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Sample records for temporary k-wire fixation

  1. Mid-term outcome comparing temporary K-wire fixation versus PDS augmentation of Rockwood grade III acromioclavicular joint separations

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    Pilotto Susann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The treatment of acute acromioclavicular (AC joint injuries depends mainly on the type of the dislocation and patient demands. This study compares the mid term outcome of two frequently performed surgical concepts of Rockwood grade III AC joint separations: The temporary articular fixation with K-wires (TKW and the refixation with an absorbable polydioxansulfate (PDS sling. Findings Retrospective observational study of 86 patients with a mean age of 37 years underwent either TKW (n = 70 or PDS treatment (n = 16 of Rockwood grade III AC joint injuries. Mid term outcome with a mean follow up of 3 years was measured using a standardized functional patient questionnaire including Constant score, ASES rating scale, SPADI, XSMFA-D and a pain score. K-wire therapy resulted in significantly better functional results expressed by Constant score (88 ± 10 vs. 73 ± 18, ASES rating scale (29 ± 3 vs. 25 ± 5, SPADI (3 ± 9 vs. 9 ± 13, XSMFA-D function (13 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 3, XSMFA-D impairment (4 ± 1 vs. 6 ± 2 and pain score (1 ± 1 vs. 2 ± 2. Conclusion Either temporary K-wire fixation and PDS sling enable good or satisfying functional results in the treatment of Rockwood grade III AC separations. However functional outcome parameters indicate a significant advantage for the K-wire technique.

  2. Fixation of two part fracture of radial head by pre-bend K-wire: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to see the functional status of elbow after fixation with pre bend K- wire in Mason type II Radial head fractures. We have studied eight patients (3 females and 5 males) with Mason type II isolated radial head fractures aged between 15 and 65 years (average 39 years) who underwent open reduction and ...

  3. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft fractures in children: A treatment concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ramji Lal

    2013-09-01

    Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be treated surgically. In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire) were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wires for the treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children. This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty-eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years) were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of humerus shaft. All patients were operated under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed for 12 months. Out of 68 patients, 64 patients underwent union in 42-70 days with a mean of 56 days. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next 3 weeks. Intramedullary K-wires were removed after an average of 5 months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.11% and good in 5% children. This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical.

  4. Arthrodesis of distal interphalangeal joints in the hand with interosseous wiring and intramedullary K-wire fixation.

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    Han, Soo Hong; Cha, Yoon Sik; Song, Won Tae

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wire fixation and interosseous wiring in the arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint with description of surgical procedure. We retrospectively analyzed 9 cases (7 women and 2 men) of DIP joint arthrodesis. The average age of patients was 44.2 years (range, 21 to 71 years) and the mean follow-up period was 19.6 months. Joint union was evaluated on the follow-up radiographs together with postoperative complications. All cases achieved radiologic union of the arthrodesis site. There was no surgical complication except for one case of skin irritation by the interosseous wire knot which was removed during the follow-up period. Intramedullary K-wire fixation and interosseous wiring could be an alternative procedure of arthrodesis in the DIP joint.

  5. A Prospective Study of Distal Metatarsal Chevron Osteotomies with K-Wire Fixations to Treat Hallux Valgus Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Usman; Tariq, Ali; Din, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot deformities worldwide. Females are affected more often than males. The three most common clinical symptoms are the painful bunion, transfer metatarsalgia, and hammer or claw toes. Methods This case series consisted of 20 patients who had chevron osteotomy from January 2015 to January 2016. The clinical assessment was measured by The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS), and radiologic assessment was determined by preoperative and postoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA). Results The patients’ mean age was 56 years. Out of 20 patients, 19 were female, and one was male. The mean AOFAS improved from 51 preoperatively to 82 postoperatively. The HVA improved from 26° preoperatively to 14°. There were five complications including four Kirschner (K)-wire complications. Conclusion Distal chevron osteotomy is a reliable and time-tested procedure. The K-wire fixation has a relatively high complication rate. We planned to use other methods of fixation and then compared them with K-wires fixation results for future studies. PMID:29167752

  6. A Prospective Study of Distal Metatarsal Chevron Osteotomies with K-Wire Fixations to Treat Hallux Valgus Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M N; Baig, Usman; Tariq, Ali; Din, Robert

    2017-09-20

    Introduction Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot deformities worldwide. Females are affected more often than males. The three most common clinical symptoms are the painful bunion, transfer metatarsalgia, and hammer or claw toes. Methods This case series consisted of 20 patients who had chevron osteotomy from January 2015 to January 2016. The clinical assessment was measured by The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS), and radiologic assessment was determined by preoperative and postoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA). Results The patients' mean age was 56 years. Out of 20 patients, 19 were female, and one was male. The mean AOFAS improved from 51 preoperatively to 82 postoperatively. The HVA improved from 26° preoperatively to 14°. There were five complications including four Kirschner (K)-wire complications. Conclusion Distal chevron osteotomy is a reliable and time-tested procedure. The K-wire fixation has a relatively high complication rate. We planned to use other methods of fixation and then compared them with K-wires fixation results for future studies.

  7. Fifth metacarpal neck fracture fixation: Locking plate versus K-wire?

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    Facca, S; Ramdhian, R; Pelissier, A; Diaconu, M; Liverneaux, P

    2010-09-01

    Neck fractures of the fifth metacarpal bone can leave sequelae. Surgery is indicated when the displacement of the head in flexion exceeds 45° and/or rotation is impaired. Among available techniques, non-locking mini-plates have the most drawbacks; recently developed locking plates may, however, challenge the preference for K-wires. The present study compared results between locking plates and intramedullary K-wires. The series comprised 38 fifth metacarpal fractures: 18 were managed by locking plate (group I) and 20 by intramedullary K-wire (group II). Results were analyzed on subjective and objective criteria (pain, DASH, strength, mobility, time off work, radiology). No significant differences were found for pain, DASH, strength, time off work or head displacement at last follow-up. Active mobility, however, was significantly greater in the K-wire group, with mean relative metacarpophalangeal flexion 59% of healthy-side values in group I vs. 98% in group II, and mean relative extension 89% in group I vs. 99% in group II. Group I showed six complications (three cases of stiffness, one of head necrosis, two of delayed consolidation) vs. seven in group II (three cases of wire migration, three of neurologic lesion, one of esthetic blemish). Locking plates with immediate mobilization paradoxically provided poorer mobility at end of follow-up than intramedullary K-wire with 6 weeks' immobilization. The extra cost of locking plates was thus not justified by results. Intramedullary K-wire nailing remains the reference technique for the management of displaced fracture of the fifth metacarpal neck. Level IV continuous prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Study Using Intramedullary K-wire Fixation Over Titanium Elastic Nail in Paediatric Shaft Femur Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Anand, Tushar; Singh, Sudhir

    2014-11-01

    Fracture shaft femur is common paediatric trauma leading to significant morbidity. Conservative treatments available are associated with prolonged periods of immobilization. Use of flexible intramedullary implant allows early rehabilitation in diaphyseal fractures of femur in children. The aim of the present study is to compare fixation of diaphyseal femur fracture by titanium elastic nail and intramedullary K-wires in children. Prospective randomized study in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty-two children between 6 years and 14 years of age with femoral shaft fracture were assigned either in Group I or Group II based on computer generated random numbers. In Group I closed percutaneous intramedullary K- wire fixation and in Group II closed percutaneous intramedullary titanium elastic nail was used to fix the fractures. Partial weight bearing was allowed after 6 weeks of surgery and full weight bearing at clinico-radiological union. Average time of radiological union was 6 to 10 weeks in both groups. In both the groups two cases had entry site irritation which resolved with early implant removal. One case in both the groups had unacceptable mal-alignment. Both the groups had few cases of limb-length discrepancy, which was in acceptable limit, except two cases of TENS. There was no statistically significant difference between the results of both the groups. But, using K-wires significantly reduced the cost of treatment. Most of such fractures in our society are neglected because of high cost of treatment. Providing a cheaper alternative in form of K-wires may be beneficial for the patients from low socio-economic status.

  9. Comparison of palmar fixed-angle plate fixation with K-wire fixation of distal radius fractures (AO A2, A3, C1) in elderly patients.

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    Goehre, F; Otto, W; Schwan, S; Mendel, T; Vergroesen, P P; Lindemann-Sperfeld, L

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this prospective, randomized, controlled trial was to compare the results of two operative techniques used for the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures in elderly patients classified as AO types A2, A3, and C1. Patients were treated with either fixed-angle volar plates or K-wires using a combined Kapandji and Willenegger technique. The functional results were determined after 3, 6, and 12 months. We included 40 patients aged over 65 years. Twenty-one patients were treated with plate fixation and 19 with K-wire fixation. The functional results, after 1 year, were nearly the same in both treatment groups, suggesting that either method is suitable for the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures of AO types A2, A3, and C1 in elderly patients. Sixteen of 21 patients with plate fixation and 17 of 19 patients with K-wire fixation present good results as assessed by the Castaing score. The median DASH score was three in both groups after 1 year. The patients with plate fixation were able to resume activities of daily living 4 weeks earlier. The most common complication was an intermediate post-traumatic median nerve irritation. Both methods are suitable for the treatment of elderly patients with unstable distal radius fractures of AO types A2, A3, and C1. If early functional post-operative care is important, palmar fixed-angle plate fixation is an ideal treatment approach. Otherwise, K-wire fixation is an effective, minimally invasive method with comparable clinical results.

  10. The early detection and management of unstable concentric closed reduction of DDH with percutaneous K-wire fixation in infants 6 to 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsiddiky, Abdul Monem Mohamed; Bakarman, Khalid Abdulla; Alzain, Kholoud Omar; Aljassir, Fawzi Fahad; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz Suliman; Kremli, Mamoun Khalid; Zamzam, Mohammed Medhat; Mervyn Letts, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In some infants with developmental dysplasia of the hip, concentric closed reduction, although initially achievable, cannot be maintained even by casting because of a deficient posterior acetabular wall. Usually, these hips will redislocate in the cast and a rereduction will be necessary, often requiring an open reduction subsequently. A 3-year retrospective review of 88 infants, (M/F; 14/74) 6 to 12 months of age with 124 dislocated hips, was conducted to assess the efficacy of percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation in achieving permanent hip stability. A "hip-at-risk" instability test was developed to detect potentially unstable hips at the time of closed reduction that might redislocate in the hip spica cast, and these hips were stabilized with a percutaneous K-wire through the greater trochanter into the pelvic bone. The hip instability test was positive in 27 hips and negative in 97. Percutaneous K-wire fixation was used to stabilize 21 hips with a positive hip instability test. All 21 unstable hips that were stabilized with the K-wire technique maintained their concentric reduction and went on to stable development. No K-wire breakage was encountered and only 1 superficial pin tract infection occurred. K-wire stabilization of unstable closed reductions is a safe, reliable technique for maintaining concentric hip reduction in infants 6 to 12 months of age with developmental dislocation of the hips. Level II retrospective study.

  11. Minimally invasive manipulative reduction with poking k-wire fixation in the treatment of various types of calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B; Liu, P; Wang, Y; Yuan, J B; Tang, X M; Wei, D; Zhang, B; Hu, Y M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of minimally invasive manipulative reduction with poking k-wire fixation in the treatment of various types of calcaneal fractures. Between July 2012 and July 2014, a prospective parallel controlled study was conducted on 96 patients with closed calcaneal fractures who were admitted to our institution. These patients were randomly divided into two groups, with 48 in each group. Patients in plate group were treated using open reduction and internal fixation, whereas those of manipulation group were treated with minimally invasive manipulative reduction with poking k-wire fixation. All patients were followed up for six months to assess the postoperative recovery and complications. Kerr's scale was adopted to evaluate the functional recovery of fractured calcaneus. A mean healing duration of 9.48 ± 1.92 weeks was achieved in patients of plate group compared with a healing duration of 9.35 ± 1.66 weeks in those of manipulation group, with no statistical significance (p > 0.05). Complications occurred in 20 cases in plate group versus in seven cases in manipulation group with significant difference (p fracture, among patients with compression fracture and tongue type fracture, > 70% of patients achieved with excellent and good outcomes in both groups with no significant difference in clinical efficacy (p > 0.05). The rate of excellent and good outcomes in Sanders type III compression fractures was lower in manipulation group than in plate group (p fractures, the Kerr's score of tongue type fractures in manipulation group was higher than that in plate group, and comparison within manipulation group showed that the score of tongue type fractures was significantly higher than that of compression fractures (p fractures, the score of tongue type fractures in manipulation group was significantly higher than that in plate group, and the score of compression fractures in plate group was significantly

  12. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of displaced Supracondylar Fractures of Humerus with Crossed K-wires via Medial Approach

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    S Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the medial approach for open reduction and internal fixation of Gartland type 3 displaced supracondylar fractures of humerus in children. A prospective, single centre study of on displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in 42 children was carried out at our institute. All fractures were managed with open reduction and internal fixation with crossed K-wires via medial approach. The mean follow-up was 12 months and patients were assessed according to Flynn’s criteria. No patients had post-operative ulnar nerve injury. Cubitus varus was not seen in any patient. Superficial pin tract infection occurred in three patients that subsided with anti-septic dressings and antibiotics. No deep infection occurred. 88.09 % patients showed satisfactory results as per Flynn’s criteria. The medial approach provides an excellent view of the supracondylar area. The approach is convenient due to a lower risk for ulnar nerve injury and better acceptability of the medial incisional scar.

  13. [Comparative study on effect and safty of treating on calcaneus fractures with manipulative reduction with percutaneous K-wire fixation].

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    Qi, Yue-Feng; Zheng, Yi-Bing; Wang, Peng; Li, Ye; Chen, Wen-xue; Dong, Yan-Xu; Jin, Li-Kun; Wang, Chen-Xi; Li, Xu

    2013-04-01

    To explore the clinical effects and safty of manipulative reduction with percutaneous poking K-wire fixation for the treatment of the calcaneus fractures and analyze the indication of the minimal invasion. From December 2008 to December 2011,135 closed calcaneal fractures cases were divided randomly into poking group and plate group, treated respectively by percutaneous poking reduction and operative reduction. In poking group, there were 69 cases (82 feet) including 60 males and 9 females, with an average age of (43.29+/-10.46) years ranging from 18 to 64 years; 30 cases of left, 26 cases of right and 13 cases of double; 54 feet of Essex-Lopresti classification tongue form, 28 feet of joint compression; 33 feet of Sanders type II ,49 of type III. In plate group, there were 66 cases (75 feet) including 58 males and 8 females,with an average age of (46.00+/-2.42) years ranging from 21 to 63 years; 31 cases of left, 26 cases of right and 9 cases of double; 48 feet of Essex-Lopresti classification tongue form, 27 feet of joint compression; 28 feet of Sanders type II, 47 of type III. According to Kerr scoring standard,clinical effects and complications were evaluated combining with Sanders and Essex-Lopresti classification. All 135 cases were followed up after 24 weeks. Fractures were recoveried in 8 to 12 weeks (means 10.2 weeks). In poking group, there were 2 cases of infection, 5 cases of wire movement; in plate group,18 cases of wound local skin necrosis, 5 cases of calf intestines nerve injured; there were statistical significant (Pcalcaneus fractures with percutaneous poking and operative redution (P>0.05). In the caes of Sanders type III, there were no significant differences on effects of tongue form fractures with percutaneous poking and operative reduction (P>0.05). There were significant differences on effects and complications of compressing form fractures (Pfractures of Sanders II , III with poking reduction were better than compression fractures. In

  14. [Case control study on therapeutic effects of dynamic external fixtor combined with limited internal fixation and cross K-wires fixation for the treatment of Pilon fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Dao-yi; Yang, Guo-jing; Zhang, Ling-zhou; Wu, Jian-wei

    2015-10-01

    To compare the clinical effects and safety of dynamic external fixtor combined with limited internal fixation and cross K-wires fixation for the treatment of close Pilon fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint. From June 2012 to June 2014, totally 41 patients (45 fingers) with close interphalangeal joint Pilon fracture were treated by dynamic external fixtor combined with limited internal fixation or cross K-wires fixation, and all the patients were followed up. In the dynamic external fixtor combined with limited internal fixation group (group A), there were 21 patients with 22 fingers, including 12 males and 9 females, with an average of (30.6±5.6) years old. In the cross K-wires fixation group (group B), there were 20 patients with 23 fingers, including 11 males and 9 females, with an average of (30.1±5.3) years old. Regular re-examination of X-ray was performed to evaluate the active range of joint motion, fracture healing time, infection rate and postoperative joint motion pain. According to the evaluation criteria of upper extremity function issued by the Hand Surgery Society of Chinese Medical Association, the excellent and good cases of group A was up to 19 and 13 for group B. The evaluation results has significant differences (Z=2.558, P=0.011). The excellent and good rate of group A was obviously higher than that of group B. The average bone union time of group A was (7.9±2.1) weeks, and (8.1±2.3) weeks for group B. There was no significant difference on the mean healing time (t=-0.304, P=0.762). The infection fingers of group A was 5, and 1 for group B. The difference between the results was statistically significant (χ2=3.287, Pexternal fixtor combined with limited internal fixation is a reliable and effective method to treat Pilon fractures of the proximal interphalangeal joint. It allows early postoperative functional rehabilitation and restores the joint function.

  15. Cable pin system versus K-wire tension band fixation for patella fractures in Chinese Han population: A meta-analysis.

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    Zha, Kun; Liu, Guo-Hui; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Yi; Wu, Qi-Peng

    2017-10-01

    This meta-analysis compared the therapeutic effect of cable pin system (CPS) with K-wire tension band (KTB) in the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese WanFang and Chinese VIP were searched for studies on CPS versus KTB in the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population. Literatures were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was assessed, and meta-analysis was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's REVMAN 5.3 software. A total of 932 patients from 15 studies were included in this meta-analysis (426 fractures treated with CPS and 506 fractures treated with KTB). There were significant differences in duration of hospital stay [mean difference (MD)=-1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI):-1.71 to-0.43], fracture healing time (MD=-1.23; 95% CI:-1.68 to-0.77), flexion degree of knee joint at 6th month after operation (MD=14.82; 95% CI: 10.93 to 18.71), incidence of postoperative complication [risk ratio (RR)=0.16; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.27] and excellent-good rate of Böstman score (RR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.16) between the CPS group and KTB group, while no significant difference was found in operative time between the two groups (MD=-4.52; 95% CI:-11.70 to 2.67). For the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population, limited evidence suggests that the CPS is more suitable than the KTB when considering the hospital stay, fracture healing time, flexion degree of knee at 6th month after operation, incidence of postoperative complication and excellent-good rate of Böstman joint score. Due to the limitation of high quality evidence and sample size, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to validate the findings in the future.

  16. Temporary external fixation is safe in a combat environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possley, Daniel R; Burns, Travis C; Stinner, Daniel J; Murray, Clinton K; Wenke, Joseph C; Hsu, Joseph R

    2010-07-01

    External fixation has been used extensively during recent wars as a damage control measure for fractures in coalition forces being evacuated. We hypothesize that external fixation is a safe and effective initial stabilization procedure for combat-related open fractures. Records on 55 consecutive type III tibia fractures between March 2003 and September 2007 were reviewed. We stratified the complications related to external fixation as major, potential, and minor complications. We defined major complications as neurovascular injury, mechanical failure, septic joint, and pin tract osteomyelitis. Potential complications were defined as pins within 1 inch of the fracture, pin overpenetration (> or = 26 mm), pin without cortical purchase, and intracapsular pin placement. Minor complications were defined as pin tract infections, addition of pins or bars, and pin overpenetration (9-25 mm). "Successful application" was defined as the absence of major or potential complications. We recorded no major complications. There were 12 of 53 (22.6%) constructs and 21 of 228 (9.2%) pins inserted with potential complications. We detected minor complications in 27 of 53 (50.9%) constructs and 35 of 228 (15.3%) pins inserted; 41 of 53 (77.4%) constructs had no major or potential complications. Treatment of combat-related open tibia fractures with external fixation was 77% successful in our series. We recorded no major complications but demonstrated the possibility for technical improvement in one of the five constructs with potential complications. Despite the recorded potential and minor complications, external fixation is safe and effective as a temporary damage control in open fractures sustained in combat.

  17. Correlation between extension-block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture.

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    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2018-02-01

    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2) K-wire insertion angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy-five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size: +0.67, time to operation: +0.60). When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint, the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is -3.67° and +4.54° (DIP joint fixation angles of K-wire

  18. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be ...

  19. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  20. Notched K-wire for low thermal damage bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yiwen; Tai, Bruce; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert

    2017-07-01

    The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is a common bone drilling tool in orthopedic surgery to affix fractured bone. Significant heat is produced due to both the cutting and the friction between the K-wire and the bone debris during drilling. Such heat can result in high temperatures, leading to osteonecrosis and other secondary injuries. To reduce thermal injury and other high-temperature associated complications, a new K-wire design with three notches along the three-plane trocar tip fabricated using a thin micro-saw tool is studied. These notches evacuate bone debris and reduce the clogging and heat generation during bone drilling. A set of four K-wires, one without notches and three notched, with depths of 0.5, 0.75, and 1mm, are evaluated. Bone drilling experiments conducted on bovine cortical bone show that notched K-wires could effectively decrease the temperature, thrust force, and torque during bone drilling. K-wires with notches 1mm deep reduced the thrust force and torque by approximately 30%, reduced peak temperatures by 43%, and eliminated blackened burn marks in bone. This study demonstrates that a simple modification of the tip of K-wires can effectively reduce bone temperatures during drilling. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporary arthrodesis using fixator rods in two-stage revision of septic knee prothesis with severe bone and tissue defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhner, Eric; Pfitzner, Tilman; Preininger, Bernd; Zippelius, Timo; Perka, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes a new temporary arthrodesis procedure, which aims for septic knee prosthesis replacement, in particular for larger bone and soft tissue defects. Our technique offers high stability and full weight-bearing capacity of the knee joint. The study included 16 patients with major bone defects (AORI type IIb or greater) after receiving a radical debridement and a septic two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty. After removing the infected prosthesis and debridement, two AO fixator rods were positioned into the intramedullary space of the femur and tibia. Subsequently, both rods were joined tube-to-tube and adjusted in the center of the knee joint. Finally, the whole cavity of the knee joint was filled with PMMA. The number of previous surgeries, bacterial spectrum, risk factors for further infection and reinfection rates was recorded. Immediately after the temporary arthrodesis, radiographs of the knee with the enclosed spacers were taken in order to compare to previous radiographs and avoiding to miss possible spacer loosening. Nine of sixteen patients underwent more than two revision surgeries before receiving our new arthrodesis technique. No cases of spacer loosening were observed in all 16 patients; further, there were no peri-implant fractures, and four persistent infections were noted. Temporary arthrodesis using AO fixator rods offers a high stability without loosening. Its potential to replace conventional augmentation techniques should be taken into account, particularly in the case of larger bone and tissue defects. In clinical practice, the cemented spacer using AO fixator rods could be an alternative technique for temporary knee arthrodesis after septic debridement. Retrospective case series, Level IV.

  2. Reduction and temporary stabilization of Tile C pelvic ring injuries using a posteriorly based external fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Murphy P; Rojas, David; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2017-12-05

    Tile C pelvic ring injuries are challenging to manage even in the most experienced hands. The majority of such injuries can be managed using percutaneous reduction techniques, and the posterior ring can be stabilized using percutaneous transiliac-transsacral screw fixation. However, a subgroup of patients present with inadequate bony corridors, significant sacral zone 2 comminution or significant lateral/vertical displacement of the hemipelvis through a complete sacral fracture. Percutaneous strategies in such circumstances can be dangerous. Those patients may benefit from prone positioning and open reduction of the sacral fracture with fixation through tension band plating or lumbo-pelvic fixation. Soft tissue handling is critical, and direct reduction techniques around the sacrum can be difficult due to the complex anatomy and the fragile nature of the sacrum making clamp placement and tightening a challenge. In this paper, we propose a mini-invasive technique of indirect reduction and temporary stabilization, which is soft tissue friendly and permits maintenance of reduction during definitive fixation surgical.

  3. Intra-abdominal migration of a k-wire during revision total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin T. Hug, MD; Navin D. Fernando, MD, FRCS(C)

    2017-01-01

    Revision total hip arthroplasty in the setting of severe acetabular bone loss is a challenging problem that is becoming more common. Kirschner wires are often used during acetabular revision for temporary fixation of trial components. We describe an intraoperative migration of a Kirschner wire through the acetabulum into the peritoneal cavity, requiring acute laparoscopic removal.

  4. Does K-wire position in tension band wiring of olecranon fractures affect its complications and removal of metal rate?

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    Chan, K W; Donnelly, K J

    2015-06-01

    Despite the recognised complications of migration of wires and soft tissue irritation, tension band wiring (TBW) remains the gold standard for fixation of displaced, minimally comminuted olecranon fractures. There is much variation in placement of the K-wires with current AO guidance stating that each wire should be drilled through the anterior cortex and then backed up by 1 cm. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of K-wire position (intramedullary vs. transcortical) on stability of the construct and significant local complications. All patients who underwent TBW for an isolated olecranon fracture in our trauma unit between 1/1/2009 and 31/12/2011 were included in this retrospective study. Mean follow-up was 14 months (range 5-29 months). Data was gathered from medical records and radiographs. The outcome measured was removal of metal due to complications such as wound problems or proximal migration of wires as standard practice within out trauma unit. Sixty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. Forty-seven had an intramedullary compared with 16 with transcortical configuration (ratio 3:1). Nine patients (19%) with intramedullary K-wires required removal of metalwork - seven due to prominent metalwork and two with wound infection. Four patients (25%) with transcortical K-wires required removal of metalwork - three due to prominent metalwork and one with failure of metalwork. There was no significant statistical difference between transcortical and intramedullary K-wire placement with regards to complication rates following tension band wiring of an isolated olecranon fracture requiring removal of metal (Chi squared test with Yates' correction p = 0.89). We concluded that we found no difference in complications or metalwork removal rate in the placement of K-wire in tension band wiring for isolated olecranon fracture. We recognise our study was limited by small numbers and is based on the experience of one trauma unit.

  5. Four-corner fusion: comparison of patient satisfaction and functional outcome of conventional K-wire technique vs. a new locking plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernekamp, J F; Reinecke, A; Neubrech, F; Bickert, B; Kneser, U; Kremer, T

    2016-04-01

    Four-corner fusion is a standard procedure for advanced carpal collapse. Several operative techniques and numerous implants for osseous fixation have been described. Recently, a specially designed locking plate (Aptus©, Medartis, Basel, Switzerland) was introduced. The purpose of this study was to compare functional results after osseous fixation using K-wires (standard of care, SOC) with four-corner fusion and locking plate fixation. 21 patients who underwent four-corner fusion in our institution between 2008 and 2013 were included in a retrospective analysis. In 11 patients, osseous fixation was performed using locking plates whereas ten patients underwent bone fixation with conventional K-wires. Outcome parameters were functional outcome, osseous consolidation, patient satisfaction (DASH- and Krimmer Score), pain and perioperative morbidity and the time until patients returned to daily work. Patients were divided in two groups and paired t-tests were performed for statistical analysis. No implant related complications were observed. Osseous consolidation was achieved in all cases. Differences between groups were not significant regarding active range of motion (AROM), pain and function. Overall patient satisfaction was acceptable in all cases; differences in the DASH questionnaire and the Krimmer questionnaire were not significant. One patient of the plate group required conversion to total wrist arthrodesis without implant-related complications. Both techniques for four-corner fusion have similar healing rates. Using the more expensive locking implant avoids a second operation for K-wire removal, but no statistical differences were detected in functional outcome as well as in patient satisfaction when compared to SOC.

  6. Effectiveness of Dual-Maneuver Using K-Wire and Dingman Elevator for the Reduction of Unstable Zygomatic Arch Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyungwoo; Kim, Jiye; Chung, Seum; Chung, Yoon-Kyu

    2014-08-01

    The zygoma is the most prominent portion of the face. Almost all simple zygomatic arch fractures are treated in a closed fashion with a Dingman elevator. However, the open approach should be considered for unstable zygomatic arch fractures. The coronal approach for a zygomatic arch fracture has complications. In this study, we introduce our method to reduce a special type of unstable zygomatic fracture. We retrospectively reviewed zygomatic arch view and facial bone computed tomography scans of 424 patients who visited the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital from 2007 to 2010 with zygomaticomaxillary fractures, among whom 15 patients met the inclusion criteria. We used a Dingman elevator and K-wire simultaneously to manage this type of zygomatic arch fracture. Simple medial rotation force usually collapses the posterior fractured segment, and the fracture becomes unstable. Thus, the posterior fracture segment must be concurrently elevated with a Dingman elevator through Keen's approach with rotation force applied through the K-wire. All fractures were reduced without any instability using this method. We were able to reduce unstable and difficult zygomatic arch fractures without an open incision or any external fixation device.

  7. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation treated with Bosworth screw and additional K-wiring: results after 7.8 years - still an adequate procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenboeck, Thomas M; Popp, Domenik; Boesmueller, Sandra; Payr, Stephan; Joestl, Julian; Komjati, Micha; Binder, Harald; Schurz, Mark; Ostermann, Roman C

    2017-08-04

    The acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation is a major reason for shoulder instability. Different concepts of treatment and surgical methods are described in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this study was to present our data of long-term follow-up of patients having undergone treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation using the Bosworth Screw with additional K-wiring. This study was conducted as a retrospective single centre data analysis. All patients treated operatively for AC joint dislocation with a Bosworth screw and additional K-wire fixation at our Department were asked to participate in this study. The study population consisted of 22 patients, 20 male and 2 female, with a mean age of 40 years ±15.6 years. Three grade-II lesions, 13 grade-III lesions, four grade-IV lesions and two grade-V lesions according to the Rockwood classification were found. The overall mean clinical outcome at the latest follow up was: Constant 95, DASH 6.4, ASES 94.6, SST 99.02, UCLA 33.1, ACJI 91.82 and VAS 0.29 - representing a good-to-excellent long-term outcome in all patients after at least 2 years follow-up (range; 2 - 19 years). Overall, 19 patients (86%) reported to be very satisfied with the achieved result, 15 patients (68%) reported to be able to participate in every sports activity and 16 patients (73%) reported to be able to perform their daily work without limitations. Overall, complications occurred in three patients (14%). Only one patient remained unsatisfied with the achieved result. Summarizing, our reported results showed that surgical fixation of acute AC joint dislocation with a Bosworth screw and additional K-wire fixation leads to good-to-excellent functional outcome and highly satisfactory results in the majority of patients. Despite its complications, in accordance with our results, Bosworth screw fixation with additional K-wiring in AC joint dislocation represents an adequate surgical procedure. Level IV, retrospective study.

  8. Intracranial Migration of K-wire in a Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Vimala

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old female patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate reported for orthodontic treatment. Upon routine investigations, presence of a K-wire that was fixed when patient was around 6 months old, and now had migrated intracranially was made. As K-wire is notorious for its migration to distant places and, that any further impending migration, may in future present a serious problem, the wire was removed after necessary precautions. This case report should be an eye opener and post a caution to general, medical, surgical practitioners and orthodontists.

  9. PERCUTANEOUS REDUCTION WITH K-WIRES OF A BIMALLEOLAR SALTER HARRIS III: A CASE REPORT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Meccariello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Salt Harris Fracture is a fracture involving the epiphyseal plate or growth plate of a bone. It is a common injury found in children; occurring in 15% of childhood long bone fractures. Injuries of the ankle joint are common. In our case report, we describe the case of a thirteen-year-old patient under our treatment at the Orthopaedic emergency depart-ment of Val D’Elsa Hospital (in Campostaggia Poggibonsi, Siena, who presented with a bimalleolar Salter Harris III fracture after a sport trauma. We reduced the bimalleolar Salter Harris III with percutaneous K-wires instead of an open access and two screws (one on the top and another on the bottom of the epiphyseal plate of distal tibia. We per-formed it according to a revision of scientific literature. The result was a satisfactory re-duction of the bimalleolar Salter Harris III.

  10. Preclinical usability study of multiple augmented reality concepts for K-wire placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marius; Fuerst, Bernhard; Lee, Sing Chun; Fotouhi, Javad; Habert, Severine; Weidert, Simon; Euler, Ekkehard; Osgood, Greg; Navab, Nassir

    2016-06-01

    In many orthopedic surgeries, there is a demand for correctly placing medical instruments (e.g., K-wire or drill) to perform bone fracture repairs. The main challenge is the mental alignment of X-ray images acquired using a C-arm, the medical instruments, and the patient, which dramatically increases in complexity during pelvic surgeries. Current solutions include the continuous acquisition of many intra-operative X-ray images from various views, which will result in high radiation exposure, long surgical durations, and significant effort and frustration for the surgical staff. This work conducts a preclinical usability study to test and evaluate mixed reality visualization techniques using intra-operative X-ray, optical, and RGBD imaging to augment the surgeon's view to assist accurate placement of tools. We design and perform a usability study to compare the performance of surgeons and their task load using three different mixed reality systems during K-wire placements. The three systems are interventional X-ray imaging, X-ray augmentation on 2D video, and 3D surface reconstruction augmented by digitally reconstructed radiographs and live tool visualization. The evaluation criteria include duration, number of X-ray images acquired, placement accuracy, and the surgical task load, which are observed during 21 clinically relevant interventions performed by surgeons on phantoms. Finally, we test for statistically significant improvements and show that the mixed reality visualization leads to a significantly improved efficiency. The 3D visualization of patient, tool, and DRR shows clear advantages over the conventional X-ray imaging and provides intuitive feedback to place the medical tools correctly and efficiently.

  11. Distal radioulnar joint instability (Galeazzi type injury) after internal fixation in relation to the radius fracture pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V; Lykissas, Marios G; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P; Beris, Alexandros E; Soucacos, Panayiotis N

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to classify Galeazzi type injuries and determine the association of residual instability after rigid fixation with the fracture pattern of the shaft of the radius, using a system that is based on anatomic landmarks of the radial shaft. The clinical records of 95 patients (72 men and 23 women) with Galeazzi type injuries requiring open reduction and internal fixation of the fractures were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up was 6.8 years (range, 18 mo to 11 y) after injury. Sixty-nine fractures occurred in the distal third of the radial shaft (type I), 17 fractures were in the middle third (type II), and 9 fractures were in the proximal third of the shaft of the radius (type III). Gross instability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) was determined intraoperatively by manipulation after radial fixation as compared to the uninjured side. Forty patients had DRUJ instability after internal fixation and were treated with temporary pinning with a K-wire placed transversely proximal to the sigmoid notch. Distal radioulnar joint instability after internal fixation was recorded in 37 type I fractures, 2 type II fractures, and 1 type III fracture. Distal radioulnar joint instability following radial shaft fracture fixation is significantly higher in patients with type I fractures than in patients with type II or type III fractures. The location of the radius fracture can be sufficiently used for preoperative estimation of percentage chance of potential DRUJ instability after fracture fixation. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent advances in fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslemani, Danny; Kellman, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton is an evolving aspect for facial plastic, oral and maxillofacial, and plastic surgery. This review looks at the recent advances that aid in reduction and fixation of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton. More surgeons are using resorbable plates for craniomaxillofacial fixation. A single miniplate on the inferior border of the mandible may be sufficient to reduce and fixate an angle fracture. Percutaneous K-wires may assist in plating angle fractures. Intraoperative computed tomography (CT) may prove to be useful for assessing reduction and fixation. Resorbable plates are becoming increasingly popular in orthognathic surgery and facial trauma surgery. There are newer operative techniques for fixating the angle of the mandible. Also, the utilization of the intraoperative CT provides immediate feedback for accurate reduction and fixation. Prebent surgical plates save operative time, decrease errors, and provide more accurate fixation.

  13. Radiological dorsal tilt analysis of AO type A, B, and C fractures of the distal radius treated conservatively or with extra-focal K-wire plus external fixateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Michael [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Borders General Hospital, Department for Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Melrose, Roxburghshire, Scotland (United Kingdom); Schroeder, Malte; Gruber-Rathmann, Michaela; Ruecker, Andreas H. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Kossow, Kai [Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Fractures of the distal radius are amongst the most common injury patterns. The dorsal tilt represents an important co-factor determining functional outcome. The purpose of this study was to analyze the radiological dorsal tilt and identify critical time frames in conservative and operative treatment of distal radius fractures. Eighty-seven conservatively treated (hematoma block assisted reduction and splinting) and 37 operatively treated (reduction, extra-focal K-wire fixation, bridging external fixateur) AO type A, B, and C fractures of the distal radius in 124 females were retrospectively analyzed. The dorsal tilt at the initial, post-reduction, and 2 weeks post-reduction stages was correlated with the final radiographic outcome at 6 weeks. Mean initial dorsal tilt was 16.53 in the conservatively treated group and 26.76 in the operatively treated group. Mean dorsal tilt after 6 weeks showed significant differences from the mean initial dorsal tilt at time of presentation within both groups (both groups p < 0.000). No significant differences between the two groups were found after 6 weeks of treatment (p = 0.194) regardless of the underlying AO fracture type. Conservatively treated radius fractures showed a significantly higher slip rate within the first 2 weeks (primary slip rate), whereas the operative group presented a significantly higher slip rate between the 2-week and 6-week radiographic checks (secondary slip rate). In terms of dorsal tilt, conservative (cast immobilization) and operative (K-wire fixation plus external fixateur) treatment demonstrated no significant differences at the final radiographic examination (6 weeks) regardless of the underlying AO fracture type. Both treatment groups showed treatment-associated different primary and secondary slip rates, indicating a need for more frequent radiographic checks within these critical time frames. (orig.)

  14. Biomechanical Comparison Study of Three Fixation Methods for Proximal Chevron Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal in Hallux Valgus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Su; Young, Ki Won; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2017-01-01

    Background Fixation of proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy has been accomplished using K-wires traditionally and with a locking plate recently. However, both methods have many disadvantages. Hence, we developed an intramedullary fixation technique using headless cannulated screws and conducted a biomechanical study to evaluate the superiority of the technique to K-wire and locking plate fixations. Methods Proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy was performed on 30 synthetic metatarsal models using three fixation techniques. Specimens in group I were fixated with K-wires (1.6 mm × 2) and in group II with headless cannulated screws (3.0 mm × 2) distally through the intramedullary canal. Specimens in group III were fixated with a locking X-shaped plate (1.3-mm thick) and screws (2.5 mm × 4). Eight metatarsal specimens were selected from each group for walking fatigue test. Bending stiffness and dorsal angulation were measured by 1,000 repetitions of a cantilever bending protocol in a plantar to dorsal direction. The remaining two samples from each group were subjected to 5 mm per minute axial loading to assess the maximal loading tolerance. Results All samples in group I failed walking fatigue test while group II and group III tolerated the walking fatigue test. Group II showed greater resistance to bending force and smaller dorsal angulation than group III (p = 0.001). On the axial loading test, group I and group II demonstrated superior maximum tolerance to group III (54.8 N vs. 47.2 N vs. 28.3 N). Conclusions Authors have demonstrated proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy with intramedullary screw fixation provides superior biomechanical stability to locking plate and K-wire fixations. The new technique using intramedullary screw fixation can offer robust fixation and may lead to better outcomes in surgical treatment of hallux valgus. PMID:29201305

  15. A biomechanical experiment and clinical study of the use of figure of eight plus circular wiring fixation for the treatment of olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wulian; Wu, Guangwen; Shen, Fuer; Zhang, Yiyuan; Liu, Xianxiang

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the stability of the figure of eight plus circular wiring fixation technique compared with four common internal fixation techniques and to provide experimental data for the selection of internal fixation techniques clinically. A total of 20 fresh cadaveric elbow joints were used as transverse, oblique and comminuted olecranon fracture models. Five techniques of internal fixation were investigated: circular wiring, figure of eight wiring, circular plus figure of eight wiring, Kirschner wire (K-wire) and screw fixation. The elbow joints were flexed at 90°. The fixation performance was tested using a high-precision displacement sensor. Displacement-load curves revealed that the strength of internal fixation was weakest when using circular wiring alone and that circular wiring plus figure of eight wiring fixation was stronger than that of figure of eight wiring or screw fixation. The difference was statistically significant (Pwiring plus figure of eight wiring fixation and K-wire fixation in the transverse and oblique fracture models (P>0.05). However, figure of eight plus circular wiring fixation was superior to K-wire fixation in the comminuted fracture model, with a tensile force of 67.42±2.17 vs. 58.52±2.17 N, respectively (Pwiring plus figure of eight wiring fixation recovered and 108 were included in the follow-up for an average of 12 months. The rate of excellent/fairly good recovery was 98.10%. Due to its reliability, simple surgery, lower invasiveness and lower cost, figure of eight plus circular wiring fixation is an ideal choice for the internal fixation of olecranon fractures, particularly comminuted fractures, compared with circular wiring, figure of eight wiring or screw fixation.

  16. COMBINATION OF FIXATION TECHNIQUES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMPLEX DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURE- OUR EXPERIENCES

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    Isaac Sunder Sen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to categorically suggest the apt method of surgical technique for a particular type of distal radius fracture (Frykman’s type III-VI. Distal radius fracture are among the most common fractures of the upper extremity inspite of increased focus on regular prevention of osteoporosis, early identification and its prompt management. Most distal radius fractures are the result of low energy mechanisms that can be successfully treated either nonoperatively or with a variety of operative techniques if indicated. Complex distal radius fractures occur most commonly in high-energy injuries with extensive comminution or bone loss and associated soft tissue or vascular injuries. These high-energy fractures can present challenges in reconstructing the distal radius. Effective restoration of the bony architecture requires a thorough knowledge of distal radius anatomy, understanding of the goals of treatment, versatility in surgical approaches and familiarity with multiple fixation options. Although, majority of the extra-articular fracture without signs of instability can be successfully managed with POP immobilisation for a period of 4-5 weeks followed by active physiotherapy, other types (Frykman’s III-VI need surgical management that too with combination of surgical techniques namely augmented spanning external fixator with supplemented K-wire fixation or external fixation followed by fragment specific volar locking compression plate osteosynthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS I have studied 50 cases of distal radius fractures classified using Frykman’s classification using combination of techniques namely augmented spanning external fixator application with K-wire supplementation and spanning external fixator application followed by volar LCP fixation in which external fixator had been used as a reduction tool in majority of the cases and external fixator had been removed after plate osteosynthesis. In some cases retained

  17. Plate fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy has greater risk for hallux valgus recurrence than Kirschner wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between feet fixed with Kirschner wires and those fixed with a plate and screws. Between December 2008 and November 2009, 53 patients (62 feet) were treated with proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. Thirty-four patients (41 feet) were stabilised with Kirschner wires (K-wire group) and 19 patients (21 feet) were stabilised with a locking plate (plate group). Clinical results were assessed using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Radiographic parameters were compared between these groups. Recurrence rate at the last follow-up was compared between the K-wire and plate groups. Mean AOFAS score was lower in the plate group, however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in AOFAS score at the last follow-up. Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were significantly larger in the plate group at the last follow-up. Mean 1-2 metatarsal (MT) distance on immediately postoperative radiographs was significant larger in the plate group. Four (9.8 %) of the 41 feet in the K-wire group and 7 (33.3 %) of the 21 feet in the plate group showed hallux valgus recurrence at the last follow-up. The plate group had a significantly higher risk of recurrence than the K-wire group. Fixation of proximal chevron osteotomy using a plate and screws has a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than fixation using Kirschner wires.

  18. Temporary tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferro, Elisa M

    2013-08-01

    Upper airway obstruction can be due to a variety of causes in small animal patients and is often life threatening if left untreated. Placement of a temporary tracheostomy tube may be necessary in the most severe cases of upper airway obstruction until definitive therapy can be implemented. This paper discusses the indications, technique for placement, maintenance, and complications associated with temporary tracheostomy in dogs and cats. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modified tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures: where and how should the K-wires be inserted to avoid articular penetration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Kızılay, Onur; Günenç, Ceren; Özsoy, Arzu; Demiryürek, Deniz; Hayran, Mutlu; Erçakmak, Burcu; Sakaoğulları, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Articular penetration of K-wires is a possible complication of the modified tension band wiring technique. However, there is no clear information or evidence regarding the entry point or introduction angle for K-wires to avoid this complication. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of varying K-wire insertion points and angles on the risk for articular penetration during modified tension band wiring for olecranon fractures. All anatomical measurements were made on 50 cadaveric ulnas, and all other measurements were performed on exact foam replications of the 50 cadaveric ulnas. Morphometric measurements, including olecranon height and heights of the central, radial and ulnar facets of the semilunar notch, were taken. In the sagittal plane, articular angle and tubercle angle were measured. Two 1.6-mm parallel K-wires were inserted from 0, 5 and 8 mm anterior to the dorsal cortex of the olecranon process at angles of 20° and 30°. K-wire articular penetration was evaluated both visually and radiographically. The mean central, radial and ulnar heights of the semilunar notch were 17.3 mm (14.7-20.0), 16.2 mm (12.0-21.0) and 15.8 mm (13.30-20.5), respectively. We observed no articular penetration at the 0-mm level at 20° and 30° (0 mm 20° and 0 mm 30°, respectively) or at 5 mm 20°. At 8 mm 30° wire introduction, more than 64% articular penetration was observed on either facet. The sequence from least to most likely to cause articular penetration was: 0 mm = 5 mm 20° > 5 mm 30° = 8 mm 20° > 8 mm 30°. The radial height of the semilunar notch was negatively correlated to the risk of articular penetration, when the wire was introduced at 8 mm 30°, 8 mm 20° and 5 mm 30° (all pwiring technique to prevent articular penetration, K-wires should be inserted in the first 5 mm from dorsal cortex of the olecranon process at a maximum angle of 20°. Moreover, if the wires are required to be inserted more anteriorly because of the anatomical

  20. The bridge and barrel hoop plates as alternatives to external fixation techniques in the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Paul M; Donahue, Michael P; Manoli, Arthur

    2004-09-01

    External fixation is a useful tool for treating severe traumatic injuries to the foot and ankle. External fixation, however, does have associated complications, such as inadequate fixation and pin tract infections. Temporary bridge plating of the medial, lateral, or both columns is a useful alternative to external fixation for treating multilevel foot injuries. This article describes the technique of temporary bridge plating which may be used as an alternative to external fixation.

