Sample records for ten nearest stars

  1. The Sun: Our Nearest Star (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)


    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  2. Place in History and Astrophysics as the Pole Star and the Nearest Cepheid (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.


    Over ten centuries ago years, precession moved the Earth's North Celestial Pole (NCP) near the direction of alpha Ursae Minoris - now known as Polaris. Since that time Polaris has served as an important navigation star. By 2100 (at closest approach) Polaris moves within 0.5 deg of the NCP. Because of its brightness ( 2nd mag) and fixed place in the sky, Polaris is frequently referenced in literature, folklore, and pop culture. For example, in the Arctic, Polaris is known to the Inuit (among other names) as Nuuttuittuq ("never moves"), while the Yup'ik Eskimo refer to Polaris as Agyarrlak ("major star"). But Polaris, as the nearest Classical Cepheid (and also member of a multiple star system) is astrophysically important and interesting in its own right. Primarily this is because Polaris' physical properties can be precisely determined. Its distance provides a luminosity, pulsation mode and calibration for the Leavitt Law (Period-Luminosity relation). But, Polaris has been found to be full of surprises and puzzles. Over the last century Polaris has been undergoing rapid, large changes in its pulsation period (increasing at over 4 sec/yr.) as well as in its light and radial velocity variations. Noteworthy, during the early-1990s, Polaris nearly stopped pulsating and thus almost ceased being a Cepheid! Surprisingly Polaris (and other Cepheids) recently have been discovered to have significant mass-loss, and to display X-ray and FUV-line emission variations in phase with their pulsations. In this introductory talk Polaris' place in history and in the field of astronomy will be briefly discussed along with the important role it plays in the broader understanding of Cepheid structure and evolution. This research is, in part, supported by NASA Grants HST-GO11726.01 and NNX08AX37G, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  3. Nearest star the surprising science of our sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon


    How did the Sun evolve, and what will it become? What is the origin of its light and heat? How does solar activity affect the atmospheric conditions that make life on Earth possible? These are the questions at the heart of solar physics, and at the core of this book. The Sun is the only star near enough to study in sufficient detail to provide rigorous tests of our theories and help us understand the more distant and exotic objects throughout the cosmos. Having observed the Sun using both ground-based and spaceborne instruments, the authors bring their extensive personal experience to this sto

  4. The Vixen Star Book user guide how to use the star book ten and the original star book

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James


    This book is for anyone who owns, or is thinking of owning, a Vixen Star Book Ten telescope mount or its predecessor. A revolution in amateur astronomy has occurred in the past decade with the wide availability of high tech, computer-driven, Go-To telescopes. Vixen Optics is leading the way by offering the Star Book Ten system, with its unique star map graphics software. The Star Book Ten is the latest version of computer telescope control using star map graphics as a user interface, first introduced in the original Star Book first offered in 2003. The increasingly complicated nature of this software means that learning to optimize this program is not straightforward, and yet the resulting views when all features are correctly deployed can be phenomenal. After a short history of computerized Go-To telescopes for the consumer amateur astronomer market, Chen offers a treasury of technical information. His advice, tips, and solutions aid the user in getting the most out of the Star Book Ten system in observing s...

  5. Optimized Trajectories to the Nearest Stars Using Lightweight High-velocity Photon Sails (United States)

    Heller, René; Hippke, Michael; Kervella, Pierre


    New means of interstellar travel are now being considered by various research teams, assuming lightweight spaceships to be accelerated via either laser or solar radiation to a significant fraction of the speed of light (c). We recently showed that gravitational assists can be combined with the stellar photon pressure to decelerate an incoming lightsail from Earth and fling it around a star or bring it to rest. Here, we demonstrate that photogravitational assists are more effective when the star is used as a bumper (I.e., the sail passes “in front of” the star) rather than as a catapult (I.e., the sail passes “behind” or “around” the star). This increases the maximum deceleration at α Cen A and B and reduces the travel time of a nominal graphene-class sail (mass-to-surface ratio 8.6× {10}-4 {{g}} {{{m}}}-2) from 95 to 75 years. The maximum possible velocity reduction upon arrival depends on the required deflection angle from α Cen A to B and therefore on the binary’s orbital phase. Here, we calculate the variation of the minimum travel times from Earth into a bound orbit around Proxima for the next 300 years and then extend our calculations to roughly 22,000 stars within about 300 lt-yr. Although α Cen is the most nearby star system, we find that Sirius A offers the shortest possible travel times into a bound orbit: 69 years assuming 12.5% c can be obtained at departure from the solar system. Sirius A thus offers the opportunity of flyby exploration plus deceleration into a bound orbit of the companion white dwarf after relatively short times of interstellar travel.

  6. Mapping the Region in the Nearest Star System to Search for Habitable Planets (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quarles, B.


    Circumstellar planets within the alpha Centauri AB star system have been suggested through formation models and recent observations, and ACESat (Belikov et al. AAS Meeting #225, #311.01, 2015) is a proposed space mission designed to directly image Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of both of these stars. The alpha Centauri system is billions of years old, so planets are only expected to be found in regions where their orbits are long-lived. We evaluate the extent of the regions within the alpha Centauri AB star system where small planets are able to orbit for billion-year timescales and we map the positions in the sky plane where planets on stable orbits about either stellar component may appear. We confirm the qualitative results of Wiegert & Holman (Astron. J. 113, 1445, 1997) regarding the approximate size of the regions of stable orbits, which are larger for retrograde orbits relative to the binary than for prograde orbits. Additionally, we find that mean motion resonances with the binary orbit leave an imprint on the limits of orbital stability, and the effects of the Lidov-Kozai mechanism are also readily apparent. Overall, orbits in the habitable zones near the plane of the binary are stable, whereas high-inclination orbits are short-lived.

  7. A Deep NuSTAR Survey of M31: Compact object types in our Nearest Neighbor Galaxy (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Wik, Daniel R.; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Venters, Tonia M.; Lehmer, Bret; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Zezas, Andreas; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel; Williams, Benjamin F.; Vulic, Neven


    X-ray binaries (XRBs) trace young and old stellar populations in galaxies, and thus star formation rate and star formation history/stellar mass. X-ray emission from XRBs may be responsible for significant amounts of heating of the early Intergalactic Medium at Cosmic Dawn and may also play a significant role in reionization. Until recently, the E>10 keV (hard X-ray) emission from these populations could only be studied for XRBs in our own galaxy, where it is often difficult to measure accurate distances and thus luminosities. We have observed M31 in 4 NuSTAR fields for a total exposure of 1.4 Ms, covering the young stellar population in a swath of the disk (within the footprint of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) Survey) and older populations in the bulge. We detected more than 100 sources in the 4-25 keV band, where hard band (12-25 keV) emission has allowed us to discriminate between black holes and neutron stars in different accretion states. The luminosity function of the hard band detected sources are compared to Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL-derived luminosity functions of the Milky Way population, which reveals an excess of luminous sources in M31 when correcting for star formation rate and stellar mass.

  8. MOST Ultra-high Precision Photometry of delta Capricorni - the Nearest & Brightest Eclipsing Binary with a Pulsating Component: An Important Asteroseismic Laboratory for A-type Stars (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, S. G.; Prsa, A.; Wasatonic, R. P.; Fekel, F. C.; Williamson, M.; Matthews, J.; Kolenberg, K.; Breger, M.


    We report on over 3 weeks of continuous ultra-high precision photometry of the bright, nearby, detached (P= 1.02 day; A8m + dK7) eclipsing binary delta Cap. The observations were carried out with the Canadian Micro-satellite MOST during Aug/Sept. 2010. Extensive contemporaneous spectroscopy was secured with the 2-m TSU Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) and complementary BVR photometry was obtained with ground based telescopes. Delta Cap is an astrophysically important star because it is the nearest and brightest eclipsing binary with a bright pulsating component that can be used (with astereoseismic analyses) to test and calibrate stellar interior and pulsation models. When a pulsating star is a member of an eclipsing binary, the analyses of the it's light and radial velocity observations yield the precise determination of all fundamental orbital and physical properties for the component stars. Moreover the MOST observations during the primary eclipses are a powerful tool for mode identification as portions of the pulsating A-star are blocked from view. Also because delta Cap is nearby and has a reliable parallax (pi (Hipp) = 84.27+/- 0.19 mas), the component stars’ luminosities and temperatures are also directly determinable. In addition to its well behaved 1.02-d periodic light variations arising from the eclipses and tidal effects, the MOST light curves clearly show small ( 0.01-0.02 mag) complex light variations. We present the results of the analysis the eclipsing binary light and radial velocity curves using PHOEBE. Also presented are the initial asteroseismic analyses of the A8m component based on the MOST photometry and contemporaneous radial velocity observations. Preliminary models indicate this star is a hybrid gamma Dor-delta Scuti pulsator. We gratefully acknowledge the support from NASA/MOST Grant NNX10AI85G and NSF/RUI Grant AST-05-07542. We also wholeheartedly thank the MOST team for securing and reducing the photometry.

  9. AAOmega spectroscopy of 29 351 stars in fields centered on ten Galactic globular clusters (United States)

    Lane, R. R.; Kiss, L. L.; Lewis, G. F.; Ibata, R. A.; Siebert, A.; Bedding, T. R.; Székely, P.; Szabó, G. M.


    Galactic globular clusters have been pivotal in our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena. Here we publish the extracted stellar parameters from a recent large spectroscopic survey of ten globular clusters. A brief review of the project is also presented. Stellar parameters have been extracted from individual stellar spectra using both a modified version of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) pipeline and a pipeline based on the parameter estimation method of RAVE. We publish here all parameters extracted from both pipelines. We calibrate the metallicity and convert this to [Fe/H] for each star and, furthermore, we compare the velocities and velocity dispersions of the Galactic stars in each field to the Besançon Galaxy model. We find that the model does not correspond well with the data, indicating that the model is probably of little use for comparisons with pencil beam survey data such as this. The data described in Tables 1-3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  10. Survival of the Scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR): results of ten to nineteen years follow-up. (United States)

    Frigg, Arno; Germann, Ursula; Huber, Martin; Horisberger, Monika


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival and clinical outcome of the Scandinavian total ankle replacement (STAR) prosthesis after a minimum of ten years up to a maximum of 19 years. Fifty STAR prostheses in 46 patients with end stage ankle osteoarthritis operated between 1996 and 2006 by the same surgeon (MH) were included. Minimal follow-up was ten years (median 14.6 years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.9-16.4). Clinical (Kofoed score) and radiological assessments were taken before the operation and at one, ten (+2), and 16 (±3) years after implantation. The primary endpoint was defined as exchange of the whole prosthesis or conversion to arthrodesis (def. 1), exchange of at least one metallic component (def. 2), or exchange of any component including the inlay (due to breakage or wear) (def. 3). Survival was estimated according to Kaplan-Meier. Further reoperations related to STAR were also recorded. The ten year survival rate was (def. 1) 94% (CI 82-98%), (def. 2) 90% (CI, 77-96%), and (def. 3) 78% (CI 64-87%). The 19-year survival rate was (def. 1) 91% (CI 78-97%), (def. 2) 75% (CI 53-88%), and (def. 3) 55% (CI 34-71%). Considering any re-operations related to STAR, 52% (26/50) of prostheses were affected by re-operations. Mean pre-operative Kofoed score was 49, which improved to 84 after one year (n = 50), to 90 after ten years (n = 46), and to 89 after 16 years (n = 28). The survival rate for def. 1 and 2 was high. However, re-operations occurred in 52% of all STAR prosthesis. Retrospective cohort study, evidence Level 4.

  11. Nearest Cosmic Mirage (United States)


    Discovery of quadruply lensed quasar with Einstein ring Summary Using the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla (Chile), an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a complex cosmic mirage in the southern constellation Crater (The Cup). This "gravitational lens" system consists of (at least) four images of the same quasar as well as a ring-shaped image of the galaxy in which the quasar resides - known as an "Einstein ring". The more nearby lensing galaxy that causes this intriguing optical illusion is also well visible. The team obtained spectra of these objects with the new EMMI camera mounted on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT), also at the La Silla observatory. They find that the lensed quasar [2] is located at a distance of 6,300 million light-years (its "redshift" is z = 0.66 [3]) while the lensing elliptical galaxy is rougly halfway between the quasar and us, at a distance of 3,500 million light-years (z = 0.3). The system has been designated RXS J1131-1231 - it is the closest gravitationally lensed quasar discovered so far . PR Photo 20a/03 : Image of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (ESO 3.6m Telescope). PR Photo 20b/03 : Spectra of two lensed images of the source quasar and the lensing galaxy. Cosmic mirages The physical principle behind a "gravitational lens" (also known as a "cosmic mirage") has been known since 1916 as a consequence of Albert Einstein's Theory of General Relativity . The gravitational field of a massive object curves the local geometry of the Universe, so light rays passing close to the object are bent (like a "straight line" on the surface of the Earth is necessarily curved because of the curvature of the Earth's surface). This effect was first observed by astronomers in 1919 during a total solar eclipse. Accurate positional measurements of stars seen in the dark sky near the eclipsed Sun indicated an apparent displacement in the direction opposite to the Sun, about as much as predicted by Einstein

  12. Small star trackers for modern space vehicles (United States)

    Kouzmin, Vladimir; Jushkov, Vladimir; Zaikin, Vladimir


    Based on experience of many years creation of spacecrafts' star trackers with diversified detectors (from the first star trackers of 60's to tens versions of star trackers in the following years), using technological achievements in the field of optics and electronics the NPP "Geofizika-Cosmos" has provided celestial orientation for all the space vehicles created in Russia and now has developed a series of new star trackers with CCD matrix and special processors, which are able to meet needs in celestial orientation of the modern spacecrafts for the nearest 10-15 years. In the given article the main characteristics and description of some star trackers' versions are presented. The star trackers have various levels of technical characteristics and use both combined (Russian and foreign) procurement parts, and only national (Russian) procurement parts for the main units.

  13. A Pan-STARRS1 Proper-Motion Survey for Young Brown Dwarfs in the Nearest Star-Forming Regions and a Reddening-Free Classification Method for Ultracool Dwarfs (United States)

    Zhang, Zhoujian; Liu, Michael C.; Best, William M. J.; Magnier, Eugene; Aller, Kimberly


    Young brown dwarfs are of prime importance to investigate the universality of the initial mass function (IMF). Based on photometry and proper motions from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey, we are conducting the widest and deepest brown dwarf survey in the nearby star-forming regions, Taurus–Auriga (Taurus) and Upper Scorpius (USco). Our work is the first to measure proper motions, a robust proxy of membership, for brown dwarf candidates in Taurus and USco over such a large area and long time baseline (≈ 15 year) with such high precision (≈ 4 mas yr-1). Since extinction complicates spectral classification, we have developed a new approach to quantitatively determine reddening-free spectral types, extinctions, and gravity classifications for mid-M to late-L ultracool dwarfs (≈ 100–5 MJup), using low-resolution near-infrared spectra. So far, our IRTF/SpeX spectroscopic follow-up has increased the substellar and planetary-mass census of Taurus by ≈ 50% and almost doubled the substellar census of USco, constituting the largest single increases of brown dwarfs and free-floating planets found in both regions to date. Most notably, our new discoveries reveal an older (> 10 Myr) low-mass population in Taurus, in accord with recent studies of the higher-mass stellar members. In addition, the mass function appears to differ between the younger and older Taurus populations, possibly due to incompleteness of the older stellar members or different star formation processes. Upon completion, our survey will establish the most complete substellar and planetary-mass census in both Taurus and USco associations, make a significant addition to the low-mass IMF in both regions, and deliver more comprehensive pictures of star formation histories.

  14. Approximate Nearest Neighbor Queries among Parallel Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Malamatos, Theocharis; Tsigaridas, Elias


    We develop a data structure for answering efficiently approximate nearest neighbor queries over a set of parallel segments in three dimensions. We connect this problem to approximate nearest neighbor searching under weight constraints and approximate nearest neighbor searching on historical data...

  15. The Nearest Ultra Diffuse Galaxy: UGC 2162 (United States)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Roman, Javier; Filho, Mercedes; Sánchez Almeida, Jorge


    We describe the structural, stellar population and gas properties of the nearest ultra diffuse galaxy discovered so far: UGC 2162 (z = 0.00392 {R}e,g=1.7(+/- 0.2) kpc; {μ }g(0) = 24.4 ± 0.1 mag arcsec-2 g-I = 0.33 ± 0.02). This galaxy, located at a distance of 12.3(±1.7) Mpc, is a member of the M77 group. UGC 2162 has a stellar mass of ˜ 2{(}-1+2) × 107 {M}⊙ and is embedded within a cloud of HI gas ˜10 times more massive: ˜1.9(±0.6) × 108 {M}⊙ . Using the width of its HI line as a dynamical proxy, the enclosed mass within the inner R ˜ 5 kpc is ˜4.6(±0.8) × 109 {M}⊙ (I.e., M/L ˜ 200). The estimated virial mass from the cumulative mass curve is ˜8(±2)×1010 M ⊙. Ultra-deep imaging from the IAC Stripe82 Legacy Project show that the galaxy is irregular and has many star-forming knots, with a gas-phase metallicity around one-third of the solar value. Its estimated star-formation rate is ˜0.01 {M}⊙ yr-1. This SFR would double the stellar mass of the object in ˜2 Gyr. If the object were to stop forming stars at this moment, after a passive evolution, its surface brightness would become extremely faint: {μ }g(0) ˜ 27 mag arcsec-2 and its size would remain large {R}e,g ˜ 1.8 kpc. Such faintness would make it almost undetectable to most present-day surveys. This suggests that there could be an important population of {M}\\star ˜ 107 {M}⊙ “dark galaxies” in rich environments (depleted of HI gas) waiting to be discovered by current and future ultra-deep surveys.

  16. The 2D Ising square lattice with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.


    An analytical expression for the boundary free energy of the Ising square lattice with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions is derived. The Ising square lattice with anisotropic nearest-neighbor (Jx and Jy) and isotropic next-nearest-neighbor (Jd) interactions has an order-disorder phase

  17. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf (United States)


    Bright Southern Star Epsilon Indi Has Cool, Substellar Companion [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] has discovered a Brown Dwarf object (a 'failed' star) less than 12 light-years from the Sun. It is the nearest yet known. Now designated Epsilon Indi B, it is a companion to a well-known bright star in the southern sky, Epsilon Indi (now "Epsilon Indi A"), previously thought to be single. The binary system is one of the twenty nearest stellar systems to the Sun. The brown dwarf was discovered from the comparatively rapid motion across the sky which it shares with its brighter companion : the pair move a full lunar diameter in less than 400 years. It was first identified using digitised archival photographic plates from the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS) and confirmed using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Follow-up observations with the near-infrared sensitive SOFI instrument on the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory confirmed its nature and has allowed measurements of its physical properties. Epsilon Indi B has a mass just 45 times that of Jupiter, the largest planet in the Solar System, and a surface temperature of only 1000 °C. It belongs to the so-called 'T dwarf' category of objects which straddle the domain between stars and giant planets. Epsilon Indi B is the nearest and brightest T dwarf known. Future studies of the new object promise to provide astronomers with important new clues as to the formation and evolution of these exotic celestial bodies, at the same time yielding interesting insights into the border zone between planets and stars. TINY MOVING NEEDLES IN GIANT HAYSTACKS ESO PR Photo 03a/03 ESO PR Photo 03a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 92k [Normal - JPEG: 1200 x 1815 pix - 1.0M] Caption: PR Photo 03a/03 shows Epsilon Indi A (the bright star at far right) and its newly discovered brown dwarf companion Epsilon Indi B (circled). The upper image comes from one of the SuperCOSMOS Sky

  18. Naive Bayes Image Classification: beyond Nearest Neighbors


    Timofte, Radu; Tuytelaars, Tinne; Van Gool, Luc


    Timofte R., Tuytelaars T., Van Gool L., ''Naive bayes image classification: beyond nearest neighbors'', 11th Asian conference on computer vision - ACCV 2012, 13 pp., November 5-9, 2012, Daejeon, Korea.

  19. Nearest Neighbor Queries in Road Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Kolar, Jan; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    With wireless communications and geo-positioning being widely available, it becomes possible to offer new e-services that provide mobile users with information about other mobile objects. This paper concerns active, ordered k-nearest neighbor queries for query and data objects that are moving in ...... for the nearest neighbor search in the prototype is presented in detail. In addition, the paper reports on results from experiments with the prototype system....

  20. Alpha centauri unveiling the secrets of our nearest stellar neighbor

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, Martin


    As our closest stellar companion and composed of two Sun-like stars and a third small dwarf star, Alpha Centauri is an ideal testing ground of astrophysical models and has played a central role in the history and development of modern astronomy—from the first guesses at stellar distances to understanding how our own star, the Sun, might have evolved. It is also the host of the nearest known exoplanet, an ultra-hot, Earth-like planet recently discovered. Just 4.4 light years away Alpha Centauri is also the most obvious target for humanity’s first directed interstellar space probe. Such a mission could reveal the small-scale structure of a new planetary system and also represent the first step in what must surely be humanity’s greatest future adventure—exploration of the Milky Way Galaxy itself. For all of its closeness, α Centauri continues to tantalize astronomers with many unresolved mysteries, such as how did it form, how many planets does it contain and where are they, and how might we view its ex...

  1. Error minimizing algorithms for nearest eighbor classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmer, G. Beate [TEXAS A& M


    Stack Filters define a large class of discrete nonlinear filter first introd uced in image and signal processing for noise removal. In recent years we have suggested their application to classification problems, and investigated their relationship to other types of discrete classifiers such as Decision Trees. In this paper we focus on a continuous domain version of Stack Filter Classifiers which we call Ordered Hypothesis Machines (OHM), and investigate their relationship to Nearest Neighbor classifiers. We show that OHM classifiers provide a novel framework in which to train Nearest Neighbor type classifiers by minimizing empirical error based loss functions. We use the framework to investigate a new cost sensitive loss function that allows us to train a Nearest Neighbor type classifier for low false alarm rate applications. We report results on both synthetic data and real-world image data.

  2. Lectures on the nearest neighbor method

    CERN Document Server

    Biau, Gérard


    This text presents a wide-ranging and rigorous overview of nearest neighbor methods, one of the most important paradigms in machine learning. Now in one self-contained volume, this book systematically covers key statistical, probabilistic, combinatorial and geometric ideas for understanding, analyzing and developing nearest neighbor methods. Gérard Biau is a professor at Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris). Luc Devroye is a professor at the School of Computer Science at McGill University (Montreal).   .

  3. The 2D Ising square lattice with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions (United States)

    Zandvliet, H. J. W.


    An analytical expression for the boundary free energy of the Ising square lattice with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions is derived. The Ising square lattice with anisotropic nearest-neighbor (Jx and Jy) and isotropic next-nearest-neighbor (Jd) interactions has an order-disorder phase transition at a temperature T = Tc given by the condition e-2Jx/kbTc + e- 2Jy/kbTc + e-2(Jx + Jy)/kbTc(2 - e-4Jd/kbTc) = e4Jd/kbTc. The critical line that separates the ordered (ferromagnetic) phase from the disordered (paramagnetic) phase is in excellent agreement with series expansion, finite scaling of transfer matrix and Monte Carlo results. For a vanishing next-nearest-neighbor interaction Onsager's famous result, i.e. sinh (2Jx/kbTc)sinh (2Jy/kbTc) = 1, is recaptured.

  4. The Dynamical Mass of Polaris, the Nearest Cepheid (United States)

    Evans, Nancy


    Cepheid variables are the primary standard candles for measuring extragalactic distances, and they provide critical tests of stellar-evolution theory. Thus it is important to understand them astrophysically. Polaris {alpha UMi} is the nearest and brightest of all Cepheids. It offers a unique opportunity to measure the dynamical mass of a Cepheid, because it is in a 30-year binary system for which a single-lined spectroscopic orbit is already available. In Cycle 14, we resolved the system for the first time, using ACS/HRC in the UV, and followed up in Cycle 15. These observations established the sense of the orbital motion, as well as a first approximation to the dynamical mass. An observation with WFC3 in Cycle 17 again revealed the companion, in spite of the larger pixels than ACS/HRC, after deconvolution. This further refined our mass determination. We propose an additional WFC3 observation in Cycle 21, which will extend the coverage of the orbit substantially. We estimate that this new observation will reduce the uncertainty in the mass of Polaris from 26% to 10%. The window for this observation is rapidly closing since the two stars are heading for periastron. This is a UV Initiative proposal since making the observations in the UV enhances the relative brightness of the companion, which is warmer than Polaris, by about 2 magnitudes relative to the visible. Because of the degradation of the PSF in short WFC3 exposures due to "shutter jitter," we also request one orbit to observe a nearby bright single star, Beta Cas, using identical exposure times, to serve as a PSF reference star in the specialized FQ232N filter that we will use.

  5. Spontaneous Magnetization of the square 2D Ising lattice with nearest- and weak next-nearest neighbour interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Hoede, C.


    We show that the square two-dimensional (2D) Ising lattice with nearest- (J) and weak next-nearest-neighbour interactions (Jd) can be mapped on a square 2D Ising lattice that has only nearest neighbour interactions (J*). For Jd/J << 1 the transformation equation has the simple form

  6. Nearest Neighbour Corner Points Matching Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changlong


    Full Text Available Accurate detection towards the corners plays an important part in camera calibration. To deal with the instability and inaccuracies of present corner detection algorithm, the nearest neighbour corners match-ing detection algorithms was brought forward. First, it dilates the binary image of the photographed pictures, searches and reserves quadrilateral outline of the image. Second, the blocks which accord with chess-board-corners are classified into a class. If too many blocks in class, it will be deleted; if not, it will be added, and then let the midpoint of the two vertex coordinates be the rough position of corner. At last, it precisely locates the position of the corners. The Experimental results have shown that the algorithm has obvious advantages on accuracy and validity in corner detection, and it can give security for camera calibration in traffic accident measurement.

  7. Tailoring the photon hopping by nearest and next-nearest-neighbour interaction in photonic arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Caselli, Niccolò; La China, Federico; Gerardino, Annamaria; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Pagliano, Francesco; Fiore, Andrea; Intonti, Francesca; Gurioli, Massimo


    Arrays of photonic cavities are relevant structures for developing large-scale photonic integrated circuits and for investigating basic quantum electrodynamics phenomena, due to the photon hopping between interacting nanoresonators. Here, we investigate, by means of scanning near-field spectroscopy, numerical calculations and an analytical model, the role of different neighboring interactions that give rise to delocalized supermodes in different photonic crystal array configurations. The systems under investigation consist of three nominally identical two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavities on membrane aligned along the two symmetry axes of the triangular photonic crystal lattice. We find that the nearest and next-nearest-neighbour coupling terms can be of the same relevance. In this case, a non-intuitive picture describes the resonant modes, and the photon hopping between adjacent nano-resonators is strongly affected. Our findings prove that exotic configurations and even post-fabrication engineering o...

  8. Nearest shrunken centroids via alternative genewise shrinkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong Yeob Choi

    Full Text Available Nearest shrunken centroids (NSC is a popular classification method for microarray data. NSC calculates centroids for each class and "shrinks" the centroids toward 0 using soft thresholding. Future observations are then assigned to the class with the minimum distance between the observation and the (shrunken centroid. Under certain conditions the soft shrinkage used by NSC is equivalent to a LASSO penalty. However, this penalty can produce biased estimates when the true coefficients are large. In addition, NSC ignores the fact that multiple measures of the same gene are likely to be related to one another. We consider several alternative genewise shrinkage methods to address the aforementioned shortcomings of NSC. Three alternative penalties were considered: the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD, the adaptive LASSO (ADA, and the minimax concave penalty (MCP. We also showed that NSC can be performed in a genewise manner. Classification methods were derived for each alternative shrinkage method or alternative genewise penalty, and the performance of each new classification method was compared with that of conventional NSC on several simulated and real microarray data sets. Moreover, we applied the geometric mean approach for the alternative penalty functions. In general the alternative (genewise penalties required fewer genes than NSC. The geometric mean of the class-specific prediction accuracies was improved, as well as the overall predictive accuracy in some cases. These results indicate that these alternative penalties should be considered when using NSC.

  9. Common Nearest Neighbor Clustering—A Benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lemke


    Full Text Available Cluster analyses are often conducted with the goal to characterize an underlying probability density, for which the data-point density serves as an estimate for this probability density. We here test and benchmark the common nearest neighbor (CNN cluster algorithm. This algorithm assigns a spherical neighborhood R to each data point and estimates the data-point density between two data points as the number of data points N in the overlapping region of their neighborhoods (step 1. The main principle in the CNN cluster algorithm is cluster growing. This grows the clusters by sequentially adding data points and thereby effectively positions the border of the clusters along an iso-surface of the underlying probability density. This yields a strict partitioning with outliers, for which the cluster represents peaks in the underlying probability density—termed core sets (step 2. The removal of the outliers on the basis of a threshold criterion is optional (step 3. The benchmark datasets address a series of typical challenges, including datasets with a very high dimensional state space and datasets in which the cluster centroids are aligned along an underlying structure (Birch sets. The performance of the CNN algorithm is evaluated with respect to these challenges. The results indicate that the CNN cluster algorithm can be useful in a wide range of settings. Cluster algorithms are particularly important for the analysis of molecular dynamics (MD simulations. We demonstrate how the CNN cluster results can be used as a discretization of the molecular state space for the construction of a core-set model of the MD improving the accuracy compared to conventional full-partitioning models. The software for the CNN clustering is available on GitHub.

  10. The Islands Approach to Nearest Neighbor Querying in Spatial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xuegang; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas


    , and versatile approach to k nearest neighbor computation that obviates the need for using several k nearest neighbor approaches for supporting a single service scenario. The experimental comparison with the existing techniques uses real-world road network data and considers both I/O and CPU performance...

  11. Really Hot Stars (United States)


    galaxy, another has been found in the nearby galaxy IC 1613, and five others are situated in the Magellanic Clouds. Astronomers have also detected the presence of HeII ions in a number of remote galaxies undergoing a phase of intense star formation ("starburst galaxies") and in the vicinity of ultraluminous X-ray sources in very distant galaxies. What is going on in those remote objects in the early Universe? Do we see the action of young and very hot stars or is something unknown going on? What can the existence of those hot nebulae in young galaxies tell about the evolution of our own Milky Way? Searching for the energy source We would like to know, but those distant nebulae are unfortunately too faint to be studied in any reasonable detail, even by means of the largest available telescopes. The only way forward is therefore to look closer at the nearest ones in the hope that they will provide clues about the processes leading to the observed high excitation and thus help to better understand their cousins in those distant galaxies. There appears to be three possible answers to the basic question about the nature of the energetic sources that heat these strange emission nebulae: * very fast particles: if there is in the area a fast-moving gas (more than 100 km/s), the shock created by the impact of this material is able to heat the ambient interstellar medium sufficiently to produce a HeII nebula. * ultraviolet emission from massive stars: according to the most recent model calculations, even the most massive O-type stars do not emit enough ultraviolet light to ionize a sufficient number of helium atoms in the surrounding nebula to produce a detectable HeII nebula. However, some of the hottest stars of the so-called Wolf-Rayet (W-R) type (that are the evolved descendants of O-stars) may produce enough high energy emission to completely ionize the helium atoms in their surroundings. * intense X-ray emission: close binary stars in which one component is a "compact

  12. Improving Nearest Neighbour Search in 3D Spatial Access Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Uznir, U.


    Nearest Neighbour (NN) is one of the important queries and analyses for spatial application. In normal practice, spatial access method structure is used during the Nearest Neighbour query execution to retrieve information from the database. However, most of the spatial access method structures...... large due to its detail geometry and other attached information. In this research, a clustered 3D hierarchical structure is introduced as a 3D spatial access method structure. The structure is expected to improve the retrieval of Nearest Neighbour information for 3D objects. Several tests are performed...

  13. One-Dimensional Fluids with Second Nearest-Neighbor Interactions (United States)

    Fantoni, Riccardo; Santos, Andrés


    As is well known, one-dimensional systems with interactions restricted to first nearest neighbors admit a full analytically exact statistical-mechanical solution. This is essentially due to the fact that the knowledge of the first nearest-neighbor probability distribution function, p_1(r), is enough to determine the structural and thermodynamic properties of the system. On the other hand, if the interaction between second nearest-neighbor particles is turned on, the analytically exact solution is lost. Not only the knowledge of p_1(r) is not sufficient anymore, but even its determination becomes a complex many-body problem. In this work we systematically explore different approximate solutions for one-dimensional second nearest-neighbor fluid models. We apply those approximations to the square-well and the attractive two-step pair potentials and compare them with Monte Carlo simulations, finding an excellent agreement.

  14. Partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The partition function for two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field have been derived for a finite square lattice of 16, 25, 36 and 64 sites with the help of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suhaibaha


    Full Text Available Nearest Neighbour (NN is one of the important queries and analyses for spatial application. In normal practice, spatial access method structure is used during the Nearest Neighbour query execution to retrieve information from the database. However, most of the spatial access method structures are still facing with unresolved issues such as overlapping among nodes and repetitive data entry. This situation will perform an excessive Input/Output (IO operation which is inefficient for data retrieval. The situation will become more crucial while dealing with 3D data. The size of 3D data is usually large due to its detail geometry and other attached information. In this research, a clustered 3D hierarchical structure is introduced as a 3D spatial access method structure. The structure is expected to improve the retrieval of Nearest Neighbour information for 3D objects. Several tests are performed in answering Single Nearest Neighbour search and k Nearest Neighbour (kNN search. The tests indicate that clustered hierarchical structure is efficient in handling Nearest Neighbour query compared to its competitor. From the results, clustered hierarchical structure reduced the repetitive data entry and the accessed page. The proposed structure also produced minimal Input/Output operation. The query response time is also outperformed compared to the other competitor. For future outlook of this research several possible applications are discussed and summarized.

  16. Scalable Nearest Neighbor Algorithms for High Dimensional Data. (United States)

    Muja, Marius; Lowe, David G


    For many computer vision and machine learning problems, large training sets are key for good performance. However, the most computationally expensive part of many computer vision and machine learning algorithms consists of finding nearest neighbor matches to high dimensional vectors that represent the training data. We propose new algorithms for approximate nearest neighbor matching and evaluate and compare them with previous algorithms. For matching high dimensional features, we find two algorithms to be the most efficient: the randomized k-d forest and a new algorithm proposed in this paper, the priority search k-means tree. We also propose a new algorithm for matching binary features by searching multiple hierarchical clustering trees and show it outperforms methods typically used in the literature. We show that the optimal nearest neighbor algorithm and its parameters depend on the data set characteristics and describe an automated configuration procedure for finding the best algorithm to search a particular data set. In order to scale to very large data sets that would otherwise not fit in the memory of a single machine, we propose a distributed nearest neighbor matching framework that can be used with any of the algorithms described in the paper. All this research has been released as an open source library called fast library for approximate nearest neighbors (FLANN), which has been incorporated into OpenCV and is now one of the most popular libraries for nearest neighbor matching.

  17. Star centroiding error compensation for intensified star sensors. (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Xiong, Kun; Yu, Wenbo; Yan, Jinyun; Zhang, Guangjun


    A star sensor provides high-precision attitude information by capturing a stellar image; however, the traditional star sensor has poor dynamic performance, which is attributed to its low sensitivity. Regarding the intensified star sensor, the image intensifier is utilized to improve the sensitivity, thereby further improving the dynamic performance of the star sensor. However, the introduction of image intensifier results in star centroiding accuracy decrease, further influencing the attitude measurement precision of the star sensor. A star centroiding error compensation method for intensified star sensors is proposed in this paper to reduce the influences. First, the imaging model of the intensified detector, which includes the deformation parameter of the optical fiber panel, is established based on the orthographic projection through the analysis of errors introduced by the image intensifier. Thereafter, the position errors at the target points based on the model are obtained by using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization method. Last, the nearest trigonometric interpolation method is presented to compensate for the arbitrary centroiding error of the image plane. Laboratory calibration result and night sky experiment result show that the compensation method effectively eliminates the error introduced by the image intensifier, thus remarkably improving the precision of the intensified star sensors.

  18. General Relativity&Compact Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, Norman K.


    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10{sup 14} times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed.

  19. Efficient nearest neighbor searches in N-ABLE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Greg Edward


    The nearest neighbor search is a significant problem in transportation modeling and simulation. This paper describes how the nearest neighbor search is implemented efficiently with respect to running time in the NISAC Agent-Based Laboratory for Economics. The paper shows two methods to optimize running time of the nearest neighbor search. The first optimization uses a different distance metric that is more computationally efficient. The concept of a magnitude-comparable distance is described, and the paper gives a specific magnitude-comparable distance that is more computationally efficient than the actual distance function. The paper also shows how the given magnitude-comparable distance can be used to speed up the actual distance calculation. The second optimization reduces the number of points the search examines by using a spatial data structure. The paper concludes with testing of the different techniques discussed and the results.

  20. Nearest private query based on quantum oblivious key distribution (United States)

    Xu, Min; Shi, Run-hua; Luo, Zhen-yu; Peng, Zhen-wan


    Nearest private query is a special private query which involves two parties, a user and a data owner, where the user has a private input (e.g., an integer) and the data owner has a private data set, and the user wants to query which element in the owner's private data set is the nearest to his input without revealing their respective private information. In this paper, we first present a quantum protocol for nearest private query, which is based on quantum oblivious key distribution (QOKD). Compared to the classical related protocols, our protocol has the advantages of the higher security and the better feasibility, so it has a better prospect of applications.

  1. Anderson localization in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattice models with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Longyan, E-mail: [Information Physics Research Center and Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Feng, Yan; Ding, Yougen [Information Physics Research Center and Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China); Institute of Signal Processing and Transmission, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210003 (China)


    Highlights: • Quasiperiodic lattice models with next-nearest-neighbor hopping are studied. • Shannon information entropies are used to reflect state localization properties. • Phase diagrams are obtained for the inverse bronze and golden means, respectively. • Our studies present a more complete picture than existing works. - Abstract: We explore the reduced relative Shannon information entropies SR for a quasiperiodic lattice model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor hopping, where an irrational number is in the mathematical expression of incommensurate on-site potentials. Based on SR, we respectively unveil the phase diagrams for two irrationalities, i.e., the inverse bronze mean and the inverse golden mean. The corresponding phase diagrams include regions of purely localized phase, purely delocalized phase, pure critical phase, and regions with mobility edges. The boundaries of different regions depend on the values of irrational number. These studies present a more complete picture than existing works.

  2. Systolic array for all-nearest-neighbours problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, N.


    The all-nearest-neighbours (ANN) problem is a fundamental problem in computational geometry. In the letter a new two-dimensional triangular systolic array with mesh-connected cells is proposed for the ANN problem. This array can process a queue of ANN problems at a throughput of one ANN problem per

  3. Partition function of nearest neighbour Ising models: Some new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The partition function for one-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising models is estimated by summing all the energy terms in the Hamiltonian for N sites. The algebraic expression for the partition function is then employed to deduce the eigenvalues of the basic 2 × 2 matrix and the corresponding Hermitian Toeplitz matrix is ...

  4. Secure Nearest Neighbor Query on Crowd-Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Cheng


    Full Text Available Nearest neighbor queries are fundamental in location-based services, and secure nearest neighbor queries mainly focus on how to securely and quickly retrieve the nearest neighbor in the outsourced cloud server. However, the previous big data system structure has changed because of the crowd-sensing data. On the one hand, sensing data terminals as the data owner are numerous and mistrustful, while, on the other hand, in most cases, the terminals find it difficult to finish many safety operation due to computation and storage capability constraints. In light of they Multi Owners and Multi Users (MOMU situation in the crowd-sensing data cloud environment, this paper presents a secure nearest neighbor query scheme based on the proxy server architecture, which is constructed by protocols of secure two-party computation and secure Voronoi diagram algorithm. It not only preserves the data confidentiality and query privacy but also effectively resists the collusion between the cloud server and the data owners or users. Finally, extensive theoretical and experimental evaluations are presented to show that our proposed scheme achieves a superior balance between the security and query performance compared to other schemes.

  5. Secure Nearest Neighbor Query on Crowd-Sensing Data. (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Liangmin; Zhong, Hong


    Nearest neighbor queries are fundamental in location-based services, and secure nearest neighbor queries mainly focus on how to securely and quickly retrieve the nearest neighbor in the outsourced cloud server. However, the previous big data system structure has changed because of the crowd-sensing data. On the one hand, sensing data terminals as the data owner are numerous and mistrustful, while, on the other hand, in most cases, the terminals find it difficult to finish many safety operation due to computation and storage capability constraints. In light of they Multi Owners and Multi Users (MOMU) situation in the crowd-sensing data cloud environment, this paper presents a secure nearest neighbor query scheme based on the proxy server architecture, which is constructed by protocols of secure two-party computation and secure Voronoi diagram algorithm. It not only preserves the data confidentiality and query privacy but also effectively resists the collusion between the cloud server and the data owners or users. Finally, extensive theoretical and experimental evaluations are presented to show that our proposed scheme achieves a superior balance between the security and query performance compared to other schemes.

  6. Application of a Genetic Algorithm to Nearest Neighbour Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simkin, S.; Verwaart, D.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.


    This paper describes the application of a genetic algorithm to nearest-neighbour based imputation of sample data into a census data dataset. The genetic algorithm optimises the selection and weights of variables used for measuring distance. The results show that the measure of fit can be improved by

  7. Dimensional testing for reverse k-nearest neighbor search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casanova, Guillaume; Englmeier, Elias; Houle, Michael E.


    by a characterization of the intrinsic dimensionality of the data. The method can accommodate any index structure supporting incremental (forward) nearest-neighbor search for the generation and verification of candidates, while avoiding impractically-high preprocessing costs. We also provide experimental evidence...

