-lattice time constant and size of spin domains in the sample have almost linear dependence with the degree of cross-linking of the PVA and are affected by the addition of SiO2. These three parameters were derived from a single set of TD-NMR experiments, which demonstrates the versatility of the technique for characterization of inorganic-organic hybrid xerogels, an important class of materials.

  8. Time domain NMR evaluation of poly(vinyl alcohol) xerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Elton Jorge da Rocha; Cavalcante, Maxwell de Paula; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano


    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-based chemically cross-linked xerogels, both neat and loaded with nanoparticulate hydrophilic silica (SiO{sub 2}), were obtained and characterized mainly through time domain NMR experiments (TD-NMR). Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analyses were employed as secondary methods. TD-NMR, through the interpretation of the spin-lattice relaxation constant values and related information, showed both cross-linking and nanoparticle influences on PVA matrix. SiO{sub 2} does not interact chemically with the PVA chains, but has effect on its molecular mobility, as investigated via TD-NMR. Apparent energy of activation, spin-lattice time constant and size of spin domains in the sample have almost linear dependence with the degree of cross-linking of the PVA and are affected by the addition of SiO{sub 2}. These three parameters were derived from a single set of TD-NMR experiments, which demonstrates the versatility of the technique for characterization of inorganic-organic hybrid xerogels, an important class of materials. (author)

  9. Frequency-domain and time-domain solvers of parabolic equation for rotationally symmetric geometries (United States)

    He, Zi; Chen, Ru-Shan


    Both the frequency-domain and the time-domain body of revolution parabolic equations (FD-BoR-PE, TD-BoR-PE) are derived in this paper. By taking advantage of the rotationally symmetrical property, better performance of the PE method can be achieved for the analysis of bodies of revolution (BoRs). In each transverse plane, only the unknowns of a line, which starts from the center and passes through the node on the generatrix, need to be calculated. Then the unknowns for each transverse plane can be obtained by Fourier series summation for each Fourier mode and the calculation can be taken with a marching manner along the paraxial direction of the PE. As a result, the computational resources can be reduced greatly when compared with the traditional CN, alternating direction implicit (ADI) and alternating group explicit (AGE) finite difference schemes. Both the propagating and scattering problems are given to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed methods.

  10. Synchronous machine parameter identification in frequency and time domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasni M.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a frequency and time-domain identification procedure to estimate the linear parameters of a salient-pole synchronous machine at standstill. The objective of this study is to use several input signals to identify the model structure and parameters of a salient-pole synchronous machine from standstill test data. The procedure consists to define, to conduct the standstill tests and also to identify the model structure. The signals used for identification are the different excitation voltages at standstill and the flowing current in different windings. We estimate the parameters of operational impedances, or in other words the reactance and the time constants. The tests were carried out on synchronous machine of 1.5 kVA 380V 1500 rpm.

  11. Real-time continuous-wave terahertz line scanner based on a compact 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector. (United States)

    Han, Sang-Pil; Ko, Hyunsung; Kim, Namje; Lee, Won-Hui; Moon, Kiwon; Lee, Il-Min; Lee, Eui Su; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Wangjoo; Han, Seong-Tae; Choi, Sung-Wook; Park, Kyung Hyun


    We demonstrate real-time continuous-wave terahertz (THz) line-scanned imaging based on a 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with a scan velocity of 25 cm/s, a scan line length of 12 cm, and a pixel size of 0.5 × 0.5 mm². Foreign substances, such as a paper clip with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 mm that is hidden under a cracker, are clearly detected by this THz line-scanning system. The system consists of the SBD array detector, a 200-GHz gyrotron source, a conveyor system, and several optical components such as a high-density polyethylene cylindrical lens, metal cylindrical mirror, and THz wire-grid polarizer. Using the THz polarizer, the signal-to-noise ratio of the SBD array detector improves because the quality of the source beam is enhanced.

  12. Perfect terahertz absorber using fishnet based metafilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul Kalam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smirnova, E I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We present a perfect terahertz (THz) absorber working for a broad-angle of incidence. The two fold symmetry of rectangular fishnet structure allows either complete absorption or mirror like reflection depending on the polarization of incident the THz beam. Metamaterials enable the ability to control the electromagnetic wave in a unique fashion by designing the permittivity or permeability of composite materials with desired values. Although the initial idea of metamaterials was to obtain a negative index medium, however, the evolution of metamaterials (MMs) offers a variety of practically applicable devices for controlling electromagnetic wave such as tunable filters, modulators, phase shifters, compact antenna, absorbers, etc. Terahertz regime, a crucial domain of the electromagnetic wave, is suffering from the scarcity of the efficient devices and might take the advantage of metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz absorber based on a simple fishnet metallic film separated from a ground mirror plane by a dielectric spacer. Such absorbers are in particular important for bolometric terahertz detectors, high sensitivity imaging, and terahertz anechoic chambers. Recently, split-ring-resonators (SRR) have been employed for metamaterial-based absorbers at microwave and THz frequencies. The experimental demonstration reveals that such absorbers have absorptivity close to unity at resonance frequencies. However, the downside of these designs is that they all employ resonators of rather complicated shape with many fine parts and so they are not easy to fabricate and are sensitive to distortions.

  13. Fast time-domain measurements on telecom single photons (United States)

    Allgaier, Markus; Vigh, Gesche; Ansari, Vahid; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine


    Direct measurements on the temporal envelope of quantum light are a challenging task and not many examples are known because most classical pulse characterisation methods do not work on the single-photon level. Knowledge of both spectrum and timing can, however, give insights on properties that cannot be determined by the spectral intensity alone. While temporal measurements on single photons on timescales of tens of picoseconds are possible with superconducting photon detectors, and picosecond measurements have been performed using streak cameras, there are no commercial single-photon sensitive devices with femtosecond resolution available. While time-domain sampling using sum-frequency generation has already been exploited for such a measurement, inefficient conversion has necessitated long integration times to build the temporal profile. We demonstrate a highly efficient waveguided sum-frequency generation process in Lithium Niobate to measure the temporal envelope of single photons with femtosecond resolution with short enough acquisition time to provide a live-view of the measurement. We demonstrate the measurement technique and combine it with spectral measurements using a dispersive-fibre time-of-flight spectrometer to determine upper and lower bounds for the spectral purity of heralded single photons. The approach complements the joint spectral intensity measurements as a measure on the purity can be given without knowledge of the spectral phase.

  14. [Reseach on THz Time Domain Spectrum of Photo-Induced Insulator-Metal Phase Transition of VO₂ Films]. (United States)

    Wang, Chang-lei; Wu, Shuai; Li, Yan-feng; Liu, Bo-wen; Hu, Ming-lie; Chai, Lu; Xing, Qi-rong; Wang, Qing-yue


    Vanadium dioxide (VO₂) film will be phase-transitioned from insulator into metal, accompanied with dramatic change on conductivity, which is named as photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition. Such phase transition of VO₂ film has important application potentials in modulators or other functional devices for terahertz waves. In this paper, the transmission spectrum variations before and after the photo-induced insulator-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide film are investigated, and the phase transition properties in terahertz(THz) region are analyzed. In the experiment, the phase transition of the VO₂ film was induced by a continuous wave (CW) laser source and a femtosecond (fs) laser source, respectively. Obvious changes on the THz waveforms were observed for the both mentioned means of excitation, and the amplitude attenuation, as well as the signal distortion, was intensified with the increase of the impinging optical power. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra of the transmitted THz time-domain signals were analyzed and it was found that the amplitude of the transmitted spectrum decreased synchronously with the increase of the optical power, accompanied with deformation of the spectrum line shape at the same time. The reason was that the macroscopic dielectric properties of the VO₂ film approached gradually to that of a metal as laser power was increased. A parameter, transmission modulation function, was defined in the paper as the amplitude difference between the transmission spectra of the VO₂ film before and after the laser excitation, to describe the dispersivity of the photo-induced phase transition more clearly. From the curve of the transmission modulation function, strong frequency-dependent properties at THz frequencies were found to vary regularly with the incident light power. After furthermore comparison, it was found that, though the insulator-metal phase transition could be trigged by both CW laser source and fs laser

  15. Graphene hyperlens for terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, D.; Novitsky, Andrey


    We propose the structured graphene terahertz hyperlens that allows overcoming natural diffraction limit and resolving subwavelength features. The proposed hyperlens can have applications in terahertz spectroscopy and imaging.......We propose the structured graphene terahertz hyperlens that allows overcoming natural diffraction limit and resolving subwavelength features. The proposed hyperlens can have applications in terahertz spectroscopy and imaging....

  16. InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector for a real-time compact terahertz line scanner. (United States)

    Han, Sang-Pil; Ko, Hyunsung; Park, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Namje; Yoon, Young-Jong; Shin, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Dong Hun; Park, Kyung Hyun


    We present a terahertz (THz) broadband antenna-integrated 1 × 20 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with an average responsivity of 98.5 V/W at a frequency of 250 GHz, which is measured without attaching external amplifiers and Si lenses, and an average noise equivalent power (NEP) of 106.6 pW/√Hz. The 3-dB bandwidth of the SBD detector is also investigated at approximately 180 GHz. For implementing an array-type SBD detector by a simple fabrication process to achieve a high yield, a structure comprising an SiN(x) layer instead of an air bridge between the anode and the cathode is designed. THz line beam imaging using a Gunn diode emitter with a center frequency of 250 GHz and a 1 × 20 SBD array detector is successfully demonstrated.

  17. Parallel finite-difference time-domain method

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua


    The finite-difference time-domain (FTDT) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. This book raises the FDTD method to the next level by empowering it with the vast capabilities of parallel computing. It shows engineers how to exploit the natural parallel properties of FDTD to improve the existing FDTD method and to efficiently solve more complex and large problem sets. Professionals learn how to apply open source software to develop parallel software and hardware to run FDTD in parallel for their projects. The book features hands-on examples that illustrate the power of parallel FDTD and presents practical strategies for carrying out parallel FDTD. This detailed resource provides instructions on downloading, installing, and setting up the required open source software on either Windows or Linux systems, and includes a handy tutorial on parallel programming.

  18. Time-domain Hydroelasticity Theory of Ships Responding to Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui


    free surface flow. The general interface boundary condition is used in the mathematical formulation of the fluid motion around the flexible structure. The general time-domain theory is simplified to a slender-body theory for the analysis of wave-induced global responses of monohull ships. The structure...... is represented by a non-uniform beam, while the generalized hydrodynamic coefficients can be obtained from two-dimensional potential flow theory. The linear slender body theory is generalized to treat the non-linear loading effects of rigid motion and structural response of ships travelling in rough seas....... The non-linear hydrostatic restoring force and hydrodynamic momentum action are considered. A numerical solution is presented for the slender body theory. Numerical examples are given for two ship cases with different geometry features, a warship hull and the S175 containership with two different bow...

  19. Detecting Rare Events in the Time-Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A; Garg, A


    One of the biggest challenges in current and future time-domain surveys is to extract the objects of interest from the immense data stream. There are two aspects to achieving this goal: detecting variable sources and classifying them. Difference imaging provides an elegant technique for identifying new transients or changes in source brightness. Much progress has been made in recent years toward refining the process. We discuss a selection of pitfalls that can afflict an automated difference imagine pipeline and describe some solutions. After identifying true astrophysical variables, we are faced with the challenge of classifying them. For rare events, such as supernovae and microlensing, this challenge is magnified because we must balance having selection criteria that select for the largest number of objects of interest against a high contamination rate. We discuss considerations and techniques for developing classification schemes.

  20. Iterative Refinement Methods for Time-Domain Equalizer Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Brian L


    Full Text Available Commonly used time domain equalizer (TEQ design methods have been recently unified as an optimization problem involving an objective function in the form of a Rayleigh quotient. The direct generalized eigenvalue solution relies on matrix decompositions. To reduce implementation complexity, we propose an iterative refinement approach in which the TEQ length starts at two taps and increases by one tap at each iteration. Each iteration involves matrix-vector multiplications and vector additions with matrices and two-element vectors. At each iteration, the optimization of the objective function either improves or the approach terminates. The iterative refinement approach provides a range of communication performance versus implementation complexity tradeoffs for any TEQ method that fits the Rayleigh quotient framework. We apply the proposed approach to three such TEQ design methods: maximum shortening signal-to-noise ratio, minimum intersymbol interference, and minimum delay spread.

  1. Assessment of perceptual diffuseness in the time domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Julian Martinez-Villalba; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas


    This study proposes a numerical and experimental framework for evaluating the perceptual aspect of the diffuse field condition with intended final use in music auditoria. Multiple Impulse Responses are simulated based on the time domain Poisson process with increasing reflection density. Different...... diffuseness conditions are realized by altering the directions of arrival of the reflected waves. This model also considers room characteristics such as the volume, absorption of surfaces, air absorption and geometrical divergence. Listening tests are performed in an anechoic 64-loudspeaker based virtual...... acoustic environment to examine how sensitive the human auditory system is to changes in the diffuseness condition, which factors are most crucial and which conditions are most favourable in music halls. Two types of stimuli, a music signal and an impulse response, are tested under the same diffuseness...

  2. Time Domain Simulations of Arm Locking in LISA

    CERN Document Server

    Thorpe, James Ira; Livas, Jeffrey


    Arm locking is a technique that has been proposed for reducing laser frequency fluctuations in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a gravitational-wave observatory sensitive in the milliHertz frequency band. Arm locking takes advantage of the geometric stability of the triangular constellation of three spacecraft that comprise LISA to provide a frequency reference with a stability in the LISA measurement band that exceeds that available from a standard reference such as an optical cavity or molecular absorption line. We have implemented a time-domain simulation of arm locking including the expected limiting noise sources (shot noise, clock noise, spacecraft jitter noise, and residual laser frequency noise). The effect of imperfect a priori knowledge of the LISA heterodyne frequencies and the associated 'pulling' of an arm locked laser is included. We find that our implementation meets requirements both on the noise and dynamic range of the laser frequency.

  3. Pulsed terahertz inspection of non-conducting sandwich composites (United States)

    Lopato, P.; Chady, T.


    Pulsed terahertz inspection enables accurate, contactless and safe for operating personnel evaluation of non-conducting structures. In this paper we present results of pulsed terahertz testing of various sandwich composite structures incorporating glass and basalt fibers based skin materials and spherecore and balsa wood based core materials. Various Time-Frequency Distributions (TFD) are utilized in order to obtain most valuable defects response.

  4. Towards terahertz microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.


    Terahertz (=1012 Hz) radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation that is at this moment used rarely for imaging purposes. However, there are indeed reasons to assume that imaging with terahertz radiation could be very useful. First, many materials, such as paper, plastics and clothing are

  5. Terahertz polarization imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Van der Marel, W.A.M.; Planken, P.C.M.


    We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results:

  6. The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap (United States)

    Dhillon, S. S.; Vitiello, M. S.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Booske, John; Paoloni, Claudio; Gensch, M.; Weightman, P.; Williams, G. P.; Castro-Camus, E.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Simoens, F.; Escorcia-Carranza, I.; Grant, J.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Konishi, Kuniaki; Koch, Martin; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.; Cocker, Tyler L.; Huber, Rupert; Markelz, A. G.; Taylor, Z. D.; Wallace, Vincent P.; Axel Zeitler, J.; Sibik, Juraj; Korter, Timothy M.; Ellison, B.; Rea, S.; Goldsmith, P.; Cooper, Ken B.; Appleby, Roger; Pardo, D.; Huggard, P. G.; Krozer, V.; Shams, Haymen; Fice, Martyn; Renaud, Cyril; Seeds, Alwyn; Stöhr, Andreas; Naftaly, Mira; Ridler, Nick; Clarke, Roland; Cunningham, John E.; Johnston, Michael B.


    Science and technologies based on terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz-30 THz) have developed rapidly over the last 30 years. For most of the 20th Century, terahertz radiation, then referred to as sub-millimeter wave or far-infrared radiation, was mainly utilized by astronomers and some spectroscopists. Following the development of laser based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 1980s and 1990s the field of THz science and technology expanded rapidly, to the extent that it now touches many areas from fundamental science to ‘real world’ applications. For example THz radiation is being used to optimize materials for new solar cells, and may also be a key technology for the next generation of airport security scanners. While the field was emerging it was possible to keep track of all new developments, however now the field has grown so much that it is increasingly difficult to follow the diverse range of new discoveries and applications that are appearing. At this point in time, when the field of THz science and technology is moving from an emerging to a more established and interdisciplinary field, it is apt to present a roadmap to help identify the breadth and future directions of the field. The aim of this roadmap is to present a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provide an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds. To be able to achieve this aim, we have invited a group of international experts to write 18 sections that cover most of the key areas of THz science and technology. We hope that The 2017 Roadmap on THz science and technology will prove to be a useful resource by providing a wide ranging introduction to the capabilities of THz radiation for those outside or just entering the field as well as providing perspective and breadth for those who are well established. We also feel that this review should serve as a useful guide for government and funding agencies.

  7. Art Painting Diagnostic Before Restoration with Terahertz and Millimeter Waves (United States)

    Guillet, Jean-Paul; Roux, M.; Wang, K.; Ma, X.; Fauquet, F.; Balacey, H.; Recur, B.; Darracq, F.; Mounaix, P.


    Art painting diagnostic is commonly performed using electromagnetic waves at wavelengths from terahertz to X-ray. These former techniques are essential in conservation and art history research, but they could be also very useful for restoring artwork. While most studies use time domain imaging technique, in this study, a painting has been investigated using both time domain imaging (TDI) and frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system in the millimeter frequency range. By applying these systems to a painting of the eighteenth century, we detect and analyze the structure of some defects. This study underlines the differences between FMCW and TDI. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each technique on a real artwork.

  8. Application of Time Domain Reflectometers in Urban Settings ... (United States)

    Time domain reflectometers (TDRs) are sensors that measure the volumetric water content of soils and porous media. The sensors consist of stainless steel rods connected to a circuit board in an epoxy housing. An electromagnetic pulse is propagated along the rods. The time, or period, required for the signal to travel down the rods and back varies with the volumetric water content of the surrounding media and temperature. A calibration curve is needed for the specific media. TDRs were developed mostly for agricultural applications; however, the technology has also been applied to forestry and ecological research. This study demonstrates the use of TDRs for quantifying drainage properties in low impact development (LID) stormwater controls, specifically permeable pavement and rain garden systems. TDRs were successfully used to monitor the responses of urban fill, engineered bioretention media, and the aggregate storage layer under permeable pavement to multiple rain events of varying depth, intensity, and duration. The hydrologic performance of permeable pavement and rain garden systems has previously been quantified for underdrain systems, but there have been few studies of systems that drain to the underlying soils. We know of no published studies outlining the use of TDR technology to document drainage properties in media other than soil. In this study TDRs were installed at multiple locations and depths in underlying urban fill soils, engineered bior

  9. Non-deteriorating time domain numerical algorithms for Maxwell's electrodynamics (United States)

    Petropavlovsky, S.; Tsynkov, S.


    The Huygens' principle and lacunae can help construct efficient far-field closures for the numerical simulation of unsteady waves propagating over unbounded regions. Those closures can be either standalone or combined with other techniques for the treatment of artificial outer boundaries. A standalone lacunae-based closure can be thought of as a special artificial boundary condition (ABC) that is provably free from any error associated with the domain truncation. If combined with a different type of ABC or a perfectly matched layer (PML), a lacunae-based approach can help remove any long-time deterioration (e.g., instability) that arises at the outer boundary regardless of why it occurs in the first place. A specific difficulty associated with Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism is that in general their solutions do not have classical lacunae and rather have quasi-lacunae. Unlike in the classical case, the field inside the quasi-lacunae is not zero; instead, there is an electrostatic solution driven by the electric charges that accumulate over time. In our previous work [23], we have shown that quasi-lacunae can also be used for building the far-field closures. However, for achieving a provably non-deteriorating performance over arbitrarily long time intervals, the accumulated charges need to be known ahead of time. The main contribution of the current paper is that we remove this limitation and modify the algorithm in such a way that one can rather avoid the accumulation of charge all together. Accordingly, the field inside the quasi-lacunae becomes equal to zero, which facilitates obtaining the temporally uniform error estimates as in the case of classical lacunae. The performance of the modified algorithm is corroborated by a series of numerical simulations. The range of problems that the new method can address includes important combined formulations, for which the interior subproblem may be non-Huygens', and only the exterior subproblem, i.e., the far

  10. A cost-effective component modes analysis for Shuttle payloads using a combination of frequency domain and time domain approaches (United States)

    Trubert, M.; Peretti, L.


    A combination of the time and frequency domains which employs the latter only where the former is inefficient or uncertain is used in Space Shuttle payloads' component mode analyses. Attention is given to the time histories at the launch vehicle/spacecraft interface. The frequency domain allows interface acceleration to be determined without recourse to a new, merged system eigenvalue solution and subsequent 'system modal' responses. The approach has been employed in Galileo spacecraft loads analyses.

  11. A 128 Multiplexing Factor Time-Domain SQUID Multiplexer (United States)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.; Decourcelle, T.; Perbost, C.; Chapron, C.; Rambaud, D.; Maestre, S.; Marty, W.; Montier, L.