  1. Free-hand versus novel specialised jig guidance for the passing of intramedullary wires in olecranon fracture fixation: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Diarmuid C; Kennedy, Jim; Gheiti, Adrian; Mullett, J Hannan

    2011-04-01

    The treatment of olecranon fractures frequently involves the use of tension-band fixation. Although associated with high union rates, this method has a high incidence of morbidity associated with soft tissue compromise and limitation of range of movement requiring frequent re-operation for removal of metal. We describe the use of a simple jig to ensure intramedullary placement of longitudinal K-wires and compare the accuracy of placement of Kirschner (K)-wires using this device with the traditional free-hand method. We found the distance from the centre of the medullary canal, the range and standard deviations of K-wire positions to be significantly more precise when the jig was used. This has applications for the use of the device, both with standard metallic radio-opaque wires and potentially with bio-absorbable pins. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mini-plate versus Kirschner wire internal fixation for treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures in Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Zhang, Changqing

    2014-04-11

    This meta-analysis aimed to compare the therapeutic effect of mini-plate versus Kirschner wire (K-wire) internal fixation on the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. Databases of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Chinese VIP, PubMed, and Embase were retrieved for studies on mini-plate (case group) versus K-wire (control group) internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal and phalangeal fractures among Chinese Han population. The odds ratio (OR) and standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for estimating the effects of dichotomous data and continuous data, respectively. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager 5.2 software. A total of 18 studies involving 1,375 metacarpal or phalangeal fracture patients (709 cases and 666 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant differences in fracture healing time (SMD = -1.28; 95% CI: -1.81, -0.76), postoperative infection rate (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.39), complication incidence (OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.38), and surgery time (SMD = 1.57; 95% CI: 0.76, 2.37) between the case and the control group, while no significant difference was found in hospital stays between these two groups (SMD = 0.43; 95% CI: -0.34, 1.20; P = 0.27). For the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population, mini-plate has advantages of shorter healing time and lower infection rate and complication incidence compared with K-wire internal fixation, while a longer surgery time than K-wire. In conclusion, mini-plate is prior than K-wire internal fixation for the treatment of metacarpal or phalangeal fracture among Chinese Han population.

  3. UK DRAFFT - A randomised controlled trial of percutaneous fixation with kirschner wires versus volar locking-plate fixation in the treatment of adult patients with a dorsally displaced fracture of the distal radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Jaclyn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius are extremely common injuries in adults. However, the optimal management remains controversial. In general, fractures of the distal radius are treated non-operatively if the bone fragments can be held in anatomical alignment by a plaster cast or orthotic. However, if this is not possible, then operative fixation is required. There are several operative options but the two most common in the UK, are Kirschner-wire fixation (K-wires and volar plate fixation using fixed-angle screws (locking-plates. The primary aim of this trial is to determine if there is a difference in the Patient-Reported Wrist Evaluation one year following K-wire fixation versus locking-plate fixation for adult patients with a dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius. Methods/design All adult patients with an acute, dorsally-displaced fracture of the distal radius, requiring operative fixation are potentially eligible to take part in this study. A total of 390 consenting patients will be randomly allocated to either K-wire fixation or locking-plate fixation. The surgery will be performed in trauma units across the UK using the preferred technique of the treating surgeon. Data regarding wrist function, quality of life, complications and costs will be collected at six weeks and three, six and twelve months following the injury. The primary outcome measure will be wrist function with a parallel economic analysis. Discussion This pragmatic, multi-centre trial is due to deliver results in December 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31379280 UKCRN portfolio ID 8956

  4. Arthroscopic Reduction and Fixation of Tibial Spine Avulsion Fractures by a Stainless Steel Wiring Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed M; Bayoumy, Maysara Abdelhalim; Elkady, Hesham A; Abdelkawi, Ayman Farouk

    2017-12-01

    Several techniques of arthroscopic treatment of tibial spine avulsion fractures have been described in the literature. These techniques include the use of various fixation devices such as screws, K-wires, wiring, sutures, and suture anchors. In this study, we evaluate a new wiring technique for the treatment of these injuries. This technique involves fixation by stainless steel tension wires passed over the fractured spine and tied over a bone bridge. The advantages of this technique are that it aids in reduction, allows for compression of the tibial spine fragment anatomically in its fracture bed, provides stable fixation in difficult comminuted fractures, and allows for early mobilization and weight bearing because of the solid fixation.

  5. Unstable fragility fractures of the ankle in the elderly; Transarticular Steinmann pin or external fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R. P. J.; Halm, J. A.; Schepers, T.

    2017-01-01

    Because of poor skin conditions and comorbidity, open reduction and internal fixation in ankle fractures is frequently contra-indicated in the elderly. This study reports the results of two temporary fixation types in fragility fractures in the older patient: transarticular Steinmann pin fixation

  6. Fixation and Grafting After Limited Debridement of Scaphoid Nonunions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Colin W; Giuffre, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate a surgical technique of treating nondisplaced waist and proximal pole scaphoid nonunions without avascular necrosis (AVN). We performed a retrospective review of all patients with nondisplaced, scaphoid waist or proximal pole nonunions without AVN treated with the following technique. Two K-wires are positioned along the scaphoid axis to stabilize the proximal and distal poles. Debridement with a curette or burr is performed parallel to the nonunion site until the K-wires are visualized and punctate bleeding of the proximal and distal fragments is encountered. The volar, radial fibrous union is left intact. Distal radius cancellous bone graft is packed into the nonunion site. A headless screw is placed perpendicular to the fracture and the K-wires are removed. Between 2012 and 2014, 12 patients (ages 13-29 y) with clinical and radiographic evidence (10 had computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging; 2 had radiographs only) of scaphoid nonunion were identified (10 transverse waist and 2 proximal pole fractures). Median interval from injury to surgery was 38 weeks (range, 3 mo to 9 y). Four patients were active smokers and 2 had failed previous iliac crest bone grafting. All patients healed as confirmed by computed tomography. Average time to union was 14 weeks (range, 6-31 wk). Four patients had delayed union requiring a bone stimulator. All patients had resolution of pain and there were no complications. The technique described is an effective and efficient method of treating nondisplaced scaphoid nonunions without AVN. We suggest that complete debridement of the nonunion is not essential to achieve union. In addition, pinning the proximal and distal scaphoid poles initially and maintaining the volar fibrous union of the scaphoid nonunion stabilizes the fracture fragments, increasing the technical ease of grafting and fixation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. A Novel Handmade External Fixator for Phalangeal and Metacarpal Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Jafari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The value of external fixation in complex hand injuries is well established. Expenses and technical difficulties of commercial mini external fixator sets have led to the innovation of handmade external fixators. These fixators are used as versatile facilities to treat certain hand fractures. Usually, these structures are made by k-wires crossed filled with cement plastic tube. However, these fixators have multiple deficiencies that should be addressed. Objectives In this study, we described in detail the surgical technique of a handmade concrete like mini external fixator and report its clinical use and results. Methods Our handmade external fixator was applied for 52 patients with 56 fractures. Only 5% of the fractures were closed, non-comminuted extra-articular, and the other 51 fractures were more complex injuries. The mean follow up time was 9.3 months. At the end of the follow up, radiologic and functional assessment (DASH: Disability of arm, shoulder and hand and TAM: Total active motion was evaluated. Results All 56 fractures were united completely. None of the cases experienced pin loosening or reduction loss. Of the fractures, 8.9% malunited due to fracture complexity. The mean dash score was 3.76. TAM was excellent in 45% of the fractures; it was good in 7% and fair in 4%. Conclusions This type of handmade external fixator is simple, lightweight, and cheap. Furthermore, all implements are readily available in most operating fields. The probability of loosening has been greatly diminished because of the concrete like structure. Easy and fast assembly and good clinical and functional results are the other advantages of this technique. Due to the less complication and benefits, this technique could be used for many phalangeal and metacarpal fractures with confidence.

  8. Humeral Supracondylar Fractures in Children: A Novel Technique of Lateral External Fixation and Kirschner Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kow, R Y; Zamri, A R; Ruben, J K; Jamaluddin, S; Mohd-Nazir, M T

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Supracondylar fracture of the humerus is the most common fracture around the elbow in children. Pinning with Kirschner wires (K-wires) after open or closed reduction is generally accepted as the primary treatment modality. However, it comes with the risk of persistent instability and if the K-wire is not inserted properly, it may cause displacement and varus deformity. We present our two-year experience with a new technique of lateral external fixation and K-wiring of the humeral supracondylar fracture. Materials and Methods: A total of seven children with irreducible Gartland Type III supracondylar humeral fracture were treated with closed reduction and lateral external fixation and lateral Kirschner wiring. Patients with ipsilateral radial or ulnar fracture, open fracture and presence of neurovascular impairment pre-operatively were excluded. All the patients were followed up at one, three and six weeks and three and six months. The final outcomes were assessed based on Flynn's criteria. Results: All the patients achieved satisfactory outcomes in terms of cosmetic and functional aspects. All patients except one (85.5%) regained excellent and good cosmetic and functional status. One patient (14.3%) sustained pin site infection which resolved with oral antibiotic (Checketts- Otterburn grade 2). There was no neurological deficit involving the ulnar nerve and radial nerve. Conclusion: The introduction of lateral external fixation and lateral percutaneous pinning provide a promising alternative method for the treatment of humeral supracondylar fracture. This study demonstrates that it has satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes with no increased risk of complications compared to percutaneous pinning.

  9. Humeral Supracondylar Fractures in Children: A Novel Technique of Lateral External Fixation and Kirschner Wiring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kow RY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Supracondylar fracture of the humerus is the most common fracture around the elbow in children. Pinning with Kirschner wires (K-wires after open or closed reduction is generally accepted as the primary treatment modality. However, it comes with the risk of persistent instability and if the K-wire is not inserted properly, it may cause displacement and varus deformity. We present our two-year experience with a new technique of lateral external fixation and K-wiring of the humeral supracondylar fracture. Materials and Methods: A total of seven children with irreducible Gartland Type III supracondylar humeral fracture were treated with closed reduction and lateral external fixation and lateral Kirschner wiring. Patients with ipsilateral radial or ulnar fracture, open fracture and presence of neurovascular impairment pre-operatively were excluded. All the patients were followed up at one, three and six weeks and three and six months. The final outcomes were assessed based on Flynn's criteria. Results: All the patients achieved satisfactory outcomes in terms of cosmetic and functional aspects. All patients except one (85.5% regained excellent and good cosmetic and functional status. One patient (14.3% sustained pin site infection which resolved with oral antibiotic (CheckettsOtterburn grade 2. There was no neurological deficit involving the ulnar nerve and radial nerve. Conclusion: The introduction of lateral external fixation and lateral percutaneous pinning provide a promising alternative method for the treatment of humeral supracondylar fracture. This study demonstrates that it has satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes with no increased risk of complications compared to percutaneous pinning.

  10. Functional Outcomes After Temporary Bridging With Locking Plates in Lisfranc Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koperen, Paul J.; de Jong, Vincent M.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Schepers, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The standard operative treatment of Lisfranc fracture dislocations currently consists of open reduction and transarticular fixation. Recently, bridge plating has been used more often. Using joint spanning, the reduced fracture dislocation is temporary stabilized to minimize articular damage. The

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of the tension band wiring principle. A comparison between two different techniques for transverse patella fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Ivan; Stoffel, Karl; Sommer, Christoph; Höntzsch, Dankward; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the dynamic compression principle of tension band wiring in two techniques for patella fracture treatment. Twelve human cadaveric knees with simulated transverse patella fractures were assigned to two groups for treatment with tension band wiring using either Kirschner (K-) wires or cannulated screws. Biomechanical testing was performed over three knee movement cycles between 90° flexion and 0° full extension. Pressure distribution in the fracture gap and fracture site displacement were evaluated at the 3 rd cycle in 15° steps, namely 90°-75°-60°-45°-30°-15°-0° extension phase and 0°-15°-30°-45°-60°-75°-90° flexion phase. Mean anterior / posterior interfragmentary pressure in the groups with K-wires and cannulated screws ranged within 0.16-0.40MPa / 0.12-0.35MPa and 0.37-0.59MPa / 0.10-0.30MPa, respectively. These changes remained non-significant for both groups and loading phases (P≥0.171). Mean anterior / posterior fracture site displacement for K-wires and cannulated screws ranged within -0.01-0.53mm / 0.11-0.74mm and 0.11-0.55mm / -0.10-0.50mm, respectively. Anterior displacement remained without significant changes for both groups and loading phases (P≥0.112). However, posterior displacement underwent a significant increase in the course of knee extension for K-wires (P≤0.047), but not for cannulated screws (P≥0.202). Significantly smaller displacement at the posterior fracture site was detected in the group with cannulated screws compared to K-wires at 60° and 75° extension phase (P≤0.017), as well as at 45°, 60° and 75° flexion phase (P≤0.018). The critical value of 2mm displacement at the posterior fracture site was not reached for any specimen and fixation technique. Knee extension was accompanied by synchronous increase in quadriceps pulling force. Tension band wiring fulfills from a biomechanical perspective the requirements for sufficient stability of transverse

  12. Preliminary experience with biodegradable implants for fracture fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhillon Mandeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodegradable implants were designed to overcome the disadvantages of metal-based internal fixation devices. Although they have been in use for four decades internationally, many surgeons in India continue to be skeptical about the mechanical strength of biodegradable implants, hence this study. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done to assess the feasibility and surgeon confidence level with biodegradable implants over a 12-month period in an Indian hospital. Fifteen fractures (intra-articular, metaphyseal or small bone fractures were fixed with biodegradable implants. The surgeries were randomly scheduled so that different surgeons with different levels of experience could use the implants for fixation. Results: Three fractures (one humeral condyle, two capitulum, were supplemented by additional K-wires fixation. Trans-articular fixator was applied in two distal radius and two pilon fractures where bio-pins alone were used. All fractures united, but in two cases the fracture displaced partially during the healing phase; one fibula due to early walking, and one radius was deemed unstable even after bio-pin and external fixator. Conclusions: Biodegradable -implants are excellent for carefully selected cases of intra-articular fractures and some small bone fractures. However, limitations for use in long bone fractures persist and no great advantage is gained if a "hybrid" composite is employed. The mechanical properties of biopins and screws in isolation are perceived to be inferior to those of conventional metal implants, leading to low confidence levels regarding the stability of reduced fractures; these implants should be used predominantly in fracture patterns in which internal fixation is subjected to minimal stress.

  13. Latarjet Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Hasham M.; Monroe, Emily J.; Muriuki, Muturi; Verma, Rajat N.; Marra, Guido; Saltzman, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attritional bone loss in patients with recurrent anterior instability has successfully been treated with a bone block procedure such as the Latarjet. It has not been previously demonstrated whether cortical or cancellous screws are superior when used for this procedure. Purpose: To assess the strength of stainless steel cortical screws versus stainless steel cannulated cancellous screws in the Latarjet procedure. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten fresh-frozen matched-pair shoulder specimens were randomized into 2 separate fixation groups: (1) 3.5-mm stainless steel cortical screws and (2) 4.0-mm stainless steel partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissue and a 25% glenoid defect was created. The coracoid process was osteomized, placed at the site of the glenoid defect, and fixed in place with 2 parallel screws. Results: All 10 specimens failed by screw cutout. Nine of 10 specimens failed by progressive displacement with an increased number of cycles. One specimen in the 4.0-mm screw group failed by catastrophic failure on initiation of the testing protocol. The 3.5-mm screws had a mean of 274 cycles (SD, ±171 cycles; range, 10-443 cycles) to failure. The 4.0-mm screws had a mean of 135 cycles (SD, ±141 cycles; range, 0-284 cycles) to failure. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 types of screws for cycles required to cause failure (P = .144). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in energy or cycles to failure when comparing the stainless steel cortical screws versus partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Clinical Relevance: Latarjet may be performed using cortical or cancellous screws without a clear advantage of either option. PMID:27158630

  14. Vacuum suction fixation versus staple fixation in TAPP laparoscopic hernia repair: introduction of a new technique for mesh fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangyong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhan, Hanxiang; Hu, Sanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Proper mesh fixation is critical for successful TAPP laparoscopic hernia repair. Conventional mesh fixation may cause chronic neuralgia, groin paresthesia or other complications. This study aimed at introducing a new vacuum suction technique for mesh fixation and evaluating its efficacy and safety compared with traditional staple fixation way. Clinical data of 242 patients undergoing TAPP from July 2011 to March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into vacuum suction fixation group and staple fixation group. The operation time, hospital stay, complications, recurrence, visual analogue scale pain score and cost were evaluated. All surgeries were successful. The operation time of staple group was (42.34 ± 10.15) min for unilateral hernia and (64.08 ± 16.01) min for bilateral hernias. The postoperative hospital stay was (2.76 ± 0.84) days. One recurrence was observed (0.90%). For vacuum group, the operation time was (42.66 ± 7.76) min and (63.92 ± 10.49) min, and hospital stay was (2.60 ± 0.74) days. No recurrence was observed. There was no significant difference in recurrence, operation time, postoperative pain and hospital stay between two groups (P > 0.05). Average cost were (11,714 ± 726) RMB for vacuum group which was lower than staple group (14,837 ± 1568) RMB (P vacuum group, they were scrotal seroma (3.82%), temporary nerve paresthesia (3.05%), scrotal emphysema (1.53%) and uroschesis (1.53%). The incidence of scrotal emphysema was lower in vacuum group (P 0.05). Both techniques for mesh fixation are safe and effective. There is no significant difference in recurrence, operation time, postoperative pain or hospital stay. The vacuum suction fixation technique is more economical with lower incidence of scrotal emphysema.

  15. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw Internal Fixation device (INFIX vs External Fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigdorchik Jonathan M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX. This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Methods Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation. Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons Results The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01 at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017 at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Conclusions Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  16. Biomechanical stability of a supra-acetabular pedicle screw internal fixation device (INFIX) vs external fixation and plates for vertically unstable pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Esquivel, Amanda O; Jin, Xin; Yang, King H; Onwudiwe, Ndidi A; Vaidya, Rahul

    2012-09-27

    We have recently developed a subcutaneous anterior pelvic fixation technique (INFIX). This internal fixator permits patients to sit, roll over in bed and lie on their sides without the cumbersome external appliances or their complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability of this novel supraacetabular pedicle screw internal fixation construct (INFIX) and compare it to standard internal fixation and external fixation techniques in a single stance pelvic fracture model. Nine synthetic pelves with a simulated anterior posterior compression type III injury were placed into three groups (External Fixator, INFIX and Internal Fixation). Displacement, total axial stiffness, and the stiffness at the pubic symphysis and SI joint were calculated. Displacement and stiffness were compared by ANOVA with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons The mean displacement at the pubic symphysis was 20, 9 and 0.8 mm for external fixation, INFIX and internal fixation, respectively. Plate fixation was significantly stiffer than the INFIX and external Fixator (P = 0.01) at the symphysis pubis. The INFIX device was significantly stiffer than external fixation (P = 0.017) at the symphysis pubis. There was no significant difference in SI joint displacement between any of the groups. Anterior plate fixation is stiffer than both the INFIX and external fixation in single stance pelvic fracture model. The INFIX was stiffer than external fixation for both overall axial stiffness, and stiffness at the pubic symphysis. Combined with the presumed benefit of minimizing the complications associated with external fixation, the INFIX may be a more preferable option for temporary anterior pelvic fixation in situations where external fixation may have otherwise been used.

  17. Intrascleral IOL Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Soosan

    2017-01-01

    Intrascleral sutureless intraocular lens (IOL) fixation utilizes direct haptic fixation within the sclera in eyes with deficient capsular support. This has advantages of long-term stability, good control of tilt and decentration, and lesser pseudophakodonesis. This review summarizes various techniques for intrascleral haptic fixation, results, complications, adaptations in special situations, modifications of the technique, combination surgeries, and intrascleral capsular bag fixation techniques (glued capsular hook). Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  18. Temporary internal pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Díaz-Miguel, R; Gómez Grande, M L

    2014-12-01

    Technology and insertion techniques for cardiac temporary internal pacing have experienced a remarkable development over the last few years. Despite this fact, the procedure continues to have potentially fatal associated complications. Temporary internal pacing is indicated for the treatment of bradyarrhythmias or tachyarrhythmias refractory to conventional treatment, or arrhythmias causing cardiovascular or clinical instability of the patient. On the other hand, the indications of temporary cardiac pacing are far less well defined than those of permanent pacing. Since the decision of implementing temporary pacing is complex and delicate, it should always be carefully considered, and over-indication should be avoided. We must base these decisions on robust knowledge of the arrhythmias that may benefit from temporary internal pacing, and should also acquire the habit of considering external temporary pacing among other less aggressive treatments, and to make the best use of new technologies such as echocardiography that add accuracy to the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioabsorbable Fixation Screw for Proximal Interphalangeal Arthrodesis of Lesser Toe Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelstein, Jascha Armin; Goger, Peter; Bock, Peter; Schuh, Reinhard; Doz, Priv; Trnka, Hans-Jörg

    2017-09-01

    Although standard fixation of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) arthrodesis by K-wire is relatively inexpensive and well established, it does have some drawbacks, making newer fixation devices interesting. The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically assess the operative correction of the lesser toe deformation in the form of a PIP arthrodesis using a bioabsorbable 2.7-mm fixation screw. From January 2011 until October 2013, 34 patients underwent a PIP arthrodesis using the TRIM-IT (Arthrex) 2.7-mm fixation screw and were contacted for this retrospective cohort study. At an average of 3.3 years after the operation, 24 patients and 26 toes were evaluated clinically, radiologically, through pedobarography, and a patient-satisfaction survey. Using the PLLA screw for fixation, 84.6% showed bony union of the arthrodesis, and 84.6% were satisfied. Mean AOFAS score was 82.7 points and thus regarded as good. The mean VAS score was 1.3/10. Overall, 73.1% of the toes showed good alignment, and 7.7% had a painless recurrence of deformity and were still satisfied with the intervention. In addition, 34.6% had floating toes, but only 4.2% without Weil osteotomy or encroachment. Further, 3.8% were advised to undergo a revision because of severe misalignment. The 2.7-mm bioabsorbable fixation screw yielded results that were comparable to other fixation devices for PIP fusion fixation regarding success rate, revisions, and patient acceptance. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  20. Residual non-union in a case of two and half year old child congenital pseudoarthrosis of ipsilateral tibia and fibula treated by intramedullary fixation with K-wire and allogeniccancellous strut graft: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaram N Patil, Sankar Rao P, Ranjith K Yalamanchili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pseudarthrosis usually develops during the first two years of life; however, there are reports of cases in which fractures developed before birth and reports of late-onset pseudarthrosis. There is a strong association between Congenital pseudoarthrosis and Type I neurofibromatosis. CPT develops in about 5.7% of patients with NF-I and 40% of patients with pseudoarthrosis were found to have NF-I. Main pathology is hyperplasia of fibroblasts with the formation of dense fibrous tissue at fracture site causing osteolysis, and persistence of pseudarthrosis. The difficulty in treating this condition occurs because of two factors. 1 Biologic: poor healing ability of the dysplastic segment of bone and 2 Mechanical: technical difficulty to fix small and osteopenic bone fragments in children without damaging the distal physis. A multitude of treatment protocols focusing on stimulating the healing process by using different bone grafting techniques were documented6. The graft materials most commonly used included osteoperiosteal graft, massive onlay graft, autogenous iliac crest bone graft, and vascularised bone graft.

  1. Novel intramedullary-fixation technique for long bone fragility fractures using bioresorbable materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu Nishizuka

    Full Text Available Almost all of the currently available fracture fixation devices for metaphyseal fragility fractures are made of hard metals, which carry a high risk of implant-related complications such as implant cutout in severely osteoporotic patients. We developed a novel fracture fixation technique (intramedullary-fixation with biodegradable materials; IM-BM for severely weakened long bones using three different non-metallic biomaterials, a poly(l-lactide (PLLA woven tube, a nonwoven polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA fiber mat, and an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of IM-BM with mechanical testing as well as with an animal experiment. To perform mechanical testing, we fixed two longitudinal acrylic pipes with four different methods, and used them for a three-point bending test (N = 5. The three-point bending test revealed that the average fracture energy for the IM-BM group (PLLA + CPC + PHA was 3 times greater than that of PLLA + CPC group, and 60 to 200 times greater than that of CPC + PHA group and CPC group. Using an osteoporotic rabbit distal femur incomplete fracture model, sixteen rabbits were randomly allocated into four experimental groups (IM-BM group, PLLA + CPC group, CPC group, Kirschner wire (K-wire group. No rabbit in the IM-BM group suffered fracture displacement even under full weight bearing. In contrast, two rabbits in the PLLA + CPC group, three rabbits in the CPC group, and three rabbits in the K-wire group suffered fracture displacement within the first postoperative week. The present work demonstrated that IM-BM was strong enough to reinforce and stabilize incomplete fractures with both mechanical testing and an animal experiment even in the distal thigh, where bone is exposed to the highest bending and torsional stresses in the body. IM-BM can be one treatment option for those with severe osteoporosis.

  2. A Novel Technique for Closed Reduction and Fixation of Paediatric Calcaneal Fracture Dislocation Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwane Faroug

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric calcaneal fractures are rare injuries usually managed conservatively or with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF. Closed reduction was previously thought to be impossible, and very few cases are reported in the literature. We report a new technique for closed reduction using Ilizarov half-rings. We report successful closed reduction and screwless fixation of an extra-articular calcaneal fracture dislocation in a 7-year-old boy. Reduction was achieved using two Ilizarov half-ring frames arranged perpendicular to each other, enabling simultaneous application of longitudinal and rotational traction. Anatomical reduction was achieved with restored angles of Bohler and Gissane. Two K-wires were the definitive fixation. Bony union with good functional outcome and minimal pain was achieved at eight-weeks follow up. ORIF of calcaneal fractures provides good functional outcome but is associated with high rates of malunion and postoperative pain. Preservation of the unique soft tissue envelope surrounding the calcaneus reduces the risk of infection. Closed reduction prevents distortion of these tissues and may lead to faster healing and mobilisation. Closed reduction and screwless fixation of paediatric calcaneal fractures is an achievable management option. Our technique has preserved the soft tissue envelope surrounding the calcaneus, has avoided retained metalwork related complications, and has resulted in a good functional outcome.

  3. Temporary transarticular stabilization with a locking plate for medial shoulder luxation in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, C; Guerrero, T; Voss, K; Montavon, P M

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the temporary fixation of a traumatic shoulder luxation in a large-breed dog using a 3.5-mm Locking Round-Hole Reconstruction Plate (LRHRP) to provide stable internal splinting, allowing healing of the injured ligaments, joint capsule, glenohumeral ligaments, tendons, and muscles for restoration of joint stability. The use of a temporary plate with a locking system should be considered as an option in the treatment of canine shoulder joint luxations with severe tissue damage.

  4. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers and whet...

  5. Temporary Migration and Economic Assimilation

    OpenAIRE

    Dustmann, Christian

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, I study temporary migrations, and its consequences for immigrants' behaviour. I distinguish between temporary migrations where the return time is exogenous, and temporary migrations where the migrant chooses when to return. I then illustrate the consequences both types of temporary migration have for migrants' behaviour (as opposed to a permanent migration). If migrations are non-permanent, then this has also consequences for the way empirical models need to be specified. The p...

  6. Guide to radiation fixatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    This report identifies and then characterizes a variety of substances available in the market place for potential effectiveness as a fixative on radiologically contaminated surfaces. The substances include both generic chemicals and proprietary products. In selecting a fixative for a particular application, several attributes of the fixative may be relevant to the choice. These attributes include: toxicity, durability, and cleanliness and removability. In addition to the attributes of the fixative, one should also take into account certain characteristics of the site to be treated. These characteristics relate to climate, nature of the surface, use to which the treated surface will be put, subsequent cleanup operations, and type of neighboring surfaces. Finally, costs and potential environmental effects may influence the decision. A variety of fixatives are evaluated with respect to these various attributes and summarized in a reference table

  7. Guide to radiation fixatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    This report identifies and then characterizes a variety of substances available in the market place for potential effectiveness as a fixative on radiologically contaminated surfaces. The substances include both generic chemicals and proprietary products. In selecting a fixative for a particular application, several attributes of the fixative may be relevant to the choice. These attributes include: toxicity, durability, and cleanliness and removability. In addition to the attributes of the fixative, one should also take into account certain characteristics of the site to be treated. These characteristics relate to climate, nature of the surface, use to which the treated surface will be put, subsequent cleanup operations, and type of neighboring surfaces. Finally, costs and potential environmental effects may influence the decision. A variety of fixatives are evaluated with respect to these various attributes and summarized in a reference table.

  8. Long-term outcomes of tension band wiring with a single K-wire in Rockwood type IV/V acute acromio-clavicular dislocations: 25 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateur, G; Boudissa, M; Rubens-Duval, B; Mader, R; Rouchy, R C; Pailhé, R; Saragaglia, D

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the long-term functional and radiological outcomes of tension band wiring with a single K-wire for acute Rockwood types IV and V acromio-clavicular dislocation (ACD). Single-centre cross-sectional non-randomised observational cohort study of 25 shoulders treated surgically between January 2002 and December 2004, in 25 patients, 23 males and 2 females, with a mean age of 35±11years (24-46). The evaluation criteria were the absolute and weighted Constant scores, QuickDASH score, subjective shoulder value (SSV), visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score at rest and during activities, and radiographic features in clinically symptomatic patients. Mean values were as follows: follow-up, 150±17months (133-167); absolute Constant score, 88±17 (71-105); weighted Constant score, 92.5±12.5 (80-105); QuickDASH, 15.5±7 (8.5-22.5); SSV, 88±17% (71-105); VAS pain score at rest, 0.2±0.7 (0-0.9); and VAS pain score while active, 1.4±2.3 (0-3.7). The weighted Constant score was less than 70% in only 8% of patients. Of the 17 patients for whom radiographs were obtained, 8 had acromio-clavicular osteoarthritis. Mean coraco-clavicular distance was 12.3±4.3mm (8-16.6) and mean acromio-clavicular distance was 5±5mm (0-10). The recurrence rate was 8%. Tension band wiring with a single K-wire for acute acromio-clavicular dislocation reliably provides good long-term functional outcomes. Recurrences are uncommon and few patients experience symptoms (8%). IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Symbiosomes: temporary moonlighting organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, David W; Krishnan, Hari B

    2014-05-15

    Symbiosomes are a unique structural entity that performs the role of biological nitrogen fixation, an energy-demanding process that is the primary entryway of fixed nitrogen into the biosphere. Symbiosomes result from the infection of specific rhizobial strains into the roots of an appropriate leguminous host plant forming an organ referred to as a nodule. Within the infected plant cells of the nodule, the rhizobia are encased within membrane-bounded structures that develop into symbiosomes. Mature symbiosomes create an environment that allows the rhizobia to differentiate into a nitrogen-fixing form called bacteroids. The bacteroids are surrounded by the symbiosome space, which is populated by proteins from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic symbionts, suggesting this space is the quintessential component of symbiosis: an inter-kingdom environment with the single purpose of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Proteins associated with the symbiosome membrane are largely plant-derived proteins and are non-metabolic in nature. The proteins of the symbiosome space are mostly derived from the bacteroid with annotated functions of carbon metabolism, whereas relatively few are involved in nitrogen metabolism. An appreciable portion of both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins in the symbiosome are also 'moonlighting' proteins, which are defined as proteins that perform roles unrelated to their annotated activities when found in an unexpected physiological environment. The essential functions of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of the symbiosome are performed by co-operative interactions of proteins from both symbionts some of which may be performing unexpected roles.

  10. CSF coccidioides complement fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003526.htm CSF coccidioides complement fixation test To use the sharing features ...

  11. Histoplasma complement fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003527.htm Histoplasma complement fixation To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  12. A temporary face support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V.I.; Bakhtin, V.N.; Tolkachev, N.I.

    1980-03-30

    A temporary face support is proposed. It includes a beam supported by hydraulic jacks on the housing of the cutter-loader with a working tool and rotary pressure regulator. It differs in that to decrease the volume of unsecured roofing in the face space between the leading edge of the beam and the cutting tool of the cutter-loader, the beam is hinged onto the housing of the rotary pressure regulator by a fastened connecting rod, and the hydraulic jacks are provided with additional powered elements with a mechanism that regulates the length of the cut-off plate of the hydraulic pump when the seam pressure changes.

  13. Comparative evaluation of in vitro mechanical properties of different designs of epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Surbhi Kuldeep; Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Srivastava, Tuhin; Tyagi, Kanti Prakash; Monsang, Shongsir Warson

    2014-03-01

    To compare in vitro biomechanical properties of different designs of epoxy-pin external skeletal fixator (ESF) constructs. Mechanical testing study. Four epoxy-pin ESF design constructs (uniplanar [EU], multiplanar-I [EM-I], multiplanar-II [EM-II], and circular [EC]) were mechanically tested in compression, bending, and torsion. Four different designs of free-form epoxy-pin external fixator constructs were developed using 1.5 mm K-wires and epoxy resin mounted in an ultra-high density polyethylene rod (20 mm diameter). Three-point fixation was done in each fragment, and the distance between fixation wires, and between the rod and the side bars was kept constant in all the designs. A 5 mm gap was maintained at the center of the fixation rod to simulate an unstable fracture condition. The fixator constructs (n = 12 of each design) were subjected to mechanical testing in axial compression, bending, or torsion. Load-deformation curves were generated and mechanical properties were compared between construct types. EU was the weakest design. Under compression, constructs EM-I, EM-II, and EC were similar. Under bending, EM-I and EM-II had similar strength, whereas EC was strongest. Under torsion, EC was strongest, followed by EM-II, EM-I, and EU; EM-II provided double the rotational stability of EM-I. Overall, EC followed by EM-II epoxy-pin fixator designs had better mechanical strength. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either party may move for temporary maintenance or temporary support of a child of the marriage entitled to support. The motion shall... necessities of life, and, if so restrained, requiring him or her to notify the moving party of any proposed...

  15. Operative treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocations Rockwood III and V-Comparative study between K-wires combined with FiberTape(®) vs. TightRope System(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrgoč, G; Japjec, M; Jurina, P; Gulan, G; Janković, S; Šebečić, B; Starešinić, M

    2015-11-01

    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations usually occur in a young active population as a result of a fall on the shoulder. Rockwood divided these dislocations into six types. Optimal treatment is still a matter of discussion. Many operative techniques have been developed, but the main choice is between open and minimally-invasive arthroscopic procedures. The aim of this study was to compare two different surgical methods on two groups of patients to find out which method is superior in terms of benefit to the patient. The methods were evaluated through objective and subjective scores, with a focus on complications and material costs. A retrospective two-centre study was conducted in patients with acute AC joint dislocation Rockwood types III and V. The two methods conducted were an open procedure using K-wires combined with FiberTape(®) (Arthrex, Naples, USA) (Group 1) and an arthroscopic procedure using the TightRope System(®) (Arthrex, Naples, USA) (Group 2). Groups underwent procedures during a two-year period. Diagnosis was based on the clinical and radiographic examination of both AC joints. Surgical treatment and rehabilitation were performed. Sixteen patients were included in this study: Group 1 comprised 10 patients, all male, average age 41.6 years (range 17-64 years), Rockwood type III (eight patients) and Rockwood type V (two patients); Group 2 had six patients, one female and five male, average age 37.8 years (range 18-58 years), Rockwood type III (two patients) and Rockwood type V (four patients). Time from injury to surgery was shorter and patients needed less time to return to daily activities in Group 1. Duration of the surgical procedure was shorter in Group 2 compared with Group 1. Complications of each method were noted. According to the measured scores and operative outcome between dislocation Rockwood type III and V, no significant difference was found. Implant material used in Group 2 was 4.7 times more expensive than that used in Group 1

  16. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  17. Update: Biological Nitrogen Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Updates knowledge on nitrogen fixation, indicating that investigation of free-living nitrogen-fixing organisms is proving useful in understanding bacterial partners and is expected to lead to development of more effective symbioses. Specific areas considered include biochemistry/genetics, synthesis control, proteins and enzymes, symbiotic systems,…

  18. The temporary international collective chronicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, Yu.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The temporary international collective brief history is presented from the time of its establishment in 1972 (and even earlier) till the termination of its activity in 1990 (and even later). Works in the temporary international collective framework demonstrate an example of successful cooperation of specialists from different countries in the field of calculation-theoretical and experimental research on the WWER reactor physics. The results of experimental and calculation studies were reported to the topical meetings, workshops, conferences, and symposia as well as were published in the temporary international collective reports and proceedings. The answers to the questions about the temporary international collective activity-What? Where? When?-are presented in this chronicle (Authors)

  19. Posterior transodontoid fixation: A new fixation (Kotil technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Kotil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior odontoid screw fixation or posterior C1-2 fusion techniques are routinely used in the treatment of Type II odontoid fractures, but these techniques may be inadequate in some types of odontoid fractures. In this new technique (Kotil technique, through a posterior bilateral approach, transarticular screw fixation was performed at the non-dominant vertebral artery (VA side and posterior transodontoid fixation technique was performed at the dominant VA side. C1-2 complex fusion was aimed with unilateral transarticular fixation and odontoid fixation with posterior transodontoid screw fixation. Cervical spinal computed tomography (CT of a 40-year-old male patient involved in a motor vehicle accident revealed an anteriorly dislocated Type II oblique dens fracture, not reducible by closed traction. Before the operation, the patient was found to have a dominant right VA with Doppler ultrasound. He was operated through a posterior approach. At first, transarticular screw fixation was performed at the non-dominant (left side, and then fixation of the odontoid fracture was achieved by directing the contralateral screw (supplemental screw medially and toward the apex. Cancellous autograft was scattered for fusion without the need for structural bone graft or wiring. Postoperative cervical spinal CT of the patient revealed that stabilization was maintained with transarticular screw fixation and reduction and fixation of the odontoid process was achieved completely by posterior transodontoid screw fixation. The patient is at the sixth month of follow-up and complete fusion has developed. With this new surgical technique, C1-2 fusion is maintained with transarticular screw fixation and odontoid process is fixed by concomitant contralateral posterior transodontoid screw (supplemental screw fixation; thus, this technique both stabilizes the C1-2 complex and fixes the odontoid process and the corpus in atypical odontoid fractures, appearing as an

  20. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but temporary...

  1. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager or...

  2. Management of the proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixation: A case series of 30 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar K Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of high velocity trauma is a challenging problem because of morbidity of trauma and sometime residual problems of failure of proper healing of fractures with the restriction of movements of knee, shortening, and added risk of compartment syndrome in the proximal tibia fracture. There is always risk of post-operative infection and infected non-union in extensive open surgical procedure and internal fixation. Hence, there is always look out for the middle path procedure for a solution to the above said problems with the added advantage of less hospital stay and early return to work by minimal invasive procedure and stabilization of fracture reduction by multiple K-wire fixation with a frame applied externally. Stabilization of fracture with reduced pain allows early movements of neighbouring joint knee and ankle; hence, reduces the chances of fracture diseases. With this we have been stimulated to take-up the study of managing the proximal tibia fracture by mini external fixator. Aim: The aim of this study was to manage proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixator and evaluate the results and efficacy of this method. Material and Method: A total of 30 patients having proximal tibial fractures admitted at our center between 2008 and 2010 were taken and the procedure carried out was closed manipulative reduction and stabilization with mini external fixator. All acute proximal tibia fractures including tibial plateau fractures above 17 years of age of either sex were included in the study. Fracture more than 3 weeks old were excluded from the study. Result: Out of 30 cases 13 were excellent, 14 cases good, and 3 showed fair. It was found that type 5 and 6 of Schatzker′s classification have lesser outcome type of fractures Conclusion: We have found that management of the proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixation method has a better outcome. Early mobilization of knee in the proximal tibia fractures after

  3. Improving carbon fixation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducat, Daniel C; Silver, Pamela A

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brow lift fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Alan H; Bernard, Robert W; Hamas, Robert S; McKinney, Peter; Paul, Malcolm D

    2003-05-01

    One of the more difficult and controversial aspects of forehead and brow lift is fixation with control and stabilization of the result. Aesthetic Surgery Journal has invited Robert W. Bernard, MD; Robert S. Hamas, MD; Peter McKinney, MD; and Malcolm D. Paul, MD to share their preferred brow lift techniques. Here are their responses to questions posed by "Comparing Notes" editor, Alan H. Gold, MD. (Aesthetic Surg J 2003;23:217-219.).

  5. Improving Carbon Fixation Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ducat, Daniel C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing...

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  7. A temporary index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Jon; Craighead, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing management of low, intermediate and high-level nuclear waste is an unresolved issue for humanity, not least because the time-frames in question when dealing with the hazards of radioactive wastes, range from as little as a few tens of years to more than 100 000 years. It is from this starting point that we are beginning the development of an ambitious multifaceted artwork aiming to help us consider our relationship with deep-time and our nuclear legacy. The expressed aim of Temporary Index is to raise general awareness about these long-term management issues, and in doing so, to embed this knowledge into our collective cultural memory so as to transmit useful information about our nuclear waste into the future. We wish to create a series of decorative, real-time numeric counters based on the probabilistic decay (including decay of daughter products) of existing nuclear waste that we identify from the earliest weapons' development programmes in the United States right through to contemporary wastes being produced by nuclear energy production today across the world. Each display will countdown in seconds, showing the time remaining before the given item of waste (or a particular site) is considered safe to humans. A hypothetical example of one counter could be a bottle of sludge containing plutonium discovered in 2004 during an attempted clean-up of the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State, United States. Another example might be the geological storage facility for vitrified nuclear waste at Horonobe in Japan, should it be established in the future. Accident sites, such as Chernobyl or Fukushima Daiichi could also be tagged with counters, as could low-level waste (LLW) repositories such as the one at Drigg near Sellafield in the United Kingdom. Whatever the items identified and this will be a complex process requiring collaboration with experts in the field, it is important that a wide range of short- and long-term counters are established to

  8. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Lin

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  9. Connecting Temporary and Permanent Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova

    2016-01-01

    a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing......This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...

  10. Morbidity of temporary loop ileostomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakx, R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Bemelman, W. A.; Veldink, G. J.; Slors, J. F. M.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: A temporary loop ileostomy is constructed to protect a distal colonic anastomosis. Closure is usually performed not earlier than 8 - 12 weeks after the primary operation. During this period, stoma-related complications can occur and enhance the adverse effect on quality of life. The

  11. Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.

  12. Complement fixation test to C burnetii

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complement fixation test; Coxiella burnetii - complement fixation test; C burnetii - complement fixation test ... a specific foreign substance ( antigen ), in this case, C burnetii . Antibodies defend the body against bacteria, viruses, ...

  13. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  14. CLINICAL AND FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES MANAGED BY LIGAMENTOTAXIS AND/OR PERCUTANEOUS PINNING VERSUS OPEN REDUCTION & INTERNAL FIXATION BY BUTTRESS PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON: We studied the clinical and functional outcome of distal radius fractures managed by ligamentotaxis and/or percutaneous pinning versus open reduction & internal fixation by buttress plates. METHODS : This prospective study was conducted during Aug 2012 to October 2014. All skeletally matured patients were having both Intra articular and extra articular Closed Distal Radius fractures were studied. Treatment was done either external fixator supplemented with k wires or internal fixation with plate and screws. The radiographic evaluation included radial length, palmar tilt, any evidence of jointincongruity and radio ulnar joint instability and arthritis. The assessments that were made includes Subjective assessment – pain, numbness, weakness of hand, stiffness, OBJECTIVE : R ange of motion measured by hand held goniometer, Measurement of grip strength done by commercially available hand dynamometer. Unaffected hand served as control. RESULTS : Male patients (85.46% outnumbered female patients (14.54% in incidence. The incidence of distal ra dius fractures was common between the ages of 20 to 40 years. Left sided fractures were more common (52.73%. Type III was most common type of fracture (Frykman’s Classification, accounting for 29% of all fractures.25 cases were treated by external fixati on and 30 cases were treated by open reduction and buttress plating. The results were evaluated by using STEWART ET AL anatomical and functional scoring system. The average range of movement at the knee joint was Dorsiflexion 70*, Palmar Flexion 65*, Ulnar Deviation 25*, Radial Deviation 15*, Supination 70*, Pronation 65*. Most common early complication was pin tract infection. Based on the stewar et al scoring, 4(7.27% had excellent, 43(78.18% had good, 7(12.72% had fair, 1(1.81% had poor results. CONC LUSION : We observed that both fixations were equally same, there is no superiority with over the other. The incidence of complications in

  15. Temporary Residences: a becoming project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ingaramo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the experimental actions fostered so far by the Compagnia di San Paolo through its Housing Program, committed in handling the complex and fragmented housing discomfort issue, the Temporary Dwellings initiative represents a unique and innovative experience, as it actually offers the chance to activate a proper managerial direction around and about the real estate development processes. In particular, the Temporary Dwellings action is marked by two key aspects: a structured co-planning vision and projects selected through a requests for proposal system. The process in the whole aims on the one hand at reaching an high transparent level of decision making , while, on the other hand, at developing a continuous and mutual monitoring and matching activity between the Housing Program and the group of cross-curricular experts teamed up in the project: technicians, designers, managers, psychologists, contractors, and the other local stakeholders.

  16. Temporary air-raid shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, J.; Olin, J.; Koukkari, H.

    1983-05-01

    This report deals with materials and structures of temporary air-raid shelters. At first, the weapon effects against which the temporary shelters can protect are described. These are, primarily, the fragmentation and blast pressure caused by conventional weapons and those effects of the nuclear weapons which exist outside the total disaster and fire areas. Temporary shelters built into existing buildings can give protection either from radioactive fallout or from fallout and collapse of the building above. For fallout protection heavy materials are needed, which simultaneously protect from fragmentation. In the research report, the methods and materials used for the contruction of a fallout shelter into an apartment house and a small house are introduced. The collapse loads acting on a basement ceiling and the design of additional timber supports are also presented. The use of various materials in the construction of shelters outside the buildings are introduced. Separate shelters can be built either under the ground or on the ground. The same materials can be used in both cases, but the underground shelters have a better level of protection. (author)

  17. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Winge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A large anterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore- Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC® resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient’s need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU. This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation.