  8. Pseudometrics for Nearest Neighbor Classification of Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonserm Kijsirikul


    Full Text Available We propose that pseudometric, a subadditive distance measure, has sufficient properties to be a good structure to perform nearest neighbor pattern classification. There exist some theoretical results that asymptotically guarantee the classification accuracy of k-nearest neighbor when the sample size grows larger. These results hold true under the assumption that the distance measure is a metric. The results still hold for pseudometrics up to some technicality. Whether the results are valid for the non-subadditive distance measures is still left unanswered. Pseudometric is also practically appealing. Once we have a subadditive distance measure, the measure will have at least one significant advantage over the non-subadditive; one can directly plug such distance measure into systems which exploit the subadditivity to perform faster nearest neighbor search techniques. This work focuses on pseudometrics for time series. We propose two frameworks for studying and designing subadditive distance measures and a few examples of distance measures resulting from the frameworks. One framework is more general than the other and can be used to tailor distances from the other framework to gain better classification performance. Experimental results of nearest neighbor classification of the designed pseudometrics in comparison with well-known existing distance measures including Dynamic Time Warping showed that the designed distance measures are practical for time series classification.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Trigonometric Parallax of Polaris B, Companion of the Nearest Cepheid (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Remage Evans, Nancy; Schaefer, Gail H.; Harmer, Dianne


    Polaris, the nearest and brightest Cepheid, is a potential anchor point for the Leavitt period–luminosity relation. However, its distance is a matter of contention, with recent advocacy for a parallax of ∼10 mas, in contrast with the Hipparcos measurement of 7.54 ± 0.11 mas. We report an independent trigonometric parallax determination, using the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Polaris itself is too bright for FGS, so we measured its eighth-magnitude companion Polaris B, relative to a network of background reference stars. We converted the FGS relative parallax to absolute, using estimated distances to the reference stars from ground-based photometry and spectral classification. Our result, 6.26 ± 0.24 mas, is even smaller than that found by Hipparcos. We note other objects for which Hipparcos appears to have overestimated parallaxes, including the well-established case of the Pleiades. We consider possible sources of systematic error in the FGS parallax, but find no evidence they are significant. If our “long” distance is correct, the high luminosity of Polaris indicates that it is pulsating in the second overtone of its fundamental mode. Our results raise several puzzles, including a long pulsation period for Polaris compared to second-overtone pulsators in the Magellanic Clouds, and a conflict between the isochrone age of Polaris B (∼2.1 Gyr) and the much younger age of Polaris A. We discuss possibilities that B is not a physical companion of A, in spite of the strong evidence that it is, or that one of the stars is a merger remnant. These issues may be resolved when Gaia provides parallaxes for both stars. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  10. Sounds of a Star (United States)


    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  11. Fast Multidimensional Nearest Neighbor Search Algorithm Using Priority Queue (United States)

    Ajioka, Shiro; Tsuge, Satoru; Shishibori, Masami; Kita, Kenji

    Nearest neighbor search in high dimensional spaces is an interesting and important problem which is relevant for a wide variety of applications, including multimedia information retrieval, data mining, and pattern recognition. For such applications, the curse of high dimensionality tends to be a major obstacle in the development of efficient search methods. This paper addresses the problem of designing an efficient algorithm for high dimensional nearest neighbor search using a priority queue. The proposed algorithm is based on a simple linear search algorithm and eliminates unnecessary arithmetic operations from distance computations between multidimensional vectors. Moreover, we propose two techniques, a dimensional sorting method and a PCA-based method, to accelerate multidimensional search. Experimental results indicate that our scheme scales well even for a very large number of dimensions.

  12. Deterministic Approximation Algorithms for the Nearest Codeword Problem (United States)

    Alon, Noga; Panigrahy, Rina; Yekhanin, Sergey

    The Nearest Codeword Problem (NCP) is a basic algorithmic question in the theory of error-correcting codes. Given a point v in mathbb{F}_2^n and a linear space Lsubseteq mathbb{F}_2^n of dimension k NCP asks to find a point l ∈ L that minimizes the (Hamming) distance from v. It is well-known that the nearest codeword problem is NP-hard. Therefore approximation algorithms are of interest. The best efficient approximation algorithms for the NCP to date are due to Berman and Karpinski. They are a deterministic algorithm that achieves an approximation ratio of O(k/c) for an arbitrary constant c, and a randomized algorithm that achieves an approximation ratio of O(k/logn).

  13. Nearest Neighborhood Characteristics of a Tropical Mixed Broadleaved Forest Stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hai Nguyen


    Full Text Available Structural complexity and local biodiversity of species-rich tropical forests can be characterized by their spatial patterns, which contribute to species intra- and interspecific interactions. Aiming to describe spatial patterns of species at fine spatial scales, we applied the quantitative analyses based on the relationships of nearest neighbors of conspecific and heterospecific trees. In a two-hectare plot of a tropical broadleaved forest stand in central Vietnam with minimal human influence, all tree individuals with diameter at breast height ≥ 2.5 cm were mapped and their characteristics were recorded. We applied two different types of analyses: (1 Intraspecific structural characteristics using nearest neighbor statistics; (2 overall interspecific associations through a classification scheme based on bivariate nearest neighbor distribution function D12(r and Ripley’s K function K12(r. The findings showed that: (1 Most of studied species in the forest were highly mixed with other species, while conspecifics were regular to aggregated distribution at small spatial scales. Tree individuals with different diameter values were surrounded by heterospecific trees; (2 The majority of 306 species-species pairs showed spatial independence (66.7%, whereas 29.8% of all species showed an overall positive association and negative association consisted only a small percentage (3.5% up to spatial scales of 50 m. We found significant evidences of the main ecological theories such as dispersal limitation, Neutral theory, Janzen-Connell hypothesis, and other effects like the stochastic dilution. We suggest using both the bivariate distribution of the structural parameters and the spatial point pattern analysis based on nearest neighbor distance as advantageous approaches for further understanding of population structure, as well as discovering and protecting biodiversity in the future.

  14. [Galaxy/quasar classification based on nearest neighbor method]. (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Ru; Lu, Yu; Zhou, Jian-Ming; Wang, Yong-Jun


    With the wide application of high-quality CCD in celestial spectrum imagery and the implementation of many large sky survey programs (e. g., Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two-degree-Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dF), Spectroscopic Survey Telescope (SST), Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) program and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) program, etc.), celestial observational data are coming into the world like torrential rain. Therefore, to utilize them effectively and fully, research on automated processing methods for celestial data is imperative. In the present work, we investigated how to recognizing galaxies and quasars from spectra based on nearest neighbor method. Galaxies and quasars are extragalactic objects, they are far away from earth, and their spectra are usually contaminated by various noise. Therefore, it is a typical problem to recognize these two types of spectra in automatic spectra classification. Furthermore, the utilized method, nearest neighbor, is one of the most typical, classic, mature algorithms in pattern recognition and data mining, and often is used as a benchmark in developing novel algorithm. For applicability in practice, it is shown that the recognition ratio of nearest neighbor method (NN) is comparable to the best results reported in the literature based on more complicated methods, and the superiority of NN is that this method does not need to be trained, which is useful in incremental learning and parallel computation in mass spectral data processing. In conclusion, the results in this work are helpful for studying galaxies and quasars spectra classification.

  15. K-nearest uphill clustering in the protein structure space

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng


    The protein structure classification problem, which is to assign a protein structure to a cluster of similar proteins, is one of the most fundamental problems in the construction and application of the protein structure space. Early manually curated protein structure classifications (e.g., SCOP and CATH) are very successful, but recently suffer the slow updating problem because of the increased throughput of newly solved protein structures. Thus, fully automatic methods to cluster proteins in the protein structure space have been designed and developed. In this study, we observed that the SCOP superfamilies are highly consistent with clustering trees representing hierarchical clustering procedures, but the tree cutting is very challenging and becomes the bottleneck of clustering accuracy. To overcome this challenge, we proposed a novel density-based K-nearest uphill clustering method that effectively eliminates noisy pairwise protein structure similarities and identifies density peaks as cluster centers. Specifically, the density peaks are identified based on K-nearest uphills (i.e., proteins with higher densities) and K-nearest neighbors. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply and develop density-based clustering methods in the protein structure space. Our results show that our density-based clustering method outperforms the state-of-the-art clustering methods previously applied to the problem. Moreover, we observed that computational methods and human experts could produce highly similar clusters at high precision values, while computational methods also suggest to split some large superfamilies into smaller clusters. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Fast and accurate hashing via iterative nearest neighbors expansion. (United States)

    Jin, Zhongming; Zhang, Debing; Hu, Yao; Lin, Shiding; Cai, Deng; He, Xiaofei


    Recently, the hashing techniques have been widely applied to approximate the nearest neighbor search problem in many real applications. The basic idea of these approaches is to generate binary codes for data points which can preserve the similarity between any two of them. Given a query, instead of performing a linear scan of the entire data base, the hashing method can perform a linear scan of the points whose hamming distance to the query is not greater than rh , where rh is a constant. However, in order to find the true nearest neighbors, both the locating time and the linear scan time are proportional to O(∑i=0(rh)(c || i)) ( c is the code length), which increase exponentially as rh increases. To address this limitation, we propose a novel algorithm named iterative expanding hashing in this paper, which builds an auxiliary index based on an offline constructed nearest neighbor table to avoid large rh . This auxiliary index can be easily combined with all the traditional hashing methods. Extensive experimental results over various real large-scale datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  17. Stars and Star Myths. (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  18. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  19. Troll detection with sentiment analysis and nearest neighbour search


    Casselryd, Oskar; Jansson, Filip


    Internet trolls are gaining more influence in society due to the rapidgrowth of social media. A troll farm is a group of Internet trolls that get paid to spread certain opinions or information online. Identifying a troll farm can be difficult, since the trolls try to stay hidden. This study examines if it is possible to identify troll farms on Twitter by conducting a sentiment analysis on user tweets and modeling it as a nearest neighbor problem. The experiment was done with 4 simulated troll...

  20. Weighting of the k-Nearest-Neighbors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Nielsen, Mads


    in the limit of infinite iterations. We demonstrate that the soft kNN errors obtained through b-CCV can be obtained by applying the weighted kNN in a LOO setting, and that the proposed weighting schemes can decrease the variance and improve the generalization of kNN in a CV setting.......This paper presents two distribution independent weighting schemes for k-Nearest-Neighbors (kNN). Applying the first scheme in a Leave-One-Out (LOO) setting corresponds to performing complete b-fold cross validation (b-CCV), while applying the second scheme corresponds to performing bootstrapping...

  1. Ten Top Tech Trends (United States)

    McLester, Susan


    In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source…

  2. Affordances: Ten Years On (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria


    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  3. Tens bij bevallingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin-Nuis, F.D.F.


    TENS (Transcutane Electrische Neuro Stimulatie) is een pijnverlichtingsmethode die berust op de Gate Control Theory van Melzack en Wall. Door middel van electrische pulsen via de huid zou de geleiding van nociceptieve signalen (pijnprikkels) worden beïnvloed en zou het lichaam endorfinen aanmaken:

  4. Powers of ten

    CERN Multimedia

    Pyramid FILMS


    Powers of Ten is a 1977 short documentary film written and directed by Charles Eames and his wife, Ray. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude). The film begins with an aerial image of a man reclining on a blanket; the view is that of one meter across. The viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover, then slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across ( or 101 m in standard form), revealing that the man is picnicking in a park with a female companion. The zoom-out continues, to a view of 100 meters (102 m), then 1 kilometer (103 m), and so on, increasing the perspective—the picnic is revealed to be taking place near Soldier Field on Chicago's waterfront—and continuing to zoom out to a field of view of 1024 meters, or the size of the observable universe. The camera then zooms back in to the picnic, and then to views of negative powers of ten—10-1 m (10 centimeters), and so forth, until we are viewing a carbon nucl...

  5. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  6. Using K-Nearest Neighbor in Optical Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ong


    Full Text Available The growth in computer vision technology has aided society with various kinds of tasks. One of these tasks is the ability of recognizing text contained in an image, or usually referred to as Optical Character Recognition (OCR. There are many kinds of algorithms that can be implemented into an OCR. The K-Nearest Neighbor is one such algorithm. This research aims to find out the process behind the OCR mechanism by using K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm; one of the most influential machine learning algorithms. It also aims to find out how precise the algorithm is in an OCR program. To do that, a simple OCR program to classify alphabets of capital letters is made to produce and compare real results. The result of this research yielded a maximum of 76.9% accuracy with 200 training samples per alphabet. A set of reasons are also given as to why the program is able to reach said level of accuracy.

  7. Star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieles, M.


    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of

  8. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from two classes of EOS's and discuss their implications. Keywords. Neutron stars; phase transition. It is generally believed that the evolutionary journey of a star after it has exhausted all its fuel culminates into the formation of a compact object in the form of a white dwarf, a neutron star or a black hole depending on its mass.

  9. Massive Stars (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva


    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  10. Ten Utah Painters


    Whitlock, Andrew


    Today the art world is rich and diverse with regional as well as national art centers. As in the past, art is alive and well in Utah. The show Ten Utah Painters invites us to see and experiece what some of Utah's best contemporary artists are doing. Their paintings invite us to look and to enjoy but also to learn and open up our visual senses to a broader vista.

  11. Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search for a Dataset of Normalized Vectors (United States)

    Terasawa, Kengo; Tanaka, Yuzuru

    This paper describes a novel algorithm for approximate nearest neighbor searching. For solving this problem especially in high dimensional spaces, one of the best-known algorithm is Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH). This paper presents a variant of the LSH algorithm that outperforms previously proposed methods when the dataset consists of vectors normalized to unit length, which is often the case in pattern recognition. The LSH scheme is based on a family of hash functions that preserves the locality of points. This paper points out that for our special case problem we can design efficient hash functions that map a point on the hypersphere into the closest vertex of the randomly rotated regular polytope. The computational analysis confirmed that the proposed method could improve the exponent ρ, the main indicator of the performance of the LSH algorithm. The practical experiments also supported the efficiency of our algorithm both in time and in space.

  12. Implementation of Nearest Neighbor using HSV to Identify Skin Disease (United States)

    Gerhana, Y. A.; Zulfikar, W. B.; Ramdani, A. H.; Ramdhani, M. A.


    Today, Android is one of the most widely used operating system in the world. Most of android device has a camera that could capture an image, this feature could be optimized to identify skin disease. The disease is one of health problem caused by bacterium, fungi, and virus. The symptoms of skin disease usually visible. In this work, the symptoms that captured as image contains HSV in every pixel of the image. HSV can extracted and then calculate to earn euclidean value. The value compared using nearest neighbor algorithm to discover closer value between image testing and image training to get highest value that decide class label or type of skin disease. The testing result show that 166 of 200 or about 80% is accurate. There are some reasons that influence the result of classification model like number of image training and quality of android device’s camera.

  13. Nearest Neighbor Estimates of Entropy for Multivariate Circular Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Misra


    Full Text Available In molecular sciences, the estimation of entropies of molecules is important for the understanding of many chemical and biological processes. Motivated by these applications, we consider the problem of estimating the entropies of circular random vectors and introduce non-parametric estimators based on circular distances between n sample points and their k th nearest neighbors (NN, where k (≤ n – 1 is a fixed positive integer. The proposed NN estimators are based on two different circular distances, and are proven to be asymptotically unbiased and consistent. The performance of one of the circular-distance estimators is investigated and compared with that of the already established Euclidean-distance NN estimator using Monte Carlo samples from an analytic distribution of six circular variables of an exactly known entropy and a large sample of seven internal-rotation angles in the molecule of tartaric acid, obtained by a realistic molecular-dynamics simulation.

  14. Enhanced Approximate Nearest Neighbor via Local Area Focused Search.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Antonio [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blazier, Nicholas Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) algorithms are increasingly important in machine learning, data mining, and image processing applications. There is a large family of space- partitioning ANN algorithms, such as randomized KD-Trees, that work well in practice but are limited by an exponential increase in similarity comparisons required to optimize recall. Additionally, they only support a small set of similarity metrics. We present Local Area Fo- cused Search (LAFS), a method that enhances the way queries are performed using an existing ANN index. Instead of a single query, LAFS performs a number of smaller (fewer similarity comparisons) queries and focuses on a local neighborhood which is refined as candidates are identified. We show that our technique improves performance on several well known datasets and is easily extended to general similarity metrics using kernel projection techniques.

  15. Designing lattice structures with maximal nearest-neighbor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Munoz, J C; Lopez-Sandoval, R [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion CientIfica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, 78216 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Garcia, M E [Theoretische Physik, FB 18, Universitaet Kassel and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), Heinrich-Plett-Str.40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)


    In this paper, we study the numerical optimization of nearest-neighbor concurrence of bipartite one- and two-dimensional lattices, as well as non-bipartite two-dimensional lattices. These systems are described in the framework of a tight-binding Hamiltonian while the optimization of concurrence was performed using genetic algorithms. Our results show that the concurrence of the optimized lattice structures is considerably higher than that of non-optimized systems. In the case of one-dimensional chains, the concurrence increases dramatically when the system begins to dimerize, i.e., it undergoes a structural phase transition (Peierls distortion). This result is consistent with the idea that entanglement is maximal or shows a singularity near quantum phase transitions. Moreover, the optimization of concurrence in two-dimensional bipartite and non-bipartite lattices is achieved when the structures break into smaller subsystems, which are arranged in geometrically distinguishable configurations.

  16. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben; Larsen, Kasper Green


    and Korman (STOC'10) established that labels in ancestor labeling schemes have size log n + Θ(log log n), our new lower bound separates ancestor and NCA labeling schemes. Our upper bound improves the 10 log n upper bound by Alstrup, Gavoille, Kaplan and Rauhe (TOCS'04), and our theoretical result even......We consider NCA labeling schemes: given a rooted tree T, label the nodes of T with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the label of their nearest common ancestor. For trees with n nodes we present upper and lower bounds...... establishing that labels of size (2 ± ε)log n, ε schemes have labels of size log n + Ω(log log n). Our lower bound increases this to log n + Ω(log n) for NCA labeling schemes. Since Fraigniaud...

  17. Arabic Text Categorization Using Improved k-Nearest neighbour Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Hamood KHALED


    Full Text Available The quantity of text information published in Arabic language on the net requires the implementation of effective techniques for the extraction and classifying of relevant information contained in large corpus of texts. In this paper we presented an implementation of an enhanced k-NN Arabic text classifier. We apply the traditional k-NN and Naive Bayes from Weka Toolkit for comparison purpose. Our proposed modified k-NN algorithm features an improved decision rule to skip the classes that are less similar and identify the right class from k nearest neighbours which increases the accuracy. The study evaluates the improved decision rule technique using the standard of recall, precision and f-measure as the basis of comparison. We concluded that the effectiveness of the proposed classifier is promising and outperforms the classical k-NN classifier.

  18. Query-Adaptive Reciprocal Hash Tables for Nearest Neighbor Search. (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Deng, Cheng; Lang, Bo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong


    Recent years have witnessed the success of binary hashing techniques in approximate nearest neighbor search. In practice, multiple hash tables are usually built using hashing to cover more desired results in the hit buckets of each table. However, rare work studies the unified approach to constructing multiple informative hash tables using any type of hashing algorithms. Meanwhile, for multiple table search, it also lacks of a generic query-adaptive and fine-grained ranking scheme that can alleviate the binary quantization loss suffered in the standard hashing techniques. To solve the above problems, in this paper, we first regard the table construction as a selection problem over a set of candidate hash functions. With the graph representation of the function set, we propose an efficient solution that sequentially applies normalized dominant set to finding the most informative and independent hash functions for each table. To further reduce the redundancy between tables, we explore the reciprocal hash tables in a boosting manner, where the hash function graph is updated with high weights emphasized on the misclassified neighbor pairs of previous hash tables. To refine the ranking of the retrieved buckets within a certain Hamming radius from the query, we propose a query-adaptive bitwise weighting scheme to enable fine-grained bucket ranking in each hash table, exploiting the discriminative power of its hash functions and their complement for nearest neighbor search. Moreover, we integrate such scheme into the multiple table search using a fast, yet reciprocal table lookup algorithm within the adaptive weighted Hamming radius. In this paper, both the construction method and the query-adaptive search method are general and compatible with different types of hashing algorithms using different feature spaces and/or parameter settings. Our extensive experiments on several large-scale benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed techniques can significantly outperform both

  19. Star Wreck

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Tinyakov, Peter G; Tkachev, Igor I; Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Tkachev, Igor I.


    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the origin of the gamma-ray bursts.

  20. Neutron Stars (United States)

    Cottam, J.


    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  1. Formation and evolution of star clusters and their host galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.


    The vast majority of galaxies contains large populations of stellar clusters, which are bound groups of a few tens to millions of stars. A cluster is formed from a single giant molecular cloud and therefore its stars share the same age and chemical composition. The formation and evolution of star

  2. Distribution Route Planning of Clean Coal Based on Nearest Insertion Method (United States)

    Wang, Yunrui


    Clean coal technology has made some achievements for several ten years, but the research in its distribution field is very small, the distribution efficiency would directly affect the comprehensive development of clean coal technology, it is the key to improve the efficiency of distribution by planning distribution route rationally. The object of this paper was a clean coal distribution system which be built in a county. Through the surveying of the customer demand and distribution route, distribution vehicle in previous years, it was found that the vehicle deployment was only distributed by experiences, and the number of vehicles which used each day changed, this resulted a waste of transport process and an increase in energy consumption. Thus, the mathematical model was established here in order to aim at shortest path as objective function, and the distribution route was re-planned by using nearest-insertion method which been improved. The results showed that the transportation distance saved 37 km and the number of vehicles used had also been decreased from the past average of 5 to fixed 4 every day, as well the real loading of vehicles increased by 16.25% while the current distribution volume staying same. It realized the efficient distribution of clean coal, achieved the purpose of saving energy and reducing consumption.

  3. Global 30m Height Above the Nearest Drainage (United States)

    Donchyts, Gennadii; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap; Erickson, Tyler; Gao, Hongkai; Savenije, Hubert; van de Giesen, Nick


    Variability of the Earth surface is the primary characteristics affecting the flow of surface and subsurface water. Digital elevation models, usually represented as height maps above some well-defined vertical datum, are used a lot to compute hydrologic parameters such as local flow directions, drainage area, drainage network pattern, and many others. Usually, it requires a significant effort to derive these parameters at a global scale. One hydrological characteristic introduced in the last decade is Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND): a digital elevation model normalized using nearest drainage. This parameter has been shown to be useful for many hydrological and more general purpose applications, such as landscape hazard mapping, landform classification, remote sensing and rainfall-runoff modeling. One of the essential characteristics of HAND is its ability to capture heterogeneities in local environments, difficult to measure or model otherwise. While many applications of HAND were published in the academic literature, no studies analyze its variability on a global scale, especially, using higher resolution DEMs, such as the new, one arc-second (approximately 30m) resolution version of SRTM. In this work, we will present the first global version of HAND computed using a mosaic of two DEMS: 30m SRTM and Viewfinderpanorama DEM (90m). The lower resolution DEM was used to cover latitudes above 60 degrees north and below 56 degrees south where SRTM is not available. We compute HAND using the unmodified version of the input DEMs to ensure consistency with the original elevation model. We have parallelized processing by generating a homogenized, equal-area version of HydroBASINS catchments. The resulting catchment boundaries were used to perform processing using 30m resolution DEM. To compute HAND, a new version of D8 local drainage directions as well as flow accumulation were calculated. The latter was used to estimate river head by incorporating fixed and

  4. Energy parameters and novel algorithms for an extended nearest neighbor energy model of RNA. (United States)

    Dotu, Ivan; Mechery, Vinodh; Clote, Peter


    We describe the first algorithm and software, RNAenn, to compute the partition function and minimum free energy secondary structure for RNA with respect to an extended nearest neighbor energy model. Our next-nearest-neighbor triplet energy model appears to lead to somewhat more cooperative folding than does the nearest neighbor energy model, as judged by melting curves computed with RNAenn and with two popular software implementations for the nearest-neighbor energy model. A web server is available at

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic O star catalog (Maiz-apellaniz+, 2004) (United States)

    Maiz-Apellaniz, J.; Walborn, N. R.; Galue, H. A.; Wei, L. H.


    We have produced a catalog of 378 Galactic O stars with accurate spectral classifications that is complete for V<8 but includes many fainter stars. The catalog provides cross-identifications with other sources; coordinates (obtained in most cases from Tycho-2 data); astrometric distances for 24 of the nearest stars; optical (Tycho-2, Johnson, and Stroemgren) and NIR photometry; group membership, runaway character, and multiplicity information; and a Web-based version with links to on-line services. (9 data files).

  6. Shared Nearest Neighbor Clustering in a Locality Sensitive Hashing Framework. (United States)

    Kanj, Sawsan; Brüls, Thomas; Gazut, Stéphane


    We present a new algorithm to cluster high-dimensional sequence data and its application to the field of metagenomics, which aims at reconstructing individual genomes from a mixture of genomes sampled from an environmental site, without any prior knowledge of reference data (genomes) or the shape of clusters. Such problems typically cannot be solved directly with classical approaches seeking to estimate the density of clusters, for example, using the shared nearest neighbors (SNN) rule, due to the prohibitive size of contemporary sequence datasets. We explore here a new approach based on combining the SNN rule with the concept of locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The proposed method, called LSH-SNN, works by randomly splitting the input data into smaller-sized subsets (buckets) and employing the SNN rule on each of these buckets. Links can be created among neighbors sharing a sufficient number of elements, hence allowing clusters to be grown from linked elements. LSH-SNN can scale up to larger datasets consisting of millions of sequences, while achieving high accuracy across a variety of sample sizes and complexities.

  7. Dynamics of Nearest-Neighbour Competitions on Graphs (United States)

    Rador, Tonguç


    Considering a collection of agents representing the vertices of a graph endowed with integer points, we study the asymptotic dynamics of the rate of the increase of their points according to a very simple rule: we randomly pick an an edge from the graph which unambiguously defines two agents we give a point the the agent with larger point with probability p and to the lagger with probability q such that p+q=1. The model we present is the most general version of the nearest-neighbour competition model introduced by Ben-Naim, Vazquez and Redner. We show that the model combines aspects of hyperbolic partial differential equations—as that of a conservation law—graph colouring and hyperplane arrangements. We discuss the properties of the model for general graphs but we confine in depth study to d-dimensional tori. We present a detailed study for the ring graph, which includes a chemical potential approximation to calculate all its statistics that gives rather accurate results. The two-dimensional torus, not studied in depth as the ring, is shown to possess critical behaviour in that the asymptotic speeds arrange themselves in two-coloured islands separated by borders of three other colours and the size of the islands obey power law distribution. We also show that in the large d limit the d-dimensional torus shows inverse sine law for the distribution of asymptotic speeds.

  8. Nearest-Neighbor Estimation for ROC Analysis under Verification Bias. (United States)

    Adimari, Gianfranco; Chiogna, Monica


    For a continuous-scale diagnostic test, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is a popular tool for displaying the ability of the test to discriminate between healthy and diseased subjects. In some studies, verification of the true disease status is performed only for a subset of subjects, possibly depending on the test result and other characteristics of the subjects. Estimators of the ROC curve based only on this subset of subjects are typically biased; this is known as verification bias. Methods have been proposed to correct verification bias, in particular under the assumption that the true disease status, if missing, is missing at random (MAR). MAR assumption means that the probability of missingness depends on the true disease status only through the test result and observed covariate information. However, the existing methods require parametric models for the (conditional) probability of disease and/or the (conditional) probability of verification, and hence are subject to model misspecification: a wrong specification of such parametric models can affect the behavior of the estimators, which can be inconsistent. To avoid misspecification problems, in this paper we propose a fully nonparametric method for the estimation of the ROC curve of a continuous test under verification bias. The method is based on nearest-neighbor imputation and adopts generic smooth regression models for both the probability that a subject is diseased and the probability that it is verified. Simulation experiments and an illustrative example show the usefulness of the new method. Variance estimation is also discussed.

  9. Linear nearest neighbor optimization in quantum circuits: a multiobjective perspective (United States)

    Ruffinelli, Daniel; Barán, Benjamín


    Several current implementations of quantum circuits rely on the linear nearest neighbor restriction, which only allows interaction between adjacent qubits. Most methods that address the process of converting a generic circuit to an equivalent circuit which satisfies this restriction, minimize the number of additional SWAP gates required by this process. Moreover, most methods which address this problem are designed for 1D circuits. Considering the new and promising proposals for 2D quantum circuits, what we propose is a new perspective on this problem, namely that it can be seen as a multiobjective optimization problem. To test our hypothesis, we developed a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm that solves this problem by considering two objectives: minimizing the size of the 2D grid where the circuit is placed, and minimizing the number of additional SWAP gates. Of the methods designed for 2D circuits, only one considers different grid sizes which are much larger than strictly necessary. Consequently, our algorithm makes considerations which other methods do not make, since it naturally finds the grid which requires fewer SWAP gates for the circuit conversion, whether it is one-dimensional or two-dimensional. Our experimental results indicate that allowing a larger grid size results in fewer additional SWAP gates in about 73% of the tested circuits. Additionally, the average improvement we found when using larger grid sizes is about 30%, while the best improvement over using the smallest possible grid is 63.8%.

  10. River Flow Prediction Using the Nearest Neighbor Probabilistic Ensemble Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sanikhani


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the recent years, researchers interested on probabilistic forecasting of hydrologic variables such river flow.A probabilistic approach aims at quantifying the prediction reliability through a probability distribution function or a prediction interval for the unknown future value. The evaluation of the uncertainty associated to the forecast is seen as a fundamental information, not only to correctly assess the prediction, but also to compare forecasts from different methods and to evaluate actions and decisions conditionally on the expected values. Several probabilistic approaches have been proposed in the literature, including (1 methods that use resampling techniques to assess parameter and model uncertainty, such as the Metropolis algorithm or the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE methodology for an application to runoff prediction, (2 methods based on processing the forecast errors of past data to produce the probability distributions of future values and (3 methods that evaluate how the uncertainty propagates from the rainfall forecast to the river discharge prediction, as the Bayesian forecasting system. Materials and Methods: In this study, two different probabilistic methods are used for river flow prediction.Then the uncertainty related to the forecast is quantified. One approach is based on linear predictors and in the other, nearest neighbor was used. The nonlinear probabilistic ensemble can be used for nonlinear time series analysis using locally linear predictors, while NNPE utilize a method adapted for one step ahead nearest neighbor methods. In this regard, daily river discharge (twelve years of Dizaj and Mashin Stations on Baranduz-Chay basin in west Azerbijan and Zard-River basin in Khouzestan provinces were used, respectively. The first six years of data was applied for fitting the model. The next three years was used to calibration and the remained three yeas utilized for testing the models

  11. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta


    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  12. Star Polymers. (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G


    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  14. Candidate Nearby, Young Stars in Gaia's First Data Release (United States)

    Chalifour, Matthieu; Kastner, Joel H.; Binks, Alex; Rodriguez, David; Punzi, Kristina; Zuckerman, Ben; Sacco, Germano


    The nearest examples of young stars are essential subjects for the study of planet and star formation. The recent data release from Gaia, which contains accurate parallax distances for ~2.5 million stars, allows age determinations via isochronal analysis for thousands of stars within ~100 pc. We have selected nearly 400 candidates nearby, young, late-type stars in the approximate mass range 0.5-1.0 Msun from the Tycho Gaia Astrometric Solution catalog on the basis of (a) D age Earth and, hence, may represent excellent targets for direct-imaging searches for young, self-luminous planets. We discuss our ongoing efforts to assess the accuracy of these stars' isochronal ages via various diagnostic tools, including galactic kinematics, UV excess, relative X-ray luminosity, andoptical spectroscopic indicators of youth.

  15. Mrk 71/NGC 2366: The Nearest Green Pea Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheva, Genoveva; Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); James, Bethan L. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present the remarkable discovery that the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 2366 is an excellent analog of the Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which are characterized by extremely high ionization parameters. The similarities are driven predominantly by the giant H ii region Markarian 71 (Mrk 71). We compare the system with GPs in terms of morphology, excitation properties, specific star-formation rate, kinematics, absorption of low-ionization species, reddening, and chemical abundance, and find consistencies throughout. Since extreme GPs are associated with both candidate and confirmed Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters, Mrk 71/NGC 2366 is thus also a good candidate for LyC escape. The spatially resolved data for this object show a superbubble blowout generated by mechanical feedback from one of its two super star clusters (SSCs), Knot B, while the extreme ionization properties are driven by the ≲1 Myr-old, enshrouded SSC Knot A, which has ∼10 times higher ionizing luminosity. Very massive stars (>100 M {sub ⊙}) may be present in this remarkable object. Ionization-parameter mapping indicates that the blowout region is optically thin in the LyC, and the general properties also suggest LyC escape in the line of sight. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 does differ from GPs in that it is one to two orders of magnitude less luminous. The presence of this faint GP analog and candidate LyC emitter (LCE) so close to us suggests that LCEs may be numerous and commonplace, and therefore could significantly contribute to the cosmic ionizing budget. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 offers an unprecedentedly detailed look at the viscera of a candidate LCE, and could clarify the mechanisms of LyC escape.

  16. The ten thousand Kims (United States)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun


    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  17. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llope, W.J., E-mail: [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hoffmann, G.W. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Asselta, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brandenburg, J.D.; Butterworth, J. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Camarda, T.; Christie, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dong, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Engelage, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eppley, G.; Geurts, F. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hammond, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Judd, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McDonald, D.L. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Perkins, C. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others


    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event “start time” needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ∼100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ∼1 cm.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, James R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, 516 High Street, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Kipping, David M. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Sasselov, Dimitar [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Matthews, Jaymie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Cameron, Chris [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Geology, Cape Breton University, 1250 Grand Lake Road, Sydney, NS B1P 6L2 (Canada)


    We present a study of white-light flares from the active M5.5 dwarf Proxima Centauri using the Canadian microsatellite Microvariability and Oscillations of STars . Using 37.6 days of monitoring data from 2014 to 2015, we have detected 66 individual flare events, the largest number of white-light flares observed to date on Proxima Cen. Flare energies in our sample range from 10{sup 29} to 10{sup 31.5} erg. The flare rate is lower than that of other classic flare stars of a similar spectral type, such as UV Ceti, which may indicate Proxima Cen had a higher flare rate in its youth. Proxima Cen does have an unusually high flare rate given its slow rotation period, however. Extending the observed power-law occurrence distribution down to 10{sup 28} erg, we show that flares with flux amplitudes of 0.5% occur 63 times per day, while superflares with energies of 10{sup 33} erg occur ∼8 times per year. Small flares may therefore pose a great difficulty in searches for transits from the recently announced 1.27 M {sub ⊕} Proxima b, while frequent large flares could have significant impact on the planetary atmosphere.

  19. OCR enhancement through neighbor embedding and fast approximate nearest neighbors (United States)

    Smith, D. C.


    Generic optical character recognition (OCR) engines often perform very poorly in transcribing scanned low resolution (LR) text documents. To improve OCR performance, we apply the Neighbor Embedding (NE) single-image super-resolution (SISR) technique to LR scanned text documents to obtain high resolution (HR) versions, which we subsequently process with OCR. For comparison, we repeat this procedure using bicubic interpolation (BI). We demonstrate that mean-square errors (MSE) in NE HR estimates do not increase substantially when NE is trained in one Latin font style and tested in another, provided both styles belong to the same font category (serif or sans serif). This is very important in practice, since for each font size, the number of training sets required for each category may be reduced from dozens to just one. We also incorporate randomized k-d trees into our NE implementation to perform approximate nearest neighbor search, and obtain a 1000x speed up of our original NE implementation, with negligible MSE degradation. This acceleration also made it practical to combine all of our size-specific NE Latin models into a single Universal Latin Model (ULM). The ULM eliminates the need to determine the unknown font category and size of an input LR text document and match it to an appropriate model, a very challenging task, since the dpi (pixels per inch) of the input LR image is generally unknown. Our experiments show that OCR character error rates (CER) were over 90% when we applied the Tesseract OCR engine to LR text documents (scanned at 75 dpi and 100 dpi) in the 6-10 pt range. By contrast, using k-d trees and the ULM, CER after NE preprocessing averaged less than 7% at 3x (100 dpi LR scanning) and 4x (75 dpi LR scanning) magnification, over an order of magnitude improvement. Moreover, CER after NE preprocessing was more that 6 times lower on average than after BI preprocessing.

  20. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei


    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  1. Revised Distances, Kinematics, and Classifications of the Nearest Stellar Groups within 100 pc (United States)

    Mamajek, Eric E.


    Given the recent interest in assigning membership of low-mass or substellar field objects to clusters of "known" age, a modern analysis of the distances, kinematics, memberships, and physicality of purported nearby young stellar groups is needed. Van Leeuwen (2007) recently published a new astrometric analysis of data from the Hipparcos mission. Here I use the revised Hipparcos astrometry to estimate updated distances and parameters for the young stellar groups with obvious nuclei previously reported to lie within 100 pc of the Sun (except for the Hyades and Coma Ber, which were reported by van Leeuwen). Among the highlights of the results reported are: (1) the revised mean distances to the nuclei of the following groups: AB Dor (20.1+-1.5 pc), Ursa Major (25.2+-0.3 pc), Carina-Near (32.7+-1.2 pc), Tucana (43.0+-1.0 pc), TW Hya (52.7+-3.0 pc), 32 Ori (92.9+-2.4 pc), and eta Cha (94.3+-1.2 pc), (2) the 5-Myr-old epsilon Cha group appears to be the nearest known group associated with molecular gas (117+-4 pc), (3) the 8 Myr-old eta Cha cluster is the densest cluster within 100 pc ( 36 Msun/pc3), (4) the convergent point for the AB Dor group nucleus appears to be near its geometric center, a phenomena unique among nearby kinematic groups, and (5) the intrinsic 1D velocity dispersions of the nuclei are all remarkably similar (all 1 km/s), and are larger than that predicted assuming the nuclei are virialized (typically Polaris are probably unphysical. With refined kinematic parameters for the nearby stellar groups, one can now conduct a more refined membership analysis for others stars purported to be distant ``members'' of these groups.

  2. Constrained parameter estimation for semi-supervised learning : The case of the nearest mean classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loog, M.


    A rather simple semi-supervised version of the equally simple nearest mean classifier is presented. However simple, the proposed approach is of practical interest as the nearest mean classifier remains a relevant tool in biomedical applications or other areas dealing with relatively high-dimensional

  3. 3D Nearest Neighbour Search Using a Clustered Hierarchical Tree Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhaibah, A.; Uznir, U.; Antón Castro, Francesc/François


    , with the immense number of urban datasets, the retrieval and analysis of nearest neighbour information and their efficiency will become more complex and crucial. In this paper, we present a technique to retrieve nearest neighbour information in 3D space using a clustered hierarchical tree structure. Based on our...

  4. Estimating forest attribute parameters for small areas using nearest neighbors techniques (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts


    Nearest neighbors techniques have become extremely popular, particularly for use with forest inventory data. With these techniques, a population unit prediction is calculated as a linear combination of observations for a selected number of population units in a sample that are most similar, or nearest, in a space of ancillary variables to the population unit requiring...

  5. On Competitiveness of Nearest-Neighbor-Based Music Classification: A Methodological Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálmason, Haukur; Jónsson, Björn Thór; Amsaleg, Laurent


    The traditional role of nearest-neighbor classification in music classification research is that of a straw man opponent for the learning approach of the hour. Recent work in high-dimensional indexing has shown that approximate nearest-neighbor algorithms are extremely scalable, yielding results ...

  6. Natural language text classification and filtering with trigrams and evolutionary nearest neighbour classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. Langdon


    textabstractN~grams offer fast language independent multi-class text categorization. Text is reduced in a single pass to ngram vectors. These are assigned to one of several classes by a) nearest neighbour (KNN) and b) genetic algorithm operating on weights in a nearest neighbour classifier. 91

  7. A parameter-free, solid-angle based, nearest-neighbor algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meel, J.A.; Filion, L.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326823484; Valeriani, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304989967; Frenkel, D.


    We propose a parameter-free algorithm for the identification of nearest neighbors. The algorithm is very easy to use and has a number of advantages over existing algorithms to identify nearestneighbors. This solid-angle based nearest-neighbor algorithm (SANN) attributes to each possible neighbor a

  8. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  10. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  11. Nearest Neighbor Search in the Metric Space of a Complex Network for Community Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Saha


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to bridge the gap between two important research directions: (1 nearest neighbor search, which is a fundamental computational tool for large data analysis; and (2 complex network analysis, which deals with large real graphs but is generally studied via graph theoretic analysis or spectral analysis. In this article, we have studied the nearest neighbor search problem in a complex network by the development of a suitable notion of nearness. The computation of efficient nearest neighbor search among the nodes of a complex network using the metric tree and locality sensitive hashing (LSH are also studied and experimented. For evaluation of the proposed nearest neighbor search in a complex network, we applied it to a network community detection problem. Experiments are performed to verify the usefulness of nearness measures for the complex networks, the role of metric tree and LSH to compute fast and approximate node nearness and the the efficiency of community detection using nearest neighbor search. We observed that nearest neighbor between network nodes is a very efficient tool to explore better the community structure of the real networks. Several efficient approximation schemes are very useful for large networks, which hardly made any degradation of results, whereas they save lot of computational times, and nearest neighbor based community detection approach is very competitive in terms of efficiency and time.

  12. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered (United States)


    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as

  13. Interactions, Starbursts, and Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Knapen


    Full Text Available We study how interactions between galaxies affect star formation within them by considering a sample of almost 1500 of the nearest galaxies, all within a distance of ∼45 Mpc. We use the far-IR emission to define the massive star formation rate (SFR, and then normalise the SFR by the stellar mass of the galaxy to obtain the specific star formation rate (SSFR. We explore the distribution of (SSFR with morphological type and with stellar mass. We calculate the relative enhancement of SFR and SSFR for each galaxy by normalising them by the median SFR and SSFR values of individual control samples of similar non-interacting galaxies. We find that both the median SFR and SSFR are enhanced in interacting galaxies, and more so as the degree of interaction is higher. The increase is moderate, reaching a maximum of a factor of 1.9 for the highest degree of interaction (mergers. While the SFR and SSFR are enhanced statistically by interactions, in many individual interacting galaxies they are not enhanced at all. Our study is based on a representative sample of nearby galaxies and should be used to place constraints on studies based on samples of galaxies at larger distances.

  14. The Application of Determining Students’ Graduation Status of STMIK Palangkaraya Using K-Nearest Neighbors Method (United States)

    Rusdiana, Lili; Marfuah


    K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used for classification which calculate a value to find out the closest in distance. It is used to group a set of data such as students’ graduation status that are got from the amount of course credits taken by them, the grade point average (AVG), and the mini-thesis grade. The study is conducted to know the results of using K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status, so it can be analyzed from the method used, the data, and the application constructed. The aim of this study is to find out the application results by using K-Nearest Neighbors concept to determine students’ graduation status using the data of STMIK Palangkaraya students. The development of the software used Extreme Programming, since it was appropriate and precise for this study which was to quickly finish the project. The application was created using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 for the training data and Matlab 7 to implement the application. The result of K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status was 92.5%. It could determine the predicate graduation of 94 data used from the initial data before the processing as many as 136 data which the maximal training data was 50data. The K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used to group a set of data based on the closest value, so that using K-Nearest Neighbors method agreed with this study. The results of K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status was 92.5% could determine the predicate graduation which is the maximal training data. The K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used to group a set of data based on the closest value, so that using K-Nearest Neighbors method agreed with this study.

  15. Possible Superluminal Components in the Nearest Tidal Disruption Event (United States)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Meyer, Eileen T.; Wang, Daniel; Yuan, Qiang; Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N.


    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) are believed to occur when a star or sub-stellar objects pass close enough to a supermassive black hole for the object to be disrupted by tidal forces. NGC 4845 (d=17 Mpc) was host to a TDE, IGR J12580+0134, that was detected by INTEGRAL in the X-rays and later in the radio by the JVLA. Its proximity offers us a so far unique close-up of the TDE and its aftermath. Here we discuss new VLBA and JVLA observations, obtained in 2015, which show that the radio flux from the active nucleus created by the TDE has decayed in a manner consistent with predictions from a jet-circumnuclear interaction model. But more excitingly, they also contain evidence of ejecta, in the form of a resolved component located 52 milliarcsec (4.1 pc) from the nucleus which, if ejected in 2010 as a result at the TDE, is moving superluminally at 2.4c. The milliarcsecond-scale core is seen to be circularly polarized in our L-band observations only. We discuss the implications of these observations.