    A cryogenic 128:1 Time-Domain Multiplexer (TDM) has been developed for the readout of kilo-pixel Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays dedicated to the Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology (QUBIC) instrument which aims to measure the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are usually used to read out TESs. Moreover, SQUIDs are used to build TDM by biasing sequentially the SQUIDs connected together—one for each TES. In addition to this common technique which allows a typical 32 multiplexing factor, a cryogenic integrated circuit provides a 4:1 second multiplexing stage. This cryogenic integrated circuit is one of the original part of our TDM achieving an unprecedented 128 multiplexing factor. We present these two dimension TDM stages: topology of the SQUID multiplexer, operation of the cryogenic integrated circuit, and integration of the full system to read out a TES array dedicated to the QUBIC instrument. Flux-locked loop operation in multiplexed mode is also discussed.

  12. Worm domains and Fefferman space-time singularities (United States)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Peloso, Marco M.


    Let W be a smoothly bounded worm domain in C2 and let A = Null(Lθ) be the set of Levi-flat points on the boundary ∂W of W. We study the relationship between pseudohermitian geometry of the strictly pseudoconvex locus M = ∂W ∖ A and the theory of space-time singularities associated to the Fefferman metric Fθ on the total space of the canonical circle bundle S1 → C(M) ⟶ π M. Given any point (0 ,w0) ∈ A, we show that every lift Γ(φ) ∈ C(M) , 0 ≤ φ - log|w0 | 2 frames O(1 , 1) → O(Σ) → Σ and adapted Lorentzian frames O(1 , 1) × O(2) → O(C(M) , Σ) → Σ, endowed with Schmidt metrics, descending to a map of bundle completions which maps the b-boundary of Σ into the adapted bundle boundary of C(M) , i.e. j(Σ ˙) ⊂∂adt C(M) .

  13. Testing frequency-domain causality in multivariate time series. (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Porta, Alberto; Nollo, Giandomenico


    We introduce a new hypothesis-testing framework, based on surrogate data generation, to assess in the frequency domain, the concept of causality among multivariate (MV) time series. The approach extends the traditional Fourier transform (FT) method for generating surrogate data in a MV process and adapts it to the specific issue of causality. It generates causal FT (CFT) surrogates with FT modulus taken from the original series, and FT phase taken from a set of series with causal interactions set to zero over the direction of interest and preserved over all other directions. Two different zero-setting procedures, acting on the parameters of a MV autoregressive (MVAR) model fitted on the original series, were used to test the null hypotheses of absence of direct causal influence (CFTd surrogates) and of full (direct and indirect) causal influence (CFTf surrogates), respectively. CFTf and CFTd surrogates were utilized in combination with the directed coherence (DC) and the partial DC (PDC) spectral causality estimators, respectively. Simulations reproducing different causality patterns in linear MVAR processes demonstrated the better accuracy of CFTf and CFTd surrogates with respect to traditional FT surrogates. Application on real MV biological data measured from healthy humans, i.e., heart period, arterial pressure, and respiration variability, as well as multichannel EEG signals, showed that CFT surrogates disclose causal patterns in accordance with expected cardiorespiratory and neurophysiological mechanisms.

  14. Landfill cover performance monitoring using time domain reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neher, E.R.; Cotten, G.B. [Parsons Infrastructure & Technology Group, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McElroy, D. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) systems were installed to monitor soil moisture in two newly constructed landfill covers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Each TDR system includes four vertical arrays with each array consisting of four TDR probes located at depths of 15, 30, 45, and 60 cm. The deepest probes at 60 cm were installed beneath a compacted soil layer to analyze infiltration through the compacted layer. Based on the TDR data, infiltration through the two covers between March and October, 1997 ranged from less than measurable to 1.5 cm. However, due to a prohibition on penetrating the buried waste and resulting limits on probe placement depths, deeper percolation was not evaluated. Some of the advantages found in the application of TDR for infiltration monitoring at this site are the relative low cost and rugged nature of the equipment. Also, of particular importance, the ability to collect frequent moisture measurements allows the capture and evaluation of soil moisture changes resulting from episodic precipitation events. Disadvantages include the inability to install the probes into the waste, difficulties in interpretation of infiltration during freeze/thaw periods, and some excessive noise in the data.

  15. Optical time-domain analog pattern correlator for high-speed real-time image recognition. (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyup; Goda, Keisuke; Fard, Ali; Jalali, Bahram


    The speed of image processing is limited by image acquisition circuitry. While optical pattern recognition techniques can reduce the computational burden on digital image processing, their image correlation rates are typically low due to the use of spatial optical elements. Here we report a method that overcomes this limitation and enables fast real-time analog image recognition at a record correlation rate of 36.7 MHz--1000 times higher rates than conventional methods. This technique seamlessly performs image acquisition, correlation, and signal integration all optically in the time domain before analog-to-digital conversion by virtue of optical space-to-time mapping.

  16. Statistical Mechanics of Linear and Nonlinear Time-Domain Ensemble Learning


    Miyoshi, Seiji; Okada, Masato


    Conventional ensemble learning combines students in the space domain. In this paper, however, we combine students in the time domain and call it time-domain ensemble learning. We analyze, compare, and discuss the generalization performances regarding time-domain ensemble learning of both a linear model and a nonlinear model. Analyzing in the framework of online learning using a statistical mechanical method, we show the qualitatively different behaviors between the two models. In a linear mod...

  17. Real-time terahertz wave imaging by nonlinear optical frequency up-conversion in a 4-dimethylamino-N'-methyl-4'-stilbazolium tosylate crystal (United States)

    Fan, Shuzhen; Qi, Feng; Notake, Takashi; Nawata, Kouji; Matsukawa, Takeshi; Takida, Yuma; Minamide, Hiroaki


    Real-time terahertz (THz) wave imaging has wide applications in areas such as security, industry, biology, medicine, pharmacy, and arts. In this letter, we report on real-time room-temperature THz imaging by nonlinear optical frequency up-conversion in organic 4-dimethylamino-N'-methyl-4'-stilbazolium tosylate crystal. The active projection-imaging system consisted of (1) THz wave generation, (2) THz-near-infrared hybrid optics, (3) THz wave up-conversion, and (4) an InGaAs camera working at 60 frames per second. The pumping laser system consisted of two optical parametric oscillators pumped by a nano-second frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. THz-wave images of handmade samples at 19.3 THz were taken, and videos of a sample moving and a ruler stuck with a black polyethylene film moving were supplied online to show real-time ability. Thanks to the high speed and high responsivity of this technology, real-time THz imaging with a higher signal-to-noise ratio than a commercially available THz micro-bolometer camera was proven to be feasible. By changing the phase-matching condition, i.e., by changing the wavelength of the pumping laser, we suggest THz imaging with a narrow THz frequency band of interest in a wide range from approximately 2 to 30 THz is possible.

  18. Cross-correlation least-squares reverse time migration in the pseudo-time domain (United States)

    Li, Qingyang; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun


    The least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) method with higher image resolution and amplitude is becoming increasingly popular. However, the LSRTM is not widely used in field land data processing because of its sensitivity to the initial migration velocity model, large computational cost and mismatch of amplitudes between the synthetic and observed data. To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional LSRTM, we propose a cross-correlation least-squares reverse time migration algorithm in pseudo-time domain (PTCLSRTM). Our algorithm not only reduces the depth/velocity ambiguities, but also reduces the effect of velocity error on the imaging results. It relieves the accuracy requirements on the migration velocity model of least-squares migration (LSM). The pseudo-time domain algorithm eliminates the irregular wavelength sampling in the vertical direction, thus it can reduce the vertical grid points and memory requirements used during computation, which makes our method more computationally efficient than the standard implementation. Besides, for field data applications, matching the recorded amplitudes is a very difficult task because of the viscoelastic nature of the Earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of the source wavelet. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of LSM, we extend the normalized cross-correlation objective function to the pseudo-time domain. Our method is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Numerical tests on synthetic and land field data confirm the effectiveness of our method and its adaptability for complex models.

  19. Strong emission of terahertz radiation from nanostructured Ge surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul; Maeng, Inhee; Kee, Chul-Sik, E-mail: [Integrated Optics Laboratory, Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su, E-mail: [Department of Electronics and Radio Engineering, and Institute for Wareable Convergence Electronics, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Heon; Lee, Jong Seok [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)


    Indirect band gap semiconductors are not efficient emitters of terahertz radiation. Here, we report strong emission of terahertz radiation from germanium wafers with nanostructured surfaces. The amplitude of THz radiation from an array of nano-bullets (nano-cones) is more than five (three) times larger than that from a bare-Ge wafer. The power of the terahertz radiation from a Ge wafer with an array of nano-bullets is comparable to that from n-GaAs wafers, which have been widely used as a terahertz source. We find that the THz radiation from Ge wafers with the nano-bullets is even more powerful than that from n-GaAs for frequencies below 0.6 THz. Our results suggest that introducing properly designed nanostructures on indirect band gap semiconductor wafers is a simple and cheap method to improve the terahertz emission efficiency of the wafers significantly.

  20. Carrier Cooling in Graphene Measured by THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (United States)

    Strait, Jared; Wang, Haining; Shivaraman, Shriram; Shields, Virgil; Ruiz-Vargas, Carlos; Park, Jiwoong; Spencer, Michael; Rana, Farhan


    We present results on the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photoexcited electrons and holes in graphene using optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy. Measurements done at different temperatures show that the measured differential transmission as a function of the probe delay decays on time scales that become very long at low temperatures with decay times exceeding ~ 150 ps at temperatures lower than ~ 50 K. We interpret these transients as carrier cooling due to a combination of electron-optical phonon and electron-acoustic phonon scattering. When the carrier temperature goes below ~ 250 K, optical-phonon scattering ceases to effectively cool the carriers given the large optical phonon energies in graphene. Since acoustic phonon scattering is not efficient in removing the heat from the carriers, the carrier distribution cools very slowly. Our data is in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  1. Frequency-domain criterion for the chaos synchronization of time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    domain criterion for ... Wu1 2 Yun Chen1. College of Electronic Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033, People's Republic of China; Guangzhou Naval Marine Academy, Guangzhou 510430, People's Republic of China ...

  2. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Dilute Gases Using Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 O8 +δ Intrinsic Josephson-Junction Stacks (United States)

    Sun, Hancong; Yang, Zhibao; Kinev, Nickolay V.; Kiselev, Oleg S.; Lv, Yangyang; Huang, Ya; Hao, Luyao; Zhou, Xianjing; Ji, Min; Tu, Xuecou; Zhang, Caihong; Li, Jun; Rudau, Fabian; Wieland, Raphael; Hampp, Johannes S.; Kizilaslan, Olcay; Koelle, Dieter; Jin, Biaobing; Chen, Jian; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koshelets, Valery P.; Wang, Huabing; Wu, Peiheng


    We report on spectrometric gas detection using terahertz waves radiated from Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 O8 +δ (BSCCO) intrinsic Josephson-junction stacks. The emission frequency is varied by changing the bias current through and thus the voltage across the emitter. For the terahertz detection, both bolometric and heterodyne detection methods are employed. Clear absorption dips of water and ammonia vapor on the terahertz spectrum are obtained with both detection methods. With the bolometric scheme, we achieve a frequency resolution of about 1 GHz, which is on the order of the frequency resolution of systems employing terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. With the more stable heterodyne detection scheme, the minimum detectable gas pressure is around 0.001 mbar for H2O and about 0.07 mbar for NH3 . The smallest observable absorption linewidths are in the range of 4 to 5 MHz. Our results suggest that the frequency-tunable BSCCO emitters can be convenient sources for potential terahertz applications in spectroscopy for frequencies between roughly 0.4 and 2 THz.

  3. Nanoscale Laser Terahertz Emission Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pernille; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.


    Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight into the phys......Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight...... into the physics of charge transport, built-in fields, grain boundaries or surface states. We describe a new implementation of LTEM with a spatial resolution in the nanoscale regime based on a scattering-type near-field tip-based approach. We observe a spectral reshaping of the signal compared to conventional LTEM......-size-limited spatial resolution of ∼20 nm by imaging a gold nanorod using terahertz emission from the underlying substrate. This work enables for the first time the possibility of performing LTEM measurements on individual nanostructures....

  4. Magneto-optical properties of InSb for terahertz applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Chochol


    Full Text Available Magneto-optical permittivity tensor spectra of undoped InSb, n-doped and p-doped InSb crystals were determined using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS and the Fourier transform far-infrared spectroscopy (far-FTIR. A Huge polar magneto-optical (MO Kerr-effect (up to 20 degrees in rotation and a simultaneous plasmonic behavior observed at low magnetic field (0.4 T and room temperature are promising for terahertz nonreciprocal applications. We demonstrate the possibility of adjusting the the spectral rage with huge MO by increase in n-doping of InSb. Spectral response is modeled using generalized magneto-optical Drude-Lorentz theory, giving us precise values of free carrier mobility, density and effective mass consistent with electric Hall effect measurement.

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Study on the Permittivity of CdTe in the Terahertz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wang


    Full Text Available The phonon dispersion spectrum, eigenvector, and lattice vibration frequency of cadmium telluride with a zinc blende structure have been investigated using the density functional theory, and the permittivity of cadmium telluride crystal is numerically calculated. The permittivity of the crystal is measured using the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical calculations on the modified local density approximation, the general gradient approximation, and the modified general gradient approximation. Finally, the differences among the three approximate exchange correlation potentials indicate that in the terahertz region, the permittivity of cadmium telluride is dominantly contributed by the coupling between electron and phonon; however, the phonon frequencies of transverse wave and longitudinal wave were sensitive to electron density distribution.

  6. Terahertz Spectra of Ninhydrin and Indane-1,2,3-Trione (United States)

    Zou, Tao; Li, Shaoping; Pan, Tingting; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Zheng; Li, Xindi; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhao, Hongwei


    Distinctive terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of ninhydrin and indane-1,2,3-trione ranging from 0.5 to 4.5 THz were observed firstly in our experiment by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The dehydration process of ninhydrin was also monitored online. The experimental results indicate that THz spectroscopy is highly sensitive to the crystal structure, weak intermolecular interactions, and the environmental change. Multitechniques including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were also carried out to further investigate ninhydrin and indane-1,2,3-trione. And the results support the reliability of THz spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the samples' crystalline structures were performed for better understanding the THz characteristic spectra. The calculations agree with the experimental observation, and the corresponding vibrational modes of ninhydrin and indane-1,2,3-trione are assigned.

  7. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology (United States)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; von Freymann, Georg; Urbansky, Ralph; Beigang, René


    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  8. A micromachined freestanding terahertz absorber with an array of metallic patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Torun


    Full Text Available An array of square metallic patches on a thin suspended dielectric layer is introduced as an effective terahertz absorber. The suspended structure is placed on a metalized substrate and the device exhibits metamaterial behavior at specific frequencies determined by the size of the patches. It is feasible to place patches with different sizes in an array formation for a broadband absorber. In array configuration, individual elements induce distinct resonances yielding narrow band absorption regions. Design of the absorber is described using electromagnetic simulations. The absorber structure was fabricated on a silicon wafer using standard microfabrication techniques. The characteristics of the absorber were measured using a terahertz time domain spectroscope. The measured data match well the simulations indicating strong absorption peaks in a band of 0.5-2 THz.

  9. Metamaterials for terahertz polarimetric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smirnova, Evgenya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We present experimental and numerical investigations of planar terahertz metamaterial structures designed to interact with the state of polarization. The dependence of metamaterial resonances on polarization results in unique amplitude and phase characteristics of the terahertz transmission, providing the basis for polarimetric terahertz devices. We highlight some potential applications for polarimetric devices and present simulations of a terahertz quarter-wave plate and a polarizing terahertz beam splitter. Although this work was performed at terahertz frequencies, it may find applications in other frequency ranges as well.

  10. Time-Domain Studies as a Probe of Stellar Evolution (United States)

    Miller, Adam Andrew

    This dissertation focuses on the use of time-domain techniques to discover and characterize these rare astrophysical gems, while also addressing some gaps in our understanding of the earliest and latest stages of stellar evolution. The observational studies presented herein can be grouped into three parts: (i) the study of stellar death (supernovae); (ii) the study of stellar birth; and (iii) the use of modern machine-learning algorithms to discover and classify variable sources. I present observations of supernova (SN) 2006gy, the most luminous SN ever at the time of discovery, and the even-more luminous SN 2008es. Together, these two supernovae (SNe) demonstrate that core-collapse SNe can be significantly more luminous than thermonuclear type Ia SNe, and that there are multiple channels for producing these brilliant core-collapse explosions. For SN 2006gy I show that the progenitor star experienced violent, eruptive mass loss on multiple occasions during the centuries prior to explosion, a scenario that was completely unexpected within the cannon of massive-star evolution theory. I also present observations of SN 2008iy, one of the most unusual SNe ever discovered. Typical SNe take ≲3 weeks to reach peak luminosity; SN 2008iy exhibited a slow and steady rise for ˜400 days before reaching maximum brightness. The best explanation for such behavior is that the progenitor of SN 2008iy experienced an episodic phase of mass loss ˜100 yr prior to explosion. The three SNe detailed in this dissertation have altered our understanding of massive-star mass loss, namely, these SNe provide distinct evidence that post-main sequence mass loss, for at least some massive stars, occurs in sporatic fits, rather than being steady. They also demonstrate that core collapse is not restricted to the red supergiant and Wolf-Rayet stages of stellar evolution as theory predicted. Instead, some massive stars explode while in a luminous blue variable-like state. I also present

  11. Study of stratified dielectric slab medium structures using pseudo-spectral time domain (PSTD) algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Lu, Y.; Chen, Y.


    A planar stratified dielectric slab medium, which is an interesting problem in optics and geophysics, is studied using a pseudo-spectral time-domain (PSTD) algorithm. Time domain electric fields and frequency domain propagation characteristics of both single and periodic dielectric slab...

  12. Opportunities and challenges for time domain astronomy with LSST (United States)

    Ivezic, Zeljko


    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will enable faint optical time-domain astronomy by carrying out an imaging survey covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. Of the order thousand 9.6 sq. deg. images (3.2 Gigapix) will be obtained per night using pairs of 15-second back-to-back exposures, with typical 5-sigma depth for point sources of 24.5 (AB). With close to 1000 observations of a 18,000 sq. deg. region in ugrizy bands over a 10-year period, these data will enable a deep stack across half the sky reaching five magnitudes deeper than the SDSS survey ( 27.5, 5 sigma, point source), and with twice as good seeing (0.7 arcsec median seeing in the r band). The measured and archived properties of newly discovered and known astrometric and photometric transients will be publicly reported within 60 sec after closing the shutter. Automated classification of the expected several million alerts per night, and selection of transient events requiring immediate follow-up, is an outstanding problem for the community. These data will represent a treasure trove for follow-up programs using other ground and space-based telescopes, such as fast-response fast-cadence photometric observations and spectroscopy, as well as for facilities operating at non-optical wavelengths and for gravitational wave programs. I will describe the relevant data products to be delivered by LSST and will summarize challenges that will need to be addressed by the community at large.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William Nielsen [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kelly, Brandon [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Badenes, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bañados, Eduardo [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Borissova, Jura [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030, and Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Burgett, William S. [GMTO Corp, Suite 300, 251 S. Lake Ave, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth, E-mail: [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others


    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg{sup 2} selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  14. A Time-Domain Method to Generate Artificial Time History from a Given Reference Response Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangsig Shin


    Full Text Available Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance.

  15. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç


    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  16. Real-time observation of epitaxial graphene domain reorientation (United States)

    Rogge, Paul C.; Thürmer, Konrad; Foster, Michael E.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Dubon, Oscar D.; Bartelt, Norman C.


    Graphene films grown by vapour deposition tend to be polycrystalline due to the nucleation and growth of islands with different in-plane orientations. Here, using low-energy electron microscopy, we find that micron-sized graphene islands on Ir(111) rotate to a preferred orientation during thermal annealing. We observe three alignment mechanisms: the simultaneous growth of aligned domains and dissolution of rotated domains, that is, `ripening' domain boundary motion within islands; and continuous lattice rotation of entire domains. By measuring the relative growth velocity of domains during ripening, we estimate that the driving force for alignment is on the order of 0.1 meV per C atom and increases with rotation angle. A simple model of the orientation-dependent energy associated with the moiré corrugation of the graphene sheet due to local variations in the graphene-substrate interaction reproduces the results. This work suggests new strategies for improving the van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials.

  17. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.


    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  18. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss the diel...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  19. Nanoscale Terahertz Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    By utilizing plasmonic coupling to an AFM probe, we demonstrate Laser Terahertz Emission Nanoscopy (LTEN) with sub-20 nm resolution. We demonstrate the resolution by imaging a single gold nanorod on an InAs substrate.......By utilizing plasmonic coupling to an AFM probe, we demonstrate Laser Terahertz Emission Nanoscopy (LTEN) with sub-20 nm resolution. We demonstrate the resolution by imaging a single gold nanorod on an InAs substrate....

  20. Studies in astronomical time series analysis. I - Modeling random processes in the time domain (United States)

    Scargle, J. D.