  18. Cyclic long-term loading of a bilateral fixed-angle plate in comparison with tension band wiring with K-wires or cannulated screws in transverse patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Simon; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Baumgärtner, Ralf; Eichler, Christian; Koebke, Jürgen; Betsch, Marcel; Hakimi, Mohssen; Windolf, Joachim; Wild, Michael

    2013-02-01

    A bilateral fixed-angle plate was biomechanically compared to the two currently preferred methods of osteosynthesis for transverse patella fractures. It was hypothesized that the new angle-stable implant would provide a secure and sustainable fracture fixation, superior to the established standard techniques. Twenty-one identical patellae made of polyurethane foam (Sawbones(®)), osteotomized to create a transverse two-part fracture, were fixed with modified anterior tension wiring, cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring or bilateral polyaxial 2.7-mm fixed-angle plates. The testing protocol consisted of 10,000 repetitive cycles using a non-destructive physiological load between 100 and 300 N at a simulated knee flexion of 60°. All 21 Sawbone(®)-patellae sustained repetitive loading up to 10,000 cycles without failing. The anterior tension wire group displayed significant displacement of the fracture gap (0.7 ± 0.2 mm) during cyclic loading, while both lag screws with tension wiring and bilateral fixed-angle plates showed no fracture gap widening at all (p wiring preserved a constantly reduced fracture gap over 10,000 tensile cycles in contrast to modified anterior tension wiring, which exhibited significant widening of the gap after initial loading. Results of in vitro testing indicate that bilateral fixed-angle plates provide sustainable fixation stability offering a promising new option in the treatment for transverse patella fractures.

  19. Arthroscopic internal fixation of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Safran, Marc R

    2013-05-01

    Osteochondritis dessicans of the femoral head is an uncommon problem. Limited literature reports the incidence of osteochondritis dessicans and its treatment. The surgical technique used and outcomes for a 40-year-old man with symptomatic femoral head osteochonditis dissecans who was treated 11 years previously with retrograde drilling and hip arthroscopy are discussed.Despite temporary symptomatic improvement without subchondral collapse after his index procedure, increasing pain a decade later was thought to be caused by a large apical osteochondritic fragment and chondrolabral dysfunction from femoroacetabular impingement. Acetabuloplasty of acetabular overcoverage permitted arthroscopic internal fixation of the bone fragment by improving screw trajectory. Labral refixation and femoroplasty were subsequently performed. At 18-month follow-up, his nonarthritic hip score improved from 53 to 76 and his osteochondritic lesion had healed radiographically.Although clinical improvement with radiographic union has been reported following open screw fixation of femoral head osteochondritis dissecans, to the authors' knowledge this is the first published case with a similar outcome using arthroscopic techniques. Clinical improvement and union of even long-standing osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral head may occur with arthroscopic fragment fixation. Hip arthroscopy may play significant therapeutic and diagnostic roles in the treatment of this condition while offering a less invasive alternative to open osteosynthesis. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Management of intra-articular fracture of calcaneus by combined percutaneous and minimal internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, A; Mahara, D

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the calcaneus are among the most challenging for the orthopaedic surgeon. The treatment of the intra-articular calcaneum fracture remains controversial due to complications and complexity of surgical anatomy. Treatment of calcaneal fracture ranges from non-operative treatment to operative. We present intraarticular fracture of calcaneus treated by combined percutaneous and minimal internal fixation. All cases evaluated either by X-ray or CT scan. All fractures were sanders two or three type evaluated by CT scan and either joint depression or tongue type fracture by X-ray. Lateral approach was used, posterior facet was exposed, reduced and fixed with one 4 mm canulated cancellous screws and 2 axial pins percutaneously from tuberosity. Clinical evaluation of the outcomes was done by modified Rowe Score. Out of 22 patients, 14 were male and 8 cases were female. Average age of the patients was 30.5 yrs (15-63 yrs). Mode of the injury was RTA in 6 cases and fall from height in 16 cases. There was no soft tissue problem in any patient. All fractures united without secondary displacement in an average of 8 weeks. Average duration of follow up was 26 months (6-37 months). Average Modified Rowe Score was 80 (Range 55-95). Ten patients had excellent, 10 had good and 2 had satisfactory outcome. Intra-articular fracture of the calcaneus can be well managed by minimal opening at the fracture and fixation by single cancellous screw and 2 axial k-wires, so minimizes complications and results in comparable outcomes.

  1. Resection arthroplasty, external fixation, and negative pressure dressing for first metatarsophalangeal joint ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Craig; Smith, Nicholas

    2011-03-01

    A frequent complication for the diabetic patient is neuropathic ulceration on the plantar surface of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint which can be difficult to manage. Debridement and resection arthroplasty with temporary external fixation and VAC dressing (Kinetic Concepts Inc, San Antonio, TX) is an alternative operative treatment to amputation. This study examined the outcomes of one center's experience with patients who have undergone this procedure. This retrospective cohort study examined patients who underwent the procedure between March 2002 and March 2010. Information was obtained on relevant outcomes including: the initial procedure, secondary procedures on either foot, total time in external fixation, time until amputation, cause of ulceration and co-morbid conditions. During the study period, 16 patients underwent resection arthroplasty with external fixation for first MTP ulceration. Fourteen of these patients had underlying diabetes mellitus, one had Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and one had neuropathy of unknown cause. All were available for followup at the end of the study period. Median followup was 38 (range, 3 to 96) months. At latest followup, six patients required amputation, either transmetatarsal or transtibial, to treat their recurring ulceration. Resection arthroplasty with temporary external fixation appears to be a safe, effective and possible alternative to amputation for the treatment of neuropathic ulceration of the first MTP.

  2. Transcending Organization in Temporary Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal

    are organized by transcending organization that go beyond the individual firm and replaces what used to be organized inside the firm. Following several calls for further research on these topics, this dissertation is a small step along the way as it investigates how work and employment are organized...... in temporary systems that lack stability and formal order. It advances our understanding of transcending organization in creative industries by adopting a practice based perspective. Empirically, the dissertation presents an in-depth study of the Danish film industry, which is an extreme case of a project...

  3. Traction test of temporary dental cements

    OpenAIRE

    Román Rodríguez, Juan Luis; Millan Martínez, Diego; Fons Font, Antonio; Agustín Panadero, Rubén; Fernández Estevan, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    Background Classic self-curing temporary cements obstruct the translucence of provisional restorations. New dual-cure esthetic temporary cements need investigation and comparison with classic cements to ensure that they are equally retentive and provide adequate translucence. The objective is to analyze by means of traction testing in a in vitro study the retention of five temporary cements. Material and Methods Ten molars were prepared and ten provisional resin restorations were fabricated u...

  4. A contingency analysis of precarious organizational temporariness

    OpenAIRE

    Karmowska, Joanna; Child, John; James, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This paper extends our current understanding of organizational temporariness. The life of a temporary British trade union branch established to recruit Eastern European migrant workers reveals ‘precarious temporariness’, which is less predictable than the ‘planned temporariness’ typically portrayed in the literature. This different type of temporariness was associated with four key contingencies affecting the branch: dispersed governance, bottom-up initiatives, uncertain resourcing, and an ef...

  5. A prospective study of dynamic treatment of fracture phalanx and metacarpals of the hand with Kirschner-wire fixation/external fixator and finger splint: Daycare management (30 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Madhukar Salunkhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures of the phalanx and metacarpals are some of the most frequently encountered orthopedics injuries and constitute between 14-28% of all visits to emergency department which comprises 46% of the hand fracture and out of that mostly involved are the proximal phalanx and metacarpal neck fracture are most common and then the middle and distal phalanx and the base of metacarpal. The commonest complication with surgical treatment were stiff painful joints due to prolonged immobilization at fracture sites. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of metacarpal and phalanx fracture on day care basis. Materials And Methods: In our study we treated 30 patients who came to our hospital by fixation either with K wire or external fixation or hybrid fixation under local anaesthesia depending on the type of fracture between 2013 to 2014 with the average age 28 years with the youngest being 18 years and the oldest being 41 years with transverse, spiral, oblique closed fracture, grade 1 compound fracture, intraarticular, extraarticular, comminuted and non comminuted fracture of phalanx and metacarpals.These were day care treatment. Patient was allowed to begin his daily routine work from post operative day l. During this course the operated site was protected with splinting. Results: Clinical Outcomes were assessed as Excellent, Good, Satisfactory and Poor. Radiological assessment was done by taking x-ray to check radiological union.There were 24 cases had excellent outcome, 5 cases had good outcome and only 1 case had satisfactory outcome which occurred due to mal-union. There were 3 cases of pin-tract infection which subsided with oral antibiotics, and 3 cases of malunion. Conclusion: This was a day care procedure, patient were admitted, treated and discharged on the same day & encouraged to begin mobilization of the joints of hands from day 1.

  6. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  7. Treatment of Rigid Hammer-Toe Deformity: Permanent Versus Removable Implant Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jesse F; Fogleman, Jason A

    2018-03-01

    Hammer-toe deformities that fail nonoperative treatment can be successfully addressed with proximal interphalangeal joint resection arthroplasty or fusion. The goal of surgery is to eliminate the deformity and rigidly fix the toe in a well-aligned position. Hammer-toe correction procedures can be performed with temporary Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for 3 to 6 weeks with high success rates. Pain relief with successful hammer-toe correction approaches 90%; patient satisfaction rates approximate 84%. Although complication rates are rare in most series, there remains a concern regarding exposed temporary K-wire fixation, which has led to the development of multiple permanent internal fixation options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  9. [Talar Neck Fractures Treated Using Percutaneous Screw Fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselý, R; Kelbl, M; Kacián, J; Hulka, V; Kočiš, J; Kunovský, R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation of nondisplaced talar neck fractures have been applied by some authors. The aim of this paper is to assess the results and complications of this minimally invasive technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2009 to 2014, twenty-one patients with a talar neck fracture were observed after closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation in the Traumatological Hospital in Brno. The mean age of the patients was 38 years (range 18-56 years). The mechanism of injury was a motor vehicle accident in 11 cases, a fall from height in six cases, a sports injury in 3 cases, and a fall from stairs in one case. Injuries were classified according to the Hawkins classification. Conventional preoperative 3-dimensional CT scans of the fractures were analysed. Under the guidance of C-arm fluoroscopy, Kirscher wires were used for closed reduction and temporary percutaneous fixation. Subsequently, 3.5 and 4.5 mm diameter cannulated screws were inserted. The outcome was evaluated on the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring scale. RESULTS The average follow-up was 32 months (21-42 months). The average healing time was 15.5 weeks (13-19 weeks). The average AOFAS score was 82.3 points (69-96 points). 75% of patients with type I injury achieved excellent results and 72% of patients with type II injury achieved excellent or good results. None of the patients developed wound complications. Two patients developed partial avascular necrosis and three patients subtalar traumatic arthritis after surgery. DISCUSSION Talar neck fractures are relatively uncommon fractures. Most of the published studies are small. Tenuous blood supply and displaced talar neck fracture predispose to avascular necrosis of the talus. Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation can reduce the soft tissue damage and disturbance to the blood supply. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative 3D CT scans, early surgery, anatomic articular surface

  10. Comparison of Outcomes of Operatively Treated Bicondylar Tibial Plateau Fractures by External Fixation and Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated with either external fixation (35 patients or internal fixation (24 patients was reviewed. Outcome measures included the Rasmussen score, clinical complications, development of osteoarthritis and the requirement for total knee replacement (TKR. Twenty-two (92% anatomical reductions were achieved in the internal fixation group compared to 27 (77% in the external fixation group. Infective complications were more common in the external fixation group (9 patients, 26% due to pin tract infection. There were no deep infections in the internal fixation group. The mean Rasmussen score was not significantly different (mean score 32 in external fixation and 29 in internal fixation between the two groups and the incidence of osteoarthritis was the same in both groups. Four patients in the external fixation group underwent a TKR compared to 5 patients in the internal fixation group. Bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have similar outcomes following external or internal fixation.

  11. Lessons learnt from experimental temporary octopus fishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence of the fisheries effect of experimental temporary fishing closures for Octopus in the then-emergent Velondriake Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) in south-west Madagascar during 2004–2006. We present an analysis of the O. cyanea catch data for the first two years of temporary closures ...

  12. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  13. External transpedicular spine fixation in severe spondylodiscitis – salvage procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalteholz, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific and non-specific infections of the spine are rare. Due to their potential for severe instabilities, deformities and the impairment of neurological structures, the treatment is often prolonged and needs an interdisciplinary management. The clinical presentation is uncharacteristic, therefore diagnosis is often delayed. There are no prospective randomized studies for therapy recommendation. The surgical concept includes eradication of the infection and the reliable stabilization of involved segments. This concept is successful in most cases of endogenous vertebral osteomyelitis. The therapy of the exogenous spine infections after macro and micro surgery is more difficult, due to the critical wound situation and the involvement of the posterior parts of the spine. In these cases, infection-associated instability of the anterior part is complicated by critical posterior wound conditions.We present three cases of severe exogenous vertebral infections, where temporary external transpedicular spine fixation was used for salvage procedure, till soft tissue conditions have permitted a definitive internal stabilization.

  14. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from

  15. Flexible fixation and fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Strohm, Peter C; Jaeger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    External and internal fixators use bone screws that are locked to a plate or bar to prevent periosteal compression and associated impairment of blood supply. Both osteosynthesis techniques rely on secondary bone healing with callus formation with the exception of compression plating of simple...

  16. Tarsocrural joint goniometry after temporary immobilization with external skeletal fixation in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Alievi, Marcelo Meller; Schossler, J. E.; Teixeira, Marcelo Weinsten

    2004-01-01

    Neste experimento, foram utilizados 10 cães clinicamente sadios, submetidos à imobilização temporária das articulações tíbio-tarsal, intertarsal e tarso-metatarsiana direita com fixador esquelético externo, tendo por objetivo avaliar através da mensuração da flexão, da extensão e da amplitude articular os danos provocados por esta imobilização. O aparelho de fixação esquelética externa manteve a articulação em um ângulo aproximado de 135º e permaneceu por 45 dias. Os animais apresentaram...

  17. Mechanical Comparison of Headless Screw Fixation and Locking Plate Fixation for Talar Neck Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakasli, Ahmet; Hapa, Onur; Erduran, Mehmet; Dincer, Cemal; Cecen, Berivan; Havitcioglu, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    For talar neck fractures, open reduction and internal fixation have been thought to facilitate revascularization and prevent osteonecrosis. Newer screw systems allow for placement of cannulated headless screws, which provide compression by virtue of a variable pitch thread. The present study compared the biomechanical fixation strength of cannulated headless variable-pitch screw fixation and locking plate fixation. A reproducible talar neck fracture was created in 14 fresh cadaver talar necks. Talar head fixation was then performed using 2 cannulated headless variable-pitch 4-mm/5-mm diameter (4/5) screws (Acutrak; Acumed, Hillsboro, OR) and locking plate fixation. Headless variable-pitch screw fixation had lower failure displacement than did locking plate fixation. No statistically significant differences were found in failure stiffness, yield stiffness (p = .655), yield load (p = .142), or ultimate load between the 2 fixation techniques. Cannulated headless variable-pitch screw fixation resulted in better failure displacement than locking plate fixation in a cadaveric talus model and could be considered a viable option for talus fracture fixation. Headless, fully threaded, variable-pitch screw fixation has inherent advantages compared with locking plate fixation, because it might cause less damage to the articular surface and can compress the fracture for improved reduction. Additionally, plate fixation can increase the risk of avascular necrosis owing to the wider incision and dissection of soft tissues. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporary closure of the tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    Owing to major maintenance work, the tunnel linking the various parts of the CERN site will be closed from Monday 4 July to Sunday 24 July 2005 The Host State authorities have given authorisation for persons employed by CERN or the Institutes to travel and for goods belonging to these entities to be transported between the various parts of the site via Gate E (Charles de Gaulle) while this work is being carried out, subject to strict compliance with the Rules for the Use of the Tunnel (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/8200980415.pdf). Gate E will thus be open between 7.00 a.m. and 7.00 p.m. from Monday to Friday during the period concerned. The rules governing the use of Gate E to enter the Meyrin site between 7.30 a.m. and 9.00 a.m. or to leave the site between 5.00 p.m. and 6.30 p.m. (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/12222_041027.pdf)) will remain unaffected by this temporary authorisation. Relations with the Host States Service and TS-FM Group

  19. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  20. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E.; Hamby, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison's six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met

  1. Temporary Authorizations at Permitted Waste Management Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) provides EPA with the authority to grant a permittee temporary authorization, without prior public notice and comment, to conduct activities necessary to respond promptly to changing conditions.

  2. [Ilizarov fixation of supramalleolar fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mseddi, M B E; Mseddi, M; Siala, A; Dahmene, J; Ben Hamida, R; Ben Ayeche, M

    2005-02-01

    Supramalleolar fractures are generally considered to be a difficult surgical challenge because they occur in a area where the tibia lies superficially with a precarious blood supply to the skin, exposing to the risk of infection and necrosis after internal fixation. These fractures are also situated close to the tibiotalar joint making centromedullary nailing difficult, even with distal locking. The Ilizarov external fixator could be an attractive alternative in this indication. We report a series of 17 supramalleolar fractures in 17 patients, 14 men and 3 women, treated with the Ilizarov external fixator between 1991 and 2001. Most were traffic accident victims and most had complex fractures resulting from high-energy trauma. There were many associated lesions. Fractures were open in ten patients. The Ilizarov fixator was used as the first intention treatment in seven patients and as a second line treatment in ten. The system allowed early weight bearing in all patients. Tolerance was generally good with a relatively low rate of superficial pin track infections (two cases). There was one case of osteitis which developed in a patient with an open fracture. There were no thromboembolic complications and no nerve involvement. Bone healing was achieved within three months in thirteen patients. There were three cases of late healing which were treated by the ascension technique using a cancellous graft and fibular osteotomy. The overall healing rate with this method was 94%. The one case of nonunion was successfully treated with an inter tibiofibular graft. The overall functional outcome was satisfactory in 76% of the patients, based on the Alho-Klemm criteria. Axial deformation predominated in the frontal plane: three patients had > 10 degrees varus in one case. These results could be improved by better operative technique. We advocate installing the patient in the supine position with transcalcaneal traction allowing good restitution of the leg axis. The assembly

  3. Christo Javacheff’s temporary monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Furegatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the question of temporary configuration adopted by the Bulgarian artist Christo Javacheff in his artistic interventions in the contemporary landscape. Place emphasizes on analysis of his creative process guided by the idea of temporary monuments; attribution given by him to projects that has close relations between the architectural elements and the collective memory of the public participating of these interventions in different urban centers on the planet.

  4. Temporary metal stents in bladder outflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachia, D

    1997-12-01

    The use of stents in the management of prostatic obstruction started in 1980 with the development of the "partial catheter" by Fabian in Germany. Since then, a variety of metals and biostable and biodegradable polymers have been made into temporary or permanent stents for the management of infravesical obstructions such as benign or malignant prostatic enlargement, bladder neck stenoses, or urethral strictures. This paper is an overview of two generations of temporary metal stents used in the patients with infravesical obstruction.

  5. Smaller Fixation Target Size Is Associated with More Stable Fixation and Less Variance in Threshold Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available The aims of this randomized observational case control study were to quantify fixation behavior during standard automated perimetry (SAP with different fixation targets and to evaluate the relationship between fixation behavior and threshold variability at each test point in healthy young participants experienced with perimetry. SAP was performed on the right eyes of 29 participants using the Octopus 900 perimeter, program 32, dynamic strategy. The fixation targets of Point, Cross, and Ring were used for SAP. Fixation behavior was recorded using a wearable eye-tracking glass. All participants underwent SAP twice with each fixation target in a random fashion. Fixation behavior was quantified by calculating the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA and the frequency of deviation from the fixation target. The BCEAs (deg2 of Point, Cross, and Ring targets were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.02, respectively. In all cases, BCEA increased significantly with increasing fixation target size (p < 0.05. The logarithmic value of BCEA demonstrated the same tendency (p < 0.05. A positive correlation was identified between fixation behavior and threshold variability for the Point and Cross targets (ρ = 0.413-0.534, p < 0.05. Fixation behavior increased with increasing fixation target size. Moreover, a larger fixation behavior tended to be associated with a higher threshold variability. A small fixation target is recommended during the visual field test.

  6. 5 CFR 511.615 - Temporary compliance authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary compliance authority. 511.615 Section 511.615 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS.... Agencies may use temporary or conditional compliance action, e.g., a temporary promotion or a temporary...

  7. Radiological landmarks for the safe extra-capsular placement of supra-acetabular half pins for external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Surjit; Heidari, Nima; Gänsslen, Axel; Grechenig, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Low anterior external fixators are constructed by placing half pins in the dense bone tunnel of the supra-acetabular region in an anterior to posterior direction. Although the placement of these pins is extra-articular, they may still breach the hip capsule on the anterior inferior iliac spine and thus be intra-capsular. We aim to provide radiological markers for the most superior fibres of the capsule to allow safe extra-capsular pin placement within the supra-acetabular bone tunnel. Thirteen cadaveric pelves were used for this study. The supra-acetabular bone tunnel was visualised with an image intensifier. The proximal most fibres of the hip joint capsule were marked with a K-wire so that their relation to the bone tunnel could be clearly seen on the images. Once all images were acquired they were calibrated and analysed to estimate the dimensions of the supra-acetabular bone tunnel and the reflection of the hip capsule. The median height of the bone tunnel was 23.6 mm (18.9-33.2) and maximum width was 11.4 mm (7.6-16.3). The inferior margin of the bone tunnel was 6.7 mm (1.1-14.5) superior to the acetabular dome, and the most proximal fibres of the capsule were 9.3 mm (4.7-6.1) superior to the acetabular dome. The inferior portion of the tunnel was 3.7 mm (0.3-8.9) within the joint. Half pins for the construction of a pelvic external fixator should be placed in the upper half of the supra-acetabular bone corridor to minimise the risk of intra-capsular placement.

  8. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2016-01-01

    Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.

  9. Abnormal fixational eye movements in strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasia, Fatema F; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Shaikh, Aasef G

    2018-02-01

    Fixational saccades are miniature eye movements that constantly change the gaze during attempted visual fixation. Visually guided saccades and fixational saccades represent an oculomotor continuum and are produced by common neural machinery. Patients with strabismus have disconjugate binocular horizontal saccades. We examined the stability and variability of eye position during fixation in patients with strabismus and correlated the severity of fixational instability with strabismus angle and binocular vision. Eye movements were measured in 13 patients with strabismus and 16 controls during fixation and visually guided saccades under monocular viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and intersaccadic drifts were analysed in the viewing and non-viewing eye of patients with strabismus and controls. We found an increase in fixational instability in patients with strabismus compared with controls. We also found an increase in the disconjugacy of fixational saccades and intrasaccadic ocular drift in patients with strabismus compared with controls. The disconjugacy was worse in patients with large-angle strabismus and absent stereopsis. There was an increase in eye position variance during drifts in patients with strabismus. Our findings suggest that both fixational saccades and intersaccadic drifts are abnormal and likely contribute to the fixational instability in patients with strabismus. Fixational instability could be a useful tool for mass screenings of children to diagnose strabismus in the absence of amblyopia and latent nystagmus. The increased disconjugacy of fixational eye movements and visually guided saccades in patients with strabismus reflects the disruption of the fine-tuning of the motor and visual systems responsible for achieving binocular fusion in these patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. 77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...: 14X1125] Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood... motorized vehicles to existing posted roads and two-track trails and issuing a temporary closure to wood... and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood collecting on areas burned by the TRE and Preacher...

  11. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  12. Arthroscopic Hemitrapeziectomy for First Carpometacarpal Arthritis: Results at 7-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeister, Eric P.; Leak, Robert S.; Culp, Randall W.; Osterman, A. Lee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of arthroscopic hemitrapeziectomy combined with thermal capsular plication and temporary K-wire fixation in patients with painful thumb basal joint due to either osteoarthritis or posttraumatic arthritis. There were 18 thumbs that were evaluated in this retrospective study of arthroscopic hemitrapeziectomy of the distal trapezium in addition to a pancapsular thermal shrinkage at an average of 7.6-year follow-up. No patient has required fu...

  13. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.L.

    1983-08-16

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

  14. Polymeric media for tritium fixation. Supplement I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for the fixation of tritium as TH or THO in two different polymeric media are described. The complete procedure for THO fixation in a polyureylene-polyurethane polumer, including polymer molding procedures and leach tests is presented. The catalytic tritiation of polystyrene under very mild conditions using a rhodium catalyst is also described. Thermal stabilities and cost estimates for the polymers examined under this program are discussed. Organic polymers were found to have attractive features for the fixation and storage of concentrated tritium wastes due to the convenience of fixation procedures and favorable properties of the resulting media

  15. Percutaneous Fixation of Displaced Calcaneal Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Yip-Kan

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous fixation of displaced tongue-type calcaneal fractures is an effective treatment with acceptable clinical outcome, short hospital stay, minimal skin complications, and quick recovery.

  16. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporary ischaemia induced by degradable starch microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lote, K.

    1981-01-01

    Possible thrombogenic effects of degradable starch microspheres were investigated. Controlled temporary small intestinal ischaemia was induced by injection into the superior mesenteric artery in cats. Arterial flow consistently recovered after ischaemia. No consumption of blood platelets, fibrinogen, or Factor VIII was observed. Aggregation of human platelets was not influenced by microsphere exposure, and platelet retention in starch microsphere columns was minimal. No thrombosis was detected in feline small intestinal vessels in vivo nor did starch surfaces induce adhesion or aggregation of human platelets in vitro. Thus, no evidence of thrombotic hazards was found by inducing temporary intestinal ischaemia by starch microspheres. (Auth.)

  18. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  19. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Temporary Mailing Promotion AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... with offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's filing and takes other administrative steps. DATES: Comment Date: May 6, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments...

  20. Temporary/portable nuclear fallout shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and invention of a temporary/portable fallout shelter has been described in context of schematic and representative embodiments. Tent structures are described which include disposable, exterior, semi-transparent plastic and/or fabric shield membranes covering a tent composed of stretched, tightly woven, rip-resistant fabric panels supported by tensile rods/wands. 16 figs

  1. Temporary tattoos: a novel OSCE assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Gerry; Menary, Allison; Layard, Brooke; Hart, Nigel; McCourt, Collette

    2013-08-01

    There are many issues regarding the use of real patients in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). In dermatology OSCE stations, standardised patients (SPs) with clinical photographs are often used. Temporary transfer tattoos can potentially simulate skin lesions when applied to an SP. This study aims to appraise the use of temporary malignant melanoma tattoos within an OSCE framework. Within an 11-station OSCE, a temporary malignant melanoma tattoo was developed and applied to SPs in a 'skin lesion' OSCE station. A questionnaire captured the opinions of the candidate, SP and examiners, and the degree of perceived realism of each station was determined. Standard post hoc OSCE analysis determined the psychometric reliability of the stations. The response rates were 95.9 per cent of candidates and 100 per cent of the examiners and SPs. The 'skin lesion' station achieved the highest realism score compared with other stations: 89.0 per cent of candidates felt that the skin lesion appeared realistic; only 28 per cent of candidates had ever seen a melanoma before in training. The psychometric performance of the melanoma station was comparable with, and in many instances better than, other OSCE stations. Transfer tattoo technology facilitates a realistic dermatology OSCE station encounter. Temporary tattoos, alongside trained SPs, provide an authentic, standardised and reliable experience, allowing the assessment of integrated dermatology clinical skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Meaningful radiation worker training for temporary craftsmen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    The carefully organized Radiation Worker Training Program presented to permanently assigned personnel at a power reactor facility too often falls by the wayside when temporary craftsmen are brought in for an outage. Even though these temporary workers will frequently be assigned to outage jobs with high radiation and/or contamination exposures, their Radiation Worker Training is often squeezed into an already busy schedule, thus reducing its effectiveness. As an aid for evaluating the effectiveness of an existing Radiation Worker Training Program for temporary craftsmen or for setting up a new program, the following guides are presented and discussed in this paper: the training environment; the interest and meaningfulness of the presentation; the method or methods used for presentation of the training information; the use of demonstrations; trainee participation; and, measuring the amount and type of information retained by a trainee. Meaningful Radiation Worker Training for temporary craftsmen can pay big dividends. Craftsmen can be expected to make fewer mistakes, thus reducing radiation exposure and lessening the chance for the spread of contamination. The craftsmen will also benefit by being able to work longer and utility management will benefit by having lower outage costs

  3. Challenges of temporary protection in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Maymann

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Forced displacement is now a defining characteristic of Iraqi society and will remain so for years to come. Many have chosen to leave for neighbouring countries, particularly Syria and Jordan, but remain in a limbo of temporary protection.

  4. Temporary Chinese Migration to Madagascar: Local Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article fills a knowledge-gap in the literature on China in Africa by exploring local perceptions of temporary Chinese migrants in Madagascar, the growth of small-scale Chinese-owned import and retail businesses in the capital, and their impacts on Malagasy producers, utilizing the country's blanket and paper industries ...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a... polymethylmethacrylate, intended to make a temporary prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a permanent...

  6. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eRahav

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO3--rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA. N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L-1 d-1 to 0.38 nmol N L-1 d-1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2to 3.5 and N2 fixation rates by ~ 2 fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2 to 6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP an heterotrophic N2 fixation are carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP concentration and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C: nitrogen (N micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75 % of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets.

  7. 30 CFR 47.44 - Temporary, portable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary, portable containers. 47.44 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.44 Temporary, portable containers. (a) The operator does not have to label a temporary, portable container if he or she...

  8. Kennedy Space Center Fixation Tube (KFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E.; Levine, Howard G.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    Experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS) frequently require the experimental organisms to be preserved until they can be returned to earth for analysis in the appropriate laboratory facility. The Kennedy Fixation Tube (KFT) was developed to allow astronauts to apply fixative, chemical compounds that are often toxic, to biological samples without the use of a glovebox while maintaining three levels of containment (Fig. 1). KFTs have been used over 200 times on-orbit with no leaks of chemical fixative. The KFT is composed of the following elements: a polycarbonate main tube where the fixative is loaded preflight, the sample tube where the plant or other biological specimens is placed during operations, the expansion plug, actuator, and base plug that provides fixative containment (Fig. 2). The main tube is pre-filled with 25 mL of fixative solution prior to flight. When actuated, the specimen contained within the sample tube is immersed with approximately 22 mL (+/- 2 mL) of the fixative solution. The KFT has been demonstrated to maintain its containment at ambient temperatures, 4degC refrigeration and -100 C freezing conditions.

  9. Sutureless Intrascleral Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Remzi; Celik, Haci Ugur; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Rapuano, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    To review sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens (IOL) fixation methods. Review of published literature. Sutureless intrascleral IOL fixation methods are newer and have been developed to eliminate the suture-related complications of sutured scleral fixation methods such as suture-induced inflammation or infection and IOL dislocation or subluxation due to suture degradation or suture breakage. Sutureless intrascleral fixation methods aim for intrascleral haptic fixation to achieve stability of the IOL. Various methods of sutureless scleral fixation have been described. Using a needle, a blade, or a trochar, sclerostomies are created in all techniques for intraocular access. Some surgeons prefer to create scleral tunnels, whereas others use scleral flaps for scleral fixation of haptics. The stability of IOLs is attained by the scar tissue formed around the haptics. Short-term results of these new methods are acceptable; studies including more cases with longer follow-up are needed to determine their long-term success. [J Cataract Refract Surg. 2016;32(9):586-597.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Biomechanical Analysis of Latarjet Screw Fixation: Comparison of Screw Types and Fixation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jason J; Hamamoto, Jason T; Leroux, Timothy S; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Jain, Akshay; Khair, Mahmoud M; Mellano, Christen R; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Nicholson, Gregory P; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-09-01

    To compare the initial fixation stability, failure strength, and mode of failure of 5 different screw types and fixation methods commonly used for the classic Latarjet procedure. Thirty-five fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens were allocated into 5 groups. A 25% anteroinferior glenoid defect was created, and a classic Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure was performed. All grafts were fixed with 2 screws, differing by screw type and/or fixation method. The groups included partially threaded solid 4.0-mm cancellous screws with bicortical fixation, partially threaded solid 4.0-mm cancellous screws with unicortical fixation, fully threaded solid 3.5-mm cortical screws with bicortical fixation, partially threaded cannulated 4.0-mm cancellous screws with bicortical fixation, and partially threaded cannulated 4.0-mm captured screws with bicortical fixation. All screws were stainless steel. Outcomes included cyclic creep and secant stiffness during cyclic loading, as well as load and work to failure during the failure test. Intergroup comparisons were made by a 1-way analysis of variance. There were no significant differences among different screw types or fixation methods in cyclic creep or secant stiffness after cyclic loading or in load to failure or work to failure during the failure test. Post-failure radiographs showed evidence of screw bending in only 1 specimen that underwent the Latarjet procedure with partially threaded solid cancellous screws with bicortical fixation. The mode of failure for all specimens analyzed was screw cutout. In this biomechanical study, screw type and fixation method did not significantly influence biomechanical performance in a classic Latarjet procedure. When performing this procedure, surgeons may continue to select the screw type and method of fixation (unicortical or bicortical) based on preference; however, further studies are required to determine the optimal method of treatment. Surgeons may choose the screw type and

  11. Carbon dioxide fixation in isolated Kalanchoe chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, C.; Gibbs, M.

    1975-07-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 ..mu..moles of CO/sub 2/ per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1 percent of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1, 6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO/sub 2/ fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. (auth)

  12. The Ilizarov Mini-External Fixator for the Treatment of First Metatarsal Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tatsunori; Kodera, Norie; Takai, Shinro

    2017-01-01

    Forefoot fractures are frequently accompanied by severe soft tissue damage. Therefore, treatment should focus not only on fractures but also on soft tissue damage, for which external fixation can be used as a surgical option. A 63-year-old woman presented to the emergency clinic of our hospital with forefoot pain after a motorcycle accident. Comminuted fracture of the proximal part of the metatarsal was diagnosed. Because of the swollen foot and fracture comminution, an operation using the Ilizarov mini external fixator was performed to prevent further damage to the soft tissue. Weight-bearing was permitted seven weeks after the operation, and the extraction of the apparatus was performed nine weeks postoperatively. One year later, the patient had no pain and had returned to ballroom dancing, a hobby which she performed five days a week, with no difficulties. Our results suggest that the Ilizarov mini external fixator should be considered not only for temporary treatment, but also for the entire duration of treatment of first metatarsal fractures associated with severe soft tissue damage.

  13. Surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shishui; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infections and to quantify the contribution of independent risk factors to the probability of developing infection after definitive fixation of tibial plateau fractures in adult patients. A retrospective analysis was performed at a level I trauma center between January 2004 and December 2010. Data were collected from a review of the patient's electronic medical records. A total of 251 consecutive patients (256 cases) were divided into two groups, those with surgical site infections and those without surgical site infections. Preoperative and perioperative variables were compared between these groups, and risk factors were determined by univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. Variables analyzed included age, gender, smoking history, diabetes, presence of an open fracture, presence of compartment syndrome, Schatzker classification, polytrauma status, ICU stay, time from injury to surgery, use of temporary external fixation, surgical approach, surgical fixation, operative time, and use of a drain. The overall rate of surgical site infection after ORIF of tibial plateau fractures during the 7 years of this study was 7.8% (20 of 256). The most common causative pathogens was Staphylococcus aureus (n=15, 75%). Independent predictors of surgical site infection identified by multivariate analyses were open tibial plateau fracture (odds ratio=3.9; 95% CI=1.3-11.6; p=0.015) and operative time (odds ratio=2.7; 95% CI=1.6-4.4; psite infection. Both open fracture and operative time are independent risks factors for postoperative infection.

  14. Trichophyton rubrum osteomyelitis after calcaneus external fixation pin stabilization of a pilon fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waryasz, Gregory R; Bariteau, Jason T

    2014-01-01

    Fungal organisms are an uncommon cause of osteomyelitis, and no dermatophyte osteomyelitis infections have been reported in published studies. We present the case of Trichophyton rubrum osteomyelitis of the calcaneus. Our patient initially presented with a pilon fracture requiring temporary external fixation while awaiting definitive fixation. From our review of the published data, the present case is the first of this type of fungal osteomyelitis to be reported. The patient was evaluated for a left neck mass during his hospitalization that was later found to be consistent with salivary duct carcinoma of the tail of the parotid gland. A left neck dissection and superficial excision of the parotid gland was performed after fixation of his pilon fracture. Subsequently, he developed an increasing lucency in the calcaneus and symptoms of pain and erythema months after the calcaneus pin had been removed. The osteomyelitis was treated with surgical debridement and 3 months of itraconazole once cultures had definitively grown T. rubrum. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fixation of distal fibular fractures: A biomechanical study of plate fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvan, Jiri; Horak, Zdenek; Vilimek, Miloslav; Horny, Lukas; Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav

    2017-01-01

    Ankle fractures are complex injuries with variable prognoses that depend upon many factors. The aim of the treatment is to restore the ankle joint biomechanical stability with maximum range of motion. Most ankle fractures are fibular fractures, which have a typical oblique fracture line in the distal fibula located in the area of the tibiofibular syndesmosis. The aim of this study was to simulate numerically several fixation techniques of the distal fibular fractures, evaluate their stability, determine their impact on surrounding tissue load, and correlate the results to clinical treatment experience. The following three models of fibular fracture fixation were used: (a) plate fixation with three screws attached above/below and lag screws, (b) plate fixation with two screws attached above/below and lag screws, and (c) three lag screws only. All three fracture fixation models were analyzed according to their use in both healthy physiological bone and osteoporotic bone tissue. Based on the results of Finite Element Analysis for these simulations, we found that the most appropriate fixation method for Weber-B1 fibular fractures was an unlocked plate fixation using six screws and lag screws, both in patients with physiological and osteoporotic bone tissue. Conversely, the least appropriate fixation method was an unlocked plate fixation with four screws and lag screws. Although this fixation method reduces the stress on patients during surgery, it greatly increased loading on the bone and, thus, the risk of fixation failure. The final fixation model with three lag screws only was found to be appropriate only for very limited indications.

  16. Biomechanics of intramedullary fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, R F

    1985-11-01

    Intramedullary rodding allows excellent control of bending forces on long bone fractures when adequate sized rods are used. This is made possible by reaming when necessary. Torsional stability is poor if adequate bone nail contact is not obtained and there is little bone fragment interdigitation. This can be optimized with the interlocking system, especially with proximal and distal fractures. Intramedullary rods allow transmission of compressive load so there must be adequate bone to bone contact without comminution to prevent shortening. If a great deal of comminution is present, an interlocking system must be used to resist compressive loads. The interlocked devices have not been proven to be a detriment to union and indeed are a semi-rigid fixation system when used in comminuted shaft fractures. The strength of an osteosynthesis with an intramedullary rod depends on the geometry of the rod and the geometry of the fracture complex. Both locked and nonlocked intramedullary rods perform extremely well when one understands the mechanical principles involved in intramedullary rodding and pays close attention to detail.

  17. Fixation probability on clique-based graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Ok; Yu, Unjong

    2018-02-01

    The fixation probability of a mutant in the evolutionary dynamics of Moran process is calculated by the Monte-Carlo method on a few families of clique-based graphs. It is shown that the complete suppression of fixation can be realized with the generalized clique-wheel graph in the limit of small wheel-clique ratio and infinite size. The family of clique-star is an amplifier, and clique-arms graph changes from amplifier to suppressor as the fitness of the mutant increases. We demonstrate that the overall structure of a graph can be more important to determine the fixation probability than the degree or the heat heterogeneity. The dependence of the fixation probability on the position of the first mutant is discussed.

  18. Fixation of Selenium by Clay Minerals and Iron Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamdy, A. A.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1977-01-01

    In studying Se fixation, soil components capable of retaining Se were investigated. The importance of Fe hydrous oxides in the fixation of Se was established. The clay minerals common to soils, such as kaolinite, montmorillonite and vermiculite, all exhibited Se fixation, but greater fixation...

  19. Fracture resistance of various temporary crown materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Asude; Baydaş, Seyfettin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of various provisional crown materials using an in vitro model test system. In the present study polycarbonate crowns, prefabricated by the manufacturer (3M Polycarbonate Crown), and the temporary crowns, fabricated in the dental laboratory environment, were fabricated using bis-acryl composite (Protemp II), autopolymerizing PMMA resin (BISICO Temp S), and heat-polymerized PMMA resin (Major C&B-V Dentine). All temporary crowns were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at room temperature prior to testing. The crowns were seated on metal dies, fabricated from Cr-Co alloy (AZ Dental, Konstanz, Germany), and then tested using the indenter of a Hounsfield testing machine (Hounsfield Tensometer, Hounsfield Test Equipment, Raydon, England). The tip of the indenter was located at a position one-third of the way down the inciso-palatine surface at 135 masculine. The data were statistically analyzed for differences using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test (P crowns were significantly different from the BISICO Temp S, Protemp II, and Major C&B-V Dentine (P crowns may be preferable to the other types of temporary crowns used in this study.

  20. Surgical site infection in orthopedic implants and its common bacteria with their sensitivities to antibiotics, in open reduction internal fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.Q.; Zardad, M.S.; Khan, A.; Ahmed, S.; Awan, A. S.; Mohammad, T.

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is a major problem, causing long hospital stay, cost to the patient and is a burden on health care facilities. It increases rate of non-union, osteomyelitis, implant failure, sepsis, multiorgan dysfunction and even death. Surgical site infection is defined as pain, erythema, swelling and discharge from wound site. Surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants is more challenging to the treating orthopaedic surgeon as the causative organism is protected by a biofilm over the implant's surface. Antibiotics cannot cross this film to reach the bacteria's, causing infection. Method: This descriptive case series study includes 132 patients of both genders with ages between 13 years to 60 years conducted at Orthopaedic Unit, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from 1st October 2015 to 31st March 2016. Patients with close fractures of long bones were included in the study to determine the frequency of surgical site infection in orthopaedic implants and the type of bacteria involved and their sensitivity to various antibiotics. All implants were of stainless steel. The implants used were Dynamic hip screws, Dynamic compression screws, plates, k-wires, Interlocking nails, SIGN nails, Austin Moore prosthesis and tension band wires. Pre-op and post-op antibiotics used were combination of Sulbactum and Cefoperazone which was given 1 hour before surgery and continued for 72 hours after surgery. Patients were followed up to 4 weeks. Pus was taken on culture stick, from those who developed infection. Results were entered in the pro forma. Results: A total of 132 patients of long bone fractures, who were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, were studied. Only 7 patients developed infection. Staphylococcus Aureus was isolated from all 7 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to Linezolid, Fusidic Acid, and vancomycin. Cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, Gentamycin and Clindamycin were partially effective

  1. The treatment of scaphoid nonunion using the Ilizarov fixator without bone graft, a study of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbaširević Marko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Evaluating the safety and efficacy of the Ilizarov fine-wire compression/distraction technique in the treatment of scaphoid nonunion (SNU, without the use of bone graft. Design A retrospective review of 18 consecutive patients in one centre. Patients and Methods 18 patients; 17 males; 1 female, with a mean SNU duration of 13.9 months. Patients with carpal instability, humpback deformity, carpal collapse, avascular necrosis or marked degenerative change, were excluded. Following frame application the treatment consisted of three stages: the frame was distracted 1 mm per day until radiographs showed a 2-3 mm opening at the SNU site (mean 10 days; the SNU site was then compressed for 5 days, at a rate of 1 mm per day, with the wrist in 15 degrees of flexion and 15 degrees of radial deviation; the third stage involved immobilization with the Ilizarov fixator for 6 weeks. The technique is detailed herein. Results Radiographic (CT and clinical bony union was achieved in all 18 patients after a mean of 89 days (70-130 days. Mean modified Mayo wrist scores improved from 21 to 86 at a mean follow-up of 37 months (24-72 months, with good/excellent results in 14 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury occupations and levels of activity at a mean of 117 days. Three patients suffered superficial K-wire infections, which resolved with oral antibiotics. Conclusions In these selected patients this technique safely achieved bony union without the need to open the SNU site and without the use of bone graft.

  2. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  3. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Sharon L; Sher, Andrew W; Fleck, Neil D; Khorasani, Mahsa; Bumgarner, Roger E; Khan, Zareen; Ko, Andrew W K; Kim, Soo-Hyung; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N) is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  4. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean; Bouvier, Vincent; Guillemé, Julien; Coubard, Olivier A.

    2012-01-01

    When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF) of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell's law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled). The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes. PMID:23226987

  5. Maxwellian Eye Fixation during Natural Scene Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duchesne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we explore a visual scene, our eyes make saccades to jump rapidly from one area to another and fixate regions of interest to extract useful information. While the role of fixation eye movements in vision has been widely studied, their random nature has been a hitherto neglected issue. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the Maxwellian nature of eye movements during fixation. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to perform free viewing of natural scenes displayed on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded. For each participant, the probability density function (PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed the law established by Maxwell for describing molecule velocity in gas. Only the mean amplitude of eye movements varied with expertise, which was lower in experts than novice participants. In Experiment 2, two participants underwent fixed time, free viewing of natural scenes and of their scrambled version while their eye movements were recorded. Again, the PDF of eye movement amplitude during fixation obeyed Maxwell’s law for each participant and for each scene condition (normal or scrambled. The results suggest that eye fixation during natural scene perception describes a random motion regardless of top-down or of bottom-up processes.

  6. Linked linear mixed models: A joint analysis of fixation locations and fixation durations in natural reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Sven; Matuschek, Hannes; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2017-06-01

    The complexity of eye-movement control during reading allows measurement of many dependent variables, the most prominent ones being fixation durations and their locations in words. In current practice, either variable may serve as dependent variable or covariate for the other in linear mixed models (LMMs) featuring also psycholinguistic covariates of word recognition and sentence comprehension. Rather than analyzing fixation location and duration with separate LMMs, we propose linking the two according to their sequential dependency. Specifically, we include predicted fixation location (estimated in the first LMM from psycholinguistic covariates) and its associated residual fixation location as covariates in the second, fixation-duration LMM. This linked LMM affords a distinction between direct and indirect effects (mediated through fixation location) of psycholinguistic covariates on fixation durations. Results confirm the robustness of distributed processing in the perceptual span. They also offer a resolution of the paradox of the inverted optimal viewing position (IOVP) effect (i.e., longer fixation durations in the center than at the beginning and end of words) although the opposite (i.e., an OVP effect) is predicted from default assumptions of psycholinguistic processing efficiency: The IOVP effect in fixation durations is due to the residual fixation-location covariate, presumably driven primarily by saccadic error, and the OVP effect (at least the left part of it) is uncovered with the predicted fixation-location covariate, capturing the indirect effects of psycholinguistic covariates. We expect that linked LMMs will be useful for the analysis of other dynamically related multiple outcomes, a conundrum of most psychonomic research.