  16. Research on Parallelization of GPU-based K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Wu, Yulin


    Based on the analysis of the K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm, the feasibility of parallelization is studied from the steps of the algorithm, the operation efficiency and the data structure of each step, and the part of parallel execution is determined. A K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm parallelization scheme is designed and the parallel G-KNN algorithm is implemented in the CUDA environment. The experimental results show that the K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm has a significant improvement in efficiency after parallelization, especially on large-scale data.

  17. What are the stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Ganesan


    The outstanding question in astronomy at the turn of the twentieth century was: What are the stars and why are they as they are? In this volume, the story of how the answer to this fundamental question was unravelled is narrated in an informal style, with emphasis on the underlying physics. Although the foundations of astrophysics were laid down by 1870, and the edifice was sufficiently built up by 1920, the definitive proof of many of the prescient conjectures made in the 1920s and 1930s came to be established less than ten years ago. This book discusses these recent developments in the context of discussing the nature of the stars, their stability and the source of the energy they radiate.  Reading this book will get young students excited about the presently unfolding revolution in astronomy and the challenges that await them in the world of physics, engineering and technology. General readers will also find the book appealing for its highly accessible narrative of the physics of stars.  “... The reade...

  18. The effects of next-to-nearest-neighbour hopping on Bose–Einstein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - to-nearest-neighbour boson hopping (t ) energy on Bose–Einstein condensation in cubic lattices. We consider both non-interacting and repulsively interacting bosons moving in the lowest Bloch band. The interacting bosons are studied using ...

  19. NC Machine Tools Fault Diagnosis Based on Kernel PCA and k -Nearest Neighbor Using Vibration Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou Yuqing; Sun Bingtao; Li Fengping; Song Wenlei


    ...) and k -nearest neighbor ( k NN). A data-dependent KPCA based on covariance matrix of sample data is designed to overcome the subjectivity in parameter selection of kernel function and is used to transform original high-dimensional...

  20. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio


    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  1. Stars Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean Leyder


    An imaginary voyage in time where we were witness of the birth of the universe itself, the time of the Big-Bang 15 billion years ago. Particules from the very first moments of time : protons, neutrons and electrons, and also much more energetic one. These particules are preparing to interact collider and generating others which will be the birth to the stars ........

  2. B-supergiants in IC1613: testing low-Z massive star physics and evolution (United States)

    Camacho, Inés; García, Miriam; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Herrero, Artemio


    The physical processes taking place in massive stars during their life and death are highly dependent on the metallicity (Z) of their parent cloud. Observations of these stars in low-Z nearby galaxies are crucial to understand these processes. IC1613 is the nearest Local Group galaxy with ongoing star formation and O-abundance lower than the SMC, although UV spectroscopy suggests it is not so metal poor. We performed a spectral analysis of early B-type stars in the galaxy, obtaining physical parameters and abundances. Our results confirm the low O-abundance of IC1613.

  3. Fast exact nearest patch matching for patch-based image editing and processing. (United States)

    Xiao, Chunxia; Liu, Meng; Nie, Yongwei; Dong, Zhao


    This paper presents an efficient exact nearest patch matching algorithm which can accurately find the most similar patch-pairs between source and target image. Traditional match matching algorithms treat each pixel/patch as an independent sample and build a hierarchical data structure, such as kd-tree, to accelerate nearest patch finding. However, most of these approaches can only find approximate nearest patch and do not explore the sequential overlap between patches. Hence, they are neither accurate in quality nor optimal in speed. By eliminating redundant similarity computation of sequential overlap between patches, our method finds the exact nearest patch in brute-force style but reduces its running time complexity to be linear on the patch size. Furthermore, relying on recent multicore graphics hardware, our method can be further accelerated by at least an order of magnitude (≥10×). This greatly improves performance and ensures that our method can be efficiently applied in an interactive editing framework for moderate-sized image even video. To our knowledge, this approach is the fastest exact nearest patch matching method for high-dimensional patch and also its extra memory requirement is minimal. Comparisons with the popular nearest patch matching methods in the experimental results demonstrate the merits of our algorithm. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Star Products and Applications


    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira


    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  5. The kinematic characteristics of magnetic O-type stars


    Hubrig, S.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Schoeller, M.


    Although magnetic fields have been discovered in ten massive O-type stars during the last years, the origin of their magnetic fields remains unknown. Among the magnetic O-type stars, two stars, HD36879 and HD57682, were identified as candidate runaway stars in the past, and theta^1 Ori C was reported to move rapidly away from its host cluster. We search for an explanation for the occurrence of magnetic fields in O-type stars by examining the assumption of their runaway status. We use the curr...

  6. The gravitational wave signature of young and dense star clusters


    Zwart, Simon Portegies


    Young star clusters are often born with such high stellar densities that stellar collisions play an important role in their further evolution. In such environments the same star may participate in several tens to hundreds of collisions ultimately leading to the collapse of the star to a black hole of intermediate mass. At later time the black hole may acquire a companion star by tidal capture or by dynamical --3-body-- capture. When this companion star evolves it will fill its Roche-lobe and ...

  7. First Kepler Results on RR Lyrae Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenberg, K.; Szabó, R.; Kurtz, D. W.


    -precision studies. Moreover, we report the occurrence of additional frequencies, beyond the main pulsation mode and its modulation components. Their half-integer ratio to the main frequency is reminiscent of a period doubling effect caused by resonances, observed for the first time in RR Lyrae stars.......We present the first results of our analyses of selected RR Lyrae stars for which data have been obtained by the Kepler Mission. As expected, we find a significant fraction of the RRab stars to show the Blazhko effect, a still unexplained phenomenon that manifests itself as periodic amplitude...... and phase modulations of the light curve, on timescales of typically tens to hundreds of days. The long time span of the Kepler Mission of 3.5 yr and the unprecedentedly high precision of its data provide a unique opportunity for the study of RR Lyrae stars. Using data of a modulated star observed...

  8. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  10. Reasons patients leave their nearest healthcare service to attend Karen Park Clinic, Pretoria North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes T. Masango- Makgobela


    Full Text Available Background: Many patients move from one healthcare provider or facility to another, disturbing the continuity that enhances holistic patient care.Objectives: To investigate the reasons given by patients for attending Karen Park Clinic rather than the clinic nearest to their homes.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted during 2010. Three hundred and fifty patients attending Karen Park Clinic were given questionnaires to complete, with the following variables: place of residence; previous attendance at the clinic nearest their home; services available at their nearest clinic; and their willingness to attend their nearest clinic in future.Results: Respondents were from Soshanguve (153; 43.7%, Mabopane (92; 26.3%, Garankuwa (29; 8.3% and Hebron (20; 5.7% and most were women (271; 77.4% aged 26–45 (177; 50.6%. Eighty per cent (281 of the patients had visited their nearest clinic previously and 54 of these (19.2% said they would not return. The reasons for this were: long waiting time (88; 25.1%; long queues (84; 24%; rude staff (60; 17%; and no medication (39; 11.1%.Conclusion: The majority of patients who had attended their nearest clinic were adamant that they would not return. It is necessary to reduce waiting times, thus reducing long queues. This can be achieved by having adequate, satisfied healthcare providers to render a quality service and by organising training for management. Patients can thus be redirected to their nearest clinic and the health centre’s capacity can be increased by procuring adequate drugs. There is a need to follow up on patients’ complaints about staff attitudes.

  11. Rainbow's Stars


    Garattini, Remo; Mandanici, Gianluca


    In recent years, a growing interest in the equilibrium of compact astrophysical objects like white dwarf and neutron stars has been manifested. In particular, various modifications due to Planck-scale energy effects have been considered. In this paper we analyze the modification induced by gravity’s rainbow on the equilibrium configurations described by the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff (TOV) equation. Our purpose is to explore the possibility that the rainbow Planck-scale deformation of space-t...

  12. H-alpha LEGUS: Insights into the Field OB Star Population in Nearby Galaxies (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Thilker, David; Kayitesi, Bridget; Chandar, Rupali; Halpha LEGUS Team


    The question of whether O-stars can form in isolation, without attendant clusters or associations of lower mass stars, is a topic of interest because the answer to the question can distinguish between models of star formation. To begin to investigate whether such isolated O-stars can be identified in nearby galaxies beyond the Local Group, we identify candidate field OB-stars in NGC 1313, NGC 4395 and NGC 7793, the three nearest spiral galaxies in the HST Legacy ExtraGalactic Ultraviolet Survey (LEGUS). Candidates are selected using a technique based on: (1) a reddening-free Q parameter, adapted for photometry in HST filters covering the NUV, U, & B bands; (2) isolation based on projected distance from the nearest young cluster and candidate OB star, and (3) the presence of an HII region, identified based on HST H-alpha narrowband imaging. Our catalogs enable a range of follow-up studies on massive stars, and in particular provide targets for future spectroscopic observation and analysis. We describe the candidate OB star sample, the spatial distribution of the stars, and their HII region properties, with special focus on the most isolated objects in the sample.

  13. A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Stern, Daniel


    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously......] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths....

  14. Variable Star Discovery with Ultra-Low Cost Equipment (United States)

    Paust, Nathaniel; Wilson, Danielle


    We present preliminary results of a variable star search using commercial DSLR equipment. The camera in use images the sky at DEC=+44 every ten minutes, day and night. A wide variety of open-source tools, from photo editors to specialty programs like the suite, are used to process the images and identify variable stars.

  15. CCD measurements of double and multiple stars at NAO Rozhen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Rade M.


    Full Text Available With the 2-m telescope of the Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory at Rozhen observations of fifteen multiple stars were carried out during one night - October 17/18, 2004. In the paper we present the results for the position angle and separation for ten multiple stars (27 pairs which could be measured.

  16. Improved locality-sensitive hashing method for the approximate nearest neighbor problem (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Hua; Ma, Ting-Huai; Zhong, Shui-Ming; Cao, Jie; Wang, Xin; Abdullah, Al-Dhelaan


    In recent years, the nearest neighbor search (NNS) problem has been widely used in various interesting applications. Locality-sensitive hashing (LSH), a popular algorithm for the approximate nearest neighbor problem, is proved to be an efficient method to solve the NNS problem in the high-dimensional and large-scale databases. Based on the scheme of p-stable LSH, this paper introduces a novel improvement algorithm called randomness-based locality-sensitive hashing (RLSH) based on p-stable LSH. Our proposed algorithm modifies the query strategy that it randomly selects a certain hash table to project the query point instead of mapping the query point into all hash tables in the period of the nearest neighbor query and reconstructs the candidate points for finding the nearest neighbors. This improvement strategy ensures that RLSH spends less time searching for the nearest neighbors than the p-stable LSH algorithm to keep a high recall. Besides, this strategy is proved to promote the diversity of the candidate points even with fewer hash tables. Experiments are executed on the synthetic dataset and open dataset. The results show that our method can cost less time consumption and less space requirements than the p-stable LSH while balancing the same recall.

  17. Interface tension of the square lattice Ising model with next-nearest-neighbour interactions (United States)

    Nußbaumer, A.; Bittner, E.; Janke, W.


    In a recent letter, Zandvliet (Europhys. Lett., 73 (2006) 747) presented a simple derivation of an analytical expression for the interface free energy in the (10) direction of the Ising model on a square lattice with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbour couplings, reproducing the famous exact Onsager formula in the special case of only nearest-neighbour interactions. By comparing the resulting transition temperatures, determined as the point where the interface tension vanishes, with previous numerical results in the literature, support for the validity of the new analytical formula in the general case was claimed. Guided by the fact that Zandvliet's simple, but rather heuristic derivation neglects overhang configurations and bubble excitations completely, we show that his approach is equivalent to the classic solid-on-solid (SOS) approximation which is known to reproduce accidentally the exact interface tension along one of the two main axes in the case of only nearest-neighbour interactions. In the limiting situation where only next-nearest-neighbour interactions are considered, we prove analytically that such a coincidence no longer holds. To assess the accuracy of Zandvliet's formula for the general model we have performed a careful computer simulation study using multicanonical and cluster Monte Carlo techniques combined with finite-size scaling analyses. Our results for the hitherto unknown interface tension and the transition temperatures show that the analytical formula yields fairly good approximations but, in general, is not exact.

  18. When stars collide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O.R.


    When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a star cluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have

  19. A fast approximate nearest neighbor search algorithm in the Hamming space. (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mani Malek; Ward, Rabab Kreidieh; Fatourechi, Mehrdad


    A fast approximate nearest neighbor search algorithm for the (binary) Hamming space is proposed. The proposed Error Weighted Hashing (EWH) algorithm is up to 20 times faster than the popular locality sensitive hashing (LSH) algorithm and works well even for large nearest neighbor distances where LSH fails. EWH significantly reduces the number of candidate nearest neighbors by weighing them based on the difference between their hash vectors. EWH can be used for multimedia retrieval and copy detection systems that are based on binary fingerprinting. On a fingerprint database with more than 1,000 videos, for a specific detection accuracy, we demonstrate that EWH is more than 10 times faster than LSH. For the same retrieval time, we show that EWH has a significantly better detection accuracy with a 15 times lower error rate.

  20. Low dimensional mixed-spin Ising model with next-nearest neighbor interaction (United States)

    Özkan, Aycan; Kutlu, Bülent


    In this study, the effects of next-nearest neighbor interaction on a one-dimensional mixed spin 3 - spin 3/2 Ising model was investigated using Cellular Automaton (CA). The Ising model hamiltonian contains the antiferromagnetic nearest neighbor interaction (J1), the ferromagnetic next- nearest neighbor interaction (J2) and the external magnetic field (h = H/J1). Magnetization (M) of the mixed spin system was obtained in the interval 0 ≤ R ≤ 1 of the interaction ratio (R = J2/J1) using field cooling (FC) and zero-field cooling (ZFC) processes. Hysteresis curves were drawn for several R values in the interval -0.1 ≤ h ≤ 0.1 using FC results. The functional behavior for coercive field (HC) was determined depending on R. Thus, the mixed spin system became a hard magnetic material and the lattice geometry also changed from one dimensional linear chain to triangular chain with increasing R value.

  1. Nearest-neighbour resonating valence bonds in YbMgGaO4 (United States)

    Li, Yuesheng; Adroja, Devashibhai; Voneshen, David; Bewley, Robert I.; Zhang, Qingming; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Gegenwart, Philipp


    Since its proposal by Anderson, resonating valence bonds (RVB) formed by a superposition of fluctuating singlet pairs have been a paradigmatic concept in understanding quantum spin liquids. Here, we show that excitations related to singlet breaking on nearest-neighbour bonds describe the high-energy part of the excitation spectrum in YbMgGaO4, the effective spin-1/2 frustrated antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice, as originally considered by Anderson. By a thorough single-crystal inelastic neutron scattering study, we demonstrate that nearest-neighbour RVB excitations account for the bulk of the spectral weight above 0.5 meV. This renders YbMgGaO4 the first experimental system where putative RVB correlations restricted to nearest neighbours are observed, and poses a fundamental question of how complex interactions on the triangular lattice conspire to form this unique many-body state.

  2. Ten-dimensional Supergravity Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Roo, Mees de; Kerstan, Sven; Riccioni, Fabio; Diaz Alonso, J.; Mornas, L.


    We show that the exisiting supergravity theories in ten dimensions can be extended with extra gauge fields whose rank is equal to the spacetime dimension. These gauge fields have vanishing field strength but nevertheless play an important role in the coupling of supergravity to spacetime filling

  3. Ten Problems in Experimental Mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Kapoor, Vishaal; Weisstein, Eric


    This article was stimulated by the recent SIAM ''100 DigitChallenge'' of Nick Trefethen, beautifully described in a recent book. Indeed, these ten numeric challenge problems are also listed in a recent book by two of present authors, where they are followed by the ten symbolic/numeric challenge problems that are discussed in this article. Our intent was to present ten problems that are characteristic of the sorts of problems that commonly arise in ''experimental mathematics''. The challenge in each case is to obtain a high precision numeric evaluation of the quantity, and then, if possible, to obtain a symbolic answer, ideally one with proof. Our goal in this article is to provide solutions to these ten problems, and in the process present a concise account of how one combines symbolic and numeric computation, which may be termed ''hybrid computation'', in the process of mathematical discovery.

  4. Understanding Scale: Powers of Ten (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Taylor, Amy; Minogue, James; Broadwell, Bethany; Wiebe, Eric; Carter, Glenda


    The classic film "Powers of Ten" is often employed to catalyze the building of more accurate conceptions of scale, yet its effectiveness is largely unknown. This study examines the impact of the film on students' concepts of size and scale. Twenty-two middle school students and six science teachers participated. Students completed pre- and…

  5. A Ten-Year Reflection (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi


    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  6. Ten Rules of Academic Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.


    Creative writers are well served with 'how to' guides, but just how much do they help? And how might they be relevant to academic authors? A recent survey of writing tips by twenty-eight creative authors has been condensed to the ten most relevant to the academic, supported by some comments on

  7. Ten "Discoveries" About Basic Learning (United States)

    English, Raymond


    Ten conclusions about childrens' learning are presented from 15 years of research by the Educational Research Council of America. These include effectiveness of short textbooks, interest in learning technical words, need for social science curriculum to challenge, and detrimental effect of ingrained teacher attitudes to teach social studies by…

  8. Lessons for Asteroseismology from White Dwarf Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interpretation of pulsation data for sun-like stars is currently facing challenges quite similar to those faced by white dwarf modelers ten years ago. The observational requirements for uninterrupted long-term monitoring are beginning to be satisfied by successful multi-site campaigns and dedicated satellite missions.

  9. Recursive nearest neighbor search in a sparse and multiscale domain for comparing audio signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Daudet, Laurent


    of time-frequency atoms. Theoretically, error bounds on these approximations provide efficient means for quickly reducing the search space to the nearest neighborhood of a given data; but we demonstrate here that the best bound defined thus far involving a probabilistic assumption does not provide......We investigate recursive nearest neighbor search in a sparse domain at the scale of audio signals. Essentially, to approximate the cosine distance between the signals we make pairwise comparisons between the elements of localized sparse models built from large and redundant multiscale dictionaries...

  10. ANN-Benchmarks: A Benchmarking Tool for Approximate Nearest Neighbor Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumüller, Martin; Bernhardsson, Erik; Faithfull, Alexander


    This paper describes ANN-Benchmarks, a tool for evaluating the performance of in-memory approximate nearest neighbor algorithms. It provides a standard interface for measuring the performance and quality achieved by nearest neighbor algorithms on different standard data sets. It supports several...... for their similarity search task; in the longer term, algorithm designers will be able to use this overview to test and refine automatic parameter tuning. The paper gives an overview of the system, evaluates the results of the benchmark, and points out directions for future work. Interestingly, very different...

  11. Segmenting Multiple Sclerosis Lesions Using a Spatially Constrained K-Nearest Neighbour Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Larsen, Rasmus; Sørensen, Per Soelberg


    We propose a method for the segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis lesions. The method is based on probability maps derived from a K-Nearest Neighbours classification. These are used as a non parametric likelihood in a Bayesian formulation with a prior that assumes connectivity of neighbouring voxels......, the diffusion MRI measures of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Mean Diffusivity (MD) and several spatial features. Results show a benefit from the inclusion of diffusion primarily to the most difficult cases. Results shows that combining probabilistic K-Nearest Neighbour with a Markov Random Field formulation leads...

  12. Segmenting Multiple Sclerosis Lesions using a Spatially Constrained K-Nearest Neighbour approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Larsen, Rasmus; Sørensen, Per Soelberg


    We propose a method for the segmentation of Multiple Sclerosis lesions. The method is based on probability maps derived from a K-Nearest Neighbours classication. These are used as a non parametric likelihood in a Bayesian formulation with a prior that assumes connectivity of neighbouring voxels......, the diusion MRI measures of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Mean Diusivity (MD) and several spatial features. Results show a benet from the inclusion of diusion primarily to the most dicult cases. Results shows that combining probabilistic K-Nearest Neighbour with a Markov Random Field formulation leads...

  13. Ten past and ten future GAS/MAUS-payloads (United States)

    Staniek, S.; Otto, G.; Doepkess, J.


    MAUS (materials science autonomous experiments) is one out of a series of flight opportunities which the Space Program of West Germany offers to scientists from the disciplines of materials research and processing for performing materials science investigations under microgravity conditions. Up to now, ten MAUS experiments were flown which were dealing with the following scientific topics: decomposition of binary alloys with miscibility gap in the liquid state, interaction of a solidification front with dispersed particles, critical Marangoni number, investigation of the magnetic compound MnBi, shrinkage of gas bubbles in glass melts and slip casting. The ten future experiments are partly reflights with modification of the scientific objectives as well as new experiments in the fields of chemical reactions, heat transfer, glass technology and Ostwald ripening. Looking to ten flown payloads, the peculiarities of instrument technology in GAS-cans and its evolution is discussed with emphasis on structure, electronics and thermal design. A typical modern payload using 100 percent of the resource is presented.

  14. The origin of the future ten questions for the next ten years

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John


    How did the universe begin? Where do galaxies come from? How do stars and planets form? Where do the material particles we are made of come from? How did life begin? Today we have only provisional answers to such questions. But scientific progress will improve these answers dramatically over the next ten years, predicts John Gribbin in this riveting book. He focuses on what we know—or think we know—about ten controversial, unanswered issues in the physical sciences and explains how current cutting-edge research may yield solutions in the very near future. With his trademark facility for engaging readers with or without a scientific background, the author explores ideas concerning the creation of the universe, the possibility of other forms of life, and the fate of the expanding cosmos. He examines “theories of everything,” including grand unified theories and string theory, and he discusses the Big Bang theory, the origin of structure and patterns of matter in the galaxies, and dark mass and dark ene...

  15. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars (United States)


    left after a massive star explodes as a supernova at the end of its life. The pulsars in Terzan 5 are the product of a complex history. The stars in the cluster formed about 10 billion years ago, the astronomers say. Some of the most massive stars in the cluster exploded and left the neutron stars as their remnants after only a few million years. Normally, these neutron stars would no longer be seen as swiftly-rotating pulsars: their spin would have slowed because of the "drag" of their intense magnetic fields until the "lighthouse" effect is no longer observable. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) However, the dense concentration of stars in the cluster gave new life to the pulsars. In the core of a globular cluster, as many as a million stars may be packed into a volume that would fit easily between the Sun and our nearest neighbor star. In such close quarters, stars can pass near enough to form new binary pairs, split apart such pairs, and binary systems even can trade partners, like an elaborate cosmic square dance. When a neutron star pairs up with a "normal" companion star, its strong gravitational pull can draw material off the companion onto the neutron star. This also transfers some of the companion's spin, or angular momentum, to the neutron star, thereby "recycling" the neutron star into a rapidly-rotating millisecond pulsar. In Terzan 5, all the pulsars discovered are rotating rapidly as a result of this process. Astronomers previously had discovered three pulsars in Terzan 5, some 28,000 light-years distant in the constellation Sagittarius, but suspected there were more. On July 17, 2004, Ransom and his colleagues used the GBT, and, in a 6-hour observation, found 14 new pulsars, the most ever found in a single observation. "This was possible because of the great sensitivity of the GBT and the new capabilities of our backend processor," said Ingrid Stairs, a professor at the

  16. Hierarchical Star Formation with Young Stellar Clusters with LEGUS (United States)

    Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela


    We present findings on using young star clusters to trace the unbound hierarchical star-forming structures in nearby galaxies drawn from the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) program. LEGUS is a cycle 21 Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to characterization the link between star formation of individual stars, stellar clusters and associations on parsec scales, and that of galaxy disks on kiloparsec scales. We find that star clusters are strongly clustered with respect to each other and that the spatial clustering disappears rapidly across all galaxies for ages as young as a few tens of Myr. This indicates that most, if not all, recent star formation occurs within rapidly dispersing hierarchical complexes. The observed correlations are consistent with arising in a turbulent-driven interstellar medium. We also present recent investigations of correlating CO gas to the star clusters to better understand the environmental connection between gas and recent star formation. We find a clear excess of young star clusters being spatially located near their natal molecular gas, disassociating in as little as 4-6 Myr. Lastly, we find that the spatial clustering of GMCs is significantly suppressed compared to that of star clusters. This suggests that GMCs must produce more than one star cluster, improving our ability to link the products of star formation to the properties of natal gas from which they originate.

  17. New directions in nearest neighbor searching with applications to lattice sieving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Beck; L. Ducas (Léo); N. Gama; T.M.M. Laarhoven


    htmlabstractTo solve the approximate nearest neighbor search problem (NNS) on the sphere, we propose a method using locality-sensitive filters (LSF), with the property that nearby vectors have a higher probability of surviving the same filter than vectors which are far apart. We instantiate the

  18. Frequency Ratio: a method for dealing with missing values within nearest neighbour search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Spronck, P.; Dibbets, P.; Arntz, A.


    In this paper we introduce the Frequency Ratio (FR) method for dealing with missing values within nearest neighbour search. We test the FR method on known medical datasets from the UCI machine learning repository. We compare the accuracy of the FR method with five commonly used methods (three

  19. A Comparative Study of k-Nearest Neighbour Techniques in Crowd Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Hillebrand, A.; Geraerts, R.J.


    The k-nearest neighbour (kNN) problem appears in many different fields of computer science, such as computer animation and robotics. In crowd simulation, kNN queries are typically used by a collision-avoidance method to prevent unnecessary computations. Many different methods for finding these

  20. Periodic permanent waves in an anharmonic chain with nearest-neighbour interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, T.P.


    The existence of longitudinal periodic permanent waves in a one-dimensional translationally invariant anharmonic chain with nearest-neighbour interaction is established by means of variational methods. A general expression for the energy is given in terms of the dispersion relation. The interaction

  1. Mapping gradients of community composition with nearest-neighbour imputation: extending plot data for landscape analysis (United States)

    Janet L. Ohmann; Matthew J. Gregory; Emilie B. Henderson; Heather M. Roberts


    Question: How can nearest-neighbour (NN) imputation be used to develop maps of multiple species and plant communities? Location: Western and central Oregon, USA, but methods are applicable anywhere. Methods: We demonstrate NN imputation by mapping woody plant communities for >100 000 km2 of diverse forests and woodlands. Species abundances on...

  2. Multiple k Nearest Neighbor Query Processing in Spatial Network Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuegang, Huang; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Saltenis, Simonas


    for points of interest that are accessible via the road network. Given multiple k nearest neighbor queries, the paper proposes progressive techniques that selectively cache query results in main memory and subsequently reuse these for query processing. The paper initially proposes techniques for the case...

  3. Nearest-neighbor interactions, habitat fragmentation, and the persistence of host-pathogen systems. (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Sun, Zhiying; Lau, John W; Komarova, Natalia L


    Spatial interactions are known to promote stability and persistence in enemy-victim interactions if instability and extinction occur in well-mixed settings. We investigate the effect of spatial interactions in the opposite case, where populations can persist in well-mixed systems. A stochastic agent-based model of host-pathogen dynamics is considered that describes nearest-neighbor interactions in an undivided habitat. Contrary to previous notions, we find that in this setting, spatial interactions in fact promote extinction. The reason is that, in contrast to the mass-action system, the outcome of the nearest-neighbor model is governed by dynamics in small "local neighborhoods." This is an abstraction that describes interactions in a minimal grid consisting of an individual plus its nearest neighbors. The small size of this characteristic scale accounts for the higher extinction probabilities. Hence, nearest-neighbor interactions in a continuous habitat lead to outcomes reminiscent of a fragmented habitat, which is underlined further with a metapopulation model that explicitly assumes habitat fragmentation. Beyond host-pathogen dynamics, axiomatic modeling shows that our results hold for generic enemy-victim interactions under specified assumptions. These results are used to interpret a set of published experiments that provide a first step toward model testing and are discussed in the context of the literature.

  4. Absolute Nuv magnitudes of Gaia DR1 astrometric stars and a search for hot companions in nearby systems (United States)

    Makarov, V. V.


    Accurate parallaxes from Gaia DR1 (TGAS) are combined with GALEX visual Nuv magnitudes to produce absolute Mnuv magnitudes and an ultraviolet HR diagram for a large sample of astrometric stars. A functional fit is derived of the lower envelope main sequence of the nearest 1403 stars (distance white dwarfs, stars younger than the Pleiades, or, most likely, tight interacting binaries of the BY Dra-type. A separate collection of 40 stars with precise trigonometric parallaxes and Nuv-G colors bluer than 2 mag is presented. It includes several known novae, white dwarfs, and binaries with hot subdwarf (sdOB) components, but most remain unexplored.

  5. Correcting for heat capacity and 5'-TA type terminal nearest neighbors improves prediction of DNA melting temperatures using nearest-neighbor thermodynamic models. (United States)

    Hughesman, Curtis B; Turner, Robin F B; Haynes, Charles


    Nearest-neighbor thermodynamic (NNT) models currently provide some of the most accurate predictions of melting thermodynamics, including melting temperature (T(m)) values, for short DNA duplexes. Inherent to all existing NNT models is the assumption that ΔH° and ΔS° for the helix-to-coil transition are temperature invariant. Here we investigate the impact that this zero-ΔC(p) assumption has on the accuracy of T(m) predictions for 128 DNA duplexes. Previous and new melting thermodynamic data are analyzed to establish an estimate of ΔC(p)(bp), the heat capacity change per base pair, of 42 ± 16 cal mol(-1) K(-1) bp(-1), as well as an optimal thermodynamic reference temperature (T(ref)) of 53 ± 5 °C. These results were used to modify the unified NNT model to properly account for the temperature dependence of ΔH° and ΔS° and thereby extend the range over which T(m) is accurately predicted. This new approach is shown to be especially useful for duplexes that melt at a T(m) greater than 70 °C. Thermodynamic data collected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for 16 duplexes designed to melt over a broad temperature range were used to verify the values of ΔC(p)(bp) and T(ref) and to show that ΔC(p)(bp) is essentially constant above 37 °C. Additional DSC analysis of 12 duplex sequences containing all 10 nearest neighbors allowed for errors associated with different terminal nearest neighbors to be examined and showed that duplexes containing one or more terminal 5'-TA groups are significantly more stable than predicted by the unified NNT model. A correction to improve prediction of the hybridization thermodynamics of duplexes with terminal 5'-TA groups is provided.

  6. The Potential of Planets Orbiting Red Dwarf Stars to Support Oxygenic Photosynthesis and Complex Life


    Gale, Joseph; Wandel, Amri


    We review the latest findings on extra-solar planets and their potential to support Earth-like life. Focusing on planets orbiting Red Dwarf (RD) stars, the most abundant stellar type, we show that including RDs as potential host stars could increase the probability of finding biotic planets by a factor of up to a thousand, and reduce the estimate of the distance to our nearest biotic neighbor by up to 10. We argue that binary and multiple star systems need to be taken into account when discus...

  7. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K


    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  8. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K


    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  9. Ten Blue Links on Mars


    Clarke, Charles L. A.; Cormack, Gordon V.; Lin, Jimmy; Roegiest, Adam


    This paper explores a simple question: How would we provide a high-quality search experience on Mars, where the fundamental physical limit is speed-of-light propagation delays on the order of tens of minutes? On Earth, users are accustomed to nearly instantaneous response times from search engines. Is it possible to overcome orders-of-magnitude longer latency to provide a tolerable user experience on Mars? In this paper, we formulate the searching from Mars problem as a tradeoff between "effo...

  10. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))


    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Lifestyles of the Stars. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  12. Egyptian "Star Clocks" (United States)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  13. 26 CFR 31.3121(i)-1 - Computation to nearest dollar of cash remuneration for domestic service. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation to nearest dollar of cash... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(i)-1 Computation to nearest dollar of cash remuneration... dollar any payment of cash remuneration for domestic service described in section 3121(a)(7)(B) (see § 31...

  14. A two-step nearest neighbors algorithm using satellite imagery for predicting forest structure within species composition classes (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts


    Nearest neighbors techniques have been shown to be useful for predicting multiple forest attributes from forest inventory and Landsat satellite image data. However, in regions lacking good digital land cover information, nearest neighbors selected to predict continuous variables such as tree volume must be selected without regard to relevant categorical variables such...

  15. The Birth of Massive Stars and Star Clusters


    Tan, Jonathan C.


    In the present-day universe, it appears that most, and perhaps all, massive stars are born in star clusters. It also appears that all star clusters contain stars drawn from an approximately universal initial mass function, so that almost all rich young star clusters contain massive stars. In this review I discuss the physical processes associated with both massive star formation and with star cluster formation. First I summarize the observed properties of star-forming gas clumps, then address...

  16. Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved (United States)


    Supernova Propels Companion Star through Interstellar Space The following success story is a classical illustration of scientific progress through concerted interplay of observation and theory. It concerns a 35-year old mystery which has now been solved by means of exciting observations of a strange double star. An added touch is the successive involvement of astronomers connected to the European Southern Observatory. For many years, astronomers have been puzzled by the fact that, among the thousands of very young, hot and heavy stars which have been observed in the Milky Way, there are some that move with exceptionally high velocities. In some cases, motions well above 100 km/sec, or ten times more than normal for such stars, have been measured. How is this possible? Which mechanism is responsible for the large amounts of energy needed to move such heavy bodies at such high speeds? Could it be that these stars are accelerated during the powerful explosion of a companion star as a supernova? Such a scenario was proposed in 1961 by Adriaan Blaauw [1], but until now, observational proof has been lacking. Now, however, strong supporting evidence for this mechanism has become available from observations obtained at the ESO La Silla observatory. The mysterious runaway stars OB-runaway stars [2] are heavy stars that travel through interstellar space with an anomalously high velocity. They have been known for several decades, but it has always been a problem to explain their high velocities. Although most OB-runaway stars are located at distances of several thousands of lightyears, their high velocity results in a measurable change in position on sky photos taken several years apart. The velocity component in the direction of the Earth can be measured very accurately from a spectrogram. From a combination of such observations, it is possible to measure the space velocity of OB-runaways. Bow shocks reveal runaway stars It has also been found that some OB-runaways display

  17. Quantum multidimensional color image scaling using nearest-neighbor interpolation based on the extension of FRQI (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Tan, Canyun; Fan, Ping


    Reviewing past researches on quantum image scaling, only 2D images are studied. And, in a quantum system, the processing speed increases exponentially since parallel computation can be realized with superposition state when compared with classical computer. Consequently, this paper proposes quantum multidimensional color image scaling based on nearest-neighbor interpolation for the first time. Firstly, flexible representation of quantum images (FRQI) is extended to multidimensional color model. Meantime, the nearest-neighbor interpolation is extended to multidimensional color image and cycle translation operation is designed to perform scaling up operation. Then, the circuits are designed for quantum multidimensional color image scaling, including scaling up and scaling down, based on the extension of FRQI. In addition, complexity analysis shows that the circuits in the paper have lower complexity. Examples and simulation experiments are given to elaborate the procedure of quantum multidimensional scaling.

  18. Optimal inhomogeneity for pairing in Hubbard systems with next-nearest-neighbor hopping (United States)

    Wachtel, Gideon; Baruch, Shirit; Orgad, Dror


    Previous studies have shown that bipartite Hubbard systems with inhomogeneous hopping amplitudes can exhibit higher pair-binding energies than the uniform model. Here we examine whether this result holds for systems with a more generic band structure. To this end, we use exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization-group method to study the 4 ×4 Hubbard cluster and the two-leg Hubbard ladder with checkerboard-modulated nearest-neighbor hopping, t , and next-nearest-neighbor (diagonal) hopping, td. We find that the strongest pairing continues to occur at an intermediate level of inhomogeneity. While the maximal pair-binding energy is enhanced by a positive td/t , it is suppressed and appears at weaker repulsion strengths and lower hole concentrations when td/t is negative. We point out a possible connection between the pairing maximum and the magnetic properties of the system.

  19. Study of the one-dimensional Holstein model with next-nearest-neighbor hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Das, A N [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chakrabarti, Atisdipankar [RKMVC College, Rahara, 24 Parganas (North), West Bengal (India)


    We present the effect of next-nearest-neighbor hopping on Holstein polarons. The energy and wavefunction of the ground state and first excited state are obtained by using a conjugate-gradient technique on the variational Hilbert space of the electron-phonon (e-ph) system. We increase the size of the variational space systematically to obtain high accuracy. With the converged wavefunction at our disposal we obtain various physical quantities and correlation functions to get a holistic insight into the physics of e-ph interaction. Our study reveals that the effect of next-nearest-neighbor hopping is most prominent at the physically interesting crossover regime of the e-ph coupling and in the adiabatic regime. We have also performed analytical strong coupling second order perturbation with a Lang-Firsov (LF) phonon basis to account for some features in the strong coupling regime.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidge, T. J.; McConnachie, A. W. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Fardal, M. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, LGRT 619-E, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Fliri, J.; Valls-Gabaud, D. [LERMA, UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lewis, G. F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rich, R. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)


    We examine the star-forming history of the M31 disk during the past few hundred Myr. The luminosity functions (LFs) of main-sequence stars at distances R{sub GC} > 21 kpc (i.e., >4 disk scale lengths) are matched by models that assume a constant star formation rate (SFR). However, at smaller R{sub GC} the LFs suggest that during the past {approx}10 Myr the SFR was 2-3 times higher than during the preceding {approx}100 Myr. The rings of cool gas that harbor a significant fraction of the current star-forming activity are traced by stars with ages {approx}100 Myr, indicating that (1) these structures have ages of at least 100 Myr and (2) stars in these structures do not follow the same relation between age and random velocity as their counterparts throughout the disks of other spiral galaxies, probably due to the inherently narrow orbital angular momentum distribution of the giant molecular clouds in these structures. The distribution of evolved red stars is not azimuthally symmetric, in the sense that the projected density along the northeast segment of the major axis is roughly twice that on the opposite side of the galaxy. The northeast arm of the major axis thus appears to be a fossil star-forming area that dates to intermediate epochs. Such a structure may be the consequence of interactions with a companion galaxy.

  1. Cellular Class Encoding Approach to Increasing Efficiency of Nearest Neighbor Searching (United States)


    categories. This reduces the variation in the features due to phonetic differences while preserving the variation due to speaker differences [5...nearest neighbor clustering algorithm to find k unique cluster centroids, known as codebooks, which are derived from each speaker in the training data... clustering and comparisons, we use the familiar Euclidean distance, also known as the L2-distance. 5. EXPERIMENT SETUP In this section we

  2. NNDB: the nearest neighbor parameter database for predicting stability of nucleic acid secondary structure. (United States)

    Turner, Douglas H; Mathews, David H


    The Nearest Neighbor Database (NNDB, is a web-based resource for disseminating parameter sets for predicting nucleic acid secondary structure stabilities. For each set of parameters, the database includes the set of rules with descriptive text, sequence-dependent parameters in plain text and html, literature references to experiments and usage tutorials. The initial release covers parameters for predicting RNA folding free energy and enthalpy changes.

  3. NNDB: the nearest neighbor parameter database for predicting stability of nucleic acid secondary structure


    Turner, Douglas H.; David H Mathews


    The Nearest Neighbor Database (NNDB, is a web-based resource for disseminating parameter sets for predicting nucleic acid secondary structure stabilities. For each set of parameters, the database includes the set of rules with descriptive text, sequence-dependent parameters in plain text and html, literature references to experiments and usage tutorials. The initial release covers parameters for predicting RNA folding free energy and enthalpy changes.



    Kartika Sari, Mega; .,, Ernawati; .,, Pranowo


    Data mining banyak digunakan untuk membantu menentukan keputusan dengan memprediksi tren data masa depan. K-Nearest Neighbor dan Naïve Bayes merupakan metode-metode data mining untuk klasifikasi data yang cukup populer. Kedua metode tersebut masing-masing memiliki kelemahan. Proses pengolahan data dengan metode KNN lebih lama dibanding dengan Naïve Bayes. Berdasarkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh beberapa peneliti, metode KNN dan Naïve Bayes memiliki nilai keakuratan yang cukup tinggi Pada p...

  5. A Coupled k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm for Multi-Label Classification (United States)


    In this paper, we present a new method for multi-label classification, which is based on lazy learning approaches to classify an unseen instance on...the basis of its k nearest neighbors. By introducing the coupled similarity between class labels, the proposed method exploits the correlations between...classification, an image may contain several concepts simultaneously, such as beach, sunset and kangaroo . Such tasks are usually denoted as multi-label

  6. Implementasi Algoritma K-Nearest Neighbor Sebagai Pendukung Keputusan Klasifikasi Penerima Beasiswa PPA dan BBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarlin Sumarlin


    Full Text Available In line with the growth in the academic field especially college, scholarship is a problem that is interesting to study. Several studies in the field of computers for the screening or classification scholarships have been carried out in the academic authorities to minimize the error in awarding scholarships. This study discusses the classification of PPA and BBM scholarships based on variables that have been determined by applying the k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The process of selecting awardees PPA and BBM requires a decision support system (DSS to help provide alternative solutions. The results of the classification system will be used as a decision in awarding scholarships to students who submit. Results of testing to measure the performance of k - nearest neighbor algorithm using cross validation method, Confusion Matrix and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, the accuracy obtained for PPA scholarships reached 88.33% with a value of 0.925 area under curve (AUC  dataset of 227 records, while accuracy is obtained for fuel BBM scholarships reached 90% with a value of  0.937% AUC dataset of 183 records​​, accuracy for PPA and BBM scholarships reached 85,56% and AUC value 0,958. Because AUC values ​​were in the range of 0.9 to 1.0  the method falls within the category of very good (excellent. Keywords: Decision Support System; K-nearest neighbor; Classification; Scholarship

  7. Collective Behaviors of Mobile Robots Beyond the Nearest Neighbor Rules With Switching Topology. (United States)

    Ning, Boda; Han, Qing-Long; Zuo, Zongyu; Jin, Jiong; Zheng, Jinchuan


    This paper is concerned with the collective behaviors of robots beyond the nearest neighbor rules, i.e., dispersion and flocking, when robots interact with others by applying an acute angle test (AAT)-based interaction rule. Different from a conventional nearest neighbor rule or its variations, the AAT-based interaction rule allows interactions with some far-neighbors and excludes unnecessary nearest neighbors. The resulting dispersion and flocking hold the advantages of scalability, connectivity, robustness, and effective area coverage. For the dispersion, a spring-like controller is proposed to achieve collision-free coordination. With switching topology, a new fixed-time consensus-based energy function is developed to guarantee the system stability. An upper bound of settling time for energy consensus is obtained, and a uniform time interval is accordingly set so that energy distribution is conducted in a fair manner. For the flocking, based on a class of generalized potential functions taking nonsmooth switching into account, a new controller is proposed to ensure that the same velocity for all robots is eventually reached. A co-optimizing problem is further investigated to accomplish additional tasks, such as enhancing communication performance, while maintaining the collective behaviors of mobile robots. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  8. Classification of EEG Signals using adaptive weighted distance nearest neighbor algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Parvinnia


    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are often used to diagnose diseases such as seizure, alzheimer, and schizophrenia. One main problem with the recorded EEG samples is that they are not equally reliable due to the artifacts at the time of recording. EEG signal classification algorithms should have a mechanism to handle this issue. It seems that using adaptive classifiers can be useful for the biological signals such as EEG. In this paper, a general adaptive method named weighted distance nearest neighbor (WDNN is applied for EEG signal classification to tackle this problem. This classification algorithm assigns a weight to each training sample to control its influence in classifying test samples. The weights of training samples are used to find the nearest neighbor of an input query pattern. To assess the performance of this scheme, EEG signals of thirteen schizophrenic patients and eighteen normal subjects are analyzed for the classification of these two groups. Several features including, fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive (AR model are extracted from EEG signals. The classification results are evaluated using Leave one (subject out cross validation for reliable estimation. The results indicate that combination of WDNN and selected features can significantly outperform the basic nearest-neighbor and the other methods proposed in the past for the classification of these two groups. Therefore, this method can be a complementary tool for specialists to distinguish schizophrenia disorder.