    Several random process models in the time domain are defined and discussed. Attention is given to the moving average model, the autoregressive model, and relationships between and combinations of these models. Consideration is then given to methods for investigating pulse structure, procedures of model construction, computational methods, and numerical experiments. A FORTRAN algorithm of time series analysis has been developed which is relatively stable numerically. Results of test cases are given to study the effect of adding noise and of different distributions for the pulse amplitudes. A preliminary analysis of the light curve of the quasar 3C 272 is considered as an example.

  1. Time-domain simulations of sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere over an impedance ground


    Cotté, Benjamin; Blanc-Benon, Philippe


    International audience; Finite-difference time-domain simulations of broadband sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere are presented. A method recently proposed to obtain an impedance time-domain boundary condition is implemented in a linearized Euler equations solver, which enables to study long range sound propagation over an impedance ground. Some features of the pressure pulse evolution with time are analyzed in both upward-and downward-refracting conditions, and the time-domain simu...

  2. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R


    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model

  3. Polarization insensitive, broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber. (United States)

    Grant, James; Ma, Yong; Saha, Shimul; Khalid, Ata; Cumming, David R S


    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a polarization insensitive broadband resonant terahertz metamaterial absorber. By stacking metal-insulator layers with differing structural dimensions, three closely positioned resonant peaks are merged into one broadband absorption spectrum. Greater than 60% absorption is obtained across a frequency range of 1.86 THz where the central resonance frequency is 5 THz. The FWHM of the device is 48%, which is two and half times greater than the FWHM of a single layer structure. Such metamaterials are promising candidates as absorbing elements for bolometric terahertz imaging.

  4. Time and Frequency Domain Optimization with Shift, Convolution and Smoothness in Factor Analysis Type Decompositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai; Mørup, Morten


    We propose the Time Frequency Gradient Method (TFGM) which forms a framework for optimization of models that are constrained in the time domain while having efficient representations in the frequency domain. Since the constraints in the time domain in general are not transparent in a frequency......-negative Matrix Factorization, Convolutive Sparse Coding as well as Smooth and Sparse Matrix Factorization. Matlab implementation of the proposed algorithms are available for download at

  5. Time-domain simulations of sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere over an impedance ground. (United States)

    Cotté, Benjamin; Blanc-Benon, Philippe


    Finite-difference time-domain simulations of broadband sound propagation in a stratified atmosphere are presented. A method recently proposed to obtain an impedance time-domain boundary condition is implemented in a linearized Euler equations solver, which enables to study long range sound propagation over an impedance ground. Some features of the pressure pulse evolution with time are analyzed in both upward-and downward-refracting conditions, and the time-domain simulations are compared to parabolic equation calculations in the frequency domain to show the effectiveness of the proposed impedance boundary condition.

  6. Aircraft Target Classification Based on Correlation Features from Time-domain Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Lan


    Full Text Available This paper reports the classification of helicopters, propeller-driven aircraft, and turbojet based on differences in their time-domain modulation periods using a conventional radar system. First, we determine the modulation periods of their time-domain echoes. Then, based on the differences in the time-domain modulation periods, we propose a method for the extraction of time-domain correlation features. Finally, based on the simulated and measured data, via a support vector machine classifier, it is proved that the time-domain correlation features can yield the good classification performance, even with the relatively low pulse repetition frequency, which may induce the ambiguity in Doppler-frequency domain.

  7. Studies in astronomical time series analysis: Modeling random processes in the time domain (United States)

    Scargle, J. D.


    Random process models phased in the time domain are used to analyze astrophysical time series data produced by random processes. A moving average (MA) model represents the data as a sequence of pulses occurring randomly in time, with random amplitudes. An autoregressive (AR) model represents the correlations in the process in terms of a linear function of past values. The best AR model is determined from sampled data and transformed to an MA for interpretation. The randomness of the pulse amplitudes is maximized by a FORTRAN algorithm which is relatively stable numerically. Results of test cases are given to study the effects of adding noise and of different distributions for the pulse amplitudes. A preliminary analysis of the optical light curve of the quasar 3C 273 is given.

  8. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy. (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong


    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) (United States)

    Wilkinson, John; Konek, Christopher T.; Moran, Jesse S.; Witko, Ewelina M.; Korter, Timothy M.


    We report here, for the first time, the terahertz absorption spectrum of triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The experimental spectra are coupled with solid-state density functional theory, and preliminary assignments are provided to gain physical insight into the experimental spectrum. The calculated absorption coefficients are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  10. Metamaterials for terahertz polarimetric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smirnova, Evgenya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Abul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peralta, Xomalin G [SNL; Brener, Igal [SNL


    We present experimental and numerical investigations of planar terahertz metamaterial structures designed to interact with the state of polarization. The dependence of metamaterial resonances on polarization results in unique amplitude and phase characteristics of the terahertz transmission, providing the basis for polarimetric terahertz devices. We highlight some potential applications for polarimetric devices and present simulations of a terahertz quarter-wave plate and a polarizing terahertz beam splitter. Although this work was performed at tcrahertz frequencies, it may find applications in other frequency ranges as well.

  11. Truncated Fourier-series approximation of the time-domain radiative transfer equation using finite elements. (United States)

    Pulkkinen, Aki; Tarvainen, Tanja


    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is widely accepted to accurately describe light transport in a medium with scattering particles, and it has been successfully applied as a light-transport model, for example, in diffuse optical tomography. Due to the computationally expensive nature of the RTE, most of these applications have been in the frequency domain. In this paper, an efficient solution method for the time-domain RTE is proposed. The method is based on solving the frequency-domain RTE at multiple modulation frequencies and using the Fourier-series representation of the radiance to obtain approximation of the time-domain solution. The approach is tested with simulations. The results show that the method can be used to obtain the solution of the time-domain RTE with good accuracy and with significantly fewer computational resources than are needed in the direct time-domain solution.

  12. Real time monitoring of a fiber fuse using an optical time-domain reflectometer. (United States)

    Abedin, Kazi S; Nakazawa, Masataka


    We propose and experimentally demonstrate monitoring of a fiber fuse in real time using an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). When a fuse starts, a weak reflection of light occurs from the leading edge of the fuse where plasma and voids are being formed in the core. In this work, we examined the possibility of monitoring a fiber fuse from a remote location using an OTDR. We demonstrate a method that allows us detect a fuse progressing at remote locations (over kilometers away). It was found to be effective even in the presence of strong spurious backscattering, such as spontaneous Raman scattering due to a strong continuous wave pump. Moreover, from the progress of the reflection edge monitored by the OTDR, the fuse velocity could be readily determined.

  13. Colored Gaussian Multiple Descriptions: Spectral-Domain Characterization and Time-Domain Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ostergaard, Jan; Zamir, Ram


    It is well known that Shannon's rate-distortion function (RDF) in the colored quadratic Gaussian (QG) case, can be parametrized via a single Lagrangian variable (the ``water level'' in the reverse water filling solution). In this work, we show that the symmetric colored QG multiple-description (MD) RDF in the case of two descriptions, can be parametrized via two Lagrangian variables. To establish this result, we use two key ideas. First, we propose a new representation for the MD test channel, and show that the minimum mutual information rate across this channel coincide with the QG MD RDF. Second, we use variational calculus to obtain a spectral domain representation of the test channel's optimal side and central distortion spectra given the source spectral density and the side and central distortion constraints. The distortion spectra are specified via two Lagrangian parameters, which control the trade-off between the side distortion, the central distortion, and the coding rate.We also show that the symmetr...

  14. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy reveals the influence of charged sensitizing quantum dots on the electron dynamics in ZnO

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamini, S.N.; Němec, Hynek; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, M.; Al-Marri, M.J.; Chábera, P.; Ponseca, C.; Zheng, K.; Pullerits, T.


    Roč. 19, č. 8 (2017), s. 6006-6012 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-03662S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : sensitized semiconductors * ultrafast dynamics * terahertz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  15. Ultrafast release and capture of carriers in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots observed by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Daghestani, N.


    We observe ultrafast release and capture of charge carriers in InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots in a room-temperature optical pump-terahertz probe experiment sensitive to the population dynamics of conducting states. In case of resonant excitation of the quantum dot ground state, the maximum conductivity...

  16. Comparison of an electro-optical system and photo-conducting antenna employed as detectors of pulsed terahertz radiation by means of a new method for measuring spectral width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, Ya V; Osipova, M O; Bespalov, V G [ITMO University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Two detection systems, electro-optical system and photoconducting system, are tested by the method suggested previously for determining the boundaries of broadband terahertz radiation in time-domain spectroscopy. From a series of measurements the error in determining the operation ranges is calculated. The terahertz spectrometer with an electro-optical detector based on a ZnTe (110) crystal of thickness 2 mm has the operation spectral range of 0.059 – 1.092 THz. The detector utilizing an iPCA-21-05-1000-800-h photo-conducting antenna with the same source of signal demonstrates a wider operation band ranging from 0.017 to 1.6 THz. The method developed makes it possible to experimentally compare the parameters of the considered terahertz spectrometers obtained under the same quality of adjustment. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. A Time-domain incident field extrapolation technique based on the singularity expansion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasen, J.J.A.


    In this report, a method is presented to extrapolate measurements from Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) assessments directly in the time domain. This method is based on a time-domain extrapolation function which is obtained from the Singularity Expansion Method representation of the measured

  18. A general structure for a time-domain model of the cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H; Wada, H; Takasaka, T; Ikeda, K; Koike, T


    This study presents an implementation of our basic ideas about a time-domain nonlinear model of the cochlea. The time-domain approach is considered necessary because it allows implementation of nonlinearity in general and of a proper temporal analysis of natural transient responses in particular. It

  19. On-chip Brownian relaxation measurements of magnetic nanobeads in the time domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt


    the time and frequency domain methods on Brownian relaxation detection of clustering of streptavidin coated magnetic beads in the presence of different concentrations of biotin-conjugated bovine serum albumin and obtain comparable results. In the time domain, a measurement is carried out in less than 30 s...

  20. Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin


    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.

  1. Interface Circuit Design for Frequency-Time Domain MEMS Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurish, Sergey Y [Information Systems and Networks, National University Lviv Polytechnic, Bandera str., 12 Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Kirianaki, Nikolay V [International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA), Bandera str., 12 Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine)


    The focus of this paper is to describe emerging techniques and methods for interface circuit design for frequency, period, duty-cycle or PWM output MEMS sensors. The designed module is intended for frequency-time parameters - to - digital conversion and communication functions and can be embedded into a SoC. The developed interface circuit provides technologies that both reduce the cost and time of SoC development and improve sensor system performance. Its revolutionary suite of technical products facilitates, for the first time, low-cost, time-efficient production of MEMS sensor applications. On the other hand the proposed design approach reduces the development time, risk and cost of sensor applications by to ten times.

  2. Ptychochronography: Ultrafast lens-less imaging in the time domain

    CERN Document Server

    Spangenberg, Dirk; Rohwer, Erich; Brügmann, Michael H; Feurer, Thomas


    Through dedicated measurements in the optical regime we demonstrate that ptychography can be applied to reconstruct complex valued object functions that vary with time from a sequence of spectral measurements. A probe pulse of approximately 1 ps duration, time delayed in increments of 0.25 ps is shown to recover dynamics on a ten times faster time scale with an experimental limit of approximately 5 fs. This opens up numerous new probing concepts in nonlinear spectroscopy or in the reconstruction of aperiodic objects with atomic scale spatial and temporal resolution.

  3. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of methylenedioxy amphetamine (United States)

    Wang, Guangqin; Shen, Jingling


    Experimental measurement and theoretical analysis of THz spectrum for methylenedioxy amphetamine are introduced. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of the sample were observed by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technique in the range of 0.2~2.6 THz. It exhibits obvious absorption feature at 1.40 THz and weak THz absorption at around 1.68 and 2.21 THz. The spectral absorption characteristic in THz band was useful for the inspection and identification of drugs using THz-TDS. The theoretical calculation was performed using Density functional theory (DFT) with the GAUSSIAN 03 software package. Fully geometry optimization and frequency analysis of the optimized structure were performed at the B3LYP/6-21G levels. The simulated absorption spectrum was in agreement with the experimental data, and can hence be used for the assignment of observed THz spectrum. The theoretical simulation result showed that absorption peaks mainly result from intra-molecule and inter-molecule vibrations, different absorption peaks are corresponding to different vibrational modes and intensity. So the combination of the THz-TDS and DFT is an effective way to investigate characteristic spectra of illicit drugs.

  4. Terahertz Spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Reflection Imaging of Acoustic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kilcullen


    Full Text Available A Brewster angle reflection imaging apparatus is demonstrated which is capable of detecting hidden water-filled voids in a rubber tile sample. This imaging application simulates a real-world hull inspection problem for Royal Canadian Navy Victoria-class submarines. The tile samples represent a challenging imaging application due to their large refractive index and absorption coefficient. With a rubber transmission window at approximately 80 GHz, terahertz (THz sensing methods have shown promise for probing these structures in the laboratory. Operating at Brewster’s angle allows for the typically strong front surface reflection to be minimized while also conveniently making the method insensitive to air-filled voids. Using a broadband THz time-domain waveform imaging system (THz-TDS, we demonstrate satisfactory imaging and detection of water-filled voids without complicated signal processing. Optical properties of the tile samples at low THz frequencies are also reported.

  5. Filament characterization via resonance absorption of terahertz wave (United States)

    Zheng, Zhigang; Huang, Yindong; Guo, Quan; Meng, Chao; Lü, Zhihui; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Jing; Meng, Congsen; Zhang, Dongwen; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhao, Zengxiu


    In this work, we characterize the transmission properties of the focusing-laser-induced filament by using terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy. Significant resonance absorption of the THz wave is identified, which is attributed to the dynamic screening of the ionized electrons. The polarization and intensity of the filament-generated pulse have been varied to study their influences on the resonance absorption. Our results suggest that the electron density of the filament can be determined by fitting the phase shifts and absorption properties around the absorption. This method provides not only an alternative to the plasma diagnostics with plasma frequency at the THz range, but also a supplement to the existing generation theory of THz waves from plasma.

  6. Photoconductive LT-GaAs Terahertz Antennas: Correlation Between Surface Quality and Emission Strength (United States)

    Abdulmunem, O. M.; Hassoon, K. I.; Völkner, J.; Mikulics, M.; Gries, K. I.; Balzer, J. C.


    We investigate the influence of the surface properties of a low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductive antenna on the terahertz (THz) emission strength, using a specially designed THz time-domain spectroscopy system. The system allows us to excite six different positions along the 10 μm gap of a coplanar stripline antenna with a length of 10 mm without changing the alignment of the optical or THz beam path. A comparison to the surface roughness and the grain size which are extracted from an atomic force and a scanning electron microscope is given.

  7. Terahertz spectroscopic polarimetry of generalized anisotropic media composed of Archimedean spiral arrays: Experiments and simulations. (United States)

    Aschaffenburg, Daniel J; Williams, Michael R C; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A


    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopic polarimetry has been used to measure the polarization state of all spectral components in a broadband THz pulse upon transmission through generalized anisotropic media consisting of two-dimensional arrays of lithographically defined Archimedean spirals. The technique allows a full determination of the frequency-dependent, complex-valued transmission matrix and eigenpolarizations of the spiral arrays. Measurements were made on a series of spiral array orientations. The frequency-dependent transmission matrix elements as well as the eigenpolarizations were determined, and the eigenpolarizations were found be to elliptically corotating, as expected from their symmetry. Numerical simulations are in quantitative agreement with measured spectra.

  8. Terahertz transport dynamics in the metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film (United States)

    Luo, Y. Y.; Su, F. H.; Zhang, C.; Zhong, L.; Pan, S. S.; Xu, S. C.; Wang, H.; Dai, J. M.; Li, G. H.


    The dynamic behavior of thermally-induced metal-insulator transition of V2O3 thin film on Si substrate grown by reactive magnetron sputtering was investigated by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. It was found that the THz absorption and optical conductivity of the thin films are temperature-dependent, and the THz amplitude modulation can reach as high as 74.7%. The complex THz optical conductivity in the metallic state of the V2O3 thin films can be well-fitted by the Drude-Smith model, which offer the insight into the electron transport dynamic during the metal-insulator transition of the thin film.

  9. Time-domain diffuse optics using bioresorbable fibers: a proof-of-principle study (United States)

    Di Sieno, Laura; Boetti, Nadia G.; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pugliese, Diego; Farina, Andrea; Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Ceci-Ginistrelli, Edoardo; Janner, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Milanese, Daniel


    We show for the first time the aptness of Calcium Phosphate Glass-based bioresorbable fibers for time-domain diffuse optics using tests described by a standardized protocol and we also present a spectroscopic measurement on a chicken breast.

  10. Domain decomposition in time for PDE-constrained optimization (United States)

    Barker, Andrew T.; Stoll, Martin


    PDE-constrained optimization problems have a wide range of applications, but they lead to very large and ill-conditioned linear systems, especially if the problems are time dependent. In this paper we outline an approach for dealing with such problems by decomposing them in time and applying an additive Schwarz preconditioner in time, so that we can take advantage of parallel computers to deal with the very large linear systems. We then illustrate the performance of our method on a variety of problems.

  11. Mixed Discretization of the Time Domain MFIE at Low Frequencies

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda


    Solution of the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE), which is obtained by the classical marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme, becomes inaccurate when the time step is large, i.e., under low-frequency excitation. It is shown here that the inaccuracy stems from the classical MOT scheme’s failure to predict the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components for large time steps. A recently proposed mixed discretization strategy is used to alleviate the inaccuracy problem by restoring the correct scaling of the current’s Helmholtz components under low-frequency excitation.

  12. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Simulations Using Graphics Processors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Samuel; Payne, Jason; Boppana, Rajendra


    .... This paper shows how GPUs can be used to greatly speedup FDTD simulations. The main objective is to leverage GPU processing power for FDTD update calculations and complete computationally expensive simulations in reasonable time...

  13. Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation for OTDM-DWDM and DWDM-OTDM Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael


    Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats.......Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats....

  14. High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Terahertz sources based on lower frequency oscillators and amplifiers plus a chain of frequency multipliers are the workhorse technology for NASA's terahertz...

  15. Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial. (United States)

    Valmorra, Federico; Scalari, Giacomo; Maissen, Curdin; Fu, Wangyang; Schönenberger, Christian; Choi, Jong Won; Park, Hyung Gyu; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme


    We propose an hybrid graphene/metamaterial device based on terahertz electronic split-ring resonators directly evaporated on top of a large-area single-layer CVD graphene. Room temperature time-domain spectroscopy measurements in the frequency range from 250 GHz to 2.75 THz show that the presence of the graphene strongly changes the THz metamaterial transmittance on the whole frequency range. The graphene gating allows active control of such interaction, showing a modulation depth of 11.5% with an applied bias of 10.6 V. Analytical modeling of the device provides a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the measured device behavior. The presented system shows potential as a THz modulator and can be relevant for strong light-matter coupling experiments.

  16. Free-standing double-layer terahertz band-pass filters fabricated by femtosecond laser micro-machining. (United States)

    Lin, Yanzhang; Yao, Haizi; Ju, Xuewei; Chen, Ying; Zhong, Shuncong; Wang, Xiangfeng


    We report on the fabrication and transmission properties of free-standing single-layer and double-layer THz bandpass filters. These filters are fabricated on aluminum foils using femtosecond laser micro-machining. The aluminum foils are periodically patterned with cross apertures with a total area of 1.75×1.75 cm 2 , also known as frequency-selective surfaces. Their terahertz transmission properties were simulated using the FDTD method and measured using a time-domain terahertz spectroscopy system. The simulation results agree with the measurements results very well. The performance of single-layer bandpass filters is as good as the commercial equivalents on the market. The double-layer filters show extraordinary transmission peaks with changing spacing between the two layers. We show the contour map of the electric field distribution across the apertures, and ascribe the new transmission peaks to the interference and coupling of surface plasmon polaritons between the two layers.

  17. Discrimination of Transgenic Rice containing the Cry1Ab Protein using Terahertz Spectroscopy and Chemometrics (United States)

    Xu, Wendao; Xie, Lijuan; Ye, Zunzhong; Gao, Weilu; Yao, Yang; Chen, Min; Qin, Jianyuan; Ying, Yibin


    Spectroscopic techniques combined with chemometrics methods have proven to be effective tools for the discrimination of objects with similar properties. In this work, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) combined with discriminate analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) with derivative pretreatments was performed to differentiate transgenic rice (Hua Hui 1, containing the Cry1Ab protein) from its parent (Ming Hui 63). Both rice samples and the Cry1Ab protein were ground and pressed into pellets for terahertz (THz) measurements. The resulting time-domain spectra were transformed into frequency-domain spectra, and then, the transmittances of the rice and Cry1Ab protein were calculated. By applying the first derivative of the THz spectra in conjunction with the DA model, the discrimination of transgenic from non-transgenic rice was possible with accuracies up to 89.4% and 85.0% for the calibration set and validation set, respectively. The results indicated that THz spectroscopic techniques and chemometrics methods could be new feasible ways to differentiate transgenic rice.