  7. Posterior atlantoaxial fixation: a review of all techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Geng; Hao, Ding-Jun; He, Bao-Rong; Wu, Qi-Ning; Liu, Tuan-Jiang; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Hua; Fang, Xiang-Yi

    2015-10-01

    Posterior atlantoaxial fixation is an effective treatment for atlantoaxial instability. Great advancements on posterior atlantoaxial fixation techniques have been made in the past decades. However, there is no article reviewing all the posterior atlantoaxial fixation techniques yet. The aim was to review the evolution and advancements of posterior atlantoaxial fixation. This was a literature review. The application of all posterior fixation techniques in atlantoaxial stabilization, including wiring techniques, interlaminar clamp fixation, transarticular fixation, screw-plate systems, screw-rod systems, and hook-screw systems, are reviewed and discussed. Recent advancements on the novel technique of atlantoaxial fixation are described. The combination of the C1 and C2 screws in screw-rod systems are described in detail. All fixation techniques are useful. The screw-rod system appears to be the most popular approach. However, many novel or modified fixation methods have been introduced in recent years. Great advancements on posterior atlantoaxial fixation techniques have been made in the past decades. The wiring technique and interlaminar clamps technique have fallen out of favor because of the development of newer and superior fixation techniques. The C1-C2 transarticular screw technique may remain the gold standard for atlantoaxial fusion, whereas screw-rod systems, especially the C1 pedicle screw combined with C2 pedicle/pars screw fixation, have become the most popular fixation techniques. Hook-screw systems are alternatives for atlantoaxial fixation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer-assisted preoperative simulation for positioning of plate fixation in Lefort I osteotomy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Suenaga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography images are used for three-dimensional planning in orthognathic surgery. This facilitates the actual surgery by simulating the surgical scenario. We performed a computer-assisted virtual orthognathic surgical procedure using optically scanned three-dimensional (3D data and real computed tomography data on a personal computer. It helped maxillary bone movement and positioning and the titanium plate temporary fixation and positioning. This simulated the surgical procedure, which made the procedure easy, and we could perform precise actual surgery and could forecast the postsurgery outcome. This simulation method promises great potential in orthognathic surgery to help surgeons plan and perform operative procedures more precisely.

  9. Radiologic and clinical outcomes of surgery in high grade spondylolisthesis treated with temporary distraction rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hootkani, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Rezvan, Manizheh; Moayedpour, Amir

    2015-03-01

    Surgical techniques used in the treatment of patients with high grade lumbar spondylolisthesis (> 50% slippage) are usually associated with a great deal of controversies. We aim to evaluate the surgical outcomes of high grade spondylolisthesis treated with an intraoperative temporary distraction rod. We retrospectively studied 21 patients (14 females and 7 males), aged 50.4 ± 9.2 years, who had high grade lumbar spondylolisthesis that was treated with intraoperative temporary distraction rods, neural decompression, pedicular screw fixation, and posterolateral fusion involving one more intact upper vertebra. The mean follow-up period was 39.2 months. Radiologic and clinical outcomes were measured by slip angle, slip percentage, correction rate, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), patient's satisfaction rate in the pre- and postoperative period. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 11.5. Analysis of the preoperative visits and final follow-up visits indicated that surgery could improve ODI, lumbar VAS, and leg VAS from 60.5% to 8.2%, from 6.7 to 2.2, and from 6.9 to 1.3, respectively. Slip angle and slip percentage were also changed from -8° to -15° and from 59.2% to 21.4%, respectively. Mean correction rate at the final follow-up visit was 64.1%. Loss of correction was insignificant and a neurologic complication occurred in one patient due to misplacement of one screw. Excellent and good levels of satisfaction were observed in 90.5% of the patients. In the surgical treatment of refractory high grade spondylolisthesis, the use of a temporary distraction rod to reduce the slipped vertebra in combination with neural decompression, posterolateral fusion, and longer instrumentation is associated with satisfactory clinical and radiologic outcomes.

  10. Radiologic and Clinical Outcomes of Surgery in High Grade Spondylolisthesis Treated with Temporary Distraction Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hootkani, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Rezvan, Manizheh; Moayedpour, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical techniques used in the treatment of patients with high grade lumbar spondylolisthesis (> 50% slippage) are usually associated with a great deal of controversies. We aim to evaluate the surgical outcomes of high grade spondylolisthesis treated with an intraoperative temporary distraction rod. Methods We retrospectively studied 21 patients (14 females and 7 males), aged 50.4 ± 9.2 years, who had high grade lumbar spondylolisthesis that was treated with intraoperative temporary distraction rods, neural decompression, pedicular screw fixation, and posterolateral fusion involving one more intact upper vertebra. The mean follow-up period was 39.2 months. Radiologic and clinical outcomes were measured by slip angle, slip percentage, correction rate, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), patient's satisfaction rate in the pre- and postoperative period. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 11.5. Results Analysis of the preoperative visits and final follow-up visits indicated that surgery could improve ODI, lumbar VAS, and leg VAS from 60.5% to 8.2%, from 6.7 to 2.2, and from 6.9 to 1.3, respectively. Slip angle and slip percentage were also changed from -8° to -15° and from 59.2% to 21.4%, respectively. Mean correction rate at the final follow-up visit was 64.1%. Loss of correction was insignificant and a neurologic complication occurred in one patient due to misplacement of one screw. Excellent and good levels of satisfaction were observed in 90.5% of the patients. Conclusions In the surgical treatment of refractory high grade spondylolisthesis, the use of a temporary distraction rod to reduce the slipped vertebra in combination with neural decompression, posterolateral fusion, and longer instrumentation is associated with satisfactory clinical and radiologic outcomes. PMID:25729523

  11. Functional Outcomes After Temporary Bridging With Locking Plates in Lisfranc Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koperen, Paul J; de Jong, Vincent M; Luitse, Jan S K; Schepers, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The standard operative treatment of Lisfranc fracture dislocations currently consists of open reduction and transarticular fixation. Recently, bridge plating has been used more often. Using joint spanning, the reduced fracture dislocation is temporary stabilized to minimize articular damage. The present study describes the outcomes of patients treated with bridge plating after tarsometatarsal fracture dislocations compared with transarticular screw fixation. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Patients with an isolated tarsometatarsal injury who had been treated operatively from June 2000 to October 2013 were included. The primary functional outcome was measured using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society midfoot score and the Foot Function Index. The secondary outcome was patient satisfaction, which was measured using the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire and a visual analog scale. A total of 34 patients were included. Bridge plating was used in 21 patients. In 13 patients, Kirschner wires or transarticular screws or a combination were used. The median follow-up period was 49 (interquartile range 18 to 89) months. The implants were removed in 10 of 13 patients in the transarticular group and 17 of 21 patients in the bridge plating group. The incidence of wound complications was comparable in both groups. The median American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was lower in the transarticular group (77 versus 66). The Foot Function Index score was 18 in both groups. Patient satisfaction was 90% in the bridge plating group and 80% in the transarticular group. Bridge plating for Lisfranc injuries led to at least similar results compared with transarticular fixation in terms of functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine whether the prevention of secondary damage to the articular surface leads to less post-traumatic arthritis and better functional outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot

  12. Graft fixation in cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J; Weiler, A; Caborn, D N; Brown, C H; Johnson, D L

    2000-01-01

    Cruciate ligament reconstruction has progressed dramatically in the last 20 years. Anatomic placement of ligament substitutes has fostered rehabilitation efforts that stress immediate and full range of motion, immediate weightbearing, neuromuscular strength and coordination, and early return to athletic competition (3 months). This has placed extreme importance on secure graft fixation at the time of ligament reconstruction. Current ligament substitutes require a bony or soft tissue component to be fixed within a bone tunnel or on the periosteum at a distance from the normal ligament attachment site. Fixation devices have progressed from metal to biodegradable and from far to near-normal native ligament attachment sites. Ideally, the biomechanical properties of the entire graft construct would approach those of the native ligament and facilitate biologic incorporation of the graft. Fixation should be done at the normal anatomic attachment site of the native ligament (aperture fixation) and, over time, allow the biologic return of the histologic transition zone from ligament to fibrocartilage, to calcified fibrocartilage, to bone. The purpose of this article is to review current fixation devices and techniques in cruciate ligament surgery.

  13. External fixation of “intertrochanteric” fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem ul Gani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with “intertro-chanteric” fractures remain unsuitable for open reduction and internal fixation. The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of “intertro-chanteric” fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country. The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years with “intertrochanteric” fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported. Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet’s point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients. This study demonstrated that external fixation of “intertrochantric” fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  14. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  15. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  16. Local hypertrichosis: A rare complication of a temporary henna tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpolat, Nebahat Demet; Aras, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Temporary henna tattoos have become increasingly widespread among children and young people, especially in holiday spots in recent years. Although reactions to henna tattoo are becoming progressively more common, only few cases of a henna pseudo-tattoo resulting in temporary hypertrichosis have been reported so far. Here, we have reported a 5-year-old girl who developed allergic contact dermatitis and localized hypertrichosis on her right arm after application of temporary henna tattoo during summer holiday.

  17. Morbidity with temporary disability in Kozloduy NPP workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobreva, B.; Novkirishki, V.

    1993-01-01

    Changes with time in indicators of disease incidence with temporary disability in Kozloduy NPP personnel have been studied for the period 1974-1991. The data were compared with those for 'Sofia-Iztok' TPP. The causes contributing to formation of the indicators of frequency, severity, and average duration were examined. No temporary disability because of radiation exposure has been recorded. As a whole, less temporary disability has been found at NPP than at TPP. (author)

  18. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  19. Arthroscopic-Assisted Open Reduction Internal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Graham A; Doyle, Matthew D; Castellucci-Garza, Francesca M

    2018-04-01

    The indications for arthroscopy have expanded over the years. Arthroscopic-assisted open reduction internal fixation in the setting of acute trauma is gaining popularity with foot and ankle surgeons. It serves to facilitate direct visualization of fracture fragments and allows for precise articular reduction with minimal soft tissue insult. Current evidence reports a high incidence of chondral injury with ankle fractures. Arthroscopy performed at the time of open reduction internal fixation allows for joint inspection and potential treatment of these posttraumatic defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Complications of Kirschner Wire Use in Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Calcaneal Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorr, Maarten C.; Backes, Manouk; Luitse, Jan S. K.; de Jong, Vincent M.; Schepers, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The most important goal of surgical management of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures is anatomic correction. This reduction is usually stabilized using plate and screw osteosynthesis. In addition, Kirschner wires (K-wires) can be used to maintain the surgical reduction or stability of the

  1. Sacroiliac screw fixation for tile B fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, E.W. van den; Zwienen, C.M. van; Hoek van Dijke, G.A.; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this comparative cadaveric study was to investigate whether the stability of partially unstable pelvic fractures can be improved by combining plate fixation of the symphysis with a posterior sacroiliac screw. METHODS: In six specimens, a Tile B1 (open-book) pelvic fracture

  2. Nitrogen fixation in the phyllosphere of Gramineae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, E.P.M.

    1973-01-01

    The investigation was carried out with Zea mays , grown under temperate conditions, and with Tripsacum laxum Nash, grown in the tropics. The conditions for nitrogen fixation were found to be unfavourable in the leachate, obtained by spray irrigation of the aerial plant

  3. Headspace analysis of foams and fixatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Truong, Thanh-Tam [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Magwood, Leroy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, Brent [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-27

    In the process of decontaminating and decommissioning (D&D) older nuclear facilities, special precautions must be taken with removable or airborne contamination. One possible strategy utilizes foams and fixatives to affix these loose contaminants. Many foams and fixatives are already commercially available, either generically or sold specifically for D&D. However, due to a lack of revelant testing in a radioactive environment, additional verification is needed to confirm that these products not only affix contamination to their surfaces, but also will function in a D&D environment. Several significant safety factors, including flammability and worker safety, can be analyzed through the process of headspace analysis, a technique that analyzes the off gas formed before or during the curing process of the foam/fixative, usually using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This process focuses on the volatile components of a chemical, which move freely between the solid/liquid form within the sample and the gaseous form in the area above the sample (the headspace). Between possibly hot conditions in a D&D situation and heat created in a foaming reaction, the volatility of many chemicals can change, and thus different gasses can be released at different times throughout the reaction. This project focused on analysis of volatile chemicals involved in the process of using foams and fixatives to identify any potential hazardous or flammable compounds.

  4. Locking plate fixation for proximal humerus fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G

    2012-02-01

    Locking plates are increasingly used to surgically treat proximal humerus fractures. Knowledge of the bone quality of the proximal humerus is important. Studies have shown the medial and dorsal aspects of the proximal humeral head to have the highest bone strength, and this should be exploited by fixation techniques, particularly in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The goals of surgery for proximal humeral fractures should involve minimal soft tissue dissection and achieve anatomic reduction of the head complex with sufficient stability to allow for early shoulder mobilization. This article reviews various treatment options, in particular locking plate fixation. Locking plate fixation is associated with a high complication rate, such as avascular necrosis (7.9%), screw cutout (11.6%), and revision surgery (13.7%). These complications are frequently due to the varus deformation of the humeral head. Strategic screw placement in the humeral head would minimize the possibility of loss of fracture reduction and potential hardware complications. Locking plate fixation is a good surgical option for the management of proximal humerus fractures. Complications can be avoided by using better bone stock and by careful screw placement in the humeral head.

  5. The effect of fixation on esterases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1984-01-01

    The localization of reaction product for non-specific esterase from fresh and aldehyde treated glandular tissue was examined. The electrophoretical studies showed a selective inhibition of certain isoenzymes and a change in mobility of some bands caused by aldehyde fixation. In sections a granular...

  6. SIGN HIP CONSTRUCT: ACHIEVING HIP FRACTURE FIXATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elderly has made stable reduction and internal fixation the preferred treatment. .... anaemia, 1 had concomitant spine injury, and another had widespread ... infection (1.5%) and 8 cases of varus collapse (11.8%). (Table 4). Table 3. Stable versus unstable fracture and mechanism of injury. Type of fracture. MTA. No. (%). Fall.

  7. Large fluctuations and fixation in evolutionary games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaf, Michael; Mobilia, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We study large fluctuations in evolutionary games belonging to the coordination and anti-coordination classes. The dynamics of these games, modeling cooperation dilemmas, is characterized by a coexistence fixed point separating two absorbing states. We are particularly interested in the problem of fixation that refers to the possibility that a few mutants take over the entire population. Here, the fixation phenomenon is induced by large fluctuations and is investigated by a semiclassical WKB (Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin) theory generalized to treat stochastic systems possessing multiple absorbing states. Importantly, this method allows us to analyze the combined influence of selection and random fluctuations on the evolutionary dynamics beyond the weak selection limit often considered in previous works. We accurately compute, including pre-exponential factors, the probability distribution function in the long-lived coexistence state and the mean fixation time necessary for a few mutants to take over the entire population in anti-coordination games, and also the fixation probability in the coordination class. Our analytical results compare excellently with extensive numerical simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our treatment is superior to the Fokker–Planck approximation when the selection intensity is finite

  8. External fixation for phalangeal and metacarpal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, DJ; Klasen, HJ

    From 1987 to 1993 we treated 33 patients with 29 phalangeal and seven metacarpal fractures by external fixation using a mini-Hoffmann device. There were 27 open and 25 comminuted fractures, In 12 patients one or more tendons was involved, The mean follow-up was 4.4 years, Complications occurred in

  9. Heterotrophic fixation of CO2 in soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, Hana; Bird, M. I.; Elhottová, Dana; Novák, Jaroslav; Picek, T.; Šimek, Miloslav; Tykva, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2005), s. 218-225 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/1036; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6066901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : heterotrophic fixation * CO2 * soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2005

  10. Synthetic biology for CO2fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Cai, Zhen; Li, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Recycling of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into fuels and chemicals is a potential approach to reduce CO 2 emission and fossil-fuel consumption. Autotrophic microbes can utilize energy from light, hydrogen, or sulfur to assimilate atmospheric CO 2 into organic compounds at ambient temperature and pressure. This provides a feasible way for biological production of fuels and chemicals from CO 2 under normal conditions. Recently great progress has been made in this research area, and dozens of CO 2 -derived fuels and chemicals have been reported to be synthesized by autotrophic microbes. This is accompanied by investigations into natural CO 2 -fixation pathways and the rapid development of new technologies in synthetic biology. This review first summarizes the six natural CO 2 -fixation pathways reported to date, followed by an overview of recent progress in the design and engineering of CO 2 -fixation pathways as well as energy supply patterns using the concept and tools of synthetic biology. Finally, we will discuss future prospects in biological fixation of CO 2 .

  11. Osteomyelitis in burn patients requiring skeletal fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, JP; Desai, MH; Herndon, DN

    Deep and severe burns often present with the exposure of musculoskeletal structures and severe deformities. Skeletal fixation, suspension and/or traction are part of their comprehensive treatment. Several factors put burn patients at risk for osteomyelitis, osteosynthesis material being one of them.

  12. 15N in biological nitrogen fixation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1986-05-01

    A bibliography with 298 references on the use of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in the research on the biological fixation of dinitrogen is presented. The literature pertaining to this bibliography covers the period from 1975 to the middle of 1985. (author)

  13. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  14. Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation in laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J R; Bisgaard, T; Assaadzadeh, S

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation has significant positive effects on early outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) compared with titanium tacks. Whether fibrin sealant fixation also results in better long-term outcome is unknown.......Fibrin sealant for mesh fixation has significant positive effects on early outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) compared with titanium tacks. Whether fibrin sealant fixation also results in better long-term outcome is unknown....

  15. 29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary heating devices. 1926.154 Section 1926.154 Labor... Temporary heating devices. (a) Ventilation. (1) Fresh air shall be supplied in sufficient quantities to... heating devices shall be installed to provide clearance to combustible material not less than the amount...

  16. 42 CFR 488.54 - Temporary waivers applicable to hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fully with the 24-hour nursing requirement is attributable to a temporary shortage of qualified nursing...) of the Act, see paragraph (c) of this section.) (c) Temporary waiver of 24-hour nursing requirement...) that a hospital must provide 24-hour nursing service furnished or supervised by a registered nurse...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-5T - Definitions (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions (temporary). 1.1092(b)-5T Section 1.1092(b)-5T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-5T Definitions (temporary). The...

  18. 20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Department's Internet Web site at http://www.foreignlaborcert.doleta.gov/. The form must bear the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for temporary employment... Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.20 Applications for temporary employment certification...

  19. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs.

  20. Temporising external fixation of calcaneus fractures prior to definitive plate fixation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Brian M; Lin, Carol A; Moon, Charles N

    2015-09-01

    Surgical management of calcaneus fractures is technically demanding and has a high risk of wound complications. These fractures are traditionally managed with splinting until swelling has subsided, which can take weeks and leaves the fracture fragments displaced. We describe a novel protocol for the management of displaced intraarticular calcaneus fractures that utilises a temporising external fixator and staged conversion to plate fixation through a sinus tarsi approach. The goal of this technique was to enable earlier treatment with open reduction and internal fixation, minimise the amount of manipulation required at the time of definitive fixation and reduce the wound complication rate seen with the traditional extensile approach. The records of patients with displaced calcaneus fractures from 2010-2014 were reviewed retrospectively. A total of nine patients with 10 calcaneus fractures were treated using this protocol. All patients underwent ankle-spanning medial external fixation within 48 hours after injury. Patients underwent conversion to open plate fixation through a sinus tarsi approach when skin turgor had returned to normal. Time to surgery, infection rate, wound complications, radiographic alignment, and time to radiographic union were recorded. The average Bohler's angle improved from 13.2 (range -2 to 34) degrees preoperatively to 34.3 (range 26 to 42) degrees postoperatively. The average time from external fixation to conversion to internal fixation was 4.8 (range 3 to 7) days. There were no immediate post-surgical complications. The average time to weight-bearing was 8.5 weeks. The average time to radiographic union was 9.5 (range 8 to 12) weeks. There were no infections or wound complications at the time of last follow-up. Early temporising external fixation for the acute management of displaced calcaneus fractures is a safe and effective method to reduce and stabilise the foot and may decrease the time to definitive fixation. There were no

  1. Comparison of external fixation versus the trauma pelvic orthotic device on unstable pelvic injuries: a cadaveric study of stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Conrad, Bryan; Rubery, Paul T; Dubose, Dewayne; Small, John; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-06-01

    Most institutions treating pelvic fractures use some method of acute mechanical stabilization. This typically involves use of pelvic binders or circumferential sheeting, and/or external fixation. The comparative value of these different modalities is controversial. We hypothesized that an external fixator would provide more stability to an unstable pelvic injury than a commercially available binder device (trauma pelvic orthotic device [T-POD]). Unstable pelvic injuries (Tile C) were surgically created in five fresh whole human cadavers. Electromagnetic sensors were placed on the same position of each hemipelvis. The amount of angular motion during testing was measured using a Fastrak, three-dimensional, electromagnetic motion analysis device. Maximum displacements were recorded during application of the stabilizing devices, bed transfer, logrolling, and head-of-bed elevation. External fixation frames were constructed by placing two 5.0-mm half pins into the iliac crest and then connected them with a 10-mm curved bar. The T-POD device was placed at the level of the greater trochanters as per manufacturer's recommendations. While logrolling the patient and performing bed transfers, the T-POD conferred more stability in all planes of motion, although this did not reach statistical significance. During elevation of the head of the bed, the T-POD allowed less motion in the sagittal and coronal planes but permitted equivalent motion in axial rotation. These differences were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in stability conferred by an external fixator or a T-POD for unstable pelvic injuries. We advocate acute, temporary stabilization of pelvic injuries with a binder device and early conversion to internal fixation when the patient's medical condition allows. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  2. Infection Rate of Intramedullary Nailing in Closed Fractures of the Femoral Diaphysis After Temporizing External Fixation in an Austere Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Joseph W; Dannenbaum, Joseph H; Tubb, Creighton C; Poepping, Thomas P; Grassbaugh, Jason A; Arrington, Edward D

    2015-09-01

    To determine the infection rate of intramedullary (IM) nailing of closed diaphyseal femur fractures after temporary stabilization with external fixation in an austere combat environment. Retrospective case series. Iraq and Afghanistan Theater and Military Medical Treatment Centers in the United States and Landstuhl, Germany. Military personnel who underwent temporizing external fixation of a closed diaphyseal femur fracture (OTA 32) with later conversion to an IM nail between 2003 and 2012. Patients were identified from the Joint Theater Trauma Registry and Department of Defense electronic medical record, and a retrospective review was performed. Variables measured included age, gender, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, associated injuries (to include thoracic and abdominal injuries), base deficit, history of massive transfusion, date of injury, date and place of external and IM fixations, time to conversion procedure, report of superficial or deep infection, report of fracture union, and date of last follow-up. One hundred twenty-two patients, mean age 25 (18-43) years, sustained 125 closed femoral diaphyseal fractures from May 2003 to July 2012. External fixation was performed at a mean of 0.2 days (median of the day of injury) and a range of 0-3 days. Mean time to IM nail conversion procedure was 6.9 (1-20) days. Infection rate was 2.5%, with a P of 0.188. Average follow-up was 41.4 (12-119) months. Acceptable low infection rates can be achieved after IM nailing of closed diaphyseal femur fractures treated with initial external fixation in an austere combat environment. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Factors affecting closure of a temporary stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Claire; Varma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine time to reversal of a temporary ostomy, reasons for delayed closure, and patient satisfaction with the scheduling of their closure and related hospital care. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The target population comprised patients who underwent creation of a temporary ostomy and reversal surgery within one National Health System Hospital Trust in the United Kingdom. The population served by this Trust are ethnically and socioeconomically diverse, predominantly living in urban areas around Greater London. Sixty-one persons who met inclusion criteria were identified. A two-step analytical process was undertaken. First, a literature review examining incidence and causes of delayed stoma closure was undertaken. Second, a postal survey of all patients who had had their stoma closed in 2009 was conducted. Respondents were allowed 2 weeks to complete and return the questionnaire. The survey instrument was developed locally and subjected to content validation using ostomy patients, surgical and nursing colleagues. It consisted of 9 questions querying time from original surgery to closure, reasons for delaying closure surgery beyond 12 weeks, and satisfaction with care. Twenty-seven patients returned their questionnaires, indicating they consented to participate; a response rate of 44%. Half of the respondents (n = 14 [52%]) underwent closure surgery within 6 months of stoma formation; the remaining 48% waited more than 6 months (median: 6.5 months, range: 1.5-26 months). Thirteen patients (48%) reported a delay in receiving their stoma closure; the main reason cited was the need for a course of adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. Three quarters of respondents (22 [74%]) were satisfied with the overall care they received. Findings from this study suggest that stoma closure may be associated with fewest complications if performed before 12 weeks.

  4. The Stability of Double Jaw Surgery: A Comparison of Rigid Fixation versus Skeletal Wire Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    APPROVED BY THE DEPART M T OF ORTHODONTICS : (signed) 4IA Chairman APPROVED BY THE THESIS COMMITTEE: (signed) APPROVED BY THE GRADUATE COUNCIL...patients had rigid fixation to stabilize the segments and nine patients had skeletal wire fixation. Twenty- seven cephalometric parameters were examined...him has left me with a deep appreciation for his skill and dedication. For the unique opportunity to study Orthodontics here at Baylor, I must thank Dr

  5. Biomechanical study of posterior wall acetabular fracture fixation using acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-wei, Liu; Shuo-gui, Xu; Chun-cai, Zhang; Qing-ge, Fu; Pan-feng, Wang

    2010-05-01

    We developed the acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS), which is made of NiTi shape memory alloy, according to the specific mechanical properties of biological memory material, nitinol alloy and measured distribution of contact area and pressure between the acetabulum and the femoral head of cadaveric pelvis. Six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvis were used for this investigation. Pressure-sensitive film was used to measure contact area and pressure within the anterior, superior, and posterior regions of the acetabulum. The pelvis were loaded under the following four conditions: (1) intact; (2) following a creation posterior wall fracture defect; (3) following reduction and standard internal fixation with reconstruction plate; (4) following reduction and internal fixation with a new shape memory alloy device named ATMFS. A posterior wall fracture was created along an arc of 40-90 degrees about the acetabular rim. Creation of a posterior wall defect resulted in increased load in the superior acetabulum (1422N) as compared to the intact condition (762N, P=0.007). Following reduction and internal fixation, the load distributed to the superior acetabulum (1486N) was not statistically different from the defect condition. Following the fixation with ATMFS, the load seen at the superior region of the actabulum (936N) was less than fixation with reconstruction plate and was not different from intact state (P=0.4). These data indicate that the use of ATMFS as a fracture internal fixation device resulted a partial restoration of joint loading parameters toward the intact state. ATMFS fixation may result in a clinical benefit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 4-Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl into Schedule I. Temporary scheduling order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.

  7. Comparison of skeletal stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy among mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation using absorbable plates and screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Koichiro; Moroi, Akinori; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Hotta, Asami; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Fukaya, Kenichi; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuta; Saito, Yuki

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine skeletal stability and plate breakage after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) with the mono-cortical plate fixation, bi-cortical plate fixation, and hybrid fixation techniques using absorbable plates and screws. A total of 76 Japanese patients diagnosed with mandibular prognathism with and without maxillary deformity were divided into 3 groups randomly. A total of 28 patients underwent SSRO with mono-cortical plate fixation, 23 underwent SSRO with bi-cortical plate fixation, and 25 underwent SSRO with hybrid fixation. Skeletal stability and horizontal condylar angle were analyzed by axial, frontal, and lateral cephalograms from before the operation to 1 year postoperatively. Breakage of the plate and screws was observed by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) immediately after surgery and after 1 year. Although there was a significant difference between the mono-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group regarding right MeAg in T1 (P = 0.0488) and occlusal plane in T1 (P = 0.0346), there were no significant differences between the groups for the other measurements in each time interval. In 2 cases, namely, 6 sides in the mono-cortical plate fixation group, breakage of the absorbable plate was found by 3DCT. However, there was no breakage in the bi-cortical plate fixation group and hybrid fixation group. This study results suggested that there were no significant differences in the postoperative skeletal stability among the 3 groups, and bi-cortical fixation as well as hybrid fixation was a reliable and useful method to prevent plate breakage even if an absorbable material was used. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal fixation and muscle pedicle bone grafting in femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture is still an unsolved problem. Non-union and avascular necrosis are the two main complications of this fracture, especially if patient presents late. Muscle pedicle bone grafting has been advocated to provide additional blood supply. We present analysis of our 32 cases of displaced femoral neck fracture treated by internal fixation and quadratus femoris based muscle pedicle bone grafting. Materials and Methods: Open reduction and internal fixation with muscle pedicle grafting was done in 32 patients. The age of patients varied from 14-62 years (average age 45 years with male to female ratio of 13:3. Twenty-nine fractures were more than three weeks old. All the cases were treated by Meyers′ procedure. The fracture was internally fixed after open reduction and then a muscle pedicle graft was applied. It was supplemented by cancellous bone graft in seven cases. Fixation was done by parallel cancellous lag screws ( n = 19, crossed Garden′s screws ( n = 7, parallel Asnis screws ( n = 5 and Moore′s pin ( n = 1.Quadratus femoris muscle pedicle graft was used in 32 cases. In the initial 12 cases the graft was fixed with circumferential proline sutures, but later, to provide a secure fixation, the graft was fixed with a cancellous screw ( n = 20. Postoperative full weight bearing was deferred to an average of 10 weeks. Results: Union was achieved in 26/29 (89.65% cases which could be followed for an average period of 3.4 years, (2-8.5 years with good functional results and had the ability to squat and sit cross-legged. Results were based on hip rating system given by Salvatti and Wilson. The results were excellent in 15 cases, good in four cases, fair in four cases and poor in six cases. Complications were avascular necrosis ( n = 2, transient foot drop ( n = 2, coxa-vara ( n = 1 and temporary loss of scrotal sensation ( n = 1. Conclusion: Muscle pedicle bone grafting with

  9. Antimicrobial activity of nanocomposite zirconium nitride/silver coatings to combat external bone fixation pin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, David J; West, Glen; Kelly, Peter J; Verran, Joanna; Lynch, Stephen; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2012-10-01

    During external fixation, temporary implants are used to penetrate the skin, muscle and bone to support severely fractured bones. This creates a biologically critical interface at the site of entry, which potentially allows a risk of infection. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate potential antimicrobial nanocomposites to combat infection. Magnetron sputtering was used to produce zirconium nitride/silver nanocomposite coatings, which were prepared at two different silver concentrations of 15.5 at.% and 29.8 at.%. These coatings were characterized for morphology, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity in comparison to pure zirconium nitride and stainless steel. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were used as in vitro test organisms in a range of antimicrobial assays; retention of the bacteria on the surfaces and their survival using LiveDead™ staining; the use of a metabolic redox dye to indicate a contact kill and zone of inhibition assays to indicate leaching of inhibitory silver ions. Antimicrobial tests demonstrated a significant kill when the bacterial cells came in contact with the coatings containing silver at both 15.5 at.% and 29.8 at.%. No inhibitory leaching from the surfaces occurred. These surfaces demonstrate potential for use as antimicrobial fixation pin coatings.

  10. Return to Work After Temporary Disability Pension in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija

    2015-09-01

    When it is possible that the employee's work ability can be restored through treatment or rehabilitation, disability pension in Finland is granted for a fixed period. We examined which factors are associated with return to work (RTW) after such temporary disability pension. The study included all Finnish residents whose temporary disability pension from the earnings-related pension system started in 2008 (N = 10,269). Competing risks regression analysis was applied to examine register-based determinants for RTW after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, other diseases, and injury over a 4-year follow-up period. The overall cumulative incidence of RTW was 25%. RTW was more probable after temporary disability pension due to injury and musculoskeletal diseases and less probable after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders. Younger age and higher education increased RTW but differences between genders, private and public sector employees, and occupational classes were relatively small. The probability of RTW was higher among those who were employed before their temporary disability pension (subhazard ratio in multivariate analysis 2.41 (95% CI 2.13-2.72) and among the 9% who participated in vocational rehabilitation during their pension [SHR 2.10 (95% CI 1.90-2.31)]. With some exceptions, the results were fairly similar for all diagnostic causes of temporary disability pension. Return to work after temporary disability pension was relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, in all diagnostic groups RTW continued for the whole follow-up period. The low educated and those not employed before temporary disability pension need more support in their RTW. The strong association between vocational rehabilitation and RTW suggests that increasing rehabilitation among those with impaired work ability may promote RTW.

  11. Accuracy of fit of 3-to-3 retainers after adhesive fixation using a neodymium-iron-boron magnet chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Wolfram; Wasser-Merkel, Wiebke; Lange, Katharina; Gruber, Rudolf M; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Ihlow, Dankmar

    2011-10-01

    Six-base retainers are often used to prevent tertiary crowding. To minimize shear stress on the retainer, these should be fitted as precisely as possible. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of fit of 6-base retainers after adhesive fixation using a neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnet chain or a resin positioning aid. A 6-base retainer was prepared for 40 pseudo-anonymous lower jaw models (2 × 20). Temporary fixation was performed with a resin positioning aid or a NdFeB magnet chain. The adhesive fixation of the retainers was randomized. The area and vertical distance between wire and teeth were determined by histomorphometry. The results were evaluated by ANOVA. The probability of error was specified as 5%. With the magnetic chain method, the area was significantly smaller than with the positioning aid (p = 0.0125). The difference between the two methods was ca. 1.3 mm². Moreover, the measured distance was affected significantly by the method used (p NdFeB magnet chain is used even though the wire is not as precisely positioned as it would be with a custom-made positioning aid.

  12. Nitrogen fixation improvement in Faidherbia albida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toure, O.; Dasilva, M.C.; Badji, S.; Dianda, M.; Ndoye, I.; Gueye, M.

    1998-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment investigated growth, N accumulation and N 2 fixation (using the 15 N-dilution method) by Faidherbia albida in comparison with three species of Acacia, with Parkia biglobosa and Tamarindus indica as non-fixing reference plants. Faidherbia albida was mediocre in comparison with A. seyel, therefore seven provenances of the former were examined in a second pot experiment to investigate within-species variability for the same performance components; a provenance from Kabrousse, Senegal, showed particular promise in terms of dry weight and N accumulation, and fixation of N. This promise was confirmed with a 15-month field experiment, but revealed that there is opportunity for further improvement in N 2 -fixing ability. Faidherbia albida is a slow-growing tree, therefore further field experiments with provenance Kabrousse should be longer term in scope. The data indicate that trenching of the 15 N-labelled area may not be necessary. (author)

  13. In-vitro performance of CAD/CAM-fabricated implant-supported temporary crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentritt, Martin; Raab, Philipp; Hahnel, Sebastian; Stöckle, Matthias; Preis, Verena

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro performance and fracture resistance of a temporary computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured polymethylmethacrylate (CAD/CAM-PMMA) material as implant or tooth-supported single crown with respect to the clinical procedure (permanently bonded/temporarily cemented). Sixty-four crowns were fabricated on implants or human molar teeth simulating (a) labside procedure on prefabricated titanium-bonding base ([TiBase] implant crown bonded in laboratory, screwed chairside), (b) labside procedure ([LAB] standard abutment and implant crown bonded in laboratory, screwed chairside), (c) chairside procedure ([CHAIR] implant crown bonded to abutment), and (d) reference ([TOOTH] crowns luted on prepared human teeth). Crowns were made of a CAD/CAM-PMMA temporary material (TelioCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent). For investigating the influence of fixation, half of the crowns were permanently (P) or temporarily (T) bonded. Combined thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML) was performed simulating a 5-year clinical situation. Fracture force was determined. Data were statistically analyzed (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-way ANOVA; post hoc Bonferroni, α = 0.05). All restorations survived TCML without visible failures. Fracture results varied between 3034.3 (Tooth-P) and 1602.9 N (Tooth-T) [TOOTH], 1510.5 (TiBase-P) and 963.6 N (TiBase-T) [TiBase], 2691.1 (LAB-P) and 2064.5 N (LAB-T) [LAB], and 1609.4 (Chair-P) and 1253.0 N (Chair-T) [CHAIR]. Tested groups showed significantly (p CAD/CAM crowns showed no different in-vitro performance but provided different fracture results that depended on cementation, screw channel, and type of abutment. All bonded and screwed PMMA crowns were in a range where clinical application seems not restricted.

  14. [Job satisfaction, volition and reasons for choice of temporary work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzolon, Cristina; Spoto, Andrea; Vidotto, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the literature on volition and the principal studies on the reasons for choosing temporary work, which explain in more details how voluntary/involuntary status is interpreted. The description of a research, based on a sample of 1979 workers, is presented with two aims: 1. confirm a structural model that examines the effects on satisfaction of some variables, such as motivation and trust; 2. evaluate the influence of volition and reasons for choosing a temporary employment on job satisfaction. The results confirm the plausibility of the proposed structural model and show interesting results regarding the reasons for choosing temporary work.

  15. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  16. Nitrogen fixation in Red Sea seagrass meadows

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Malak

    2017-05-01

    Seagrasses are key coastal ecosystems, providing many ecosystem services. Seagrasses increase biodiversity as they provide habitat for a large set of organisms. In addition, their structure provides hiding places to avoid predation. Seagrasses can grow in shallow marine coastal areas, but several factors regulate their growth and distribution. Seagrasses can uptake different kinds of organic and inorganic nutrients through their leaves and roots. Nitrogen and phosphorous are the most important nutrients for seagrass growth. Biological nitrogen fixation is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by diazotrophic bacteria. This process provides a significant source of nitrogen for seagrass growth. The nitrogen fixation is controlled by the nif genes which are found in diazotrophs. The main goal of the project is to measure nitrogen fixation rates on seagrass sediments, in order to compare among various seagrass species from the Red Sea. Moreover, we will compare the fixing rates of the Vegetated areas with the bare sediments. This project will help to ascertain the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the development of seagrass meadows.

  17. A novel fixation system for sacroiliac dislocation fracture: internal fixation system design and biomechanics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawei, Tian; Na, Liu; Jun, Lei; Wei, Jin; Lin, Cai

    2013-02-01

    Although there were many different types of fixation techniques for sacroiliac dislocation fracture, the treat remained challenging in posterior pelvic ring injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical effects of a novel fixation system we designed. 12 human cadavers (L3-pelvic-femora) were used to compare biomechanical stability after reconstruction on the same specimens in four conditions: (1) intact, (2) cable system, (3) plate-pedicle screw system, and (4) cable system and plate-pedicle screw combination system (combination system). Biomechanical testing was performed on a material testing machine for evaluating the stiffness of the pelvic fixation construct in compression and torsion. The cable system and plate-pedicle screw system alone may be insufficient to resist vertical shearing and rotational loads; however the combination system for unstable sacroiliac dislocation fractures provided significantly greater stability than single plate-pedicle or cable fixation system. The novel fixation system for unstable sacroiliac dislocation fractures produced sufficient stability in axial compression and axial rotation test in type C pelvic ring injuries. It may also offer a better solution for sacroiliac dislocation fractures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Temporary tattoo for wireless human pulse measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłowski, Andrzej; Janczak, Daniel; Krzemińska, Patrycja; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Screen-printed sensor for measuring human pulse was designed and first tests using a demonstrator device were conducted. Various materials and sensors' set ups were compared and the results are presented as the starting point for fabrication of fully functional device. As a screen printing substrate, commercially available temporary tattoo paper was used. Using previously developed nanomaterials-based pastes design of a pressure sensor was printed on the paper and attached to the epidermis. Measurements were aimed at determining sensors impedance constant component and its variability due to pressure wave caused by the human pulse. The constant component was ranging from 2kΩ to 6kΩ and the variations of the impedance were ranging from +/-200Ω to +/-2.5kΩ, depending on the materials used and the sensor's configuration. Calculated signal-to-noise ratio was 3.56:1 for the configuration yielding the highest signal level. As the device's net impedance influences the effectiveness of the wireless communication, the results presented allow for proper design of the sensor for future health-monitoring devices.

  19. Ultraconformable Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Laura M.; Sudha, Sudha; Tarantino, Sergio; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo; Cipriani, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Electrically interfacing the skin for monitoring personal health condition is the basis of skin‐contact electrophysiology. In the clinical practice the use of stiff and bulky pregelled or dry electrodes, in contrast to the soft body tissues, imposes severe restrictions to user comfort and mobility while limiting clinical applications. Here, in this work dry, unperceivable temporary tattoo electrodes are presented. Customized single or multielectrode arrays are readily fabricated by inkjet printing of conducting polymer onto commercial decal transfer paper, which allows for easy transfer on the user's skin. Conformal adhesion to the skin is provided thanks to their ultralow thickness (Tattoo electrode–skin contact impedance is characterized on short‐ (1 h) and long‐term (48 h) and compared with standard pregelled and dry electrodes. The viability in electrophysiology is validated by surface electromyography and electrocardiography recordings on various locations on limbs and face. A novel concept of tattoo as perforable skin‐contact electrode, through which hairs can grow, is demonstrated, thus permitting to envision very long‐term recordings on areas with high hair density. The proposed materials and patterning strategy make this technology amenable for large‐scale production of low‐cost sensing devices. PMID:29593975

  20. ESDRED Temporary Sealing Technology Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.; Garcia-Sineriz, J. L.; Barcena, I.; Alonso, M. C.; Fernandez Luco, L.; Garcia, J. L.; Fries, T.; Pettersson, S.; Boden, A.; Salo, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    The work in the ESDRED In te grated Project Module 4, Temporary Sealing (using low pH cement) Technology, consisted first of designing a low pH cement formulation and then of preparing several concrete designs suitable for the construction of sealing plugs and for rock support using shot crete techniques. Regarding sealing plugs, a short plug was constructed at Aspo in Sweden and it was very quickly loaded to failure i.e. slippage by applying water pressure to one face. A second, full scale plug was subsequently constructed at Grimsel test site in Switzerland. It was loaded using the swelling pressure created by bentonite blocks which were artificially hydrated. At time of writing the targeted pressure on the plug was not reached. As the saturation of the bentonite is taking longer than expected the partners involved agreed to continue with the saturation of the bentonite blocks and the related data monitoring beyond the ESDRED Project. The studies on low-pH shot crete for rock sup port were based on available recipes of low-pH concrete mixtures for use in a repository. Pilot and full scale tests were carried out in Sweden and in Switzerland. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lote, K.

    1983-01-01

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  2. Outlet Obstruction of Temporary Loop Diverting Ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takaaki; Morita, Hiroki; Sutoh, Toshinaga; Yajima, Reina; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Stoma formation is commonly performed in operations to treat carcinoma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). In this study, we report several cases of stomal outlet obstruction and investigate the clinical features of cases of outlet obstruction in patients who underwent diverting loop ileostomy. Sixty-one patients with IBD, FAP or rectal cancer who required diverting loop ileostomy were identified for inclusion in this study. We defined outlet obstruction as a small bowel obstruction at the opening of the ileostomy following surgery. All cases of outlet obstruction were diagnosed by computed tomography. In the univariate analysis the type of diagnosis, type of operation, age, and white blood cell count were the factors significantly associated with outlet obstruction following ileostomy, and outlet obstruction was considered to have a connection with restorative proctocolectomy. In conclusion, we found that adhesion and twisting of the ileostomy were the causes of outlet obstruction. For temporary diversion, simple rotation of the ileostomy should be recommended, especially in restorative proctocolectomy. Additional study is required to explore other risk factors of outlet obstruction.

  3. Medial malleolar fractures: a biomechanical study of fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T Ty; Pugh, Kevin J; Litsky, Alan S; Taylor, Benjamin C; French, Bruce G

    2011-08-08

    Fracture fixation of the medial malleolus in rotationally unstable ankle fractures typically results in healing with current fixation methods. However, when failure occurs, pullout of the screws from tension, compression, and rotational forces is predictable. We sought to biomechanically test a relatively new technique of bicortical screw fixation for medial malleoli fractures. Also, the AO group recommends tension-band fixation of small avulsion type fractures of the medial malleolus that are unacceptable for screw fixation. A well-documented complication of this technique is prominent symptomatic implants and secondary surgery for implant removal. Replacing stainless steel 18-gauge wire with FiberWire suture could theoretically decrease symptomatic implants. Therefore, a second goal was to biomechanically compare these 2 tension-band constructs. Using a tibial Sawbones model, 2 bicortical screws were compared with 2 unicortical cancellous screws on a servohydraulic test frame in offset axial, transverse, and tension loading. Second, tension-band fixation using stainless steel wire was compared with FiberWire under tensile loads. Bicortical screw fixation was statistically the stiffest construct under tension loading conditions compared to unicortical screw fixation and tension-band techniques with FiberWire or stainless steel wire. In fact, unicortical screw fixation had only 10% of the stiffness as demonstrated in the bicortical technique. In a direct comparison, tension-band fixation using stainless steel wire was statistically stiffer than the FiberWire construct. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Temporary loop ileostomy: prospective study of indications and complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.; Samad, A.; Khanzada, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    To asses the indications and complications of temporary loop ileostomy. This was a prospective cohort study conducted at Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan between February 2003 and August 2006. All patients who had temporary loop ileostomy during that period were included in this study. The indications and various postoperative complications were noted during postoperative hospital stay and subsequently during follow up till stoma were closed. Fifty six patients fulfilled the selection criteria during the study period. Typhoid (enteric) perforation was the most common indication of loop ileostomy accounting for about two thirds of all cases. Other indications were iatrogenic, covering ileostomy for rectal cancers, following resection anastomosis, tuberculosis, blunt abdominal trauma, anastomosis leak and rectovaginal fistula. Post operative skin excoriation was the most common complication while poor siting, transient edema, retraction and high output were other less common complications. Temporary loop ileostomy is the stoma of choice for temporary faecal diversion as most of its complications are manageable conservatively. (author)

  5. Impact of a temporary stoma on patients' everyday lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne K; Soerensen, Erik E; Burcharth, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    perspective. METHODS: Data were processed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The creation of a temporary stoma led to feelings of uncertainty related to being in an undecided situation. Stoma creation led to feelings of stigma and worries about disclosure. Patients proposed group-based patient...... patients' adaptation to life with a stoma. Amongst these, being in a temporary state is relatively unexplored and may have a restrictive impact on patients' adaptation. DESIGN: Focus group interviews conducted with seven patients with temporary stoma were set up with a hermeneutic phenomenological...... education with lay educators with a stoma to make sure that information about the stoma was based on real-life experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Creation of a temporary stoma was linked to uncontrollable feelings of uncertainty. Professionals should assist patients with focus on coping strategies...