  9. Multidimensional k-nearest neighbor model based on EEMD for financial time series forecasting (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Lin, Aijing; Shang, Pengjian


    In this paper, we propose a new two-stage methodology that combines the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with multidimensional k-nearest neighbor model (MKNN) in order to forecast the closing price and high price of the stocks simultaneously. The modified algorithm of k-nearest neighbors (KNN) has an increasingly wide application in the prediction of all fields. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) decomposes a nonlinear and non-stationary signal into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), however, it cannot reveal characteristic information of the signal with much accuracy as a result of mode mixing. So ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), an improved method of EMD, is presented to resolve the weaknesses of EMD by adding white noise to the original data. With EEMD, the components with true physical meaning can be extracted from the time series. Utilizing the advantage of EEMD and MKNN, the new proposed ensemble empirical mode decomposition combined with multidimensional k-nearest neighbor model (EEMD-MKNN) has high predictive precision for short-term forecasting. Moreover, we extend this methodology to the case of two-dimensions to forecast the closing price and high price of the four stocks (NAS, S&P500, DJI and STI stock indices) at the same time. The results indicate that the proposed EEMD-MKNN model has a higher forecast precision than EMD-KNN, KNN method and ARIMA.



    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of young, ultra-bright stars nested in their embryonic cloud of glowing gases. The celestial maternity ward, called N81, is located 200,000 light-years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a small irregular satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Hubble's exquisite resolution allows astronomers to pinpoint 50 separate stars tightly packed in the nebula's core within a 10 light-year diameter - slightly more than twice the distance between earth and the nearest star to our sun. The closest pair of stars is only 1/3 of a light-year apart (0.3 arcseconds in the sky). This furious rate of mass loss from these super-hot stars is evident in the Hubble picture that reveals dramatic shapes sculpted in the nebula's wall of glowing gases by violent stellar winds and shock waves. A pair of bright stars in the center of the nebula is pouring out most of the ultraviolet radiation to make the nebula glow. Just above them, a small dark knot is all that's left of the cold cloud of molecular hydrogen and dust the stars were born from. Dark absorption lanes of residual dust trisect the nebula. The nebula offers a unique opportunity for a close-up glimpse at the 'firestorm' accompanying the birth of extremely massive stars, each blazing with the brilliance of 300,000 of our suns. Such galactic fireworks were much more common billions of years ago in the early universe, when most star formation took place. The 'natural-color' view was assembled from separate images taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, in ultraviolet light and two narrow emission lines of ionized Hydrogen (H-alpha, H-beta). The picture was taken on September 4, 1997. Credit: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), NASA/ESA

  11. Crystallization of the Pulsating White Dwarf Star, BPM 37093 (United States)

    Salois, Amee; Winget, D.


    BPM 37093 is unique among pulsating white dwarf stars because it is expected to have a highly crystallized interior. By understanding how this star is crystallizing, we gain a better understanding of extreme physics. Theoretical models of the evolution of white dwarf stars suggest that they crystallize from the inside out. The pulsations of the star, which we see as intensity variations, cannot penetrate this crystallized interior. Therefore, as the star crystallizes there is a smaller volume for the propagation of the pulsations and the pulsation periods are changed accordingly. We studied these changes in the periods of the pulsations of the star over ten weeks during the McDonald Observatory Research Experience for Undergraduates Program. By studying the changes in the pulsations periods of the star we can determine the mass fraction of the star that is crystallized. Comparing Fourier transforms of our observed light curves taken in 2004 and 2005 at CTIO with data taken in 1998 and 1999 by Kanaan et al. we hope to see the changes that have occurred in the star as well as determining a better approximation of the star's crystallized mass fraction.

  12. The Solar Neighborhood XXIX: The Habitable Real Estate of Our Nearest Stellar Neighbors (United States)

    Cantrell, Justin R.; Henry, Todd J.; White, Russel J.


    We use the sample of known stars and brown dwarfs within 5 pc of the Sun, supplemented with AFGK stars within 10 pc, to determine which stellar spectral types provide the most habitable real estate—defined as locations where liquid water could be present on Earth-like planets. Stellar temperatures and radii are determined by fitting model spectra to spatially resolved broadband photometric energy distributions for stars in the sample. Using these values, the locations of the habitable zones are calculated using an empirical formula for planetary surface temperature and assuming the condition of liquid water, called here the empirical habitable zone (EHZ). Systems that have dynamically disruptive companions are considered not habitable. We consider companions to be disruptive if the separation ratio of the companion to the habitable zone is less than 5:1. We use the results of these calculations to derive a simple formula for predicting the location of the EHZ for main sequence stars based on V - K color. We consider EHZ widths as more useful measures of the habitable real estate around stars than areas because multiple planets are not expected to orbit stars at identical stellar distances. This EHZ provides a qualitative guide on where to expect the largest population of planets in the habitable zones of main sequence stars. Because of their large numbers and lower frequency of short-period companions, M stars provide more EHZ real estate than other spectral types, possessing 36.5% of the habitable real estate en masse. K stars are second with 21.5%, while A, F, and G stars offer 18.5%, 6.9%, and 16.6%, respectively. Our calculations show that three M dwarfs within 10 pc harbor planets in their EHZs—GJ 581 may have two planets (d with msin i = 6.1 M ⊕ g with msin i = 3.1 M ⊕), GJ 667 C has one (c with msin i = 4.5 M ⊕), and GJ 876 has two (b with msin i = 1.89 M Jup and c with msin i = 0.56 M Jup). If Earth-like planets are as common around low-mass stars

  13. 'Polaris, Mark Kummerfeldt's Star, and My Star.' (United States)

    McLure, John W.


    In most astronomy courses, descriptions of stars and constellations reveal the western European origins of the astronomers who named them. However, it is suggested that a study of non-western views be incorporated into astronomy curricula. Descriptions of various stars and constellations from different cultures and instructional strategies are…

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Computers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers that are effective as of June 2, 2014....

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  18. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren


    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  19. Star operations and Pullbacks


    Fontana, Marco; Park, Mi Hee


    In this paper we study the star operations on a pullback of integral domains. In particular, we characterize the star operations of a domain arising from a pullback of ``a general type'' by introducing new techniques for ``projecting'' and ``lifting'' star operations under surjective homomorphisms of integral domains. We study the transfer in a pullback (or with respect to a surjective homomorphism) of some relevant classes or distinguished properties of star operations such as $v-, t-, w-, b...

  20. America's Star Libraries (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry


    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  1. Superfluid neutron stars


    Langlois, David


    Neutron stars are believed to contain (neutron and proton) superfluids. I will give a summary of a macroscopic description of the interior of neutron stars, in a formulation which is general relativistic. I will also present recent results on the oscillations of neutron stars, with superfluidity explicitly taken into account, which leads in particular to the existence of a new class of modes.

  2. How Small are Small Stars Really? (United States)


    VLT Interferometer Measures the Size of Proxima Centauri and Other Nearby Stars [1] Summary At a distance of only 4.2 light-years, Proxima Centauri is the nearest star to the Sun currently known [2]. It is visible as an 11-magnitude object in the southern constellation of Centaurus and is the faintest member of a triple system, together with Alpha Centauri , the brightest (double) star in this constellation. Proxima Centauri is a very-low-mass star, in fact barely massive enough to burn hydrogen to helium in its interior. It is about seven times smaller than the Sun, and the surface temperature is "only" about 3000 degrees, about half of that of our own star. Consequently, it is also much fainter - the intrinsic brightness is only 1/150th of that of our Sun. Low-mass stars are very interesting objects , also because the physical conditions in their interiors have much in common with those of giant planets, like Jupiter in our solar system. A determination of the sizes of the smallest stars has been impossible until now because of their general faintness and lack of adequate instrumentation. However, astronomers have long been keen to move forward in this direction, since such measurements would provide indirect, crucial information about the behaviour of matter under extreme conditions. When the first observations with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI), combining the light from two of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL), were made one year ago ( ESO PR 23/01 ), interferometric measurements were also obtained of Proxima Centauri . They formed part of the VLTI commissioning and the data were soon released to the ESO community, cf. the special website. Now, an international team of astronomers from Switzerland, France and ESO/Chile has successfully analysed these observations by means of newly developed, advanced software. For the first time ever, they obtained a highly accurate measurement of the size of such a small star . Three other small stars were also


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suhaibah


    Full Text Available Locating and analysing the location of new stores or outlets is one of the common issues facing retailers and franchisers. This is due to assure that new opening stores are at their strategic location to attract the highest possible number of customers. Spatial information is used to manage, maintain and analyse these store locations. However, since the business of franchising and chain stores in urban areas runs within high rise multi-level buildings, a three-dimensional (3D method is prominently required in order to locate and identify the surrounding information such as at which level of the franchise unit will be located or is the franchise unit located is at the best level for visibility purposes. One of the common used analyses used for retrieving the surrounding information is Nearest Neighbour (NN analysis. It uses a point location and identifies the surrounding neighbours. However, with the immense number of urban datasets, the retrieval and analysis of nearest neighbour information and their efficiency will become more complex and crucial. In this paper, we present a technique to retrieve nearest neighbour information in 3D space using a clustered hierarchical tree structure. Based on our findings, the proposed approach substantially showed an improvement of response time analysis compared to existing approaches of spatial access methods in databases. The query performance was tested using a dataset consisting of 500,000 point locations building and franchising unit. The results are presented in this paper. Another advantage of this structure is that it also offers a minimal overlap and coverage among nodes which can reduce repetitive data entry.

  4. An Analytical Essential Switching Loss Estimation Method for Modular Multilevel Converters with Nearest Level Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhongxu; Wang, Huai; Zhang, Yi


    A novel switching power loss estimation method for modular multilevel converters (MMCs) with the nearest level modulation (NLM) is introduced in this paper. It focuses on the switching actions caused only by change of the inserted submodule (SM) number per arm, named as the essential switching...... transitions. Every essential switching action can be identified under the assumption of ideal sinusoidal arm voltage reference. The corresponding arm current value determining the switching energy can be obtained with the exclusive use of the exact time of the switching action. Effects of the modulation index...

  5. Seismic clusters analysis in North-Eastern Italy by the nearest-neighbor approach (United States)

    Peresan, Antonella; Gentili, Stefania


    The main features of earthquake clusters in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region (North Eastern Italy) are explored, with the aim to get some new insights on local scale patterns of seismicity in the area. The study is based on a systematic analysis of robustly and uniformly detected seismic clusters of small-to-medium magnitude events, as opposed to selected clusters analyzed in earlier studies. To characterize the features of seismicity for FVG, we take advantage of updated information from local OGS bulletins, compiled at the National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics, Centre of Seismological Research, since 1977. A preliminary reappraisal of the earthquake bulletins is carried out, in order to identify possible missing events and to remove spurious records (e.g. duplicates and explosions). The area of sufficient completeness is outlined; for this purpose, different techniques are applied, including a comparative analysis with global ISC data, which are available in the region for large and moderate size earthquakes. Various techniques are considered to estimate the average parameters that characterize the earthquake occurrence in the region, including the b-value and the fractal dimension of epicenters distribution. Specifically, besides the classical Gutenberg-Richter Law, the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE, is applied. Using the updated and revised OGS data, a new formal method for detection of earthquake clusters, based on nearest-neighbor distances of events in space-time-energy domain, is applied. The bimodality of the distribution, which characterizes the earthquake nearest-neighbor distances, is used to decompose the seismic catalog into sequences of individual clusters and background seismicity. Accordingly, the method allows for a data-driven identification of main shocks (first event with the largest magnitude in the cluster), foreshocks and aftershocks. Average robust estimates of the USLE parameters (particularly, b

  6. A Novel Quantum Solution to Privacy-Preserving Nearest Neighbor Query in Location-Based Services (United States)

    Luo, Zhen-yu; Shi, Run-hua; Xu, Min; Zhang, Shun


    We present a cheating-sensitive quantum protocol for Privacy-Preserving Nearest Neighbor Query based on Oblivious Quantum Key Distribution and Quantum Encryption. Compared with the classical related protocols, our proposed protocol has higher security, because the security of our protocol is based on basic physical principles of quantum mechanics, instead of difficulty assumptions. Especially, our protocol takes single photons as quantum resources and only needs to perform single-photon projective measurement. Therefore, it is feasible to implement this protocol with the present technologies.

  7. Chaotic Synchronization in Nearest-Neighbor Coupled Networks of 3D CNNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Serrano-Guerrero


    Full Text Available In this paper, a synchronization of Cellular Neural Networks (CNNs in nearest-neighbor coupled arrays, is numerically studied. Synchronization of multiple chaotic CNNs is achieved by appealing to complex systems theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by 3D CNNs, as interconnected nodes, where the interactions in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. Four cases of interest are considered: i synchronization without chaotic master, ii master-slave configuration (directed ring, iii open ring configuration (a path, and iv directed path configuration. In addition, an application to chaotic communication networks is given.

  8. Chaotic Synchronization in Nearest-Neighbor Coupled Networks of 3D CNNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Chávez- Pérez


    Full Text Available In this paper, a synchronization of Cellular Neural Networks (CNNs in nearest-neighbor coupled arrays, is numericallystudied. Synchronization of multiple chaotic CNNs is achieved by appealing to complex systems theory. In particular,we consider dynamical networks composed by 3D CNNs, as interconnected nodes, where the interactions in thenetworks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. Four cases of interest are considered: i synchronizationwithout chaotic master, ii master-slave configuration (directed ring, iii open ring configuration (a path, and ivdirected path configuration. In addition, an application to chaotic communication networks is given.

  9. Threshold Error Penalty for Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation With Nearest Neighbor Communication (United States)

    Szkopek, T.; Boykin, P. O.; Fan, H.; Roychowdhury, V. P.; Yablonovitch, E.; Simms, G.; Gyure, M.; Fong, B.


    The error threshold for fault tolerant quantum computation with concatenated encoding of qubits is penalized by internal communication overhead. Many quantum computation proposals rely on nearest-neighbour communication, which requires excess gate operations. For a qubit stripe with a width of L+1 physical qubits implementing L levels of concatenation, we find that the error threshold of 2.1x10^-5 without any communication burden is reduced to 1.2x10^-7 when gate errors are the dominant source of error. This ~175X penalty in error threshold translates to an ~13X penalty in the amplitude and timing of gate operation control pulses.

  10. nth-Nearest neighbour distribution functions of a binary fluid mixture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    αβ β of a ν-dimen- sional binary system with Nα particles of α-type and. Nβ particles of β-type is defined such that given a reference particle of α-type present at the origin,. ( , ). W n r d r ν αβ β gives the probability of finding its β- type nβth nearest neighbour (nβ = 1, 2, … etc.) in the volume element d r ν between r and r d r ν. +.

  11. Chaotic synchronization of nearest-neighbor diffusive coupling Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks in noisy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Xiaoling [Institute of Mechanobiology and Medical Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.O. Box 888, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu Hongjie [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jiang Zonglai [Institute of Mechanobiology and Medical Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, P.O. Box 888, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail:


    The chaotic synchronization of Hindmarsh-Rose neural networks linked by a nonlinear coupling function is discussed. The HR neural networks with nearest-neighbor diffusive coupling form are treated as numerical examples. By the construction of a special nonlinear-coupled term, the chaotic system is coupled symmetrically. For three and four neurons network, a certain region of coupling strength corresponding to full synchronization is given, and the effect of network structure and noise position are analyzed. For five and more neurons network, the full synchronization is very difficult to realize. All the results have been proved by the calculation of the maximum conditional Lyapunov exponent.

  12. Seismic clusters analysis in Northeastern Italy by the nearest-neighbor approach (United States)

    Peresan, Antonella; Gentili, Stefania


    The main features of earthquake clusters in Northeastern Italy are explored, with the aim to get new insights on local scale patterns of seismicity in the area. The study is based on a systematic analysis of robustly and uniformly detected seismic clusters, which are identified by a statistical method, based on nearest-neighbor distances of events in the space-time-energy domain. The method permits us to highlight and investigate the internal structure of earthquake sequences, and to differentiate the spatial properties of seismicity according to the different topological features of the clusters structure. To analyze seismicity of Northeastern Italy, we use information from local OGS bulletins, compiled at the National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics since 1977. A preliminary reappraisal of the earthquake bulletins is carried out and the area of sufficient completeness is outlined. Various techniques are considered to estimate the scaling parameters that characterize earthquakes occurrence in the region, namely the b-value and the fractal dimension of epicenters distribution, required for the application of the nearest-neighbor technique. Specifically, average robust estimates of the parameters of the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes, USLE, are assessed for the whole outlined region and are used to compute the nearest-neighbor distances. Clusters identification by the nearest-neighbor method turn out quite reliable and robust with respect to the minimum magnitude cutoff of the input catalog; the identified clusters are well consistent with those obtained from manual aftershocks identification of selected sequences. We demonstrate that the earthquake clusters have distinct preferred geographic locations, and we identify two areas that differ substantially in the examined clustering properties. Specifically, burst-like sequences are associated with the north-western part and swarm-like sequences with the south-eastern part of the study

  13. Spatio-temporal distribution of Oklahoma earthquakes: Exploring relationships using a nearest-neighbor approach: Nearest-neighbor analysis of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasylkivska, Veronika S. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huerta, Nicolas J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)


    Determining the spatiotemporal characteristics of natural and induced seismic events holds the opportunity to gain new insights into why these events occur. Linking the seismicity characteristics with other geologic, geographic, natural, or anthropogenic factors could help to identify the causes and suggest mitigation strategies that reduce the risk associated with such events. The nearest-neighbor approach utilized in this work represents a practical first step toward identifying statistically correlated clusters of recorded earthquake events. Detailed study of the Oklahoma earthquake catalog’s inherent errors, empirical model parameters, and model assumptions is presented. We found that the cluster analysis results are stable with respect to empirical parameters (e.g., fractal dimension) but were sensitive to epicenter location errors and seismicity rates. Most critically, we show that the patterns in the distribution of earthquake clusters in Oklahoma are primarily defined by spatial relationships between events. This observation is a stark contrast to California (also known for induced seismicity) where a comparable cluster distribution is defined by both spatial and temporal interactions between events. These results highlight the difficulty in understanding the mechanisms and behavior of induced seismicity but provide insights for future work.

  14. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos


    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  15. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Stergioulas


    Full Text Available Because of the information they can yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are one of the more possible sources of detectable gravitational waves, rotating relativistic stars have been receiving significant attention in recentyears. We review the latest theoretical and numerical methods for modeling rotating relativistic stars, including stars with a strong magnetic field and hot proto-neutron stars. We also review nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in rotating stars and summarize the latest developments regarding the gravitational wave-driven (CFS instability in both polar and axial quasi-normal modes.

  16. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian


    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  17. Carbon Atmosphere Discovered On Neutron Star (United States)


    Evidence for a thin veil of carbon has been found on the neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. This discovery, made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, resolves a ten-year mystery surrounding this object. "The compact star at the center of this famous supernova remnant has been an enigma since its discovery," said Wynn Ho of the University of Southampton and lead author of a paper that appears in the latest issue of Nature. "Now we finally understand that it can be produced by a hot neutron star with a carbon atmosphere." By analyzing Chandra's X-ray spectrum - akin to a fingerprint of energy - and applying it to theoretical models, Ho and his colleague Craig Heinke, from the University of Alberta, determined that the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, has an ultra-thin coating of carbon. This is the first time the composition of an atmosphere of an isolated neutron star has been confirmed. The Chandra "First Light" image of Cas A in 1999 revealed a previously undetected point-like source of X-rays at the center. This object was presumed to be a neutron star, the typical remnant of an exploded star, but researchers were unable to understand its properties. Defying astronomers' expectations, this object did not show any X-ray or radio pulsations or any signs of radio pulsar activity. By applying a model of a neutron star with a carbon atmosphere to this object, Ho and Heinke found that the region emitting X-rays would uniformly cover a typical neutron star. This would explain the lack of X-ray pulsations because -- like a lightbulb that shines consistently in all directions -- this neutron star would be unlikely to display any changes in its intensity as it rotates. Scientists previously have used a neutron star model with a hydrogen atmosphere giving a much smaller emission area, corresponding to a hot spot on a typical neutron star, which should produce X-ray pulsations as it rotates. Interpreting the hydrogen atmosphere model

  18. A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass star. (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R; Dittmann, Jason A; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Bonfils, Xavier; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Stark, Antony A; Stalder, Brian; Bouchy, Francois; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Neves, Vasco; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Wünsche, Anaël


    M-dwarf stars--hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun--are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the planet is too hot to be habitable but is cool enough to support a substantial atmosphere, one that has probably been considerably depleted of hydrogen. Because the host star is nearby and only 21 per cent the radius of the Sun, existing and upcoming telescopes will be able to observe the composition and dynamics of the planetary atmosphere.

  19. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (United States)

    Boyd, David


    Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionises the nebula producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  20. The interstellar medium, expanding nebulae and triggered star formation theory and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bisbas, Thomas G


    This brief brings together the theoretical aspects of star formation and ionized regions with the most up-to-date simulations and observations. Beginning with the basic theory of star formation, the physics of expanding HII regions is reviewed in detail and a discussion on how a massive star can give birth to tens or hundreds of other stars follows. The theoretical description of star formation is shown in simplified and state-of-the-art numerical simulations, describing in a more clear way how feedback from massive stars can trigger star and planet formation. This is also combined with spectacular images of nebulae taken by talented amateur astronomers. The latter is very likely to stimulate the reader to observe the structure of nebulae from a different point of view, and better understand the associated star formation therein.

  1. Variable Stars in the Globular Cluster M 80 (United States)

    Kopacki, G.


    We present results of a search for variable stars in the globular cluster M 80. Application of the image subtraction method to the ground-based times-series of CCD frames resulted in finding nine new RR Lyr stars, six of the RRc and three of the RRab type, and four SX Phe variables. Revised mean period of RRab stars, ab=0.68 d, and relative percentage of RRc stars, Nc/(Nab+Nc)=53%, strongly confirm that M 80 belongs to the Oosterhoff II group of globular clusters. The mean V magnitude of the horizontal branch of M 80 based on the ten RR Lyr stars has been estimated to be VHB=RR=16.14±0.03 mag. In two pulsating stars, one of the RR Lyr type and the other of the SX Phe type, oscillations with two close frequencies were detected, indicating excitation of nonradial modes in these stars. Moreover, we discovered two W UMa or ellipsoidal systems, two periodic stars of unknown type, one of which is probably a field star, and detected light variations in three red giants of the cluster.

  2. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars (United States)


    they can also be used to check ("calibrate") other, indirect methods to derive stellar parameters. It is on this background that the first discovery of an eclipsing binary system with two young, solar-like stars is of great interest. The Orion Binary Young stars are not so easy to find. One way is to look for their high-energy emission from a hot corona, created by their enhanced magnetic activity. The object RXJ 0529.4+0041 was first discovered in this way by the X-ray satellite ROSAT. Subsequent optical spectroscopy showed this object to be a young, low-mass spectroscopic binary system. And when a team of astronomers [1] used a 91-cm telescope at the Serra La Nave observing station on the slope of the Etna volcano (Sicily) to monitor the light curve, they also discovered that this system undergoes eclipses. All data confirm that RXJ 0529.4+0041 is located in the Orion Nebula at a distance of about 1500 light-years. This is one of the nearest star-forming regions and almost all stars in this area are quite young. Spectroscopic observations soon confirmed that the binary system was no exception. In particular, fairly strong absorption lines of the fragile element Lithium [4] were detected in both of the binary stars. As Lithium is known to be rapidly destroyed in stars, the finding of a relatively high content of this element implies that the stars must indeed be young. They were probably formed no more than 10 million years ago, i.e., in astronomical terms, they are "infant" stars . High-resolution spectroscopic observations, mostly with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , were used to determine the radial velocities of the stars. From these, a first determination of the orbital and stellar parameters was possible. The orbital period turned out to be short. The two stars swing around each other in just 3 days. This also means they must be very close to each other (but still entirely detached from each

  3. Predicting Audience Location on the Basis of the k-Nearest Neighbor Multilabel Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Wu


    Full Text Available Understanding audience location information in online social networks is important in designing recommendation systems, improving information dissemination, and so on. In this paper, we focus on predicting the location distribution of audiences on YouTube. And we transform this problem to a multilabel classification problem, while we find there exist three problems when the classical k-nearest neighbor based algorithm for multilabel classification (ML-kNN is used to predict location distribution. Firstly, the feature weights are not considered in measuring the similarity degree. Secondly, it consumes considerable computing time in finding similar items by traversing all the training set. Thirdly, the goal of ML-kNN is to find relevant labels for every sample which is different from audience location prediction. To solve these problems, we propose the methods of measuring similarity based on weight, quickly finding similar items, and ranking a specific number of labels. On the basis of these methods and the ML-kNN, the k-nearest neighbor based model for audience location prediction (AL-kNN is proposed for predicting audience location. The experiments based on massive YouTube data show that the proposed model can more accurately predict the location of YouTube video audience than the ML-kNN, MLNB, and Rank-SVM methods.

  4. Extremely Low Bit-Rate Nearest Neighbor Search Using a Set Compression Tree. (United States)

    Arandjelović, Relja; Zisserman, Andrew


    The goal of this work is a data structure to support approximate nearest neighbor search on very large scale sets of vector descriptors. The criteria we wish to optimize are: (i) that the memory footprint of the representation should be very small (so that it fits into main memory); and (ii) that the approximation of the original vectors should be accurate. We introduce a novel encoding method, named a Set Compression Tree (SCT), that satisfies these criteria. It is able to accurately compress 1 million descriptors using only a few bits per descriptor. The large compression rate is achieved by not compressing on a per-descriptor basis, but instead by compressing the set of descriptors jointly. We describe the encoding, decoding and use for nearest neighbor search, all of which are quite straightforward to implement. The method, tested on standard benchmarks (SIFT1M and 80 Million Tiny Images), achieves superior performance to a number of state-of-the-art approaches, including Product Quantization, Locality Sensitive Hashing, Spectral Hashing, and Iterative Quantization. For example, SCT has a lower error using 5 bits than any of the other approaches, even when they use 16 or more bits per descriptor. We also include a comparison of all the above methods on the standard benchmarks.

  5. An Adaptive Spectral Clustering Algorithm Based on the Importance of Shared Nearest Neighbors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi He


    Full Text Available The construction of a similarity matrix is one significant step for the spectral clustering algorithm; while the Gaussian kernel function is one of the most common measures for constructing the similarity matrix. However, with a fixed scaling parameter, the similarity between two data points is not adaptive and appropriate for multi-scale datasets. In this paper, through quantitating the value of the importance for each vertex of the similarity graph, the Gaussian kernel function is scaled, and an adaptive Gaussian kernel similarity measure is proposed. Then, an adaptive spectral clustering algorithm is gotten based on the importance of shared nearest neighbors. The idea is that the greater the importance of the shared neighbors between two vertexes, the more possible it is that these two vertexes belong to the same cluster; and the importance value of the shared neighbors is obtained with an iterative method, which considers both the local structural information and the distance similarity information, so as to improve the algorithm’s performance. Experimental results on different datasets show that our spectral clustering algorithm outperforms the other spectral clustering algorithms, such as the self-tuning spectral clustering and the adaptive spectral clustering based on shared nearest neighbors in clustering accuracy on most datasets.

  6. Nearest-neighbor distribution functions and mean separation for impenetrable particles in one to three dimensions (United States)

    MacDonald, James Ross


    Expressions for the hard-sphere nearest-neighbor probability distribution, PNN, and the associated mean nearest-neighbor distance, , in D=1 to 3 dimensions, which were recently derived by Torquato, Lu, and Rubinstein [Phys. Rev. A 41, 2059 (1990)] are compared with earlier results of Reiss and Casberg [J. Chem. Phys. 61, 1107 (1974)] and Macdonald [Mol. Phys. 44, 1043 (1981)]. Full agreement is found for the D=1 results, where an exact solution can be found. But no such solution is possible for D=2 and 3. The equation of state, PNN, and can all be calculated from knowledge of the central function GD, a conditional probability depending on both density and distance, r, from a particle center. The consequences of several different approximations for GD are explored for hard disks and spheres. In spite of the much more approximate GD functions used by Macdonald compared to those of Torquato, differences in the resulting PNN responses are relatively small even at high densities, and the differences in predictions, the quantities of primary experimental value, are entirely negligible. Although the original D=2 Torquato expression for PNN was not properly normalized, a sign correction restores normalization and leads to close agreement with the earlier work. For D=3, numerical results show that simple approximation of G3 by the contact value of the ordinary radial distribution function, a quantity independent of r, yields results for PNN very close to those of Torquato, and the corresponding results are completely indistinguishable.

  7. Nearest neighbour analysis of spatial dispersion of intertidal prosobranch gastropods within two substrata. (United States)

    Underwood, A J


    The patterns of dispersion of Nerita atramentosa, Bembicium nanum and Cellana tramoserica within two major substrata, the encrusting alga Peyssonelia gunniana and bare rock were analysed from quadrat samples taken at low tide, over 1 year. Distances to the nearest members of each species from random points were analysed to determine spatial patterns of dispersion. The frequencies of nearest neighbours of each species to each animal in the sampled area were analysed to determine the degree of spatial segregation and symmetry in the three species. Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum showed significant aggregated (clumped) dispersion in both substrata. Cellana tramoserica, however, was dispersed at random on Peyssonelia, and regularly dispersed on bare rock. There was no correlation between index of dispersion and density, or time of year, in any species. No useful tests for segregation and symmetry between Cellana and the other two species could be made because of the difference in dispersion of this species. Nerita and Bembicium were significantly segregated on both substrata, indicating that the microhabitat requirements of the two species are different. The two species were symmetrical on both substrata, indicating that there is no tendency for members of one species to be more isolated than members of the other species.Possible explanations of the differences in spatial pattern shown by the three species are discussed, and experimentally testable hypotheses are proposed to clarify the importance of physical and biological factors in the spatial patterns of distribution of the three species.

  8. Sequential nearest-neighbor effects on computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, Jorge A. [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Serrano, Pedro; Wuethrich, Kurt [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology (United States); Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.ed [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)


    To evaluate sequential nearest-neighbor effects on quantum-chemical calculations of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, we selected the structure of the nucleic acid binding (NAB) protein from the SARS coronavirus determined by NMR in solution (PDB id 2K87). NAB is a 116-residue {alpha}/{beta} protein, which contains 9 prolines and has 50% of its residues located in loops and turns. Overall, the results presented here show that sizeable nearest-neighbor effects are seen only for residues preceding proline, where Pro introduces an overestimation, on average, of 1.73 ppm in the computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. A new ensemble of 20 conformers representing the NMR structure of the NAB, which was calculated with an input containing backbone torsion angle constraints derived from the theoretical {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts as supplementary data to the NOE distance constraints, exhibits very similar topology and comparable agreement with the NOE constraints as the published NMR structure. However, the two structures differ in the patterns of differences between observed and computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, {Delta}{sub ca,i}, for the individual residues along the sequence. This indicates that the {Delta}{sub ca,i} -values for the NAB protein are primarily a consequence of the limited sampling by the bundles of 20 conformers used, as in common practice, to represent the two NMR structures, rather than of local flaws in the structures.

  9. Image copy-move forgery detection based on polar cosine transform and approximate nearest neighbor searching. (United States)

    Li, Yuenan


    Copy-move is one of the most commonly used image tampering operation, where a part of image content is copied and then pasted to another part of the same image. In order to make the forgery visually convincing and conceal its trace, the copied part may subject to post-processing operations such as rotation and blur. In this paper, we propose a polar cosine transform and approximate nearest neighbor searching based copy-move forgery detection algorithm. The algorithm starts by dividing the image into overlapping patches. Robust and compact features are extracted from patches by taking advantage of the rotationally-invariant and orthogonal properties of the polar cosine transform. Potential copy-move pairs are then detected by identifying the patches with similar features, which is formulated as approximate nearest neighbor searching and accomplished by means of locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). Finally, post-verifications are performed on potential pairs to filter out false matches and improve the accuracy of forgery detection. To sum up, the LSH based similar patch identification and the post-verification methods are two major novelties of the proposed work. Experimental results reveal that the proposed work can produce accurate detection results, and it exhibits high robustness to various post-processing operations. In addition, the LSH based similar patch detection scheme is much more effective than the widely used lexicographical sorting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Automated web usage data mining and recommendation system using K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN classification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Adeniyi


    Full Text Available The major problem of many on-line web sites is the presentation of many choices to the client at a time; this usually results to strenuous and time consuming task in finding the right product or information on the site. In this work, we present a study of automatic web usage data mining and recommendation system based on current user behavior through his/her click stream data on the newly developed Really Simple Syndication (RSS reader website, in order to provide relevant information to the individual without explicitly asking for it. The K-Nearest-Neighbor (KNN classification method has been trained to be used on-line and in Real-Time to identify clients/visitors click stream data, matching it to a particular user group and recommend a tailored browsing option that meet the need of the specific user at a particular time. To achieve this, web users RSS address file was extracted, cleansed, formatted and grouped into meaningful session and data mart was developed. Our result shows that the K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is transparent, consistent, straightforward, simple to understand, high tendency to possess desirable qualities and easy to implement than most other machine learning techniques specifically when there is little or no prior knowledge about data distribution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Nichols, J. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 34, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pablo, H.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Richardson, N. D. [Département de physique and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Québec (CRAQ), Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Shenar, T.; Oskinova, L.; Hamann, W.-R. [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Pollock, A. M. T. [European Space Agency, XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Waldron, W. L. [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer St., Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Russell, C. M. P. [NASA-GSFC, Code 662, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Huenemoerder, D. P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nazé, Y. [Groupe d’Astrophysique des Hautes Energies, Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liége, 17, Allée du 6 Août, B5c, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Ignace, R. [Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); and others


    We present an overview of four deep phase-constrained Chandra HETGS X-ray observations of δ Ori A. Delta Ori A is actually a triple system that includes the nearest massive eclipsing spectroscopic binary, δ Ori Aa, the only such object that can be observed with little phase-smearing with the Chandra gratings. Since the fainter star, δ Ori Aa2, has a much lower X-ray luminosity than the brighter primary (δ Ori Aa1), δ Ori Aa provides a unique system with which to test the spatial distribution of the X-ray emitting gas around δ Ori Aa1 via occultation by the photosphere of, and wind cavity around, the X-ray dark secondary. Here we discuss the X-ray spectrum and X-ray line profiles for the combined observation, having an exposure time of nearly 500 ks and covering nearly the entire binary orbit. The companion papers discuss the X-ray variability seen in the Chandra spectra, present new space-based photometry and ground-based radial velocities obtained simultaneously with the X-ray data to better constrain the system parameters, and model the effects of X-rays on the optical and UV spectra. We find that the X-ray emission is dominated by embedded wind shock emission from star Aa1, with little contribution from the tertiary star Ab or the shocked gas produced by the collision of the wind of Aa1 against the surface of Aa2. We find a similar temperature distribution to previous X-ray spectrum analyses. We also show that the line half-widths are about 0.3−0.5 times the terminal velocity of the wind of star Aa1. We find a strong anti-correlation between line widths and the line excitation energy, which suggests that longer-wavelength, lower-temperature lines form farther out in the wind. Our analysis also indicates that the ratio of the intensities of the strong and weak lines of Fe xvii and Ne x are inconsistent with model predictions, which may be an effect of resonance scattering.

  12. Massive Star and Star Cluster Formation


    Tan, Jonathan C.


    I review the status of massive star formation theories: accretion from collapsing, massive, turbulent cores; competitive accretion; and stellar collisions. I conclude the observational and theoretical evidence favors the first of these models. I then discuss: the initial conditions of star cluster formation as traced by infrared dark clouds; the cluster formation timescale; and comparison of the initial cluster mass function in different galactic environments.

  13. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira


    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  14. Dark stars: a review. (United States)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica


    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  15. [Contact dermatitis from polyacrylate in TENS electrode]. (United States)

    Weber-Muller, F; Reichert-Penetrat, S; Schmutz, J-L; Barbaud, A


    Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) is useful for many chronic pains. It induces few serious side effects, but skin reactions are not rare. We report on two cases of contact dermatitis due to TENS electrodes by sensitization to the acrylate in TENS conductive gel. A 50 year-old man suffered from post-traumatic lumbar pair. He developed eczematous lesions on the sites where the TENS electrodes were applied. Patch tests were positive with the TENS gel, with ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) and ethyl-acrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) on day 2 and 4 readings. A 54 Year-old man had a paralysis of the foot elevator following rupture of an aneurysm. After 2 months, he had an eczema on the sites where the TENS electrodes were applied. Patch tests were negative with the TENS electrodes but positive with 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (0.1 p. 100 petrolatum), triethyleneglycol diacrylate (0.1 p. 100 petrolatum), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2 p. 100 petrolatum) on day 2 and 4 readings. TENS transmits small electrical currents through the skin that induce the depolarization of the affected sensory nerve endings. They have few serious side effects but skin reactions such as irritation, burns or allergy to propylene glycol in the electrode gel, to the rubber of the electrodes (mercaptobenzothiazole) or to the metallic part of the electrodes, i.e. nickel, are not uncommon. To our knowledge, only one case of an allergy to the polyacrylates of TENS electrode gel has been previously reported in the literature. We emphasize that acrylate could be the main sensitizer in the more recently commercialized TENS electrodes and will propose alternative ways of treating patients sensitized to acrylate and who require treatment with TENS.

  16. First supernova companion star found (United States)


    ). These two mighty galaxies in the Plough (Ursa Major) belong to some of the most famous and beloved galaxies known to amateur astronomers. This may be one of the reasons that Supernova 1993J was discovered by the Spanish amateur astronomer Francisco Garcia Diaz and not a professional astronomer. The violent star-forming activity in the neighbouring Messier 82 gives rise to a strong galactic wind that is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas (seen in red) out of its centre. Supernovae are some of the most significant sources of chemical elements in the Universe, and they are at the heart of our understanding of the evolution of galaxies. Supernovae are some of the most violent events in the Universe. For many years astronomers have thought that they occur in either solitary massive stars (Type II supernovae) or in a binary system where the companion star plays an important role (Type I supernovae). However no one has been able to observe any such companion star. It has even been speculated that the companion stars might not survive the actual explosion... The second brightest supernova discovered in modern times, SN 1993J, was found in the beautiful spiral galaxy M81 on 28 March 1993. From archival images of this galaxy taken before the explosion, a red supergiant was identified as the mother star in 1993 - only the second time astronomers have actually seen the progenitor of a supernova explosion (the first was SN 1987A, the supernova that exploded in 1987 in our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud). Initially rather ordinary, SN 1993J began to puzzle astronomers as its ejecta seemed too rich in the chemical element helium and instead of fading normally it showed a bizarre sharp increase in brightness. The astronomers realised that a normal red supergiant alone could not have given rise to such a weird supernova. It was suggested that the red supergiant orbited a companion star that had shredded its outer layers just before the explosion. Ten

  17. Clinical experience with TENS and TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen. Report of 371 patients.


    Quarnstrom, F. C.; Milgrom, P.


    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) alone or TENS combined with nitrous oxide-oxygen (N2O) was administered for restorative dentistry without local anesthesia to 371 adult patients. A total of 55% of TENS alone and 84% of TENS/N2O visits were rated successful. A total of 53% of TENS alone and 82% of TENS/N2O patients reported slight or no pain. In multivariable analyses, pain reports were related to the anesthesia technique and patient fear and unrelated to sex, race, age, toot...

  18. Unveiling hidden companions in post-AGB stars: 3D simulations of evolved star binaries (United States)

    Nordhaus, Jason


    The deaths of ordinary stars are marked by extraordinary transitions. For those with initial masses code AstroBEAR. Our results will be compared to the broad-band SED, and multi-epoch proper motion and archival images to constrain properties of the companions responsible for the outflow kinematics. We have successfully demonstrated this technique in L2 Puppis (one of the nearest Mira-like systems), where we were able to fully match the multi-wavelength observational data for the system if an unseen planet were present. Since then, ALMA has tentatively detected such a planet in L2 Puppis.Lastly, this award will provide partial funding for a deaf graduate student. Professor Nordhaus is fluent in American Sign Language and working to increase opportunities for deaf and hard-of-hearing students in astronomy.

  19. Isolated Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov S.


    Full Text Available Several aspects related to astrophysics of isolated neutron stars are discussed. We start with an introduction into the “new zoo” of young isolated neutron stars. In addition to classical radio pulsars, now we know several species (soft gamma-ray repeators, anomalous X-ray pulsars, central compact objects in supernova remnants, close-by cooling neutron stars - aka “Magnificent seven”, - RRATs, and some others. All these types are briefly discussed. In the second lecture a description of magneto-rotational evolution of neutron stars is given. Finally, in the third lecture we discuss population synthesis of isolated neutron stars. In some details we discuss population synthesis of young isolated radio pulsars and young close-by cooling neutron stars.

  20. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: Target Selection of Nearby Stars and Galaxies (United States)

    Isaacson, Howard; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Lebofsky, Matt; Price, Danny C.; MacMahon, David; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Hickish, Jack; Werthimer, Dan; Sheikh, Sofia; Hellbourg, Greg; Enriquez, J. Emilio


    We present the target selection for the Breakthrough Listen search for extraterrestrial intelligence during the first year of observations at the Green Bank Telescope, Parkes Telescope, and Automated Planet Finder. On the way to observing 1,000,000 nearby stars in search of technological signals, we present three main sets of objects we plan to observe in addition to a smaller sample of exotica. We chose the 60 nearest stars, all within 5.1 pc from the Sun. Such nearby stars offer the potential to observe faint radio signals from transmitters that have a power similar to those on Earth. We add a list of 1649 stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog that span the Hertzprung-Russell diagram, including all spectral types along the main sequence, subgiants, and giant stars. This sample offers diversity and inclusion of all stellar types, but with thoughtful limits and due attention to main sequence stars. Our targets also include 123 nearby galaxies composed of a “morphological-type-complete” sample of the nearest spirals, ellipticals, dwarf spherioidals, and irregulars. While their great distances hamper the detection of technological electromagnetic radiation, galaxies offer the opportunity to observe billions of stars simultaneously and to sample the bright end of the technological luminosity function. We will also use the Green Bank and Parkes telescopes to survey the plane and central bulge of the Milky Way. Finally, the complete target list includes several classes of exotica, including white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, black holes, neutron stars, and asteroids in our solar system.