  18. Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boens, N.; Qin, Wenwu; Basaric, N.; Hofkens, J.; Ameloot, M.; Pouget, J.; Lefevre, J.P.; Valeur, B.; Gratton, E.; Ven, van de M.; Silva jr., D.; Engelborghs, Y.; Willaert, K.; Sillen, A.; Rumbles, G.; Philips, D.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Hoek, van A.; Lakowicz, J.R.; Malak, H.; Gryczynski, I.; Szabo, A.G.; Krajcarski, D.T.; Tamai, N.; Miura, A.


    A series of fluorophores with single-exponential fluorescence decays in liquid solution at 20 C were measured independently by nine laboratories using single-photon timing and multifrequency phase and modulation fluorometry instruments with lasers as excitation source. The dyes that can serve as

  19. Multi-time-step domain coupling method with energy control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahjoubi, N.; Krenk, Steen


    the individual time step. It is demonstrated that displacement continuity between the subdomains leads to cancelation of the interface contributions to the energy balance equation, and thus stability and algorithmic damping properties of the original algorithms are retained. The various subdomains can...

  20. Hybrid time/frequency domain modeling of nonlinear components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth


    This paper presents a novel, three-phase hybrid time/frequency methodology for modelling of nonlinear components. The algorithm has been implemented in the DIgSILENT PowerFactory software using the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL), as a part of the work described in [1]. Modified HVDC benchmark...

  1. Terahertz circular Airy vortex beams. (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Liu, Jinsong; Niu, Liting; Wei, Xuli; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang


    Vortex beams have received considerable research interests both in optical and millimeter-wave domain since its potential to be utilized in the wireless communications and novel imaging systems. Many well-known optical beams have been demonstrated to carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams and high-order Bessel beams. Recently, the radially symmetric Airy beams that exhibit an abruptly autofocusing feature are also demonstrated to be capable of carrying OAM in the optical domain. However, due to the lack of efficient devices to manipulate terahertz (THz) beams, it could be a challenge to demonstrate the radially symmetric Airy beams in the THz domain. Here we demonstrate the THz circular Airy vortex beams (CAVBs) with a 0.3-THz continuous wave through 3D printing technology. Assisted by the rapidly 3D-printed phase plates, individual OAM states with topological charge l ranging from l = 0 to l = 3 and a multiplexed OAM state are successfully imposed into the radially symmetric Airy beams. We both numerically and experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of the generated THz CAVBs, and the simulations agree well with the observations.

  2. Mössbauer forward scattering: time-domain spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykov, E. K., E-mail:; Yurichuk, A. A.; Gainov, R. R.; Vagizov, F. G. [Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University (Russian Federation)


    The transmission of the Mössbauer radiation through an absorber being in the acoustic oscillation mode under forward scattering (FS) conditions has been analyzed. The modification of the existing models of the FS spectra (frequency and time) formation to the case of the arbitrary phase correlation of nuclear oscillations in the sample has been proposed. An adequate description of the time delayed experiments with the {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer resonance using the modulation of the single-photon wave packet by acoustic field has been obtained. One has been done in the frame of the Raman scattering of Mössbauer photons. The models extended this way can be used to control the degree of phase correlation of nuclear oscillations (or other processes) induced in the sample by external fields.

  3. A Time-domain Analysis of Nitrogen-rich Quasars. (United States)

    Dittmann, Alexander; Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Jiang, Linhua


    A small population of quasars exhibit anomalously high nitrogen-to-carbon ratios (N/C) in their emission lines. These “nitrogen-rich” (N-rich) quasars have been difficult to explain. Few of the possible mechanism are natural, since stellar populations with abnormally high metallicities are required to produce an N-rich interstellar medium. N-rich quasars are also more likely to be “radio-loud” than average quasars, which is difficult to explain by invoking higher metallicity alone. Recently, tidal disruption events (TDEs) have been proposed as a mechanism for N-rich quasars. Such a TDE would occur between a supersolar mass star and a supermassive black hole. The CNO cycle creates a surplus of N-rich and carbon-deficient material that could naturally explain the N/C observed in N-rich quasars. The TDE hypothesis explains N-rich quasars without requiring extremely exotic stellar populations. A testable difference differentiating the TDE explanation and exotic stellar population scenarios is that TDEs do not produce enough N-rich material to pollute the quasar environment for extended periods of time, in which case N-rich phenomena in quasars would be transient. By analyzing changes in nitrogen and carbon line widths in time-separated spectra of N-rich quasars, we have studied nitrogen abundance in quasars which had previously been identified as nitrogen rich. We have found that over time-frames of greater than one year in the quasar rest frame, nitrogen abundance tends to systematically decrease. The observed decrease is larger than our estimate of the effects of noise based on spectra separated by smaller time frames. Additionally, x-ray observations of one N-rich quasar have demonstrated that its x-ray emission is an outlier among the quasar population, but similar to confirmed TDEs.

  4. The time resolution domain of stellar radio astronomy (United States)

    Bookbinder, J.


    The high time resolution (HTR) radio observation of late-type stars and RS CVn systems is discussed. Some examples of these sources are addressed, identifying what information HTR observations can provide. HTR can provide important information on flares in late-type stars, and can be used to study coronal structure and the particle acceleration mechanism in these stars. The possible use of HTR to establish the nature of quiescent emission form RS CVn systems is discussed.

  5. Size and Density of Graphene Domains Grown with Different Annealing Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, De Hee; Kang, Cheong Kang; Nam, Ji Eun; Lee, Jin Seok; Kim, Jinseok [Sookmyung Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Single crystals of hexagonal graphenes were successfully grown on Cu foils using the atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. We investigated the effects of reaction parameters, such as the growth temperature and annealing time, on the size, coverage, and density of graphene domains grown over Cu foil. The mean size of the graphene domains increased significantly with increases in both the growth temperature and annealing time, and similar phenomena were observed in graphene domains grown by low pressure CVD over Cu foil. From the comparison of micro Raman spectroscopy in the graphene films grown with different annealing times, we found that the nucleation and growth of the domains were strongly dependent on the annealing time and growth temperature. Therefore, we confirmed that when reaction time was same, the number of layers and the degree of defects in the synthesized graphene films both decreased as the annealing time increased.

  6. Frequency selective terahertz retroreflectors (United States)

    Williams, Richard James

    The use of novel optical structures operating at terahertz frequencies in industrial and military applications continues to grow. Some of these novel structures include gratings, frequency selective surfaces, metamaterials and metasurfaces, and retroreflectors. A retroreflector is a device that exhibits enhanced backscatter by concentrating the reflected wave in the direction of the source. Retroreflectors have applications in a variety of diverse fields such as aviation, radar systems, antenna technology, communications, navigation, passive identification, and metrology due to their large acceptance angles and frequency bandwidth. This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a retroreflector designed for terahertz frequencies and the incorporation of a frequency selective surface in order to endow the retroreflector with narrow-band frequency performance. The radar cross section of several spherical lens reflectors operating at terahertz frequencies was investigated. Spherical lens reflectors with diameters ranging from 2 mm to 8 mm were fabricated from fused silica ball lenses and their radar cross section was measured at 100 GHz, 160 GHz, and 350 GHz. Crossed-dipole frequency selective surfaces exhibiting band-pass characteristics at 350 GHz fabricated from 12 um-thick Nickel screens were applied to the apertures of the spherical lens reflectors. The radar cross section of the frequency selective retroreflectors was measured at 160 GHz and 350 GHz to demonstrate proof-of-concept of narrow-band terahertz performance.

  7. Terahertz generation from graphite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, G.; Chakkittakandy, R.; Planken, P.C.M.


    Generation of subpicosecond terahertz pulses is observed when graphite surfaces are illuminated with femtosecond near-infrared laser pulses. The nonlinear optical generation of THz pulses from graphite is unexpected since, in principle, the material possesses a centre of inversion symmetry.

  8. Terahertz Radome Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Friederich


    Full Text Available Radomes protecting sensitive radar, navigational, and communications equipment of, e.g., aircraft, are strongly exposed to the environment and have to withstand harsh weather conditions and potential impacts. Besides their significance to the structural integrity of the radomes, it is often crucial to optimize the composite structures for best possible radio performance. Hence, there exists a significant interest in non-destructive testing techniques, which can be used for defect inspection of radomes in field use as well as for quality inspection during the manufacturing process. Contactless millimeter-wave and terahertz imaging techniques provide millimeter resolution and have the potential to address both application scenarios. We report on our development of a three-dimensional (3D terahertz imaging system for radome inspection during industrial manufacturing processes. The system was designed for operation within a machining center for radome manufacturing. It simultaneously gathers terahertz depth information in adjacent frequency ranges, from 70 to 110 GHz and from 110 to 170 GHz by combining two frequency modulated continuous-wave terahertz sensing units into a single measurement device. Results from spiraliform image acquisition of a radome test sample demonstrate the successful integration of the measurement system.

  9. Efficient evaluation of antenna fields by a time-domain multipole analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam


    Full Text Available The contribution describes a systematic method to efficiently determine frequency-domain electromagnetic antenna fields and characteristics for a broad spectrum via a single time-domain (e.g., Finite-Difference Time-Domain, FDTD calculation. From a time-domain simulation of an antenna driven by a wide-band signal, a single modified Fourier transformation yields the frequency-domain multipole amplitudes. The corresponding multipole expansions are valid for the entire spectrum of the input pulse and at any point outside a minimum sphere enclosing the antenna. This allows a computationally cheap and elegant post-processing of arbitrary antenna characteristics. As an example of use the method is applied to determine high-resolution three-dimensional radiation patterns of an antipodal Vivaldi antenna.

  10. Real-time all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Kong, Deming; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard


    We propose a novel simple all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain OFT using time-lenses. A real-time 160 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM transmission with 16 decorrelated data subcarriers is successfully demonstrated over 100 km.......We propose a novel simple all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain OFT using time-lenses. A real-time 160 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM transmission with 16 decorrelated data subcarriers is successfully demonstrated over 100 km....

  11. Noise propagation path identification in time domain via common mode test mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.; Ferreira, J.A.; Polinder, H.; Roc'h, A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes


    EMC debugging of power electronics systems depends heavily on experience of specialists due to the complex mechanisms of EMC. In this paper, time domain approach is utilized instead of conventional frequency domain method to identify noise propagation path. A proposed test mode lets all the upper or

  12. A Time Domain Analysis of Gust-Cascade Interaction Noise (United States)

    Nallasamy, M.; Hixon, R.; Sawyer, S. D.; Dyson, R. W.


    The gust response of a 2 D cascade is studied by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations employing higher order accurate spatial differencing and time stepping techniques. The solutions exhibit the exponential decay of the two circumferential mode orders of the cutoff blade passing frequency (BPF) tone and propagation of one circumferential mode order at 2BPF, as would be expected for the flow configuration considered. Two frequency excitations indicate that the interaction between the frequencies and the self interaction contribute to the amplitude of the propagating mode.

  13. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.


    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  14. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representation. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation....... Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...

  15. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representaton. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation....... Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...

  16. Time-domain Green's Function Method for three-dimensional nonlinear subsonic flows (United States)

    Tseng, K.; Morino, L.


    The Green's Function Method for linearized 3D unsteady potential flow (embedded in the computer code SOUSSA P) is extended to include the time-domain analysis as well as the nonlinear term retained in the transonic small disturbance equation. The differential-delay equations in time, as obtained by applying the Green's Function Method (in a generalized sense) and the finite-element technique to the transonic equation, are solved directly in the time domain. Comparisons are made with both linearized frequency-domain calculations and existing nonlinear results.

  17. A hybrid method combining the Time-Domain Method of Moments, the Time-Domain Uniform Theory of Diffraction and the FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Becker


    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid method combining the Time-Domain Method of Moments (TD-MoM, the Time-Domain Uniform Theory of Diffraction (TD-UTD and the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (FDTD is presented. When applying this new hybrid method, thin-wire antennas are modeled with the TD-MoM, inhomogeneous bodies are modelled with the FDTD and large perfectly conducting plates are modelled with the TD-UTD. All inhomogeneous bodies are enclosed in a so-called FDTD-volume and the thin-wire antennas can be embedded into this volume or can lie outside. The latter avoids the simulation of white space between antennas and inhomogeneous bodies. If the antennas are positioned into the FDTD-volume, their discretization does not need to agree with the grid of the FDTD. By using the TD-UTD large perfectly conducting plates can be considered efficiently in the solution-procedure. Thus this hybrid method allows time-domain simulations of problems including very different classes of objects, applying the respective most appropriate numerical techniques to every object.

  18. Time-Domain Astronomy with the Fermi GBM (United States)

    Hui, C. M.


    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an all-sky monitoring instrument sensitive to energies from 8 keV to 40 MeV. Over the past 8 years of operation, the GBM has detected over 240 gamma-ray bursts per year and provided timely GCN notices with localization to few-degree accuracy for follow-up observations. In addition to GRBs, Galactic transients, solar flares, and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes have also been observed. In recent years we have also been searching the continuous GBM data for electromagnetic counterpart to astrophysical neutrinos and gravitational wave events, as these are believed to be associated with gamma-ray bursts. With continuous data downlink every few hours and a temporal resolution of 2 microseconds, GBM is well suited for observing transients and supporting EM follow-up in the era of multi-messenger astronomy.

  19. Analysis of electron capture process in charge pumping sequence using time domain measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, Masahiro, E-mail:; Watanabe, Tokinobu; Ono, Yukinori [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Toshiaki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan)


    A method for analyzing the electron capture process in the charge pumping (CP) sequence is proposed and demonstrated. The method monitors the electron current in the CP sequence in time domain. This time-domain measurements enable us to directly access the process of the electron capture to the interface defects, which are obscured in the conventional CP method. Using the time-domain measurements, the rise time dependence of the capture process is systematically investigated. We formulate the capture process based on the rate equation and derive an analytic form of the current due to the electron capture to the defects. Based on the formula, the experimental data are analyzed and the capture cross section is obtained. In addition, the time-domain data unveil that the electron capture process completes before the electron channel opens, or below the threshold voltage in a low frequency range of the pulse.

  20. Time-Domain MW Spectroscopy: Fundamental Physics from Molecular Rotation (United States)

    Grabow, Jens-Uwe


    In the past, it was a great triumph of Dirac's theory to predict the fine structure in the energy levels of the simplest atom. Nevertheless, even the relativistic Dirac theory did not completely describe the spectrum of the electron in an H-atom. However, at that time, attempts to obtain accurate information through a study of the Balmer lines have been frustrated by the large Doppler width in comparison to the small shifts. Obtaining more accurate information was the key to provide a delicate test of the relativistic wave equation as well as finding confirmation for line shifts due to coupling of the atom with the radiation field and any non-Coulombic interaction. Then, the advances in microwave (MW) techniques resulted in new physical tools, making it possible to observe the small energy difference of terms that were degenerate in Dirac's theory. This, as well as the small deviation of the electron's gyromagnetic ratio g_e from the value 2, provided an excellent test for the validity of quantum electrodynamics (QED). At present, the electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) is a particularly good place to find, as proposed by Purcell and Ramsey, a new source for P and T violation that may, in fact, be linked to the matter-antimatter asymmetry of our Universe and - in a wider sense - be responsible for our existence. Since the Standart Modell's (SM) prediction is negligible, any observed d_e ≠ 0 is direct evidence for "New Physics" beyond the SM. Many supersymmetric theories in extension to the SM, indeed, predict an e-EDM within two orders of magnitude from the current limit |d_e| < 1.6 × 10-27 e \\cdot cm. However, this limit was published already in 2002, nine years ago. Since then, no progress was made. As at the time when Dirac's equation was put to test, attempts to obtain accurate information through a spectroscopic study are mostly frustrated by the large Doppler width in comparison to the small shifts. Again, obtaining more accurate information will be

  1. Ultrafast Terahertz Conductivity of Photoexcited Nanocrystalline Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; MacDonald, A. Nicole; Hryciw, Aaron


    The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described by a class......The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described...... by a classical Drude–Smith model, suitable for disorder-driven metal–insulator transitions. In this work, we explore the time evolution of the frequency dependent complex conductivity after optical injection of carriers on a picosecond time scale. Furthermore, we show the lifetime of photoconductivity...

  2. Characterization of photoacoustic sources in tissue using time domain measurements (United States)

    Viator, John Andrew

    Photoacoustic phenomenon in tissue and tissue phantoms is investigated with the particular goal of discrimination of diseased and healthy tissue. Propagation of broadband photoacoustic sources in tissue phantoms is studied with emphasis on attenuation, dispersion, and diffraction. Attenuation of photoacoustic waves induced by a circular laser spot on an absorber/air interface is modeled by the on-axis approximation of the acoustic field of a baffled piston source. Dispersion is studied in a diffraction free situation, where the disk of irradiation was created by a 5 mm laser spot on a 200 cm -1 solution. The genesis of diffraction in an absorbing solution was displayed by showing the merging of a boundary wave with a plane wave from a circular laser spot on an absorbing solution. Depth profiling of absorbing tissue phantoms and stained tissue was shown using a photoacoustic method. Acrylamide gels with layers of different optical absorption and stained elastin biomaterials were irradiated with stress confined laser pulses. The resulting acoustic waves were detected with a lithium niobate wideband acoustic transducer and processed in an algorithm to determine absorption coefficient as a function of depth. Spherical photoacoustic sources were generated in optically clear and turbid tissue phantoms. Propagation time and acoustic pulse duration were used to determine location and size, respectively. The photoacoustic sources were imaged using a multiplicative backprojection scheme. Image sources from acoustic boundaries were detected and dipole sources were detected and imaged. Finally an endoscopic photoacoustic probe was designed, built, and tested for use in determining treatment depth after palliative photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer. The probe was less than 2.5 mm in diameter and consisted of a side firing 600 mum optical fiber to deliver laser energy and a 890 mum diameter, side viewing piezoelectric detector. The sensitivity of the probe was determined

  3. A hybrid time-domain discontinuous galerkin-boundary integral method for electromagnetic scattering analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping


    A scheme hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) and time-domain boundary integral (TDBI) methods for accurately analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering is proposed. Radiation condition is enforced using the numerical flux on the truncation boundary. The fields required by the flux are computed using the TDBI from equivalent currents introduced on a Huygens\\' surface enclosing the scatterer. The hybrid DGTDBI ensures that the radiation condition is mathematically exact and the resulting computation domain is as small as possible since the truncation boundary conforms to scatterer\\'s shape and is located very close to its surface. Locally truncated domains can also be defined around each disconnected scatterer additionally reducing the size of the overall computation domain. Numerical examples demonstrating the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method are presented. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Three-dimensional, time-resolved profiling of ferroelectric domain wall dynamics by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussmann, Alexander; Schmidt, Sebastian; Wehmeier, Lukas; Eng, Lukas M. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute of Applied Physics and Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed), Dresden (Germany); Kirsten, Lars; Cimalla, Peter; Koch, Edmund [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Clinical Sensoring and Monitoring, Dresden (Germany)


    We apply here spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for the precise detection and temporal tracking of ferroelectric domain walls (DWs) in magnesium-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (Mg:PPLN). We reproducibly map static DWs at an axial (depth) resolution down to ∝ 0.6 μm, being located up to 0.5 mm well inside the single crystalline Mg:PPLN sample. We show that a full 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the DW geometry is possible from the collected data, when applying a special algorithm that accounts for the nonlinear optical dispersion of the material. Our OCT investigation provides valuable reference information on the DWs' polarization charge distribution, which is known to be the key to the electrical conductivity of ferroelectric DWs in such systems. Hence, we carefully analyze the SD-OCT signal dependence both when varying the direction of incident polarization, and when applying electrical fields along the polar axis. Surprisingly, the large backreflection intensities recorded under extraordinary polarization are not affected by any electrical field, at least for field strengths below the switching threshold, while no significant signals above noise floor are detected under ordinary polarization. Finally, we employed the high-speed SD-OCT setup for the real-time DW tracking upon ferroelectric domain switching under high external fields. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Reconstruction of nonstationary sound fields based on the time domain plane wave superposition method. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Zheng; Thomas, Jean-Hugh; Bi, Chuan-Xing; Pascal, Jean-Claude


    A time-domain plane wave superposition method is proposed to reconstruct nonstationary sound fields. In this method, the sound field is expressed as a superposition of time convolutions between the estimated time-wavenumber spectrum of the sound pressure on a virtual source plane and the time-domain propagation kernel at each wavenumber. By discretizing the time convolutions directly, the reconstruction can be carried out iteratively in the time domain, thus providing the advantage of continuously reconstructing time-dependent pressure signals. In the reconstruction process, the Tikhonov regularization is introduced at each time step to obtain a relevant estimate of the time-wavenumber spectrum on the virtual source plane. Because the double infinite integral of the two-dimensional spatial Fourier transform is discretized directly in the wavenumber domain in the proposed method, it does not need to perform the two-dimensional spatial fast Fourier transform that is generally used in time domain holography and real-time near-field acoustic holography, and therefore it avoids some errors associated with the two-dimensional spatial fast Fourier transform in theory and makes possible to use an irregular microphone array. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations and an experiment with two speakers.