  6. 17 CFR 256.136 - Temporary cash investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.136 Temporary cash investments... the purpose of temporarily investing cash. ...

  7. 26 CFR 1.7872-5T - Exempted loans (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7872-5T Exempted loans (temporary). (a) In general...: (A) The loan is a demand loan or is a term loan the benefits of the interest arrangements of which...

  8. Indications, management, and complications of temporary inferior vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Schenk, Franz; Rock, Clemens; Mangel, Eugen; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the results of a preliminary prospective study using different recently developed temporary and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters.Methods: Fifty temporary IVC filters (Guenther, Guenther Tulip, Antheor) were inserted in 47 patients when the required period of protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) was estimated to be less than 2 weeks. The indications were documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and temporary contraindications for anticoagulation, a high risk for PE, and PE despite DVT prophylaxis.Results: Filters were removed 1-12 days after placement and nine (18%) had captured thrombi. Complications were one PE during and after removal of a filter, two minor filter migrations, and one IVC thrombosis.Conclusion: Temporary filters are effective in trapping clots and protecting against PE, and the complication rate does not exceed that of permanent filters. They are an alternative when protection from PE is required temporarily, and should be considered in patients with a normal life expectancy.

  9. Fixation of displaced subcapital femoral fractures. Compression screw fixation versus double divergent pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, J; Howie, C R; Armour, P C

    1988-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients with displaced subcapital fractures of the femoral neck (Garden Grade III or IV) all under 80 years of age and independently mobile, were randomly allocated to fixation with either double divergent pins or a single sliding screw-plate device. The incidence of non-union and infection in the sliding screw-plate group was significantly higher, and we believe that when internal fixation is considered appropriate multiple pinning should be used. Mobility after treatment was disappointing in about half of the patients, and we feel that internal fixation can only be justified in patients who are physiologically well preserved and who maintain a high level of activity.

  10. 26 CFR 1.181-5T - Examples (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples (temporary). 1.181-5T Section 1.181-5T...) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.181-5T Examples (temporary). The following examples illustrate the application of §§ 1.181-1T through 1.181-4T: Example 1. X...

  11. Temporary emergency pacing-an orphan in district hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Knut; Johansen, Jens Brock; Gadler, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    This editorial discusses a report on the 1 year experience with temporary pacing, especially in the emergency setting, in several Norwegian district hospitals. The vast majority of the patients received transvenous temporary pacing, and the majority of leads were placed by noncardiologists. The p...... to a hospital with more available competence. Ideally, those who need pacing immediately, including those who need permanent pacing, should be offered permanent implantation on a 24 hours/7 days per week base....

  12. Fixation of ankle syndesmotic injuries: comparison of tightrope fixation and syndesmotic screw fixation for accuracy of syndesmotic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Gohar A; Cunningham, Patricia; Lynch, Bernadette; Galvin, Rose; Awan, Nasir

    2012-12-01

    Ankle syndesmotic injuries are complex and require anatomic reduction and fixation to restore the normal biomechanics of the ankle joint and prevent long-term complications. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy and maintenance of syndesmotic reduction using TightRope versus syndesmotic screw fixation. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This cohort study included consecutive patients treated for ankle syndesmotic diastases between July 2007 and June 2009. Single slice axial computed tomography (CT) scans of both the ankles together were performed at the level of syndesmosis, 1 cm above the tibial plafond. A greater than 2-mm widening of syndesmosis compared with the untreated contralateral ankle was considered significant malreduction. Clinical outcomes were measured using the American Orthopaedics Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) scores. Forty-six of 55 eligible patients participated in the study; 23 patients were in the TightRope group and 23 in the syndesmotic screw group. The average age was 42 years in the TightRope and 40 years in the syndesmotic screw group, and the mean follow-up time was 2.5 years (range, 1.5-3.5 years). The average width of normal syndesmosis was 4.03 ± 0.89 mm. In the TightRope group, the mean width of syndesmosis was 4.37 mm (SD, ±1.12 mm) (P = .30, t test) compared with 5.16 mm (SD, ±1.92 mm) in the syndesmotic screw group (P = .01, t test). Five of 23 ankles (21.7%) in the syndesmotic screw group had syndesmotic malreduction, whereas none of the TightRope group showed malreduction on CT scans (P = .04, Fisher exact test). Average time to full weightbearing was 8 weeks in the TightRope group and 9.1 weeks in the syndesmotic screw group. There was no significant difference between the TightRope and syndesmotic screw groups in mean postoperative AOFAS score (89.56 and 86.52, respectively) or FADI score (82.42 and 81.22, respectively). Regression analysis confirmed malreduction of

  13. 21 CFR 870.3680 - Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker... § 870.3680 Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. (a) Temporary pacemaker electrode—(1) Identification. A temporary pacemaker electrode is a device consisting of flexible insulated...

  14. Improving Saliency Models by Predicting Human Fixation Patches

    KAUST Repository

    Dubey, Rachit

    2015-04-16

    There is growing interest in studying the Human Visual System (HVS) to supplement and improve the performance of computer vision tasks. A major challenge for current visual saliency models is predicting saliency in cluttered scenes (i.e. high false positive rate). In this paper, we propose a fixation patch detector that predicts image patches that contain human fixations with high probability. Our proposed model detects sparse fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % and eliminates non-fixation patches with an accuracy of 84 % demonstrating that low-level image features can indeed be used to short-list and identify human fixation patches. We then show how these detected fixation patches can be used as saliency priors for popular saliency models, thus, reducing false positives while maintaining true positives. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed approach allows state-of-the-art saliency methods to achieve better prediction performance on benchmark datasets.

  15. Distal fingertip replantation without skeletal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkatramani, Hari; Bharathi, R Ravindra; Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2005-01-01

    The replantation of fingertip amputation (through the nail bed) requires repair of the artery and vein on the palmar side. These structures are present in different planes, with the artery being deeper and the veins superficial. The authors believe that vascular repair in such cases is facilitated by stabilization of the amputated part by nail-bed repair alone. This provides a certain degree of flexibility, which allows for easier placement of clamps in the limited space available. Although Kirschner wires were not used for bony fixation, bony union was achieved in all five cases in which this technique was used.

  16. Biological fixation in anterior cruciate ligament surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hwa Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with tendon graft requires extensive tendon-to-bone healing in the bone tunnels and progressive graft ligamentization for biological, structural, and functional recovery of the ACL. Improvement in graft-to-bone healing is crucial for facilitating early, aggressive rehabilitation after surgery to ensure an early return to pre-injury activity levels. The use of various biomaterials for enhancing the healing of tendon grafts in bone tunnels has been developed. With the biological enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing, biological fixation of the tendon graft in the tunnel can be achieved in ACL reconstruction.

  17. External skeletal fixation of the tibial shaft fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Saša; Mitković Milorad B.; Radenković Mile

    2005-01-01

    Aim. To present the possibility of a successful use of external skeletal fixation in treating the open and closed tibial shaft fractures with Mitković’s external fixator. Methods. External fixation was used in 115 patients with 118 fresh tibial shaft fractures, 82 males (71.3%) and 33 females (28.7%), average age 43.92 years (16−84). Open tibial shaft fractures were present in 37 (31.36%). All the fractures were treated with Mitković’s external fixator type M 20. Results. The results of exter...

  18. [Distraction arthrolysis with humero-ulnar motion fixator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennig, D; Gausepohl, T; Mader, K; Wolfgarten, B

    2001-09-01

    Distraction arthroplasty in the treatment of elbow stiffness with an external fixator and subsequent fixator assisted mobilization is described. Joint distraction is employed to correct the shortened ligaments and capsule and permits the separation of articular surfaces. After intraoperative joint distraction, a phase of relaxation followed by fixator assisted mobilization is carried out. The use of the motion fixator is described and additional measures discussed. This technique is particularly valuable in joint subluxation or persistent joint dislocation and allows for reduction after distraction in order to secure joint congruity. Postoperative management is a key factor for the success of the management protocol.

  19. Alcohol-based solutions for bovine testicular tissue fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nelson C; Espinoza, Jorge R; Vargas-Jentzsch, Paul; Sandoval, Patricio; Ramos, Luis A; Aponte, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fixation, a central element in histotechnology, is currently performed with chemical compounds potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Therefore, alternative fixatives are being developed, including alcohol-based solutions. We evaluated several ethanol-based mixtures with additives to study fixative penetration rate, tissue volume changes, and morphologic effects in the bovine testis. Fixatives used were Bouin solution, 4% formaldehyde (F4), 70% ethanol (E70), E70 with 1.5% glycerol (E70G), E70 with 5% acetic acid (E70A), E70 with 1.5% glycerol and 5% acetic acid (E70AG), and E70 with 1.5% glycerol, 5% acetic acid, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; E70AGD). Five-millimeter bovine testicular tissue cubes could be completely penetrated by ethanol-based fixatives and Bouin solution in 2-3 h, whereas F4 required 21 h. Bouin solution produced general tissue shrinkage, whereas the other fixatives (alcohol-based and F4) caused tissue volume expansion. Although Bouin solution is an excellent fixative for testicular tissue, ethanol-based fixatives showed good penetration rates, low tissue shrinkage, and preserved sufficient morphology to allow identification of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, therefore representing a valid alternative for histotechnology laboratories. Common additives such as acetic acid, glycerol, and DMSO offered marginal benefits for the process of fixation; E70AG showed the best preservation of morphology with excellent nuclear detail, close to that of Bouin solution.

  20. LCP external fixation - External application of an internal fixator: two cases and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Merng-Koon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The locking compression plate (LCP is an angle-stable fixator intended for intracorporeal application. In selected cases, it can be applied externally in an extracorporeal location to function as a monolateral external fixator. We describe one patient with Schatzker V tibial plateau fracture and one patient with Gustillo IIIB open tibia shaft fracture treated initially with traditional external fixation for whom exchange fixation with externally applied LCPs was performed. The first case went on to bony union while the second case required bone grafting for delayed union. Both patients found that the LCP external fixators facilitated mobilization and were more manageable and aesthetically acceptable than traditional bar-Schanz pin fixators.

  1. Temporary jobs and the severity of workplace accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C

    2017-06-01

    From the point of view of workplace safety, it is important to know whether having a temporary job has an effect on the severity of workplace accidents. We present an empirical analysis on the severity of workplace accidents by type of contract. We used microdata collected by the Italian national institute managing the mandatory insurance against work related accidents. We estimated linear models for a measure of the severity of the workplace accident. We controlled for time-invariant fixed effects at worker and firm levels to disentangle the impact of the type of contract from the spurious one induced by unobservables at worker and firm levels. Workers with a temporary contract, if subject to a workplace accident, were more likely to be confronted with severe injuries than permanent workers. When correcting the statistical analysis for injury under-reporting of temporary workers, we found that most of, but not all, the effect is driven by the under-reporting bias. The effect of temporary contracts on the injury severity survived the inclusion of worker and firm fixed effects and the correction for temporary workers' injury under-reporting. This, however, does not exclude the possibility that, within firms, the nature of the work may vary between different categories of workers. For example, temporary workers might be more likely to be assigned dangerous tasks because they might have less bargaining power. The findings will help in designing public policy effective in increasing temporary workers' safety at work and limiting their injury under-reporting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Biomechanics of lumbar cortical screw-rod fixation versus pedicle screw-rod fixation with and without interbody support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Orribo, Luis; Kalb, Samuel; Reyes, Phillip M; Chang, Steve W; Crawford, Neil R

    2013-04-15

    Seven different combinations of posterior screw fixation, with or without interbody support, were compared in vitro using nondestructive flexibility tests. To study the biomechanical behavior of a new cortical screw (CS) fixation construct relative to the traditional pedicle screw (PS) construct. The CS is an alternative to the PS for posterior fixation of the lumbar spine. The CS trajectory is more sagittally and cranially oriented than the PS, being anchored in the pars interarticularis. Like PS fixation, CS fixation uses interconnecting rods fastened with top-locking connectors. Stability after bilateral CS fixation was compared with stability after bilateral PS fixation in the setting of intact disc and with direct lateral interbody fixation (DLIF) or transforaminal lateral interbody fixation (TLIF) support. Standard nondestructive flexibility tests were performed in cadaveric lumbar specimens, allowing non-paired comparisons of specific conditions from 28 specimens (4 groups of 7) within a larger experiment of multiple hardware configurations. Condition tested and group from which results originated were as follows: (1) intact (all groups); (2) with L3-L4 bilateral PS-rods (group 1); (3) with bilateral CS-rods (group 2); (4) with DLIF (group 3); (5) with DLIF + CS-rods (group 4); (6) with DLIF + PS-rods (group 3); (7) with TLIF + CS-rods (group 2), and (8) with TLIF + PS-rods (group 2). To assess spinal stability, the mean range of motion, lax zone, and stiff zone at L3-L4 were compared during flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. With intact disc, stability was equivalent after PS-rod and CS-rod fixation, except that PS-rod fixation was stiffer during axial rotation. With DLIF support, there was no significant difference in stability between PS-rod and CS-rod fixation. With TLIF support, PS-rod fixation was stiffer than CS-rod fixation during lateral bending. Bilateral CS-rod fixation provided about the same stability in cadaveric specimens

  3. Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Perspective and Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand of chemical fertilizer, N in particular will be increasing until 2020. In Indonesia, the demand of fertilizer from 1999 – 2002 increased 37.5 and 12.4% for urea and ammonium sulphate, respectively. At the same time, the price of this fertilizer is also increasing and it can not be afforded by the farmer. Other problem in using chemical fertilizer is damaging to the soil and environment. One of the problem solvings for this condition is to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF. BNF is the fixation of N atmosphere by association between soil bacteria rhizobia and leguminous plant. BNF is sustainable and environmentally friendly in providing nitrogen fertilizer. Therefore, it would reduce the requirement of chemical nitrogen fertilizer for the plant. Gliricidia sepium fixes 170 kg N/ha/12 months, equivalent with 377 kg urea, Sesbania sesban 179 kg N/ha/10 months, equivalent 397 kg with urea, soybean 26 – 57 kg/2 months equivalent with 57 – 126 kg urea. The amount of N2- fixed varies, affected by species, environmental and biological factors. There are some limitations in applying this technology. The effect of N contribution is very slow at the beginning but in the long term, it would be beneficial for plant production and at the same time, maintain condition of physical and chemical of soil, soil microbes and therefore soil fertility.

  4. Distal tibial fractures: evaluation of different fixation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöstl, Julian; Tiefenböck, Thomas Manfred; Hofbauer, Marcus; Winnisch, Markus; Lang, Nikolaus; Hajdu, Stefan; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was the comparison of the most commonly used surgical techniques (external fixation, intramedullary nailing, and plate fixation) for the treatment of distal tibial fractures (AO/OTA classification 42-A, B, C or 43-A, B1). A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent surgical treatment for distal tibial fractures between 1992 and 2011 was performed. A total of 93 patients (52 male/41 female) met inclusion criteria. Statistically significant differences were found regarding the consolidation time of the intramedullary-nailing (147.32 ± 91.16 days) and the plate-fixation group (135.75 ± 110.75 days) versus the external-fixation group (163.12 ± 96.79 days; P = 0.001; P = 0.01). Significant differences were also observed in the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint in the intramedullary-nailing and plate-fixation group versus the ROM in the external-fixation group (P = 0.044; P = 0.025). The overall complication rate was 13/93 (14 %). Out of 66 patients treated with intramedullary nailing, 8 (12 %) suffered from complications. Out of the 15 patients treated with plate and 12 patients with external fixation, 2 (13 %) and 3 (25 %) showed complications, respectively. Our results demonstrate advantages in terms of shorter mobilization time and a better ROM of the ankle joint for intramedullary nailing and plate fixation compared with external fixation. Due to our results, we suggest internal fixation (intramedullary nailing or plate fixation) whenever patient's condition and the local fracture situation allow it.

  5. Disruption, not displacement: Environmental variability and temporary migration in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Maia A; Gray, Clark; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Mass migration is one of the most concerning potential outcomes of global climate change. Recent research into environmentally induced migration suggests that relationship is much more complicated than originally posited by the 'environmental refugee' hypothesis. Climate change is likely to increase migration in some cases and reduce it in others, and these movements will more often be temporary and short term than permanent and long term. However, few large-sample studies have examined the evolution of temporary migration under changing environmental conditions. To address this gap, we measure the extent to which temperature, precipitation, and flooding can predict temporary migration in Matlab, Bangladesh. Our analysis incorporates high-frequency demographic surveillance data, a discrete time event history approach, and a range of sociodemographic and contextual controls. This approach reveals that migration declines immediately after flooding but quickly returns to normal. In contrast, optimal precipitation and high temperatures have sustained positive effects on temporary migration that persist over one to two year periods. Building on previous studies of long-term migration, these results challenge the common assumption that flooding, precipitation extremes and high temperatures will consistently increase temporary migration. Instead, our results are consistent with a livelihoods interpretation of environmental migration in which households draw on a range of strategies to cope with environmental variability.

  6. A STUDY ON FRACTURE FIXATION OF DISTAL END OF RADIUS BY PERCUTANEOUS PINNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Various treatment modalities have been described for the treatment of distal radius fractures each with its own merits and demerits. Most of the work done with percutaneous pinning has shown a significant residual stiffness of the hand and wrist. Our technique involves percutaneous pinning of the fracture and immobilisation in neutral position of the wrist for. This study's aim was to examine the functional outcome of percutaneous K-wiring of these distal radius fractures with immobilisation in neutral position of the wrist. METHODS A prospective study conducted on thirty adult patients with distal radial fractures treated at Department of Orthopaedics, Rangaraya Medical college, Kakinada between October 2013 to September 2015. RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION Standard radiographs in PA and lateral views were taken for confirmation of the diagnosis and also to know the type of fracture. Oblique views were also taken in a few patients who had complex comminuted fractures. The fracture fragments were analysed and involvement of radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints were assessed and classified according to the Frykman classification. Of the cases, 6(20% of the fractures were type I, 2(6.6% of type II, 3(10% of type III, 6(20% of type IV, 8(26.6% of type V, 5(16.6% of type VI, no cases of type VII and VIII.SURGICAL PROCEDURE The procedures were performed under regional anaesthesia in all cases. After sterile preparation and draping, fracture is reduced by traction and the reduction was evaluated fluoroscopically. A 1.5 cm incision given longitudinally (if needed beginning at the radial styloid and proceeds proximally across to the medial metaphysis and diaphysis. At least two pins (1.6 mm Kirschner wire were inserted and adequate reduction was confirmed on AP/LAT views under image intensifier. Another 1.6 mm K-wire percutaneously 90 degrees orthogonally to these wires starting at the dorsal rim of distal radius just distal to the Lister

  7. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

    2011-12-31

    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper

  8. External skeletal fixation of the tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Saša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To present the possibility of a successful use of external skeletal fixation in treating the open and closed tibial shaft fractures with Mitković’s external fixator. Methods. External fixation was used in 115 patients with 118 fresh tibial shaft fractures, 82 males (71.3% and 33 females (28.7%, average age 43.92 years (16−84. Open tibial shaft fractures were present in 37 (31.36%. All the fractures were treated with Mitković’s external fixator type M 20. Results. The results of external fixation were excellent or good in 94.07% of the cases, and bad in 5.08%. Pin tract infection appeared in 7 (5.93% patients. In only 3 cases an external fixator was removed and treatment continued with the functional braces. Nonunion occurred in 6 (5.08% patients, of which 4 were with open fractures (2 Gustilo type IIIB, 1 Gustilo type IIIA, 1 Gustilo type II and 2 with the segment fractures. Compartment syndrome was observed in 1 (0.85% patient with closed fracture. Malunion was found in 2 (1.69% patients. Conclusion. External fixation of tibial shaft fractures is a simple and effective method to enable the safe healing of fractures, early mobilization of the patients, early weight-bearing, as well as early rehabilitation. Fixation of tibial shaft fractures was unilateral with convergent pins orientation, and there was also a possibility of compression and distraction.

  9. [External skeletal fixation of the tibial shaft fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sasa; Mitković, Milorad; Radenković, Mile

    2005-01-01

    To present the possibility of a succesfful use of external skelatal fixation in treating the open and closed tibial shaft fractures with Mitković's external fixator. External fixation was used in 115 patients with 118 fresh tibial shaft fractures, 82 males (71.3%) and 33 females (28.7%), average age 43.92 years (16-84). Open tibial shaft fractures were present in 37 (31.36%). All the fractures were treated with Mitković's external fixator type M 20. The results of external fixation were excellent or good in 94.07% of the cases, and bad in 5.08%. Pin tract infection appeared in 7 (5.93%) patients. In only 3 cases an external fixator was removed and treatment continued with the functional braces. Nonunion occurred in 6 (5.08%) patients, of which 4 were with open fractures (2 Gustilo type IIIB, 1 Gustilo type IIIA, 1 Gustilo type II) and 2 with the segment fractures. Compartment syndrome was observed in 1 (0.85%) patient with closed fracture. Malunion was found in 2 (1.69%) patients. External fixation of tibial shaft fractures is a simple and effective method to enable the safe healing of fractures, early mobilization of the patients, early weight-bearing, as well as early rehabilitation. Fixation of tibial shaft fractures was unilateral with convergent pins orientation, and there was also a possibility of compression and distraction.

  10. Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambert R B

    2011-03-01

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the prediction of fixations on mirror-symmetrical forms. The contrast model gives high response at the borders, whereas human observers consistently look at the symmetrical center of these forms. We propose a saliency model that predicts eye fixations using local mirror symmetry. To test the model, we performed an eye-tracking experiment with participants viewing complex photographic images and compared the data with our symmetry model and the contrast model. The results show that our symmetry model predicts human eye fixations significantly better on a wide variety of images including many that are not selected for their symmetrical content. Moreover, our results show that especially early fixations are on highly symmetrical areas of the images. We conclude that symmetry is a strong predictor of human eye fixations and that it can be used as a predictor of the order of fixation.

  11. Percutaneous pin fixation of Gartland Type III supraconylar fractures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The remaining three (7.5%) had poor results due to varus deformity that neededcorrective surgery. One case of pin tract infection was recorded. The average hospital stay was 1.2 days. The study confirmed that percutaneous pin fixation is an effective, minimally invasive and safe method of fixation of these difficult fractures ...

  12. Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Geert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambertus

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the

  13. Predicting eye fixations on complex visual stimuli using local symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, G.; de Boer, B.; Schomaker, L.R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the

  14. Estimates of biological nitrogen fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    2002-11-15

    Nov 15, 2002 ... Nitrogen fixation in Pterocarpus erinaceus and P. lucens using the. 15N labelling methods. Ar. Soil Res. Rehabil. 12:257-253. Unkovich MJ, Pate JS, Sanford P, Amstrong EL (1994). Potential precision of the 15N natural abundance method in field estimates of nitrogen fixation by crop and pasture legumes.

  15. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of double 4-hole straight plates provided the sufficient stability on the osteotomy site when compared with the other rigid fixation methods used in this study. Key words: Bone plates, bone screws, finite element analysis, jaw fixation techniques, mandible, mandibular osteotomy ...

  16. Rib fracture fixation in a South African public trauma service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rib fractures and flail chests have traditionally been treated nonoperatively. Current literature suggests that it is not only safe and feasible but also desirable to perform fixation of severe rib fractures. Our unit in the Pietermaritzburg public sector adopted rib fracture fixation in 2014 and in this audit we assess its ...

  17. Nitrogen fixation of Acacia mangium Willd. from two seed sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus (P) is required to facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N) by leguminous species such as Acacia mangium. We studied the N fixation of A. mangium trees grown from two seed sources. These consisted of bulk seedlots collected from seed orchards in Sumatra, one based on natural provenances from ...

  18. Temporal evolution of the central fixation bias in scene viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkegel, Lars O M; Trukenbrod, Hans A; Schütt, Heiko H; Wichmann, Felix A; Engbert, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    When watching the image of a natural scene on a computer screen, observers initially move their eyes toward the center of the image-a reliable experimental finding termed central fixation bias. This systematic tendency in eye guidance likely masks attentional selection driven by image properties and top-down cognitive processes. Here, we show that the central fixation bias can be reduced by delaying the initial saccade relative to image onset. In four scene-viewing experiments we manipulated observers' initial gaze position and delayed their first saccade by a specific time interval relative to the onset of an image. We analyzed the distance to image center over time and show that the central fixation bias of initial fixations was significantly reduced after delayed saccade onsets. We additionally show that selection of the initial saccade target strongly depended on the first saccade latency. A previously published model of saccade generation was extended with a central activation map on the initial fixation whose influence declined with increasing saccade latency. This extension was sufficient to replicate the central fixation bias from our experiments. Our results suggest that the central fixation bias is generated by default activation as a response to the sudden image onset and that this default activation pattern decreases over time. Thus, it may often be preferable to use a modified version of the scene viewing paradigm that decouples image onset from the start signal for scene exploration to explicitly reduce the central fixation bias.

  19. Optimization of carbon dioxide fixation and starch accumulation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are very important to CO2 bio-fixation and carbohydrate accumulation in microalgae. The objective of this study was to optimize semi-continuous culture conditions of Tetraselmis subcordiformis in a rectangular airlift photobioreactor for obtaining maximized carbon dioxide fixation rate and intracellular starch productivity.

  20. Monitoring in vivo load transmission through an external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, J; Gómez-Benito, M J; González-Torres, L A; Asiaín, D; Quero, F; García-Aznar, J M

    2010-03-01

    This work presents a portable non-invasive external fixator to assess and monitor fracture healing in real time. To evaluate the potential of this fixator, a transverse osteotomy was performed in the tibia of six adult sheep (mean age 3+/-0.5 years and weight 63+/-5 kg). The fractures were stabilized by a specially designed unilateral external fixator, which was instrumented by means of a set of strain gauges. Strains in the external surface of the fixator were monitored during all the healing process. A wireless, remote monitoring of the implant was developed through a specially designed external telemetric device. The strain gauges were arranged in two different half-bridge Wheatstone configurations, allowing easy post-processing of the signal. Thus, bending loads were measured in two planes of the external fixator acting as a load cell. The load through the fixator was evaluated for the gait cycle during all the healing process. Full weight bearing of the injured leg was observed from the beginning. The load transmission mechanism in the fixator was quite similar in all operated tibias and radiographic images showed a successful healing in all animals. Although the fixator has only been tested in an animal model, after further testing this system may have clinical potential.

  1. STUDY ON SPANNING EXTERNAL FIXATORS FOR PERIARTICULAR OPEN FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Maddila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Open fractures which occur close to any fracture need immobilisation for the soft tissues to heal. Some open fractures are even fixed with provisional fixations to maintain the alignment of the fractures. The provisional fixation needs to be augmented with external support, which can be given by spanning external fixators across a joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study consists of 38 open fractures of the lower limbs, which are of Gustilo-Anderson’s type IIIB, an MT4 of AO-ASIF soft tissue injury classification essentially requiring open wound management as well as fracture fixation. Wound lavage and debridements are carried out till the soft tissues show granulations. The position in which joint is immobilised is functional and with access to open wound for dressings and inspection without any displacement of the fracture as well as creeping granulation tissue. RESULTS All the cases in our study are maintained with functional position till soft tissue cover is achieved and provisional fixation is done with definitive fixation after soft tissue cover with skin grafting. CONCLUSION Spanning external fixators are useful in maintaining functional positions as well as augmenting the provisional fixation of the compound fractures.

  2. Tightrope fixation of ankle syndesmosis injuries: clinical outcome, complications and technique modification.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naqvi, Gohar A

    2012-06-01

    Ankle syndesmotic injuries are complex and require anatomic reduction and fixation. Tightrope fixation is a relatively new technique and we present the largest series of syndesmosis fixation using Arthrex Tightrope™ (Naples, FL, USA).

  3. Retention of crowns cemented on implant abutments with temporary cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yuko; Hibino, Yasushi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the retentive force of crowns to implant abutments with commercial temporary cements. Six different temporary cements were investigated. Cast crowns were cemented to the abutments using each cement and their retentive forces to abutments were determined 7 or 28 days after cementing (n=10). The retentive force of the cements to abutments varied widely among the products [27-109 N (7-day), 18-80 N (28-days)]. The retentive force of all the cements was not reduced as the time elapsed, except for two products tested. The polycarboxylate cements and paste-mixing type eugenol-free cements revealed comparable retentive force after 28 days of storage. The powder-liquid type cements showed a positive correlation (pcement between the retentive force and compressive strength. Mechanical strength of temporary cements could not be a prominent predicting factor for retention of the crowns on the abutments.

  4. A temporary henna tattoo causing hair and clothing dye allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulich, Jacqueline; Sullivan, John

    2005-07-01

    Contact dermatitis following the application of temporary paint-on henna tattoos indicates a potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 2 cases involving sisters who travelled to Bali together and acquired a temporary black henna tattoo to the lower back region. Both sisters subsequently developed a contact dermatitis at the tattoo site, the dermatitis disseminating in one sister. There was persistent hyperpigmentation at the tattoo site in both sisters several months after the application. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in both sisters. One sister also showed reactions to other hair dyes and to multiple organic dyes. Allergic contact dermatitis to PPD contained in temporary henna tattoos is an increasing problem worldwide, with cross-reaction to related compounds and permanent skin changes, a frequent consequence of sensitization to this significant allergen.

  5. Compression screw fixation of the syndesmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Husam H; Glisson, Richard R; DeOrio, James K

    2012-10-01

    Screw fixation of syndesmotic injuries facilitates ligament healing and restoration of ankle stability, but little information regarding screw performance is available. This study quantified the reduction obtained with three common 2-screw configurations using different methods of reduction and novel methods of subsequently provoking and measuring diastasis. Seven fresh-frozen lower extremities were subjected to 100 N medial and lateral tibia loads with the talus restrained. Tibia displacement, indicative of ankle clear space, was recorded. The syndesmosis and distal interosseous ligament were disrupted and measurements repeated. A pressure sensor was inserted into the syndesmosis and three 2-screw fixation methods were evaluated in each specimen: 3.5-mm screws engaging both fibula cortices and the lateral tibial cortex, inserted while using a clamp to achieve syndesmosis reduction; 3.5-mm lag screws engaging both tibia cortices; and 4.5-mm lag screws engaging both tibia cortices. One thousand 100 N medial and lateral loads were applied and clear space and syndesmosis compression were quantified every 100 cycles. Normal ankle clear space averaged 1.98 mm and increased to 3.02 mm after syndesmosis disruption. Fixation decreased the clear space to 1.36 mm, 1.22 mm, and 1.19 mm for the 3.5-mm tricortical, 3.5-mm lag, and 4.5-mm lag screws, respectively, remaining steady throughout cyclic loading. Syndesmosis compression dropped markedly from 61N to 23 N on clamp release after tricortical screw insertion. The 3.5-mm and 4.5-mm lag screws exerted 112 N and 131 N, respectively, after insertion, and maintained compression several-fold greater than the tricortical screws during cyclic loading. No difference was demonstrable between the two lag screw sizes. While all screw configurations successfully reduced ankle clear space, syndesmosis reduction was more effectively maintained by lag screws than by tricortical screws inserted with clamp reduction. The transient nature of

  6. Fixation and escape times in stochastic game learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Szczesny, Bartosz; Galla, Tobias; Dall’Asta, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations is known to fixate eventually in the absence of mutation. We here show that a similar phenomenon can be found in stochastic game dynamical batch learning, and investigate fixation in learning processes in a simple 2×2 game, for two-player games with cyclic interaction, and in the context of the best-shot network game. The analogues of finite populations in evolution are here finite batches of observations between strategy updates. We study when and how such fixation can occur, and present results on the average time-to-fixation from numerical simulations. Simple cases are also amenable to analytical approaches and we provide estimates of the behaviour of so-called escape times as a function of the batch size. The differences and similarities with escape and fixation in evolutionary dynamics are discussed. (paper)

  7. Overcoming design fixation through education and creativity methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the topic design fixation using 12 teams of masters students working on three design problems from (Jansson and Smith 1991). The objective of the experiment is to determine the effectiveness of two interventions to help overcome fixation on example solutions....... The first intervention consisted of educating each team on the phenomena and effects of design fixation. The results showed that this intervention reduced the number of fixation elements in comparison to the control group (p=0.025). The second intervention involved using Dix et als' (2006) 'Bad Ideas......' method during a final design task. The results showed that the method did not help the teams as it caused the fixation ratio to increase and the number of ideas per team to decrease. In addition to the above mentioned interventions, the experiment also revealed a negative correlation between the number...

  8. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-10-01

    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  9. TEMPORARY WORK AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: A PROPENSITY SCORE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies nonstandard employment, namely temporary workers, and examine the consequences of this type of employment on depressive symptoms. This study aims to estimate the effect of being a temporary worker on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 (95% CI 0.552; 3.055) additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. PMID:20371142

  10. Temporary sharing prompts unrestrained disclosures that leave lasting negative impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Reto; Rüppell, Roland; John, Leslie K

    2017-11-07

    With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs ("selfies"), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media-technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces greater disclosure risks (i.e., people exhibit greater disinhibition in their selfies, studies 1 and 2). This increased disclosure is driven by reduced privacy concerns (study 2). However, observers' impressions of sharers are insensitive to permanence (i.e., whether the selfie was shared temporarily versus permanently) and are instead driven by the disinhibition exhibited in the selfie (studies 4-7). As a result, induced by the promise of temporary sharing, sharers of uninhibited selfies come across as having worse judgment than those who share relatively discreet selfies (studies 1, 2, and 4-7)-an attributional pattern that is unanticipated by sharers (study 3), that persists days after the selfie has disappeared (study 5), is robust to personal experience with temporary sharing (studies 6A and 6B), and holds even among friends (studies 7A and 7B). Temporary sharing may bring back forgetting, but not without introducing new (self-presentational) challenges. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Locking compression plate distal ulna hook plate fixation versus intramedullary screw fixation for displaced avulsion fifth Metatarsal Base fractures: a comparative retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Lin; Guo, Xin; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Fang, Zhen-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background Intramedullary screw (IMS) fixation was wildly used in fifth metatarsal base fractures (FMBFs) and the results were satisfactory. However, in the comminuted osteoporosis or small displaced avulsion FMBFs, anatomical reduction and stable fixation could not be achieved with IMS. The Locking Compression Plate (LCP) distal ulna hook plate fixation was a novel alternative fixation method. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine if LCP distal ulna hook plate fixation ...

  12. Temporary seismic networks on active volcanoes of Kamchatka (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Andrey; Koulakov, Ivan; Abkadyrov, Ilyas; Shapiro, Nikolay; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Deev, Evgeny; Gordeev, Evgeny; Chebrov, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    We present details of four field campaigns carried out on different volcanoes of Kamchatka in 2012-2015. Each campaign was performed in three main steps: (i) installation of the temporary network of seismic stations; (ii) autonomous continuous registration of three component seismic signal; (III) taking off the network and downloading the registered data. During the first campaign started in September 2012, 11 temporary stations were installed over the Avacha group of volcanoes located 30 km north to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in addition to the seven permanent stations operated by the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey (KBGS). Unfortunately, with this temporary network we faced with two obstacles. The first problem was the small amount of local earthquakes, which were detected during operation time. The second problem was an unexpected stop of several stations only 40 days after deployment. Nevertheless, after taking off the network in August 2013, the collected data appeared to be suitable for analysis using ambient noise. The second campaign was conducted in period from August 2013 to August 2014. In framework of the campaign, 21 temporary stations were installed over Gorely volcano, located 70 km south to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Just in time of the network deployment, Gorely Volcano became very seismically active - every day occurred more than 100 events. Therefore, we obtain very good dataset with information about thousands of local events, which could be used for any type of seismological analysis. The third campaign started in August 2014. Within this campaign, we have installed 19 temporary seismic stations over Tolbachik volcano, located on the south side of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group. In the same time on Tolbachik volcano were installed four temporary stations and several permanent stations operated by the KBGS. All stations were taking off in July 2015. As result, we have collected a large dataset, which is now under preliminary analysis

  13. Miniscrew Supported Interim Tooth Replacement: A Temporary Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkeerat Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of congenitally missing anterior tooth poses special problems in growing patients. Because an adolescent is typically self- conscious about removing an appliance and revealing a large edentulous space, a removable single tooth partial denture or retainer is an undesirable option. The temporary anchorage devices are invasive and the best recommended for malocclusion that cannot be effectively managed with conventional mechanics. The use of orthodontic miniscrews for interim restorations before the completion of skeletal growth has been used successfully unlike osseointegrated implants lacking the compensatory growth mechanisms of the natural dentition. The following case reports show an esthetic alternative to temporary tooth replacement using miniscrews.

  14. [Development and research of temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shounian; Jiang, Chenxi; Cai, Yunchang; Pan, Yangzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Yaxi; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Shiying

    2004-08-01

    A temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display is introduced in this paper. Double way low-noise electrocardiosignal preamplifier, amplitude limiter, high and low pass filter, 50 Hz notch filter, TTL level generator and stimulating pulse formation circuit are components of the hardware electrocircuit. The demand pacing and the electrocardiosignal display are separately controlled by the software in which the double microcontrollers communications technique is used. In this study, liquid crystal display is firstly used in body surface electrocardiosignal display or intracardial electrophysiologic signal display when the temporary demand pacemaker is installed and put into use. The machine has proven clinically useful and can be of wide appliation.

  15. Comparison of screw fixation with elastic fixation methods in the treatment of syndesmosis injuries in ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Mustafa; Donmez, Ferdi; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Cakmak, Selami; Mutlu, Serhat; Guler, Olcay

    2015-07-01

    17 patients with ankle syndesmosic injury were treated with a 4.5mm single cortical screw fixation (passage of screw 4 cortices) and 15 patients were treated with single-level elastic fixation material. All patients were evaluated according to the AOFAS ankle and posterior foot scale at the third, sixth and twelfth months after the fixation. The ankle range of movement was recorded together with the healthy side. The Student's t test was used for statistical comparisons. No statistical significant difference was observed between the AOFAS scores (p>0.05). The range of dorsiflexion and plantar flexion motion of the elastic fixation group at the 6th and 12th months were significantly better compared to the screw fixation group (pfixation is as functional as screw fixation in the treatment of ankle syndesmosis injuries. The unnecessary need of a second surgical intervention for removal of the fixation material is another advantageous aspect of this method of fixation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Les aciers inoxydables dans les fixations

    CERN Document Server

    CETIM

    2010-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, qui fait la synthèse de plusieurs travaux menés par le Cetim, propose une vue d'ensemble sur les aciers inoxydables utilisés pour les fixations. Au sommaire : les normes EN, ISO et ATSM qui s'y rapportent , les désignations symboliques , les nuances et caractéristiques mécaniques , les différentes formes de corrosion, les méthodes pour les détecter , les règles du métier , les mises en oeuvre. L'ouvrage comprend plusieurs fiches matériaux et des tableaux qui présentent les équivalences entre les désignations.

  17. Talar dome fracture repaired using bioabsorbable fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelent, Marek E; Neese, David J

    2006-01-01

    We describe a man with an acute osteochondral defect in the lateral talar dome associated with a supination-adduction-type ankle fracture. The osteochondral defect was readily visible on plain film radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging was ordered to determine the full extent of soft-tissue and articular injury. It was discovered that the patient had a stage IV lesion of the talar dome, with complete inversion of the fragment, and rupture of the anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular lateral ankle ligaments. Furthermore, the patient experienced an oblique fracture of the medial malleolus with comminution. The talar dome lesion was surgically reduced and fixated using bioabsorbable pins. Nine months after surgery, the patient was fully recovered from his injury and had no functional limitations.

  18. Intraosseous fixation compared to plantar plate fixation for first metatarsocuneiform arthrodesis: a cadaveric biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Klaus Edgar; Peters, Jennifer; Schmidtmann, Irene; Maus, Uwe; Stephan, Daniel; Augat, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Metatarsocuneiform (MTC) fusion is a treatment option for management of hallux valgus. We compared the biomechanical characteristics of an internal fixation device with plantar plate fixation. Seven matched pairs of feet from human cadavers were used to compare the intramedullary (IM) device plus compression screw to plantar plate combined with a compression screw. Specimen constructs were loaded in a cyclic 4-point bending test. We obtained initial/final stiffness, maximum load, and number of cycles to failure. Bone mineral density was measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Performance was compared using time to event analysis with number of cycles as time variable, and a proportional hazard model including shared frailty model fitted with treatment and bone mineral density as covariates. On average the plates failed after 7517 cycles and a maximum load of 167 N, while the IM-implants failed on average after 2946 cycles and a maximum load of 69 N. In all pairs the 1 treated with IM-implant failed earlier than the 1 treated with a plate (hazard ratio for IM-implant versus plate was 79.9 (95% confidence interval [6.1, 1052.2], P = .0009). The initial stiffness was 131 N/mm for the plantar plate and 43.3 N/mm for the IM implant. Initial stiffness (r = .955) and final stiffness (r = .952) were strongly related to the number of cycles to failure. Bone mineral density had no effect on the number of cycles to failure. Plantar plate fixation created a stronger and stiffer construct than IM fixation. A stiffer construct can reduce the risk of nonunion and shorten the period of non-weight-bearing. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Willner

    Full Text Available X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.

  20. Endosseous Fixation Device for Lapidus Arthrodesis: Technique, Early Experience, and Comparison With Crossed Screw Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelent, Marek E; Neese, David J; Peterson, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    First metatarsal cuneiform joint arthrodesis has been commonly used since the early 1900s for definitive treatment of a variety of conditions involving the medial column of the foot. Early applications of this procedure resulted in a relatively high rate of complications, including malunion and nonunion. We retrospectively examined a novel method of fixation involving an endosseous implant with a nonporous, rough exterior surface and compared it with the traditional crossed screw fixation, considered the standard of care for the procedure. Twenty-one feet in 19 patients served as the control group with crossed screws, and 18 feet in 17 patients served as the trial group using the study device. Null hypothesis testing was used to compare the outcomes parameters between the comparative groups. Postoperatively, the patients were allowed to walk in a prefabricated, removable, below-the-knee cast boot at a mean of 48.3 ± 8.2 days in the control group and 24.4 ± 9.7 days in the trial group. These differences were highly significant (p fixation of the first metatarsal cuneiform arthrodesis procedure and might allow for earlier weightbearing with fewer postoperative complications. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted and intra-articular fractures of the distal radius (ORCHID: protocol for a randomized clinical multi-center trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiler Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal radius represent the most common fracture in elderly patients, and often indicate the onset of symptomatic osteoporosis. A variety of treatment options is available, including closed reduction and plaster casting, K-wire-stabilization, external fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with volar locked plating. The latter is widely promoted by clinicians and hardware manufacturers. Closed reduction and cast stabilization for six weeks is a simple, convenient, and ubiquitously available intervention. In contrast, ORIF requires hospitalization, but allows for functional rehabilitation. Given the lack of randomized controlled trials, it remains unclear whether ORIF leads to better functional outcomes one year after injury than closed reduction and casting. Methods/Design ORCHID (Open reduction and internal fixation versus casting for highly comminuted intra-articular fractures of the distal radius is a pragmatic, randomized, multi-center, clinical trial with two parallel treatment arms. It is planned to include 504 patients in 15 participating centers throughout Germany over a three-year period. Patients are allocated by a central web-based randomization tool. The primary objective is to determine differences in the Short Form 36 (SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS between volar locked plating and closed reduction and casting of intraarticular, comminuted distal radius fractures in patients > 65 years of age one year after the fracture. Secondary outcomes include differences in other SF-36 dimensions, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH instrument. Also, the range of motion in the affected wrist, activities of daily living, complications (including secondary ORIF and revision surgery, as well as serious adverse events will be assessed. Data obtained during the trial will be used for later health-economic evaluations. The trial architecture

  2. Use of tightrope fixation in ankle syndesmotic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maempel Julian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Conventional fixation of syndesmotic injuries with screws remains problematic. A novel fibrewire device (Tightrope® has suggested advantages. However, small case series have reported high soft tissue complication rates. The purpose of our study was to quantify complication rates and further procedures in patients treated with Tightropes. A secondary objective was to determine incidence of complications and further procedures in those treated with syndesmotic screws over the same period. Methods: All patients undergoing syndesmotic fixation for ankle fracture between May 2008 and October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Incidence of complications, secondary procedures, maintenance of syndesmotic reduc- tion and time spent on non-weight bearing were recorded. Family doctors were contacted for those treated with Tight- ropes to check for any complications managed elsewhere. Results: Thirty-five patients required syndesmotic fixation, in which 12 were treated with Tightropes. They were followed up in clinic for a mean of 12.4 weeks. Family doctors were contacted at mean 14.6 months after treatment to determine any complications suffered. There were no complications attributable to method of fixation. In this series, 12 patients underwent 13 procedures and no patient had recurrent diastasis at discharge; 23 patients treated with screw fixation underwent 45 procedures (19 were screw removals. There was 1 case of syndesmotic diastasis. Screw removal resulted in 2 minor complications. Conclusion: Tightrope fixation provideds effective syndesmotic fixation that is maintained at discharge. We do not experience soft tissue complications reported elsewhere.

  3. Management of Postoperative Spondylodiscitis with and without Internal Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Tao, Hairong; Zhu, Yanhui; Lu, Xiongwei; Hu, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative spondylodiscitis is relatively uncommon. This complication is associated with increased cost, and long-term of inability to work, and even morbidity. Although the majority of postoperative spondylodiscitis cases can be well managed by conservative treatment, postoperative spondylodiscitis after internal fixation and those cases that are unresponsive to the conservative treatment present challenges to the surgeon. Here, a review was done to analyze the treatment of postoperative spondylodiscitis with/without internal fixation. This review article suggested that majority of postoperative spondylodiscitis without internal fixation could be cured by conservative treatment. Either posterior or anterior debridement can be used to treat postoperative spondylodiscitis without internal fixation when conservative treatment fails. In addition, minimally invasive debridement and drainage may also be an alternative treatment. In case of postoperative spondylodiscitis after internal fixation, surgical treatment was required. In the cervical spine, it can be well managed by anterior debridement, removal of internal fixation, and reconstruction of the spinal stability by using bone grafting/cage/anterior plate. Postoperative spondylodiscitis after internal fixation is successfully managed by combined anterior debridement, fusion with posterior approach and removal of pedicle screw or extension of pedicle screw beyond the lesion site, in the thoracic and lumbar spine.