  1. The Theatre of stars (United States)

    Cavedon, M.; Peri, F.

    Planetariums are special instruments in education and didactics of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Since 1930 the Planetarium of Milan, the most important planetarium in Italy, has played a fundamental role in outreach to the public. Italian tradition always preferred didactics in ``live'' lessons. Now technology expands the potential of the star projector and the theatre of stars is a real window on the universe, where you can travel among the stars and galaxies, to reach the boundaries of space and time.

  2. Why Stars Matter


    Ajay K. Agrawal; John McHale; Alex Oettl


    The growing peer effects literature pays particular attention to the role of stars. We decompose the causal effect of hiring a star in terms of the productivity impact on: 1) co-located incumbents and 2) new recruits. Using longitudinal university department-level data we report that hiring a star does not increase overall incumbent productivity, although this aggregate effect hides offsetting effects on related (positive) versus unrelated (negative) colleagues. However, the primary impact co...

  3. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D


    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  4. Strange Nonchaotic Stars (United States)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.


    Exploiting the unprecedented capabilities of the planet-hunting Kepler space telescope, which stared at 150 000 stars for four years, we discuss recent evidence that certain stars dim and brighten in complex patterns with fractal features. Such stars pulsate at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the famous golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies is generically attracted toward a “strange” behavior that is geometrically fractal without displaying the “butterfly effect” of chaos. Strange nonchaotic attractors have been observed in laboratory experiments and have been hypothesized to describe the electrochemical activity of the brain, but a bluish white star 16 000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra may manifest, in the scale-free distribution of its minor frequency components, the first strange nonchaotic attractor observed in the wild. The recognition of stellar strange nonchaotic dynamics may improve the classification of these stars and refine the physical modeling of their interiors. We also discuss nonlinear analysis of other RR Lyrae stars in Kepler field of view and discuss some toy models for modeling these stars.References: 1) Hippke, Michael, et al. "Pulsation period variations in the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878." The Astrophysical Journal 798.1 (2015): 42.2) Lindner, John F., et al. "Strange nonchaotic stars." Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 054101 (2015)

  5. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid


    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  6. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid


    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  7. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  8. A Reliable Order-Statistics-Based Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search Algorithm. (United States)

    Verdoliva, Luisa; Cozzolino, Davide; Poggi, Giovanni


    We propose a new algorithm for fast approximate nearest neighbor search based on the properties of ordered vectors. Data vectors are classified based on the index and sign of their largest components, thereby partitioning the space in a number of cones centered in the origin. The query is itself classified, and the search starts from the selected cone and proceeds to neighboring ones. Overall, the proposed algorithm corresponds to locality sensitive hashing in the space of directions, with hashing based on the order of components. Thanks to the statistical features emerging through ordering, it deals very well with the challenging case of unstructured data, and is a valuable building block for more complex techniques dealing with structured data. Experiments on both simulated and real-world data prove the proposed algorithm to provide a state-of-the-art performance.

  9. Categorizing document by fuzzy C-Means and K-nearest neighbors approach (United States)

    Priandini, Novita; Zaman, Badrus; Purwanti, Endah


    Increasing of technology had made categorizing documents become important. It caused by increasing of number of documents itself. Managing some documents by categorizing is one of Information Retrieval application, because it involve text mining on its process. Whereas, categorization technique could be done both Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) method. This experiment would consolidate both methods. The aim of the experiment is increasing performance of document categorize. First, FCM is in order to clustering training documents. Second, KNN is in order to categorize testing document until the output of categorization is shown. Result of the experiment is 14 testing documents retrieve relevantly to its category. Meanwhile 6 of 20 testing documents retrieve irrelevant to its category. Result of system evaluation shows that both precision and recall are 0,7.

  10. Nearest-Neighbor Repulsion and Competing Charge and Spin Order in the Extended Hubbard Model. (United States)

    Bahman, Davoudi; Tremblay, A.-M. S.


    We generalize the Two-Particle Self-Consistent (TPSC) approach to study the extended Hubbard model where the nearest-neighbor interaction V is present in addition to the local interaction U. Our results are in good agreement with available Quantum Monte-Carlo results over the whole range of density n up to intermediate coupling. As a function of U, V and n we observe different kinds of charge and spin orders, like commensurate/incommensurate charge and spin density wave, phase separation, and ferromagnetic order. For attractive V superconductivity could exist in the regions where the other types of charge and spin orders do not dominate. Ref.: B. Davoudi and A.-M.S. Tremblay, cond-mat/0509707

  11. Nearest-neighbour distribution of distances in crystals from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (United States)

    Fornasini, P.; Grisenti, R.; Dapiaggi, M.; Agostini, G.; Miyanaga, T.


    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) is a powerful probe of the distribution of nearest-neighbour distances around selected atomic species. We consider here the effect of vibrational disorder in crystals. The potential of EXAFS for the accurate evaluation of the coefficient of bond thermal expansion and its temperature dependence is discussed, with the aim of stimulating and facilitating the comparison with the results from total scattering experiments. The meaning of the distribution asymmetry in crystals and its connection with the effective potential anharmonicity and the bond expansion is quantitatively explored by comparing the results for a number of different systems. The extent of the relative atomic vibrations perpendicular to the bond direction and the perpendicular to parallel anisotropy are correlated with the extent of lattice negative thermal expansion as well as with the ionic mobility in superionic crystals.

  12. Gear crack level identification based on weighted K nearest neighbor classification algorithm (United States)

    Lei, Yaguo; Zuo, Ming J.


    A crack fault is one of the damage modes most frequently occurring in gears. Identifying different crack levels, especially for early cracks is a challenge in gear fault diagnosis. This paper aims to propose a method to classify the different levels of gear cracks automatically and reliably. In this method, feature parameters in time domain, specially designed for gear damage detection and in frequency domain are extracted to characterize the gear conditions. A two-stage feature selection and weighting technique (TFSWT) via Euclidean distance evaluation technique (EDET) is presented and adopted to select sensitive features and remove fault-unrelated features. A weighted K nearest neighbor (W KNN) classification algorithm is utilized to identify the gear crack levels. The gear crack experiments were conducted and the vibration signals were captured from the gears under different loads and motor speeds. The proposed method is applied to identifying the gear crack levels and the applied results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  13. Algoritma Interpolasi Nearest-Neighbor untuk Pendeteksian Sampul Pulsa Oscilometri Menggunakan Mikrokontroler Berbiaya Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus


    Full Text Available Non-invasive blood pressure measurement devices are widely available in the marketplace. Most of these devices use the oscillometric principle that store and analyze oscillometric waveforms during cuff deflation to obtain mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Those pressure values are determined from the oscillometric waveform envelope. Several methods to detect the envelope of oscillometric pulses utilize a complex algorithm that requires a large capacity memory and certainly difficult to process by a low memory capacity embedded system. A simple nearest-neighbor interpolation method is applied for oscillometric pulse envelope detection in non-invasive blood pressure measurement using microcontroller such ATmega328. The experiment yields 59 seconds average time to process the computation with 3.6% average percent error in blood pressure measurement.

  14. Nearest neighbor correlations in perpendicular artificial spin ice arrays in the presence of an applied field (United States)

    Kempinger, Susan; Fraleigh, Robert; Lammert, Paul; Crespi, Vincent; Samarth, Nitin; Schiffer, Peter

    By studying the field dependent magnetization switching process in perpendicular artificial spin ice arrays arrays, we hope to gain insight in to the dynamical properties of interacting spin systems. To this end, we have used diffraction-limited Kerr imaging to study lithographically patterned arrays of single domain, nanoscale islands of Co/Pt multilayers. We can tune the interaction strength and introduce geometric frustration in to the patterned systems by changing the lattice spacing and geometry of the arrays. Using MOKE microscopy we are able to optically resolve, spatially isolate, and extract the switching field of each island in an array in the presence of an external field. These switching fields allow us to calculate the magnetization and nearest neighbor spin-spin correlation throughout a hysteresis loop. These quantities help us determine the effect of increased interactions and geometric frustration on the switching process of dipole coupled arrays. Funded by DOE.

  15. Quantum Algorithm for K-Nearest Neighbors Classification Based on the Metric of Hamming Distance (United States)

    Ruan, Yue; Xue, Xiling; Liu, Heng; Tan, Jianing; Li, Xi


    K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a common algorithm used for classification, and also a sub-routine in various complicated machine learning tasks. In this paper, we presented a quantum algorithm (QKNN) for implementing this algorithm based on the metric of Hamming distance. We put forward a quantum circuit for computing Hamming distance between testing sample and each feature vector in the training set. Taking advantage of this method, we realized a good analog for classical KNN algorithm by setting a distance threshold value t to select k - n e a r e s t neighbors. As a result, QKNN achieves O( n 3) performance which is only relevant to the dimension of feature vectors and high classification accuracy, outperforms Llyod's algorithm (Lloyd et al. 2013) and Wiebe's algorithm (Wiebe et al. 2014).

  16. Spaces of phylogenetic networks from generalized nearest-neighbor interchange operations. (United States)

    Huber, Katharina T; Linz, Simone; Moulton, Vincent; Wu, Taoyang


    Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary or phylogenetic trees that are used to represent the evolution of species which have undergone reticulate evolution. In this paper we consider spaces of such networks defined by some novel local operations that we introduce for converting one phylogenetic network into another. These operations are modeled on the well-studied nearest-neighbor interchange operations on phylogenetic trees, and lead to natural generalizations of the tree spaces that have been previously associated to such operations. We present several results on spaces of some relatively simple networks, called level-1 networks, including the size of the neighborhood of a fixed network, and bounds on the diameter of the metric defined by taking the smallest number of operations required to convert one network into another. We expect that our results will be useful in the development of methods for systematically searching for optimal phylogenetic networks using, for example, likelihood and Bayesian approaches.

  17. Nearest neighbor search in general metric spaces using a tree data structure with a simple heuristic. (United States)

    Xu, Huafeng; Agrafiotis, Dimitris K


    We present a new algorithm for nearest neighbor search in general metric spaces. The algorithm organizes the database into recursively partitioned Voronoi regions and represents these partitions in a tree. The separations between the Voronoi regions as well as the radius of each region are used with triangular inequality to derive the minimum possible distance between any point in a region and the query and to discard the region from further search if a smaller distance has already been found. The algorithm also orders the search sequence of the tree branches using the estimate of the minimum possible distance. This simple heuristic proves to considerably enhance the pruning of the search tree. The efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated on several artificial data sets and real problems in computational chemistry.

  18. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars


    Michaud, G.; Richer, J.


    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  19. Merging strangeon stars (United States)

    Lai, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Yun-Wei; Zhou, En-Ping; Li, Yun-Yang; Xu, Ren-Xin


    The state of supranuclear matter in compact stars remains puzzling, and it is argued that pulsars could be strangeon stars. What would happen if binary strangeon stars merge? This kind of merger could result in the formation of a hyper-massive strangeon star, accompanied by bursts of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation (and even a strangeon kilonova explained in the paper). The tidal polarizability of binary strangeon stars is different from that of binary neutron stars, because a strangeon star is self-bound on the surface by the fundamental strong force while a neutron star by the gravity, and their equations of state are different. Our calculation shows that the tidal polarizability of merging binary strangeon stars is favored by GW170817. Three kinds of kilonovae (i.e., of neutron, quark and strangeon) are discussed, and the light curve of the kilonova AT 2017 gfo following GW170817 could be explained by considering the decaying strangeon nuggets and remnant star spin-down. Additionally, the energy ejected to the fireball around the nascent remnant strangeon star, being manifested as a gamma-ray burst, is calculated. It is found that, after a prompt burst, an X-ray plateau could follow in a timescale of 102 ‑ 103 s. Certainly, the results could be tested also by further observational synergies between gravitational wave detectors (e.g., Advanced LIGO) and X-ray telescopes (e.g., the Chinese HXMT satellite and eXTP mission), and especially if the detected gravitational wave form is checked by peculiar equations of state provided by the numerical relativistical simulation.

  20. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars (United States)

    Minti, Hari


    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  1. Colorectal Cancer and Colitis Diagnosis Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and an Improved K-Nearest-Neighbour Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Li


    Full Text Available Combining Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR with endoscopy, it is expected that noninvasive, rapid detection of colorectal cancer can be performed in vivo in the future. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectra were collected from 88 endoscopic biopsy colorectal tissue samples (41 colitis and 47 cancers. A new method, viz., entropy weight local-hyperplane k-nearest-neighbor (EWHK, which is an improved version of K-local hyperplane distance nearest-neighbor (HKNN, is proposed for tissue classification. In order to avoid limiting high dimensions and small values of the nearest neighbor, the new EWHK method calculates feature weights based on information entropy. The average results of the random classification showed that the EWHK classifier for differentiating cancer from colitis samples produced a sensitivity of 81.38% and a specificity of 92.69%.

  2. Studi Analisis Pengenalan Pola Tulisan Tangan Angka Arabic (Indian menggunakan Metode K- Nearest Neighbors dan Connected Component Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Akbar


    Full Text Available Handwriting refers to the result of writing by hand (not typed. The writing style of people are not the same. One of the United Nations official languages, Arabic, has a numerical system known as Arabic (Indian numeral. The identification of feature help humans to be able distinguish the patterns. The grouping patterns can be applied to the machine for recognizing object in the image. Connected component labeling is used for separating characters to be easily recognizable. K- nearest neighbors is used to find the similarity value between query image and template images are based on the nearest neighbors class. This analytical study was tested using 100 test images. The top three classification results of Arabic (Indian handwritten recognition use k- nearest neighbors  (KNN are 86% when k = 1, 84% when k = 3, and 83% with k = 5.

  3. Colorectal Cancer and Colitis Diagnosis Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and an Improved K-Nearest-Neighbour Classifier. (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Hao, Can; Kang, Xue; Zhang, Jialin; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Wenbo; Zeng, Haishan


    Combining Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with endoscopy, it is expected that noninvasive, rapid detection of colorectal cancer can be performed in vivo in the future. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectra were collected from 88 endoscopic biopsy colorectal tissue samples (41 colitis and 47 cancers). A new method, viz., entropy weight local-hyperplane k-nearest-neighbor (EWHK), which is an improved version of K-local hyperplane distance nearest-neighbor (HKNN), is proposed for tissue classification. In order to avoid limiting high dimensions and small values of the nearest neighbor, the new EWHK method calculates feature weights based on information entropy. The average results of the random classification showed that the EWHK classifier for differentiating cancer from colitis samples produced a sensitivity of 81.38% and a specificity of 92.69%.

  4. Star Trek in the Schools (United States)

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977


    Describes specific educational programs for using the Star Trek TV program from kindergarten through college. For each grade level lesson plans, ideas for incorporating Star Trek into future classes, and reports of specific programs utilizing Star Trek are provided. (SL)

  5. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    volving Bose–Einstein condensates of antikaons within relativistic models. Also, the structures of non-rotating neutron stars are calculated using this EoS. 2. Hadrons in cold and dense medium. At normal nuclear matter density, neutron star matter mainly consists of neutrons, protons and electrons. The particle population is ...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP telephones) that are effective as of October 1, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  7. Science Through ARts (STAR) (United States)

    Kolecki, Joseph; Petersen, Ruth; Williams, Lawrence


    Science Through ARts (STAR) is an educational initiative designed to teach students through a multidisciplinary approach to learning. This presentation describes the STAR pilot project, which will use Mars exploration as the topic to be integrated. Schools from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and possibly eastern Europe are expected to participate in the pilot project.

  8. Neutron Stars: Formation and Structure


    Kutschera, Marek


    A short introduction is given to astrophysics of neutron stars and to physics of dense matter in neutron stars. Observed properties of astrophysical objects containing neutron stars are discussed. Current scenarios regarding formation and evolution of neutron stars in those objects are presented. Physical principles governing the internal structure of neutron stars are considered with special emphasis on the possible spin ordering in the neutron star matter.

  9. Are Pulsars Bare Strange Stars? (United States)

    Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Zhang, B.

    It is believed that pulsars are neutron stars or strange stars with crusts. However we suggest here that pulsars may be bare strange stars (i.e., strange stars without crust). Due to rapid rotation and strong emission, young strange stars produced in supernova explosions should be bare when they act as radio pulsars. Because of strong magnetic field, two polar-crusts would shield the polar caps of an accreting strange star. Such a suggestion can be checked by further observations.

  10. Magnetic Fields of Massive Stars


    Lundin, Andreas


    This paper is an introduction to the subject of magnetic fields on stars, with a focus on hotter stars. Basic astrophysical concepts are explained, including: spectroscopy, stellar classification, general structure and evolution of stars. The Zeeman effect and how absorption line splitting  is used to detect and measure magnetic fields is explained. The properties of a prominent type of magnetic massive star, Ap-stars, are delved into. These stars have very stable, global, roughly dipolar mag...



    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  12. Phase diagram of the three states Potts model with next nearest neighbour interactions on the Bethe lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir [Faculty of Science, IIUM, 25200 Kuantan (Malaysia); Institute of Mathematics and Information Technology, 100125 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Mukhamedov, Farrukh [Faculty of Science, IIUM, 25200 Kuantan (Malaysia); Pah, Chin Hee [Faculty of Science, IIUM, 25200 Kuantan (Malaysia)], E-mail:


    We have found an exact phase diagram of the Potts model with competing nearest neighbor and next nearest neighbor interactions on the Bethe lattice of order two. The diagram consists of five phases: ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, modulated, antiphase and paramodulated, all meeting at the multicritical point (T=0,p=1/3). We report on a new phase which we denote as paramodulated, found at low temperatures and characterized by zero average magnetization lying inside the modulated phase. Such a phase, inherent in the Potts model has no analogues in the Ising setting.

  13. Ten new species of Afrotropical Pterophoridae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielis, C.


    Ten new Afrotropical species of Pterophoridae are described: Agdistis linnaei spec. nov., Agdistis bouyeri spec. nov., Ochyrotica bjoernstadti spec. nov., Platyptilia aarviki spec. nov., Stenoptilia kiitulo spec. nov., Exelastis caroli spec. nov., Eucapperia continentalis spec. nov., Buckleria

  14. Rotating stars in relativity. (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos


    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  15. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner


    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  16. How Stars Form (United States)

    McKee, Christopher F.


    Stars are the atoms of the universe. The process by which stars form is at the nexus of astrophysics since they are believed to be responsible for the re-ionization of the universe, they created the heavy elements, they play a central role in the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their formation naturally leads to the formation of planets. Whereas early work on star formation was based on the assumption that it is a quiescent process, it is now believed that turbulence plays a dominant role. In this overview, I shall discuss the evolution of our understanding of how stars form and current ideas about the stellar initial mass function and the rate of star formation.

  17. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker. (United States)

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian


    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)


    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  19. A Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Search for Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1 (United States)

    Loerincs, Jacqueline; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus


    We present here results of a low resolution spectroscopic followup of candidate low-mass pre-main sequence stars in the Orion OB1 association. Our targets were selected from the CIDA Variability Survey of Orion (CVSO), and we used the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS) on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope to obtain spectra of 500 candidate T Tauri stars distributed in seven 0.5 deg diameter fields, adding to a total area of ~5.5 deg2. We identify young stars by looking at the distinctive Hα 6563 Å emission and Lithium Li I 6707 Å absorption features characteristic of young low mass pre-main sequence stars. Furthermore, by measuring the strength of their Hα emission lines, confirmed T Tauri stars can be classified as either Classical T Tauris (CTTS) or Weak-line T Tauris (WTTS), which give indication of whether the star is actively accreting material from a gas and dust disk surrounding the star, which may be the precursor of a planetary system. We confirm a total of 90 T Tauri stars, of which 50% are newly identified young members of Orion; out of the 49 new detections,15 are accreting CTTS, and of these all but one are found in the OB1b sub-region. This result is in line with our previous findings that this region is much younger than the more extended Orion OB1a sub-association. The M2FS results add to our growing census of young stars in Orion, that is allowing us to characterize in a systematic and consistent way the distribution of stellar ages across the entire complex, in order to building a complete picture of star formation in this, one of nearest most active sites of star birth.

  20. The APF Fifty: A Robotic Search for Earth’s Nearest Neighbors (United States)

    Fulton, Benjamin; Howard, Andrew; Weiss, Lauren M.; Sinukoff, Evan; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard T.; Alyse Hirsch, Lea


    With the Automated Planet Finder (APF) telescope, we are conducting a Doppler survey of a magnitude-limited sample of 51 nearby, chromospherically inactive, G and K dwarfs. This APF-50 survey is sensitive to planets with masses as low as 2-3 times the mass of the Earth and will measure small planet occurrence in the solar neighborhood. We expect to measure details of the planet mass function and to identify the nearby stars hosting low-mass planetary systems that will be the likely targets of follow-up measurements. We employ the robotic APF telescope to monitor the stars at high cadence for the duration of the survey. It builds on the Eta-Earth Survey at Keck Observatory, but with improved Doppler precision due to the high observing cadence and a larger number of measurements. We will measure the occurrence rate and mass function of small planets in our local neighborhood using the new planets discovered by the APF-50 survey and the set of planets already known to orbit stars in our sample. Combining the mass function from this survey with the size distribution from Kepler, we will probe the density and core mass properties of super-Earths to inform formation theories of the galaxy's most abundant planets.

  1. Star Cluster Structure from Hierarchical Star Formation (United States)

    Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip; Murray, Norman; Lamberts, Astrid; Guszejnov, David; Schmitz, Denise; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    Young massive star clusters (YMCs) spanning 104-108 M⊙ in mass generally have similar radial surface density profiles, with an outer power-law index typically between -2 and -3. This similarity suggests that they are shaped by scale-free physics at formation. Recent multi-physics MHD simulations of YMC formation have also produced populations of YMCs with this type of surface density profile, allowing us to narrow down the physics necessary to form a YMC with properties as observed. We show that the shallow density profiles of YMCs are a natural result of phase-space mixing that occurs as they assemble from the clumpy, hierarchically-clustered configuration imprinted by the star formation process. We develop physical intuition for this process via analytic arguments and collisionless N-body experiments, elucidating the connection between star formation physics and star cluster structure. This has implications for the early-time structure and evolution of proto-globular clusters, and prospects for simulating their formation in the FIRE cosmological zoom-in simulations.

  2. Making star teams out of star players. (United States)

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James


    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing.

  3. Pseudosynchronization of Heartbeat Stars (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mara; Thompson, Susan E.; Hambleton, Kelly; Fuller, Jim; Shporer, Avi; Isaacson, Howard T.; Howard, Andrew; Kurtz, Donald


    A type of eccentric binary star that undergoes extreme dynamic tidal forces, known as Heartbeat stars, were discovered by the Kepler Mission. As the two stars pass through periastron, the tidal distortion causes unique brightness variations. Short period, eccentric binary stars, like these, are theorized to pseudosynchronize, or reach a rotational frequency that matches the weighted average orbital angular velocity of the system. This pseudosynchronous rate, as predicted by Hut (1981), depends on the binary's orbital period and eccentricity. We tested whether sixteen heartbeat stars have pseudosynchronized. We measure the rotation rate from obvious spot signatures in the light curve. We measure the eccentricity by fitting the light curve using PHOEBE and are actively carrying out a radial velocity monitoring program with Keck/HIRES in order to improve these orbital parameters. Our initial results show that while most heartbeat stars appear to have pseudosynchronized we find stars with rotation frequencies both longer and shorter than this rate. We thank the SETI Institute REU program, the NSF, and the Kepler Guest Observer Program for making this work possible.

  4. Dense Axion Stars. (United States)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong


    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  5. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.


    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  6. A Study of Magnetic CP Stars in Open Clusters and Associations with the 6-m Telescope (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Yakunin, I. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.


    The study of magnetic CP stars in groups of different ages allows us to obtain data on the origin and evolution of large-scale magnetic fields. We selected 17 groups for observation with the 6-m telescope. Here we draw first conclusions from the study of the Orion OB1 association. Six new magnetic stars in it are added to those seventeen that had been known earlier, ten more CP stars were suspected to have fields. A complex structure of the magnetic field in the star HD 34736 has been found, which is indicative of its fossil origin.

  7. Using genetic algorithms to optimize k-Nearest Neighbors configurations for use with airborne laser scanning data (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Grant M. Domke; Qi Chen; Erik Næsset; Terje Gobakken


    The relatively small sampling intensities used by national forest inventories are often insufficient to produce the desired precision for estimates of population parameters unless the estimation process is augmented with auxiliary information, usually in the form of remotely sensed data. The k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) technique is a non-parametric,multivariate approach...

  8. Step free energy of an arbitrarily oriented step on a rectangular lattice with nearest-neighbor interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.


    We have derived within the framework of a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic nearest-neighbor interactions an exact expression for the free energy of an arbitrarily oriented step edge or boundary on a rectangular two-dimensional lattice. The full angular dependence of the step free energy allows

  9. A Comparison of the Spatial Linear Model to Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) Methods for Forestry Applications (United States)

    Jay M. Ver Hoef; Hailemariam Temesgen; Sergio Gómez


    Forest surveys provide critical information for many diverse interests. Data are often collected from samples, and from these samples, maps of resources and estimates of aerial totals or averages are required. In this paper, two approaches for mapping and estimating totals; the spatial linear model (SLM) and k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor) are compared, theoretically,...

  10. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev


    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  11. Hyperons in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Katayama


    Full Text Available Using the Dirac–Brueckner–Hartree–Fock approach, the properties of neutron-star matter including hyperons are investigated. In the calculation, we consider both time and space components of the vector self-energies of baryons as well as the scalar ones. Furthermore, the effect of negative-energy states of baryons is partly taken into account. We obtain the maximum neutron-star mass of 2.08M⊙, which is consistent with the recently observed, massive neutron stars. We discuss a universal, repulsive three-body force for hyperons in matter.

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of stars (United States)

    Merrill, K. M.; Ridgway, S. T.


    This paper reviews applications of IR techniques in stellar classification, studies of stellar photospheres, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the nature of remnant and ejected matter in near-circumstellar regions. Qualitative IR spectral classification of cool and hot stars is discussed, along with IR spectra of peculiar composite star systems and of obscured stars, and IR characteristics of stellar populations. The use of IR spectroscopy in theoretical modeling of stellar atmospheres is examined, IR indicators of stellar atmospheric composition are described, and contributions of IR spectroscopy to the study of stellar recycling of interstellar matter are summarized. The future of IR astronomy is also considered.

  13. RRAM-based parallel computing architecture using k-nearest neighbor classification for pattern recognition (United States)

    Jiang, Yuning; Kang, Jinfeng; Wang, Xinan


    Resistive switching memory (RRAM) is considered as one of the most promising devices for parallel computing solutions that may overcome the von Neumann bottleneck of today’s electronic systems. However, the existing RRAM-based parallel computing architectures suffer from practical problems such as device variations and extra computing circuits. In this work, we propose a novel parallel computing architecture for pattern recognition by implementing k-nearest neighbor classification on metal-oxide RRAM crossbar arrays. Metal-oxide RRAM with gradual RESET behaviors is chosen as both the storage and computing components. The proposed architecture is tested by the MNIST database. High speed (~100 ns per example) and high recognition accuracy (97.05%) are obtained. The influence of several non-ideal device properties is also discussed, and it turns out that the proposed architecture shows great tolerance to device variations. This work paves a new way to achieve RRAM-based parallel computing hardware systems with high performance.

  14. A New Nearest Neighbor Classification Algorithm Based on Local Probability Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jing Li


    Full Text Available The nearest neighbor is one of the most popular classifiers, and it has been successfully used in pattern recognition and machine learning. One drawback of kNN is that it performs poorly when class distributions are overlapping. Recently, local probability center (LPC algorithm is proposed to solve this problem; its main idea is giving weight to samples according to their posterior probability. However, LPC performs poorly when the value of k is very small and the higher-dimensional datasets are used. To deal with this problem, this paper suggests that the gradient of the posterior probability function can be estimated under sufficient assumption. The theoretic property is beneficial to faithfully calculate the inner product of two vectors. To increase the performance in high-dimensional datasets, the multidimensional Parzen window and Euler-Richardson method are utilized, and a new classifier based on local probability centers is developed in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields stable performance with a wide range of k for usage, robust performance to overlapping issue, and good performance to dimensionality. The proposed theorem can be applied to mathematical problems and other applications. Furthermore, the proposed method is an attractive classifier because of its simplicity.

  15. Distance-dependent effect of the nearest neighbor: spatiotemporal patterns in brown bear reproduction. (United States)

    Ordiz, Andrés; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Kojola, Ilpo; Bischof, Richard


    In mammals, reproductive synchrony and reproductive suppression usually are found in social, group-living species, which often display hierarchical relationships among related animals. Some individuals, particularly younger, philopatric females beyond the age of sexual maturity, may not raise offspring because they are suppressed by other individuals. Although brown bears (Ursus arctos) are a solitary species, the existence of socially induced delayed primiparity of philopatric females has been documented. Here we show further evidence for interactions of a population-regulatory nature that are typically associated with social species. We found that an adult female's probability of having cubs in a given year was influenced by whether or not her nearest neighboring adult female had cubs. At short distances (10 km and < or = 20 km, the effect reversed, and it disappeared beyond 20 km. We argue that reproductive suppression is probably caused by resource competition among females living close to each other. Previously, similar population regulation mechanisms have been found only in group-living mammals. Thus, social interactions and behavior in solitary carnivores may be more flexible than usually assumed.

  16. Eksperimen Seleksi Fitur Pada Parameter Proyek Untuk Software Effort Estimation dengan K-Nearest Neighbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachruddin Fachruddin


    Full Text Available Software Effort Estimation adalah proses estimasi biaya perangkat lunak sebagai suatu proses penting dalam melakukan proyek perangkat lunak. Berbagai penelitian terdahulu telah melakukan estimasi usaha perangkat lunak dengan berbagai metode, baik metode machine learning  maupun non machine learning. Penelitian ini mengadakan set eksperimen seleksi atribut pada parameter proyek menggunakan teknik k-nearest neighbours sebagai estimasinya dengan melakukan seleksi atribut menggunakan information gain dan mutual information serta bagaimana menemukan  parameter proyek yang paling representif pada software effort estimation. Dataset software estimation effort yang digunakan pada eksperimen adalah  yakni albrecht, china, kemerer dan mizayaki94 yang dapat diperoleh dari repositori data khusus Software Effort Estimation melalui url Selanjutnya peneliti melakukan pembangunan aplikasi seleksi atribut untuk menyeleksi parameter proyek. Sistem ini menghasilkan dataset arff yang telah diseleksi. Aplikasi ini dibangun dengan bahasa java menggunakan IDE Netbean. Kemudian dataset yang telah di-generate merupakan parameter hasil seleksi yang akan dibandingkan pada saat melakukan Software Effort Estimation menggunakan tool WEKA . Seleksi Fitur berhasil menurunkan nilai error estimasi (yang diwakilkan oleh nilai RAE dan RMSE. Artinya bahwa semakin rendah nilai error (RAE dan RMSE maka semakin akurat nilai estimasi yang dihasilkan. Estimasi semakin baik setelah di lakukan seleksi fitur baik menggunakan information gain maupun mutual information. Dari nilai error yang dihasilkan maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa dataset yang dihasilkan seleksi fitur dengan metode information gain lebih baik dibanding mutual information namun, perbedaan keduanya tidak terlalu signifikan.

  17. Nearest-neighbor analysis of small features on Mars: Applications to tumuli and rootless cones (United States)

    Baloga, S. M.; Glaze, L. S.; Bruno, B. C.


    Fields of low relief cones, domes, and mounds on Mars have been interpreted as tumuli, rootless cones, and pingos. The spatial distribution of such features can be characterized by their nearest-neighbor (NN) distances. The NN distributions can provide insight into the physical processes that affected field formation and can possibly provide a future diagnostic of the feature type present on Mars. The conventional approach for analyzing the observed NN distribution is based on the Poisson probability distribution and uses one statistic, c. Our simulations of spatial randomness show that there is an unrecognized bias in c that often leads to erroneous conclusions. Three alternative extensions of the Poisson distribution are proposed here. The first accounts for a minimum threshold on the size of features discerned, the second considers the scavenging of the resources necessary to form neighboring features (e.g., inflation pressurization and subsurface volatiles), and the third models self-limiting growth of the feature population. Three statistical tests are proposed to improve the conventional NN analysis. We provide the critical regions needed to perform these tests for common sample sizes of these geologic features. Our methodology is applied to tumuli at Mauna Ulu, Hawaii, and conjectured tumuli and rootless cones on Mars. Each example exhibits a different aspect of spatial randomness. These applications suggest avenues for further field and theoretical studies to develop this approach as a remote-sensing diagnostic.

  18. Anomaly Detection Based on Local Nearest Neighbor Distance Descriptor in Crowded Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hu


    Full Text Available We propose a novel local nearest neighbor distance (LNND descriptor for anomaly detection in crowded scenes. Comparing with the commonly used low-level feature descriptors in previous works, LNND descriptor has two major advantages. First, LNND descriptor efficiently incorporates spatial and temporal contextual information around the video event that is important for detecting anomalous interaction among multiple events, while most existing feature descriptors only contain the information of single event. Second, LNND descriptor is a compact representation and its dimensionality is typically much lower than the low-level feature descriptor. Therefore, not only the computation time and storage requirement can be accordingly saved by using LNND descriptor for the anomaly detection method with offline training fashion, but also the negative aspects caused by using high-dimensional feature descriptor can be avoided. We validate the effectiveness of LNND descriptor by conducting extensive experiments on different benchmark datasets. Experimental results show the promising performance of LNND-based method against the state-of-the-art methods. It is worthwhile to notice that the LNND-based approach requires less intermediate processing steps without any subsequent processing such as smoothing but achieves comparable event better performance.

  19. Local Order in the Unfolded State: Conformational Biases and Nearest Neighbor Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Toal


    Full Text Available The discovery of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, which contain significant levels of disorder yet perform complex biologically functions, as well as unwanted aggregation, has motivated numerous experimental and theoretical studies aimed at describing residue-level conformational ensembles. Multiple lines of evidence gathered over the last 15 years strongly suggest that amino acids residues display unique and restricted conformational preferences in the unfolded state of peptides and proteins, contrary to one of the basic assumptions of the canonical random coil model. To fully understand residue level order/disorder, however, one has to gain a quantitative, experimentally based picture of conformational distributions and to determine the physical basis underlying residue-level conformational biases. Here, we review the experimental, computational and bioinformatic evidence for conformational preferences of amino acid residues in (mostly short peptides that can be utilized as suitable model systems for unfolded states of peptides and proteins. In this context particular attention is paid to the alleged high polyproline II preference of alanine. We discuss how these conformational propensities may be modulated by peptide solvent interactions and so called nearest-neighbor interactions. The relevance of conformational propensities for the protein folding problem and the understanding of IDPs is briefly discussed.

  20. Comparative Calibration of Corrosion Measurements Using K-Nearest Neighbour Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Yaman


    Full Text Available Every measuring equipment or inspection tool is known to have its own accuracy, which may affect the reliability of its measurements. This includes oil and gas pipeline corrosion defects measurements. The inspection tolerance occurred in the measurements should be treated carefully for each equipment to prevent misinterpretation of the data which could lead to incorrect assessment. This paper presents a comparison between two K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN interpolation techniques used to calibrate corrosion measurements collected by Magnetic Flux Leakage Intelligent Pig (MFL-IP with the readings of Ultrasonic Testing (UT scan device. The comparison has relied on the position of the interpolators, the weight sequence, and the error in the final enhanced metrics compared to the original measurements. Both techniques have the potential to calibrate and enhance IP measurements, with relative advantage for one technique in reducing over fitting problem. This enhancement will be used to improve the integrity assessment report that depends on the disturbed corrosion metrics of oil and gas pipelines, to decide whether the pipeline is fit for service or needs certain maintenance.

  1. A Distributed Approach to Continuous Monitoring of Constrained k-Nearest Neighbor Queries in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Ju Cho


    Full Text Available Given two positive parameters k and r, a constrained k-nearest neighbor (CkNN query returns the k closest objects within a network distance r of the query location in road networks. In terms of the scalability of monitoring these CkNN queries, existing solutions based on central processing at a server suffer from a sudden and sharp rise in server load as well as messaging cost as the number of queries increases. In this paper, we propose a distributed and scalable scheme called DAEMON for the continuous monitoring of CkNN queries in road networks. Our query processing is distributed among clients (query objects and server. Specifically, the server evaluates CkNN queries issued at intersections of road segments, retrieves the objects on the road segments between neighboring intersections, and sends responses to the query objects. Finally, each client makes its own query result using this server response. As a result, our distributed scheme achieves close-to-optimal communication costs and scales well to large numbers of monitoring queries. Exhaustive experimental results demonstrate that our scheme substantially outperforms its competitor in terms of query processing time and messaging cost.

  2. Sleep disturbances in children with epilepsy compared with their nearest-aged siblings. (United States)

    Wirrell, Elaine; Blackman, Marlene; Barlow, Karen; Mah, Jean; Hamiwka, Lorie


    The aim of the study was to compare sleep patterns in children with epilepsy with those of their non-epileptic siblings and to determine which epilepsy-specific factors predict greater sleep disturbance. We conducted a case-control study of 55 children with epilepsy (mean age 10y, range 4 to 16y; 27 males, 28 females) and their nearest-aged non-epileptic sibling (mean age 10y, range 4 to 18y; 26 males, 29 females). Epilepsy was idiopathic generalized in eight children (15%), symptomatic generalized in seven (13%), and focal in 40 (73%); the mean duration was 5 years 8 months. Parents or caregivers completed the Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for patients and controls, and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) for patients. Patients had a higher (more adverse) Total Sleep score (p<0.001) and scored worse than controls on nearly all subscales of the SBQ. In patients, higher Total Sleep scores were correlated with higher scores on the Withdrawn, Somatic complaints, Social problems, and Attention subscales of the CBCL, and significantly lower Total Quality of Life Scores. Refractory epilepsy, mental retardation, and remote symptomatic etiology predicted greater sleep problems in those with epilepsy. We conclude that children with epilepsy in this current study had significantly greater sleep problems than their non-epileptic siblings.

  3. An RFID Indoor Positioning Algorithm Based on Bayesian Probability and K-Nearest Neighbor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xu


    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is widely used in outdoor environmental positioning. However, GPS cannot support indoor positioning because there is no signal for positioning in an indoor environment. Nowadays, there are many situations which require indoor positioning, such as searching for a book in a library, looking for luggage in an airport, emergence navigation for fire alarms, robot location, etc. Many technologies, such as ultrasonic, sensors, Bluetooth, WiFi, magnetic field, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, etc., are used to perform indoor positioning. Compared with other technologies, RFID used in indoor positioning is more cost and energy efficient. The Traditional RFID indoor positioning algorithm LANDMARC utilizes a Received Signal Strength (RSS indicator to track objects. However, the RSS value is easily affected by environmental noise and other interference. In this paper, our purpose is to reduce the location fluctuation and error caused by multipath and environmental interference in LANDMARC. We propose a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on Bayesian probability and K-Nearest Neighbor (BKNN. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter can filter some abnormal RSS values. The proposed BKNN algorithm has the smallest location error compared with the Gaussian-based algorithm, LANDMARC and an improved KNN algorithm. The average error in location estimation is about 15 cm using our method.

  4. Testing Spatial Symmetry Using Contingency Tables Based on Nearest Neighbor Relations (United States)

    Ceyhan, Elvan


    We consider two types of spatial symmetry, namely, symmetry in the mixed or shared nearest neighbor (NN) structures. We use Pielou's and Dixon's symmetry tests which are defined using contingency tables based on the NN relationships between the data points. We generalize these tests to multiple classes and demonstrate that both the asymptotic and exact versions of Pielou's first type of symmetry test are extremely conservative in rejecting symmetry in the mixed NN structure and hence should be avoided or only the Monte Carlo randomized version should be used. Under RL, we derive the asymptotic distribution for Dixon's symmetry test and also observe that the usual independence test seems to be appropriate for Pielou's second type of test. Moreover, we apply variants of Fisher's exact test on the shared NN contingency table for Pielou's second test and determine the most appropriate version for our setting. We also consider pairwise and one-versus-rest type tests in post hoc analysis after a significant overall symmetry test. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the tests, prove their consistency under appropriate null hypotheses, and investigate finite sample performance of them by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The methods are illustrated on a real-life ecological data set. PMID:24605061

  5. Predicting Drug-Target Interactions for New Drug Compounds Using a Weighted Nearest Neighbor Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twan van Laarhoven

    Full Text Available In silico discovery of interactions between drug compounds and target proteins is of core importance for improving the efficiency of the laborious and costly experimental determination of drug-target interaction. Drug-target interaction data are available for many classes of pharmaceutically useful target proteins including enzymes, ion channels, GPCRs and nuclear receptors. However, current drug-target interaction databases contain a small number of drug-target pairs which are experimentally validated interactions. In particular, for some drug compounds (or targets there is no available interaction. This motivates the need for developing methods that predict interacting pairs with high accuracy also for these 'new' drug compounds (or targets. We show that a simple weighted nearest neighbor procedure is highly effective for this task. We integrate this procedure into a recent machine learning method for drug-target interaction we developed in previous work. Results of experiments indicate that the resulting method predicts true interactions with high accuracy also for new drug compounds and achieves results comparable or better than those of recent state-of-the-art algorithms. Software is publicly available at

  6. Nearest-neighbor interaction systems in the tensor-train format (United States)

    Gelß, Patrick; Klus, Stefan; Matera, Sebastian; Schütte, Christof


    Low-rank tensor approximation approaches have become an important tool in the scientific computing community. The aim is to enable the simulation and analysis of high-dimensional problems which cannot be solved using conventional methods anymore due to the so-called curse of dimensionality. This requires techniques to handle linear operators defined on extremely large state spaces and to solve the resulting systems of linear equations or eigenvalue problems. In this paper, we present a systematic tensor-train decomposition for nearest-neighbor interaction systems which is applicable to a host of different problems. With the aid of this decomposition, it is possible to reduce the memory consumption as well as the computational costs significantly. Furthermore, it can be shown that in some cases the rank of the tensor decomposition does not depend on the network size. The format is thus feasible even for high-dimensional systems. We will illustrate the results with several guiding examples such as the Ising model, a system of coupled oscillators, and a CO oxidation model.

  7. Prototype Generation Using Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization for Nearest Neighbor Classification. (United States)

    Hu, Weiwei; Tan, Ying


    The nearest neighbor (NN) classifier suffers from high time complexity when classifying a test instance since the need of searching the whole training set. Prototype generation is a widely used approach to reduce the classification time, which generates a small set of prototypes to classify a test instance instead of using the whole training set. In this paper, particle swarm optimization is applied to prototype generation and two novel methods for improving the classification performance are presented: 1) a fitness function named error rank and 2) the multiobjective (MO) optimization strategy. Error rank is proposed to enhance the generation ability of the NN classifier, which takes the ranks of misclassified instances into consideration when designing the fitness function. The MO optimization strategy pursues the performance on multiple subsets of data simultaneously, in order to keep the classifier from overfitting the training set. Experimental results over 31 UCI data sets and 59 additional data sets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms nearly 30 existing prototype generation algorithms.