  6. Methodology for time-domain estimation of storm time geoelectric fields using the 3-D magnetotelluric response tensors (United States)

    Kelbert, Anna; Balch, Christopher; Pulkkinen, Antti; Egbert, Gary D; Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua; Fujii, Ikuko


    Geoelectric fields at the Earth's surface caused by magnetic storms constitute a hazard to the operation of electric power grids and related infrastructure. The ability to estimate these geoelectric fields in close to real time and provide local predictions would better equip the industry to mitigate negative impacts on their operations. Here we report progress toward this goal: development of robust algorithms that convolve a magnetic storm time series with a frequency domain impedance for a realistic three-dimensional (3-D) Earth, to estimate the local, storm time geoelectric field. Both frequency domain and time domain approaches are presented and validated against storm time geoelectric field data measured in Japan. The methods are then compared in the context of a real-time application.

  7. Assessment of Clogging Dynamics in Permeable Pavement Systems with Time Domain Reflectometers (United States)

    Infiltration is a primary functional mechanism in green infrastructure stormwater controls. This study used time domain reflectometers (TDRs) to measure spatial infiltration and assess clogging dynamics of permeable pavement systems in Edison, NJ, and Louisville, KY. In 2009, t...

  8. Time-domain incident-field extrapolation technique based on the singularity-expansion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaasen, J.J.


    In this report, a method presented to extrapolate measurements from Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) assessments directly in the time domain. This method is based on a time-domain extrapolation function which is obtained from the Singularity Expansion Method representation of the measured incident field of the NEMP simulator. Once the time-domain extrapolation function is determined, the responses recorded during an assessment can be extrapolated simply by convolving them with the time domain extrapolation function. It is found that to obtain useful extrapolated responses, the incident field measurements needs to be made minimum phase; otherwise unbounded results can be obtained. Results obtained with this technique are presented, using data from actual assessments.

  9. Time-Domain Convolutive Blind Source Separation Employing Selective-Tap Adaptive Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Qiongfeng


    Full Text Available We investigate novel algorithms to improve the convergence and reduce the complexity of time-domain convolutive blind source separation (BSS algorithms. First, we propose MMax partial update time-domain convolutive BSS (MMax BSS algorithm. We demonstrate that the partial update scheme applied in the MMax LMS algorithm for single channel can be extended to multichannel time-domain convolutive BSS with little deterioration in performance and possible computational complexity saving. Next, we propose an exclusive maximum selective-tap time-domain convolutive BSS algorithm (XM BSS that reduces the interchannel coherence of the tap-input vectors and improves the conditioning of the autocorrelation matrix resulting in improved convergence rate and reduced misalignment. Moreover, the computational complexity is reduced since only half of the tap inputs are selected for updating. Simulation results have shown a significant improvement in convergence rate compared to existing techniques.

  10. Time-Domain Convolutive Blind Source Separation Employing Selective-Tap Adaptive Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongfeng Pan


    Full Text Available We investigate novel algorithms to improve the convergence and reduce the complexity of time-domain convolutive blind source separation (BSS algorithms. First, we propose MMax partial update time-domain convolutive BSS (MMax BSS algorithm. We demonstrate that the partial update scheme applied in the MMax LMS algorithm for single channel can be extended to multichannel time-domain convolutive BSS with little deterioration in performance and possible computational complexity saving. Next, we propose an exclusive maximum selective-tap time-domain convolutive BSS algorithm (XM BSS that reduces the interchannel coherence of the tap-input vectors and improves the conditioning of the autocorrelation matrix resulting in improved convergence rate and reduced misalignment. Moreover, the computational complexity is reduced since only half of the tap inputs are selected for updating. Simulation results have shown a significant improvement in convergence rate compared to existing techniques.

  11. Time Domain Radar Laboratory Operating System Development and Transient EM Analysis. (United States)


    sonopole Pulse Response All receiving antennas are coupled to the Signal Processing Group through a coaxial end-coupling fitted through the imaging plane...The Operating System has been correspondingly 97 written in this language. However, BASIC as used by the GS has been extended to fit the language to...DPO service request. Flag P7 (indicates whether the acquired data is destined for use in Time Domain or Prony Methods) is set to 0 (Time Domain) in

  12. EDITORIAL: Photonic terahertz technology (United States)

    Lisauskas, Alvydas; Löffler, Torsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.


    substances, with a strong motivation stemming from the fact that the knowledge gained by this research opens up broad application areas in such lucrative markets as pharmaceutics, genetics, medical imaging and security screening. It may be interesting to note that until one or two years ago, a buzzword of applications-related research would have been 'biomedical imaging', especially of cancerous tissue or teeth, but for whatever reason none of the researchers contacted by us were interested to represent this subfield here, which seems to indicate that it is not considered to be a hot topic at present. The first two papers in this section, by Fischer et al and Shen et al, set the stage with an overview of chemical recognition in absorption and reflection spectroscopy, respectively. Kawase et al then demonstrate drug identification with their unique quasi-cw parametric THz system. While the scope of this paper is already security-oriented, Federici et al go further along this line by discussing not only drug detection but also sensing of explosives and weapons. The section closes with a paper by Nagel et al on the detection of DNA-binding states and on the system improvements implemented by this group on the way towards cost-effective sensing. This brings us to the final theme, 'THz Microscopy, Imaging, and Photonic Crystals'. The three papers in this section deal with three different aspects of THz technology which represent current progress in the use of THz radiation. The first paper, by Cho et al, as well as the one by Planken et al in the section on 'Pulsed THz Systems', discusses developments aiming towards THz microscopy, and reviews the latest results in achieving ultrahigh spatial resolution at THz frequencies. The next paper, by Karpowicz et al, comes back to the issue of THz imaging, which was already addressed by authors of papers in the preceding section, and presents a systematic comparison between two imaging and sensing modalities, time-domain optoelectronic

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Using Reflective Terahertz Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang


    Full Text Available Terahertz (THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS imaging is considered a nondestructive evaluation method for composite materials used for examining various defects of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composites and fire-retardant coatings in the reflective imaging modality. We demonstrate that hidden defects simulated by Teflon artificial inserts are imaged clearly in the perpendicular polarization mode. The THz TDS technique is also used to measure the thickness of thin fire-retardant coatings on CFRP composites with a typical accuracy of about 10 micrometers. In addition, coating debonding is successfully imaged based on the time-delay difference of the time-domain waveforms between closely adhered and debonded sample locations.

  14. Time-domain comparisons of power law attenuation in causal and noncausal time-fractional wave equations (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; McGough, Robert J.


    The attenuation of ultrasound propagating in human tissue follows a power law with respect to frequency that is modeled by several different causal and noncausal fractional partial differential equations. To demonstrate some of the similarities and differences that are observed in three related time-fractional partial differential equations, time-domain Green's functions are calculated numerically for the power law wave equation, the Szabo wave equation, and for the Caputo wave equation. These Green's functions are evaluated for water with a power law exponent of y = 2, breast with a power law exponent of y = 1.5, and liver with a power law exponent of y = 1.139. Simulation results show that the noncausal features of the numerically calculated time-domain response are only evident very close to the source and that these causal and noncausal time-domain Green's functions converge to the same result away from the source. When noncausal time-domain Green's functions are convolved with a short pulse, no evidence of noncausal behavior remains in the time-domain, which suggests that these causal and noncausal time-fractional models are equally effective for these numerical calculations. PMID:27250193

  15. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryul Yang


    Full Text Available A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  16. Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers. (United States)

    Consolino, L; Taschin, A; Bartolini, P; Bartalini, S; Cancio, P; Tredicucci, A; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Torre, R; Vitiello, M S; De Natale, P


    Optical frequency comb synthesizers have represented a revolutionary approach to frequency metrology, providing a grid of frequency references for any laser emitting within their spectral coverage. Extending the metrological features of optical frequency comb synthesizers to the terahertz domain would be a major breakthrough, due to the widespread range of accessible strategic applications and the availability of stable, high-power and widely tunable sources such as quantum cascade lasers. Here we demonstrate phase-locking of a 2.5 THz quantum cascade laser to a free-space comb, generated in a LiNbO(3) waveguide and covering the 0.1-6 THz frequency range. We show that even a small fraction (laser is sufficient to generate a beat note suitable for phase-locking to the comb, paving the way to novel metrological-grade terahertz applications, including high-resolution spectroscopy, manipulation of cold molecules, astronomy and telecommunications.

  17. Current-driven magnetic domain wall motion and its real-time detection (United States)

    Kim, Kab-Jin; Yoshimura, Yoko; Ono, Teruo


    Current-controlled magnetic domain wall motion has opened the possibility of a novel type of shift register memory device, which has been optimistically predicted to replace existing magnetic memories. Owing to this promising prospect, intensive work has been carried out during the last few decades. In this article, we first review the progress in the study of current-induced magnetic domain wall motion. Underlying mechanisms behind the domain wall motion, which have been discovered during last few decades, as well as technological achievements are presented. We then present our recent experimental results on the real-time detection of current-driven multiple magnetic domain wall motion, which directly demonstrates the operation of a magnetic domain wall shift register.

  18. Common-image gathers in the offset domain from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge


    Kirchhoff migration is flexible to output common-image gathers (CIGs) in the offset domain by imaging data with different offsets separately. These CIGs supply important information for velocity model updates and amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) analysis. Reverse-time migration (RTM) offers more insights into complex geology than Kirchhoff migration by accurately describing wave propagation using the two-way wave equation. But, it has difficulty to produce offset domain CIGs like Kirchhoff migration. In this paper, we develop a method for obtaining offset domain CIGs from RTM. The method first computes the RTM operator of an offset gather, followed by a dot product of the operator and the offset data to form a common-offset RTM image. The offset domain CIGs are then achieved after separately migrating data with different offsets. We generate offset domain CIGs on both the Marmousi synthetic data and 2D Gulf of Mexico real data using this approach. © 2014.

  19. Finite element time domain modeling of controlled-Source electromagnetic data with a hybrid boundary condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Xiong, Bin


    We implemented an edge-based finite element time domain (FETD) modeling algorithm for simulating controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The modeling domain is discretized using unstructured tetrahedral mesh and we consider a finite difference discretization of time using the backward Euler...... method which is unconditionally stable. We solve the diffusion equation for the electric field with a total field formulation. The finite element system of equation is solved using the direct method. The solutions of electric field, at different time, can be obtained using the effective time stepping...

  20. Comparison of frequency and time domain electromyography parameters in women with patellofemoral pain. (United States)

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Silva, Danilo de Oliveira; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Albuquerque, Carlos Eduardo de; Ferrari, Deisi; Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de


    Despite its high incidence, patellofemoral pain etiology remains unclear. No prior study has compared surface electromyography frequency domain parameters and surface electromyography time domain variables, which have been used as a classic analysis of patellofemoral pain. Thirty one women with patellofemoral pain and twenty eight pain-free women were recruited. Each participant was asked to descend a seven step staircase and data from five successful trials were collected. During the task, the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscle activities were monitored by surface electromyography. The data were processed and analyzed in four variables of the frequency domain (median frequency, low, medium and high frequency bands) and three time domain variables (Automatic, Cross-correlation and Visual Onset between the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles). Reliability, Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and regression models were performed. The medium frequency band was the most reliable variable and different between the groups for both muscles, also demonstrated the best values of sensitivity and sensibility, 72% and 69% for the vastus medialis and 68% and 62% for the vastus lateralis, respectively. The frequency variables predicted the pain of individuals with patellofemoral pain, 26% for the vastus medialis and 20% for the vastus lateralis, being better than the time variables, which achieved only 7%. The frequency domain parameters presented greater reliability, diagnostic accuracy and capacity to predict pain than the time domain variables during stair descent and might be a useful tool to diagnose individuals with patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of noise in energy-dispersive spectrometers using time-domain methods

    CERN Document Server

    Goulding, F S


    This paper presents an integrated time domain approach to the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio in all spectrometer systems that contain a detector that converts incoming quanta of radiation into electrical pulse signals that are amplified and shaped by an electronic pulse shaper. It allows analysis of normal passive pulse shapers as well as time-variant systems where switching of shaping elements occurs in synchronism with the signal. It also deals comfortably with microcalorimeters (sometimes referred to as bolometers), where noise-determining elements, such as the temperature-sensing element's resistance and temperature, change with time in the presence of a signal. As part of the purely time-domain approach, a new method of calculating the Johnson noise in resistors using only the statistics of electron motion is presented. The result is a time-domain analog of the Nyquist formula.

  2. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of Chinese herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Jiusheng, E-mail: [Centre for THz Research, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)


    The absorption spectra of panax notoginseng and glycyrrhiza in the frequency range of 0.2{approx}1.6THz has been measured with terahertz time-domin spectroscopy at room temperature. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using density functional theory methods. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of Chinese herbal medicine (United States)

    Xiao-li, Zhao; Jiu-sheng, Li


    The absorption spectra of panax notoginseng and glycyrrhiza in the frequency range of 0.2~1.6THz has been measured with terahertz time-domin spectroscopy at room temperature. Simultaneously, the corresponding theoretical spectra were given by using density functional theory methods. It was found that the absorption peaks of the two molecules obtained by theoretical were in good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Electromagnetic Field Theory in (N+1)-Space-Time : AModern Time-Domain Tensor/Array Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hoop, A.T.


    In this paper, a modern time-domain introduction is presented for electromagnetic field theory in (N+1)-spacetime. It uses a consistent tensor/array notation that accommodates the description of electromagnetic phenomena in N-dimensional space (plus time), a requirement that turns up in present-day

  5. Electric field, Magnetic field and Magnetization : THz time-domain spectroscopy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, N.


    Terahertz radiation is electromagnetic waves with frequencies from 0.1-10 THz. THz radiation can pass through cardboard, paper, plastics, ceramics and many other materials. Hence, it can be used for non-destructive imaging. Another important application of THz radiation is spectroscopy. Many organic

  6. A discontinuous galerkin time domain-boundary integral method for analyzing transient electromagnetic scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping


    This paper presents an algorithm hybridizing discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and time domain boundary integral (BI) algorithm for 3-D open region electromagnetic scattering analysis. The computational domain of DGTD is rigorously truncated by analytically evaluating the incoming numerical flux from the outside of the truncation boundary through BI method based on the Huygens\\' principle. The advantages of the proposed method are that it allows the truncation boundary to be conformal to arbitrary (convex/ concave) scattering objects, well-separated scatters can be truncated by their local meshes without losing the physics (such as coupling/multiple scattering) of the problem, thus reducing the total mesh elements. Furthermore, low frequency waves can be efficiently absorbed, and the field outside the truncation domain can be conveniently calculated using the same BI formulation. Numerical examples are benchmarked to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the proposed method.

  7. Recent Progress in Terahertz Metasurfaces (United States)

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Withayachumnankul, Withawat


    In the past decade, the concept of metasurfaces has gradually dominated the field of metamaterials owing to their fascinating optical properties and simple planar geometries. At terahertz frequencies, the concept has been driven further by the availability of advanced micro-fabrication technologies that deliver sub-micron accuracy, well below the terahertz wavelengths. Furthermore, terahertz spectrometers with high dynamic range and amplitude and phase sensitivity provide valuable information for the study of metasurfaces in general. In this paper, we review recent progress in terahertz metasurfaces mainly in the last 5 years. The first part covers nonuniform metasurfaces that perform beamforming in reflection and transmission. In addition, we briefly overview four different methodologies that can be utilized in realizing high-quality-factor metasurfaces. We also describe two recent approaches to tuning the frequency response of terahertz metasurfaces using graphene as an active medium. Finally, we provide a brief summary and outlook for future developments in this rapidly progressing field.

  8. Detection of graft detachments immediately following Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) comparing time domain and spectral domain OCT. (United States)

    Siebelmann, Sebastian; Gehlsen, Uta; Le Blanc, Carolin; Stanzel, Tisha Prabriputaloong; Cursiefen, Claus; Steven, Philipp


    Correct early graft attachment is believed to be crucial for final visual outcome after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Nonetheless, it is not yet known which imaging technique gives superior results for examining early postoperative graft adherence status. We compared imaging data taken with two different OCT devices to examine the development of graft adherence immediately after DMEK and to determine the superior device in terms of visualization of graft adherence. Ten consecutive patients (1 man/9 women) were examined three times postoperatively within the first 7 h after DMEK surgery using spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) and time domain OCT (TD-OCT), as prospective case series and retrospective image data analyses. The parameters analyzed were localization and number, visibility and size of graft detachments. TD-OCT was able to detect a greater number of graft detachments after DMEK; however, SD-OCT provided better resolution of minor detachments. Graft detachments varied in position and degree at different time points immediately after surgery. All patients had some graft detachment within the first 7 h after DMEK surgery. TD-OCT enabled better overall analysis of graft detachments, even in the periphery, whereas SD-OCT allowed for the detection of even minor detachments, which suggests that a combination of the two techniques is optimal. Our results indicate that dynamic processes affecting the DMEK graft immediately after transplantation are responsible for changes in the attachment of donor tissue at an early postoperative stage. Modulation of early graft attachment may improve the final graft attachment.

  9. Are Total and Domain-Specific Sedentary Time Associated with Overweight in Older Taiwanese Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Hsueh


    Full Text Available This study investigated the associations between total and domain-specific sedentary time with the risk of overweight in older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted by administering computer-assisted telephone interviews to 1046 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥65 years residing in two regions in Taiwan in 2015. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported total and six domain-specific sedentary times and body mass index status (calculating by self-reported height and weight by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that compared with older women in the lowest quartile of the total sedentary time, those in the highest quartile were 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.21 times more likely to be overweight, after adjustment for potential confounders. The total sedentary time was stratified into six specific domains, and only watching television more than 2 h per day was positively associated with overweight (OR, 1.55; 95% CI: 1.08–2.25 in older women, whereas no other sedentary time domains were associated with the risk of overweight. No significant associations were observed in older men. Further studies using prospective designs are required to confirm the presently observed effects of total and domain-specific sedentary behavior on the health of older adults.

  10. Time Domain Technique for Rapid, Broadband Measurement of Human Absorption Cross Section in a Reverberation Chamber


    Robinson, Martin P; Zhang, Xiaotian; Flintoft, Ian D.


    Absorption cross section (ACS) of an object is used in stochastic power balance models, while human ACS is closely related to microwave dosimetry parameters such as specific absorption rate (SAR) and thus characterises exposure as well as effect of human bodies on multipath propagation. ACS, averaged over all directions of incidence, can be obtained in the frequency domain from the S-parameters of two antennas in a stirred-mode reverberation chamber; however, our new time domain method is fas...

  11. Optimization of the autocorrelation weighting function for the time-domain calculation of spectral centroids. (United States)

    Heo, Seo; Hur, Don; Kim, Hyungsuk


    Spectral centroid from the backscattered ultrasound provides important information about the attenuation properties of soft tissues and Doppler effects of blood flows. Because the spectral centroid is originally determined from the power spectrum of backscattered ultrasound signals in the frequency domain, it is natural to calculate it after converting time-domain signals into spectral domain signals, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT). Recent research, however, derived the time-domain equations for calculating the spectral centroid using a Parseval's theorem, to avoid the calculation of the Fourier transform. The work only presented the final result, which showed that the computational time of the proposed time-domain method was 4.4 times faster than that of the original FFT-based method, whereas the average estimation error was negligible. In this paper, we present the optimal design of the autocorrelation weighting function, which is used for the timedomain spectral centroid estimation process, to reduce the computational time significantly. We also carry out a comprehensive analysis of the computational complexities of the FFTbased and time-domain methods with respect to the length of ultrasound signal segments. The simulation results using numerical phantoms show that, with the optimized autocorrelation weighting function, we only need approximately 3% of the full set of data points. In addition to that, because the proposed optimization technique requires a fixed number of data points to calculate the spectral centroid, the execution time is constant as the length of the data segment increases, whereas the execution time of the conventional FFT-based method is increased. Analysis of the computational complexities between the proposed method and the conventional FFT-based method presents O(N) and O(Nlog2N), respectively.

  12. Time-domain finite-difference based analysis of induced crosstalk in multiwall carbon nanotube interconnects (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Nehra, Vikas; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar


    Graphene rolled-up cylindrical sheets i.e. carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is one of the finest and emerging research area. This paper presents the investigation of induced crosstalk in coupled on-chip multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) interconnects using finite-difference analysis (FDA) in time-domain i.e. the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The exceptional properties of versatile MWCNTs profess their candidacy to replace conventional on-chip copper interconnects. Time delay and crosstalk noise have been evaluated for coupled on-chip MWCNT interconnects. With a decrease in CNT length, the obtained results for an MWCNT shows that transmission performance improves as the number of shells increases. It has been observed that the obtained results using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique shows a very close match with the HSPICE simulated results.

  13. Terahertz thickness measurements for real industrial applications: from automotive paints to aerospace industry (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Beigang, René


    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for real-time thickness measurements of multilayered coatings using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed approach combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the specimen under test, a generalized modeling method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity and the precision of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Furthermore, a novel self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the car painting process and the influence of the spraying conditions and the sintering process on ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in aircraft industry. In addition, the developed approach enables for some applications the simultaneous determination of the complex refractive index and the coating thickness. Hence, a pre-calibration of the specimen under test is not required for such cases. Due to the high robustness of the self-calibration method and the genetic optimization algorithms, the approach has been successfully applied to resolve individual layer thicknesses within multi-layered coated samples down to less than 10 µm. The regression method can be applied in time-domain, frequency-domain or in both the time and frequency-domain simultaneously. The data evaluation uses general-purpose computing on graphics processing units and thanks to the developed highly parallelized algorithm lasts less than 300 ms. Thus, industrial requirements for fast thickness measurements with an "every-second-cycle" can be fulfilled.

  14. 3D time-domain airborne EM modeling for an arbitrarily anisotropic earth (United States)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe


    Time-domain airborne EM data is currently interpreted based on an isotropic model. Sometimes, it can be problematic when working in the region with distinct dipping stratifications. In this paper, we simulate the 3D time-domain airborne EM responses over an arbitrarily anisotropic earth with topography by edge-based finite-element method. Tetrahedral meshes are used to describe the abnormal bodies with complicated shapes. We further adopt the Backward Euler scheme to discretize the time-domain diffusion equation for electric field, obtaining an unconditionally stable linear equations system. We verify the accuracy of our 3D algorithm by comparing with 1D solutions for an anisotropic half-space. Then, we switch attentions to effects of anisotropic media on the strengths and the diffusion patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses. For numerical experiments, we adopt three typical anisotropic models: 1) an anisotropic anomalous body embedded in an isotropic half-space; 2) an isotropic anomalous body embedded in an anisotropic half-space; 3) an anisotropic half-space with topography. The modeling results show that the electric anisotropy of the subsurface media has big effects on both the strengths and the distribution patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses; this effect needs to be taken into account when interpreting ATEM data in areas with distinct anisotropy.

  15. High Performance Computing of Meshless Time Domain Method on Multi-GPU Cluster (United States)

    Ikuno, Soichiro; Nakata, Susumu; Hirokawa, Yuta; Itoh, Taku


    High performance computing of Meshless Time Domain Method (MTDM) on multi-GPU using the supercomputer HA-PACS (Highly Accelerated Parallel Advanced system for Computational Sciences) at University of Tsukuba is investigated. Generally, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is adopted for the numerical simulation of the electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena. However, the numerical domain must be divided into rectangle meshes, and it is difficult to adopt the problem in a complexed domain to the method. On the other hand, MTDM can be easily adept to the problem because MTDM does not requires meshes. In the present study, we implement MTDM on multi-GPU cluster to speedup the method, and numerically investigate the performance of the method on multi-GPU cluster. To reduce the computation time, the communication time between the decomposed domain is hided below the perfect matched layer (PML) calculation procedure. The results of computation show that speedup of MTDM on 128 GPUs is 173 times faster than that of single CPU calculation.

  16. Contrast in Terahertz Images of Archival Documents—Part I: Influence of the Optical Parameters from the Ink and Support (United States)

    Bardon, Tiphaine; May, Robert K.; Jackson, J. Bianca; Beentjes, Gabriëlle; de Bruin, Gerrit; Taday, Philip F.; Strlič, Matija


    This study aims to objectively inform curators when terahertz time-domain (TD) imaging set in reflection mode is likely to give well-contrasted images of inscriptions in a complex archival document and is a useful non-invasive alternative to current digitisation processes. To this end, the dispersive refractive indices and absorption coefficients from various archival materials are assessed and their influence on contrast in terahertz images from historical documents is explored. Sepia ink and inks produced with bistre or verdigris mixed with a solution of Arabic gum or rabbit skin glue are unlikely to lead to well-contrasted images. However, dispersions of bone black, ivory black, iron gall ink, malachite, lapis lazuli, minium and vermilion are likely to lead to well-contrasted images. Inscriptions written with lamp black, carbon black and graphite give the best imaging results. The characteristic spectral signatures from iron gall ink, minium and vermilion pellets between 5 and 100 cm-1 relate to a ringing effect at late collection times in TD waveforms transmitted through these pellets. The same ringing effect can be probed in waveforms reflected from iron gall, minium and vermilion ink deposits at the surface of a document. Since TD waveforms collected for each scanning pixel can be Fourier-transformed into spectral information, terahertz TD imaging in reflection mode can serve as a hyperspectral imaging tool. However, chemical recognition and mapping of the ink is currently limited by the fact that the morphology of the document influences more the terahertz spectral response of the document than the resonant behaviour of the ink.

  17. Systematic study of terahertz response of SrTiO3 based heterostructures: Influence of strain, temperature, and electric field (United States)

    Skoromets, V.; Kadlec, C.; Drahokoupil, J.; Schubert, J.; Hlinka, J.; Kužel, P.


    Epitaxial heterostructures consisting of a variable number of SrTiO3/DyScO3 bilayers deposited on DyScO3 substrates were investigated using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy down to helium temperatures. Interdigitated electrodes deposited on top of the structures allowed probing of the terahertz response upon an applied electric field. The phase transition into a ferroelectric state is observed in SrTiO3 films in all samples close to room temperature (between 250 and 310 K) due to in-plane epitaxial strain induced by the substrate and intercalated layers of DyScO3. Evolution of the dielectric spectra with temperature and external electric field is described by a general model which involves a damped harmonic oscillator (soft mode) coupled to a Debye relaxation (central mode). Both modes are connected with the soft mode eigenvector, as recently shown by molecular dynamics simulations, and they reflect a strong anharmonicity of the soft-mode potential. At high temperatures the soft-mode frequency variation drives all the changes observed in the spectra with temperature and applied field. At low temperatures, deep in the ferroelectric phase, the soft mode significantly hardens and loses its importance for the terahertz dynamics; the central mode becomes stronger and it almost completely determines the shape of the measured spectra. The observed variation of phase transition temperature and of the dielectric response among the structures is ascribed to a partial epitaxial strain relaxation confirmed also by x-ray diffraction.

  18. Observation of terahertz radiation coherently generated by acoustic waves (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael R.; Reed, Evan J.; Kim, Ki-Yong; Glownia, James H.; Howard, William M.; Piner, Edwin L.; Roberts, John C.


    Over the past decade, pioneering and innovative experiments using subpicosecond lasers have demonstrated the generation and detection of acoustic and shock waves in materials with terahertz frequencies, the highest possible frequency acoustic waves. In addition to groundbreaking demonstrations of acoustic solitons, these experiments have led to new techniques for probing the structure of thin films. Terahertz-frequency electromagnetic radiation has been used in applications as diverse as molecular and material excitations, charge transfer, imaging and plasma dynamics. However, at present, existing approaches to detect and measure the time dependence of terahertz-frequency strain waves in materials use direct optical probes-time-resolved interferometry or reflectrometry. Piezoelectric-based strain gauges have been used in acoustic shock and strain wave experiments for decades, but the time resolution of such devices is limited to ~100ps and slower, the timescale of electronic recording technology. We have recently predicted that terahertz-frequency acoustic waves can be detected by observing terahertz radiation emitted when the acoustic wave propagates past an interface between materials of differing piezoelectric coefficients. Here, we report the first experimental observation of this fundamentally new phenomenon and demonstrate that it can be used to probe structural properties of thin films.

  19. Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detoma, Enrico; Tromborg, Bjarne; Montrosset, Ivo

    -signal analysis in the frequency domain allows a calculation of the range of operation without mode hopping around the grating reflectivity peak. This region should be as large as possible for proper operation of the tunable laser source. The analysis shows this stabilizing effect of mode coupling and gain......The stability properties of an external cavity laser with strong grating-filtered optical feedback to an anti-reflection coated facet are studied with a general frequency domain model. The model takes into account non-linear effects like four wave mixing and gain compression. A small...... copression in the lasing mode. An integral equation for the electrical field is derived from the frequency domain model and used for time domain simulations of large-signal behavior....

  20. Non-Causal Time-Domain Filters for Single-Channel Noise Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    shown that the output SNRs of the filters always increase as we increase the length of the filter when the desired signal is stationary. From both the theoretical and practical evaluations of the filters, it is clearly shown that the performance of time-domain filtering methods for noise reduction can......In many existing time-domain filtering methods for noise reduction in, e.g., speech processing, the filters are causal. Such causal filters can be implemented directly in practice. However, it is possible to improve the performance of such noise reduction filtering methods in terms of both noise...... suppression and signal distortion by allowing the filters to be non-causal. Non-causal time-domain filters require knowledge of the future, and are therefore not directly implementable. If the observed signal is processed in blocks, however, the non-causal filters are implementable. In this paper, we propose...

  1. Progress in parallel implementation of the multilevel plane wave time domain algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang


    The computational complexity and memory requirements of classical schemes for evaluating transient electromagnetic fields produced by Ns dipoles active for Nt time steps scale as O(NtN s 2) and O(Ns 2), respectively. The multilevel plane wave time domain (PWTD) algorithm [A.A. Ergin et al., Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE, vol. 41, pp. 39-52, 1999], viz. the extension of the frequency domain fast multipole method (FMM) to the time domain, reduces the above costs to O(NtNslog2Ns) and O(Ns α) with α = 1.5 for surface current distributions and α = 4/3 for volumetric ones. Its favorable computational and memory costs notwithstanding, serial implementations of the PWTD scheme unfortunately remain somewhat limited in scope and ill-suited to tackle complex real-world scattering problems, and parallel implementations are called for. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. A domain decomposition method for time fractional reaction-diffusion equation. (United States)

    Gong, Chunye; Bao, Weimin; Tang, Guojian; Jiang, Yuewen; Liu, Jie


    The computational complexity of one-dimensional time fractional reaction-diffusion equation is O(N²M) compared with O(NM) for classical integer reaction-diffusion equation. Parallel computing is used to overcome this challenge. Domain decomposition method (DDM) embodies large potential for parallelization of the numerical solution for fractional equations and serves as a basis for distributed, parallel computations. A domain decomposition algorithm for time fractional reaction-diffusion equation with implicit finite difference method is proposed. The domain decomposition algorithm keeps the same parallelism but needs much fewer iterations, compared with Jacobi iteration in each time step. Numerical experiments are used to verify the efficiency of the obtained algorithm.

  3. On the initial condition problem of the time domain PMCHWT surface integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail Enes


    Non-physical, linearly increasing and constant current components are induced in marching on-in-time solution of time domain surface integral equations when initial conditions on time derivatives of (unknown) equivalent currents are not enforced properly. This problem can be remedied by solving the time integral of the surface integral for auxiliary currents that are defined to be the time derivatives of the equivalent currents. Then the equivalent currents are obtained by numerically differentiating the auxiliary ones. In this work, this approach is applied to the marching on-in-time solution of the time domain Poggio-Miller-Chan-Harrington-Wu-Tsai surface integral equation enforced on dispersive/plasmonic scatterers. Accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numerical example.

  4. On the internal resonant modes in marching-on-in-time solution of the time domain electric field integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifei


    Internal resonant modes are always observed in the marching-on-in-time (MOT) solution of the time domain electric field integral equation (EFIE), although \\'relaxed initial conditions,\\' which are enforced at the beginning of time marching, should in theory prevent these spurious modes from appearing. It has been conjectured that, numerical errors built up during time marching establish the necessary initial conditions and induce the internal resonant modes. However, this conjecture has never been proved by systematic numerical experiments. Our numerical results in this communication demonstrate that, the internal resonant modes\\' amplitudes are indeed dictated by the numerical errors. Additionally, it is shown that in a few cases, the internal resonant modes can be made \\'invisible\\' by significantly suppressing the numerical errors. These tests prove the conjecture that the internal resonant modes are induced by numerical errors when the time domain EFIE is solved by the MOT method. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. High-Order Calderón Preconditioned Time Domain Integral Equation Solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Valdes, Felipe


    Two high-order accurate Calderón preconditioned time domain electric field integral equation (TDEFIE) solvers are presented. In contrast to existing Calderón preconditioned time domain solvers, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of fully-localized high-order div-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed basis functions converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  6. Time domain sensing in abrupt fiber taper based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (United States)

    Yam, Scott S.-H.; Nix, Michael


    A new time domain sensing scheme using a compact single abrupt taper-based standard single mode fiber Mach- Zehnder interferometer is proposed, tested and simulated. The interferometer consists of cascaded symmetrical abrupt 3 dB taper regions separated by a middle interfering section. After the interfering middle section, the cladding modes are converted back into core mode. Due to the external stimuli applied to the interferometer, change of refractive index and the optical path length are induced, resulting in phase difference of core and cladding modes, and hence, the output optical signal in the time domain. The proposed scheme promises a simple and sensitive approach to optical sensing.

  7. Introduction to the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Method for Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedney, Stephen


    Introduction to the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Method for Electromagnetics provides a comprehensive tutorial of the most widely used method for solving Maxwell's equations -- the Finite Difference Time-Domain Method. This book is an essential guide for students, researchers, and professional engineers who want to gain a fundamental knowledge of the FDTD method. It can accompany an undergraduate or entry-level graduate course or be used for self-study. The book provides all the background required to either research or apply the FDTD method for the solution of Maxwell's equations to p

  8. Multiresolution Time-Domain Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines Terminated in Linear Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Tong


    Full Text Available This paper derives a multiresolution time-domain (MRTD scheme for the multiconductor transmission line (MTL equations based on Daubechies’ scaling functions. The terminations are characterized by a state-variable formulation which allows a general description of the termination networks. For the linear load terminations, a method incorporating the terminal constraints is proposed to work out the scheme at and close to the terminations. The MRTD scheme is implemented with different basis functions for linear components including resistances, inductances, and capacitances. Numerical results show that the MRTD schemes obtain a more stable result than the conventional finite difference time-domain (FDTD method with a coarse space step.

  9. Portable, Real-time Tissue Functional Imaging Using Frequency Domain and Continuous Wave Diffuse Optics


    Mohammad Mirzaei Zarandi, Soroush


    The aim of this research is to develop and build a low cost portable integrated frequency-domain and continuous wave (CW) system for real-time spectroscopic imaging of human tissue. This system measures four tissue chromophore concentrations (water, lipid, deoxygenated, and oxygenated hemoglobin) using eight near-infrared wavelengths ranging from 660nm to 980nm, in real-time. The frequency domain (FD) module measures the phase and amplitude of photon density waves from 50-500 MHz with an oper...

  10. DWDM-TO-OTDM Conversion by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao; Galili, Michael


    We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated.......We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated....

  11. Direct use of linear time-domain aerodynamics in aeroservoelastic analysis: Aerodynamic model (United States)

    Woods, J. A.; Gilbert, Michael G.


    The work presented here is the first part of a continuing effort to expand existing capabilities in aeroelasticity by developing the methodology which is necessary to utilize unsteady time-domain aerodynamics directly in aeroservoelastic design and analysis. The ultimate objective is to define a fully integrated state-space model of an aeroelastic vehicle's aerodynamics, structure and controls which may be used to efficiently determine the vehicle's aeroservoelastic stability. Here, the current status of developing a state-space model for linear or near-linear time-domain indicial aerodynamic forces is presented.

  12. Design of one-dimensional optical pulse-shaping filters by time-domain topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lirong; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    Time-domain topology optimization is used here to design optical pulse-shaping filters in Si/SiO2 thin-film systems. A novel envelope objective function as well as explicit penalization are used to adapt the optimization method to this unique class of design problems.......Time-domain topology optimization is used here to design optical pulse-shaping filters in Si/SiO2 thin-film systems. A novel envelope objective function as well as explicit penalization are used to adapt the optimization method to this unique class of design problems....

  13. An investigation of time-dependent domain wall pinning effects in Tb/Fe multilayer thin flms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, G.N.; O'grady, K.; El-Hilo, M.


    Reverse domain nucleation time measurements have been performed on two Tb/Fe multilayer magneto-optic films exhibiting different degrees of domain wall pinning.A linear relationship between ln (reverse domain nucleation time) and the applied field has been predicted and observed for a sample

  14. Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences. (United States)

    Taday, Philip F


    The application of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy within the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative is considered. As a case study the potency levels in paracetamol (4-acetamidophenol) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) test tablets have been recovered from the terahertz absorption spectra using a multivariate partial-least-squares (PLS) calibration model. Root-mean-square errors of cross-validation (RMSECVs) of 2.85% and 3.90% were obtained for paracetamol and aspirin, respectively. Information about other excipients can also be obtained; for example, using the strong lactose absorption lines in the tablets, RMSECVs of 3.65% and 4.30% could be recovered from the paracetamol and aspirin samples, respectively. As active ingredients may also change their solid-state form during formulation processing or storage and as this can adversely affect the final dosage performance, monitoring of pharmaceutical ingredients is essential for a 'right-first-time' philosophy within the industry. Terahertz pulse spectroscopy is a high-throughput technique with many areas of potential exploitation in the pharmaceutical industry; these issues are discussed in this paper.

  15. Graphene geometric diodes for terahertz rectennas (United States)

    Zhu, Zixu; Joshi, Saumil; Grover, Sachit; Moddel, Garret


    We demonstrate a new thin-film graphene diode called a geometric diode that relies on geometric asymmetry to provide rectification at 28 THz. The geometric diode is coupled to an optical antenna to form a rectenna that rectifies incoming radiation. This is the first reported graphene-based antenna-coupled diode working at 28 THz, and potentially at optical frequencies. The planar structure of the geometric diode provides a low RC time constant, on the order of 10-15 s, required for operation at optical frequencies, and a low impedance for efficient power transfer from the antenna. Fabricated geometric diodes show asymmetric current-voltage characteristics consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the devices. Rectennas employing the geometric diode coupled to metal and graphene antennas rectify 10.6 µm radiation, corresponding to an operating frequency of 28 THz. The graphene bowtie antenna is the first demonstrated functional antenna made using graphene. Its response indicates that graphene is a suitable terahertz resonator material. Applications for this terahertz diode include terahertz-wave and optical detection, ultra-high-speed electronics and optical power conversion.

  16. Time-Frequency Signal Representations Using Interpolations in Joint-Variable Domains (United States)


    nature classification using dynamic time warping ,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 1078–1096, Jul. 2010. [12] S. S. Ram, C...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Time -frequency (TF) representations are a powerful tool for analyzing Doppler and micro-Doppler signals. These signals are...applied in the instantaneous autocorrelation domain over the time variable, the low-pass filter characteristic underlying linear interpolators lends

  17. Explicit solution of the time domain magnetic field integral equation using a predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda


    An explicit yet stable marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The stability of the explicit scheme is achieved via (i) accurate evaluation of the MOT matrix elements using closed form expressions and (ii) a PE(CE) m type linear multistep method for time marching. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the proposed explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solver. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Quasi-exact evaluation of time domain MFIE MOT matrix elements

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifei


    A previously proposed quasi-exact scheme for evaluating matrix elements resulting from the marching-on-in-time (MOT) discretization of the time domain electric field integral equation (EFIE) is extended to matrix entries resulting from the discretization of its magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) counterpart. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the scheme as well as the late-time stability of the resulting MOT-MFIE solver. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Polarization insensitive terahertz metamaterial absorber. (United States)

    Grant, J; Ma, Y; Saha, S; Lok, L B; Khalid, A; Cumming, D R S


    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a polarization insensitive resonant metamaterial absorber in the terahertz region. The device consists of a metal/dielectric-spacer/metal structure allowing us to maximize absorption by varying the dielectric material and thickness and, hence, the effective electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Experimental absorption of 77% and 65% at 2.12 THz (in the operating frequency range of terahertz quantum cascade lasers) is observed for a spacer of polyimide or silicon dioxide respectively. These metamaterials are promising candidates as absorbing elements for thermally based terahertz imaging.

  20. Fast time- and frequency-domain finite-element methods for electromagnetic analysis (United States)

    Lee, Woochan

    Fast electromagnetic analysis in time and frequency domain is of critical importance to the design of integrated circuits (IC) and other advanced engineering products and systems. Many IC structures constitute a very large scale problem in modeling and simulation, the size of which also continuously grows with the advancement of the processing technology. This results in numerical problems beyond the reach of existing most powerful computational resources. Different from many other engineering problems, the structure of most ICs is special in the sense that its geometry is of Manhattan type and its dielectrics are layered. Hence, it is important to develop structure-aware algorithms that take advantage of the structure specialties to speed up the computation. In addition, among existing time-domain methods, explicit methods can avoid solving a matrix equation. However, their time step is traditionally restricted by the space step for ensuring the stability of a time-domain simulation. Therefore, making explicit time-domain methods unconditionally stable is important to accelerate the computation. In addition to time-domain methods, frequency-domain methods have suffered from an indefinite system that makes an iterative solution difficult to converge fast. The first contribution of this work is a fast time-domain finite-element algorithm for the analysis and design of very large-scale on-chip circuits. The structure specialty of on-chip circuits such as Manhattan geometry and layered permittivity is preserved in the proposed algorithm. As a result, the large-scale matrix solution encountered in the 3-D circuit analysis is turned into a simple scaling of the solution of a small 1-D matrix, which can be obtained in linear (optimal) complexity with negligible cost. Furthermore, the time step size is not sacrificed, and the total number of time steps to be simulated is also significantly reduced, thus achieving a total cost reduction in CPU time. The second contribution

  1. Quantum-corrected plasmonic field analysis using a time domain PMCHWT integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail E.