  4. Impact of external fixation on adolescents: an integrative research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Miki

    2006-01-01

    To define the state of nursing knowledge about the psychological impact of treating adolescents with external fixation devices (EFDs). An integrated research review was conducted on literature available from CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Keywords used were external fixation, fracture fixation, orthopaedic or orthopaedic, limb lengthening, Ilizarov, halo traction, Orthofix, EBI fixator, pelvic fixator, ring fixator, body image, self-concept, self-esteem, self-perception, adaptation, emotional, behavior, and outcome. Inclusion criteria for studies were (a) publication from 1990 to 2003, (b) focus on psychosocial and functional outcomes of treating adolescents with EFDs, and (c) publication in English. Studies were categorized by author, year, discipline(s), design, focus, sample, measurement, findings, and research recommendations. Findings and recommendations were compared across publications. All studies reported psychological and behavioral changes after EFD treatment. Pain and pin-site infections were the most problematic physical findings. Depression was universally evident to varying degrees, with some suicidal ideation and self-destructive behaviors, although mostly reported as transient. This predominantly retrospective cohort of studies reported social isolation as well as eating and sleep disturbances. Family and nursing support, a multiple disciplinary approach, and better preoperative preparation were crucial to adolescents psychological health after EFD treatment. Adolescents treated with EFDs require significant psychosocial support. The findings reveal major gaps in the knowledge on adolescents treated with external fixation for traumatic injury and none focused on EFD treatment in the acute period.

  5. Removal of symptomatic titanium fixation plates after craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raghav; Adeeb, Nimer; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Moore, Justin M; Patel, Apar S; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    Titanium fixation plates are routinely used for rigid fixation of bone flaps after craniotomy. In craniofacial surgery or after craniotomy involving orbitozygomatic osteotomies, these plates are occasionally removed because of infection, pain, protrusion, soft tissue erosion, and plate malfunction. However, plate removal because of pain and protrusion after craniotomy without orbitozygomatic osteotomy has rarely been reported. A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent removal of cranial fixation plates after craniotomy, performed by the senior authors at one institution between 2014 and 2016, was conducted. A total of 319 patients underwent bone flap fixation after craniotomy using cranial fixation plates between 2014 and 2016. Five of those patients (1.6 %) had their cranial plates removed because of pain and protrusion. An additional four patients had a cranial fixation plate removed during that time frame with the original craniotomy performed before 2014. All nine patients had immediate resolution of symptoms after plate removal. We report our experience with cranial fixation plate removal because of pain and protrusion in patients who underwent craniotomy without orbitozygomatic osteotomy, particularly frontotemporal craniotomy. In an attempt to reduce this complication, we recently stopped placing a full-size burr hole in the keyhole area of a frontotemporal craniotomy, eliminating the need for a titanium burr hole cover plate.

  6. Increased tolerance to photoinhibitory light in paraquat-resistant Conyza bonariensis measured by photoacoustic spectroscopy and 14CO2-fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.A.K.; Shaaltiel, Y.; Kazzes, D.; Canaani, O.; Malkin, S.; Gressel, J.

    1989-01-01

    Tolerance to photoinhibition was compared between a paraquat-resistant and a sensitive biotype of Conyza bonariensis (L.). Cronq. Photoinhibitory damage was measured as a decrease in oxygen evolution or energy storage using photoacoustic spectroscopy, or as a decrease of 14 CO 2 -fixation. Prior to exposure to high fluence rates, both biotypes had similar quantum yields of oxygen evolution and energy storage. After exposure to high intensity light, the resistant biotype continued to evolve oxygen and to store energy with a high quantum yield while both energy storage and oxygen evolution were severely reduced in the sensitive biotype. CO 2 -fixation was less rapidly inhibited in the resistant biotype compared to the sensitive one. The data show that the paraquat resistant biotype with its high constitutive levels of the chloroplast localized enzymes of the oxygen detoxification pathway, is also partially protected from photoinhibition. This supports the theory that an enhanced radical scavenging system can give temporary protection against photooxidative damage from a variety of sources

  7. 47 CFR 90.159 - Temporary and conditional permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.159 Temporary and conditional permits. (a) An applicant for a license under this part (other than a commercial mobile radio... minimum of ten business days has passed between submission of the application to the Commission and the...

  8. 20 CFR 655.34 - Validity of temporary labor certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United... minor changes in the period of employment, only when a written request is submitted to the CO and... to make the labor certification determination required under § 655.32. (4) The CO may change the date...

  9. Temporary vascular shunting in vascular trauma: A 10-year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corresponding author: P H Navsaria (pradeep.navsaria@uct.ac.za). Background. Temporary intravascular shunts ... temperature 10 units blood transfusion, systolic blood pressure .... Argyle shunt (CR Bard, Billerica, MA, USA) is a straight PVC tube which is available as 8, 10, 12 or 14F and ...

  10. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies... the proposed construction is of major proportions. Pipeline companies are accordingly urged to conduct...

  11. Temporary Agency Work as a Means of Achieving Flexicurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Håkansson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After decades of debate about flexibility, flexicurity has become a new buzzword in working life. Flexicurity refers to both the employer’s demand for flexibility and the employee’s demand for security. Thus, the idea is to solve the flexibility–security trade-off. There is also a discussion that mentions temporary agency work as one way of creating a flexicurity system. The flexibility potential is not called into question—numerical flexibility is a quite common motive for using temporary agency workers. However, the security dimension has to be scrutinized. The aim of this article is to analyze the temporary work agency industry’s potential for providing the security dimensions of the flexicurity model in a Swedish context. The study is based on a survey of whitecollar temporary agency workers in Sweden (n = 533. Overall, the vast majority do not perceive security. Our most important result is that both the work agency and the user firm have a dual impact on the agency workers’ perception of security.

  12. Diversity and relative abundance of fishes in some temporary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity and relative abundance of fishes in some temporary and perennial water bodies of the Baro basin, Gambella, Ethiopia. ... Brycinus macrolepidotus, Siluradon auritus, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus stigmatopygus and Polypterus senegalus were each found in four sites, and thus, were considered the most dominant.

  13. Managing temporary workers: work identity, diversity and operational HR choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, Bas; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    Strategic HRM theory argues that organisations should distinguish different types of employees according to their value and availability. We argue that this has resulted in an underestimation of the importance of specific HRM practices in relation to temporary employees. Building on theoretical work

  14. Cultivating and Benefiting from Member Familiarity in Temporary Work Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Shannon

    and tenure constraints. Finally, I propose a model for strategically composing limited-tenure project groups of enduring tenure sub-groups as one way to inject the benefits of member familiarity into temporary organizations, and I illustrate how this condition supported both task- and relationship...

  15. Umbilical site for temporary colostomy in anorectal malformations: is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umbilical site for temporary colostomy in anorectal malformations: is it cosmetically preferable? Taha Alkhatrawi, Radi Elsherbini and Djamal Ouslimane. Purpose In an attempt to minimize the scars and improve the cosmetic outcome in children, the umbilical site has been chosen for colostomy formation in patients with.

  16. Characterizing temporary hydrological regimes at a European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkby, M.J.; Gallart, F.; Kjeldsen, T.R.; Irvine, B.J.; Froebrich, J.; Porto, Lo A.

    2011-01-01

    Monthly duration curves have been constructed from climate data across Europe to help address the relative frequency of ecologically critical low flow stages in temporary rivers, when flow persists only in disconnected pools in the river bed. The hydrological model is 5 based on a partitioning of

  17. 26 CFR 1.25-7T - Public notice (Temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Public notice (Temporary). 1.25-7T Section 1.25-7T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES... (a) must include a brief description of the principal residence requirement, 3-year requirement...

  18. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for withdrawal is § 240.14(a)(3), the notice shall provide that the alien has thirty (30) days within which to provide evidence of good cause for failure to register. If the alien fails to respond within... Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of an alien granted Temporary...

  19. 30 CFR 816.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., revegetation, environmental monitoring, and water treatment activities that will continue during the temporary... Section 816.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING...

  20. Temporary and long-term consequences of bereavement on happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.A.; de Graaf, P.M.

    In this article, we examine the temporary and long-term consequences of the death of a parent or child on happiness. According to set-point theory external conditions are expected to only have a short-term or limited influence on happiness. This directly contradicts the basic assumption of affective

  1. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.68 Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR... individual, a trust, an estate, or a partnership, or a corporation, whose solvency and financial...

  2. Clinical results with a detachable temporary vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamus, R.; Bolte, R.; Loose, R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the feasibility of implantation and explantation and evaluation of the efficacy of a detachable and retrievable temporary vena cava filter. Materials and Method: The temporary vena cava filter ''OptEase'' (Cordis) is a nitinol filter derived from the ''TrapEase'' (Cordis) permanent filter, which is implantable transjugularly or transfemorally. In contrast to other temporary filters, this type can be detached and is not fixed on a catheter during implantation. Therefore, it is usable as a temporary as well as a permanent filter which can be retrieved up to 12 days after detachment with a special catheter using the loop technique. The ''OptEase'' filter was implanted in 11 patients ranging in age from 19 to 82 (mean age 30 years). In 10 patients the filter was transfemorally implanted and explanted. In 1 patient implantation was performed transjugularly prior to surgery and explantation was performed transfemorally after surgery. All patients had a deep vein thrombosis or iliac vein thrombosis. In 3 patients the filter was implanted prior to surgery. In 2 patients pulmonary embolism was identified. In 5 patients the filter was implanted prophylactically because of deep vein thrombosis according to interdisciplinary diagnosis. Results: No pulmonary embolism occurred during implantation. All filters were able to be retrieved without complications using the loop technique on the 6th, 8th, 12th and 13th day. No captured thrombus material was in the filter. (orig.)

  3. An overview of temporary stream hydrology in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, S.; Peters, D.L.; Spence, C.; van Meerveld, H.J.; Whitfield, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Temporary streams lack streamflow at some time in the seasonal cycle, and include ephemeral, intermittent and episodic streams. They often serve as headwaters for the perennial stream network in a drainage basin, and given that headwater streams can comprise the majority of the drainage network,

  4. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of meat…

  5. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these

  6. 47 CFR 73.1635 - Special temporary authorizations (STA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special temporary authorizations (STA). 73.1635..., Visual modulation monitoring; § 73.1250, Broadcasting emergency information; § 73.1350, Transmission..., TV and Class A TV aural; § 73.1615, Operation during modification of facilities; § 73.1680, Emergency...

  7. Zooplankton and diatoms of temporary and permanent freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a description of the zooplankton and epiphytic diatom communities of permanent and temporary freshwater pans in the Mpumalanga Highveld region of South Africa. Few studies have investigated the biota of pans in this area, which is seriously threatened by mining and agricultural development.

  8. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... agency travel programs, save money on travel costs, better protect the environment, and conserve natural... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Docket 2010-0009, Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of...

  9. Understanding the development of temporary agency work in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.S. Koene (Bas); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.M. Groenewegen (John)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article develops an explanatory framework for understanding the growth and development of temporary agency work (TAW) and the related industry. The analysis shows that explanations based on economic logic are helpful in understanding the choice of TAW in general. These explanations,

  10. 25 CFR 573.6 - Order of temporary closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tribal-state compact that is in effect, in violation of 25 U.S.C. 2710(d). (12) A gaming operation's... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS... Chairman may issue an order of temporary closure of all or part of an Indian gaming operation if one or...

  11. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... accommodations, food and beverage, retail sales, boat rentals, and other services at Crabtree Falls, Price Lake... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0511-7182; 2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. 41 CFR 115-1.103 - Temporary-type FPMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary-type FPMR. 115-1.103 Section 115-1.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1...

  13. 41 CFR 101-1.103 - FPMR temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true FPMR temporary regulations. 101-1.103 Section 101-1.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101...

  14. Performance of yam microtubers from temporary immersion system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yam clones ´Pacala Duclos´ and ´Belep´ of Dioscorea alata were used to evaluate the performance of microtubers formed in temporary immersion systems (TIS) in field conditions. Previously sprouted microtubers with a fresh weight higher than 3.0 gFW were used while in vitro plants and tuber crowns from conventional ...

  15. The status of temporary immersion system (TIS) technology for plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of temporary immersion systems (TIS) for in vitro culture, in the late 1990s heralded new and semi-automated means of micropropagation of plants for agricultural and conservation purposes. By 2005, various systems had been developed and tested and their benefits were proven with a variety of ...

  16. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  17. 76 FR 68192 - Temporary Certification Program; Notice of Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... of Certified EHR Technology for EPs and hospitals that seek to achieve meaningful use and participate... Extension AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Technology (the National Coordinator) to extend the Temporary Certification Program. Authority: Section 3001...

  18. Variable Speed Wind Turbines Capability for Temporary Over-Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Germán Claudio; Kjær, Philip Carne; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    New control systems for Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWT) need to be developed in order to provide inertia response and frequency control to support the grid. This work studies the behavior and capability of VSWT for providing temporary active power overproduction. The study is conducted...

  19. Biological Nitrogen Fixation In Tropical Dry Forests Of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gei, M. G.; Powers, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that tropical dry forests (TDF) are not nitrogen (N) deficient. This evidence includes: high losses of gaseous nitrogen during the rainy season, high ecosystem soil N stocks and high N concentrations in leaves and litterfall. Its been commonly hypothesized that biological nitrogen fixation is responsible for the high availability of N in tropical soils. However, the magnitude of this flux has rarely if ever been measured in tropical dry forests. Because of the high cost of fixing N and the ubiquity of N fixing legume trees in the TDF, at the individual tree level symbiotic fixation should be a strategy down-regulated by the plant. Our main goal was to determine the rates of and controls over symbiotic N fixation. We hypothesized that legume tree species employ a facultative strategy of nitrogen fixation and that this process responds to changes in light availability, soil moisture and nutrient supply. We tested this hypothesis both on naturally established trees in a forest and under controlled conditions in a shade house by estimating the quantities of N fixed annually using the 15N natural abundance method, counting nodules, and quantifying (field) or manipulating (shade house) the variation in important environmental variables (soil nutrients, soil moisture, and light). We found that in both in our shade house experiment and in the forest, nodulation varied among different legume species. For both settings, the 15N natural abundance approach successfully detected differences in nitrogen fixation among species. The legume species that we studied were able to regulate fixation depending on the environmental conditions. They showed to have different strategies of nitrogen fixation that follow a gradient of facultative to obligate fixation. Our data suggest that there exists a continuum of nitrogen fixation strategies among species. Any efforts to define tropical legume trees as a functional group need to incorporate this variation.

  20. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  1. Reducing bias in survival under non-random temporary emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William L.; Langtimm, Catherine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Despite intensive monitoring, temporary emigration from the sampling area can induce bias severe enough for managers to discard life-history parameter estimates toward the terminus of the times series (terminal bias). Under random temporary emigration unbiased parameters can be estimated with CJS models. However, unmodeled Markovian temporary emigration causes bias in parameter estimates and an unobservable state is required to model this type of emigration. The robust design is most flexible when modeling temporary emigration, and partial solutions to mitigate bias have been identified, nonetheless there are conditions were terminal bias prevails. Long-lived species with high adult survival and highly variable non-random temporary emigration present terminal bias in survival estimates, despite being modeled with the robust design and suggested constraints. Because this bias is due to uncertainty about the fate of individuals that are undetected toward the end of the time series, solutions should involve using additional information on survival status or location of these individuals at that time. Using simulation, we evaluated the performance of models that jointly analyze robust design data and an additional source of ancillary data (predictive covariate on temporary emigration, telemetry, dead recovery, or auxiliary resightings) in reducing terminal bias in survival estimates. The auxiliary resighting and predictive covariate models reduced terminal bias the most. Additional telemetry data was effective at reducing terminal bias only when individuals were tracked for a minimum of two years. High adult survival of long-lived species made the joint model with recovery data ineffective at reducing terminal bias because of small-sample bias. The naïve constraint model (last and penultimate temporary emigration parameters made equal), was the least efficient, though still able to reduce terminal bias when compared to an unconstrained model. Joint analysis of several

  2. Physical performance deterioration of temporary housing residents after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ishii

    2015-01-01

    We revealed that standing stability was impaired among elderly temporary housing residents 1.5 years after the disaster. Disaster responders should take into account the health risks associated with living in temporary housing.

  3. Communities of belonging in the temporariness of the Danish Asylum System: Shalini’s anchoring points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Refugees often find themselves in a protracted situation of temporariness, as applications for asylum are processed, deportations negotiated and possible extensions of temporary protection status considered within the context of increasingly restrictive governmental policies across Europe. Through...

  4. Overcoming design fixation through education and creativity methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, T. J.; Maier, A. M.; Onarheim, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the topic design fixation using 12 teams of masters students working on three design problems from (Jansson and Smith 1991). The objective of the experiment is to determine the effectiveness of two interventions to help overcome fixation on example solutions......' method during a final design task. The results showed that the method did not help the teams as it caused the fixation ratio to increase and the number of ideas per team to decrease. In addition to the above mentioned interventions, the experiment also revealed a negative correlation between the number...

  5. Overcoming Design Fixation Through Education and Creativity Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Thomas J.; Maier, Anja; Onarheim, Balder

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment on the topic design fixation using 12 teams of masters students working on three design problems from (Jansson and Smith 1991). The objective of the experiment is to determine the effectiveness of two interventions to help overcome fixation on example solutions......' method during a final design task. The results showed that the method did not help the teams as it caused the fixation ratio to increase and the number of ideas per team to decrease. In addition to the above mentioned interventions, the experiment also revealed a negative correlation between the number...

  6. The Ilizarov method of external fixation: current intraoperative concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel K; Duong, Elizabeth Thu Anh; Chang, Douglas G

    2010-03-01

    The Ilizarov method of external fixation is used to treat fractures, complex lower extremity deformities, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue contractures and to lengthen limbs. Tremendous improvements in the Ilizarov method have occurred during the past 60 years, improving intraoperative care and limb salvage management concepts. Improved instrumentation has increased the quantity and complexity of the tray systems required for these procedures. Perioperative nurses must be well versed in optimal preparation and function of Ilizarov fixation systems to ensure safe patient care during Ilizarov external fixation procedures. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Isolated Kalanchoe Chloroplasts 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Carolyn; Gibbs, Martin

    1975-01-01

    Chloroplasts isolated from Kalanchoe diagremontiana leaves were capable of photosynthesizing at a rate of 5.4 μmoles of CO2 per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. The dark rate of fixation was about 1% of the light rate. A high photosynthetic rate was associated with low starch content of the leaves. Ribose 5-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and dithiothreitol stimulated fixation, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate and azide were inhibitors. The products of CO2 fixation were primarily those of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. PMID:16659249

  8. The knee: internal fixation techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nathan L; Ewing, Christopher K; Ganley, Theodore J

    2014-04-01

    For the athlete with a newly diagnosed osteochondritis dissecans of the knee, the first step in formulating a treatment plan is determining the stability of the lesion. When the lesion is found to be unstable but salvageable, several methods for fixation are available. Fixation of osteochondritis dissecans in the athletic population has been described and each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Determining the most appropriate method for fixation depends on several variables and should include the athlete's level of play, sport, and overall goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Industrial production and temporary development after the Emilian Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Scamporrino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The earthquake that on the 20th of May hit Emilia has not been one of the most disastrous in modern Italian history, but it has highlighted the problem of preservation of industrial activities during a reconstruction process. In addition, precisely this system, characterized by great vitality and productivity but also by large seismic vulnerability, was the most affected. Through an analysis of the damages suffered by the industrial facilities, not so much as single buildings but precisely as a system, we want to highlight the challenges imposed by the earthquake: on the one hand, the urgent need to provide for delocalizations and temporary structures to avoid a stop in production in the short­term, and on the other, the re­design and anti­seismic re­planning of productive areas. A proposal was put forward to create temporary zones adjacent to the damaged areas, on which temporary structures should be installed. The latter would allow to limit relocations of medium­long range, which are negative for the territory, and at the same time it would allow the flexibility necessary to re­organize the supply chains. However, in Italy, the management of temporary solutions is seen as a practice too much linked to the emergency and too little to the reconstruction process. The first measures put into place by both the State and the Regions, however, do not seem to show a true understanding of the importance of management and regulations of temporary solutions in the medium­ long term.

  10. The Deregulation of Temporary Employment and Workers' Perceptions of Job Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Masanori Kuroki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the expansion of temporary employment in Japan has caused an increased perception of job insecurity among workers there. Non-regular employment, such as part-time and temporary work, has increased as a proportion of the Japanese workforce in recent years. The deregulation of temporary staffing in 2004 allowed firms to use temporary agency staffing for production line work in manufacturing. Using this legislation as a turning point and analyzing data from the Ja...

  11. A comparative study in fixation methods of medial malleolus fractures between tension bands wiring and screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ayyoub A; Abbas, Khalid Ahmed; Mawlood, Ammar Salah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two methods of internal fixations of fractured medial malleolus which are simple screw fixation and tension band wiring. Over 5 years we grouped 20 patients with fractured medial malleolus into two groups of operative treatments, group1 treated by malleolar screw fixation and group2 by tension band wiring. The patients were with same age group, gender, fracture type, and etiology. We use statistical analysis for make a comparative study between the two ways of surgical treatment. The mean time for radiologic bone union was 11.8 weeks in group1 patients and 9.4 weeks in group2 patients (P = 0.03). No patients had any sign of fixation failure or Kirschner wires migration. According to the modified ankle scoring system of Olerud and Molander, excellent and good results were achieved in 80 % in group1 patients and 90 % in group2 patients (P = 0.049). Tension-band wiring may be better treatment option for internal fixation of medial malleolar fractures than screw fixation. From these findings we recommend a further randomized clinical trial of larger number of cases and longer follow-up duration in order to regard tension-band wiring a better operative option for fixation of medial malleolar fractures.

  12. Development of a surface modified silicone-keratoprosthesis with scleral fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischern, T; Langefeld, S; Yuan, L; Völcker, N; Reim, M; Kirchhof, B; Schrage, N F

    1998-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to create artificial corneas. The keratoprostheses currently available do not allow measurements of the intraocular pressure (IOP) and restrict the visual field. The main problem is extrusion due to an insufficient connection between implant and surrounding tissue. It is our aim to create a flexible keratoprosthesis with a wide field optic allowing measurements of the IOP. Surface modification will improve cell adhesion and therefore stability between implant and tissue. The keratoprosthesis is made of silicone rubber. The optical zone is 11 mm in diameter with a thickness of 0.3 mm. The surface modified haptic consists of a scleral rim and 8 branches for scleral fixation. Optical and mechanical qualities were tested by tensile tests, spectrophotometry and topography. A method to produce one-piece silicone keratoprostheses was established. Submicron lathing of the mould led to an excellent optical quality. Spectrophotometry showed high degree of visible and ultraviolet light transmission of the silicone. Mechanical tests revealed high tensile strength and elongation at break which were not impaired by surface modification. The production of a flexible silicone keratoprosthesis with high optical and mechanical properties was accomplished, with possible use as both permanent and temporary keratoprosthesis.

  13. Noninvasive patient fixation for extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, Frank; Debus, Juergen; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus; Pastyr, Otto; Rhein, Bernhard; Bahner, Malte L.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the setup accuracy that can be achieved with a novel noninvasive patient fixation technique based on a body cast attached to a recently developed stereotactic body frame during fractionated extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one CT studies (≥ 20 slices, thickness: 3 mm) from 5 patients who were immobilized in a body cast attached to a stereotactic body frame for treatment of para medullary tumors in the thoracic or lumbar spine were evaluated with respect to setup accuracy. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made wrap-around body cast that extended from the neck to the thighs and a separate head mask, both made from Scotchcast. Each CT study was performed immediately before or after every second or third actual treatment fraction without repositioning the patient between CT and treatment. The stereotactic localization system was mounted and the isocenter as initially located stereo tactically was marked with fiducials for each CT study. Deviation of the treated isocenter as compared to the planned position was measured in all three dimensions. Results: The immobilization device can be easily handled, attached to and removed from the stereotactic frame and thus enables treatment of multiple patients with the same stereotactic frame each day. Mean patient movements of 1.6 mm ± 1.2 mm (laterolateral [LL]), 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (anterior-posterior [AP]), 2.3 mm ± 1.3 mm (transversal vectorial error [VE]) and < slice thickness = 3 mm (cranio caudal [CC]) were recorded for the targets in the thoracic spine and 1.4 mm ± 1.0 mm (LL), 1.2 mm ± 0.7 mm (AP), 1.8 mm ± 1.2 mm (VE), and < 3 mm (CC) for the lumbar spine. The worst case deviation was 3.9 mm for the first patient with the target in the thoracic spine (in the LL direction). Combining those numbers (mean transversal VE for both locations and maximum CC error of 3 mm), the mean three-dimensional vectorial patient movement and thus the mean overall

  14. Which salvage fixation technique is best for the failed initial screw fixation at the cervicothoracic junction? A biomechanical comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jae Taek; Tomoyuki, Takigawa; Jain, Ashish; Orías, Alejandro A Espinoza; Inoue, Nozomu; An, Howard S

    2017-09-01

    The pedicle screw construct is the most widely used technique for instrumentation at cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) because of its high biomechanical stability. However, we may need salvage fixation options for it as there might be a situation when pedicle screw is not available or it initially fails in order to obviate the need to instrument an additional motion segment. We aimed to evaluate the ability of using salvage screw fixations at CTJ (C7, T1, T2), when the initial fixation method fails. Fifteen fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens (C7-T2) were tested for pull-out strength (POS, N) and insertion torque (IT, Nm) of three C7 fixation techniques (lateral mass, pedicle and laminar screw) and three upper thoracic spine instrumentation (pedicle screws with straight trajectory, anatomical trajectory pedicle screws and laminar screw). Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation (SD). C7 pedicle screws generated statistically greater IT and POS than other C7 fixation techniques (P technique, there was no significant difference between laminar screw and a pedicle screw with different trajectory (P > 0.05). Laminar screws appear to provide stronger and more reproducible salvage fixation than lateral mass screws for C7 fixation, if pedicle screw should fail. If failure of initial pedicle screw is verified at the upper thoracic spine, both laminar screw and pedicle screw with different trajectory could be an option of salvage fixation. Our results suggest that pedicle screws and laminar screw similarly provide a strong fixation for salvage applications in the cervicothoracic junction.

  15. Temporary work and health and well-being : a two-way street?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s there has been a remarkable growth in the share of temporary workers across the European Union. To date, this employer-initiated trend to become more flexible and cost-effective has resulted in over 25 million European temporary workers. As temporary employment is often not

  16. 32 CFR 700.939 - Granting of asylum and temporary refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting of asylum and temporary refuge. 700.939... Officer Present Contents § 700.939 Granting of asylum and temporary refuge. (a) If an official of the Department of the Navy is requested to provide asylum or temporary refuge, the following procedures shall...

  17. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will be...

  18. 77 FR 36916 - Pilot Program for the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... 0790-AI66 Pilot Program for the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel AGENCY... the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel, known as the Information Technology... Exchange of Information Technology (IT) Personnel. This statute authorizes the temporary assignment of DoD...

  19. Enhancing pedicle screw fixation in the lumbar spine using allograft bone plug interference fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrea, Bopha; Malempati, Harsha; Campbell, Jeffrey R; Khan, Sonja; Ching, Randal P; Lee, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    A within-subjects controlled laboratory study. To examine a biological alternative to cement augmentation for pedicle screw fixation comparing bilateral axial pullout tests of augmented and nonaugmented (controls) pedicle screws. Fixation in the osteoporotic spine remains a difficult challenge with failure by loosening or backout. Pedicle screw augmentation has been attempted using polymethylmethacrylate and bioabsorbable calcium cements; however, the potential for extravasation and embolization of cement are becoming increasingly concerning and merit the search for alternative methods to improve screw-anchoring strength. Twenty-four (24) fresh human lumbar vertebrae were tested to compare the pullout strength of augmented and nonaugmented pedicle screws. Two different augmentation strategies were employed using allograft bone plugs (ABPs) and evaluated using 12 specimens per group. Bone mineral density of each specimen was obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The augmented versus nonaugmented pedicle was randomized for each vertebra, and bilateral testing enabled paired statistical analyses. Axial pullout tests were performed using an materials testing system servohydraulic test system, and peak force, failure displacement, and stiffness was obtained for each test and correlated with bone mineral density. Augmentation using 6-mm-diameter ABPs with 6.25-mm-diameter pedicle screws resulted in statistically weaker average pullout strength (775±455 N) than the nonaugmented controls (1233±826 N). When using smaller (5 mm diameter) AGPs with the same diameter screws, there was no statistical difference between average pullout strength for the augmented pedicle screws (1772±652 N) and the nonaugmented screws (1780±575 N). Preliminary study of pedicle screw augmentation using cannulated ABPs showed no improvement of fixation with pedicles in the spine. This was even true in osteoporotic specimens, where augmentation would seem to be of considerable benefit.

  20. Engineering carbon fixation with artificial protein organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessen, Tobias W; Silver, Pamela A

    2017-08-01

    Based on projections for global population growth, current techniques for improving agricultural yields will not be able to address future demands for major food crops. Improving photosynthetic efficiency by engineering carbon fixation has been identified as one of the most important approaches for increasing agricultural output. Recent studies indicate that introducing cyanobacterial-like carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) into plant chloroplasts represents a promising strategy for enhancing plant photosynthesis. Here, we give a general outline for transferring CCMs to plants. The proposed trajectory includes introducing bicarbonate transporters and CO 2 -fixing organelles into plant chloroplasts as well as minimizing stromal carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity. We focus on different approaches for constructing compartments that co-localize the CO 2 -fixing enzyme d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and CA, aimed at increasing RuBisCO turnover and decreasing wasteful photorespiration. We consider strategies based on cyanobacterial carboxysomes and on other protein-based compartments, specifically encapsulin nanocompartments. Finally, recent advances in expressing catalytic and structural carboxysomal components in plants will be highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Formaldehyde Fixation on RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David L.; Fowler, Carol B.; Cunningham, Brady R.; Mason, Jeffrey T.; O'Leary, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues generally provide low yields of extractable RNA that exhibit both covalent modification of nucleic acid bases and strand cleavage. This frustrates efforts to perform retrospective analyses of gene expression using archival tissue specimens. A variety of conditions have been reported to demodify formaldehyde-fixed RNA in different model systems. We studied the reversal of formaldehyde fixation of RNA using a 50 base RNA oligonucleotide and total cellular RNA. Formaldehyde-adducted, native, and hydrolyzed RNA species were identified by their bioanalyzer electrophoretic migration patterns and RT–quantitative PCR. Demodification conditions included temperature, time, buffer, and pH. The reversal of formaldehyde-fixed RNA to native species without apparent RNA hydrolysis was most successfully performed in dilute Tris, phosphate, or similar buffers (pH 8) at 70°C for 30 minutes. Amines were not required for efficient formaldehyde demodification. Formaldehyde-fixed RNA was more labile than native RNA to treatment with heat and buffer, suggesting that antigen retrieval methods for proteins may impede RNA hybridization or RNA extraction. Taken together, the data indicate that reliable conditions may be used to remove formaldehyde adducts from RNA to improve the quality of RNA available for molecular studies. PMID:21497290

  2. A new 3-dimensional head fixation device for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Yoshioka, Seiro; Ono, Shuichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Akaizawa, Takashi; Koyama, Masamichi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new head fixation device for studies of brain function. This device was designed to immobilize subject's heads during image scanning and to precisely reproduce the head position for two different imaging modalities such as MRI and PET. The device consists of a plastic frame, a pillow filled with beads of styrene foam, and a face mask of thermoplastic resin which was originally intended for application in radiotherapy. A bridge for biting was incorporated into the mask for stable fixation. The device enables immobilization of subject's heads with good reproducibility of position at the practical level. Our results indicate that this head fixation system is useful for fixation of head during activation studies using PET. (author)

  3. Sodium Carboxymethyl Chitosan as a Fixative for Eau de Cologne

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chitosan) as a fixative for eau de cologne product. Methods: SCM-chitosan was prepared by carboxymethylation reaction of chitosan with monochloroacetic acid. The solubility of SCM-chitosan was investigated in water and ethanol. Sixteen ...

  4. Necrotizing fasciitis after internal fixation of fracture of femoral trochanteric ? ??

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Leandro Em?lio Nascimento; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Figueiredo, Leonardo Brand?o; Soares, Eduardo Augusto Marques

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and potentially lethal soft tissue infection. We report a case of trochanteric femur fracture in a patient who underwent fracture fixation and developed necrotizing fasciitis. A literature review on the topic will be addressed.

  5. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hole Y plates with monocortical screws. 150 N incisal occlusal loads were simulated on the models. The commercial ANSYS software was utilized to calculate the Von Mises stresses on fixative appliances. Results: The highest Von Mises stress ...

  6. Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Singla, Ranju; Geetanjali

    2004-02-01

    A large amount of energy is utilized by legume nodules for the fixation of nitrogen and assimilation of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) into organic compounds. The source of energy is provided in the form of photosynthates by the host plant. Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme, which is responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, has also been found to play an important role in carbon metabolism in legume root nodule. PEPC-mediated CO2 fixation in nodules results in the synthesis of C4 dicarboxylic acids, viz. aspartate, malate, fumarate etc. which can be transported into bacteroids with the intervention of dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) protein. PEPC has been purified from the root nodules of few legume species. Information on the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism through PEPC in leguminous plants is scanty and incoherent. This review summarizes the various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in legume root nodules.

  7. Sodium Carboxymethyl Chitosan as a Fixative for Eau de Cologne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chitosan) as a fixative for eau de cologne product. Methods: SCM-chitosan was prepared by carboxymethylation reaction of chitosan with monochloroacetic acid. The solubility of SCM-chitosan was investigated in water and ethanol. Sixteen ...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3020 - Intramedullary fixation rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of alloys such as cobalt-chromium-molybdenum and stainless steel. It is inserted into the medullary (bone marrow) canal of long bones for the fixation of fractures. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  9. Use of 15N methodology to assess biological nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, G.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of legumes are their ability in symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen for growth. For proper management and a full realization of the benefits of this plant-microbial association, it is necessary to estimate how much nitrogen is fixed under different conditions in the field. It is only after this is known that various factors can be manipulated so as to increase the amount and proportion of N a plant derives from biological fixation. A suitable method for accurately measuring the amount of N crops derive from fixation is therefore an important requirement in any programme aimed at maximizing biological nitrogen fixation. There are several methods available to measure N 2 fixation (Bergersen, 1980) based on (1) increment in N yield and plant growth, (2) nitrogen balance (3) acetylene reduction and (4) the use of isotopes of N. Only isotopic methods will be illustrated here. 20 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  10. Gluteus Medius Repair With Double-Row Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J. W. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The merits of double-row tendon fixation have been well defined in the shoulder and may have greater applicability for gluteus medius tears in the hip, in which protection of the repair site can be even more of a challenge because the hip is a weight-bearing extremity. A detailed technique for double-row fixation with a reliable method and implants is highlighted in the accompanying stepwise-approach video. Standard laterally based peritrochanteric portals are used, including a viewing portal posterior to the vastus lateralis ridge and a working portal distal to the ridge, with anchors placed proximally, perpendicular to the cortex of the trochanter. Proximal fixation is accomplished with double-loaded Healicoil anchors (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) by use of sutures placed in a mattress fashion. Distal fixation is accomplished with a Footprint anchor (Smith & Nephew) paired to each Healicoil. PMID:24265993

  11. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Biological nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the mission was to assist the counterpart scientists in the analysis and interpretation of data relating to nitrogen fixation studies on grain legumes. The report briefly summarizes the discussions that were held with the counterparts

  12. An indirect reduction technique for percutaneous fixation of calcaneus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Matthew; Vlasak, Richard; Sadasivan, Kalia

    2014-07-01

    We describe a positioning and indirect reduction method that allows for earlier fixation of some displaced calcaneus fractures. Minimally invasive surgery with this technique can provide good results in high-risk patients while minimizing soft-tissue complications.

  13. Low complications after minimally invasive fixation of calcaneus fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, R; Popescu, D; Panaitescu, C; Circota, G; Cirstoiu, M; Cirstoiu, C

    2013-03-15

    Calcaneus fractures are still a delicate point regarding the indication for osteosynthesis. Knowing the skin's poor vascularisation of the back foot, the purpose of this study is to present the benefits of proper surgical options between an open and invasive osteosynthesis with anatomical reduction and internal fixation or minimally invasive approach preserving the quality of the soft parts. 66 interventions that targeted reduction and internal fixation of calcaneus fractures were performed between 2009-2012, in the Orthopaedic and Traumatology Department of Bucharest Emergency University Hospital. 29 cases underwent open reduction and internal fixation with plates and screws or Kirschner wires, and 37 cases underwent a minimally invasive reduction and Essex Lopresti osteosynthesis technique. No patient who underwent a minimally invasive reduction had skin lesions, but showed pain due to osteoarthritis lesions that appeared in the subtalar joint. 4 of them, who underwent open reduction and internal fixation had postoperative wound infections and skin necrosis.

  14. Percutaneous reduction and fixation of intraarticular calcaneal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Vogels, Lucas M. M.; Schipper, Inger B.; Patka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous reduction by distraction and subsequent percutaneous screw fixation to restore calcaneal and posterior talocalcaneal facet anatomy. The aim of this technique is to improve functional outcome and to diminish the rate of secondary posttraumatic arthrosis compared to conservative treatment

  15. Technique for en-masse cryo-fixation and processing of second ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The J2 juveniles were quickly immobilized and killed before fixation using the cryo-fixation technique followed by the primary fixation in 2.5% glutaraldehyde pre-cooled at 4-8°C and then secondary vapor fixation in 1% osmium tetraoxide and drying with the series of ethanol without subsequent critical point drying.

  16. The Role of Personality and Team-Based Product Dissection on Fixation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Christine; Miller, Scarlett; Kremer, Gül E. Okudan

    2013-01-01

    Design fixation has been found to be complex in its definition and expression, but it plays an important role in design idea generation. Identifying the factors that influence fixation is crucial in understanding how to enhance the design process and reduce the negative effects of fixation. One way to potentially mitigate fixation is through…

  17. How I improvised an external fixator to manage open fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaba Musa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthopaedic surgery is a technical specialty. In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, insufficient funding is available for technological advancement [1]. Indigenous hospital technology can reduce cost of managing injuries needing surgery, many of which are caused by an epidemic of road traffic accidents [2]. This paper explains how to make and use an improvised external fixator for the management of open fractures and instruments used for its clinical application. This is an improved version of an earlier external fixator

  18. Nitrogen supply of crops by biological nitrogen fixation. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.; Andersen, A.J.; Soerensen, H.; Thomsen, J.D.

    1985-02-01

    In the present work the contributions from combined N-sources and symbiotic nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen supply of field-grown peas and field beans were evaluated by means of 15 N fertilizer dilution. The effect of N-fertilizer, supplied at sowing and at different stages of plant development, on nitrogen fixation, yield and protein production in peas, was studied in pot experiments. (author)

  19. Gastric Band Port Site Fixation: Which Method Is Best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne E. Owers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is a popular and successful bariatric surgical technique. Although short-term complications are few in number, long-term complications are more common. One such complication is flippage of the gastric band port. This study compares three popular methods of port fixation and demonstrates that fixation with nonabsorbable mesh helps to prevent port flippage when compared to other techniques, reducing the need for repositioning operations.

  20. Chemical fixation to arrest phospholipid signaling for chemical cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Angela; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2017-11-10

    Chemical cytometry is a powerful tool for measuring biological processes such as enzymatic signaling at the single cell level. Among these technologies, single-cell capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has emerged as a powerful tool to assay a wide range of cellular metabolites. However, analysis of dynamic processes within cells remains challenging as signaling pathways are rapidly altered in response to changes in the cellular environment, including cell manipulation and storage. To address these limitations, we describe a method for chemical fixation of cells to stop the cellular reactions to preserve the integrity of key signaling molecules or reporters within the cell and to enable the cell to act as a storage reservoir for the reporter and its metabolites prior to assay by single-cell CZE. Fluorescent phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate reporters were loaded into cells and the cells were chemically fixed and stored prior to analysis. The reporter and its metabolites were electrophoretically separated by single-cell CZE. Chemical fixation parameters such as fixative, fixation time, storage solution, storage duration, and extraction solution were optimized. When cells were loaded with a fluorescent C6- or C16-PIP 2 followed by glutaraldehyde fixation and immediate analysis, 24±2% and 139±12% of the lipid was recoverable, respectively, when compared to an unfixed control. Storage of the cells for 24h yielded recoverable lipid of 61±3% (C6-PIP 2 ) and 55±5% (C16-PIP 2 ) when compared to cells analyzed immediately after fixation. The metabolites observed with and without fixation were identical. Measurement of phospholipase C activity in single leukemic cells in response to an agonist demonstrated the capability of chemical fixation coupled to single-cell CZE to yield an accurate snapshot of cellular reactions with the probe. This methodology enables cell assay with the reporter to be separated in space and time from reporter metabolite quantification while

  1. Bilateral spontaneous subluxation of scleral-fixated intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud I; Nemet, Arie; Sachs, Dani

    2002-12-01

    Two young men with primary ectopic lenses had intracapsular cataract extraction and scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs) using 10-0 polypropylene sutures tied to the IOL eyelets. Three to 9 years after implantation, spontaneous IOL vertical subluxation occurred in all 4 eyes (5 IOL loops), probably because of suture breakage. Late subluxation of a sutured IOL may occur several years after implantation. Double fixation and thicker sutures should be considered, especially in young patients.

  2. Biomechanical Study of Acetabular Tridimensional Memoryalloy Fixation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-07-01

    We developed the acetabular tridimensional memoryalloy fixation system (ATMFS), which is made of NiTi shape memory alloy, according to the specific mechanical properties of biological memory material, NiTi shape memory alloy and measured distribution of contact area and pressure between the acetabulum and the femoral head of cadaveric pelvis. Seven formalin-preserved cadaveric pelves were used for this investigation. Pressure-sensitive film was used to measure contact area and pressure within the anterior, superior, and posterior regions of the acetabulum. The pelves were loaded under the following four conditions: (1) intact; (2) following a creation posterior wall fracture defect; (3) following reduction and standard internal fixation with reconstruction plate; and (4) following reduction and internal fixation with a new shape memory alloy device named ATMFS. A posterior wall fracture was created along an arc of 40° to 90° about the acetabulur rim. Creation of a posterior wall defect resulted in increased load in the superior acetabulum (1485 N) as compared to the intact condition (748 N, P = 0.009). Following reduction and internal fixation, the load distributed to the superior acetabulum (1545 N) was not statistically different from the defect condition. Following the fixation with ATMFS, the load seen at the superior region of the actabulum (964 N) was familiar with fixation with reconstruction plate and was not different from intact state ( P = 0.45). These data indicate that the use of ATMFS as a fracture internal fixation device resulted a partial restoration of joint loading parameters toward the intact state. ATMFS fixation may result in a clinical benefit.

  3. Hybrid fixation in adult osteochondritis dissecans of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadli, L; Steltzlen, C; Toanen, C; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P; Pujol, N

    2017-11-15

    Osteochondritis dissecans progresses to osteoarthritis if integration of the fragment is not obtained. The prognosis of osteochondritis dissecans is more severe in adults, as spontaneous integration due to physeal closure does not occur. Hybrid fixation consists in combining screw fixation of the fragment with mosaicplasty through the fragment to promote integration into the native condyle. We describe this technique with reference to 17 patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Parametric analysis of glenoid implant design and fixation type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes, Diogo M; Hansen, Ulrich; Amis, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Common post-operative problems in shoulder arthroplasty such as glenoid loosening and joint instability may be reduced by improvements in glenoid design, shape, material choice, and fixation method. A framework for parametric analysis of different implant fixation configurations was developed in order to efficiently sift through potential glenoid component designs. We investigated the influence of design factors such as fixation type, component thickness, and peg position, number, diameter, and length in a multi-factorial design investigation. The proposed method allowed for simultaneous comparison of the mechanical performance of 344 different parametric variations of 10 different reference geometries with either large central fixation features or small peripheral pegs, undergoing four different worst-case scenario loading conditions, and averaging 64.7 s per model. The impact of design parameters were assessed for different factors responsible for post-operative problems in shoulder arthroplasty, such as bone volume preservation, stresses in the implant, central displacement or fixation stability, and the worst performing geometries all relied on conventional central fixation. Of the remaining geometries, four peripheral fixation configurations produced von Mises stresses comfortably below the material's yield strength. We show that the developed method allows for simple, direct, rapid, and repeatable comparison of different design features, material choices, or fixation methods by analyzing how they influence the bone-implant mechanical environment. The proposed method can provide valuable insight in implant design optimization by screening through multiple potential design modifications at an early design evaluation stage and highlighting the best performing combinations according to the failure mechanism to mitigate. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:775-784, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society

  5. Fractures of the Proximal Fifth Metatarsal: Percutaneous Bicortical Fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Vivek; Chung, Hyun Wook; Suh, Jin Soo

    2011-01-01

    Background Displaced intraarticular zone I and displaced zone II fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal bone are frequently complicated by delayed nonunion due to a vascular watershed. Many complications have been reported with the commonly used intramedullary screw fixation for these fractures. The optimal surgical procedure for these fractures has not been determined. All these observations led us to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous bicortical screw fixation for treating these...