  8. Ising model of cardiac thin filament activation with nearest-neighbor cooperative interactions (United States)

    Rice, John Jeremy; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Tu, Yuhai; de Tombe, Pieter P.; Bers, D. M. (Principal Investigator)


    We have developed a model of cardiac thin filament activation using an Ising model approach from equilibrium statistical physics. This model explicitly represents nearest-neighbor interactions between 26 troponin/tropomyosin units along a one-dimensional array that represents the cardiac thin filament. With transition rates chosen to match experimental data, the results show that the resulting force-pCa (F-pCa) relations are similar to Hill functions with asymmetries, as seen in experimental data. Specifically, Hill plots showing (log(F/(1-F)) vs. log [Ca]) reveal a steeper slope below the half activation point (Ca(50)) compared with above. Parameter variation studies show interplay of parameters that affect the apparent cooperativity and asymmetry in the F-pCa relations. The model also predicts that Ca binding is uncooperative for low [Ca], becomes steeper near Ca(50), and becomes uncooperative again at higher [Ca]. The steepness near Ca(50) mirrors the steep F-pCa as a result of thermodynamic considerations. The model also predicts that the correlation between troponin/tropomyosin units along the one-dimensional array quickly decays at high and low [Ca], but near Ca(50), high correlation occurs across the whole array. This work provides a simple model that can account for the steepness and shape of F-pCa relations that other models fail to reproduce.

  9. An RFID Indoor Positioning Algorithm Based on Bayesian Probability and K-Nearest Neighbor (United States)

    Ding, Ye; Li, Peng; Wang, Ruchuan; Li, Yizhu


    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used in outdoor environmental positioning. However, GPS cannot support indoor positioning because there is no signal for positioning in an indoor environment. Nowadays, there are many situations which require indoor positioning, such as searching for a book in a library, looking for luggage in an airport, emergence navigation for fire alarms, robot location, etc. Many technologies, such as ultrasonic, sensors, Bluetooth, WiFi, magnetic field, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), etc., are used to perform indoor positioning. Compared with other technologies, RFID used in indoor positioning is more cost and energy efficient. The Traditional RFID indoor positioning algorithm LANDMARC utilizes a Received Signal Strength (RSS) indicator to track objects. However, the RSS value is easily affected by environmental noise and other interference. In this paper, our purpose is to reduce the location fluctuation and error caused by multipath and environmental interference in LANDMARC. We propose a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on Bayesian probability and K-Nearest Neighbor (BKNN). The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter can filter some abnormal RSS values. The proposed BKNN algorithm has the smallest location error compared with the Gaussian-based algorithm, LANDMARC and an improved KNN algorithm. The average error in location estimation is about 15 cm using our method. PMID:28783073

  10. Anomaly detection based on local nearest neighbor distance descriptor in crowded scenes. (United States)

    Hu, Xing; Hu, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Huanlong; Luo, Lingkun


    We propose a novel local nearest neighbor distance (LNND) descriptor for anomaly detection in crowded scenes. Comparing with the commonly used low-level feature descriptors in previous works, LNND descriptor has two major advantages. First, LNND descriptor efficiently incorporates spatial and temporal contextual information around the video event that is important for detecting anomalous interaction among multiple events, while most existing feature descriptors only contain the information of single event. Second, LNND descriptor is a compact representation and its dimensionality is typically much lower than the low-level feature descriptor. Therefore, not only the computation time and storage requirement can be accordingly saved by using LNND descriptor for the anomaly detection method with offline training fashion, but also the negative aspects caused by using high-dimensional feature descriptor can be avoided. We validate the effectiveness of LNND descriptor by conducting extensive experiments on different benchmark datasets. Experimental results show the promising performance of LNND-based method against the state-of-the-art methods. It is worthwhile to notice that the LNND-based approach requires less intermediate processing steps without any subsequent processing such as smoothing but achieves comparable event better performance.

  11. An RFID Indoor Positioning Algorithm Based on Bayesian Probability and K-Nearest Neighbor. (United States)

    Xu, He; Ding, Ye; Li, Peng; Wang, Ruchuan; Li, Yizhu


    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used in outdoor environmental positioning. However, GPS cannot support indoor positioning because there is no signal for positioning in an indoor environment. Nowadays, there are many situations which require indoor positioning, such as searching for a book in a library, looking for luggage in an airport, emergence navigation for fire alarms, robot location, etc. Many technologies, such as ultrasonic, sensors, Bluetooth, WiFi, magnetic field, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), etc., are used to perform indoor positioning. Compared with other technologies, RFID used in indoor positioning is more cost and energy efficient. The Traditional RFID indoor positioning algorithm LANDMARC utilizes a Received Signal Strength (RSS) indicator to track objects. However, the RSS value is easily affected by environmental noise and other interference. In this paper, our purpose is to reduce the location fluctuation and error caused by multipath and environmental interference in LANDMARC. We propose a novel indoor positioning algorithm based on Bayesian probability and K-Nearest Neighbor (BKNN). The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter can filter some abnormal RSS values. The proposed BKNN algorithm has the smallest location error compared with the Gaussian-based algorithm, LANDMARC and an improved KNN algorithm. The average error in location estimation is about 15 cm using our method.

  12. Association between distance to nearest supermarket and provision of fruits and vegetables in English nurseries. (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Gallis, John A; L Penney, Tarra; Monsivais, Pablo; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E


    With 796,500 places available for children in England, pre-school nurseries could serve as an important setting for population-wide dietary intervention. It is critical to understand the determinants of healthy food provision in this setting, which may include access to food stores. This study examined the association between objective, GIS-derived supermarket proximity and fruit and vegetable serving frequency, using data from 623 English nurseries. Overall, 116 (18%) nurseries served fruits and vegetables infrequently (supermarket proximity. In adjusted multivariable regression models, nurseries farthest from their nearest supermarket (Q5, 1.7-19.8km) had 2.38 (95% CI 1.01-5.63) greater odds of infrequent provision. Our results suggest that supermarket access may be important for nurseries in meeting fruit and vegetable provision guidelines. We advance a growing body of international literature, for the first time linking the food practices of institutions to their neighbourhood food retail context. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Fracton topological order from nearest-neighbor two-spin interactions and dualities (United States)

    Slagle, Kevin; Kim, Yong Baek


    Fracton topological order describes a remarkable phase of matter, which can be characterized by fracton excitations with constrained dynamics and a ground-state degeneracy that increases exponentially with the length of the system on a three-dimensional torus. However, previous models exhibiting this order require many-spin interactions, which may be very difficult to realize in a real material or cold atom system. In this work, we present a more physically realistic model which has the so-called X-cube fracton topological order [Vijay, Haah, and Fu, Phys. Rev. B 94, 235157 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.235157] but only requires nearest-neighbor two-spin interactions. The model lives on a three-dimensional honeycomb-based lattice with one to two spin-1/2 degrees of freedom on each site and a unit cell of six sites. The model is constructed from two orthogonal stacks of Z2 topologically ordered Kitaev honeycomb layers [Kitaev, Ann. Phys. 321, 2 (2006), 10.1016/j.aop.2005.10.005], which are coupled together by a two-spin interaction. It is also shown that a four-spin interaction can be included to instead stabilize 3+1D Z2 topological order. We also find dual descriptions of four quantum phase transitions in our model, all of which appear to be discontinuous first-order transitions.

  14. Ground motion prediction from nearest seismogenic zones in and around Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the likely source characteristics, focal source mechanism and fault patterns of the nearest effective seismogenic zones to Greater Cairo Area. Furthermore, Mmax and ground accelerations related to the effective seismic events expected in future from those seismogenic zones are well evaluated. For this purpose, the digital waveform of earthquakes than ML=3 that occurred in and around Greater Cairo Area from 1997 to 2008 which have been recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network, are used to study source characterization, focal mechanism and fault pattern of the seismogenic zones around Greater Cairo Area. The ground motions are predicted from seismogenic zones to assess seismic hazard in the northeastern part of Greater Cairo, where three effective seismogenic zones, namely Abou Zabul, southeast Cairo trend and Dahshour area, have the largest effect to the Greater Cairo Area. The Mmax was determined, based upon an empirical relationship between the seismic moment and the rupture length of the fault during the earthquake. The estimated Mmax expected from Abou Zabul, southeast Cairo trend, Dahshour seismic sources are of Mw magnitudes equal to 5.4, 5.1, and 6.5, respectively. The predominant fundamental frequency and soil amplification characteristics at the area were obtained using boreholes data and in-situ ambient noise measurement.

  15. Time series classification using k-Nearest neighbours, Multilayer Perceptron and Learning Vector Quantization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fejfar


    Full Text Available We are presenting results comparison of three artificial intelligence algorithms in a classification of time series derived from musical excerpts in this paper. Algorithms were chosen to represent different principles of classification – statistic approach, neural networks and competitive learning. The first algorithm is a classical k-Nearest neighbours algorithm, the second algorithm is Multilayer Perceptron (MPL, an example of artificial neural network and the third one is a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ algorithm representing supervised counterpart to unsupervised Self Organizing Map (SOM.After our own former experiments with unlabelled data we moved forward to the data labels utilization, which generally led to a better accuracy of classification results. As we need huge data set of labelled time series (a priori knowledge of correct class which each time series instance belongs to, we used, with a good experience in former studies, musical excerpts as a source of real-world time series. We are using standard deviation of the sound signal as a descriptor of a musical excerpts volume level.We are describing principle of each algorithm as well as its implementation briefly, giving links for further research. Classification results of each algorithm are presented in a confusion matrix showing numbers of misclassifications and allowing to evaluate overall accuracy of the algorithm. Results are compared and particular misclassifications are discussed for each algorithm. Finally the best solution is chosen and further research goals are given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Srianto


    Full Text Available Data mining adalah proses menganalisa data dari perspektif yang berbeda dan menyimpulkannya menjadi informasi-informasi penting yang dapat dipakai untuk meningkatkan keuntungan, memperkecil biaya pengeluaran, atau bahkan keduanya. Secara teknis, data mining dapat disebut sebagai proses untuk menemukan korelasi atau pola dari ratusan atau ribuan field dari sebuah relasional database yang besar. Pada perum perhutani KPH SEMARANG saat ini masih menggunakan cara manual untuk menentukan jenis tanaman (jati / non jati. K-Nearest Neighbour atau k-NN merupakan algoritma data mining yang dapat digunakan untuk proses klasifikasi dan regresi. Naive bayes Classifier merupakan suatu teknik yang dapat digunakan untuk teknik klasifikasi. Pada penelitian ini k-NN dan Naive Bayes akan digunakan untuk mengklasifikasi data pohon jati dari perum perhutani KPH SEMARANG. Yang mana hasil klasifikasi dari k-NN dan Naive Bayes akan dibandingkan hasilnya. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan software RapidMiner. Setelah dilakukan pengujian k-NN dianggap lebih baik dari Naife Bayes dengan akurasi 96.66% dan 82.63. Kata kunci -k-NN,Klasifikasi,Naive Bayes,Penanaman Pohon Jati

  17. Testing Spatial Symmetry Using Contingency Tables Based on Nearest Neighbor Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan Ceyhan


    Full Text Available We consider two types of spatial symmetry, namely, symmetry in the mixed or shared nearest neighbor (NN structures. We use Pielou’s and Dixon’s symmetry tests which are defined using contingency tables based on the NN relationships between the data points. We generalize these tests to multiple classes and demonstrate that both the asymptotic and exact versions of Pielou’s first type of symmetry test are extremely conservative in rejecting symmetry in the mixed NN structure and hence should be avoided or only the Monte Carlo randomized version should be used. Under RL, we derive the asymptotic distribution for Dixon’s symmetry test and also observe that the usual independence test seems to be appropriate for Pielou’s second type of test. Moreover, we apply variants of Fisher’s exact test on the shared NN contingency table for Pielou’s second test and determine the most appropriate version for our setting. We also consider pairwise and one-versus-rest type tests in post hoc analysis after a significant overall symmetry test. We investigate the asymptotic properties of the tests, prove their consistency under appropriate null hypotheses, and investigate finite sample performance of them by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The methods are illustrated on a real-life ecological data set.

  18. Antiferromagnetic geometric frustration under the influence of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction. An exactly solvable model (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.


    The influence of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction on the properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic systems is investigated in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin- 1 / 2 Ising model in the external magnetic field on the square-kagome recursive lattice, where the next-nearest-neighbor interaction is supposed between sites within each elementary square of the lattice. The thermodynamic properties of the model are investigated in detail and it is shown that the competition between the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction and the next-nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic interaction changes properties of the single-point ground states but does not change the frustrated character of the basic model. On the other hand, the presence of the antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interaction leads to the enhancement of the frustration effects with the formation of additional plateau and single-point ground states at low temperatures. Exact expressions for magnetizations and residual entropies of all ground states of the model are found. It is shown that the model exhibits various ground states with the same value of magnetization but different macroscopic degeneracies as well as the ground states with different values of magnetization but the same value of the residual entropy. The specific heat capacity is investigated and it is shown that the model exhibits the Schottky-type anomaly behavior in the vicinity of each single-point ground state value of the magnetic field. The formation of the field-induced double-peak structure of the specific heat capacity at low temperatures is demonstrated and it is shown that its very existence is directly related to the presence of highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states in the model.

  19. Dance of the double stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theokas, A.


    The paper concerns pairs of stars orbiting one another. The evolutionary path model for close binary stars, involving a mass transfer of gases between the stars, is described. The life history of a single star; cataclysmic variables; the algol paradox, matter and lagranges' point; x-ray binaries and bursters; and pulsars; are all briefly discussed.

  20. Observational Effects of Strange Stars


    Lu, T.


    In this talk, after briefly reviewing some historical remarks concerning strange stars, the achievements in physics and dynamical behavior of strange stars are discussed. Especially, various observational effects in distinguishing strange stars from neutron stars such as mechanical effects, cooling effects, phase transition and related interesting phenomena are stressed.

  1. Combining high-dispersion spectroscopy with high contrast imaging: Probing rocky planets around our nearest neighbors (United States)

    Snellen, I.; de Kok, R.; Birkby, J. L.; Brandl, B.; Brogi, M.; Keller, C.; Kenworthy, M.; Schwarz, H.; Stuik, R.


    Context. Ground-based high-dispersion (R ~ 100 000) spectroscopy (HDS) is proving to be a powerful technique with which to characterize extrasolar planets. The planet signal is distilled from the bright starlight, combining ral and time-differential filtering techniques. In parallel, high-contrast imaging (HCI) is developing rapidly, aimed at spatially separating the planet from the star. While HDS is limited by the overwhelming noise from the host star, HCI is limited by residual quasi-static speckles. Both techniques currently reach planet-star contrast limits down to ~10-5, albeit for very different types of planetary systems. Aims: In this work, we discuss a way to combine HDS and HCI (HDS+HCI). For a planet located at a resolvable angular distance from its host star, the starlight can be reduced up to several orders of magnitude using adaptive optics and/or coronography. In addition, the remaining starlight can be filtered out using high-dispersion spectroscopy, utilizing the significantly different (or Doppler shifted) high-dispersion spectra of the planet and star. In this way, HDS+HCI can in principle reach contrast limits of ~10-5 × 10-5, although in practice this will be limited by photon noise and/or sky-background. In contrast to current direct imaging techniques, such as Angular Differential Imaging and Spectral Differential Imaging, it will work well at small working angles and is much less sensitive to speckle noise. For the discovery of previously unknown planets HDS+HCI requires a high-contrast adaptive optics system combined with a high-dispersion R ~ 100 000 integral field spectrograph (IFS). This combination currently does not exist, but is planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Methods: We present simulations of HDS+HCI observations with the E-ELT, both probing thermal emission from a planet at infrared wavelengths, and starlight reflected off a planet atmosphere at optical wavelengths. For the infrared simulations we use the

  2. Interferometric star tracker Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optical Physics Company (OPC) proposes to develop a high accuracy version of its interferometric star tracker capable of meeting the milli-arcsecond-level pointing...

  3. Principles of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenheimer, Peter H


    Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astroph...

  4. Magnetization process and magnetocaloric effect in geometrically frustrated Ising antiferromagnet and spin ice models on a `Star of David' nanocluster


    Žukovič, M.; Semjan, M.


    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic Ising (IA) and ferromagnetic spin ice (SI) models on a nanocluster with a `Star of David' topology, including next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions, are studied by an exact enumeration. In an external field applied in characteristic directions of the respective models, depending on the NNN interaction sign and magnitude, the ground state magnetization of the IA model is found to display up to three interme...

  5. Catch a Star 2008! (United States)


    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education have just launched the 2008 edition of 'Catch a Star', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its sixth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. CAS logo The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. In teams, students investigate an astronomical topic of their choice and write a report about it. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes such as the Very Large Telescope (VLT) or future telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) could contribute to investigations of the topic. Students may also include practical activities such as observations or experiments. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star' also offers an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. Last year, hundreds of students from across Europe and beyond took part in 'Catch a Star', submitting astronomical projects and artwork. "'Catch a Star' gets students thinking about the wonders of the Universe and the science of astronomy, with a chance of winning great prizes. It's easy to take part, whether by writing about astronomy or creating astronomically inspired artwork," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. As well as the top prize - a trip to ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile - visits to observatories in Austria and Spain, and many other prizes, can also be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners

  6. STAR: Copperhead interface


    Cahill, Thomas Everett


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis provides the general design logic for a computer representation of the Field Artillery's precision guided munition- Copperhead. The design has been specifically structured to enable its integration into the Simulation of Tactical Alternative Responses (STAR) model. (STAR is a stochastic force-on-force combat simulation.) Routines and events are developed which portray the target identification, target selection, firing a...

  7. New far infrared images of bright, nearby, star-forming regions (United States)

    Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Cole, David M.; Dowell, C. Darren; Lees, Joanna F.; Lowenstein, Robert F.


    Broadband imaging in the far infrared is a vital tool for understanding how young stars form, evolve, and interact with their environment. As the sensitivity and size of detector arrays has increased, a richer and more detailed picture has emerged of the nearest and brightest regions of active star formation. We present data on M 17, M 42, and S 106 taken recently on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the Yerkes Observatory 60-channel far infrared camera, which has pixel sizes of 17 in. at 60 microns, 27 in. at 100 microns, and 45 in. at 160 and 200 microns. In addition to providing a clearer view of the complex central cores of the regions, the images reveal new details of the structure and heating of ionization fronts and photodissociation zones where radiation form luminous stars interacts with adjacent molecular clouds.

  8. Characterizing bursty star formation (United States)

    Emami, Najmeh


    An ongoing area of research in galaxy evolution is the efficiency of star formation as a function of galaxy halo mass. At low mass, it is believed that supernova feedback can expel gas from the galaxy and shut down star formation. However, there are still significant uncertainties in how the momentum/energy of the supernova couple with the gas and the efficiency with which it drives winds. Particularly uncertain are the parameters of the resulting bursts of star formation —amplitudes, durations, and periods — with important implications for interpreting observations of dwarf galaxies. Some hydrodynamical simulations predict order of magnitude bursts (and quenching) on very short (indicators of dwarf galaxies (H-alpha and ultraviolet luminosities) that trace star formation on different time scales (~5 Myr and ~20 Myr, respectively), as well as their relation to the average galaxies of similar stellar mass, to better constrain the parameters of the star formation bursts. We find that the burst amplitude increases with decreasing stellar mass, with amplitudes ranging two orders of magnitude at stellar masses of 10^7. We also find that the star formation is quenched very rapidly, with e-folding times less than 10 Myr in galaxies with stellar masses less than 10^(7.5). We conclude by comparing our results to recent hydrodynamical simulations and discussing the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function.

  9. Collapsing Enormous Stars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    One of the big puzzles in astrophysics is how supermassive black holes (SMBHs) managed to grow to the large sizes weve observed in the very early universe. In a recent study, a team of researchers examines the possibility that they were formed by the direct collapse of supermassive stars.Formation MysterySMBHs billions of times as massive as the Sun have been observed at a time when the universe was less than a billion years old. But thats not enough time for a stellar-mass black hole to grow to SMBH-size by accreting material so another theory is needed to explain the presence of these monsters so early in the universes history. A new study, led by Tatsuya Matsumoto (Kyoto University, Japan), poses the following question: what if supermassive stars in the early universe collapsed directly into black holes?Previous studies of star formation in the early universe have suggested that, in the hot environment of these primordial times, stars might have been able to build up mass much faster than they can today. This could result in early supermassive stars roughly 100,000 times more massive than the Sun. But if these early stars end their lives by collapsing to become massive black holes in the same way that we believe massive stars can collapse to form stellar-mass black holes today this should result in enormously violent explosions. Matusmoto and collaborators set out to model this process, to determine what we would expect to see when it happens!Energetic BurstsThe authors modeled the supermassive stars prior to collapse and then calculated whether a jet, created as the black hole grows at the center of the collapsing star, would be able to punch out of the stellar envelope. They demonstrated that the process would work much like the widely-accepted collapsar model of massive-star death, in which a jet successfully punches out of a collapsing star, violently releasing energy in the form of a long gamma-ray burst (GRB).Because the length of a long GRB is thought to

  10. Asteroseismology from multi-month Kepler photometry: the evolved Sun-like stars KIC 10273246 and KIC 10920273

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campante, T.L.; Handberg, R.; Mathur, S.; Appourchaux, T.; Bedding, T.R.; Chaplin, W.J.; Mosser, B.; Benomar, O.; Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Fletcher, S.T.; Gaulme, P.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Salabert, D.; Verner, G.A.; White, T.R.; Houdek, G.; Brandao, I.M.; Creevey, O.L.; Dogan, G.; Bazot, M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cunha, M.S.; Elsworth, Y.; Huber, D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J.; Monteiro, M.J.P.F.G.; Stello, D.; Clarke, B.D.; Girouard, F.R.; Hall, J.R.; Garcia, R.A.; Regulo, C.


    Context. The evolved main-sequence Sun-like stars KIC 10273246 (F-type) and KIC 10920273 (G-type) were observed with the NASA Kepler satellite for approximately ten months with a duty cycle in excess of 90%. Such continuous and long observations are unprecedented for solar-type stars other than the

  11. Automated identification of Monogeneans using digital image processing and K-nearest neighbour approaches. (United States)

    Yousef Kalafi, Elham; Tan, Wooi Boon; Town, Christopher; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur


    Monogeneans are flatworms (Platyhelminthes) that are primarily found on gills and skin of fishes. Monogenean parasites have attachment appendages at their haptoral regions that help them to move about the body surface and feed on skin and gill debris. Haptoral attachment organs consist of sclerotized hard parts such as hooks, anchors and marginal hooks. Monogenean species are differentiated based on their haptoral bars, anchors, marginal hooks, reproductive parts' (male and female copulatory organs) morphological characters and soft anatomical parts. The complex structure of these diagnostic organs and also their overlapping in microscopic digital images are impediments for developing fully automated identification system for monogeneans (LNCS 7666:256-263, 2012), (ISDA; 457-462, 2011), (J Zoolog Syst Evol Res 52(2): 95-99. 2013;). In this study images of hard parts of the haptoral organs such as bars and anchors are used to develop a fully automated identification technique for monogenean species identification by implementing image processing techniques and machine learning methods. Images of four monogenean species namely Sinodiplectanotrema malayanus, Trianchoratus pahangensis, Metahaliotrema mizellei and Metahaliotrema sp. (undescribed) were used to develop an automated technique for identification. K-nearest neighbour (KNN) was applied to classify the monogenean specimens based on the extracted features. 50% of the dataset was used for training and the other 50% was used as testing for system evaluation. Our approach demonstrated overall classification accuracy of 90%. In this study Leave One Out (LOO) cross validation is used for validation of our system and the accuracy is 91.25%. The methods presented in this study facilitate fast and accurate fully automated classification of monogeneans at the species level. In future studies more classes will be included in the model, the time to capture the monogenean images will be reduced and improvements in

  12. A Regression-based K nearest neighbor algorithm for gene function prediction from heterogeneous data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzzo Walter L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a variety of functional genomic and proteomic techniques become available, there is an increasing need for functional analysis methodologies that integrate heterogeneous data sources. Methods In this paper, we address this issue by proposing a general framework for gene function prediction based on the k-nearest-neighbor (KNN algorithm. The choice of KNN is motivated by its simplicity, flexibility to incorporate different data types and adaptability to irregular feature spaces. A weakness of traditional KNN methods, especially when handling heterogeneous data, is that performance is subject to the often ad hoc choice of similarity metric. To address this weakness, we apply regression methods to infer a similarity metric as a weighted combination of a set of base similarity measures, which helps to locate the neighbors that are most likely to be in the same class as the target gene. We also suggest a novel voting scheme to generate confidence scores that estimate the accuracy of predictions. The method gracefully extends to multi-way classification problems. Results We apply this technique to gene function prediction according to three well-known Escherichia coli classification schemes suggested by biologists, using information derived from microarray and genome sequencing data. We demonstrate that our algorithm dramatically outperforms the naive KNN methods and is competitive with support vector machine (SVM algorithms for integrating heterogenous data. We also show that by combining different data sources, prediction accuracy can improve significantly. Conclusion Our extension of KNN with automatic feature weighting, multi-class prediction, and probabilistic inference, enhance prediction accuracy significantly while remaining efficient, intuitive and flexible. This general framework can also be applied to similar classification problems involving heterogeneous datasets.

  13. Witnessing the growth of the nearest galaxy cluster: thermodynamics of the Virgo Cluster outskirts (United States)

    Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.; Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.; Urban, O.


    We present results from Suzaku Key Project observations of the Virgo Cluster, the nearest galaxy cluster to us, mapping its X-ray properties along four long 'arms' extending beyond the virial radius. The entropy profiles along all four azimuths increase with radius, then level out beyond ˜0.5r200, while the average pressure at large radii exceeds Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements. These results can be explained by enhanced gas density fluctuations (clumping) in the cluster's outskirts. Using a standard Navarro, Frenk and White model, we estimate a virial mass, radius and concentration parameter of M200 = 1.05 ± 0.02 × 1014 M⊙, r200 = 974.1 ± 5.7 kpc and c = 8.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The inferred cumulative baryon fraction exceeds the cosmic mean at r ˜ r200 along the major axis, suggesting enhanced gas clumping possibly sourced by a candidate large-scale structure filament along the north-south direction. The Suzaku data reveal a large-scale sloshing pattern, with two new cold fronts detected at radii of 233 and 280 kpc along the western and southern arms, respectively. Two high-temperature regions are also identified 1 Mpc towards the south and 605 kpc towards the west of M87, likely representing shocks associated with the ongoing cluster growth. Although systematic uncertainties in measuring the metallicity for low-temperature plasma remain, the data at large radii appear consistent with a uniform metal distribution on scales of ˜90 × 180 kpc and larger, providing additional support for the early chemical enrichment scenario driven by galactic winds at redshifts of 2-3.

  14. Improved Fuzzy K-Nearest Neighbor Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (United States)

    Jamaluddin; Siringoringo, Rimbun


    Fuzzy k-Nearest Neighbor (FkNN) is one of the most powerful classification methods. The presence of fuzzy concepts in this method successfully improves its performance on almost all classification issues. The main drawbackof FKNN is that it is difficult to determine the parameters. These parameters are the number of neighbors (k) and fuzzy strength (m). Both parameters are very sensitive. This makes it difficult to determine the values of ‘m’ and ‘k’, thus making FKNN difficult to control because no theories or guides can deduce how proper ‘m’ and ‘k’ should be. This study uses Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) to determine the best value of ‘k’ and ‘m’. MPSO is focused on the Constriction Factor Method. Constriction Factor Method is an improvement of PSO in order to avoid local circumstances optima. The model proposed in this study was tested on the German Credit Dataset. The test of the data/The data test has been standardized by UCI Machine Learning Repository which is widely applied to classification problems. The application of MPSO to the determination of FKNN parameters is expected to increase the value of classification performance. Based on the experiments that have been done indicating that the model offered in this research results in a better classification performance compared to the Fk-NN model only. The model offered in this study has an accuracy rate of 81%, while. With using Fk-NN model, it has the accuracy of 70%. At the end is done comparison of research model superiority with 2 other classification models;such as Naive Bayes and Decision Tree. This research model has a better performance level, where Naive Bayes has accuracy 75%, and the decision tree model has 70%

  15. Deep Chandra Observation and Numerical Studies of the Nearest Cluster Cold Front in the Sky (United States)

    Werner, N.; ZuHone, J. A.; Zhuravleva, I.; Ichinohe, Y.; Simionescu, A.; Allen, S. W.; Markevitch, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Keshet, U.; Roediger, E.; hide


    We present the results of a very deep (500 ks) Chandra observation, along with tailored numerical simulations, of the nearest, best resolved cluster cold front in the sky, which lies 90 kpc (19 arcmin) to the north-west of M87. The northern part of the front appears the sharpest, with a width smaller than 2.5 kpc (1.5 Coulomb mean free paths; at 99 per cent confidence). Everywhere along the front, the temperature discontinuity is narrower than 4-8 kpc and the metallicity gradient is narrower than 6 kpc, indicating that diffusion, conduction and mixing are suppressed across the interface. Such transport processes can be naturally suppressed by magnetic fields aligned with the cold front. Interestingly, comparison to magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicates that in order to maintain the observed sharp density and temperature discontinuities, conduction must also be suppressed along the magnetic field lines. However, the northwestern part of the cold front is observed to have a non-zero width. While other explanations are possible, the broadening is consistent with the presence of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) on length-scales of a few kpc. Based on comparison with simulations, the presence of KHI would imply that the effective viscosity of the intracluster medium is suppressed by more than an order of magnitude with respect to the isotropic Spitzer-like temperature dependent viscosity. Underneath the cold front, we observe quasi-linear features that are approximately 10 per cent brighter than the surrounding gas and are separated by approximately 15 kpc from each other in projection. Comparison to tailored numerical simulations suggests that the observed phenomena may be due to the amplification of magnetic fields by gas sloshing in wide layers below the cold front, where the magnetic pressure reaches approximately 5-10 per cent of the thermal pressure, reducing the gas density between the bright features.

  16. Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quililongo C. J., Ríos-Ramírez M. A., Velásquez-Cumplido L., Morales-Muñoz B. and Escobar-Fica J. A. 2012 Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus. J. Genet.

  17. Ten-year urban forestry action plan (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek


    The Ten-year Urban Forestry Action Plan: 2016-2026 was published in September, 2015 (see This 260 page heavily illustrated document was prepared by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC) under leadership and funding from the USDA Forest Service. The Plan's...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 1, 2001 ... Objective: To measure asymmetry in grip strength between hands in left, right and mixed handers and to test utility of the ten per cent rule. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. Subjects: One hundred and seventy six healthy volunteers (102 males and ...

  19. Strahlungsfelder und Strahlungsqualitäten (United States)

    Krieger, Hanno

    Das Kapitel beginnt mit einer Darstellung der wichtigsten Größen zur Beschreibung von Strahlungsfeldern. Diese Größen können sowohl auf die Teilchenzahl als auch auf die Teilchenenergie bezogen sein. Im zweiten Teil werden ausführlich die Verfahren zur Charakterisierung der Strahlungsqualitäten der verschiedenen in der Radiologie verwendeten Strahlungsarten dargestellt.

  20. Ten recommendations for software engineering in research. (United States)

    Hastings, Janna; Haug, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Christoph


    Research in the context of data-driven science requires a backbone of well-written software, but scientific researchers are typically not trained at length in software engineering, the principles for creating better software products. To address this gap, in particular for young researchers new to programming, we give ten recommendations to ensure the usability, sustainability and practicality of research software.

  1. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2008 (United States)

    Allison, Debra H.; DeBlois, Peter B.


    EDUCAUSE presents the top-ten IT-related issues in terms of strategic importance to the higher education institution, as revealed by the ninth annual EDUCAUSE Current Issues Survey. This year, "Security" moves back to the top of the list. (Contains 20 notes.)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A A Essiett

    Seeds of mature fruits of ten species of Solanum were collected from the gardens near the screen house, Botany. Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Crude seed proteins were extracted from them and characterised using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Inter and intra specific ...

  3. (CdnTen) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    solar cells, integrated optics and electro-optics devices. Hence, there are different experimental and theoretical studies on this group using various techniques or methods. A number of theoretical and experimental attempts (Jianguang, 2009) have been made to determine the structure and properties of small CdnTen and ...

  4. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Multimedia


    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  5. The Secret Lives of Cepheids: Completing the Picture with HST-COS Observations of the Nearest Classical Cepheids, Polaris and delta Cephei (United States)

    Engle, Scott


    Classical Cepheids, although well studied in terms of their cosmologically important Period-Luminosity Law, are proving to be increasingly complex and astrophysically intriguing in terms of atmospheric energetics. This proposal expands on data collected by us in previous cycles to probe Cepheid atmospheres, understand their heating mechanisms and answer important questions. Our previous COS FUV spectra revealed a wealth of 10,000-300,000K plasma emission lines, phase-locked with each Cepheid's pulsation periods, showing that a pulsation-driven heating mechanism is at work. To significantly expand the parameter space of the Cepheid sample, we propose four visits to the nearest and brightest Cepheid, Polaris. Only two COS spectra of Polaris were acquired previously. But we have now seen that Cepheids undergo fairly large FUV emission line variations (flux level differences of 20x and more). Observations of the ultra-low amplitude Polaris will offer remarkable insights into the effects that even minimal pulsations have on a cool supergiant atmosphere, especially when compared to full amplitude Cepheids and also non-pulsating supergiants in the instability strip. We have also recently proven that delta Cep is an X-ray variable, with a tight pulsation phase-range where the star's X-ray activity increases by over 4x. However, no COS spectra exist at this phase, which will be necessary to determine atmospheric densities and dynamics during the X-ray enhancement. When combined with our existing X-ray and FUV data set, the proposed COS data will advance a much deeper understanding of Cepheids and their atmospheric plasmas.

  6. K-nearest neighbors based methods for identification of different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads: Revisited (United States)

    Wang, Dong


    Gears are the most commonly used components in mechanical transmission systems. Their failures may cause transmission system breakdown and result in economic loss. Identification of different gear crack levels is important to prevent any unexpected gear failure because gear cracks lead to gear tooth breakage. Signal processing based methods mainly require expertize to explain gear fault signatures which is usually not easy to be achieved by ordinary users. In order to automatically identify different gear crack levels, intelligent gear crack identification methods should be developed. The previous case studies experimentally proved that K-nearest neighbors based methods exhibit high prediction accuracies for identification of 3 different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. In this short communication, to further enhance prediction accuracies of existing K-nearest neighbors based methods and extend identification of 3 different gear crack levels to identification of 5 different gear crack levels, redundant statistical features are constructed by using Daubechies 44 (db44) binary wavelet packet transform at different wavelet decomposition levels, prior to the use of a K-nearest neighbors method. The dimensionality of redundant statistical features is 620, which provides richer gear fault signatures. Since many of these statistical features are redundant and highly correlated with each other, dimensionality reduction of redundant statistical features is conducted to obtain new significant statistical features. At last, the K-nearest neighbors method is used to identify 5 different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. A case study including 3 experiments is investigated to demonstrate that the developed method provides higher prediction accuracies than the existing K-nearest neighbors based methods for recognizing different gear crack levels under different motor speeds and loads. Based on the new significant statistical

  7. Super Star Clusters (United States)

    O'Connell, R. W.


    Super star clusters represent an extreme in the star formation process. They are very luminous, compact objects with L_V > 10(6) L_{V,sun} and diameters = 100 times higher than normal OB associations and clusters in ``giant H II regions''. Prior to HST about a dozen such objects had been identified in nearby galaxies, but at ground-based resolution they are nearly point sources. We review recent HST observations of individual super star clusters in NGC 1140, 1569, and 1705. They have half-light radii of only 2--3.5 pc, and some show evidence of substructure which should be resolvable with the repaired HST. After allowing for age differences, the surface brightness of NGC 1569-A is over 65 times higher than the core of 30 Doradus in the LMC and 1200 times higher than the mean rich LMC star cluster. In some cases, the energy released by the clusters into their surroundings is sufficient to drive galaxy-wide winds. Their properties make super star clusters good analogues of young globular clusters. In some, though not all, cases super star clusters appear to form in the aftermath of a merger or accretion event. The most impressive examples are the clusters detected by HST in NGC 1275 and 7252, one of which has the extraordinary luminosity ~ 6 times 10(8) L_{V,sun}. M82 affords a nearby view of a post-interaction system. HST imaging has identified over 80 super star clusters in its central regions with mean luminosities of ~ 3 times 10(6) L_{V,sun}. Their close packing and signs of interaction with the well-known supernova-driven wind suggest that they do not evolve independently. Super cluster evolution in starbursts is probably a collective phenomenon.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Aschenbach


    Full Text Available RX-J0852−4622, a supernova remnant, is demonstrated to be closer than 500 pc, based on the measurements of the angular radius, the angular expansion rate and the TeV g-ray flux. This is a new method of limiting the distance to any supernova remnant with hadronic induced TeV g-ray flux. The progenitor star of RX-J0852−4622 probably exploded in its blue supergiant wind, like SN 1987A, preceeded by a red supergiant phase. A cool dense shell, expected around the outskirts of the red wind, my have been identified. The distance (200 pc and age (680 yr of the supernova remnant, originally proposed, are supported.

  9. Circulation of Stars (United States)

    Boitani, P.


    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  10. Mean and variance of the Gibbs free energy of oligonucleotides in the nearest neighbor model under varying conditions. (United States)

    Rahmann, Sven; Gräfe, Christine


    In order to assess the stability of DNA-DNA hybridizations-for example during PCR primer design or oligonucleotide selection for microarrays-one needs to predict the change in Gibbs free energy DeltaG during hybridization. The nearest neighbor model provides a good compromise between accuracy and computational simplicity for this task. To determine optimal combinations of reaction parameters (temperature, salt concentration, oligonucleotide length and GC-content), one would like to understand how DeltaG depends on all of these parameters simultaneously. We derive analytic results about the distribution of nearest neighbor DeltaG values for a Bernoulli random sequence model (specified by oligonucleotide length and average GC-content) under given experimental conditions. We find that the distribution of DeltaG values is approximately Gaussian and provide exact formulas for expectation and variance.

  11. Nearest-neighbor Kitaev exchange blocked by charge order in electron-doped α -RuCl3 (United States)

    Koitzsch, A.; Habenicht, C.; Müller, E.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Kretschmer, S.; Richter, M.; van den Brink, J.; Börrnert, F.; Nowak, D.; Isaeva, A.; Doert, Th.


    A quantum spin liquid might be realized in α -RuCl3 , a honeycomb-lattice magnetic material with substantial spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, α -RuCl3 is a Mott insulator, which implies the possibility that novel exotic phases occur upon doping. Here, we study the electronic structure of this material when intercalated with potassium by photoemission spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. We obtain a stable stoichiometry at K0.5RuCl3 . This gives rise to a peculiar charge disproportionation into formally Ru2 + (4 d6 ) and Ru3 + (4 d5 ). Every Ru 4 d5 site with one hole in the t2 g shell is surrounded by nearest neighbors of 4 d6 character, where the t2 g level is full and magnetically inert. Thus, each type of Ru site forms a triangular lattice, and nearest-neighbor interactions of the original honeycomb are blocked.

  12. Phase Transition and Critical Values of a Nearest-Neighbor System with Uncountable Local State Space on Cayley Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnel, Benedikt, E-mail:; Külske, Christof, E-mail: [Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Fakultät für Mathematik (Germany); Botirov, Golibjon I., E-mail: [Bukhara State University, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics (Uzbekistan)


    We consider a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor model on a Cayley tree of degree k2 with uncountable local state space [0,1] where the energy function depends on a parameter θ ∊[0, 1). We show that for 0θ(5/(3k)) the model has a unique translation-invariant Gibbs measure. If 5/(3k) <θ < 1, there is a phase transition, in particular there are three translation-invariant Gibbs measures.

  13. A Graph-Based Semi-Supervised k Nearest-Neighbor Method for Nonlinear Manifold Distributed Data Classification


    Tu, Enmei; Zhang, Yaqian; Zhu, Lin; Yang, Jie; Kasabov, Nikola


    $k$ Nearest Neighbors ($k$NN) is one of the most widely used supervised learning algorithms to classify Gaussian distributed data, but it does not achieve good results when it is applied to nonlinear manifold distributed data, especially when a very limited amount of labeled samples are available. In this paper, we propose a new graph-based $k$NN algorithm which can effectively handle both Gaussian distributed data and nonlinear manifold distributed data. To achieve this goal, we first propos...

  14. Assessment of the spatial distribution in sub- and supercritical CO(2) using the nearest neighbor approach: a molecular dynamics analysis. (United States)

    Idrissi, A; Vyalov, I; Damay, P; Frolov, A; Oparin, R; Kiselev, M


    The nearest neighbor approach was used to characterize the local structure of CO(2) fluid along its coexistence curve (CC) and along the critical isochore (CI). The distributions of the distances, orientations, and interaction energies between a reference CO(2) molecule and its subsequent nearest neighbors were calculated. Our results show that the local structure may be resolved into two components or subshells: one is characterized by small radial fluctuations, the parallel orientation and a dominance of the attractive part of both the electrostatic (EL) and Lennard-Jones (LJ) to the total interaction energy. Conversely, the second subshell is characterized by large radial fluctuations, a perpendicular orientation, and a concomitant increase of the repulsive contribution of the EL interaction and a shift to less attractive character of the LJ contribution. When the temperature increases along the liquid-gas CC, the first subshell undergoes large changes which are characterized by an obvious increase of the radial fluctuations, by an increase of the random character of the orientation distribution except for the first nearest neighbor which maintains its parallel orientation, and by a drastic decrease of the EL interaction contribution to the total interaction energy. When the temperature is close to the critical isochore, the local structure is no longer resolved into two subshells. Starting from the idea that the profile of vibration modes is sensitive to the local structure as revealed from the nearest neighbor approach, the hypothesis that the CO(2) vibration profile may be deconvoluted into two contributions is discussed in a qualitative manner.

  15. Stars a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew


    Stars: A Very Short Introduction looks at how stars live, producing all the chemical elements beyond helium, and how they die, leaving remnants such as black holes. Every atom of our bodies has been part of a star. Our very own star, the Sun, is crucial to the development and sustainability of life on Earth. Understanding stars is key to understanding the galaxies they inhabit, the existence of planets, and the history of our entire Universe. This VSI explores the science of stars, the mechanisms that allow them to form, the processes that allow them to shine, and the results of their death.

  16. Lithium in LMC carbon stars


    Hatzidimitriou, D.; Morgan, D. H.; Cannon, R. D.; Croke, B. F. W.


    Nineteen carbon stars that show lithium enrichment in their atmospheres have been discovered among a sample of 674 carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Six of the Li-rich carbon stars are of J-type, i.e. with strong 13C isotopic features. No super-Li-rich carbon stars were found. The incidence of lithium enrichment among carbon stars in the LMC is much rarer than in the Galaxy, and about five times more frequent among J-type than among N-type carbon stars. The bolometric magnitudes of ...