    When two structures are within sub-nanometer distance of each other, quantum tunneling, i.e., electrons "jumping" from one structure to another, becomes relevant. Classical electromagnetic solvers do not directly account for this additional path of current. In this work, an auxiliary tunnel made of Drude material is used to "connect" the structures as a support for this current path (R. Esteban et al., Nat. Commun., 2012). The plasmonic fields on the resulting connected structure are analyzed using a time domain surface integral equation solver. Time domain samples of the dispersive medium Green function and the dielectric permittivities are computed from the analytical inverse Fourier transform applied to the rational function representation of their frequency domain samples.

  2. Modeling XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft dynamics by frequency and time-domain identification techniques (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.; Kaletka, Juergen


    Models of the open-loop hover dynamics of the XV-15 Tilt-Rotor Aircraft are extracted from flight data using two approaches: frequency domain and time-domain identification. Both approaches are reviewed and the identification results are presented and compared in detail. The extracted models are compared favorably, with the differences associated mostly with the inherent weighing of each technique. Step responses are used to show that the predictive capability of the models from both techniques is excellent. Based on the results of this study, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the frequency and time-domain techniques are summarized and a proposal for a coordinated parameter identification approach is presented.

  3. Experimentally achieving borehole antenna radar directivity in the time domain in the presence of strong mutual coupling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D


    Full Text Available published borehole radar antennas have achieved directivity by post processing data received in the frequency domain, or by constructing an aperture antenna, where borehole dimensions allowed this. In this paper, a time-domain technique is investigated...

  4. Semiblind frequency-domain timing synchronization and channel estimation for OFDM systems (United States)

    Kung, Te-Lung; Parhi, Keshab K.


    In this article, we propose unit vectors in the high dimensional Cartesian coordinate system as the preamble, and then propose a semiblind timing synchronization and channel estimation scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Due to the lack of useful information in the time-domain, a frequency-domain timing synchronization algorithm is proposed. The proposed semiblind approach consists of three stages. In the first stage, a coarse timing offset related to the delayed timing of the path with the maximum gain in multipath fading channels is obtained. Then, a fine time adjustment algorithm is performed to find the actual delayed timing in channels. Finally, the channel response in the frequency-domain is obtained based on the final timing estimate. Although the required number of additions in the proposed algorithm is higher than those in conventional methods, the simulation results show that the proposed approach has excellent performance of timing synchronization in several channel models at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) smaller than 6 dB. In addition, for a low-density parity-check coded single-input single-output OFDM system, our proposed approach has better bit-error-rate performance than conventional approaches for SNR varying from 3 to 8 dB.

  5. Terahertz-visible two-photon rotational spectroscopy of cold OD-

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lakhmanskaya, Olga; Spieler, Steffen; Endres, Eric S; Geistlinger, Katharina; Kumar, Sunil S; Wester, Roland


    We present a method to measure rotational transitions of molecular anions in the terahertz domain by sequential two-photon absorption. Ion excitation by bound-bound terahertz absorption is probed by absorption in the visible on a bound-free transition. The visible frequency is tuned to a state-selective photodetachment transition of the excited anions. This provides a terahertz action spectrum for just few hundred molecular ions. To demonstrate this we measure the two lowest rotational transitions, J=1<-0 and J =2<-1 of OD- anions in a cryogenic 22-pole trap. We obtain rotational transition frequencies of 598596.08(19) MHz for J=1<-0 and 1196791.57(27) MHz for J=2<-1 of OD-, in good agreement with their only previous measurement. This two-photon scheme opens up terahertz rovibrational spectroscopy for a range of molecular anions, in particular for polyatomic and cluster anions.

  6. Perfectly matched layer method in the finite-difference time-domain and frequency-domain calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    A complex-coordinate method known under the guise of the perfectly matched layer (PML) method for treating unbounded domains in computational electrodynamics is related to similar techniques in fluid dynamics and classical quantum theory. It may also find use in electronic-structure finite...... within thin layers of space adjacent to the computational domain boundaries, i.e., the PMLs....

  7. Excitation of Terahertz Charge Transfer Plasmons in Metallic Fractal Structures (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Gerislioglu, Burak; Sinha, Raju; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Pala, Nezih


    There have been extensive researches on terahertz (THz) plasmonic structures supporting resonant modes to demonstrate nano and microscale devices with high efficiency and responsivity as well as frequency selectivity. Here, using antisymmetric plasmonic fractal Y-shaped (FYS) structures as building blocks, we introduce a highly tunable four-member fractal assembly to support charge transfer plasmons (CTPs) and classical dipolar resonant modes with significant absorption cross section in the THz domain. We first present that the unique geometrical nature of the FYS system and corresponding spectral response allow for supporting intensified dipolar plasmonic modes under polarised light exposure in a standalone structure. In addition to classical dipolar mode, for the very first time, we demonstrated CTPs in the THz domain due to the direct shuttling of the charges across the metallic fractal microantenna which led to sharp resonant absorption peaks. Using both numerical and experimental studies, we have investigated and confirmed the excitation of the CTP modes and highly tunable spectral response of the proposed plasmonic fractal structure. This understanding opens new and promising horizons for tightly integrated THz devices with high efficiency and functionality.

  8. Tailoring the plasmon-induced transparency resonances in terahertz metamaterials. (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Xueqian; Gu, Jianqiang; Ouyang, Chunmei; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili


    We experimentally demonstrate that a coupled metamaterial composed of sub-wavelength split-ring-resonators (SRRs) and closed-ring-resonators (CRRs) can tailor the plasmon-induced-transparency (PIT) resonances when the external electric field is parallel to the gaps of SRRs. Rotating or moving SRRs in vertical direction plays a critical role in the EIT functionality, while an excellent robust performance can be acquired via moving SRRs in the horizontal direction. Based on the results, a polarization-independent and polarization-dependent planar metamaterial are designed, fabricated and measured. In contrast to the spectral property of the polarization-independent medium, the polarization-dependent one is featured by isolated PIT phenomena in the frequency-domain, with respect to the horizontal and vertical polarized incident beam. Transmission responses of the PIT metamaterial are characterized with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, showing a good agreement with the rigorous numerical simulation results. The presented work delivers a unique way to excite and modulate the PIT response, toward developing polarization-independent and polarization-dependent slow-light building blocks, ultrasensitive sensors and narrow-band filters functioning in the THz regime.

  9. The finite-difference time-domain method for electromagnetics with Matlab simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z


    This book introduces the powerful Finite-Difference Time-Domain method to students and interested researchers and readers. An effective introduction is accomplished using a step-by-step process that builds competence and confidence in developing complete working codes for the design and analysis of various antennas and microwave devices.

  10. Fast time domain simulation of power systems using multilevel preconditioners with adaptive reconstruction strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, S.; Xue, W.; Lin, H.X.


    Time domain simulation (TDS) is an important tool for the analysis of the dynamic behavior of power systems. TDS is a hard computational problem due to the complexity in solving a sequence of large linear systems based on Jacobian matrices. Iterative solvers with various preconditioning techniques

  11. Postural Analysis in Time and Frequency Domains in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (United States)

    Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Celletti, Claudia; Mainardi, Luca; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo


    The goal of this work is to analyze postural control in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) participants in time and frequency domain. This study considered a pathological group composed by 22 EDS participants performing a postural test consisting in maintaining standing position over a force platform for 30 s in two conditions: open eyes (OE) and closed…

  12. The finite difference time domain method on a massively parallel computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewijk, L.J. van


    At the Physics and Electronics Laboratory TNO much research is done in the field of computational electromagnetics (CEM). One of the tools in this field is the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD), a method that has been implemented in a program in order to be able to compute electromagnetic

  13. A simplified time-domain design and implementation of cascaded PI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    mode current controller has been developed for renewable energy applications such as photovoltaic (PV)-fed dc–dc converters. ... Keywords. dc–dc power converters; PI control; sliding mode control; energy factor; time-domain analysis. 1. Introduction ...... Technical Education (AICTE), Ministry of Human. Resource and ...

  14. Complex permittivity model for time domain reflectometry soil water content sensing: II. Calibration (United States)

    Despite numerous applications of time domain reflectometry (TDR), serious difficulties in estimating accurate soil water contents under field conditions remain, especially in fine-textured soils. Our objectives were to calibrate a complex dielectric mixing model described by Schwartz et al. (this is...

  15. Complex permittivity model for time domain reflectometry soil water content sensing: I. Theory (United States)

    Despite numerous applications of time-domain reflectometry (TDR), serious difficulties exist in estimating accurate soil water contents under field conditions remain, especially in fine-textured soils. We developed a physically-based calibration model to predict the frequency and temperature depende...

  16. Performance evaluation using SYSTID time domain simulation. [computer-aid design and analysis for communication systems (United States)

    Tranter, W. H.; Ziemer, R. E.; Fashano, M. J.


    This paper reviews the SYSTID technique for performance evaluation of communication systems using time-domain computer simulation. An example program illustrates the language. The inclusion of both Gaussian and impulse noise models make accurate simulation possible in a wide variety of environments. A very flexible postprocessor makes possible accurate and efficient performance evaluation.

  17. Time-domain Kirchhoff model for acoustic scattering from an impedance polygon facet. (United States)

    Lee, Keunhwa; Seong, Woojae


    Kirchhoff formula for an impedance polygon facet is given in the time domain. The derived formula is expressed as a summation of the transient analytic functions and generalized functions and represents an impulse response of the impedance polygon facet. Current formula can be applied to transient scattering analysis of underwater objects such as fish and submarine, or rough surface in the geometrical scattering region.

  18. Time domain flutter analysis of cascades using a full-potential solver (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.


    A time domain approach is used to determine the dynamic aeroelastic stability of a cascade of blades. The structural model for each blade is a typical section with two degrees of freedom. The aerodynamic model is the unsteady, two-dimensional, full-potential flow through the cascade of airfoils. The unsteady equations of motion for the structure and the fluid are integrated simultaneously in time starting with the steady flowfield and a small initial disturbance applied to the airfoils. The motion of each blade is analyzed to determine the aeroelastic stability of the cascade. The effect of interblade phase angle is included in the analysis by allowing each blade to have an independent motion and considering a number of blade passages. Calculations are made using an airfoil section and structural parameters that are representative of a propfan. The results are compared with those from a separate frequency domain analysis. Good agreement between the results is observed. With the time domain approach, it is possible to consider nonlinear structural models and nonlinear force-displacement relations. The method allows a realistic simulation of the motion of the fluid and the cascade blades for a better physical understanding and it also has the potential for saving computational time when compared to the frequency domain approach for the flutter analysis of cascades.

  19. Lithological characterization of a contaminated site using Direct current resistivity and time domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurya, Pradip Kumar; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben

    study a large contaminated site in Denmark was investigated using direct current resistivity and time domain induced polarization (DCIP). For this purpose 14 profiles were collected alongside a stream in order to investigate the contamination and delineate the lithological units. 2D inversion using...

  20. Orthostatic blood pressure control before and after spaceflight, determined by time-domain baroreflex method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gisolf, J.; Immink, R. V.; van Lieshout, J. J.; Stok, W. J.; Karemaker, J. M.


    Reduction in plasma volume is a major contributor to orthostatic tachycardia and hypotension after spaceflight. We set out to determine time- and frequency-domain baroreflex (BRS) function during preflight baseline and venous occlusion and postflight orthostatic stress, testing the hypothesis that a

  1. Time domain-nuclear magnetic resonance study of chars from southern hardwoods (United States)

    Thomas Elder; Nicole Labbe; David Harper; Timothy Rials


    Chars from the thermal degradation of silver maple (Acer saccharinum), red maple (Acer rubrum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and white oak (Quercus spp.), performed at temperatures from 250 to 350 oC, were examined using time domain-nuclear magnetic resonance...

  2. Development of a method for reconstruction of crowded NMR spectra from undersampled time-domain data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takumi; Yoshiura, Chie; Matsumoto, Masahiko; Kofuku, Yutaka; Okude, Junya; Kondo, Keita; Shiraishi, Yutaro [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan); Takeuchi, Koh [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (Japan); Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)


    NMR is a unique methodology for obtaining information about the conformational dynamics of proteins in heterogeneous biomolecular systems. In various NMR methods, such as transferred cross-saturation, relaxation dispersion, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiments, fast determination of the signal intensity ratios in the NMR spectra with high accuracy is required for analyses of targets with low yields and stabilities. However, conventional methods for the reconstruction of spectra from undersampled time-domain data, such as linear prediction, spectroscopy with integration of frequency and time domain, and analysis of Fourier, and compressed sensing were not effective for the accurate determination of the signal intensity ratios of the crowded two-dimensional spectra of proteins. Here, we developed an NMR spectra reconstruction method, “conservation of experimental data in analysis of Fourier” (Co-ANAFOR), to reconstruct the crowded spectra from the undersampled time-domain data. The number of sampling points required for the transferred cross-saturation experiments between membrane proteins, photosystem I and cytochrome b{sub 6}f, and their ligand, plastocyanin, with Co-ANAFOR was half of that needed for linear prediction, and the peak height reduction ratios of the spectra reconstructed from truncated time-domain data by Co-ANAFOR were more accurate than those reconstructed from non-uniformly sampled data by compressed sensing.

  3. An Improved Time Domain Procedure For Separating Incident And Reflected Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Matsumoto, A.; Tayasu, M.


    Impulse responses of digital filters for use in separating incident and reflected water waves in a time domain are improved by using a nonlinear least square formulation. The applicability and limitations of the method are discussed. Trial computations using a set of analytical examples with known...

  4. Improved theory of time domain reflectometry with variable coaxial cable length for electrical conductivity measurements (United States)

    Although empirical models have been developed previously, a mechanistic model is needed for estimating electrical conductivity (EC) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) with variable lengths of coaxial cable. The goals of this study are to: (1) derive a mechanistic model based on multisection tra...

  5. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin


    -of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...

  6. Time domain simulation of piezoelectric excitation of guided waves in rails using waveguide finite elements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transducers are commonly used to excite waves in elastic waveguides such as pipes, rock bolts and rails. While it is possible to simulate the operation of these transducers attached to the waveguide, in the time domain, using...

  7. Range/velocity limitations for time-domain blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The traditional range/velocity limitation for blood velocity estimation systems using ultrasound is elucidated. It is stated that the equation is a property of the estimator used, not the actual physical measurement situation, as higher velocities can be estimated by the time domain cross...

  8. Wavelength- and Time-Selective Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Using Time-Frequency Domain Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konishi Tsuyoshi


    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a wavelength- and time-selective reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM using time-frequency domain processing. The proposed ROADM is realized by allocating wavelength channels and time slots to corresponding 2D spatial channels on a MEMS optical switch. Experimental results show the wavelength- and time-selective drop operation for a signal with equivalent 3.2 Tb/s (0.64  channels, and the reconfigurability by the switching operation of the MEMS optical switch.

  9. Wavelength- and Time-Selective Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer Using Time-Frequency Domain Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Konishi


    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate a wavelength- and time-selective reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM using time-frequency domain processing. The proposed ROADM is realized by allocating wavelength channels and time slots to corresponding 2D spatial channels on a MEMS optical switch. Experimental results show the wavelength- and time-selective drop operation for a signal with equivalent 3.2 Tb/s (0.64 Tb/s×5 channels, and the reconfigurability by the switching operation of the MEMS optical switch.

  10. Marching on-in-time solution of the time domain magnetic field integral equation using a predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda


    An explicit marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time-domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE) is presented. The proposed MOT-TD-MFIE solver uses Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions for spatial discretization and a PE(CE)m-type linear multistep method for time marching. Unlike previous explicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers, the time step size can be chosen as large as that of the implicit MOT-TD-MFIE solvers without adversely affecting accuracy or stability. An algebraic stability analysis demonstrates the stability of the proposed explicit solver; its accuracy and efficiency are established via numerical examples. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  11. Time-domain imaging with quench-based fluorescent contrast agents (United States)

    Akers, Walter J.; Solomon, Metasebya; Sudlow, Gail P.; Berezin, Mikhail; Achilefu, Samuel


    Quench-based probes utilize unique characteristics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to enhance contrast upon de-quenching. This mechanism has been used in a variety of molecular probes for imaging of cancer related enzyme activity such as matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins and caspases. While non-fluorescent upon administration, fluorescence can be restored by separation of donor and acceptor, resulting in higher intensity in the presence of activator. Along with decreased quantum yield, FRET also results in altered fluorescence lifetime. Time-domain imaging can further enhance contrast and information yield from quench-based probes. We present in vivo time-domain imaging for detecting activation of quench-based probes. Quench-based probes utilize unique characteristics of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to enhance contrast upon de-quenching. This mechanism has been used in a variety of molecular probes for imaging of cancer related enzyme activity such as matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsins and caspases. While non-fluorescent upon administration, fluorescence can be restored by separation of donor and acceptor, resulting in higher intensity in the presence of activator. Along with decreased quantum yield, FRET also results in altered fluorescence lifetime. Time-domain imaging can further enhance contrast and information yield from quench-based probes. We present in vivo time-domain imaging for detecting activation of quench-based probes. Time-domain diffuse optical imaging was performed to assess the FRET and quenching in living mice with orthotopic breast cancer. Tumor contrast enhancement was accompanied by increased fluorescence lifetime after administration of quenched probes selective for matrix metalloproteinases while no significant change was observed for non-quenched probes for integrin receptors. These results demonstrate the utility of timedomain imaging for detection of cancer-related enzyme activity in vivo.

  12. Full waveform inversion using oriented time-domain imaging method for vertical transverse isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong


    Full waveform inversion for reection events is limited by its linearized update re-quirements given by a process equivalent to migration. Unless the background velocity model is reasonably accurate, the resulting gradient can have an inaccurate update direction leading the inversion to converge what we refer to as local minima of the objective function. In our approach, we consider mild lateral variation in the model, and thus, use a gradient given by the oriented time-domain imaging method. Specifically, we apply the oriented time-domain imaging on the data residual to obtain the geometrical features of the velocity perturbation. After updating the model in the time domain, we convert the perturbation from the time domain to depth using the average velocity. Considering density is constant, we can expand the conventional 1D impedance inversion method to 2D or 3D velocity inversion within the process of full waveform inversion. This method is not only capable of inverting for velocity, but it is also capable of retrieving anisotropic parameters relying on linearized representations of the reection response. To eliminate the cross-talk artifacts between different parameters, we utilize what we consider being an optimal parametrization for this step. To do so, we extend the prestack time-domain migration image in incident angle dimension to incorporate angular dependence needed by the multiparameter inversion. For simple models, this approach provides an efficient and stable way to do full waveform inversion or modified seismic inversion and makes the anisotropic inversion more practicable. The proposed method still needs kinematically accurate initial models since it only recovers the high-wavenumber part as conventional full waveform inversion method does. Results on synthetic data of isotropic and anisotropic cases illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  13. Control of parabolic PDEs with time-varying spatial domain: Czochralski crystal growth process (United States)

    Ng, James; Aksikas, Ilyasse; Dubljevic, Stevan


    This paper considers the optimal control problem for a class of convection-diffusion-reaction systems modelled by partial differential equations (PDEs) defined on time-varying spatial domains. The class of PDEs is characterised by the presence of a time-dependent convective-transport term which is associated with the time evolution of the spatial domain boundary. The functional analytic description of the PDE yields the representation of the initial and boundary value problem as a nonautonomous parabolic evolution equation on an appropriately defined infinite-dimensional function space. The properties of the time-varying evolution operator to guarantee existence and well posedness of the initial and boundary value problem are demonstrated which serves as the basis for the optimal control problem synthesis. An industrial application of the crystal temperature regulation problem for the Czochralski crystal growth process is considered and numerical simulation results are provided.

  14. Time-domain analysis of frequency dependent inertial wave forces on cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen


    Mono-pile structures are attractive for small well-head platforms and foundation of offshore wind turbines at moderate water depth. Their diameter of several meters makes them prone to simultaneous occurrence of frequency-dependent inertial forces and non-linear drag. The present paper presents a...... a simple time-domain procedure for the inertial force, in which the frequency dependence is represented via a simple explicit time filter on the wave particle acceleration or velocity. The frequency dependence of the inertia coefficient is known analytically as a function of the wave......-number, and the relevant range of waves shorter than about six times the diameter typically corresponds to deep water waves. This permits a universal non-dimensional frequency representation, that is converted to rational form to provide the relevant filter equation. Simple time-domain simulations demonstrate...

  15. Detection of internal quality in kiwi with time-domain diffuse reflectance spectroscopy


    Valero Ubierna, Constantino; Ruiz-Altisent, Margarita; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Gianluca; Johnson, David; Dover, Colin


    Time-domain diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), a medical sensing technique, was used to evaluate internal kiwi fruit quality. The application of this pulsed laser spectroscopic technique was studied as a new, possible non-destructive, method to detect optically different quality parameters: firmness, sugar content, and acidity. The main difference with other spectroscopic techniques is that TRS estimates separately and at the same time absorbed light and scattering inside the sample, at ...

  16. A Time-Frequency Domain Underdetermined Blind Source Separation Algorithm for MIMO Radar Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo


    Full Text Available This paper considers the underdetermined blind separation of multiple input multiple output (MIMO radar signals that are insufficiently sparse in both time and frequency domains under noisy conditions, while traditional algorithms are usually applied in the ideal sparse environment. An effective separation method based on single source point (SSP identification and time-frequency smoothed l 0 norm (TF-SL0 is proposed. Firstly, a preprocessing step of the moving average filter and a novel argument-based time-frequency SSPs detection are employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and signal sparsity of the observed signals, respectively. Then, the mixing matrix is obtained by using clustering algorithms. Secondly, to obtain the optimal solution of underdetermined sparse component analysis, the smoothed l 0 norm (SL0 is introduced to preliminarily achieve signal separation in the time-frequency domain. Finally, time-frequency ridge estimation is proposed to jointly enhance the reconstruction accuracy of the MIMO radar signals, and the time domain waveforms are recovered by the model of the signals. Simulations illustrate the validity of the method and show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional methods in source separation, especially in the non-cooperative electromagnetic case where the prior information is unknown.

  17. Finite element time domain modeling of controlled-source electromagnetic data with a hybrid boundary condition (United States)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Hu, Xiangyun; Xiong, Bin; Auken, Esben; Han, Muran; Li, Jianhui


    We implemented an edge-based finite element time domain (FETD) modeling algorithm for simulating controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The modeling domain is discretized using unstructured tetrahedral mesh and we consider a finite difference discretization of time using the backward Euler method which is unconditionally stable. We solve the diffusion equation for the electric field with a total field formulation. The finite element system of equation is solved using the direct method. The solutions of electric field, at different time, can be obtained using the effective time stepping method with trivial computation cost once the matrix is factorized. We try to keep the same time step size for a fixed number of steps using an adaptive time step doubling (ATSD) method. The finite element modeling domain is also truncated using a semi-adaptive method. We proposed a new boundary condition based on approximating the total field on the modeling boundary using the primary field corresponding to a layered background model. We validate our algorithm using several synthetic model studies.

  18. Terahertz Imaging of Subjects With Concealed Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickinson, Jason C; Goyette, Thoms M; Gatesman, Andrew J; Joseph, Cecil S; Root, Zachary G; Giles, Robert H; Waldman, Jerry; Nixon, William E


    .... Two contrasting techniques were used to collect the imagery. Both methods made use of in-house transceivers, consisting of two ultra-stable far-infrared lasers, terahertz heterodyne detection systems, and terahertz anechoic chambers...

  19. Resonant metallic nanostructures for enhanced terahertz spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.


    We present our recent studies on terahertz resonant dipole nanoantennas. Exploiting the localization and enhancement capabilities of these devices, we introduce an effective method to perform terahertz spectroscopy on an extremely small number of nano-objects.

  20. Invisible Security Printing on Photoresist Polymer Readable by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jun Shin


    Full Text Available We experimentally modulate the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of an SU-8 dry film in the terahertz region by UV light (362 nm exposure with time dependency. Consequently, the refractive index of SU-8 film is increased by approximately 6% after UV light exposure. Moreover, the absorption coefficient also changes significantly. Using the reflective terahertz imaging technique, in addition, we can read security information printed by UV treatment on an SU-8 film that is transparent in the visible spectrum. From these results, we successfully demonstrate security printing and reading by using photoresist materials and the terahertz technique. This investigation would provide a new insight into anti-counterfeiting applications in fields that need security.

  1. Studies on the resonant properties in the asymmetric dipole-array terahertz metamaterials (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhou, Qingli; Li, Chenyu; Shi, Lan; Liu, Changxiang; Zhang, Cunlin


    Artificial metamaterials with appropriate design can exhibit unique electromagnetic phenomena which do not exist in natural materials. Some studies have shown that the method of breaking the geometric symmetry is capable to modify the electromagnetic response, such as the metamaterial induced transparency in the Fano resonators. In this work, by using the finite-difference time-domain method, we firstly simulate the process that terahertz wave interacts with double-bar structures, in which one bar length is fixed at 36 μm and the other bar length is set to be 12, 24, 36, 48, and 56 μm, respectively. The incident terahertz polarization is along the bar direction. Simulated results show when the variable bar length is less than 36 μm, there is only one obvious resonant dip in transmission spectrum. Meanwhile, with the decreased bar length, this dip frequency presents a slight blueshift. Additionally, by tuning the spacing vertical to bar direction between these two bars, it still exhibits one dip. This result indicates the short bar less than 36 μm does not play important role and the coupling between vertical bars is weak. However, when the variable bar length is larger than 36 μm there are two obvious Fano-shaped resonant dips. With the increased bar length, the low-frequency dip shows a remarkable redshift, while the high-frequency one is almost unchanged. By further tuning the bar spacing vertical to the bar direction, two dips always exist. This phenomenon implies that the coupling between horizontal bars is dominated in this process. Moreover, the metamaterial induced transparency window is found between two resonant dips. The appearance of the resonances is attributed to the excitation of trapped mode. Our obtained results indicate that such metamaterials with very simple configuration could also provide the potential application in the field of terahertz slow-light devices, amplitude and phase modulators.

  2. Studies on electromagnetic response in arc-shaped structures in terahertz region (United States)

    Shi, Lan; Zhou, Qingli; Sun, Huijuan; Li, Chenyu; Liu, Changxiang; Zhang, Cunlin


    In this paper, we use the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to simulate and study the electromagnetic response characteristics of ring and arc-shaped resonators. Firstly, we study the terahertz transmission properties of two single-ring resonators with different radii. Either the single-ring resonator with a large radius or with a small radius only has one resonance in the transmission spectra. Then, we combine those resonators into a double-ring resonator structure. The results conclude that the two resonant frequencies of the double-ring resonator are caused by the simple superposition of the resonances of the large and small radius single-ring resonators, respectively. Additionally, on the basis of a single-ring resonator, we also study the influence of the symmetrical and asymmetric arc-shaped resonators on electromagnetic response characteristics. The ring resonator is split from the middle into two symmetrical arc-shaped resonators. As the width of the middle gap gradually increases, the resonant frequency shows blueshift and the intensity of the surface current distribution gradually weakens. Finally, the direction of the current is reversed. In order to further compare the relationship between the single-ring resonators and the double-ring resonators, we study the double arc-shaped resonators. The main purpose of this paper is to study the frequency response characteristics of the ring resonator in the terahertz band and to control the terahertz spectrum by changing the symmetry of the ring resonator. In the future, we can further study the coupling response between the ring structures and the multi-frequency response modulation of the multi-ring structures.

  3. Terahertz pulse imaging of stratified architectural materials for cultural heritage studies (United States)

    Jackson, J. Bianca; Labaune, Julien; Mourou, Gérard; Duling, Irl N.; Walker, Gillian; Bowen, John; Menu, Michel


    Terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) is a novel noncontact, nondestructive technique for the examination of cultural heritage artifacts. It has the advantage of broadband spectral range, time-of-flight depth resolution, and penetration through optically opaque materials. Fiber-coupled, portable, time-domain terahertz systems have enabled this technique to move out of the laboratory and into the field. Much like the rings of a tree, stratified architectural materials give the chronology of their environmental and aesthetic history. This work concentrates on laboratory models of stratified mosaics and fresco paintings, specimens extracted from a neolithic excavation site in Catalhoyuk, Turkey, and specimens measured at the medieval Eglise de Saint Jean-Baptiste in Vif, France. Preparatory spectroscopic studies of various composite materials, including lime, gypsum and clay plasters are presented to enhance the interpretation of results and with the intent to aid future computer simulations of the TPI of stratified architectural material. The breadth of the sample range is a demonstration of the cultural demand and public interest in the life history of buildings. The results are an illustration of the potential role of TPI in providing both a chronological history of buildings and in the visualization of obscured wall paintings and mosaics.

  4. Non-destructive evaluation by terahertz spectroscopy for penetration of acid solutions into epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kusano


    Full Text Available Epoxy resins are used as high-performance thermosetting linings to protect substrates under corrosive environments. However, in a severe corrosive chemical solution, such protective layers may degrade with long time due to penetrations of solvent and solute molecules into resin network. In this regard, the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS is a promising tool for non-destructive evaluation of the penetrant amounts due to high transparency of such plastic materials and high sensitivity to the molecular vibrations in terahertz spectral range. In this work, the complex refractive indexes n and κ of epoxy specimens were measured after immersion into sulfuric acid solutions and compared with penetrated mass fractions of water and acid ions. It was found that n and κ depended linearly with water and sulfuric acid mass fraction in specimens, and κ of sulfuric acid immersed specimens was lager at higher frequency. While the calculated Δκ agreed well with THz-TDS measurement by THz-TDS, the calculated Δn was higher than the measurement. The difference may be attributed to the water and sulfuric states in the specimen.

  5. Hybrid FDTD Analysis for Periodic On-Chip Terahertz (THZ) Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Yasser A.; Spencer, James E.; /SLAC


    We present electromagnetic analysis and radiation efficiency calculations for on-chip terahertz (THz) structures based on a hybrid, finite-difference, time-domain (HFDTD) technique. The method employs the FDTD technique to calculate S-parameters for one cell of a periodic structure. The transmission ABCD matrix is then estimated and multiplied by itself n times to obtain the n-cell periodic structure ABCD parameters that are then converted back to S-parameters. Validation of the method is carried out by comparing the results of the hybrid technique with FDTD calculations of the entire periodic structure as well as with HFSS which all agree quite well. This procedure reduces the CPU-time and allows efficient design and optimization of periodic THz radiation sources. Future research will involve coupling of Maxwell's equations with a more detailed, physics-based transport model for higher-order effects.

  6. Time domain averaging and correlation-based improved spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio (United States)

    Li, Shenghong; Bi, Guoan


    Based on the combination of time domain averaging and correlation, we propose an effective time domain averaging and correlation-based spectrum sensing (TDA-C-SS) method used in very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. With the assumption that the received signals from the primary users are deterministic, the proposed TDA-C-SS method processes the received samples by a time averaging operation to improve the SNR. Correlation operation is then performed with a correlation matrix to determine the existence of the primary signal in the received samples. The TDA-C-SS method does not need any prior information on the received samples and the associated noise power to achieve improved sensing performance. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed TDA-C-SS method.

  7. Optimized Mooring Line Simulation Using a Hybrid Method Time Domain Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye; Voie, Per Erlend Torbergsen; Høgsberg, Jan


    Dynamic analyses of slender marine structures are computationally expensive. Recently it has been shown how a hybrid method which combines FEM models and artificial neural networks (ANN) can be used to reduce the computation time spend on the time domain simulations associated with fatigue analysis...... of mooring lines by two orders of magnitude. The present study shows how an ANN trained to perform nonlinear dynamic response simulation can be optimized using a method known as optimal brain damage (OBD) and thereby be used to rank the importance of all analysis input. Both the training and the optimization...... of the ANN are based on one short time domain simulation sequence generated by a FEM model of the structure. This means that it is possible to evaluate the importance of input parameters based on this single simulation only. The method is tested on a numerical model of mooring lines on a floating offshore...

  8. Characterization of the Viscoelasticity of Molding Compounds in the Time Domain (United States)

    Chae, Seung-Hyun; Zhao, Jie-Hua; Edwards, Darvin R.; Ho, Paul S.


    Although polymer-based materials are widely used in microelectronics packaging and viscoelasticity is an intrinsic characteristic of polymers, viscoelastic properties of polymeric materials are often ignored in package stress analyses due to the difficulty in measuring these properties. However, it is necessary to consider the viscoelastic behavior when an accurate stress model is required. Viscoelastic properties of materials can be characterized in either the time or the frequency domain. In this study, stress relaxation experiments were performed on a molding compound in the time domain. A thermorheologically simple model was assumed to deduce the master curve of relaxation modulus using the time-temperature equivalence assumption. A Prony series expansion was used to express the material’s relaxation behavior. Two methods to determine the Prony pairs and shift factors were compared. After they were determined, the master curve at a reference temperature was shifted to every measured temperature for comparison with experimental data.

  9. Efficient reconstruction of dispersive dielectric profiles using time domain reflectometry (TDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Leidenberger


    Full Text Available We present a numerical model for time domain reflectometry (TDR signal propagation in dispersive dielectric materials. The numerical probe model is terminated with a parallel circuit, consisting of an ohmic resistor and an ideal capacitance. We derive analytical approximations for the capacitance, the inductance and the conductance of three-wire probes. We couple the time domain model with global optimization in order to reconstruct water content profiles from TDR traces. For efficiently solving the inverse problem we use genetic algorithms combined with a hierarchical parameterization. We investigate the performance of the method by reconstructing synthetically generated profiles. The algorithm is then applied to retrieve dielectric profiles from TDR traces measured in the field. We succeed in reconstructing dielectric and ohmic profiles where conventional methods, based on travel time extraction, fail.

  10. Giant and tunable electric field enhancement in the terahertz regime. (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyuan; Wan, Rengang; Wang, Guoxi; Zhang, Tongyi; Zhang, Wenfu


    A novel array of slits design combining the nano-slit grating and dielectric-metal is proposed to obtain giant and tunable electric field enhancement in the terahertz regime. The maximum amplitude of electric field is more than 6000 times larger than that of the incident electric field. It is found that the enhancement depends primarily on the stripe and nano-slits width of grating, as well as the thickness of spacer layer. This property is particularly beneficial for the realization of ultra-sensitive nanoparticles detection and nonlinear optics in the terahertz range, such as the second harmonic generation (SHG).

  11. Continuous-wave terahertz reflective off-axis digital holography (United States)

    Wan, Min; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Huang, Haochong; Li, Bin


    Terahertz (THz) continuous-wave digital holography is an advanced interference imaging technique that can reconstruct quantitative distributions of amplitude and phase of the sample in real time with high resolution. In this paper, a reflective off-axis holographic system is presented. A Gaussian fitting method is applied to enhance the hologram contrast and Laplacian of Gaussian filter is used to obtain the reconstructed distance automatically. Furthermore, spectrum filtering method and angular spectrum algorithm are used to obtain the complex amplitude of the one-yuan chinese metal coin. The results confirm the prospective application of terahertz digital holography in the surface morphology for reflective samples.

  12. Time-domain single-source integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdés, Felipe


    Single-source time-domain electric-and magnetic-field integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects are presented. Their temporal discretization is effected by using shifted piecewise polynomial temporal basis functions and a collocation testing procedure, thus allowing for a marching-on-in-time (MOT) solution scheme. Unlike dual-source formulations, single-source equations involve space-time domain operator products, for which spatial discretization techniques developed for standalone operators do not apply. Here, the spatial discretization of the single-source time-domain integral equations is achieved by using the high-order divergence-conforming basis functions developed by Graglia alongside the high-order divergence-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions of Valdés The combination of these two sets allows for a well-conditioned mapping from div-to curl-conforming function spaces that fully respects the space-mapping properties of the space-time operators involved. Numerical results corroborate the fact that the proposed procedure guarantees accuracy and stability of the MOT scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Fractional order PIλDμcontroller design for satisfying time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously. (United States)

    Zheng, WeiJia; Luo, Ying; Wang, XiaoHong; Pi, YouGuo; Chen, YangQuan


    In order to achieve a desired control performance characterized by satisfying specifications in both frequency-domain and time-domain simultaneously, an optimal fractional order proportional integral derivative (PI λ D μ ) controller design strategy is proposed based on analytical calculation and Differential Evolution algorithm for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo system in this paper. In this controller design, the frequency-domain specifications can guarantee the system stability with both gain margin and phase margin, and also the system robustness to loop gain variations. The time-domain specifications can ensure the desired step response performance with rapid rising curve, constrained overshoot, and proper power consuming. Compared with the PI λ controller and the traditional PID controller, PI λ D μ controller can get obvious benefits from two more degrees of freedom of the fractional orders λ and μ on satisfying multiple constraints simultaneously and achieving better servo tracking performance for the PMSM servo system. PMSM speed tracking simulations and experiments are demonstrated to show the significant advantages of using the proposed optimal PI λ D μ controller over the optimal fractional order PI λ controller and traditional integer order PID controller. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multilayer Graphene for Waveguide Terahertz Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khromova, I.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We study terahertz to infrared electromagnetic properties of multilayer graphene/dielectric artificial medium and present a novel concept of terahertz modulation at midinfrared wavelengths. This approach allows the realization of high-speed electrically controllable terahertz modulators based...... on hollow waveguide sections filled with multilayer graphene....

  15. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda


    Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half

  16. Time-Domain Finite Element Analysis of Nonlinear Breakdown Problems in High-Power-Microwave Devices and Systems (United States)


    AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2016-0003 AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2016-0003 TIME-DOMAIN FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF NONLINEAR BREAKDOWN PROBLEMS IN HIGH- POWER-MICROWAVE...2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 24-09-2014 – 24-11-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Time-Domain Finite Element Analysis of...and interpreted from the simulation results. 15. SUBJECT TERMS High power microwave, time-domain, finite - element , discontinuous-Galerkin, nonlinear

  17. Approximate P3 solution for the semi-infinite medium: steady state and time domain. (United States)

    Wang, Xichang


    The steady-state solution of the Green's function obtained by the P3 equation in a semi-infinite medium is presented, the proposed solution is a diffusion-based model. Two time-domain solutions are established: one is the solution under extrapolation boundary condition, which we call the optical parameter method, and the other corresponds to the diffusion equation, which we call the double-diffusion coefficient method. The spatial-resolved reflectance and the time-resolved reflectance are calculated. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to verify the P3 equation. The results show that the P3 steady-state equation and the two time-domain equations are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation. In the steady state, when the distance between the detector and the light source is less than several free paths, the P3 equation is more accurate than the diffusion equation. In other cases, the P3 model and the diffusion model have similar results. However, when the absorption coefficient is large, P3 is more accurate. In the time domain, the optical parameter method is more accurate, and the double-diffusion coefficient method is more consistent with the diffusion equation. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  18. Dancing with the Electrons: Time-Domain and CW In Vivo EPR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali C. Krishna


    Full Text Available The progress in the development of imaging the distribution of unpaired electrons in living systems and the functional and the potential diagnostic dimensions of such an imaging process, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI, is traced from its origins with emphasis on our own work. The importance of EPR imaging stems from the fact that many paramagnetic probes show oxygen dependent spectral broadening. Assessment of in vivo oxygen concentration is an important factor in radiation oncology in treatment-planning and monitoring treatment-outcome. The emergence of narrow-line trairylmethyl based, bio-compatible spin probes has enabled the development of radiofrequency time-domain EPRI. Spectral information in time-domain EPRI can be achieved by generating a time sequence of T2* or T2 weighted images. Progress in CW imaging has led to the use of rotating gradients, more recently rapid scan with direct detection, and a combination of all the three. Very low field MRI employing Dynamic Nuclear polarization (Overhauser effect is also employed for monitoring tumor hypoxia, and re-oxygenation in vivo. We have also been working on the co-registration of MRI and time domain EPRI on mouse tumor models at 300 MHz using a specially designed resonator assembly. The mapping of the unpaired electron distribution and unraveling the spectral characteristics by using magnetic resonance in presence of stationary and rotating gradients in indeed ‘dancing with the (unpaired electrons’, metaphorically speaking.

  19. Dancing with the Electrons: Time-Domain and CW EPR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Subramanian


    Full Text Available The progress in the development of imaging the distribution of unpaired electrons in living systems and the functional and the potential diagnostic dimensions of such an imaging process, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI, is traced from its origins with emphasis on our own work. The importance of EPR imaging stems from the fact that many paramagnetic probes show oxygen dependent spectral broadening. Assessment of in vivo oxygen concentration is an important factor in radiation oncology in treatment-planning and monitoring treatment-outcome. The emergence of narrow-line trairylmethyl based, bio-compatible spin probes has enabled the development of radiofrequency time-domain EPRI. Spectral information in time-domain EPRI can be achieved by generating a time sequence of T 2 * or T 2 weighted images. Progress in CW imaging has led to the use of rotating gradients, more recently rapid scan with direct detection, and a combination of all the three. Very low field MRI employing Dynamic Nuclear polarization (Overhauser effect is also employed for monitoring tumor hypoxia, and re-oxygenation in vivo . We have also been working on the co-registration of MRI and time domain EPRI on mouse tumor models at 300 MHz using a specially designed resonator assembly. The mapping of the unpaired electron distribution and unraveling the spectral characteristics by using magnetic resonance in presence of stationary and rotating gradients in indeed ‘dancing with the ( unpaired electrons’, metaphorically speaking.

  20. Nonlinear Time Domain Relation between Respiratory Phase and Timing of the First Heart Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tang


    Full Text Available The previous studies on respiratory physiology have indicated that inspiration and expiration have opposite effects on heart hemodynamics. The basic reason why these opposite hemodynamic changes cause regular timing variations in heart sounds is the heart sound generation mechanism that the acoustic vibration is triggered by heart hemodynamics. It is observed that the timing of the first heart sound has nonlinear relation with respiratory phase; that is, the timing delay with respect to the R-wave increases with inspiration and oppositely decreases with expiration. This paper models the nonlinear relation by a Hammerstein-Wiener model where the respiratory phase is the input and the timing is the output. The parameter estimation for the model is presented. The model is tested by the data collected from 12 healthy subjects in terms of mean square error and model fitness. The results show that the model can approximate the nonlinear relation very well. The average square error and the average fitness for all the subjects are about 0.01 and 0.94, respectively. The timing of the first heart sound related to respiratory phase can be accurately predicted by the model. The model has potential applications in fast and easy monitoring of respiration and heart hemodynamics induced by respiration.