  6. AGENCY CONTRIBUTION IN ACHIEVING TEMPORARY AGENCY WORKERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: A STUDY IN ABC (PVT LTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G.T.N Perera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary agency workers are coming under non-standard employments, who have temporary attachment to the working organization. With dynamic business environment and flexible work arrangements, temporary agency employments are also emerged in Sri Lanka. Temporary agency workers are dual committed employees. However, with this dual commitment, organizations face issues in achieving temporary agency workers’ commitment due to low attention of agencies to temporary agency workers. Even though the Client organization provides due attention to temporary agency workers, they fail to receive due commitment due to the lack of attention from agency to temporary agency workers. This study was conducted to identify the agency related factors affecting temporary agency workers’ commitment. This was carried out as a cross sectional field study with a sample of 93 workers from temporary agency works in the ABC (pvt ltd. 93 temporary agency workers were selected as sample. Data were collected via a standard questionnaire that met accepted standards of validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics, Simple ranking, Factor analysis, ANOVA and Independent Sample T-Test technique were performed to analyze data. No of Temporary workers to supervisor (temp to consult ratio is the most influencing factor of temporary agency workers’ commitment in agency context. Job satisfaction, agency support, side bets, interactional justice, lack of alternative employments, procedural justice, distributive justice, reciprocity norm acceptance, socialization, breach of psychological contract, lack of skill transferability are the other factors, which are ordered from most influencing factor to less affecting factor to workers’ organizational commitment . Findings revealed that eleven out of thirteen factors are job related factors, other two are organization related and person related factors. Most client companies provide their attention, while agencies fail to provide

  7. Plant densities and modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Javier de Luca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean nitrogen (N demands can be supplied to a large extent via biological nitrogen fixation, but the mechanisms of source/sink regulating photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation in high yielding cultivars and current crop management arrangements need to be investigated. We investigated the modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] at different plant densities. A field trial was performed in southern Brazil with six treatments, including non-inoculated controls without and with N-fertilizer, both at a density of 320,000 plants ha−1, and plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii at four densities, ranging from 40,000 to 320,000 plants ha−1. Differences in nodulation, biomass production, N accumulation and partition were observed at stage R5, but not at stage V4, indicating that quantitative and qualitative factors (such as sunlight infrared/red ratio assume increasing importance during the later stages of plant growth. Decreases in density in the inoculated treatments stimulated photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation per plant. Similar yields were obtained at the different plant densities, with decreases only at the very low density level of 40,000 plants ha−1, which was also the only treatment to show differences in seed protein and oil contents. Results confirm a fine tuning of the mechanisms of source/sink, photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation under lower plant densities. Higher photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates are capable of sustaining increased plant growth.

  8. Fixation identification: the optimum threshold for a dispersion algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignaut, Pieter

    2009-05-01

    It is hypothesized that the number, position, size, and duration of fixations are functions of the metric used for dispersion in a dispersion-based fixation detection algorithm, as well as of the threshold value. The sensitivity of the I-DT algorithm for the various independent variables was determined through the analysis of gaze data from chess players during a memory recall experiment. A procedure was followed in which scan paths were generated at distinct intervals in a range of threshold values for each of five different metrics of dispersion. The percentage of points of regard (PORs) used, the number of fixations returned, the spatial dispersion of PORs within fixations, and the difference between the scan paths were used as indicators to determine an optimum threshold value. It was found that a fixation radius of 1 degrees provides a threshold that will ensure replicable results in terms of the number and position of fixations while utilizing about 90% of the gaze data captured.

  9. Axial loading cross screw fixation for the Austin bunionectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Ryan B; Fallat, Lawrence M; Kish, John P

    2011-01-01

    The Austin procedure has become a common method of osteotomy for the correction of hallux abductovalgus when indicated. The V-type configuration is intrinsically stable but not without complications. One complication encountered is rotation and/or displacement of the capital fragment. We present the use of an axial loading screw in conjunction with a dorsally placed compression screw. The benefit to this technique lies in the orientation of the axial loading screw, because it is directed to resist the ground reactive forces while also providing a second point of fixation in a crossing screw design. In a head-to-head biomechanical comparison, we tested single dorsal screw fixation versus double screw fixation, including both the dorsal and the axial loading screws in 10 metatarsal Sawbones(®) (Pacific Research Laboratories Inc, Vashon, WA). Five metatarsals received single dorsal screw fixation and five received the dorsal screw and the additional axial loading screw. The metatarsals were analyzed on an Instron compression device for comparison; 100% of the single screw fixation osteotomies failed with compression at an average peak load of 205 N. Four of five axial loading double screw fixation osteotomies did not fail. This finding suggests that the addition of an axial loading screw providing cross screw orientation significantly increases the stability of the Austin osteotomy, ultimately decreasing the likelihood of displacement encountered in the surgical repair of hallux abductovalgus. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fixating on metals: new insights into the role of metals in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guerrero, Manuel; Matthiadis, Anna; Sáez, Ángela; Long, Terri A

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the most promising and immediate alternatives to the overuse of polluting nitrogen fertilizers for improving plant nutrition. At the core of this process are a number of metalloproteins that catalyze and provide energy for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, eliminate free radicals produced by this process, and create the microaerobic conditions required by these reactions. In legumes, metal cofactors are provided to endosymbiotic rhizobia within root nodule cortical cells. However, low metal bioavailability is prevalent in most soils types, resulting in widespread plant metal deficiency and decreased nitrogen fixation capabilities. As a result, renewed efforts have been undertaken to identify the mechanisms governing metal delivery from soil to the rhizobia, and to determine how metals are used in the nodule and how they are recycled once the nodule is no longer functional. This effort is being aided by improved legume molecular biology tools (genome projects, mutant collections, and transformation methods), in addition to state-of-the-art metal visualization systems.

  11. Self-erecting temporary shelter: Kinetic Design and Vacuumatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Sapienza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available SETS (Self-Erecting Temporary Shelter is a project born to realize a temporary, flexible, lightweight, experimental pavilion. It is a synthesis between the ancient origami’s art and the innovative vacuumatics. So SETS is able to switch from two-dimensional configuration, for transportation and storage, to the spatial one, adaptable to several uses (from fashion shows to emergencies. To achieve this goal SETS is based on two qualifying items: a strong geometric control, due to the parametric design tool, and the vacuum technology, that is able to ‘freeze’ it into the chosen configuration. In this article the authors will describe the topics of the first steps of the research, that allowed them to make some physic model in scale. They will also show the program of the following phases, that are addressed to the building of a prototype.

  12. Transforming knowledge across domains in the temporary development spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise

    ) in staging innovative concept development. FEI appears as temporary spaces for innovative processes; and studies have pointed out the limited uptake of user knowledge (Elgaard Jensen 2012). This paper will discuss the possibilities and barriers for uptake of user knowledge in FEI in relation...... in industrial R&D from medical device development and a consultancy company both working with an explicit ambition for transforming user insights into data applicable for concept development. The empirical data will be examined and compared with current literature on transforming and transferring knowledge...... between domains [Carlile 2002, Star 2010, Binder et al 2011]. Additional literature on the constitution of temporary development spaces will be relevant in the analysis. The paper examines a range of heterogeneous actors engaged in the transformation process [Latour 1999, Callon 1988; Jensen 2003...

  13. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  14. Multiple Institutional Logics in Inter-Institutional Temporary Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Söderlund, Jonas

    The idea of multiple institutional logics currently draws more and more attention as many organizational actors are forced to operate in ever more complex, temporary and vivid collaborations. We draw on findings from a unique case study of a temporary organization that carried the responsibility...... for the planning and construction of a new super hospital in the capital of Sweden. Our empirical data demonstrates the important role institutional logics contribute with in understanding logics behind actions as well as emerging conflicts in practice throughout the project process. The paper identifies four...... distinct response strategies the project actors relied upon to deal with the multiplicity of logics: total integration, partial decoupling, avoidance, and surfing. We discuss how these response strategies were used, in what situations, and what effects they had on the organization. The paper contributes...

  15. Temporary Life Changes and the Timing of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Breen, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Marriage is a risky undertaking that people enter with incomplete information about their partner and their future life circumstances. A large literature has shown how new information gained from unforeseen but long-lasting or permanent changes in life circumstances may trigger a divorce. We extend this literature by considering how information gained from a temporary change in life circumstances-in our case, a couple having a child with infantile colic-may affect divorce behavior. Although persistent life changes are known to induce divorce, we argue that a temporary stressful situation allows couples more quickly to discern the quality of their relationship, in some cases leading them to divorce sooner than they otherwise would have. We formalize this argument in a model of Bayesian updating and test it using data from Denmark. We find that the incidence of infantile colic shortens the time to divorce or disruption among couples who would have split up anyway.

  16. Need for relevant timescales when crediting temporary carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    carbon storage in carbon footprinting. Methods: Implications of using a 100-year accounting period is evaluated via a literature review study of the global carbon cycle, as well as by analysing the crediting approaches that are exemplified by the PAS 2050 scheme for crediting temporary carbon storage......-term climatic benefits is considered to require storage of carbon for at least thousand years. However, it has been proposed that there may exist tipping points for the atmospheric CO2 concentration beyond which irreversible climate changes occur. To reduce the risk of passing such tipping points, fast...... mitigation of the rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration is required and in this perspective, shorter storage times may still provide climatic benefits. Conclusions: Both short- and long-term perspectives should be considered when crediting temporary carbon storage, addressing both acute effects...

  17. Carbon Reduction Measures-Based LCA of Prefabricated Temporary Housing with Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporary housing plays an important role in providing secure, hygienic, private, and comfortable shelter in the aftermath of disaster (such as flood, fire, earthquake, etc.. Additionally, temporary housing can also be used as a sustainable form of on-site residences for construction workers. While most of the building components used in temporary housing can be manufactured in a plant, prefabrication technology improves the production efficiency of temporary housing; furthermore, integrated renewable energy systems, for example, solar photovoltaic (PV system, offer benefits for temporary housing operations. In order to assess the environmental impacts of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems, this study first divides the life cycle of temporary housing into six stages, and then establishes a life cycle assessment (LCA model for each stage. Furthermore, with the aim of reducing the environmental impacts, life cycle carbon reduction measures are proposed for each stage of temporary housing. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using a case study in China. Based on the proposed carbon reduction measures, the LCA of a prefabricated temporary housing case study building equipped with renewable energy systems indicates a carbon emissions intensity of 35.7 kg/m2·per year, as well as a reduction in material embodied emissions of 18%, assembly emissions of 17.5%, and operational emissions of 91.5%. This research proposes a carbon reduction-driven LCA of temporary housing and contributes to promoting sustainable development of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems.

  18. Anticipatory Sorting and Gender Segregation in Temporary Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Fernandez-Mateo; Zella King

    2011-01-01

    We examine the roots of gender segregation in the screening process by using a longitudinal data set of candidates considered for temporary projects at a staffing firm and following their progress through the hiring pipeline. Theories invoked to explain gender segregation across jobs traditionally rely on firm-specific human capital and expectations of future commitment to explain this phenomenon. These do not apply in this setting. Yet we find that the staffing firm is more likely to shortli...

  19. Exits from Temporary Jobs in Europe: A Competing Risks Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Addio, Anna Christina; Rosholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different specificat...... as a whole, very short contracts provide higher chances of labour market exclusion especially for men. We discuss potential implications of our findings....

  20. Temporary amygdala inhibition reduces stress effects in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalooei, Jila Rezaeian; Sahraei, Hedayat; Meftahi, Gholam Hossein; Khosravi, Maryam; Bahari, Zahra; Hatef, Boshra; Mohammadi, Alireza; Nicaeili, Fateme; Eftekhari, Fateme; Ghamari, Fateme; Hadipour, Mohamadmehdi; Kaka, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of temporary inhibition of amygdala in response to metabolic changes caused by stress in female mice. Unilateral and bilateral amygdala cannulation was carried out, and after a week of recovery, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride was injected into the mice amygdalae five minutes before the induction of stress. A communication box was employed to induce stress for four consecutive days and plasma corticosterone, food and water intake, weight changes, and anore...

  1. Prospects of using cassava as temporary shade for cocoa in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is being contended that the provision of optimal shade could maximise cocoa production. Four cassava varieties (Manihot spp.) were planted as temporary shade tree in September 1995 at three spacing (1.2 m x 0.6 m; x 1.2 m and 1.2 m x 2.4 m) at Akumadan. The level of shade provided by the canopies and the control ...

  2. Temporary vs. Permanent Sub-slab Ports: A Comparative ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor intrusion (VI) is the migration of subsurface vapors, including radon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from the subsurface to indoor air. The VI exposure pathway extends from the contaminant source, which can be impacted soil, non-aqueous phase liquid, or contaminated groundwater, to indoor air-exposure points. Therefore, contaminated matrices may include groundwater, soil, soil gas, and indoor air. VOC contaminants of concern typically include halogenated solvents such as trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform, as well as petroleum hydrocarbons, such as the aromatic VOCs benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Radon is a colorless radioactive gas that is released by radioactive decay of radionuclides in rock and soil that migrate into homes through VI in a similar fashion to VOCs. This project focused on the performance of permanent versus temporary sub-slab sampling ports for the determination of VI of halogenated VOCs and radon into an unoccupied house. VOC and radon concentrations measured simultaneously in soil gas using collocated temporary and permanent ports appeared to be independent of the type of port. The variability between collocated temporary and permanent ports was much less than the spatial variability between different locations within a single residential duplex. The agreement of the majority of VOC and radon concentrations, 0–36% relative percent difference, and 2–19% relative standard deviation respectively, of each sub-sl

  3. The Diaspora and Temporary Migrant Workers: Basic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the phenomenon of migrant workers who emigrated to Western European countries after World War II. The labor demands created by the economic reconstruction of these countries, most notably Great Britain, West Germany, France, Switzerland, the Benelux countries, Sweden and Austria, coupled with low birth rates and high death rates, made it necessary for them to hire immigrant workers. On the other hand, poor economic conditions, few employment opportunities and a yearning for a higher standard of living drove workers from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Greece, Ireland, Finland and North Africa to seek work abroad. These temporary migrant workers represent a link between their countries of origin and their host countries, and, as a group of people maintaining links with their native countries, they can also be considered their countries’ diaspora. However, considering the temporary nature of their residence abroad, it is questionable whether they actually are a diaspora. It is for this reason that the paper juxtaposes the phenomena of the diaspora and temporary migrant workers in order to analyze the question of whether, when and how these workers become a diaspora. In particular, it focuses on migrant workers from Yugoslavia, usually referred to as “gastarbajteri” (gastarbeiter, who in the 1960s and 1970s migrated mostly to West Germany, Austria, Australia, France and Switzerland, and on their political treatment by the Yugoslav state.

  4. External fixation of the pelvic ring: an experimental study on the role of pin diameter, pin position, and parasymphyseal fixator pins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, Kees-Jan; Joosse, Pieter; Hoek van Dijke, Gilbert A.; Snijders, Chris J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanical properties of current external fixator systems for unstable (type C) pelvic ring fractures are inferior to internal fixation, and are not optimal for definitive treatment. We explored methods to increase stability of external fixator constructs. METHODS: An experimental

  5. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman, Rogier; Smith, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology, making it more

  6. The emergence and early evolution of biological carbon-fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Braakman

    Full Text Available The fixation of CO₂ into living matter sustains all life on Earth, and embeds the biosphere within geochemistry. The six known chemical pathways used by extant organisms for this function are recognized to have overlaps, but their evolution is incompletely understood. Here we reconstruct the complete early evolutionary history of biological carbon-fixation, relating all modern pathways to a single ancestral form. We find that innovations in carbon-fixation were the foundation for most major early divergences in the tree of life. These findings are based on a novel method that fully integrates metabolic and phylogenetic constraints. Comparing gene-profiles across the metabolic cores of deep-branching organisms and requiring that they are capable of synthesizing all their biomass components leads to the surprising conclusion that the most common form for deep-branching autotrophic carbon-fixation combines two disconnected sub-networks, each supplying carbon to distinct biomass components. One of these is a linear folate-based pathway of CO₂ reduction previously only recognized as a fixation route in the complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, but which more generally may exclude the final step of synthesizing acetyl-CoA. Using metabolic constraints we then reconstruct a "phylometabolic" tree with a high degree of parsimony that traces the evolution of complete carbon-fixation pathways, and has a clear structure down to the root. This tree requires few instances of lateral gene transfer or convergence, and instead suggests a simple evolutionary dynamic in which all divergences have primary environmental causes. Energy optimization and oxygen toxicity are the two strongest forces of selection. The root of this tree combines the reductive citric acid cycle and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway into a single connected network. This linked network lacks the selective optimization of modern fixation pathways but its redundancy leads to a more robust topology

  7. Fixation instability in anisometropic children with reduced stereopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E; Subramanian, Vidhya; Weakley, David R

    2013-06-01

    Hyperopic anisometropia in children can be associated with abnormal stereoacuity and "microstrabismus," a small temporalward "flick" as each eye assumes fixation on cover testing. The prevailing hypothesis is that abnormal sensory experience leads to foveal suppression and, subsequently, secondary microstrabismus. This study investigated the hypothesis that disruption of bifoveal fusion by anisometropia directly affects ocular motor function. A total of 94 children with hyperopic anisometropia (ages 5-13 years) were evaluated prospectively between June 2010 and December 2012 with the use of the Nidek MP-1 microperimeter. Fixation instability was quantified by the area of the bivariate contour ellipse that included 95% of fixation points during a 30-second test interval. Each eye movement waveform during the 30-second test interval also was examined with the use of custom software and classified as normal, fusion maldevelopment nystagmus (FMNS), or infantile nystagmus. Finally, the Randot Preschool Stereoacuity Test (Stereo Optical Company Inc, Chicago, IL) was administered. Stereoacuity was correlated with fixation instability (Spearman r = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.33-0.64); visual acuity was more weakly correlated (r = 0.28). All children with normal stereoacuity had stable fixation, children with subnormal stereoacuity had fixation instability, and those with nil stereoacuity had the most instability. Eye movement records during attempted fixation were of sufficient quality for classification in 81 children; 61% of those with reduced stereoacuity and 88% of those with nil stereoacuity had FMNS eye movement waveforms. Our data support the hypothesis that the binocular decorrelation caused by anisometropia can disrupt ocular motor development, resulting in FMNS and its temporalward refoveating "flicks" that may mimic microstrabismus. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T Section 1.267(a)-2T Internal Revenue... Not Deductible § 1.267(a)-2T Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform...) take into account changes made to section 267(b) by section 174 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (without...

  9. A Comparison of Screw Fixation and Suture-Button Fixation in a Syndesmosis Injury in an Ankle Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Han; Gwak, Heui-Chul; Lee, Chang-Rack; Choo, Hye-Jeung; Kim, Jeon-Gyo; Kim, Dae-Yoo

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the quality of reduction and the clinical assessment between screw fixation and suture-button fixation with an ankle fracture accompanied by syndesmosis injury. We studied the clinical and radiologic findings 1 year postoperatively through retrospective examination of 24 patients who had undergone screw fixation from January 2011 to December 2012 and prospective examination of 20 patients who had undergone suture button fixation from January 2013 to May 2014. Regarding the tibiofibular clear space, tibiofibular overlap, and medial clear space, the screw fixation group had improvement from a preoperative mean of 6.97 (range 2.79 to 15.81) mm, 4.43 (range 0 to 7.87) mm, 7.90 (range 4.24 to 19.50) mm to a postoperative mean of 4.95 (range 2.72 to 9.08) mm, 6.29 (range 0 to 10.37) mm, and 4.32 (range 1.98 to 6.57) mm, respectively. The corresponding improvement for the suture-button fixation group was from a preoperative mean of 6.65 (range 3.94 to 13.73) mm, 5.39 (range 0 to 9.44) mm, 7.27 (range 4.04 to 16.00) mm to a postoperative mean of 5.15 (range 2.93 to 7.30) mm, 7.21 (range 2.15 to 10.30) mm, and 4.25 (range 2.97 to 5.71) mm. No statistically significant difference was found between the 2 techniques. Both suture-button and metal screw fixation are effective treatment methods for an ankle fracture accompanied by syndesmosis injury. However, a long-term and prospective analysis is needed. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fixation of revision TKA: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, J; Lüring, C; Springorum, R; Köck, F X; Grifka, J; Tingart, M

    2011-06-01

    Early aseptic loosening is a major complication in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is well accepted that intramedullary stems improve the anchoring of the prosthetic components; however, controversy still exists about the optimal fixation technique of the stems (cementless, hybrid, cemented). A literature review was carried out in the main medical databases from 1980 to 04/2010 to evaluate the available literature by evidence-based criteria and to analyse the results of the single studies regarding fixation technique in knee revision arthroplasty. There are four studies regarding the cementless fixation. Eight studies reported the hybrid technique and five studies the cemented technique. Hybrid and cemented techniques are comparable regarding the survival of arthroplasties, the rate of aseptic loosening and the clinical outcome. However, most studies just show a low level of evidence (LoE III and IV), a small to medium number of cases and a short follow-up. Based on the current literature, no final statement can be drawn regarding the optimal fixation technique in revision TKA. Future RCTs are needed to enable conclusive statements about the possible advantages and disadvantages of the single fixation techniques, although the clinical implementation often is critical.

  11. Pediatric stapedectomy: does cause of fixation affect outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Ryan E; Zhang, Richard W; Roland, Peter S; Isaacson, Brandon; Lee, Kenneth H; Walter Kutz, J

    2013-07-01

    To compare outcomes of stapedectomy in patients with congenital stapes fixation versus juvenile otosclerosis. A retrospective chart review was performed from January 1, 1999 until January 1, 2011 to identify patients under 18 years old who underwent a stapedectomy. Age, gender, pre- and postoperative audiograms, intraoperative findings including etiology of stapes fixation, prosthesis type, and complications were recorded. Twenty-two children were identified who had undergone a stapedectomy (two patients underwent sequential bilateral surgery) resulting in a total of 24 ears. The cause of fixation included juvenile otosclerosis (n=7) and congenital stapes fixation (n=17). The overall mean pre-operative air-bone gap (ABG) was 34.7 dB (SD: 13.5) compared to a postoperative mean ABG of 9.0 (SD: 9.3) (pdiscrimination score of 80%. Pediatric stapedectomy has comparable results to stapedectomy in adults regardless of the cause of stapes fixation; however, delayed sensorineural hearing loss may be higher in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  13. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Abbey P; Chafin, David; Bauer, Daniel R; Grogan, Thomas M; Baird, Geoffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC) results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR), but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes) facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT) compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  14. Invertebrate grazers affect metal/metalloid fixation during litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Brackhage, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Plant litter and organic sediments are main sinks for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrates as key species in aquatic litter decomposition on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only for shredders, but for grazers as another important animal group less is known. Consequently, a laboratory batch experiment was conducted to examine the effect of invertebrate grazers (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization during aquatic litter decomposition. It could be shown that invertebrate grazers facilitate significantly the formation of smaller sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), as shown previously for invertebrate shredders. The metal/metalloid binding capacity of these smaller particles of POM is higher compared to leaf litter residuals. But element enrichment is not as high as shown previously for the effect by invertebrate shredders. Invertebrate grazers enhance also the mobilization of selected elements to the water, in the range also proven for invertebrate shredders but different for the different elements. Nonetheless invertebrate grazers activity during aquatic litter decomposition leads to a metal/metalloid fixation into leaf litter as part of sediment organic matter. Hence, the effect of invertebrate grazers on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization contrasts partly with former assessments revealing the possibility of an enhanced metal/metalloid fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Scleral Fixation of a One-Piece Toric Intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Matthew E.; Randleman, J. Bradley; Masket, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe a novel technique for toric intraocular lens (IOL) repositioning and fixation in the absence of adequate capsular support Methods Case report and literature review Results Two cases are presented with scleral fixation of a one-piece toric IOL (SN6AT series, Alcon Inc.) In both cases, toric IOLs initially placed within the capsular bag became decentered due to poor capsular support and/or posterior capsule rupture. To avoid the potential complications of lens explantation and maintain the astigmatic benefits of the toric IOL, scleral fixation of the lenses was performed. The Hoffman technique was used to create reverse scleral pockets without conjunctival dissection. A 10-0 suture was used to capture and then secure the lens haptics in a lasso-type fashion. Sutures were then buried within the previously created scleral pockets. Both patients had well centered lenses postoperatively and have remained stable at last follow-up, up to thirty months postoperatively. Conclusion In the absence of adequate capsular support, scleral fixation is a viable option for one-piece toric IOL fixation to avoid IOL explanation PMID:23380416

  16. Necessity for fibular fixation associated with distal tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Hartley, Brandi R; Formaini, Nathan; Bramwell, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    Intramedullary (IM) nailing is a well-accepted treatment for distal third tibia fractures in combination with injury to the fibula. However, the indications for operative stabilisation of the fibula remain controversial. The authors performed a retrospective review on a consecutive series of patients who underwent intramedullary nailing of a non-comminuted distal third tibia fracture with or without fibular fixation at a Level I urban trauma centre. A review of surgical records identified 120 patients who initially were included in this study, while a total of 98 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the final analysis. Our results found no difference in the mean value of coronal and sagittal plane alignment in both the immediate post-operative and follow-up time periods. We also saw no statistically significant difference when comparing malalignment between patients treated with or without fibula fixation. There were no deep infections between the two groups. No significant differences were seen between the fibular fixation group and the non-fixation group. Distal screw removal due to prominence or pain was the most common reason for future surgery in both groups. These findings suggest that the addition of fibular fixation does not affect whether or not alignment is maintained in either the immediate post-operative or short-term follow-up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of ortho-Fluorofentanyl, Tetrahydrofuranyl Fentanyl, and Methoxyacetyl Fentanyl Into Schedule I. Temporary amendment; temporary scheduling order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioids, N-(2-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)propionamide (ortho-fluorofentanyl or 2-fluorofentanyl), N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl), and 2-methoxy-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylacetamide (methoxyacetyl fentanyl), into Schedule I. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of ortho-fluorofentanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl, and methoxyacetyl fentanyl into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to Schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, ortho-fluorofentanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl fentanyl, and methoxyacetyl fentanyl.

  18. Buckminsterfullerenes: a non-metal system for nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki; Saito, Makoto; Uemura, Sakae; Takekuma, Shin-Ichi; Takekuma, Hideko; Yoshida, Zen-Ichi

    2004-03-18

    In all nitrogen-fixation processes known so far--including the industrial Haber-Bosch process, biological fixation by nitrogenase enzymes and previously described homogeneous synthetic systems--the direct transformation of the stable, inert dinitrogen molecule (N2) into ammonia (NH3) relies on the powerful redox properties of metals. Here we show that nitrogen fixation can also be achieved by using a non-metallic buckminsterfullerene (C60) molecule, in the form of a water-soluble C60:gamma-cyclodextrin (1:2) complex, and light under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. This metal-free system efficiently fixes nitrogen under mild conditions by making use of the redox properties of the fullerene derivative.

  19. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Assessing N2 fixation in estuarine mangrove soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Lin, Ming-Fen; Tan, Chen-Chung; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) limited mangrove forest may have a high potential for microbial N2 fixation. Previous research has focused on soil nitrogenase activity in pristine mangrove forests with little anthropogenic impact. This research was designed to evaluate the magnitude of nitrogenase activity of mangrove soils in a high anthropogenic N-loading environment and the way in which soil N2 fixation in mangrove forest may be related to organic carbon and salinity. The test involved an acetylene reduction method under controlled laboratory conditions. The mangrove forests with high anthropogenic N loading may have high nitrogenase activity in the soils. The diazotrophs in these mangrove soils were mostly heterotrophs and the sulfate-reducing bacteria were the major N2-fixing bacteria. The nitrogenase activity was little affected by the soil salinity, which suggests that these groups of N2 fixation bacteria adapted well to saline conditions in the estuary.

  1. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix...... atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge...... this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues...

  2. How Life History Can Sway the Fixation Probability of Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Kurokawa, Shun; Giaimo, Stefano; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the effects of demographic structure on evolutionary dynamics when selection acts on reproduction, survival, or both. In contrast to the previously discovered pattern that the fixation probability of a neutral mutant decreases while the population becomes younger, we show that a mutant with a constant selective advantage may have a maximum or a minimum of the fixation probability in populations with an intermediate fraction of young individuals. This highlights the importance of life history and demographic structure in studying evolutionary dynamics. We also illustrate the fundamental differences between selection on reproduction and selection on survival when age structure is present. In addition, we evaluate the relative importance of size and structure of the population in determining the fixation probability of the mutant. Our work lays the foundation for also studying density- and frequency-dependent effects in populations when demographic structures cannot be neglected. PMID:27129737

  3. A comparative study of internal fixation and intermaxillary fixation on bone repair of mandibular fractures through radiographic subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Christiano Sampaio; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida; de Azevedo, Roberto Almeida; de Oliveira, Thaís Feitosa Leitão; Bastos, Luana Costa

    2014-07-01

    Conventional radiographic evaluation of fracture healing is not a reliable method, because it depends on the examinator's experience and the quality of the exam. Therefore, serial images differing in density, contrast and geometrical projection can lead to a misdiagnosis on the postoperative fracture healing. Even in good quality images, little changes in calcified tissues often can't be visualized, because of its little sensibility and because of the limited human sight. The use of more sensitive and objective methods could increase the accuracy of this evaluation. This study intended to compare, by digitalized panoramic radiography, the mandible fracture healing after two different types of treatment: open reduction with internal fixation (group 1) and closed reduction with intermaxillary fixation (group 2). It was taken three postoperative radiographs (within a week, a month and three months after treatment), which were digitalized (600 dpi, 8 bits) and adjusted in brightness and size in Photoshop software. Then these images were evaluated by digital subtraction in ImageTool software. The results revealed greater areas of new bone formation in the internal fixation group, in all the evaluated times. Thus, open reduction with internal fixation resulted in more rapid fracture healing than closed reduction with intermaxillary fixation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Percutaneous reduction and screw fixation of fracture neck talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgaid, Sherif Mohamed; Ezzat, Farid Fouad

    2012-12-01

    Fracture neck talus is a rare fracture represents about 1% of all fractures and usually due to high energy trauma. These fractures are usually associated with compromised soft tissues, concomitant skeletal fractures, or life threatening injuries. Talus has a tenuous blood supply which is affected by fracture displacement. Urgent fracture reduction±fracture fixation is mandatory. The associated injuries may make the conventional open reduction and internal fixation is impossible to be done in urgent base as it may impacts the already tenuous blood supply of talus increasing the risk of AVN and non union. Percutaneous fracture reduction and fixation can overcome this problem, and decrease complications associated with conventional open reduction and internal fixation. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with talar neck fractures were operated on by percutaneous reduction of fracture and percutaneous fixation with 3.5mm cannulated screws. Injuries were classified according to modified Hawkins classification system. Patients were followed up over an average of 48 months. 87.5% of the patients were satisfied and resumed their preoperative activities. The mean AOFAS Hind Foot Scale was 89.25 points (range: 74-100) and no poor outcomes. Although the number of patients in this study is small, the results showed that, percutaneous reduction and fixation is a good treatment modality in treatment of fracture neck talus, especially in cases with increased risk of soft tissue complications and open reduction should be resort only when percutaneous reduction was failed. Copyright © 2012 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Permanent Temporariness? Changes in Social Contracts in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Rasmussen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sociologists have argued that work no longer plays the central role in contemporary life experience because we have entered an age of insecurity in relation to employment, and knowledge workers are often pictured as egoistical portfolio workers who are only interested in their careers and no longer loyal to their employers. Cappelli (1999 on the other hand argues that more insecure employment relations is a result of employers’ strategy to buy workers rather than offering them long-term relations. Using case studies from seven different knowledge work contexts in Norway, this article argues that more temporary employment relations is not the result of career-seeking portfolio workers, but of changes in employment practices of their employers. These are not primarily changes in the formal employment contracts from permanent to temporary employment, but in the social contracts as they are practiced by the employers and experienced by the knowledge workers in the different contexts of knowledge work. The reason for more temporary relations was not because work does not matter for knowledge workers. On the contrary, we found that they accepted insecure conditions because work mattered and because they were eager to take on new tasks, learn the trade in new fields, and show that they were able to do the job. When they left their employer, it was because they were not able to do a good job in their positions or because they were increasingly directly exposed to an insecure market that signaled that they were not profitable (enough for their employer. Although changes in employment practices by the employers toward more short-term relations are not caused by disloyal portfolio workers, these practices may produce the problem of disloyal workers who have to secure their employment in the labor market.

  6. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13 N, 24 Na and 22 Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N 2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  7. The use of titanium and stainless steel in fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J S; Richards, R G

    2010-11-01

    The use of metal in fracture fixation has demonstrated unrivalled success for many years owing to its high stiffness, strength, biological toleration and overall reliable function. The most prominent materials used are electropolished stainless steel and commercially pure titanium, along with the more recent emergence of titanium alloys. Despite the many differences between electropolished stainless steel and titanium, both materials provide a relatively predictable clinical outcome, and offer similar success for fulfilling the main biomechanical and biological requirements of fracture fixation despite distinctive differences in implant properties and biological responses. This article explores these differences by highlighting the limitations and advantages of both materials, and addresses how this translates to clinical success.

  8. Nitrogen fixation during an unusual summer Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Maren; Dalsgaard, Tage; Fabian, Jenny

    Nitrogen fixation is a major nitrogen source for the open ocean. Also the land-locked, partly anoxic Baltic Sea receives almost as much nitrogen from nitrogen fixation as it receives from eutrophied rivers. Growth conditions for cyanobacteria are usually very favorable with low N/P ratios after...... winter mixing and a strong stratification and high surface temperatures in summer. However, the summer 2012 was quite different with strong winds and cold surface waters. Blooms of cyanobacteria therefore only developed in sheltered regions but not in the central Baltic Proper. Moreover, a greater...

  9. Biological dinitrogen fixation and its economical importance for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozbek, N.; Halitligil, M.B.; Korkmaz, A.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of biological N 2 fixation is of considerable importance and recently AN values of the legume and non-nodulating crop using 1 5N labelled fertilizer were used extensively to estimate the amount of N 2 fixed legume crop growing under field conditions. The objective of this research was to estimate biological N 2 fixation under field conditions using 1 5N labelled fertilizer and growing Calland soybean and corn as the test plants. A field experiment was conducted at Cukurova (Adana) using randomized block design and 4 replications for each treatment. For the both crops 4 nitrogen rates and for soybean 4 inoculation rates were applied. (author)

  10. Aging and the control of binocular fixations during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Kevin B; McGowan, Victoria A; Jordan, Timothy R

    2013-09-01

    Older adults (65 + years) often have greater difficulty in reading than young adults (18-30 years). However, the extent to which this difficulty is attributable to impaired eye-movement control is uncertain. To address this issue, the alignment and location of the two eyes' fixations during reading were monitored for young and older adults. Older adults showed typical patterns of reading difficulty but the results revealed no age differences in the alignment or location of the two eyes' fixations. Thus, the difficulty older adults experience in reading is not related to oculomotor control, which appears to be preserved into older age.

  11. Regenerating 'Østre Havn' - The Everyday of Temporary Use Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Mikkelsen, Jacob Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    for a wide range of temporary uses. These are taking place alongside construction activities. This sets boundaries for the temporary use activities while the proposed future outlined by the municipality and the developer is being established. The question is what happens at the level of the everyday, how...... is the temporary use strategy affecting and shaping the opportunities for the group of temporary use activists to create difference at the site? The article aims at answering this by depicting a real life process over a timespan of two years - mainly from the perspective of the group of temporary use activists....... This will show that ‘temporary use’ activities does not only perform in a strategic space defined by a municipality but in an actual physical place continuously made and renegotiated influenced by a multitude of factors. The article contributes to a discussion on transformation projects towards new futures where...

  12. Borrowed buildings: Canada's temporary hospitals during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A

    1999-01-01

    This article explores the alterations and additions made to houses, colleges, and larger public buildings in their temporary use as convalescent homes for wounded Canadian soldiers during World War I. These ''borrowed buildings'' anticipated and emphasized three important characteristics of subsequent hospital architecture by suggesting that domestic environments enhanced healing, that hospitals should be accessible, and that patients should be segregated according to social status and disease. The broader implications of the study are that temporarily appropriated spaces contribute to the definition of many institutions and often act as arenas of resistance to established practices.

  13. Institutional Logics in Inter-institutional Temporary Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Söderlund, Jonas

    -cognitive, normative, and regulative – are unfolding and evolving in such contexts. The case study addresses the integration and disintegration of logics and normative orders in an ongoing process characterized by the co-mingling, co-existence, creation and resolutions of hybrid logics and creation of institutional...... exceptions throughout the life of the studied temporary organization. In that respect, this paper contributes with a more nuanced view on the evolution, dynamics, and co-existence of pressures from multiple institutional demands at the organizational level....

  14. Centre-of-Gravity Fixations in Visual Search: When Looking at Nothing Helps to Find Something

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Venini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In visual search, some fixations are made between stimuli on empty regions, commonly referred to as “centre-of-gravity” fixations (henceforth: COG fixations. Previous studies have shown that observers with task expertise show more COG fixations than novices. This led to the view that COG fixations reflect simultaneous encoding of multiple stimuli, allowing more efficient processing of task-related items. The present study tested whether COG fixations also aid performance in visual search tasks with unfamiliar and abstract stimuli. Moreover, to provide evidence for the multiple-item processing view, we analysed the effects of COG fixations on the number and dwell times of stimulus fixations. The results showed that (1 search efficiency increased with increasing COG fixations even in search for unfamiliar stimuli and in the absence of special higher-order skills, (2 COG fixations reliably reduced the number of stimulus fixations and their dwell times, indicating processing of multiple distractors, and (3 the proportion of COG fixations was dynamically adapted to potential information gain of COG locations. A second experiment showed that COG fixations are diminished when stimulus positions unpredictably vary across trials. Together, the results support the multiple-item processing view, which has important implications for current theories of visual search.

  15. A cell shrinkage artefact in growth plate chondrocytes with common fixative solutions: importance of fixative osmolarity for maintaining morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Loqman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable increase in chondrocyte volume is a major determinant in the longitudinal growth of mammalian bones. To permit a detailed morphological study of hypertrophic chondrocytes using standard histological techniques, the preservation of normal chondrocyte morphology is essential. We noticed that during fixation of growth plates with conventional fixative solutions, there was a marked morphological (shrinkage artifact, and we postulated that this arose from the hyper-osmotic nature of these solutions. To test this, we fixed proximal tibia growth plates of 7-day-old rat bones in either (a paraformaldehyde (PFA; 4%, (b glutaraldehyde (GA; 2% with PFA (2% with ruthenium hexamine trichloride (RHT; 0.7%, (c GA (2% with RHT (0.7%, or (d GA (1.3% with RHT (0.5% and osmolarity adjusted to a ‘physiological’ level of ~280mOsm. Using conventional histological methods, confocal microscopy, and image analysis on fluorescently-labelled fixed and living chondrocytes, we then quantified the extent of cell shrinkage and volume change. Our data showed that the high osmolarity of conventional fixatives caused a shrinkage artefact to chondrocytes. This was particularly evident when whole bones were fixed, but could be markedly reduced if bones were sagittally bisected prior to fixation. The shrinkage artefact could be avoided by adjusting the osmolarity of the fixatives to the osmotic pressure of normal extracellular fluids (~280mOsm. These results emphasize the importance of fixative osmolarity, in order to accurately preserve the normal volume/morphology of cells within tissues.

  16. [Three-dimensional finite element investigation of lateral mass screw fixation and transarticular screw fixation in lower cervical spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yang; Jin, Anmin; Zhang, Hui; Min, Shaoxiong; Hu, Konghe

    2010-12-01

    To establish sophisticated three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine and reconstruct lower cervical model by different fixation systems after three-column injury, and to research the stress distribution of the internal fixation reconstructed by different techniques. The CT scan deta were obtained from a 27-year-old normal male volunteer. Mimics 10.01, Geomagic Studio10.0, HyperMesh10.0, and Abaqus 6.9.1 softwares were used to obtain the intact model (C3-7), the model after three-column injury, and the models of reconstructing the lower cervical spine after three-column injury through different fixation systems, namely lateral mass screw fixation (LSF) and transarticular screw fixation (TSF). The skull load of 75 N and torsion preload of 1.0 N*m were simulated on the surface of C3. Under conditions of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation, the Von Mises stress distribution regularity of internal fixation system was evaluated. The intact model of C3-7 was successfully established, which consisted of 177 944 elements and 35 668 nodes. The results of the biomechanic study agreed well with the available cadaveric experimental data, suggesting that they were accord with normal human body parameters and could be used in the experimental research. The finite element models of the lower cervical spine reconstruction after three-column injury were established. The stress concentrated on the connection between rod and screw in LSF and on the middle part of screw in TSF. The peak values of Von Mises stress in TSF were higher than those in LSF under all conditions. For the reconstruction of lower cervical spine, TSF has higher risk of screw breakage than LSF.

  17. [Comparison of vacuum bag fixation and Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane fixation for image-guided cervical cancer radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y B; Wang, Y L; Zhuo, Y H

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To compare the difference of displacement between the vacuum bag fixation and the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane fixation of the cervical cancer patients, and to explore the individual fixation of the patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 66 patients diagnosed as cervical cancer in Zhangzhou Municipal Hospital of Fujian Province from December 2014 to April 2016. Among them, 33 patients were fixed with vacuum bag, 33 patients were fixed with the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane. The cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were acquired daily for the first three times of the radiotherapy, followed by once every other day for a total of 15 times. The CBCT scan images were matched with the CT scan images, and the matching results were recorded and analyzed. Results: The absolute value of the displacement in the left and right directions of the vacuum bag group was (0.28±0.30) cm, significantly lower than (0.38±0.46) cm in the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane group( P vacuum bag group was (0.28±0.32) cm, with no significant difference of (0.27±0.23) cm in the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane group ( P =0.580). The absolute value of the displacement in the up and down directions was (0.33±0.60) cm, with no statistically significant difference of (0.27±0.48) cm in the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane group ( P =0.150). During the three times of CBCT scans, the differences of displacement in the left and right directions of the vacuum bag group were negligible, while apparently varied in the anteroposterior and up and down directions, however, the differences were not statistically significant ( P >0.05). The change of the displacement in the three-dimensional direction in the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane group was marginal, and all of the differences were not significant(all P >0.05). Conclusions: Both the vacuum bag fixation and the Orfit rack with thermoplastic membrane fixation

  18. A Novel Fixation System for Acetabular Quadrilateral Plate Fracture: A Comparative Biomechanical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chun Zha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the biomechanical properties of a novel fixation system (named AFRIF and to compare it with other five different fixation techniques for quadrilateral plate fractures. This in vitro biomechanical experiment has shown that the multidirectional titanium fixation (MTF and pelvic brim long screws fixation (PBSF provided the strongest fixation for quadrilateral plate fracture; the better biomechanical performance of the AFRIF compared with the T-shaped plate fixation (TPF, L-shaped plate fixation (LPF, and H-shaped plate fixation (HPF; AFRIF gives reasonable stability of treatment for quadrilateral plate fracture and may offer a better solution for comminuted quadrilateral plate fractures or free floating medial wall fracture and be reliable in preventing protrusion of femoral head.

  19. Utilization of a Technique of Percutaneous S2 Alar-Iliac Fixation in Immunocompromised Patients with Spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funao, Haruki; Kebaish, Khaled M; Isogai, Norihiro; Koyanagi, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Spondylodiscitis still remains a serious problem, especially in immunocompromised patients. Surgery is necessary when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. Although minimally invasive spine stabilization (MISt) with percutaneous pedicle screws is less invasive, percutaneous sacropelvic fixation techniques are not common practice. Here, we describe 2 cases in which spondylodiscitis in the lumbosacral spine was treated with percutaneous stabilization using an S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw technique. Case 1 is a 77-year-old man who presented with low back pain and high fever. He was diagnosed with spondylodiscitis at L4-5. He had a history of lung cancer, which was complicated by the recurrence. Because nonsurgical treatment failed, MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws was performed. The patient's low back pain subsided markedly 1 week after surgery, and there was no screw/rod breakage or recurrence of infection during the follow-up period. Case 2 is a 71-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis because of a stroke. He also developed high fever and was diagnosed with spondylodiscitis at L5-S1. Because nonsurgical treatment failed, the patient was treated by MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws while being maintained on anticoagulants for stroke. Although his clinical symptoms had markedly improved, a postoperative lumbar computed tomography scan demonstrated a bone defect at L5-S1. An anterior spinal fusion with an iliac bone graft at L5-S1 was performed when a temporary cessation of anticoagulants was permitted. Both patients tolerated the procedures well and had no major perioperative complications. MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws was less invasive and efficacious for lumbosacral spondylodiscitis in providing rigid percutaneous sacropelvic fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microleakage of different temporary filling materials in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabas, Mesut Enes; Tulunoglu, Ozlem; Ozalp, Serife Ozdemir; Bodur, Haluk

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sealing properties of IRM, Coltosol, Cavit G, Adhesor and Clip, which used as temporary filling material in coronal access openings in extracted human primary teeth. Standardized access cavities of 2 x 2 mm were prepared in the eighty-four, caries-free human primary anterior teeth. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 16 teeth each. Temporary restorative materials Group A: IRM (Dentsply), Group B: Coltosol (Coltone), Group C: Cavit G (3M), Group D: Adhesor (Spofa Dental) and Group E: Clip (Voco) were applied according to the manufacturer's directions. The specimens were immersed silver nitrate and placed in film developer under fluorescent for 24 hours. The sectioned specimens were evaluated under a digital microscope at x 20 magnifications and blindly scored for microleakage. Clip presented the least microleakage value whereas; Adhesor and IRM presented the higher microleakage values. There were statistically significant differences between Clip and the others groups, while there were no statistically significant differences in microleakage between IRM, Adhesor, Coltosol and Cavit G. However the leakage scores of Clip and Cavit G were congruent (p = 0.454). Amongst the five materials, Clip exhibited a better sealing ability.

  1. In Vitro Studies of Temporary Vena Cava Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorch, Heike; Zwaan, Martin; Kulke, Christian; Weiss, Hans-Dieter

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clot trapping capacity of different temporary vena cava filters in a vena cava model. Methods: A vena cava flow model was built using PVC tubing, a hemodialysis membrane and a pulsatile pump. Blood was imitated by a Dextran 40 solution. Five different temporary vena cava filters and two prototypes were tested using human thrombi. The mechanism of clot capture was observed. Results: Decreasing rank order according to decreasing percentage of clots captured for the 21-mm diameter vena cava model was Cook (C) > Angiocor (A) > Cordis (CD) > Antheor (TF-6) > DIL for thrombi with a diameter of 3 mm and A > C > CD > TF-6 > DIL for 5-mm thrombi. In a cava with diameter of 28 mm, decreasing rank order was C > CD = A > TF-6 > DIL and C > CD = A > DIL > TF-6 for 3- and 5-mm thrombi, respectively. Two new prototypes, the TF-8 and TF-10 filters, achieved better results than the TF-6 filter and were in most conditions comparable to the A and CD filters. In most cases, thrombi were trapped between filter and cava wall. Conclusion: The vena cava flow model demonstrates significant differences in rates of clot capture (range 22%-98%) depending on cava diameter, thrombus size, and filter type

  2. Temporary amygdala inhibition reduces stress effects in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jila Rezaeian Dalooei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the effect of temporary inhibition of amygdala in response to metabolic changes caused by stress in female mice. Unilateral and bilateral amygdala cannulation was carried out, and after a week of recovery, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride was injected into the mice amygdalae five minutes before the induction of stress. A communication box was employed to induce stress for four consecutive days and plasma corticosterone, food and water intake, weight changes, and anorexia were measured as stress-induced metabolic changes. Results demonstrated that stress, increases stress, increased plasma corticosterone concentrations, weight, food, and water intake. Temporary inhibition of the amygdala slightly decreased plasma corticosterone concentrations, but did not fully reduce the effect of stress. The bilateral injection of lidocaine hydrochloride to the amygdala reduced the effect of stress and reduced water intake and weight. Unilateral injection of lidocaine hydrochloride into the left and right amygdala reduced food intake. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the left side and right side of amygdala nuclei play a different role in metabolic responses in stress.

  3. The profound precariousness of work through temporary work agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Emilia Marica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of atypical work contracts in the field of industry relationships, as part of a major European trend towards gaining more flexibility in the labour market, is significant and cannot be overlooked in most member countries of the European Union. This finding is corroborated by the recent surveys conducted across Europe, that reveal the prevalence of these flexible ways of organizing work, over the archetypal template of the individual work contract. However, this range of atypical contractual arrangements and the great number of versions and subcategories they include, are describing a number of negative features that seem to characterize these new forms of employment. Since the field of atypical employment is complex and we cannot analyse the incidence of these negative effects for all the atypical methods of employment, in the following article we will limit ourselves to explore the pressing issues related to the system of temporary work through work agencies. As we shall see, all aspects of the salary field, of health and safety at work and the level of insecurity and instability of labour through temporary work agency reveals a strong character associated with this kind of precarious employment.

  4. Temporary work and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Kim, T-H; Lee, T-H; Ju, Y J; Chun, S Y; Park, E-C

    2017-08-01

    In many countries, including South Korea, labour market changes have led to an increase in unstable, temporary jobs. There is evidence that workers in such jobs may experience poorer mental health than those in more stable employment. To investigate the association between temporary employment and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers. We analysed data from the 2010-2014 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS). Employment type was categorized into workers paid per day of labour (day labourers), those on short-term contracts (fixed-term workers) and permanent workers. The association between employment type and depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D 11), was examined using the generalized estimating equation model. A total of 3756 workers aged 20-59 were included in the 2010 baseline population. Day labourers had the highest mean CES-D 11 score, followed by fixed-term workers and permanent workers. With the day labourer group as reference, fixed-term workers (β: -1.5027, P < 0.001) and permanent workers (β: -2.1848, P < 0.001) showed statistically significant decreases in depression scores. Compared with day labourers, fixed-term workers and permanent workers had progressively lower depression scores. The findings of this study suggest that mental health inequalities based on employment type exist in South Korea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  6. Complications of internal fixation of maxillofacial fractures with microplates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Bos, RRM; Vissink, A

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the complications of open reduction and internal fixation of maxillofacial fractures with microplates. Patients and Methods: In 44 patients with maxillofacial trauma, fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton were treated by open reduction

  7. Resorbable screws for fixation of autologous bone grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RSB; Bos, RRM; van der Wal, JE; Vissink, A

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of resorbable screws made of poly (D,L-lactide) acid (PDLLA) for fixation of autologous bone grafts related to graft regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants. In eight edentulous patients suffering from insufficient retention of their

  8. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fast bone healing, to avoid postoperative intermaxillary fixation, and to initiate early postoperative mandibular function and oral hygiene. Postoperative skeletal ..... torsion on the condyle, and less risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury. It is particularly advantageous in larger advancements where proximal and distal overlap is ...

  9. The clinical outcome of lateral mass fixation after decompressive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral mass cervical fixation is the technique of choice for posterior cervical stabilization of the lower cervical spine in the cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. It is used for patients who had extensive, multiple-level laminectomies with reversed cervical lordosis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  10. Intramedullary fixation of boxer's fractures: evaluation of functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Material and methods: Between May 2005 and January 2006, 42 patients (40 men and 02 female) with 42 displaced fifth metacarpal neck fractures were treated at out institution by closed intramedullary Kirschner wires fixation. The assessment of patients was based on the time to union, the functional recovery and the ...

  11. Ad gist : Ad communication in a single eye fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.; Wedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most ads in practice receive no more than a single eye fixation. This study investigates the limits of what ads can communicate under such adverse exposure conditions. We find that consumers already know at maximum levels of accuracy and with high degree of certainty whether something is an ad or is

  12. SIGN HIP construct: Achieving hip fracture fixation without using an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the 6 week follow-up, there was 1 (1.5%) case of infection and 8 (11.8%) cases of varus collapse. Conclusion: Using the SIGN Hip Construct, hip fracture fixation can be achieved safely without an image intensifier. This implant may be a good alternative in developing countries where access to fluoroscopy is limited or ...

  13. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activity of Azotobacter chroococcum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brotonegoro, S.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effect of some chemical, physical and biological factors on growth, efficiency of nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activity of Azotobacter chroococcum.

    From biochemical studies with cell-free

  14. Idea representation and elaboration in design inspiration and fixation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos, Luis A.; Neroni, Maria A.; Coimbra Cardoso, C.M.; Crilly, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Design fixation experiments often report that participants exposed to an example solution generate fewer ideas than those who were not. This reduced ‘idea fluency’ is generally explained as participants’ creativity being constrained by the example they have seen. However, the inclusion of an example

  15. Bone compaction enhances fixation of weightbearing titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, Søren Vedding; Rahbek, Ole; Vestermark, Marianne Toft

    2005-01-01

    are weightbearing, the effects of compaction on weightbearing implants were examined. The hypothesis was that compaction would increase implant fixation compared with conventional drilling. Porous-coated titanium implants were inserted bilaterally into the weightbearing portion of the femoral condyles of dogs...

  16. [Complex reconstruction with internal locking plate fixation for Charcot arthropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, F; Härägus, H; Radu, P; Trieb, K; Hofstaetter, S

    2015-01-01

    Osteosynthesis and reposition of the Charcot foot is challenging with respect to choice of a proper implant. There is currently no international consensus regarding the optimal implant. Locking plates seem to be an innovative and stable method for reconstruction. The aim of this work is to analyze bone fusion, complications, pseudoarthrosis, and patient satisfaction. This paper presents a retrospective analysis of 63 consecutive Charcot feet treated between 2004 and 2014. The mean follow-up time was 2.4 years. All Charcot feet treated between 2004 and 2014 were Sanders type II or III. A bony fusion was achieved in 50 % of the cases, 26 % had a functional pseudoarthrosis with intact implants and pain-free mobility, and 22 % showed no healing with broken implants. Conclusion Internal fixation with locking plates is superior to screw fixation only with regard to biomechanics. We prefer internal fixation plates to external fixation because of stability even in the case of pseudoathrosis and because of the learning curve.

  17. Biological nitrogen fixation in Crotalaria species estimated using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to measure nitrogen fixation in three Crotalaria species : C. ochroleuca, C. perrottetii and C. retusa growing in Senegal by using 15N direct isotope dilution technique. Two non-fixing plants, Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis served as reference plants. The amount of ...

  18. Ender’s Nail fixation in paediatric femoral shaft fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Dwivedi

    2013-12-01

    Flynn criteria 34 had excellent and 6 had satisfactory results. No poor results were seen. Conclusion: Ender’s nail fixation can be preferred method of treatment for femoral shaft fractures in age group 5 -15 years as the results are excellent and satisfactory. It is technically simple and can be done in a closed manner. It spares the vascularity and growth plate.

  19. Evaluation of potassium release and fixation behaviour of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28.14 cmol kg-1) than under “wet-and-dry”-condition (5.63-14.33 cmol kg-1), representing 24.60-56.28% and 11.26-28.66% of fertilizer-K added. The fixation data obtained under “wet-and-dry”-condition, however, reflected K dynamics is the soils ...

  20. Percutaneous Pin Fixation of Gartland Type I11 Supraconylar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a prospective study of 40 children with severely displaced (Gartland Type 111) supracondylar fractures of the humerus treated by lateral percutaneous pin fixation together with a 'figure of eight' plaster casting. Their mean age was 6.9 years, the mean follow up was 2 years/. Eighteen (45%) of the patients had ...

  1. Estimates of biological nitrogen fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation by Pterocarpus lucens in a natural semi arid ecosystem, in Ferlo, Senegal was estimated using 15N natural abundance (15N) procedure. Other non-fixing trees accompanying P. lucens in the same area were also investigated as control. Results showed an important variation of 15N in leaves between ...

  2. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mamadou Gueye

    Nodulation and nitrogen fixation of field grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as influenced by fungicide seed treatment. Ndeye Fatou Diaw GUENE, Adama DIOUF and Mamadou GUEYE*. MIRCEN/ Laboratoire commun de microbiologie IRD-ISRA-UCAD, BP 1386, DAKAR, Senegal. Accepted 23 June 2003.

  3. Eco-physiological responses and symbiotic nitrogen fixation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-11-01

    Nov 1, 2010 ... Nitrogen nutrition of Hedysarum carnosum, a pastoral legume common in Tunisian central and southern rangelands ... Despite the fact that Na+ accumulation decreased plant growth, both nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation capacity of H. ... of the symbiotic interaction as well as nodule development.

  4. Percutaneous Pin Fixation of Gartland Type I11 Supraconylar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S G Lungu M.Med (Orth). Specialist Orthopaedic Surgeon. Zambian Italian Orthopaedic Hospital, Lusaka. Key words: Percutaneous, pin fixation, Gartland type Ill, supracondylar, fractures, and humerus. This was a prospective study of 40 children with severely displaced (Gartland Type 111) supracondylar fractures of the ...

  5. Comparison of internal fixation techniques in metacarpal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D; Mann, R J; Constine, R; Daniels, A U

    1985-07-01

    A biomechanical study assessed quantitative differences in the stability that was obtained by five commonly used types of internal fixation employed in metacarpal fractures. The techniques included dorsal plating, dorsal plating combined with an interfragmentary lag screw, crossed Kirschner wires, a single intraosseous wire combined with a single oblique Kirschner wire, and a single intraosseous wire alone. Rigidity and strength in torsion and bending were determined after transverse osteotomy and fixation of the metacarpal were performed. The failure modes for each fixation technique were also observed and described. Significant differences in rigidity were found between the plated configurations (with or without an interfragmentary lag screw) and the wired configurations in both apex dorsal bending and axial torsion. The three wired configurations were not significantly different from each other except in torsion. Analysis of the bending moments that were required to produce both yield and failure in apex dorsal bending and also the energy absorbed to yield showed similar disparity between plated and wired techniques. For metacarpal fixation, dorsal plating with or without lag screws provides significantly more stability than do wired techniques and approaches that provided by intact bones.

  6. Carbon dioxide fixation by cells of Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, R C; Hartman, R E

    1970-10-01

    Fixation of NaH(14)CO(3) by a heavy cell suspension of Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens was studied. Several nutrients, pyridoxal, riboflavine, adenine, uracil, and O(2) stimulated (14)CO(2) incorporation into cells only under conditions that were adequate for synthesis of cell macromolecules. Biotin increased CO(2) incorporation in the absence of extensive synthesis of macromolecules, whereas O(2) inhibited incorporation under these conditions. When (14)CO(2) fixation was occurring during synthesis of macromolecules, 71% of the (14)C was incorporated into cells and 29% occurred extracellularly. Ninety-three per cent of the cellular (14)C was in protein and 5.5% was in nucleic acid. Aspartic acid was the only amino acid in the protein fraction that was radioactive. Eighty-three per cent of the extracellular (14)C was resistant to precipitation by trichloroacetic acid. When (14)CO(2) fixation was occurring in cells that were not carrying on extensive synthesis of macromolecules, 38% of the (14)C was incorporated into cells and 59% occurred in the supernatant fluid. Sixty-nine per cent of the cellular (14)C was in protein, 21% was in low-molecular-weight compounds, and 9% was in nucleic acid. Addition of unlabeled aspartate to the medium inhibited incorporation of (14)CO(2). Based on studies of the rate of (14)CO(2) fixation, the cells fix CO(2) into a pool of intermediates which are either used for synthesis, primarily protein, or are excreted into the medium.

  7. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  8. N-2 fixation by non-heterocystous cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, B.; Gallon, J.R.; Rai, A.N.; Stal, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Many, though not all, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria can fix N-2. However, very few strains can fix N-2 aerobically. Nevertheless, these organisms may make a substantial contribution to the global nitrogen cycle. In this general review, N-2 fixation by laboratory cultures and natural populations of

  9. Nitrogen fixation and nodulation of soybean as affected by rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the efficacy of different adhesives added to rhizobial seed inoculum on soybean nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation in a screen house and under field conditions. The experiment was a 6×3 factorial arranged in Completely Randomized Design and Randomized Complete Block Design for the pot ...

  10. Results of Lateral Condylar Blade Plate Fixation of Supracondylar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concerns about operative stabilization of supracondylar femoral fractures are complications, especially hardware infection and disturbance of normal knee function. We reviewed the results of operative fixation of supracondylar femoral fractures using the lateral condylar blade plate device in our centre.

  11. Single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarangumeli, Alper; Alp, Mehmet Numan; Kural, Gulcan

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the results of single-suture scleral fixation of subluxated foldable intraocular lenses (IOL) in eyes with sufficient residual capsular support. The results of IOL repositioning by single-suture scleral fixation in 6 eyes of 6 patients with IOL subluxation were included. All subluxated IOLs were single-piece hydrophilic acrylic. Subluxation resulted from posterior capsule tears in 3 eyes, zonular dialyses in 2 eyes, and zonular dialysis with a capsulorhexis tear in 1 eye. A similar technique was used in all eyes in which one haptic was externalized through a superior clear corneal incision and tied with a Pair-PAK 10-0 polypropylene suture, and was finally retracted and fixated behind the iris close to the ciliary sulcus at the 12:00 meridian. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuities ranged between finger counting and 20/70 (mean logMAR 1.02±0.64) preoperatively, and between 20/100 and 20/20 (mean logMAR 0.22±0.26) at the final postoperative visit. All IOLs remained centered and no significant postoperative complications were encountered except for an IOL tilt which resulted in a considerable oblique astigmatism in one eye. Subluxated foldable IOLs may safely be repositioned and secured with a single scleral fixation suture in selected cases with adequate amount of capsular remnants.

  12. Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA), incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%), 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%), and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method. PMID:23050659

  13. Intermediate results of sutureless intrascleral posterior chamber intraocular lens fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharioth, Gabor B; Prasad, Som; Georgalas, Ilias; Tataru, Calin; Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2010-02-01

    To report the intermediate multicenter results of a technique of sutureless intrascleral fixation of a standard 3-piece posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) in the ciliary sulcus. Four European ophthalmology centers. A technique for sutureless intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a standard 3-piece PC IOL was retrospectively evaluated. The technique uses standardized maneuvers to fixate the PC IOL without need for special haptic architecture or preparation or haptic suturing. All patients having IOL implantation by the technique were evaluated for preoperative status (visual acuity, refractive error, preexisting ocular conditions, optical biometry), postoperative status, complications, and need for further surgery. The study evaluated 63 consecutive patients from 4 institutions (4 surgeons). The median follow-up was 7 months. Two dislocated PC IOLs (3.6%) were decentered; the other 61 IOLs (96.8%) were stable and well centered. There were no cases of recurrent dislocation, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, or glaucoma. Fixation of PC IOL haptics in a limbus-parallel scleral tunnel provided exact centration and axial stability of the IOL and prevented distortion and subluxation in most cases. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. All rights reserved.

  14. Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Rojas Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA, incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%, 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%, and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method.

  15. Cyanobacteria Occurrence and Nitrogen Fixation Rates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence and biological nitrogen fixation rates of epiphytic and benthic diazotrophs were studied in seagrass meadows at sites with seaweed farms and at a control site without seaweed farms from two locations, Chwaka Bay and Jambiani, along the east coast of. Zanzibar. Ten species of cyanobacteria were ...

  16. Biological nitrogen fixation and habitat of running buffalo clover

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Morris; V.S. Baligar; T.M. Schuler; P.J. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    Running buffalo clover (RBC) [Trifolium stoloniferum (Muhl. ex Eat.)] is an endangered species whose survival is uncertain. An experiment was conducted on extant RBC sites to investigate biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, associated plant species, and soil conditions under natural mountain settings. Isotope (15...

  17. Aetiology and Patterns of Implant Failure Following Fracture Fixation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Implant failure is traumatic for patient as it increases the cost of treatment and may negatively affect the confidence of patients in the superior outcome of operatively treated fractures. Hence the objectives for this study were to determine the proportion of implant fixations that fail, types and causes of implant ...

  18. Combining bisphosphonates with allograft bone for implant fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, N.M.C.; Buma, P.; Hannink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to discuss the current state of research of combining bisphosphonates with allograft bone for implant fixation. The allograft bone can only be reached by the bisphosphonate once it has been revascularized. However, this can be circumvented by local administration of

  19. EARLY WEIGHT-BEARING AFTER ANKLE FRACTURE FIXATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In early 2006 during AO-scholarship training at Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem, I witnessed patients being walked on the same day after fixation of ankle fractures. This was contrary to my original teaching of protected non-weight bearing for six weeks. Literature review in this subject was inconclusive.

  20. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer on Nitrogen Fixation by Some Grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    made by Weber (1996) that in the Northern. Guinea Savanna of Nigeria, legumes require about 30 kgPha-1 for optimal growth and N2- fixation. However, higher rate of the P (40 kgha-1) was used in this study because of the lower P level in the Sudan Savannah soils than that of Guinea Savannah coupled with continuous ...

  1. Variability in olecranon AO fracture fixation: A radiological study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tension Band Wire(TBW) fixation of olecranon fracture is a commonly used technique by orthopaedic surgeons. However surgeons do not strictly adhere to the AO standard. Objectives: To determine the use and variability of this technique by surgeons at the hospital. Design: A hospital based retrospective ...

  2. Functional Outcome of Internal Fixation of Radial and Ulna Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehrdad Mansouri

    2006-02-01

    Conclusion: Anatomic reduction and internal fixation is the standard method for treatment of fractures by displacing radios and ulna in adults. According to results, it seems more intension to motions specially pronation and muscle strengthening foream after surgery will have affect on improving patients’ function specially pronation and Grip strength.

  3. Percutaneous reduction and fixation of intraarticular calcaneal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); I.B. Schipper (Inger); P. Patka (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Percutaneous reduction by distraction and subsequent percutaneous screw fixation to restore calcaneal and posterior talocalcaneal facet anatomy. The aim of this technique is to improve functional outcome and to diminish the rate of secondary posttraumatic arthrosis compared to

  4. Densitometric comparison of 3 occipital regions for suitability of fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Chandan; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Gaudin, Daniel P; Crawford, Neil R

    2016-04-01

    Atlantooccipital fixation is an important technique in the treatment of upper cervical spine instability. Important considerations for implant devices are obtrusiveness and propagation of torque through the device caused by cervical rotation. The authors evaluated the feasibility of 3 regions of the occiput as sites for occipitocervical fixation by examining bone mineral density at these locations. Unembalmed occiputs of 9 male and 4 female cadavers were used (mean age at time of death was 61.6 years, range 36-68 years). Studies were undertaken using caliper measurements and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the superior nuchal line (SNL), the external occipital protuberance (EOP), and the inferior nuchal line (INL). Data indicate that the bone at the INL has a similar volumetric bone density as the bone at the SNL, despite having half the thickness. Also, the volumetric bone density increases laterally along the nuchal lines. Most hardware fixation is centered on stabilization at the EOP and the SNL. On the basis of these radiological results, the INL shows promise as a potential alternative site for screw placement in occipitocervical fixation.

  5. Adaptation and fixation in entrepreneurial approaches of a dental laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M. Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: The study described how the dental laboratory adapted its entrepreneurial approaches over time in response to critical changes that occurred and how aspects in the managerial approach became fixated and proved to be essential to success. Motivation for the study: The study provided insight into how the dental laboratory transformed into a stable and prosperous laboratory by the integration of strategic, economic, cultural and social capital through a process of business decision making. Research design, approach and method: A cohort survey research design, based upon the compilation of longitudinal data over three selected time periods, was employed. The design of the measuring instruments and the interpretation of research results were derived from an adapted entrepreneurial-in-network theoretical framework. A triangulation data compilation approach was followed. Main findings: The results revealed that cultural capital in the dental laboratory became fixated on three value principles, whilst the other critical capitals prescribed exist in sufficient volumes and improve to adapt to changing circumstances in the dental market. Practical/managerial implications: Fixated cultural values acted as a ‘parent’-actor in order to guide the righteousness of behaviour, whereas adaptation required sufficient critical capitals and the proper integration thereof. Contribution/value-added: By adopting the entrepreneurship-in-network approach, the researchers incorporated the dynamic and interactive processes of entrepreneurship. Future studies may employ the same design and use multi-varied analyses to show how a business adapt or fixate its approaches in response to crises or changes in the business environment.

  6. On the relationship between C and N fixation in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Molero Milán, Gemma; Tcherkez, G.; Araus Ortega, José Luis; Nogués Mestres, Salvador; Aranjuelo Michelena, Iker

    2014-01-01

    Legumes such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are vital N2-fixing crops accounting for a global N2 fixation of ~35 MtNyear-1. Although enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of nodule N2 fixation are now well documented, some uncertainty remains as to whether N2 fixation is strictly coupled with photosynthetic carbon fixation. That is, the metabolic origin and redistribution of carbon skeletons used to incorporate nitrogen are still relatively undefined. Here, we conducted isotopic labelling with ...

  7. All-Suture Transosseous Repair for Rotator Cuff Tear Fixation Using Medial Calcar Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramberri-Gutiérrez, Mikel; Martínez-Menduiña, Amaia; Valencia-Mora, María; Boyle, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We describe an all-suture transosseous repair technique used in the management of rotator cuff tears by means of an all-suture anchor secured on the intra-articular side of the humeral calcar. The technique uses an anterior cruciate ligament guide to ensure accurate positioning of the tunnels, avoiding the articular cartilage and minimizing risk to the neurovascular structures. The distal end of the guide is inserted through a rotator interval portal and passed down to the axillary pouch. The proximal end of the guide is approximated to the greater tuberosity at the cuff footprint, and a complete transosseous tunnel is created with a 2.4-mm drill. An all-suture implant is inserted through this tunnel down to the calcar, and its deployment is visualized under arthroscopy. Gentle traction is applied to the anchor, resulting in a 4-mm concertina of the suture anchor that rests opposed to the medial cortex. The major advantage of this technique is the fixation strength gained from the biomechanically superior cortical bone of the calcar. Furthermore, this method permits greater preservation of bone surface area at the level of the footprint for a larger tendon-to-bone healing surface. This technique also provides an excellent alternative in revision situations. PMID:26052495

  8. Pin tract infection after uniplanar external fixation of open fractures at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pin tract infection after uniplanar external fixation of open fractures at a national, teaching and referral hospital. ... Background: Pin tract infection is the most common complication of external fixation accounting for 43% of complications. The presence of a pin tract infection leads to subsequent pin loosening and fixation ...

  9. Look Here but Ignore What You See: Effects of Distractors at Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Diane M; Lavie, Nilli

    2005-01-01

    Distractor interference effects were compared between distractors in the periphery and those placed at fixation. In 6 experiments, the authors show that fixation distractors produce larger interference effects than peripheral distractors. However, the fixation distractor effects are modulated by perceptual load to the same extent as are peripheral…

  10. Biomechanical evaluation of fixation of comminuted olecranon fractures: one-third tubular versus locking compression plating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, G.A.; Blankevoort, L.; Tuijthof, G.J.M.; Sierevelt, I.N.; Kloen, P.

    2010-01-01

    New concepts in plate fixation have led to an evolution in plate design for olecranon fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the stiffness and strength of locking compression plate (LCP) fixation to one-third tubular plate fixation in a cadaveric comminuted olecranon fracture model with

  11. Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhava RJ Satish

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Closed reduction and cannulated cancellous screw fixation gives satisfactory functional results in large group of elderly patients. The four quadrant parallel peripheral (FQPP screw fixation technique gives good stability, allows controlled collapse, avoids fixation failure and achieves predictable bone healing in displaced femoral neck fracture in patients ≥50 years of age.

  12. Ethanol-Glycerin Fixation with Thymol Conservation: A Potential Alternative to Formaldehyde and Phenol Embalming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Loffler, Sabine; Feja, Christine; Sandrock, Mara; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bechmann, Ingo; Steinke, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical fixation and conservation are required to prevent specimens from undergoing autolysis and decomposition. While fixation is the primary arrest of the structures responsible for autolysis and decomposition, conservation preserves the state of fixation. Although commonly used, formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. For…

  13. Surgical treatment of neglected clubfoot using external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo Mota Pacheco; Mendes, Maurilio Darcy Dos Santos; Amorim, Renato; Preti, Marcus Aurélio; Sternick, Marcelo Back; Gaiarsa, Guilherme Pelosini

    2016-01-01

    The definition of neglected clubfoot (NC) includes a variable range of complex deformities of the foot that are refractory to conventional treatments or are treated inappropriately. Several etiologies may be related to this. The Ilizarov method has become established as a tool for treating these deformities. It minimizes soft-tissue damage through gradual correction of the deformity, with a high success rate in relation to achieving a plantigrade foot, with low incidence of recurrence. The indications for treatment include severe rigid deformities (Dimeglio III and IV), or adverse skin conditions. Careful clinical and radiological examination is fundamental for proper planning and installation of the external fixator. The techniques used include selection of external fixation assemblies, which can be closed when there is a connection between the leg, hindfoot and forefoot. This closed assembly may or may not be constricted, according to whether hinges are provided or whether use of the natural anatomical hinges during correction of the deformity is envisaged. An open assembly makes it possible to add flexibility to the foot through histogenesis, while allowing closed corrections of greater precision later on. Hexapod fixators are an innovation with high potential for accuracy in correcting deformities. Procedures associated with external fixation include soft-tissue release and bone procedures. These procedures enable corrections that are more anatomical, for different degrees of severity and stiffness of deformity. It can be concluded from analyzing this case series that treatment of neglected clubfoot using an external fixator has a high rate of good and excellent results, with low frequency of complications.

  14. Surgical treatment of neglected clubfoot using external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mota Pacheco Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The definition of neglected clubfoot (NC includes a variable range of complex deformities of the foot that are refractory to conventional treatments or are treated inappropriately. Several etiologies may be related to this. The Ilizarov method has become established as a tool for treating these deformities. It minimizes soft-tissue damage through gradual correction of the deformity, with a high success rate in relation to achieving a plantigrade foot, with low incidence of recurrence. The indications for treatment include severe rigid deformities (Dimeglio III and IV, or adverse skin conditions. Careful clinical and radiological examination is fundamental for proper planning and installation of the external fixator. The techniques used include selection of external fixation assemblies, which can be closed when there is a connection between the leg, hindfoot and forefoot. This closed assembly may or may not be constricted, according to whether hinges are provided or whether use of the natural anatomical hinges during correction of the deformity is envisaged. An open assembly makes it possible to add flexibility to the foot through histogenesis, while allowing closed corrections of greater precision later on. Hexapod fixators are an innovation with high potential for accuracy in correcting deformities. Procedures associated with external fixation include soft-tissue release and bone procedures. These procedures enable corrections that are more anatomical, for different degrees of severity and stiffness of deformity. It can be concluded from analyzing this case series that treatment of neglected clubfoot using an external fixator has a high rate of good and excellent results, with low frequency of complications.

  15. Changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation controlled by ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Marietta; Sigman, Daniel M; Ren, Haojia; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Meckler, A Nele; Hain, Mathis P; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-09-12

    In the ocean, the chemical forms of nitrogen that are readily available for biological use (known collectively as 'fixed' nitrogen) fuel the global phytoplankton productivity that exports carbon to the deep ocean. Accordingly, variation in the oceanic fixed nitrogen reservoir has been proposed as a cause of glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Marine nitrogen fixation, which produces most of the ocean's fixed nitrogen, is thought to be affected by multiple factors, including ocean temperature and the availability of iron and phosphorus. Here we reconstruct changes in North Atlantic nitrogen fixation over the past 160,000 years from the shell-bound nitrogen isotope ratio ((15)N/(14)N) of planktonic foraminifera in Caribbean Sea sediments. The observed changes cannot be explained by reconstructed changes in temperature, the supply of (iron-bearing) dust or water column denitrification. We identify a strong, roughly 23,000-year cycle in nitrogen fixation and suggest that it is a response to orbitally driven changes in equatorial Atlantic upwelling, which imports 'excess' phosphorus (phosphorus in stoichiometric excess of fixed nitrogen) into the tropical North Atlantic surface. In addition, we find that nitrogen fixation was reduced during glacial stages 6 and 4, when North Atlantic Deep Water had shoaled to become glacial North Atlantic intermediate water, which isolated the Atlantic thermocline from excess phosphorus-rich mid-depth waters that today enter from the Southern Ocean. Although modern studies have yielded diverse views of the controls on nitrogen fixation, our palaeobiogeochemical data suggest that excess phosphorus is the master variable in the North Atlantic Ocean and indicate that the variations in its supply over the most recent glacial cycle were dominated by the response of regional ocean circulation to the orbital cycles.

  16. Early Onset Sixth-Nerve Palsy with Eccentric Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kaajal D; Lacey, Eve; Liasis, Alki; Nischal, Ken K

    2017-01-01

    To report four cases of early onset sixth-nerve palsy all of whom had eccentric fixation. A retrospective case note review was undertaken of all cases presenting to the senior author's private and NHS practice with early onset sixth palsy between 2006 and 2012. As well as demographic information, details of ophthalmic, orthoptic, electrophysiological examinations, and radiological investigations that were extracted from the records. Four children with unilateral or asymmetric early onset sixth-nerve palsy were identified, of which three were congenital. All four had MRI and only one had a normal MRI. Age at presentation ranged from 14-42 months, but all four had marked esotropia and poor visual acuities in the worst affected eye with eccentric fixation, which became more easily or only noticeable after surgical correction. Three patients with congenital sixth-nerve palsy underwent vertical muscle transposition with Botulinum Toxin A (BTXA) to the ipsilateral medial rectus, and two of these patients also had Foster sutures to the transposed vertical muscles. The fourth patient had unilateral medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection. The mean preoperative measurement was 55 Δ ET (range 50-60 Δ ), and the mean postoperative measurement was 11 Δ ET (range 16XT-25ET) at near, and 2 Δ XT (range 15XT-14ET) at distance. We speculate that early onset paralytic strabismus due to congenital sixth-nerve palsy results in an inability to cross fixate which results in the development of eccentric fixation. Attempts to use reverse occlusion to negate the eccentric fixation failed. We therefore recommend early surgery for this condition to avoid this sequelae. © 2017 Board of regents of the University of Wisconsin System, American Orthoptic Journal, Volume 67, 2017, ISSN 0065-955X, E-ISSN 1553-4448.

  17. Flanged Intrascleral Intraocular Lens Fixation with Double-Needle Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Shin; Sato, Shimpei; Maruyama-Inoue, Maiko; Kadonosono, Kazuaki

    2017-08-01

    To report the clinical outcomes of a new technique for transconjunctival intrascleral fixation of an intraocular lens (IOL). Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. One hundred eyes of 97 consecutive patients with aphakia, dislocated IOL, or subluxated crystalline lens who underwent posterior chamber sutureless implantation of an IOL were studied. Two angled incisions parallel to the limbus were made by 30-gauge thin-wall needles. Haptics of an IOL were externalized with the needles and cauterized to make a flange of the haptics. The flange of the haptics were pushed back and fixed into the scleral tunnels. Best-corrected visual acuity (VA), corneal endothelial cell density, IOL tilt, and complications were determined. The IOLs were fixed with exact centration and axial stability. The mean preoperative best-corrected VA was 0.25 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units; after surgery, it improved significantly to 0.11 logMAR, 0.09 logMAR, 0.12 logMAR, and 0.04 logMAR at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively (P IOL tilt was 3.4°±2.5°. The postoperative complications included iris capture by the IOL in 8 eyes (8%), vitreous hemorrhage in 5 eyes (5%), and cystoid macular edema in 1 eye (1%). There were no incidents of postoperative retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, or IOL dislocation. We have developed a new technique for intrascleral IOL fixation. The flanged IOL fixation technique is a simple and minimally invasive method for achieving good IOL fixation with firm haptic fixation. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a fixation target on torsional optokinetic nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Shinmei, Y; Nara, H; Ifukube, T

    2000-09-01

    To investigate the effects of an imaginary and a visual target on torsional optokinetic nystagmus (tOKN) and directional symmetry of tOKN. Torsional OKN was induced by a rotating random dot pattern (52 degrees in diameter, constant angular velocity: +/-30 deg/sec to +/-52 deg/sec) with an imaginary or a visual target in 11 eyes of 10 healthy humans by dual-search coil methods. Intorsional OKN and extorsional OKN were symmetrical in their slow-phase gain. The mean slow-phase gain (0. 037/0.041, intorsion/extorsion) of tOKN during fixation on a visual target at the center of the rotating random dot pattern was significantly (P: extorsion) during fixation on an imaginary target at the center of the rotating random dot pattern. The mean tOKN slow-phase beat duration (840 msec/724 msec, intorsion/extorsion) during fixation on the visual target was significantly (P: extorsion) during fixation on the imaginary target. In seven eyes of six subjects, the mean slow-phase gain and beat duration (0.034 and 812 msec) of tOKN during fixation on a visual target 6.5 degrees left or right from the center of the rotating random dot pattern were not significantly different from those (0.037 and 825 msec) with a visual target at the center of the rotating random dot pattern (P: > 0.3). A visual target spot suppresses tOKN by a nonpursuit visual system. Intorsional and extorsional OKNs were symmetrical.

  19. Use of temporary nursing staff and nosocomial infections in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui; Brewer, Carol S; Kelly, Maureen; Spencer, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    To examine the nature and prevalence of the use of temporary nursing staff in intensive care units and relationships between the use of temporary nursing staff and the occurrence of nosocomial infections (central line-associated blood stream infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia). Hiring temporary nurses raises controversial issues with respect to nurse staffing, care processes and patient outcomes, yet empirical findings regarding the use of temporary nurses are mixed. Whether adverse patient outcomes in intensive care units are related to the use of temporary nursing staff remains unexamined. A retrospective longitudinal design was used. Data were collected monthly from 12 intensive care units at six hospitals; 144 ICU-month data points were used for the analysis. Chi-square, anova and logit regression models were used to examine the research questions. The intensive care units used higher levels of temporary nursing staff, but the use of temporary nursing staff was not significantly associated with nosocomial infections. Nurses' perceptions regarding staffing and resource adequacy were significantly associated with nosocomial infections. No evidence was found to link the use of temporary nursing staff and nosocomial infections. Instead, nurses' perceptions of staffing adequacy were related to nosocomial infections. Given the greater use of temporary nursing staff in intensive care units, nurse managers in intensive care units need to monitor the levels of temporary nurse staffing and develop a systematic approach for hospitals to assist in these nurses' adjustment, which can reduce the burden of both temporary and permanent intensive care unit nurses. In addition to quantitative measures of nurse staffing, nurses' perceptions regarding staffing adequacy can be used to measure nurse staffing in relation to adverse patient outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Estimating temporary emigration and breeding proportions using capture-recapture data with Pollock's robust design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, W.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical inference for capture-recapture studies of open animal populations typically relies on the assumption that all emigration from the studied population is permanent. However, there are many instances in which this assumption is unlikely to be met. We define two general models for the process of temporary emigration, completely random and Markovian. We then consider effects of these two types of temporary emigration on Jolly-Seber (Seber 1982) estimators and on estimators arising from the full-likelihood approach of Kendall et al. (1995) to robust design data. Capture-recapture data arising from Pollock's (1982) robust design provide the basis for obtaining unbiased estimates of demographic parameters in the presence of temporary emigration and for estimating the probability of temporary emigration. We present a likelihood-based approach to dealing with temporary emigration that permits estimation under different models of temporary emigration and yields tests for completely random and Markovian emigration. In addition, we use the relationship between capture probability estimates based on closed and open models under completely random temporary emigration to derive three ad hoc estimators for the probability of temporary emigration, two of which should be especially useful in situations where capture probabilities are heterogeneous among individual animals. Ad hoc and full-likelihood estimators are illustrated for small mammal capture-recapture data sets. We believe that these models and estimators will be useful for testing hypotheses about the process of temporary emigration, for estimating demographic parameters in the presence of temporary emigration, and for estimating probabilities of temporary emigration. These latter estimates are frequently of ecological interest as indicators of animal movement and, in some sampling situations, as direct estimates of breeding probabilities and proportions.

  1. A cadaveric analysis of cervical fixation: the effect of intermediate fixation points and dynamization in multilevel cervical fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubelski, Daniel; McCormick, William E; Ferrara, Lisa; Benzel, Edward C; Kayanja, Mark

    2014-11-01

    The authors conducted a study to compare biomechanical effects on the cervical spine of bridging fixation and intermediate fixation techniques, in both fixed and dynamic modes. A biaxial, servohydraulic machine biomechanically tested 23 human cervical spines for stiffness and strain in compression, extension, flexion, and lateral bending through 3 specimen states: 1) intact, 2) defect (corpectomy and discectomy), and 3) grafting with plate application in 1 of 4 constructs: C3-7 dynamized long strut (DLS), C3-7 fixed long strut (FLS), C3-5-7 dynamized multisegment (DMS), and C3-5-7 fixed multisegment (FMS). Compared with FMS, FLS had significantly greater strain in extension (at C-3 and at the rostral and caudal parts of the graft) and in lateral bending (at C-3 and at the caudal part of the graft). Fixed (FLS and FMS) constructs had greater flexion stiffness than did dynamized (DLS and DMS) constructs and showed a trend toward greater lateral bending stiffness. Instrumentation revealed greater extension strain with the long fixed (FLS and DLS) constructs than with the multifixed (FMS and FMS) constructs at the rostral and caudal parts of the graft but no significant differences between the dynamized (DLS and DMS) and fixed (FLS and FMS) constructs. Multisegmental fixation provided greater stabilizing forces than did bridging constructs for both dynamized and fixed plates. Use of multisegmental fixation can potentially decrease strain at the screw-plate interface and reduce the rate of hardware failure.

  2. Interpretation of Post-operative Distal Humerus Radiographs After Internal Fixation: Prediction of Later Loss of Fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, F.M.; Stoop, N.; Doornberg, J.N.; Guitton, T.G.; Bekerom, M.P. van den; Ring, D.; Biert, J.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stable fixation of distal humerus fracture fragments is necessary for adequate healing and maintenance of reduction. The purpose of this study was to measure the reliability and accuracy of interpretation of postoperative radiographs to predict which implants will loosen or break after

  3. Evaluation of Streck tissue fixative, a nonformalin fixative for preservation of stool samples and subsequent parasitologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, E K; Steurer, F J; Eberhard, M L

    1999-12-01

    We undertook a study to evaluate Streck tissue fixative (STF) as a substitute for formalin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in fecal preservation. A comparison of formalin, PVA, (mercuric chloride based), and STF was done by aliquoting fecal samples into each fixative. Stool specimens were collected in Haiti, and parasites included Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Necator americanus. Preserved stools were examined at various predetermined times (1 week, 1 month, and 3 months) to establish the quality of the initial preservation as well as the suitability of the fixative for long-term storage. At each time point, stool samples in fixatives were examined microscopically as follows: (i) in wet mounts (with bright-field and epifluorescence microscopy), (ii) in modified acid-fast-, trichrome-, and safranin-stained smears, and (iii) with two commercial test kits. At the time points examined, morphologic features remained comparable for samples fixed with 10% formalin and STF. For comparisons of STF- and 10% formalin-fixed samples, specific findings showed that Cyclospora oocysts retained full fluorescence, modified acid-fast- and safranin-stained smears of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora oocysts were equal in staining quality, and results were comparable in the immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay commercial kits. Stool fixed in STF and stained with trichrome showed less-than-acceptable staining quality compared with stool fixed in PVA. STF provides an excellent substitute for formalin as a fixative in routine examination of stool samples for parasites. However, modifications to the trichrome staining procedures will be necessary to improve the staining quality for protozoal cysts fixed in STF to a level comparable to that with PVA.

  4. Analysis and an overview of fixators in medicine and the methods of processing materials for producing fixators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Milojko Đenadić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixator is a medical device that provides support to fractured biological structures. Metal biomaterials are mainly used for replacing broken or damaged hard tissues such as bones because of their high strenght, toughness and corrosion resistance. Materials such as stainless steel, titanium and aluminium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, cobalt and chromium alloys, composite materials and other biocompatible materials are used in orthopedy for the stabilization of connective tissue injuries or as a substitute for the bone tissues. Fixators are classified according to the place of installation to external and internal fixators. Widely used medical fixators are pins, rods plates, screws, pipes, wires, nails and external fixators. Conventional and non-conventional methods of processing are used in the production process for all types of fixators. Introduction Fixators are medical devices manufactured to support damaged biological structures. In the field of orthopedic surgery that deals with skeletal disorders such as bone, spine, joints, muscles and tendons injuries and diseases, various metals, titanium and cobalt alloys etc. are used to stabilize the supporting tissue injuries or as a substitute for bone tissues. Metallic implants are frequently used in orthopedic surgery as joint prosthesis (hip, knee and elbow fracture fixation devices (plates, screws, external fixators and devices for the fixation of the spine. In principle, fixators are devided into external and internal ones, depending on the place of installation (outside or inside the body. The most common types of medical fixators are pins, rods and plates. This paper presents some of the most common materials used for the production of fixators, their processing and possibilties of use in medicine for various purposes. Types of fixators and materials used for their production Nowadays, biocompatible materials are usually used for the production of fixators and implants. These materials show good

  5. 77 FR 75654 - Notice of Temporary Closures on Public Lands in Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of temporary road closure to motorized vehicle use and temporary area... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLIDB00000 LF20000000.JS0000 LFESGXW70000... lands administered by the Owyhee Field Office, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and Morley Nelson Snake...

  6. 75 FR 17313 - Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Carry-Over Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... RIN 0970-AC40 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Carry-Over Funds AGENCY: Administration.... SUMMARY: This final rule implements the statutory change to section 404(e) of the Social Security Act as... Territories to use Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program funds carried over from a prior year...

  7. 76 FR 41240 - Agave Energy Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR11-17-000] Agave Energy Company; Notice for Temporary Waiver of Filing and Reporting Requirements Take notice that on June 24...), Agave Energy Company (AEC) requests that the Commission grant a temporary waiver of the Interstate...

  8. 75 FR 6883 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... Division 29 CFR Part 501 Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Final Rule... Division 29 CFR Part 501 RIN 1205-AB55 Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United... of the alien in such labor or services will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of...

  9. 8 CFR 1244.5 - Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. 1244.5 Section 1244.5 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT... § 1244.5 Temporary treatment benefits for eligible aliens. (a) Prior to the registration period. Prior to...

  10. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-6T - Determinations of population (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determinations of population (temporary). 1.103....103(n)-6T Determinations of population (temporary). Q-1: What is the proper method for determining population? A-1: All determinations of population must be made with respect to any calendar year on the basis...

  11. 26 CFR 1.482-8T - Examples of the best method rule (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples of the best method rule (temporary). 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.482-8T Examples of the best method rule (temporary). (a) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.482-8(a). (b) Examples 1 through 12. [Reserved...

  12. 26 CFR 1.163-10T - Qualified residence interest (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified residence interest (temporary). 1.163...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.163-10T Qualified residence interest (temporary). (a) Table of contents. This paragraph (a) lists the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.132-6T - De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false De minimis fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary....132-6T De minimis fringe—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) In general. Gross income does not include the value of a de minimis fringe provided to an employee. The term “de minimis fringe” means any...

  14. 76 FR 78739 - Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Application for Fisher Houses and Other Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Regulation on Application for Fisher Houses and Other Temporary Lodging and VHA Fisher House Application) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Application for Fisher Houses and Other Temporary Lodging and VHA Fisher House Application, VA Forms 10-0408...

  15. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-5T - Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (temporary). 1.103(n)-5T Section 1.103(n)-5T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Income § 1.103(n)-5T Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary). Q-1: Who must certify that there was no consideration for an allocation? A-1: Section 103(n)(12)(A) provides that, with...

  16. The impact of displaced people's temporary shelters on their surrounding environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thadaniti, S.; Chantavanich, S.; U-Sha, K.; Lambregts, B.; Bhiromkaew, J.; Wijitkosum, S.; Prombang, V.; Toommakorn, S.

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an overview of environmental issues and impacts associated with temporary shelters for displaced people along the Thai-Myanmar border, and offers recommendations to improve the environmental conditions in and around the settlements. Out of nine such temporary shelters, three were

  17. 38 CFR 21.6001 - Temporary vocational training program for certain pension recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary vocational training program for certain pension recipients. 21.6001 Section 21.6001 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Program of Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients General § 21.6001 Temporary vocational...

  18. 78 FR 79308 - Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... effectiveness. Finally, the guideline uses mandatory language to emphasize that firms must comply with special.... FDA-2012-N-1239] Dental Devices; Reclassification of Temporary Mandibular Condyle Prosthesis AGENCY...) is issuing a final order to reclassify temporary mandibular condyle prosthesis, a preamendments class...

  19. Temporary contracts : Effect on job satisfaction and personal lives of recent PhD graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijer, C.J.F.; Belder, R.; Sonneveld, H.; Van, Bochove C.A.; Van, der Weijden I.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we assess the effects of temporary employment on job satisfaction and the personal lives of recent PhD graduates. Temporary employment is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sectors, but has been relatively common in academia, especially for early career scientists. Labor market

  20. 42 CFR 488.56 - Temporary waivers applicable to skilled nursing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary waivers applicable to skilled nursing... PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.56 Temporary waivers applicable to skilled nursing facilities. (a... skilled nursing facility to engage the services of a registered nurse more than 40 hours a week, the...