  17. Efficient and accurate nearest neighbor and closest pair search in high-dimensional space

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei


    Nearest Neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. From the database perspective, a good solution needs to have two properties: (i) it can be easily incorporated in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should increase sublinearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is a well-known methodology fulfilling both requirements, but its current implementations either incur expensive space and query cost, or abandon its theoretical guarantee on the quality of query results. Motivated by this, we improve LSH by proposing an access method called the Locality-Sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) to enable fast, accurate, high-dimensional NN search in relational databases. The combination of several LSB-trees forms a LSB-forest that has strong quality guarantees, but improves dramatically the efficiency of the previous LSH implementation having the same guarantees. In practice, the LSB-tree itself is also an effective index which consumes linear space, supports efficient updates, and provides accurate query results. In our experiments, the LSB-tree was faster than: (i) iDistance (a famous technique for exact NN search) by two orders ofmagnitude, and (ii) MedRank (a recent approximate method with nontrivial quality guarantees) by one order of magnitude, and meanwhile returned much better results. As a second step, we extend our LSB technique to solve another classic problem, called Closest Pair (CP) search, in high-dimensional space. The long-term challenge for this problem has been to achieve subquadratic running time at very high dimensionalities, which fails most of the existing solutions. We show that, using a LSB-forest, CP search can be accomplished in (worst-case) time significantly lower than the quadratic complexity, yet still ensuring very good quality. In practice, accurate answers can be found using just two LSB-trees, thus giving a substantial

  18. Synchronous ten trigger finger: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran


    Full Text Available Trigger finger is a disorder that presents with a blocking feeling and pain during finger movements. This condition more commonly occurs in the 2nd finger with involvement of multiple digits being extremely rare. There are very few known cases in which trigger finger was developed in all ten fingers. Here, an unusual case of ten-digit finger trigger is presented. A 44-year-old female housewife visited our clinic with painful blocking feeling in her hand. Her examination was compatible with trigger finger. Her hands were operated on in different sessions and A1 pulleys of all fingers were released. After the operations, blocking feeling and pain during flexion disappeared and normal range of motion was obtained. On the occasion of this very rare case, the etiology and approach for multiple trigger fingers is discussed. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 84-87

  19. Compartmentalized expression of zebrafish ten-m3 and ten-m4, homologues of the Drosophila ten(m)/odd Oz gene, in the central nervous system. (United States)

    Mieda, M; Kikuchi, Y; Hirate, Y; Aoki, M; Okamoto, H


    Zebrafish ten-m3 and ten-m4 encode proteins highly similar to the product of Drosophila pair-rule gene ten(m)/odd Oz (odz). Their products contain eight epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats that resemble mostly those of the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin. During segmentation period, ten-m3 is expressed in the somites, notochord, pharyngeal arches, and the brain, while expression of ten-m4 is mainly restricted to the brain. In the developing brain, ten-m3 and ten-m4 expression delineates several compartments. Interestingly, ten-m3 and ten-m4 show expression patterns complementary to each other in the developing forebrain and midbrain along both rostrocaudal and dorsoventral axes, depending on developmental stages and locations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Simones, Jacob E. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7900 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)


    The Survey of Hi in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs is an on-going multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies that populate the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the Hi Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey based on their low Hi mass and low baryonic mass. Here, we measure the star formation properties from optically resolved stellar populations for 12 galaxies using a color–magnitude diagram fitting technique. We derive lifetime average star formation rates (SFRs), recent SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions. Overall, the recent SFRs are comparable to the lifetime SFRs with mean birthrate parameter of 1.4, with a surprisingly narrow standard deviation of 0.7. Two galaxies are classified as dwarf transition galaxies (dTrans). These dTrans systems have star formation and gas properties consistent with the rest of the sample, in agreement with previous results that some dTrans galaxies may simply be low-luminosity dwarf irregulars. We do not find a correlation between the recent star formation activity and the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy, suggesting that the star formation process is not driven by gravitational interactions, but regulated internally. Further, we find a broadening in the star formation and gas properties (i.e., specific SFRs, stellar masses, and gas fractions) compared to the generally tight correlation found in more massive galaxies. Overall, the star formation and gas properties indicate these very low-mass galaxies host a fluctuating, non-deterministic, and inefficient star formation process.

  1. Is a reduction in distance to nearest supermarket associated with BMI change among type 2 diabetes patients? (United States)

    Zhang, Y Tara; Laraia, Barbara A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Blanchard, Samuel D; Warton, E Margaret; Moffet, Howard H; Karter, Andrew J


    We examined whether residing within 2 miles of a new supermarket opening was longitudinally associated with a change in body mass index (BMI). We identified 12 new supermarkets that opened between 2009 and 2010 in 8 neighborhoods. Using the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry, we identified members with type 2 diabetes residing continuously in any of these neighborhoods 12 months prior to the first supermarket opening until 10 months following the opening of the last supermarket. Exposure was defined as a reduction (yes/no) in travel distance to the nearest supermarket as a result of a new supermarket opening. First difference regression models were used to estimate the impact of reduced supermarket distance on BMI, adjusting for longitudinal changes in patient and neighborhood characteristics. Among patients in the exposed group, new supermarket openings reduced travel distance to the nearest supermarket by 0.7 miles on average. However, reduced distance to nearest supermarket was not associated with BMI changes. Overall, we found no evidence that reduced supermarket distance was associated with reduced levels of obesity for residents with type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The probability of forming hypervelocity stars in the Galaxy (United States)

    Dremova, G. N.; Dremov, V. V.; Orlov, V. V.; Tutukov, A. V.; Shirokova, K. S.


    The probability of forming a Galactic hypervelocity star is estimated for the scenario of Hills, which describes the dynamical capture of one component of a binary star by the gravitational field of the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center, leading to the ejection of the other component. Ten thousand initial orientations of the binary orbits were considered, and the semi-major axes of the binary orbits were varied in a wide range from 11.3 R ⊙ to 425 R ⊙. Two series of computations were carried out, in which the mass of the supermassive black hole was taken to be 106 M ⊙ and 3.4 × 106 M ⊙. Numerical simulations of encounters of the binary and black hole in the framework of the three-body and N-body problems are used to localize regions favorable for the formation of hypervelocity stars. The motion of the ejected star in the regular field of the Galaxy is calculated, and the conditions under which the star escapes the Galaxy defined. The probability of escaping the Galaxy is caluclated as a function of various parameters the initial separation of the binary components and the distance of the binary from the black hole. On average, the probability of forming a hypervelocity star is higher for closer encounters and more tightly bound binary pairs.

  3. The Number of Supernovae From Primordial Stars in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J


    Recent simulations of the formation of the first luminous objects in the universe predict isolated very massive stars to form in dark matter halos with virial temperatures large enough to allow significant amounts of molecular hydrogen to form. We construct a semi-analytic model based on the Press-Schechter formalism and calibrate the minimum halos mass that may form a primordial star with the results from extensive adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The model also includes star formation in objects with virial temperatures in excess of ten thousand Kelvin. The free parameters are tuned to match the optical depth measurements by the WMAP satellite. The models explicitly includes the negative feedback of the destruction of molecular hydrogen by a soft UV background which is computed self-consistently. We predict high redshift supernova rates as one of the most promising tools to test the current scenario of primordial star formation. The supernova rate from primordial stars peaks at redshifts {approx}20. Using an analytic model for the luminosities of pair-instability supernovae we predict observable magnitudes and discuss possible observational strategies. Such supernovae would release enough metals corresponding to a uniform enrichment to a few hundred thousands of solar metalicity. If some of these stars produce gamma ray bursts our rates will be directly applicable to understanding the anticipated results from the SWIFT satellite. This study highlights the great potential for the James Webb space telescope in probing cosmic structure at redshifts greater than 20.

  4. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions


    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan


    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for th...

  5. Giant star seismology (United States)

    Hekker, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.


    The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted with predictions from theoretical models to improve our understanding of stellar structure and evolution. Our knowledge and understanding of red giants have indeed increased tremendously using these seismic inferences, and we anticipate that more information is still hidden in the data. Unraveling this will further improve our understanding of stellar evolution. This will also have significant impact on our knowledge of the Milky Way Galaxy as well as on exo-planet host stars. The latter is important for our understanding of the formation and structure of planetary systems.

  6. Dynamical Boson Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Liebling


    Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  7. Collapse of axion stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eby, Joshua [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati,2600 Clifton Ave, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States); Leembruggen, Madelyn; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L.C.R. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati,2600 Clifton Ave, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 (United States)


    Axion stars, gravitationally bound states of low-energy axion particles, have a maximum mass allowed by gravitational stability. Weakly bound states obtaining this maximum mass have sufficiently large radii such that they are dilute, and as a result, they are well described by a leading-order expansion of the axion potential. Heavier states are susceptible to gravitational collapse. Inclusion of higher-order interactions, present in the full potential, can give qualitatively different results in the analysis of collapsing heavy states, as compared to the leading-order expansion. In this work, we find that collapsing axion stars are stabilized by repulsive interactions present in the full potential, providing evidence that such objects do not form black holes. In the last moments of collapse, the binding energy of the axion star grows rapidly, and we provide evidence that a large amount of its energy is lost through rapid emission of relativistic axions.

  8. Dynamical boson stars (United States)

    Liebling, Steven L.; Palenzuela, Carlos


    The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  9. Heavy Metal Stars (United States)


    La Silla Telescope Detects Lots of Lead in Three Distant Binaries Summary Very high abundances of the heavy element Lead have been discovered in three distant stars in the Milky Way Galaxy . This finding strongly supports the long-held view that roughly half of the stable elements heavier than Iron are produced in common stars during a phase towards the end of their life when they burn their Helium - the other half results from supernova explosions. All the Lead contained in each of the three stars weighs about as much as our Moon. The observations show that these "Lead stars" - all members of binary stellar systems - have been more enriched with Lead than with any other chemical element heavier than Iron. This new result is in excellent agreement with predictions by current stellar models about the build-up of heavy elements in stellar interiors. The new observations are reported by a team of Belgian and French astronomers [1] who used the Coude Echelle Spectrometer on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). PR Photo 26a/01 : A photo of HD 196944 , one of the "Lead stars". PR Photo 26b/01 : A CES spectrum of HD 196944 . The build-up of heavy elements Astronomers and physicists denote the build-up of heavier elements from lighter ones as " nucleosynthesis ". Only the very lightest elements (Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium [2]) were created at the time of the Big Bang and therefore present in the early universe. All the other heavier elements we now see around us were produced at a later time by nucleosynthesis inside stars. In those "element factories", nuclei of the lighter elements are smashed together whereby they become the nuclei of heavier ones - this process is known as nuclear fusion . In our Sun and similar stars, Hydrogen is being fused into Helium. At some stage, Helium is fused into Carbon, then Oxygen, etc. The fusion process requires positively charged nuclei to move very close to each other before they can unite. But with increasing

  10. Dynamical boson stars. (United States)

    Liebling, Steven L; Palenzuela, Carlos


    The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  11. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques


    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  12. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved (United States)


    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  13. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions. (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan


    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants' ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as 'encouragement' for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, 'playfulness' for amusement, joy, interest, and 'harmony' for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions.

  14. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan


    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants’ ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as ‘encouragement’ for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, ‘playfulness’ for amusement, joy, interest, and ‘harmony’ for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions. PMID:28184194

  15. Highly efficient star formation in NGC 5253 possibly from stream-fed accretion. (United States)

    Turner, J L; Beck, S C; Benford, D J; Consiglio, S M; Ho, P T P; Kovács, A; Meier, D S; Zhao, J-H


    Gas clouds in present-day galaxies are inefficient at forming stars. Low star-formation efficiency is a critical parameter in galaxy evolution: it is why stars are still forming nearly 14 billion years after the Big Bang and why star clusters generally do not survive their births, instead dispersing to form galactic disks or bulges. Yet the existence of ancient massive bound star clusters (globular clusters) in the Milky Way suggests that efficiencies were higher when they formed ten billion years ago. A local dwarf galaxy, NGC 5253, has a young star cluster that provides an example of highly efficient star formation. Here we report the detection of the J = 3→2 rotational transition of CO at the location of the massive cluster. The gas cloud is hot, dense, quiescent and extremely dusty. Its gas-to-dust ratio is lower than the Galactic value, which we attribute to dust enrichment by the embedded star cluster. Its star-formation efficiency exceeds 50 per cent, tenfold that of clouds in the Milky Way. We suggest that high efficiency results from the force-feeding of star formation by a streamer of gas falling into the galaxy.

  16. A Real Shooting Star (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light. The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years. As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake. Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence. Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira and its 'whale of a tail' can be

  17. Superfluidity in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaham, J.


    The possible role played by superfluid neutrons in the dynamics of neutron stars is discussed, with attention given to vortex structure and dynamics, the modes of the free vortex lattice, and the pinning of crustal vortices. Some effects associated with the interior superfluid state of neutron stars are discussed, including (1) the macroscopic post-glitch time scales, resulting from coupling between normal and superfluid components, (2) glitches due to unpinning events or to crust breaking by pinning vortices, (3) possible long-term modulation in rotation period, resulting from vortex coherent modes, and (4) gyroscopic effects of pinned vorticity.

  18. Synthetic guide star generation (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA


    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  19. Compact boson stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Betti [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany); Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Schaffer, Isabell, E-mail: [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany)


    We consider compact boson stars that arise for a V-shaped scalar field potential. They represent a one parameter family of solutions of the scaled Einstein-Gordon equations. We analyze the physical properties of these solutions and determine their domain of existence. Along their physically relevant branch emerging from the compact Q-ball solution, their mass increases with increasing radius. Employing arguments from catastrophe theory we argue that this branch is stable, until the maximal value of the mass is reached. There the mass and size are on the order of magnitude of the Schwarzschild limit, and thus the spiraling respectively oscillating behaviour, well known for compact stars, sets in.

  20. The Drifting Star (United States)


    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  1. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo


    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  2. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W


    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  3. TRAPPIST-UCDTS: A prototype search for habitable planets transiting ultra-cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magain P.


    Full Text Available The ∼1000 nearest ultra-cool stars (spectral type M6 and latter represent a unique opportunity for the search for life outside solar system. Due to their small luminosity, their habitable zone is 30–100 times closer than for the Sun, the corresponding orbital periods ranging from one to a few days. Thanks to this proximity, the transits of a habitable planet are much more probable and frequent than for an Earth-Sun analog, while their tiny size (∼1 Jupiter radius leads to transits deep enough for a ground-based detection, even for sub-Earth size planets. Furthermore, a habitable planet transiting one of these nearby ultra-cool star would be amenable for a thorough atmospheric characterization, including the detection of possible biosignatures, notably with the near-to-come JWST. Motivated by these reasons, we have set up the concept of a ground-based survey optimized for detecting planets of Earth-size and below transiting the nearest Southern ultra-cool stars. To assess thoroughly the actual potential of this future survey, we are currently conducting a prototype mini-survey using the TRAPPIST robotic 60cm telescope located at La Silla ESO Observatory (Chile. We summarize here the preliminary results of this mini-survey that fully validate our concept.

  4. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.


    We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars

  5. Forming Stars From the Cosmic Web (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Scientists have recently identified a connection between metal-poor regions in a set of dwarf galaxies and bursts of star-formation activity within them. These observations provide long-awaited evidence supporting predictions of how stars formed in the early universe and in dwarf galaxies today. Metal-Poor Clues: The primary driver of star formation over cosmic history is thought to be the accretion onto galaxies of cold gas streaming from the cosmic web. The best way to confirm this model would be to observe a cloud of cosmic gas flowing into an otherwise-quiescent galaxy and launching a wave of star formation. But because cold gas doesnt emit much radiation, its difficult to detect directly.Now, a team of scientists have found a clever way around this problem: they searched galaxies for a correlation between areas of active star formation and metal-poor regions. Why? Because metal-poor regions could be a smoking gun indicating a recently accreted cloud of cold gas from the cosmic web. Impacting Clouds: Distribution of metallicity along the major axis of one of the target galaxies. The red bar in the top image shows the position of the spectrograph slit along the galaxy, with the arrow showing the direction of growing distance in the plot below. The plot shows the metallicity variation (red symbols) and star-formation rate (blue line) along the galaxys major axis. The metallicity drop coincides with the brightest knot of the galaxy. [Snchez Almeida et al. 2015]The authors of this study, led by Jorge Snchez Almeida (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias and University of La Laguna, Spain), used the Great Canary Telescope to obtain high-quality spectra of ten dwarf galaxies with especially low average metallicities. They aligned the spectrograph slit along the major axes of the galaxies in order to measure abundances as a function of position within each galaxy.The team found that, in nine out of the ten cases, the galaxies displayed sharp drops (by factors of 310

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  7. UX Ori-Type Stars (United States)

    Grinin, V.


    The brief review of the properties of the UX Ori type stars is presented. A special attention is given to the results of the Crimean program of the multi-year photometric and polarimetric observations of these stars.

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 and Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.3 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Enterprise Servers (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Enterprise Servers that are effective as of...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Pramono


    Full Text Available The outcomes of tourism in relation to the environmental sustainability is to preserve nature, environment, and resources availablity. Therefore, the obligation to maintain sustainability of environmental are become a top agenda for the managers of the star-rated hotels. In line with this spirit the high growth of hotel and tourist arrival in Bali correlated with the high of resources use to meet the demand of hotel guests, it will affect to the environment of hotel and the environmental of Bali. This study surveyed 126 star hotels in Bali (which consists of four (4 one-star hotels, ten (10 two-star hotels, thirty-nine (39 three-star hotels, twenty-four (24 four-star hotels, and forty-nine (49 five star hotels, using a questionnaire, where the alternative answer used the seven (7 options, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and structural equation modelling (SEM. This study successfully established a significant model that describes the relationship between environmental issues, environmental management processes, and the benefits of environmental management processes in star rated hotels in Bali. Also the results of this research demonstrate that: 1. There is a significant relationship between environmental issues to the process of environmental management at star rated hotels in Bali, and 2. There is a significant relationship between the process of environmental management to the the benefits of environmental management processes of the star rated hotels in Bali. Furthermore, the issues of environment is consists of: a. The issue of pressure from tour operator, b. The issue of customer and tourists pressure, and c. The issue of climate change. Then the environmental management process of hotel consists of: a. The wastewater management process, b. The solid waste management processes, and c. The chemical management processes, and finally the benefits of environmental management processes in star hotels are consists of: a

  3. Living with an Old Red Dwarf: X-ray-UV Emissions of Kapteyn’s Star - Effects of X-UV radiation on Habitable Zone Planets hosted by old Red Dwarf Stars (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Durbin, Allyn J.; Engle, Scott G.


    Red dwarfs (dM) stars make up over 75% of the local stellar population and a significant fraction (~40-50%) are older than the Sun. Because of the high frequency of red dwarfs and their longevity (> 50 Gyr), there is a greater possibility of more advanced life in red dwarf-exoplanet systems. MEarths, UVES, SDSS-III, and the upcoming TESS mission are some surveys that are targeting red dwarfs in the search for hosted potentially habitalble planets. As part of Villanova's 'Living with a Red Dwarf' program, we have obtained HST-COS Ultraviolet spectra (1150-3000A) and Chandra X-ray observations of Kapteyn's star (GJ 191; M1 V, V = 8.85 mag , d = 12.76 +/- 0.05 ly). Kapyteyn's Star is important for the study of old red dwarfs because it is the nearest (Pop II) halo star with a radial velocity of +245.2 km/s and an estimated age of 11.2 +/-0.9 Gyrs. Recently Kapteyn's Star was found to host two super-Earth mass planets - one of these is orbiting inside the star's Habitable Zone (Anglada-Escude' 2014: MNRAS 443, L89). In our program, Kapteyn's star is the oldest red dwarf and as such serves as an anchor for our age, rotation, and activity relations. The spectra obtained from HST/COS provide one of the cleanest measurements of the important HI Lyman-alpha 1215.6 A emission flux for red dwarfs. This is due to the large Doppler shift from the high radial velocity, separating the stellar Ly-alpha emission from by the Ly-alpha ISM and local geo-coronal sources. These observations further provide calibrations at the old age/low rotation/low activity extremes for our relations. As the nearest and brightest old red dwarf star, Kapteyn's Star also provides insights into its magnetic properties to investigae coronal x-ray and UV emission for the large population of old, slowly rotating red dwarf stars. Kapteyn's star also serves as a proxy for the numerous metal-poor old disk - Pop II M dwarfs by providing information about X-UV emissions. This information is crucial for

  4. Comparing P-stars with Observations


    Cea, Paolo


    P-stars are compact stars made of up and down quarks in $\\beta$-equilibrium with electrons in a chromomagnetic condensate. P-stars are able to account for compact stars as well as stars with radius comparable with canonical neutron stars. We compare p-stars with different available observations. Our results indicate that p-stars are able to reproduce in a natural manner several observations from isolated and binary pulsars.

  5. StarLogo TNG (United States)

    Klopfer, Eric; Scheintaub, Hal; Huang, Wendy; Wendel, Daniel

    Computational approaches to science are radically altering the nature of scientific investigatiogn. Yet these computer programs and simulations are sparsely used in science education, and when they are used, they are typically “canned” simulations which are black boxes to students. StarLogo The Next Generation (TNG) was developed to make programming of simulations more accessible for students and teachers. StarLogo TNG builds on the StarLogo tradition of agent-based modeling for students and teachers, with the added features of a graphical programming environment and a three-dimensional (3D) world. The graphical programming environment reduces the learning curve of programming, especially syntax. The 3D graphics make for a more immersive and engaging experience for students, including making it easy to design and program their own video games. Another change to StarLogo TNG is a fundamental restructuring of the virtual machine to make it more transparent. As a result of these changes, classroom use of TNG is expanding to new areas. This chapter is concluded with a description of field tests conducted in middle and high school science classes.

  6. Seven star pharmacists


    Galea, Gauden


    The seven star pharmacist is care-giver, decision-maker, communicator, manager, life-long-learner, teacher and leader.1 Implicit in these roles is that of health promoter. The pharmacist’s continuing relationship with the client, the community-based practice, and multiple entry points for counselling make the pharmacist a leader in health care.

  7. Magnetic Dynamos and Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleton, P P


    Djehuty is a code that has been developed over the last five years by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), from earlier code designed for programmatic efforts. Operating in a massively parallel environment, Djehuty is able to model entire stars in 3D. The object of this proposal was to continue the effort to introduce magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) into Djehuty, and investigate new classes of inherently 3D problems involving the structure, evolution and interaction of stars and planets. However, towards the end of the second year we discovered an unexpected physical process of great importance in the evolution of stars. Consequently for the third year we changed direction and concentrated on this process rather than on magnetic fields. Our new process was discovered while testing the code on red-giant stars, at the 'helium flash'. We found that a thin layer was regularly formed which contained a molecular-weight inversion, and which led therefore to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This in turn led to some deeper-than-expected mixing, which has the property that (a) much {sup 3}He is consumed, and (b) some {sup 13}C is produced. These two properties are closely in accord with what has been observed over the last thirty years in red giants, whereas what was observed was largely in contradiction to what earlier theoretical models predicted. Thus our new 3D models with Djehuty explain a previously-unexplained problem of some thirty years standing.

  8. Asteroseismology of Pulsating Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The success of helioseismology is due to its capability of measuring -mode oscillations in the Sun. This allows us to extract information on the internal structure and rotation of the Sun from the surface to the core. Similarly, asteroseismology is the study of the internal structure of the stars as derived from stellar oscillations.

  9. Trek to the Stars (United States)

    Rubinstein, Robert E.


    "Star Trek", which was aired on television for three years, brought the creatures and conflicts of the "outer reaches" of space into our living rooms. Here its new episodes and reruns are analyzed by elementary students as part of a social studies/elementary science curriculum. (Author/RK)

  10. Seismology of active stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, S.; García, R.A.


    In this review we will discuss the current standing and open questions of seismology in active stars. With the longer photometric time series data that are, and will become, available from space-missions such as Kepler we foresee significant progress in our understanding of stellar internal

  11. Sleeping under the stars (United States)

    Zirkel, Jack

    Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson went on a camping trip. As they lay down for the night, Holmes said, “Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see.”Watson:“! see millions and millions of stars.”

  12. The Astounding Stars. (United States)

    Montgomery, Angela; And Others


    Studying about stellar constellations provides children with an opportunity to learn about ancient myths and mathematics at the same time. An interdisciplinary teaching unit combines information about myths associated with the zodiac signs and instructions for plotting the coordinates of stars. (PP)

  13. The evolution of massive stars (United States)


    The hypotheses underlying theoretical studies of the evolution of massive model stars with and without mass loss are summarized. The evolutionary tracks followed by the models across theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams are compared with the observed distribution of B stars in an HR diagram. The pulsational properties of models of massive star are also described.

  14. Orbits of four double stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković B.


    Full Text Available We present orbits of four double stars. Orbits of stars WDS 23516+4205 = ADS 17050 and WDS 18239+5848 = ADS 11336 were calculated for the first time. Orbits of double stars WDS 02022+3643 = ADS 1613 and WDS 18443+3940 = ADS 11635 were revised. We have also determined their masses, dynamical parallaxes and ephemerides.

  15. The red extended structure of IC 10, the nearest blue compact galaxy (United States)

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie A. N.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike


    The Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10 is the closest example of a blue compact galaxy. Here, we use optical gi imaging from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam and near infrared JHK imaging from United Kingdom Infrared Telescope/Wide Field Camera to conduct a comprehensive survey of the structure of IC 10. We examine the spatial distribution of its resolved young, intermediate and old stellar populations to large radius and low effective surface brightness levels. Akin to other dwarfs with multiple populations of different ages, stellar populations of decreasing average age are increasingly concentrated in this galaxy. We find that the young, starbursting population and the asymptotic giant branch population are both offset from the geometric centre of the older red giant branch (RGB) population by a few hundred parsecs, implying that the younger star formation occurred significantly away from the centre of the galaxy. The RGB population traces an extended structure that is typical of blue compact galaxies, with an effective radius of ˜5.75 arcmin (˜1.25 kpc). These measurements show that IC 10 is much more extended than has previously been realized, and this blue compact galaxy is one of the most extended dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. The outermost isophotes of this galaxy are very regular in shape and essentially circular in morphology. Based on this analysis, we do not find any evidence to suggest that IC 10 has undergone a recent, significant, interaction with an unknown companion.

  16. On the conversion of neutron stars into quark stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliara Giuseppe


    Full Text Available The possible existence of two families of compact stars, neutron stars and quark stars, naturally leads to a scenario in which a conversion process between the two stellar objects occurs with a consequent release of energy of the order of 1053 erg. We discuss recent hydrodynamical simulations of the burning process and neutrino diffusion simulations of cooling of a newly formed strange star. We also briefly discuss this scenario in connection with recent measurements of masses and radii of compact stars.

  17. Ten themes of viscous liquid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.


    simplifies the theory by allowing for an ultra-local Hamiltonian (free energy), but also explains the observed general independence of chemistry. Whereas there are no long-ranged static (i.e., equal-time) correlations in the model, there are important long-ranged dynamic correlations on the alpha timescale.......Ten ‘themes' of viscous liquid physics are discussed with a focus on how they point to a general description of equilibrium viscous liquid dynamics (i.e., fluctuations) at a given temperature. This description is based on standard time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations for the density fields...

  18. Water Sustainability Assessment for Ten Army Installations (United States)


    the severity of this scarcity varies by scenario. It seems that natural condi- tions play a bigger part in water availability for the region than does...question lies with: (1) a picture of how short-term water scarcity might play out across the region, which is outside of the scope of this study, and...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 11 -5 Water Sustainability Assessment for Ten Army Installations Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es

  19. Ten Guidelines for Translating Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.

  20. Supersymmetric R4-actions in ten dimensions


    de Roo, M.; Suelmann, H.; Wiedemann, A.


    We construct supersymmetric R+R4-actions in ten dimensions. Two invariants, of which the bosonic parts are known from string amplitude and sigma model calculations, are obtained. One of these invariants can be generalized to an R+F2+F4-invariant for supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled to supergravity. Supersymmetry requires the presence of B ^ R ^ R ^ R ^ R-terms, (B ^ F ^ F ^ F ^ F for Yang-Mills) which correspond to counterterms in the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation.

  1. Ten essential skills for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Dorr, Barry


    Engineers know that, as in any other discipline, getting a good job requires practical, up-to-date skills. An engineering degree provides a broad set of fundamentals. Ten Essential Skills applies those fundamentals to practical tasks required by employers. Written in a user-friendly, no-nonsense format, the book reviews practical skills using the latest tools and techniques, and features a companion website with interview practice problems and advanced material for readers wishing to pursue additional skills. With this book, aspiring and current engineers may approach job interviews confident

  2. The Top Ten Algorithms in Data Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xindong


    From classification and clustering to statistical learning, association analysis, and link mining, this book covers the most important topics in data mining research. It presents the ten most influential algorithms used in the data mining community today. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the algorithm, a discussion of available software implementation, advanced topics, and exercises. With a simple data set, examples illustrate how each algorithm works and highlight the overall performance of each algorithm in a real-world application. Featuring contributions from leading researc

  3. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) for labour pain. (United States)

    Francis, Richard


    Because TENS is applied inconsistently and not always in line with optimal TENS application theory, this may explain why TENS for labour pain appears to be effective in some individuals and not in others. This article reviews TENS theory, advises upon optimal TENS application for labour pain and discusses some of the limitations of TENS research on labour pain. TENS application for labour pain may include TENS applied to either side of the lower spine, set to 200 mus pulse duration and 100 pulses per second. As pain increases, TENS intensity should be increased and as pain decreases, TENS intensity should be reduced to maintain a strong but pain free intensity of stimulation. This application may particularly reduce back pain during labour.

  4. Star identification methods, techniques and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Guangjun


    This book summarizes the research advances in star identification that the author’s team has made over the past 10 years, systematically introducing the principles of star identification, general methods, key techniques and practicable algorithms. It also offers examples of hardware implementation and performance evaluation for the star identification algorithms. Star identification is the key step for celestial navigation and greatly improves the performance of star sensors, and as such the book include the fundamentals of star sensors and celestial navigation, the processing of the star catalog and star images, star identification using modified triangle algorithms, star identification using star patterns and using neural networks, rapid star tracking using star matching between adjacent frames, as well as implementation hardware and using performance tests for star identification. It is not only valuable as a reference book for star sensor designers and researchers working in pattern recognition and othe...

  5. Neutron stars and quark stars: Two coexisting families of compact stars?


    Schaffner-Bielich, J.


    The mass-radius relation of compact stars is discussed with relation to the presence of quark matter in the core. The existence of a new family of compact stars with quark matter besides white dwarfs and ordinary neutron stars is outlined.

  6. Assessment of hypoallergenicity of ten skincare products. (United States)

    Brandt, Staci; Lio, Peter


    Sensitive skin is a common skin complaint frequently associated with skin diseases or adverse reactions to cosmetic products. Manufacturers have produced numerous products targeted for patients with sensitive skin and frequently label these products as being hypoallergenic. This term implies that the product may be less likely to cause an allergic reaction and be better suited for those with sensitive skin. However, there is no federal regulatory definition of this term and products may not have clinical support of their claim. Patch testing ingredients is frequently done to identify potential irritants; however, patch-testing product formulations may provide more realistic expectations about potential skin sensitivity and help support claims of hypoallergenicity. Ten skincare products were assessed for their sensitizing potential and hypoallergenicity in 14 repeat insult patch test clinical studies, involving over 2,000 subjects. In these studies, the products were deemed to be hypoallergenic if there was no evidence of sensitization or allergic reactions. The results from these trials demonstrated that all ten products were well tolerated, showed no sensitization or allergic reactions, and support claims of hypoallergenicity.

  7. Ten principles of good interdisciplinary team work. (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Booth, Andrew; Ariss, Steven; Smith, Tony; Enderby, Pam; Roots, Alison


    Interdisciplinary team work is increasingly prevalent, supported by policies and practices that bring care closer to the patient and challenge traditional professional boundaries. To date, there has been a great deal of emphasis on the processes of team work, and in some cases, outcomes. This study draws on two sources of knowledge to identify the attributes of a good interdisciplinary team; a published systematic review of the literature on interdisciplinary team work, and the perceptions of over 253 staff from 11 community rehabilitation and intermediate care teams in the UK. These data sources were merged using qualitative content analysis to arrive at a framework that identifies characteristics and proposes ten competencies that support effective interdisciplinary team work. Ten characteristics underpinning effective interdisciplinary team work were identified: positive leadership and management attributes; communication strategies and structures; personal rewards, training and development; appropriate resources and procedures; appropriate skill mix; supportive team climate; individual characteristics that support interdisciplinary team work; clarity of vision; quality and outcomes of care; and respecting and understanding roles. We propose competency statements that an effective interdisciplinary team functioning at a high level should demonstrate.

  8. Dead Star Rumbles (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite of Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A This Spitzer Space Telescope composite shows the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (white ball) and surrounding clouds of dust (gray, orange and blue). It consists of two processed images taken one year apart. Dust features that have not changed over time appear gray, while those that have changed are colored blue or orange. Blue represents an earlier time and orange, a later time. These observations illustrate that a blast of light from Cassiopeia A is waltzing outward through the dusty skies. This dance, called an 'infrared echo,' began when the remnant erupted about 50 years ago. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion 325 years ago. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died. This remnant is located 10,000 light-years away in the northern constellation Cassiopeia. An infrared echo is created when a star explodes or erupts, flashing light into surrounding clumps of dust. As the light zips through the dust clumps, it heats them up, causing them to glow successively in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light. This apparent motion can be seen here by the shift in colored dust clumps. Echoes are distinct from supernova shockwaves, which are made up material that is swept up and hurled outward by exploding stars. This infrared echo is the largest ever seen, stretching more than 50 light-years away from Cassiopeia A. If viewed from Earth, the entire movie frame would take up the same amount of space as two full moons. Hints of an older infrared echo from Cassiopeia A's supernova explosion hundreds of years ago can also be seen. The earlier Spitzer image was taken on November 30, 2003, and the later, on December 2, 2004.

  9. What Determines Star Formation Rates? (United States)

    Evans, Neal John


    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  10. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract) (United States)

    Boyd, D.


    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  11. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo


    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  12. Comparison of Cox Model and K-Nearest Neighbor to Estimation of Survival in Kidney Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faradmal


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cox model is a common method to estimate survival and validity of the results is dependent on the proportional hazards assumption. K- Nearest neighbor is a nonparametric method for survival probability in heterogeneous communities. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of k- nearest neighbor method (K-NN with Cox model. Materials & Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Hamadan Province, on 475 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation from 1994 to 2011. Data were extracted from patients’ medical records using a checklist. The duration of the time between kidney transplantation and rejection was considered as the surviv­al time. Cox model and k- nearest neighbor method were used for Data modeling. The prediction error Brier score was used to compare the performance models. Results: Out of 475 transplantations, 55 episodes of rejection occurred. 5, 10 and 15 year survival rates of transplantation were 91.70 %, 84.90% and 74.50%, respectively. The number of neighborhood optimized using cross validation method was 45. Cumulative Brier score of k-NN algorithm for t=5, 10 and 15 years were 0.003, 0.006 and 0.007, respectively. Cumulative Brier of score Cox model for t=5, 10 and 15 years were 0.036, 0.058 and 0.058, respectively. Prediction error of k-NN algorithm for t=5, 10 and 15 years was less than Cox model that shows that the k-NN method outperforms. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the predictions of KNN has higher accuracy than the Cox model when sample sizes and the number of predictor variables are high. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :300-308

  13. Realization of the axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model in U3Al2Ge3 (United States)

    Fobes, David M.; Lin, Shi-Zeng; Ghimire, Nirmal J.; Bauer, Eric D.; Thompson, Joe D.; Bleuel, Markus; DeBeer-Schmitt, Lisa M.; Janoschek, Marc


    Here we report small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements and theoretical modeling of U3Al2Ge3 . Analysis of the SANS data reveals a phase transition to sinusoidally modulated magnetic order at TN=63 K to be second order and a first-order phase transition to ferromagnetic order at Tc=48 K. Within the sinusoidally modulated magnetic phase (Tcwave vector as a function of temperature. These observations all indicate that U3Al2Ge3 is a close realization of the three-dimensional axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model, a prototypical framework for describing commensurate to incommensurate phase transitions in frustrated magnets.

  14. The role of second nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic spin coupling in the orbitally ordered CMR manganites: A tight binding model study (United States)

    Panda, Saswati; Santi, N.; Sahoo, D. D.; Rout, G. C.


    We report here a tight binding model study of the interplay of antiferromagnetic and orbital orderings in CMR manganites. The model consists of double exchange interaction, Heisenberg type antiferromagnetic spin interaction and band Jahn-Teller (JT) interaction along with kinetic energies of conduction band and core band electrons. Further, first and second nearest neighbor interactions are considered in the band energy dispersion and Heisenberg spin interaction. The model Hamiltonian is solved using Zubarev's Green's function technique and the interplay between transverse spin fluctuation and JT distortion is studied. The electron specific heat exhibits two peak structure near the transition temperatures as observed in experiments.

  15. The Effect of Next-Nearest Neighbour Hopping in the One, Two, and Three Dimensional Holstein Model (United States)

    Chandler, Carl J.; Prosko, Christian; Marsiglio, F.


    Allowing a single electron to hop to next-nearest neighbours (NNN) in addition to the closest atomic sites in the Holstein model, a modified Trugman method is applied to exactly calculate the effect on the polaronic effective mass in one, two, and three dimensions, building on the previous study of the one-dimensional NNN Holstein model. We also present perturbative calculations and a heuristic scaling factor for the coupling strength and ion frequency to nearly map the NNN Holstein model back onto the original Holstein model. When account is taken of the modified electronic bandwidth near the electron energy, we find that including NNN hopping effectively increases the polaron effective mass.

  16. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  17. Analytic expression for the mean time to absorption for a random walker on the Sierpinski fractal. III. The effect of non-nearest-neighbor jumps (United States)

    Balakrishnan, V.; Kozak, John J.


    We present exact, analytic results for the mean time to trapping of a random walker on the class of deterministic Sierpinski graphs embedded in d≥2 Euclidean dimensions, when both nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) jumps are included. Mean first-passage times are shown to be modified significantly as a consequence of the fact that NNN transitions connect fractals of two consecutive generations.

  18. Pulsating stars harbouring planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya A.


    Full Text Available Why bother with asteroseismology while studying exoplanets? There are several answers to this question. Asteroseismology and exoplanetary sciences have much in common and the synergy between the two opens up new aspects in both fields. These fields and stellar activity, when taken together, allow maximum extraction of information from exoplanet space missions. Asteroseismology of the host star has already proved its value in a number of exoplanet systems by its unprecedented precision in determining stellar parameters. In addition, asteroseismology allows the possibility of discovering new exoplanets through time delay studies. The study of the interaction between exoplanets and their host stars opens new windows on various physical processes. In this review I will summarize past and current research in exoplanet asteroseismology and explore some guidelines for the future.

  19. Shooting Star Experiment (United States)


    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  20. Hyperons and neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidaña, Isaac [Centro de Física Computacional, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, PT-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)


    In this lecture I will briefly review some of the effects of hyperons on the properties of neutron and proto-neutron stars. In particular, I will revise the problem of the strong softening of the EoS, and the consequent reduction of the maximum mass, induced by the presence of hyperons, a puzzle which has become more intringuing and difficult to solve due the recent measurements of the unusually high masses of the millisecond pulsars PSR J1903+0327 (1.667±0.021M{sub ⊙}), PSR J1614–2230 (1.97±0.04M{sub ⊙}), and PSR J0348+0432 (2.01±0.04M{sub ⊙}). Finally, I will also examine the role of hyperons on the cooling properties of newly born neutron stars and on the so-called r-mode instability.

  1. Neutron-Star Radius from a Population of Binary Neutron Star Mergers. (United States)

    Bose, Sukanta; Chakravarti, Kabir; Rezzolla, Luciano; Sathyaprakash, B S; Takami, Kentaro


    We show how gravitational-wave observations with advanced detectors of tens to several tens of neutron-star binaries can measure the neutron-star radius with an accuracy of several to a few percent, for mass and spatial distributions that are realistic, and with none of the sources located within 100 Mpc. We achieve such an accuracy by combining measurements of the total mass from the inspiral phase with those of the compactness from the postmerger oscillation frequencies. For estimating the measurement errors of these frequencies, we utilize analytical fits to postmerger numerical relativity waveforms in the time domain, obtained here for the first time, for four nuclear-physics equations of state and a couple of values for the mass. We further exploit quasiuniversal relations to derive errors in compactness from those frequencies. Measuring the average radius to well within 10% is possible for a sample of 100 binaries distributed uniformly in volume between 100 and 300 Mpc, so long as the equation of state is not too soft or the binaries are not too heavy. We also give error estimates for the Einstein Telescope.

  2. Historical Variable Star Catalogs


    Pagnotta, Ashley; Graur, Or; Murray, Zachary; Kruk, Julia; Christie-Dervaux, Lucien; Chen, Dong Yi


    Slides from my talk during one of the Historical Astronomy Division sessions at AAS 225 in Seattle, WA (January 2015). A brief history of the variable star catalogs Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin assembled at Harvard, and the update to them that some of our students at AMNH have done.(Figshare only previews the first few slides. Download the PDF to see all of them!)

  3. Which Stars Go BOOM? (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason


    Intermediate mass stars with M = 6 to 10 Msun will end their lives by either losing mass quiescently and forming massive white dwarfs or by exploding as core collapse type II supernovae. The critical mass separating these two stellar evolution channels is not only a fundamental threshold of stellar astrophysics, but is a crucial ingredient to generate reliable galaxy evolution simulations. Given the steepness of the stellar IMF, small changes in the critical mass directly affects chemical evolution scenarios, energetics, and feedback relations. Although most astronomers reference the critical mass at M = 8 Msun, there is a lack of robust theoretical or observational confirmation of this number. We propose to measure the critical mass directly by verifying the end products of stellar evolution in four rich, young, co-eval stellar populations. With ages of 25 to 60 Myr and total stellar masses >10,000 Msun, the Magellanic Cloud globular clusters NGC 1818, NGC 330, NGC 1805, and NGC 2164 have present-day main-sequence turnoff masses of M = 6.2, 7.2, 8.5, and 9.8 Msun, respectively. Existing photometry verifies that each cluster has a rich upper main sequence of massive stars, and therefore would have formed dozen(s) of stars above the present day turnoff. If those stars did not explode as core collapse supernovae, they will populate a clear blue white dwarf cooling sequence. Our experiment uses the full power, wavelength coverage, and resolution of HST/WFC3 to detect these cooling sequences in high-precision, UV-sensitive color-magnitude diagrams.

  4. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine


    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  5. Bolt Star®


    ECT Team, Purdue


    Two electricians and an engineer, experienced in building wood templates for light pole base construction, saw an opportunity to make the process safer, less costly and more efficient. The result is the BOLT STAR® reusable bolt template, manufactured by Construction Innovations LLC of Sacramento, California. Bolt Star holds four anchor bolts and conduits in place while supporting the rebar cage during the concrete pour of a light pole base foundation. The tool replaces an inefficient, wastefu...

  6. Diæten - et andet perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Frank Juul


    Temaet for den seneste udgave af vores studenterblad ”Næringsstoffet” er ”Et andet perspektiv”. Ifølge redaktionens oplæg kunne det eksempelvis dreje sig om »artikler om nye kropsidealer, at sundhed ikke kun handler om, hvad man propper i munden, forskellige perspektiver på de nye kostråd, altern......, alternative kostformer (5:2 kuren) osv.«. Det gav mig anledning til et indlæg, hvor jeg har forsøgt at strejfe flere punkter fra listen med et andet perspektiv på diæten. I bloggen gengives det indlæg i en lettere tilrettet version....

  7. Electroanaesthesia--from torpedo fish to TENS. (United States)

    Francis, J; Dingley, J


    In 153 AD, the Roman physician Scribonius Largus identified that electric current had analgesic properties, instructing patients to stand on an electric ray for the treatment of gout. In 2014, transcranial magnetic stimulation was approved by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for the treatment of migraine. Although separated by nearly two millennia, these milestones represent the evolution of the utilisation of electric current in medical and anaesthetic practice. Significant advances have been made over the last century in particular, and during the 1960s and 1970s, tens of thousands of patients were reportedly anaesthetised for surgical interventions using electric current as the anaesthetic agent. Many medical interventions, including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation, have evolved in the aftermath of investigations into electroanaesthesia; the potential for electric current to be an anaesthetic agent of the future still exists. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Unravelling the Mystery of Massive Star Birth - All Stars are Born the Same Way (United States)


    Astronomers have obtained the first image of a dusty disc closely encircling a massive baby star, providing direct evidence that massive stars form in the same way as their smaller brethren. This discovery, made thanks to a combination of ESO's telescopes, is described in an article in this week's issue of Nature. "Our observations show a disc surrounding an embryonic young, massive star, which is now fully formed," says Stefan Kraus, who led the study. "One can say that the baby is about to hatch!" The team of astronomers looked at an object known by the cryptic name of IRAS 13481-6124. About twenty times the mass of our Sun and five times its radius, the young central star, which is still surrounded by its pre-natal cocoon, is located in the constellation of Centaurus, about 10 000 light-years away. From archival images obtained by the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope as well as from observations done with the APEX 12-metre submillimetre telescope, astronomers discovered the presence of a jet. "Such jets are commonly observed around young low-mass stars and generally indicate the presence of a disc," says Kraus. Circumstellar discs are an essential ingredient in the formation process of low-mass stars such as our Sun. However, it is not known whether such discs are also present during the formation of stars more massive than about ten solar masses, where the strong light emitted might prevent mass falling onto the star. For instance, it has been proposed that massive stars might form when smaller stars merge. In order to discover and understand the properties of this disc, astronomers employed ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). By combining light from three of the VLTI's 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes with the AMBER instrument, this facility allows astronomers to see details equivalent to those a telescope with a mirror of 85 metres in diameter would see. The resulting resolution is about 2.4 milliarcseconds, which is equivalent to picking out the head

  9. Supergiant Stars as Extragalactic Probes of Cosmic Abundances and Distances (United States)

    Kudritzki, R.


    The determination of chemical composition and distances of galaxies is crucial for constraining the theory of galaxy formation and evolution in a dark energy and cold dark matter dominated universe. However, the standard technique using HII regions to determine the metallicity of star forming galaxies, nearby and at high redshift, is subject to large systematic uncertainties that are poorly understood and the determination of accurate distances using Cepheids suffers from uncertainties caused by the metallicity dependence of the period luminosity relationship and extinction and crowding corrections. Multi-object spectroscopy of blue and red supergiant stars - the brightest stars in the universe at visual and NIR wavelengths - provides an attractive alternative. I will present results accumulated over recent years for galaxies in the Local Group and beyond out to a distance of 8 Mpc and will discuss the potential of future work with TMT and E-ELT. Combining the photon collecting power of these next generation telescopes with Adaptive Optics we will be able to study individual supergiant stars in galaxies as distant as the Coma cluster. With spectroscopy of the integrated light of young very massive Star Super Clusters and simple population synthesis techniques we can reach out ten times further

  10. Electroweak stars: Electroweak Matter Destruction as an Exotic Stellar Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojkovic, Dejan; DAI, De Chang [Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States); Starkman, Glenn [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University - CWRU, 10900 Euclid ave., Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Lue, Arthur [Massachusetts Institute of Technology - MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)


    Stellar evolution from a protostar to neutron star is of one of the best studied subjects in modern astrophysics. Yet, it appears that there is still a lot to learn about the extreme conditions where the fundamental particle physics meets strong gravity regime. After all of the thermonuclear fuel is spent, and after the supernova explosion, but before the remaining mass crosses its own Schwarzschild radius, the temperature of the central core of the star might become higher than the electroweak symmetry restoration temperature. The source of energy, which can at least temporarily balance gravity, are baryon number violating instanton processes which are basically unsuppressed at temperatures above the electroweak scale. We constructed a solution to the Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation which describes such a star. The energy release rate is enormous at the core, but gravitational redshift and the enhanced neutrino interaction cross section at these densities make the energy release rate moderate at the surface of the star. The lifetime of this new quasi-equilibrium can be more than ten million years, which is long enough to represent a new stage in the evolution of a star. (authors)

  11. Modern Paradigm of Star Formation in the Galaxy (United States)

    Sobolev, A. M.


    Understanding by the scientific community of the star formation processes in the Galaxy undergone significant changes in recent years. This is largely due to the development of the observational basis of astronomy in the infrared and submillimeter ranges. Analysis of new observational data obtained in the course of the Herschel project, by radio interferometer ALMA and other modern facilities significantly advanced our understanding of the structure of the regions of star formation, young stellar object vicinities and provided comprehensive data on the mass function of proto-stellar objects in a number of star-forming complexes of the Galaxy. Mapping of the complexes in molecular radio lines allowed to study their spatial and kinematic structure on the spatial scales of tens and hundreds of parsecs. The next breakthrough in this field can be achieved as a result of the planned project “Spektr-MM” (Millimetron) which implies a significant improvement in angular resolution and sensitivity. The use of sensitive interferometers allowed to investigate the details of star formation processes at small spatial scales - down to the size of the solar system (with the help of the ALMA), and even the Sun (in the course of the space project “Spektr-R” = RadioAstron). Significant contribution to the study of the processes of accretion is expected as a result of the project “Spektr-UV” (WSO-UV = “World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet”). Complemented with significant theoretical achievements obtained observational data have greatly promoted our understanding of the star formation processes.

  12. Compactness of Neutron Stars. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chia; Piekarewicz, J


    Recent progress in the determination of both masses and radii of neutron stars is starting to place stringent constraints on the dense matter equation of state. In particular, new theoretical developments together with improved statistical tools seem to favor stellar radii that are significantly smaller than those predicted by models using purely nucleonic equations of state. Given that the underlying equation of state must also account for the observation of 2M⊙ neutron stars, theoretical approaches to the study of the dense matter equation of state are facing serious challenges. In response to this challenge, we compute the underlying equation of state associated with an assumed mass-radius template similar to the "common radius" assumption used in recent studies. Once such a mass-radius template is adopted, the equation of state follows directly from the implementation of Lindblom's algorithm; assumptions on the nature or composition of the dense stellar core are not required. By analyzing mass-radius profiles with a maximum mass consistent with observation and common radii in the 8-11 km range, a lower limit on the stellar radius of a 1.4M⊙ neutron star of RNS≳10.7  km is required to prevent the equation of state from violating causality.

  13. Dark neutron stars (United States)

    Jones, P. B.


    There is good evidence that electron-positron pair formation is not present in that section of the pulsar open magnetosphere, which is the source of coherent radio emission, but the possibility of two-photon pair creation in an outer gap remains. Calculation of transition rates for this process based on measured whole-surface temperatures, combined with a survey of γ-ray, X-ray and optical luminosities, expressed per primary beam lepton, shows that few Fermi-LAT pulsars have significant outer-gap pair creation. For radio-loud pulsars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density and an ion-proton plasma, there must be an outward flow of electrons from some other part of the magnetosphere to maintain a constant net charge on the star. In the absence of pair creation, it is likely that this current is the source of GeV γ-emission observed by the Fermi-LAT and its origin is in the region of the outer gap. With negative polar-cap corotational charge density, the compensating current in the absence of pair creation can consist only of ions or protons. These neutron stars are likely to be radio-quiet, have no observable γ-emission, and hence can be described as dark neutron stars.

  14. RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J.; Matthews, Bryan L.


    In this exploratory archival study we mined the performance of 24 major US airports area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs) over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We investigated STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed altitudes and their frequencies of occurrence for altitude restrictions. Full-lateral compliance was generally greater than Full-lateral/full-vertical, but the delta between the rates was not always consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical usage medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0 in KDEN (Denver) to 21 in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0 to nearly 100 for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systemic amounts in 1000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This work is a preliminary investigation into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track how procedural concepts and design intervention function. In addition, this tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  15. Be Stars in M31 (United States)

    Peters, Matthew L.; Wisniewski, John; Choi, Yumi; Williams, Ben; Lomax, Jamie; Bjorkman, Karen; Durbin, Meredith; Johnson, Lent Cliff; Lewis, Alexia; Lutz, Julie; Sigut, Aaron; Wallach, Aislynn; Dalcanton, Julianne


    We identify Be candidate stars in M31 using two-epoch F625W + F658N photometry from HST/ACS+WFC3 combined with the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) Catalog. Using the PHAT catalog allows us to extract stellar parameters such as surface temperature and gravity, thereby allowing us to identify the main sequence B type stars in the field of view. Be candidate stars are identified by comparing their HST narrow-band Hα excess magnitudes with that predicted by Kurucz spectra. We find 314 Be candidate stars out of 5699 B + Be candidate stars (5.51%) in our first epoch and 301 Be candidate stars out of 5769 B + Be candidate stars (5.22%) in our second epoch. Our Be fraction, while lower than that of the SMC, LMC, and MW, is possibly consistent with the fact the M31 has a higher metallicity than the other galaxies because Be fraction varies inversely with metallicity. We note that earlier spectral types have the largest Be fraction, and that the Be fraction strictly declines as the spectral type increases to later types. We then match our Be candidate stars with clusters, establishing that 39 of 314 are cluster stars in epoch one and 36 of 301 stars are cluster stars in epoch two. We assign ages, using the cluster age to characterize cluster Be candidate stars and star formation histories to characterize field Be candidate stars. Finally, we determine which Be candidate stars exhibited disk loss or disk growth between epochs, finding that, of the Be stars that did not show source confusion or low SNR in one of the epochs, 65 / 265 (24.5%) showed disk loss or renewal, while 200 / 265 (75.5%) showed only small changes in Hα excess. Our research provides context for the parameters of candidate Be stars in M31, which will be useful in further determining the nature of Be stars. This paper was supported by a grant from STScI via GO-13857.



    This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun, made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, it is a red supergiant star marking the shoulder of the winter constellation Orion the Hunter (diagram at right). The Hubble image reveals a huge ultraviolet atmosphere with a mysterious hot spot on the stellar behemoth's surface. The enormous bright spot, more than ten times the diameter of Earth, is at least 2,000 Kelvin degrees hotter than the surface of the star. The image suggests that a totally new physical phenomenon may be affecting the atmospheres of some stars. Follow-up observations will be needed to help astronomers understand whether the spot is linked to oscillations previously detected in the giant star, or whether it moves systematically across the star's surface under the grip of powerful magnetic fields. The observations were made by Andrea Dupree of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD, who announced their discovery today at the 187th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio, Texas. The image was taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera on March 3, 1995. Hubble can resolve the star even though the apparent size is 20,000 times smaller than the width of the full Moon -- roughly equivalent to being able to resolve a car's headlights at a distance of 6,000 miles. Betelgeuse is so huge that, if it replaced the Sun at the center of our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the orbit of Jupiter (scale at lower left). Credit: Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland (STScI), NASA and ESA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from in /pubinfo.

  17. A UKIDSS-based search for low-mass stars and small stellar clumps in off-cloud parts of young star-forming regions* **

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrado y Navascués D.


    Full Text Available The form and universality of the mass function of young and nearby star-forming regions is still under debate. Its relation to the stellar density, its mass peak and the dependency on most recent models shows significant differencies for the various regions and remains unclear up to date. We aim to get a more complete census of two of such regions. We investigate yet unexplored areas of Orion and Taurus-Auriga, observed by the UKIDSS survey. In the latter, we search for low-mass stars via photometric and proper motion criteria and signs for variability. In Orion, we search for small stellar clumps via nearest-neighbor methods. Highlights in Taurus would be the finding of the missing low-mass stars and the detection of a young cluster T dwarf. In Orion, we discovered small stellar associations of its OB1b and OB1c populations. Combined with what is known in literature, we will provide by this investigations a general picture of the results of the star-forming processes in large areas of Taurus and Orion and probe the most recent models.

  18. Heterogeneity and nearest-neighbor coupling can explain small-worldness and wave properties in pancreatic islets (United States)

    Cappon, Giacomo; Pedersen, Morten Gram


    Many multicellular systems consist of coupled cells that work as a syncytium. The pancreatic islet of Langerhans is a well-studied example of such a microorgan. The islets are responsible for secretion of glucose-regulating hormones, mainly glucagon and insulin, which are released in distinct pulses. In order to observe pulsatile insulin secretion from the β-cells within the islets, the cellular responses must be synchronized. It is now well established that gap junctions provide the electrical nearest-neighbor coupling that allows excitation waves to spread across islets to synchronize the β-cell population. Surprisingly, functional coupling analysis of calcium responses in β-cells shows small-world properties, i.e., a high degree of local coupling with a few long-range "short-cut" connections that reduce the average path-length greatly. Here, we investigate how such long-range functional coupling can appear as a result of heterogeneity, nearest-neighbor coupling, and wave propagation. Heterogeneity is also able to explain a set of experimentally observed synchronization and wave properties without introducing all-or-none cell coupling and percolation theory. Our theoretical results highlight how local biological coupling can give rise to functional small-world properties via heterogeneity and wave propagation.

  19. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi


    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Successful dexamethasone pulse therapy in a toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) patient featuring recurrent TEN to oxazepam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, J B; Schuttelaar, M L; Toth, G G; Kardaun, S H; Beerthuizen, G; de Jong, M C; Jonkman, M F; Nieuwenhuis, P


    A 62-year-old female patient is described who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) after medication with phenytoin and oxazepam. Initially phenytoin was discontinued and dexamethasone pulse therapy (1.5 mg/kg on 3 consecutive days) was initiated on the tenth day of skin disease. This resulted

  1. How much mass and angular momentum can the progenitors of carbon-enriched stars accrete? (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Abate, C.; Stancliffe, R. J.


    The chemically peculiar barium stars, CH stars, and most carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are all believed to be the products of mass transfer in binary systems from a now extinct asymptotic giant branch (AGB) primary star. The mass of the AGB star and the orbital parameters of the system are the key factors usually considered when determining how much mass is transferred onto the lower-mass main-sequence companion. What is usually neglected, however, is the angular momentum of the accreted material, which should spin up the accreting star. If the star reaches critical rotation, further accretion should cease until the excess angular momentum is somehow dealt with. If the star cannot redistribute or lose the angular momentum while the primary is on the AGB, the amount of mass accreted could be much lower than otherwise expected. Here we present calculations, based on detailed stellar evolution models, of the mass that can be accreted by putative progenitors of Ba and CEMP stars before they reach critical rotation under the assumption that no angular momentum loss occurs during the mass transfer. We consider different accretion rates and values of specific angular momentum. The most stringent limits on the accreted masses result from considering accretion from a Keplerian accretion disk, which is likely present during the formation of most extrinsically-polluted carbon-enriched stars. Our calculations indicate that in this scenario only about 0.05 M⊙ of material can be added to the accreting star before it reaches critical rotation, which is much too low to explain the chemical enrichment of many Ba and CEMP stars. Either the specific angular momentum of the accreted material has to effectively be lower by about a factor of ten than the Keplerian value, or significant angular momentum losses must occur for substantial accretion to take place.

  2. First stars X. The nature of three unevolved carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.C.; Bonifacio, P.


    Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov.......Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov....

  3. The physics of neutron stars. (United States)

    Lattimer, J M; Prakash, M


    Neutron stars are some of the densest manifestations of massive objects in the universe. They are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of dense matter physics and provide connections among nuclear physics, particle physics, and astrophysics. Neutron stars may exhibit conditions and phenomena not observed elsewhere, such as hyperon-dominated matter, deconfined quark matter, superfluidity and superconductivity with critical temperatures near 10(10) kelvin, opaqueness to neutrinos, and magnetic fields in excess of 10(13) Gauss. Here, we describe the formation, structure, internal composition, and evolution of neutron stars. Observations that include studies of pulsars in binary systems, thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, glitches from pulsars, and quasi-periodic oscillations from accreting neutron stars provide information about neutron star masses, radii, temperatures, ages, and internal compositions.

  4. Astrophysics of Collapsing Axion Stars (United States)

    Eby, Joshua; Leembruggen, Madelyn; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.


    Axion stars are condensed states of large numbers of axion particles, bound by self-gravitation and quantum self-interactions. The mass of weakly bound axion stars is limited by gravitational stability, with condensates exceeding the maximum mass subject to collapse. During the collapse process, the axion density increases and higher-order self-interactions become increasingly relevant. By taking these terms into account, we provide evidence that in spite of a leading attractive interaction, collapsing axion stars stabilize in a dense state which is larger than its Schwarzschild radius, and so do not form black holes. During the last moments of collapse, number changing processes take place in the axion star with a very large rate, leading to emission of many highly energetic axions which escape from galaxies and galaxy clusters. Finally, if axion stars are a significant fraction of cold dark matter, then frequent collisions with each other or with ordinary stars could catalyze this collapse process as well.

  5. First stars evolution and nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahena, D. [Institute of Astronomy of the Academy of Sciences, Bocni II 1401, 14131 Praha 4, (Czech Republic); Klapp, J. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Dehnen, H. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitat Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)]. e-mail:


    The first stars in the universe were massive and luminous with typical masses M {>=} 100M. Metal-free stars have unique physical characteristics and exhibit high effective temperatures and small radii. These so called Population III stars were responsible for the initial enrichment of the intergalactic medium with heavy elements. In this work, we study the structure, evolution and nucleosynthesis of 100, 200, 250 and 300M galactic and pregalactic Population III mass losing stars with metallicities Z 10{sup -6} and Z = 10{sup -9}, during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. Using a stellar evolution code, a system of 10 structure and evolution equations together with boundary conditions, and a set of 30 nuclear reactions, are solved simultaneously, obtaining the star's structure, evolution, isotopic abundances and their ratios. Motivated by recent stability analysis, almost all very massive star (VMS) calculations during the past few years have been performed with no mass loss. However, it has recently been claimed that VMS should have strong mass loss. We present in this work new VMS calculations that includes mass loss. The main difference between zero-metal and metal-enriched stars lies in the nuclear energy generation mechanism. For the first stars, nuclear burning proceeds in a non-standard way. Since Population III stars can reach high central temperatures, this leads to the first synthesis of primary carbon through the 3 {alpha} reaction activating the CNO-cycles. Zero-metal stars produce light elements, such as He, C, N and O. Thus, very massive pregalactic Population III stars experienced self-production of C, either at the zero-age main sequence or in later phases of central hydrogen burning. In advanced evolutionary phases, these stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium through supernova explosions. (Author)

  6. Massive star clusters in galaxies. (United States)

    Harris, William E


    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GC research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  7. Scaling exponents of star polymers


    von Ferber, Christian; Holovatch, Yurij


    We review recent results of the field theoretical renormalization group analysis on the scaling properties of star polymers. We give a brief account of how the numerical values of the exponents governing the scaling of star polymers were obtained as well as provide some examples of the phenomena governed by these exponents. In particular we treat the interaction between star polymers in a good solvent, the Brownian motion near absorbing polymers, and diffusion-controlled reactions involving p...

  8. The Astrophysics of Emission-Line Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kogure, Tomokazu


    Many types of stars show conspicuous emission lines in their optical spectra. These stars are broadly referred to as emission line stars. Emission line stars are attractive to many people because of their spectacular phenomena and their variability. The Astrophysics of Emission Line Stars offers general information on emission line stars, starting from a brief introduction to stellar astrophysics, and then moving toward a broad overview of emission line stars including early and late type stars as well as pre-main sequence stars. Detailed references have been prepared along with an index for further reading.

  9. A temperate rocky super-Earth transiting a nearby cool star. (United States)

    Dittmann, Jason A; Irwin, Jonathan M; Charbonneau, David; Bonfils, Xavier; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Haywood, Raphaëlle D; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K; Newton, Elisabeth R; Rodriguez, Joseph E; Winters, Jennifer G; Tan, Thiam-Guan; Almenara, Jose-Manuel; Bouchy, François; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Murgas, Felipe; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stephane; Wünsche, Anaël; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Latham, David W; Dressing, Courtney D


    M dwarf stars, which have masses less than 60 per cent that of the Sun, make up 75 per cent of the population of the stars in the Galaxy. The atmospheres of orbiting Earth-sized planets are observationally accessible via transmission spectroscopy when the planets pass in front of these stars. Statistical results suggest that the nearest transiting Earth-sized planet in the liquid-water, habitable zone of an M dwarf star is probably around 10.5 parsecs away. A temperate planet has been discovered orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest M dwarf, but it probably does not transit and its true mass is unknown. Seven Earth-sized planets transit the very low-mass star TRAPPIST-1, which is 12 parsecs away, but their masses and, particularly, their densities are poorly constrained. Here we report observations of LHS 1140b, a planet with a radius of 1.4 Earth radii transiting a small, cool star (LHS 1140) 12 parsecs away. We measure the mass of the planet to be 6.6 times that of Earth, consistent with a rocky bulk composition. LHS 1140b receives an insolation of 0.46 times that of Earth, placing it within the liquid-water, habitable zone. With 90 per cent confidence, we place an upper limit on the orbital eccentricity of 0.29. The circular orbit is unlikely to be the result of tides and therefore was probably present at formation. Given its large surface gravity and cool insolation, the planet may have retained its atmosphere despite the greater luminosity (compared to the present-day) of its host star in its youth. Because LHS 1140 is nearby, telescopes currently under construction might be able to search for specific atmospheric gases in the future.

  10. Resolving the late planet formation stages around young M-stars (United States)

    Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell


    Recent discoveries of earth-like planets around M-stars have highlighted the importance of understanding planet formation around late-type stars. However, this effort has been hampered by the lack of resolved observations of protoplanetary disks. In particular, scattered light images of M-star disks near the age of dispersal are critical to making further progress. The Upper Sco region provides a promising venue to remedy this situation, as it is the closest region with an age of 5-11 Myrs, commensurate with dispersal timescales. We propose to observe three M-star protoplanetary disks in the Upper Sco association using HST/STIS coronography to resolve the disks in scattered-light for the first time and to search for morphological signatures of forming planets. These three disks have been selected based on ALMA mm-dust and CO measurements that display radii within the STIS field of view and outside its inner working angle (IWA). We will use these observations to carry out a comparative study of the evolutionary state between M-star disks in Upper Sco and the younger 1-2 Myr Taurus region, leveraging both previous scattered-light images of disks in Taurus, as well as previous observations of the mm-dust and CO in both regions. All three targets are too faint to be observed using ground-based AO. Therefore, HST/STIS is the only instrument able to make these important measurements. These observations will act as critical diagnostics of the evolutionary state of nearby M-star protoplanetary disks, that will inform theories of planet formation and will further our understanding of the evolution of the planets around M-stars, such as our nearest neighbor Proxima Centauri b.

  11. A temperate rocky super-Earth transiting a nearby cool star (United States)

    Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Bonfils, Xavier; Astudillo-Defru, Nicola; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Tan, Thiam-Guan; Almenara, Jose-Manuel; Bouchy, François; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Lovis, Christophe; Murgas, Felipe; Pepe, Francesco; Santos, Nuno C.; Udry, Stephane; Wünsche, Anaël; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Latham, David W.; Dressing, Courtney D.


    M dwarf stars, which have masses less than 60 per cent that of the Sun, make up 75 per cent of the population of the stars in the Galaxy. The atmospheres of orbiting Earth-sized planets are observationally accessible via transmission spectroscopy when the planets pass in front of these stars. Statistical results suggest that the nearest transiting Earth-sized planet in the liquid-water, habitable zone of an M dwarf star is probably around 10.5 parsecs away. A temperate planet has been discovered orbiting Proxima Centauri, the closest M dwarf, but it probably does not transit and its true mass is unknown. Seven Earth-sized planets transit the very low-mass star TRAPPIST-1, which is 12 parsecs away, but their masses and, particularly, their densities are poorly constrained. Here we report observations of LHS 1140b, a planet with a radius of 1.4 Earth radii transiting a small, cool star (LHS 1140) 12 parsecs away. We measure the mass of the planet to be 6.6 times that of Earth, consistent with a rocky bulk composition. LHS 1140b receives an insolation of 0.46 times that of Earth, placing it within the liquid-water, habitable zone. With 90 per cent confidence, we place an upper limit on the orbital eccentricity of 0.29. The circular orbit is unlikely to be the result of tides and therefore was probably present at formation. Given its large surface gravity and cool insolation, the planet may have retained its atmosphere despite the greater luminosity (compared to the present-day) of its host star in its youth. Because LHS 1140 is nearby, telescopes currently under construction might be able to search for specific atmospheric gases in the future.

  12. Romania: Ten Years of EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya


    Full Text Available By joining the European Union as of 1st of January 2007, Romania made use of a window of opportunity which may not have been open later. In the ten years that followed, advantages and challenges of the membership have in part been overshadowed by the impact of the global financial crisis. The country went through a boom-bust-boom economic cycle. The swing from overheating to depression and back again to overheating has been amplified by pro-cyclical economic policy. Romania has been a selective policy taker in the EU often delaying fiscal and legal actions resulting in lost benefits. By reviewing the current political uncertainties in Europe, the conclusion emerges that more effective governance and more active foreign policy is necessary under the current Europe-wide orientation loss. The country may need to develop a mobilising strategy and policy beyond the direct benefits provided by the EU, one that also contributes to the success of the European integration.

  13. Questioning ten common assumptions about peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    University of Leeds Peat Club:


    Full Text Available Peatlands have been widely studied in terms of their ecohydrology, carbon dynamics, ecosystem services and palaeoenvironmental archives. However, several assumptions are frequently made about peatlands in the academic literature, practitioner reports and the popular media which are either ambiguous or in some cases incorrect. Here we discuss the following ten common assumptions about peatlands: 1. the northern peatland carbon store will shrink under a warming climate; 2. peatlands are fragile ecosystems; 3. wet peatlands have greater rates of net carbon accumulation; 4. different rules apply to tropical peatlands; 5. peat is a single soil type; 6. peatlands behave like sponges; 7. Sphagnum is the main ‘ecosystem engineer’ in peatlands; 8. a single core provides a representative palaeo-archive from a peatland; 9. water-table reconstructions from peatlands provide direct records of past climate change; and 10. restoration of peatlands results in the re-establishment of their carbon sink function. In each case we consider the evidence supporting the assumption and, where appropriate, identify its shortcomings or ways in which it may be misleading.

  14. Ten tips for authors of scientific articles. (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Tae


    Writing a good quality scientific article takes experience and skill. I propose 'Ten Tips' that may help to improve the quality of manuscripts for scholarly journals. It is advisable to draft first version of manuscript and revise it repeatedly for consistency and accuracy of the writing. During the drafting and revising the following tips can be considered: 1) focus on design to have proper content, conclusion, points compliant with scope of the target journal, appropriate authors and contributors list, and relevant references from widely visible sources; 2) format the manuscript in accordance with instructions to authors of the target journal; 3) ensure consistency and logical flow of ideas and scientific facts; 4) provide scientific confidence; 5) make your story interesting for your readers; 6) write up short, simple and attractive sentences; 7) bear in mind that properly composed and reflective titles increase chances of attracting more readers; 8) do not forget that well-structured and readable abstracts improve citability of your publications; 9) when revising adhere to the rule of 'First and Last' - open your text with topic paragraph and close it with resolution paragraph; 10) use connecting words linking sentences within a paragraph by repeating relevant keywords.

  15. Choledochal cysts: our ten year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cianci, F


    We present our experience in the management of choledochal cysts from 1999 to 2009. A retrospective review of all charts with a diagnosis of choledochal cysts in our institution in this ten-year period. Data was collated using Excel. A total of 17 patients were diagnosed with choledochal cyst: 9 females and 8 males. The average age at diagnosis was 28 months (range from 0 to 9 years). The most common presenting symptoms were obstructive jaundice 6 (35%) and abdominal pain and vomiting 4 (23%). Ultrasound (US) was the initial diagnostic test in all cases with 4 patients requiring further investigations. All patients underwent Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy. The average length of stay was 11 days. Patients were followed up with Liver Function Tests (LFTS) and US 4-6 weeks post-operatively. Three patients developed complications including post-op collection, high drain output requiring blood transfusion and adhesive bowel obstruction. Our overall experience with choledochal cyst patients has been a positive one with effective management and low complication rates.

  16. The first ten years of Swift supernovae (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.


    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  17. Comparative Genomics of Ten Solanaceous Plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Availability of complete plastid genomes of ten solanaceous species, Atropa belladonna, Capsicum annuum, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, Nicotiana undulata, Solanum bulbocastanum, Solanum lycopersicum, and Solanum tuberosum provided us with an opportunity to conduct their in silico comparative analysis in depth. The size of complete chloroplast genomes and LSC and SSC regions of three species of Solanum is comparatively smaller than that of any other species studied till date (exception: SSC region of A. belladonna. AT content of coding regions was found to be less than noncoding regions. A duplicate copy of trnH gene in C. annuum and two alternative tRNA genes for proline in D. stramonium were observed for the first time in this analysis. Further, homology search revealed the presence of rps19 pseudogene and infA genes in A. belladonna and D. stramonium, a region identical to rps19 pseudogene in C. annum and orthologues of sprA gene in another six species. Among the eighteen intron-containing genes, 3 genes have two introns and 15 genes have one intron. The longest insertion was found in accD gene in C. annuum. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated protein coding sequences gave two clades, one for Nicotiana species and another for Solanum, Capsicum, Atropa, and Datura.

  18. Ten years for the public Web

    CERN Multimedia


    Ten years ago, CERN issued a statement declaring that a little known piece of software called the World Wide Web was in the public domain. Nowadays, the Web is an indispensable part of modern communications. The idea for the Web goes back to March 1989 when CERN Computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for a 'Distributed Information Management System' for the high-energy physics community. The Web was originaly conceived and developed to meet the demand for information sharing between scientists working all over the world. There were many obstacles in the 1980s to the effective exchange of information. There was, for example a great variety of computer and network systems, with hardly any common features. The main purpose of the web was to allow scientists to access information from any source in a consistent and simple way. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee's idea had become the World Wide Web, with its first server and browser running at CERN. Through 1991, the Web spread to other particle physics ...

  19. Space Science in Action: Stars [Videotape]. (United States)


    This videotape recording shows students the many ways scientists look at the stars and how they can use what they see to answer questions such as What are stars made of?, How far away are they?, and How old are the stars? Students learn about the life span of stars and the various stages they pass through from protostar to main sequence star to…

  20. The Star Formation History of RCW 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, L. E.; Kaper, L.; Bik, A.; Maaskant, K. M.; Podio, L.; Carciofi, A.; Rivinius, Th.


    Recent studies of massive-star forming regions indicate that they can contain multiple generations of young stars. These observations suggest that star formation in these regions is sequential and/or triggered by a previous generation of (massive) stars. Here we present new observations of the star

  1. The birth of star clusters

    CERN Document Server


    All stars are born in groups. The origin of these groups has long been a key question in astronomy, one that interests researchers in star formation, the interstellar medium, and cosmology. This volume summarizes current progress in the field, and includes contributions from both theorists and observers. Star clusters appear with a wide range of properties, and are born in a variety of physical conditions. Yet the key question remains: How do diffuse clouds of gas condense into the collections of luminous objects we call stars? This book will benefit graduate students, newcomers to the field, and also experienced scientists seeking a convenient reference.

  2. Fragmentation in massive star formation. (United States)

    Beuther, Henrik; Schilke, Peter


    Studies of evolved massive stars indicate that they form in a clustered mode. During the earliest evolutionary stages, these regions are embedded within their natal cores. Here we present high-spatial-resolution interferometric dust continuum observations disentangling the cluster-like structure of a young massive star-forming region. The derived protocluster mass distribution is consistent with the stellar initial mass function. Thus, fragmentation of the initial massive cores may determine the initial mass function and the masses of the final stars. This implies that stars of all masses can form via accretion processes, and coalescence of intermediate-mass protostars appears not to be necessary.

  3. QPO Constraints on Neutron Stars (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman


    The kilohertz frequencies of QPOs from accreting neutron star systems imply that they are generated in regions of strong gravity, close to the star. This suggests that observations of the QPOs can be used to constrain the properties of neutron stars themselves, and in particular to inform us about the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear densities. Here we discuss some relatively model-insensitive constraints that emerge from the kilohertz QPOs, as well as recent developments that may hint at phenomena related to unstable circular orbits outside neutron stars.

  4. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  5. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  6. Rotation of Giant Stars (United States)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher


    The internal rotation of post-main sequence stars is investigated, in response to the convective pumping of angular momentum toward the stellar core, combined with a tight magnetic coupling between core and envelope. The spin evolution is calculated using model stars of initial mass 1, 1.5, and 5 {M}⊙ , taking into account mass loss on the giant branches. We also include the deposition of orbital angular momentum from a sub-stellar companion, as influenced by tidal drag along with the excitation of orbital eccentricity by a fluctuating gravitational quadrupole moment. A range of angular velocity profiles {{Ω }}(r) is considered in the envelope, extending from solid rotation to constant specific angular momentum. We focus on the backreaction of the Coriolis force, and the threshold for dynamo action in the inner envelope. Quantitative agreement with measurements of core rotation in subgiants and post-He core flash stars by Kepler is obtained with a two-layer angular velocity profile: uniform specific angular momentum where the Coriolis parameter {Co}\\equiv {{Ω }}{τ }{con}≲ 1 (here {τ }{con} is the convective time), and {{Ω }}(r)\\propto {r}-1 where {Co}≳ 1. The inner profile is interpreted in terms of a balance between the Coriolis force and angular pressure gradients driven by radially extended convective plumes. Inward angular momentum pumping reduces the surface rotation of subgiants, and the need for a rejuvenated magnetic wind torque. The co-evolution of internal magnetic fields and rotation is considered in Kissin & Thompson, along with the breaking of the rotational coupling between core and envelope due to heavy mass loss.

  7. Hadronic Resonances from STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Masayuki


    Full Text Available The results of resonance particle productions (ρ0, ω, K*, ϕ, Σ*, and Λ* measured by the STAR collaboration at RHIC from various colliding systems and energies are presented. Measured mass, width, 〈pT〉, and yield of those resonances are reviewed. No significant mass shifts or width broadening beyond the experiment uncertainties are observed. New measurements of ϕ and ω from leptonic decay channels are presented. The yields from leptonic decay channels are compared with the measurements from hadronic decay channels and the two results are consistent with each other.

  8. Stars of heaven

    CERN Document Server

    Pickover, Clifford A


    Do a little armchair space travel, rub elbows with alien life forms, and stretch your mind to the furthest corners of our uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, you don't have to be an astronomer to explore the mysteries of stars and their profound meaning for human existence. Clifford A. Pickover tackles a range of topics from stellar evolution to the fundamental reasons why the universe permits life to flourish. He alternates sections that explain the mysteries of the cosmos with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialog between futuristic human

  9. Role of nanocrystalline silver dressings in the management of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and TEN/Stevens-Johnson syndrome overlap. (United States)

    Smith, Saxon D; Dodds, Annabel; Dixit, Shreya; Cooper, Alan


    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are severe mucocutaneous eruptions. There is currently no defined optimal approach to wound care. The objective of this study was to evaluate silver dressings in the wound-care management of TEN and SJS/TEN syndrome overlap with a retrospective case review of nine patients with TEN and SJS/TEN overlap presenting to our institution. Nanocrystalline silver dressings appear to be useful in the rapid commencement of healing in these patients. TEN and SJS/TEN overlap are rare conditions. This contributed to a relatively small number of cases included in the study. The ease of application, antimicrobial properties and low frequency of change make nanocrystalline silver dressings ideal in TEN/SJS. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  10. Recent star formation in the Hi dominated outer regions of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yıldız, Mustafa K.; Serra, Paolo; Peletier, Reynier F.; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    Context According to the ATLAS3D project, about 20 percent of all nearby early-type galaxies (D <42 Mpc; M K < -21.5 mag; stellar mass M stars >~ 6 × 109 M⊙) outside clusters are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutral hydrogen (Hi) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much

  11. Investigating the Impact of the Premier League Reading Stars Programme on Children's Attainment (United States)

    Pabion, Clémence


    The evaluation of the Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) programme in 2013 has established that the intervention is having a positive impact on the attainment of participating children in reading and writing: Three out of four children made at least six months' progress in just ten weeks. One child in three made a year's progress or more. The…

  12. Evaluation of the suitability of free-energy minimization using nearest-neighbor energy parameters for RNA secondary structure prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobaugh Christian W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A detailed understanding of an RNA's correct secondary and tertiary structure is crucial to understanding its function and mechanism in the cell. Free energy minimization with energy parameters based on the nearest-neighbor model and comparative analysis are the primary methods for predicting an RNA's secondary structure from its sequence. Version 3.1 of Mfold has been available since 1999. This version contains an expanded sequence dependence of energy parameters and the ability to incorporate coaxial stacking into free energy calculations. We test Mfold 3.1 by performing the largest and most phylogenetically diverse comparison of rRNA and tRNA structures predicted by comparative analysis and Mfold, and we use the results of our tests on 16S and 23S rRNA sequences to assess the improvement between Mfold 2.3 and Mfold 3.1. Results The average prediction accuracy for a 16S or 23S rRNA sequence with Mfold 3.1 is 41%, while the prediction accuracies for the majority of 16S and 23S rRNA structures tested are between 20% and 60%, with some having less than 20% prediction accuracy. The average prediction accuracy was 71% for 5S rRNA and 69% for tRNA. The majority of the 5S rRNA and tRNA sequences have prediction accuracies greater than 60%. The prediction accuracy of 16S rRNA base-pairs decreases exponentially as the number of nucleotides intervening between the 5' and 3' halves of the base-pair increases. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that the current set of nearest-neighbor energy parameters in conjunction with the Mfold folding algorithm are unable to consistently and reliably predict an RNA's correct secondary structure. For 16S or 23S rRNA structure prediction, Mfold 3.1 offers little improvement over Mfold 2.3. However, the nearest-neighbor energy parameters do work well for shorter RNA sequences such as tRNA or 5S rRNA, or for larger rRNAs when the contact distance between the base-pairs is less than 100 nucleotides.

  13. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K


    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  14. "Take ten minutes": a dedicated ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, E K


    Multiple and inappropriate medications are often the cause for poor health status in the elderly. Medication reviews can improve prescribing. This study aimed to determine if a ten minute medication review by a general practitioner could reduce polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 50) underwent a 10-minute medication review. Inappropriate medications, dosage errors, and discrepancies between prescribed versus actual medication being consumed were recorded. A questionnaire to assess satisfaction was completed following review. The mean number of medications taken by patients was reduced (p < 0.001). A medication was stopped in 35 (70%) patients. Inappropriate medications were detected in 27 (54%) patients and reduced (p < 0.001). Dose errors were detected in 16 (32%). A high level of patient satisfaction was reported. A ten minute medication review reduces polypharmacy, improves prescribing and is associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  15. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patruno A.


    Full Text Available We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars during quiescence. In the first part of this overview we show that the X-ray pulses are contaminated by a large amount of noise of uncertain origin, and that all these neutron stars do not show evidence of spin variations during the outburst. We present also some recent developments on the presence of intermittency in three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars and investigate the reason why only a small number of accreting neutron stars show X-ray pulsations and why none of these pulsars shows sub-millisecond spin periods. In the second part of the overview we introduce the observational technique that allows the study of neutron star cooling in accreting systems as probes of neutron star internal composition and equation of state. We explain the phenomenon of the deep crustal heating and present some recent developments on several quasi persistent X-ray sources where a cooling neutron star has been observed.

  16. A Star is Born!-The Formation Process of Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. A Star is Born! - The Formation Process of Stars. Indira Dey. General Article Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 22-25. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  17. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters. (United States)

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André


    Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old 'globular' clusters--those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun--often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1-2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies' gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters.

  18. The TEN-T core network and the Fehmarnbelt region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    This note is a snapshot picture, taken in early 2014, that places the Green STRING corridor project within the context of the TEN-T strategy and gives a summarized overview on the impact of this strategy in the region. Chapter 1 contains a summary of the TEN-T strategy today, chapter 2 presents...... the sources used for this note, chapter 3 presents all the relevant EU regulations with direct impact on the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 4 gives practical examples of the challenges for the development of TEN-T corridors, chapter 5 pre-sents the national initiatives related to the TEN-T corridor...

  19. Al-Sufi's Investigation of Stars, Star Clusters and Nebulae (United States)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. R.; Orchiston, W.


    The distinguished Arabic astronomer, Al-Sufi (AD 903-986) is justly famous for his Book of the Fixed Stars, an outstanding Medieval treatise on astronomy that was assembled in 964. Developed from Ptolemy's Algamest, but based upon al-Sufi's own stellar observations, the Book of the Fixed Stars has been copied down through the ages, and currently 35 copies are known to exist in various archival repositories around the world. Among other things, this major work contains 55 astronomical tables, plus star charts for 48 constellations. For the first time a long-overdue English translation of this important early work is in active preparation. In this paper we provide biographical material about Al-Sufi and the contents of his Book of the Fixed Stars, before examining his novel stellar magnitude system, and his listing of star clusters and nebulae (including the first-ever mention of the Great Nebula in Andromeda).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Ptak, Andrew [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, Stephen E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. Niel; Luo, Bin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, Andrea [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gandhi, Poshak [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, Michael [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others


    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Only one source (IRAS 13120–5453) has a spectrum consistent with a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we cannot rule out that a second source (Arp 220) harbors an extremely highly obscured AGN as well. Variability in column density (reduction by a factor of a few compared to older observations) is seen in IRAS 05189–2524 and Mrk 273, altering the classification of these borderline sources from Compton-thick to Compton-thin. The ULIRGs in our sample have surprisingly low observed fluxes in high-energy (>10 keV) X-rays, especially compared to their bolometric luminosities. They have lower ratios of unabsorbed 2–10 keV to bolometric luminosity, and unabsorbed 2–10 keV to mid-IR [O iv] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths.