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Sample records for temporal fossa arachnoid

  1. Middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst presenting with obsessive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complex auditory/verbal hallucinations.3 In the last decade schizophrenia like presentation has been reported in association with temporal lobe cysts.4-7 Whilst there have been a few reports of arachnoid cysts accompanying psychoses, no such association with obsessive compulsive behaviour has been reported.

  2. Chronic arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa: a study of 82 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongxun, Zhang

    1982-01-01

    Arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa is not a rare disorder in China. Eighty-two cases seen in a three year period were studied with reference to symptomatology, aetiology and treatment. The presentation was contrasted with that of increased intracranial pressure caused by tumour. The efficacy of treatment by direct exploration and shunt surgery was emphasised. Images PMID:6981688

  3. Facial nerve palsy in posterior fossa arachnoid cysts: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotte, Benoit; Morelli, Daniele; Alessi, Giovanni; Lubansu, Alphonse; Verheulpen, Denis; Fricx, Christophe; David, Philippe; Brotchi, Jacques

    2005-07-01

    Two patients with a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst responsible for isolated facial nerve palsy are reported. The relationships between the cyst and the facial nerve and between the facial nerve palsy and the size variation of the cyst are discussed and documented by pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst presenting with obsessive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thoughts. He displayed delusions with a persecutory theme, thought broadcasting, and second and third person auditory hallucinations. The patient was however .... Arachnoid cyst presenting as subdural hygroma. J Clin Neuroscience 2004; 11 (3): 317-318. Figure1: CT scan of brain of case one (left) and case two. (right).

  5. Giant posterior fossa arachnoid cyst causing tonsillar herniation and cervical syringomyelia

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    Vijay P Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired cerebellar tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia associated with posterior fossa mass lesions is an exception rather than the rule. In the present article, we describe the neuroimaging findings in a case of 28-year-old female patient presented with a history of paraesthesia involving right upper limb of 8-month duration. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a giant retrocerebellar arachnoid causing tonsillar herniation with cervical syringomyelia. The findings in the present case supports that the one of the primary mechanism for the development of syringomyelia may be the obstruction to the flow of cerebrospinal fluid causing alterations in the passage of extracellular fluid in the spinal cord and leading to syringomyelia.

  6. [Rare location of arachnoid cysts. Extratemporal cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Microsurgical treatment of temporal lobe arachnoid cysts complicated with epilepsy

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    Yong-qin KUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the technique and precautions of microsurgical treatment of temporal lobe arachnoid cysts complicated with spilepsy.Methods The clinical data of 32 patients with temporal lobe arachnoid cysts complicated with epilepsy,admitted from Nov.2007 to Apr.2010,were analyzed retrospectively.The diagnosis of temporal lobe arachnoid cysts was confirmed before surgical operation by cranial MRI or CT.Continual video-electroencephalogram monitoring with sphenoidal electrodes were employed in all patients,and spike-wave,polyspike-wave and/or sharp-slow-wave was detected at arachnoid cyst side.Craniotomy was performed under general anesthesia,the temporal lobe arachnoid cysts were treated by microsurgical excision.Besides,partial anterior temporal lobectomy,hippocampectomy,amygdalotomy and bipolar electrogulation on functional cortex were conducted in all cases.Intraoperative electroencephalography(EEG monitoring was used in all patients.And an one year follow-up after surgery was carried out.Results No postoperative death occurred.Transient aphasia and hemiplegia were found in 14 patients(10 in left and 4 in right and recovered 7-10 days after treatment.A one-year MRI follow-up showed the temporal lobe arachnoid cysts disappeared in 12 patients(37.5%,shrank in 8(25.0%,and unchanged in 12(37.5%.Epileptic symptom disappeared in 27 cases(84.4% and temporary symptoms could be observed in 5 cases(15.6%.Continual video-electroencephalogram monitoring with sphenoidal electrodes showed no spike-wave,but sharp wave was detected in 8 cases and sharp-slow wave complexes were detected in 4 cases.Conclusion Microsurgery used in resection of the cysts and epileptic foci may achieve good therapeutic effects for temporal lobe arachnoid cysts complicated with epilepsy.

  8. Reversible dyscognition in patients with a unilateral, middle fossa arachnoid cyst revealed by using a laptop based neuropsychological test battery (CANTAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Johan; Helland, Christian; Flaatten, Hans; Wester, Knut

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in a Norwegian group of patients undergoing surgery for middle fossa arachnoid cysts (AC). We also wanted to assess health related quality of life (HRQOL) in these patients to see if it could be improved by decompression of the AC. Adult patients (>18 years) with unilateral middle fossa AC and no previous history of neurological disease, head injury, or a psychiatric disorder were eligible for inclusion. We used four tests from CANTAB to assess the level of neuropsychological performance: paired associate learning (PAL) and delayed matching to sample (DMS) assessed temporal lobe functions, while Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) and intra-extra dimensional (IED) shift focused on frontal lobe functions. Patients with postoperative cerebral complications were reported, but excluded from neuropsychological follow-up. In addition to the CANTAB data, pre- and postoperative clinical and radiological data were collected. HRQOL was assessed using Short Form 36 (SF-36) pre- and postoperatively. We found significant improvement in the two temporal tests assessing memory, but no improvement in the two frontal tests assessing executive function. HRQOL was significantly reduced preoperatively in two of eight SF-36 domains and improved significantly in four domains postoperatively. CANTAB facilitates detection of cognitive improvements after decompression of the cyst in patients with AC in the middle fossa. The improvements were detected on the tests sensitive to temporal lobe problems only, not on the tests more sensitive to frontal lobe affection. This establishes construct validity for CANTAB for the first time in this population.

  9. THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF INTRACRANIAL ARACHNOID CYSTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG

    Intracranial arachnoid cysts have been found in 0.3% of computed tomography (CT) scans and in 0.1% of brain autopsy specimens, more often in children than in adults. Intracranial arachnoid cysts occur prevalently in males, on the left side, and in the temporal fossa. Their occasional association

  10. Temporal fossa intra-extracranial dumbbell schwannoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wong, Limy

    2011-02-01

    Intra-extracranial schwannomas arising unrelated to major cranial nerves are exceedingly rare neoplasms. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with a 9 month history of progressive temporal swelling which was excised and found histologically to be a schwannoma. A succinct review of the relevant literature is presented.

  11. Temporal fossa intra-extracranial dumbbell schwannoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wong, Limy

    2012-02-01

    Intra-extracranial schwannomas arising unrelated to major cranial nerves are exceedingly rare neoplasms. We report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with a 9 month history of progressive temporal swelling which was excised and found histologically to be a schwannoma. A succinct review of the relevant literature is presented.

  12. Middle fossa approach: Applications in temporal bone lesions.

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    Domenech Juan, Iván; Cruz Toro, Paula; Callejo Castillo, Ángela; Moya, Rafael; Merán Gil, Jorge L; Bartel, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The middle fossa approach is a surgical technique that is very useful for lateral skull base surgery. However, it is true that it has limited surgical indications and implementation due to its technical complexity. We present our experience in 10 patients in whom the middle fossa approach was the treatment of choice because of the extent of the injury and complexity of the lesion or process. Despite the complexity of the cases, there was no mortality associated with surgery. Postoperative complications were found in 2 patients who presented an epidural hematoma and a cortico-subcortical hematoma. Hearing function was preserved in 5 patients out of the 7 who had adequate hearing at the time of surgery. House/Brackmann I-II facial nerve function was achieved in 8 patients; the remaining 2 had no deterioration of the nerve function. In 9 out of 10 patients, the surgery achieved complete solution of the lesion. The middle fossa approach is a safe and reliable surgical technique. It gives us great control and exposure of different skull base processes. We consider its knowledge of great importance, because it may be the only viable surgical alternative in some specific patients. That is the reason why it is important to learn this approach and know about it in our specialty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  13. Anatomical Relationship of the Middle Cranial Fossa Dura to Surface Landmarks of the Temporal Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussaini, Mohamed A; Mattingly, Jameson K; Cass, Stephen P

    2017-10-01

    The suprameatal crest and temporal line provides a reliable landmark to the middle fossa dura. Surface anatomy of the temporal bone is used to guide mastoid surgery, but studies investigating these landmarks are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the anatomical relationship of the middle fossa dura to the temporal line. Thirty-two fresh hemicephalic temporal bones were prepared by drawing four lines along the mastoid including the suprameatal crest and temporal line (line 2), one line 5 mm superior to line 2 (line 1), and one 5 mm inferior to line 2 (line 3), and at Reid's base line (line 4). Four points were marked along these lines anterior to posterior 3 mm apart. A 1 mm bur was used to drill perpendicular to these points to examine the relationship to the middle fossa dura. The dura was found inferior to line 2 in 6.3% at point 1, 6.3% at point 2, 9.4% at point 3, and 18.8% at point 4. The dura in line 1 was found inferior to point 1 in 52.1%, point 2 in 46.9%, point 3 in 56.3%, and point 4 in 62.5%. Only one specimen (3.1%) had dura lying inferior to line 3. No specimens were inferior line 4 at any point. The dura of the middle fossa lies superior the temporal line in >80% of specimens and at least 5 mm superior in nearly half. This indicates the temporal line or a line slightly inferior to this is reliably inferior the middle fossa dura.

  14. Language localization in cases of left temporal lobe arachnoid cyst : Evidence against interhemispheric reorganization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, LA; Go, KG; Pruim, J; den Dunnen, W; Meiners, LC; Paans, AMJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether left-hemisphere arachnoid cysts lead to reorganization of the language function using PET. A group analysis demonstrated that patients showed no more right-hemisphere activation than a matched control group. Several patients had clear language localizations in the left

  15. Arachnoiditis ossificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harshpal; Meyer, Scott A; Jannapureddy, Madhu R; Weiss, Nirit

    2011-11-01

    Arachnoiditis ossificans is an uncommon clinical entity in which arachnoid ossification leads to clinical symptomatology. In this case report, we describe the case of a myelopathic patient with arachnoid ossifications, an arachnoid cyst, and syringomyelia coexisting with a herniated thoracic disc at the same levels. An 81-year-old woman presented with rapidly progressive leg weakness, dysesthetic pains, and urinary incontinence. The patient underwent thoracic laminectomy with costotransversectomy for resection of ossified arachnoid and re-establishment of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics secondary to the obstruction in subarachnoid flow may predispose to the formation of an arachnoid cyst, and the cyst itself may be the proximate cause of the myelopathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Arachnoid Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or open the cyst so its fluid can drain into the cerebrospinal fluid and be absorbed. View Full Treatment Information Definition Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid-filled sacs that are located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, one ...

  17. Associação singular de síndrome de Kallmann e cisto aracnóide da fossa média: relato de caso Singular association of Kallmann's syndrome and arachnoid cyst of middle fossa: case report

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    Yvens B. Fernandes

    1995-09-01

    disabilities. On physical examination he exhibited mild eunuchoid aspect, 162 cm height (z score = -2,17, pubertal development on stage G II, P II, and 4 cm5 testis. Laboratory investigation revealed pre-pubertal levels of testosterone and normal results of the combined test of anterior pituitary function, except for in GnRH acute and prolonged test. Brain CT showed an arachnoid cyst on left middle fossa with expansion to suprasellar cisterna. He was diagnosed as having hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism secondary to compression by the cyst, and a cyst-peritoneal derivation was performed. After surgery there was no improvement of the pubertal state and bilateral anosmia was discovered, so Kallmann's syndrome was then diagnosed and was confirmed by MRI, even though the hormonal results are not totally matched with the refered syndrome. We did not find in the literature any description of the association between Kallmann's syndrome and arachnoid cyst and we believe that in this case the results of the hormonal measurement may be due to such association that provoked an additional hypophysis dysfunction.

  18. Spinal arachnoid cyst associated with arachnoiditis following subarachnoid haemorrhage in adult patients: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Recep; Kaksi, Mustafa; Efendioglu, Mustafa; Onoz, Mustafa; Balkuv, Ece; Kaner, Tuncay

    2015-04-01

    Arachnoiditis is an inflammatory process resulting with the fibrosis of arachnoid mater. It can vary in severity from mild thickenings to catastrophic adhesions that ruins subarachnoid space. As a result, arachnoid cysts can be formed. Arachnoid cyst induced by symptomatic spinal arachnoiditis is a rare complication of subarachnoid haemorrhages. In this article, we aimed to present a case of spinal arachnoid cyst formation following subarachnoid haemorrhage and examine similar cases in the literature. Forty-six years old, previously healthy female patient has been treated medically for headaches due to perimesencephalic subarachnoid bleeding. Approximately two and a half months later, she started to have severe headaches and diplopia. We detected hydrocephalus and performed ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. Two months later, she started to have complaints of weakness in her lower extremities. On neurological examination, she had paraparesis and on spinal magnetic resonance imaging she had an arachnoid cyst lengthening from C7 to T2 and compressing the spinal cord posteriorly. We performed partial laminectomy, drainage of arachnoid cyst and replacement of cystopleural T tube shunt. On follow-up, her lower extremity strength has ameliorated. She was taken into a physical therapy and rehabilitation programme. Three months later she was able to walk with a crutch. Subarachnoiditis and associated arachnoid cyst can cause severe morbidity. This rare situation (which especially occurs following subarachnoid haemorrhage of posterior fossa) should be known and physicians should keep in mind that it requires urgent surgical procedure.

  19. [Congenital medulloblastoma associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelabert González, Miguel; Serramito-García, Ramón; Liñares Paz, Mercedes; Aran-Echabe, Eduardo; García-Allut, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are very common lesions in paediatric patients, with treatment depending on their location and symptomatology. They are usually solitary cysts but may be associated with other central nervous system diseases such as tumours and congenital deformities. We describe the case of a neonate diagnosed with an arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern treated by endoscopy. After the operation, the child's condition worsened; a CT scan revealed a midline posterior fossa tumour not visible in the preoperative neuroradiological tests. The tumour, a medulloblastoma, was partially removed. Given the child's age and the poor prognosis, oncological treatment was not undertaken. The association between medulloblastoma and arachnoid cyst is very rare, and we could find only one such case in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Compressive Cervicothoracic Adhesive Arachnoiditis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review.

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    Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz

    2014-08-01

    We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes.

  1. Temporal lobe sulcal pattern and the bony impressions in the middle cranial fossa: the case of the el Sidrón (Spain) neandertal sample.

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    Rosas, Antonio; Peña-Melián, Angel; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Correspondence between temporal lobe sulcal pattern and bony impressions on the middle cranial fossae (MCF) was analyzed. MCF bone remains (SD-359, SD-315, and SD-1219) from the El Sidrón (Spain) neandertal site are analyzed in this context. Direct comparison of the soft and hard tissues from the same individual was studied by means of: 1) dissection of two human heads; 2) optic (white light) surface scans; 3) computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the same head. The inferior temporal sulcus and gyrus are the features most strongly influencing MCF bone surface. The Superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal and fusiform gyri also leave imprints. Temporal lobe form differs between Homo sapiens and neandertals. A wider and larger post-arcuate fossa (posterior limit of Brodmann area 20 and the anterior portion of area 37) is present in modern humans as compared to neandertals. However other traits of the MCF surface are similar in these two large-brained human groups. A conspicuous variation is appreciated in the more vertical location of the inferior temporal gyrus in H. sapiens. In parallel, structures of the lower surface of the temporal lobe are more sagittally orientated. Grooves accommodating the fusiform and the lower temporal sulci become grossly parallel to the temporal squama. These differences can be understood within the context of a supero-lateral deployment of the lobe in H. sapiens, a pattern previously identified (Bastir et al., Nat Commun 2 (2011) 588-595). Regarding dural sinus pattern, a higher incidence of petrosquamous sinus is detected in neandertal samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tuberculous optochiasmatic arachnoiditis: a devastating form of tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Paliwal, Vimal; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh

    2011-09-01

    Tuberculous meningitis is primarily a disease of the meninges of brain and spinal cord along with adjacent brain parenchyma. The characteristic pathological changes are meningeal inflammation, basal exudates, vasculitis and hydrocephalus. Tuberculous meningitis has a strong predilection for basal parts of the brain. Exudates, if dominantly present in the interpeduncular, suprasellar and Sylvian cisterns, result in optochiasmatic arachnoiditis and tuberculoma. Optochiasmatic arachnoiditis and tuberculoma are devastating forms of tuberculous meningitis and often associated with profound vision loss. This clinical entity more frequently affects young adults. In a recent study, on the multivariate logistic regression analysis, female sex, younger age and raised cerebrospinal fluid protein content were identified as predictors for developing optochiasmatic arachnoiditis. Frequently, optochiasmatic tuberculoma and optochiasmatic arachnoiditis develop paradoxically while a patient is being treated with anti-TB drugs. MRI reveals confluent enhancing lesions that are present in the interpeduncular fossa, pontine cistern, and the perimesencephalic and suprasellar cisterns. Management of tuberculous optochiasmatic arachnoiditis and optochiasmatic arachnoiditis tuberculoma has been variable. Treatment of optochiasmatic arachnoiditis continues to be a challenge and the response is generally unsatisfactory. In isolated case reports and in small series, corticosteroids, methyl prednisolone, thalidomide and hyaluronidase have been used with variable success. The benefit from neurosurgery is controversial and deterioration may follow the initial temporary improvement. Management of paradoxical optochiasmatic arachnoiditis is also controversial. Some patients regain vision following treatment with anti-TB drugs and continued usage of corticosteroids. Neurosurgery may be considered in the patients with either treatment failure or when diagnosis is in doubt. In conclusion, presence of

  3. Post traumatic arachnoiditis ossificans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Sunitha P; Gupta, Kanchan; Maddali, Aparna; Viswamitra, Sanjaya

    2012-01-01

    Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare chronic disorder characterized by the presence of calcification/ ossification of the spinal arachnoid. We describe the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of arachnoiditis ossificans as sequelae to trauma in a 30-year-old patient. This imaging diagnosis becomes important to alert the clinician as most of them can be treated by conservative management. PMID:22988405

  4. Post traumatic arachnoiditis ossificans

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    Sunitha P Kumaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare chronic disorder characterized by the presence of calcification/ ossification of the spinal arachnoid. We describe the computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of arachnoiditis ossificans as sequelae to trauma in a 30-year-old patient. This imaging diagnosis becomes important to alert the clinician as most of them can be treated by conservative management.

  5. Idiopathic Opticochiasmatic Arachnoiditis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lessell, Simmons; E. Grzybowski, Andrzej

    A critical review of the literature indicates that idiopathic opticochiasmatic arachnoiditis, once considered an important consideration in patients with otherwise unexplained optic atrophy, is not a...

  6. [Epidemiology and classification of arachnoid cysts in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Santiago; Puerta, Patricia; Alamar, Mariana; Barcik, Uli; Guillén, Antonio; Muchart, Jordi; García-Fructuoso, Gemma; Ferrer-Rodríguez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of arachnoid cysts in children is 1-3%. They are more frequent in boys. They can be located intracranially or in the spine. Intracranial cysts are classified as supratentorial, infratentorial, and supra-infratentorial (tentorial notch). Supratentorial are divided into middle cranial fossa, convexity, inter-hemisferic, sellar region, and intraventricular. Infratentorial are classified into supracerebellar, infracerebellar, hemispheric, clivus, and cerebellopontine angle. Finally spinal arachnoid cysts are classified taking into account whether they are extra- or intradural, and nerve root involvement. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrent inverted papilloma with intracranial and temporal fossa involvement: A case report and review of the literature;Papillome inverse recidivant avec extension temporale et intracranienne: cas clinique et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo-Henao, C.M.; Pradier, O. [Department of Radiotherapy, Morvan Hospital, CHU de Brest, Brest University, 29 - Brest (France); Talagas, M. [Department of Pathology, Morvan Hospital, CHU de Brest, 29 - Brest (France); Marianowski, R. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Morvan Hospital, CHU de Brest, 29 - Brest (France)

    2010-06-15

    Inverted papilloma (I.P.) is a rare naso-sinusal benign tumour, with epithelium surface inversion to inside the stroma. Extension to intracranial temporal fossa and middle ear has been reported in few cases in the literature. This involvement may be derived from either direct extension from sino-nasal cavity via the Eustachian tube or primary middle ear involvement secondary to meta-plastic changes of the middle ear mucosa. Here, we report a case of inverted papilloma in a male patient, with multiple recurrences, middle ear and intracranial involvement into the temporal fossa with posterior development of malignancy. This patient had received multiple surgeries and radiotherapy but despite of that, his disease recurred several times. As a conclusion, inverted papilloma is a benign tumour with an aggressive course, tendency to recurrence and progression to malignancy. Intracranial and temporal fossa involvements are rare and the treatment depends of the symptoms and the severity of the disease. (authors)

  8. An unusual spinal arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhishek; Agrawal, Anushree; Agrawal, Chandrashekhar; Rohtagi, Anshu

    2006-12-01

    Cryptococcal spinal arachnoiditis occurs in patients with meningitis and usually when they are immunocompromised. Spinal symptoms in cryptococcosis are rare and a very exceptional entity in the immunocompetent population. We present a young immunocompetent male who developed progressively increasing paraparesis due to primary cryptococcal arachnoiditis, who showed significant improvement after antifungal therapy. Although extremely rare, spinal arachnoiditis in an immunocompetent individual can be caused due to cryptococcus, as in our case. This case illustrates and emphasizes the necessity for an exhaustive and complete investigation, with a high index of suspicion for fungal etiology in patients presenting with spinal arachnoiditis or other disabling, progressive spinal cord syndromes of unknown etiology. Awareness of this presentation is necessary to avoid delay in diagnosis and management of this potentially curable condition.

  9. Idiopathic opticochiasmatic arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessell, Simmons; E Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    : A critical review of the literature indicates that idiopathic opticochiasmatic arachnoiditis, once considered an important consideration in patients with otherwise unexplained optic atrophy, is not a valid disease entity.

  10. Extradural Spinal Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy with multiple spinal arachnoid cysts and paraplegia, and 37 similar cases in the literature are reviewed by neurosurgeons and radiologist at Univ of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  11. Thoracal spinal extradural arachnoid cyst

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    Olcay Eser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cyst are fluid-filled that are located between the arachnoid and piamater or duplicationof arachnoid membrane. Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are rare and primary are congenital or acquired. These are occurring idiopathic, posttraumatic and post arachnoiditis. A 32 year-old male patient is became a clinic with urinary retention and gait disorders. Thoracic Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a spinal extradurally cystic mass isointense with that cerebro-spinal fluid at T7-8 level. Patient underwent an operation. The diagnosis of arachnoid cyst was made based on histopathology exam. The case was reported due to very rare occurrence of this entity.

  12. Adhesive Lumbar Arachnoiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, C.; Reis, FC

    1998-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis, an inflammatory process involving all three meningeal layers as well as the nerve roots, is a cause of persistent symptoms in 6% to 16% of postoperative patients. Although spinal surgery is the most common antecedent associated with arachnoiditis, multiple causes have been reported, including infection, intrathecal steroids or anesthetic agents, trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage and ionic myelographic contrast material--both oil soluble and water soluble. In the past, oil-...

  13. Large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst: A case report and review of literature

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    Souvagya Panigrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of an arachnoid cyst at craniospinal junction is not very common. This is a very rare anatomic site, with only seven other cases reported in the literature. We report a case of large intradural craniospinal arachnoid cyst presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus and cranial nerve palsy. A 39-year-old male presented with 8-month history of neck pain, headache, vomiting, visual disturbances, diminished taste sensation, and numbness of face. He had bilateral papilledema on ophthalmoscopy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst extending down to the lower border of C5 vertebra. Posterior decompression was done through C5 laminectomy. He made a full recovery and was asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up examination. The clinical features, diagnosis, and management of these rare craniospinal arachnoid cysts are discussed.

  14. La Fossane de Buffon, Fossa fossa (Schreber)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1899-01-01

    The type-specimen of Buffon’s Fossane, Fossa Fossa (Schreber) had been presented in 1761 by Monsieur Poivre to the Cabinet du Roi: it was a stuffed skin, with the jaws and the bones of the legs. The animal measured 17 pouces from the tip of the nose to the origin of the tail, the tail measuring 8½

  15. Syringomyelia and arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, L R; Norohna, A B; Amico, L L

    1990-01-01

    Five patients with chronic arachnoiditis and syringomyelia were studied. Three patients had early life meningitis and developed symptoms of syringomyelia eight, 21, and 23 years after the acute infection. One patient had a spinal dural thoracic AVM and developed a thoracic syrinx 11 years after spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage and five years after surgery on the AVM. A fifth patient had tuberculous meningitis with transient spinal cord dysfunction followed by development of a lumbar syrinx seven years later. Arachnoiditis can cause syrinx formation by obliterating the spinal vasculature causing ischaemia. Small cystic regions of myelomalacia coalesce to form cavities. In other patients, central cord ischaemia mimics syringomyelia but no cavitation is present. Scar formation with spinal block leads to altered dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and contributes to the formation of spinal cord cystic cavities. Images PMID:2313296

  16. [Fulminant adhesive arachnoiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; Stępień, Adam; Staszewski, Jacek; Sadowska, Marta; Bogusławska-Walecka, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Adhesive arachnoiditis is a rare disease with insidious course. It causes damage of the spinal cord and nerve roots. The causes of adhesive arachnoiditis include earlier traumatic injury of the spinal cord, surgery, intrathecal administration of therapeutic substances (e.g. anaesthetics, chemotherapy) or contrast media, bleeding, and inflammation. It can also be idiopathic or iatrogenic. We present the case of a 42-year-old patient with fulminant adhesive arachnoiditis which was provoked by spinal surgery and caused severe neurological disability with profound, progressive, flaccid paraparesis and bladder dysfunction. The electromyography (EMG) showed serious damage of nerves of both lower limbs at the level of motor roots L2-S2 and damage of the motor neuron at the level of Th11-Th12 on the right side. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral and thoracic part of the spinal cord demonstrated cystic liquid spaces in the lumen of the dural sac in the bottom part of the cervical spine and at the Th2-Th10 level, modelling the lateral and anterior surface of the cord. Because of the vast lesions, surgery could not be performed. Conservative treatment and rehabilitation brought only a small clinical improvement.

  17. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of complicated arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, R.; Kesava, P.P. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Background. Arachnoid cysts are intra-arachnoidal cerebrospinal fluid collections that are usually asymptomatic, however, they may become acutely symptomatic due to enlargement of the cyst or the presence of hemorrhage. Materials and methods. We report a case of a child presenting with a 3-week history of headaches, nausea, and vision problems. There was no history of trauma. MRI clearly demonstrated a left middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst with associated subacute intracystic and subdural hematoma that was causing mass effect and required surgery. Results. This lesion was isodense to the brain on CT. Conclusion. We focus on the importance of MR imaging in the differentiation of these subacute/early chronic hemorrhagic collections that may be overlooked with CT. (orig.)

  19. Arachnoiditis ossificans with progressive syringomyelia and spinal arachnoid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavlasopoulos, F; Stranjalis, G; Kouyialis, A T; Korfias, S; Sakas, D

    2007-06-01

    We present a 30-year-old man with progressive spastic paraparesis. Spinal imaging revealed extensive calcification of the thoracic cord and cauda equina arachnoid, an intradural extramedullary cyst and evidence of rapidly progressing syringomyelia. Radiological diagnosis was arachnoiditis ossificans and an attempt at surgical decompression was made because of progressive neurologic deterioration. Due to tenacious adhesion of the calcified plaques to the cord and roots, only cyst drainage was achieved; the patient had no clinical improvement. A literature review revealed only two other cases reported in the literature with co-existence of arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia. In none of the previous cases was there an intradural extramedullary arachnoid cyst, nor did the syrinx progress in such a rapid fashion. An attempt is made to explain possible pathophysiological mechanisms leading to this unusual pathology.

  20. Arachnoiditis ossificans after spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Di; Zhao, Song; Liu, Wan-Guo; Zhang, Shao-Kun

    2015-05-01

    This article presents an unusual case of arachnoiditis ossificans after spinal surgery. A case of arachnoiditis ossificans secondary to lumbar fixation and decompression surgery for the treatment of multilevel lumbar fractures is reported and the relevant literature is reviewed. A 29-year-old man who previously underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation and fusion for multiple lumbar spine fractures reported lower back stiffness and discomfort 23 months postoperatively. A laminectomy was performed at L2 and at L3-L4. At L2, bone fragments from the burst fracture had injured the dural sac and some nerve roots. A posterolateral fusion was performed using allogeneic bone. Postoperatively, there were no signs of fever, infection, or systemic inflammatory responses. Arachnoiditis ossificans of the thecal sac from L1-L5 was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography at the 2-year follow-up. His postoperative neurological status progressively improved and he regained motor and sensory functions. Because of neurological improvements, fixation hardware was removed without further decompression. The authors report a case of arachnoiditis ossificans secondary to lumbar fixation and decompression surgery, which involved a large region. Arachnoiditis ossificans is a relatively rare disorder with unclear etiologies and limited treatment options. Spinal surgical intervention of arachnoiditis ossificans should be carefully considered because it may lead to poor outcomes and multiple revision surgeries. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Tuberculous optochiasmatic arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupriya, A; Sunithi, M; Maya, T; Goel, M; Alexander, M; Aaron, S; Mathew, V

    2010-01-01

    Arachnoiditis involving optic nerve and the optic chiasm can occur as a complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). This study evaluates the clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and laboratory parameters and imaging findings of optochiasmatic arachnoiditis (OCA) and also tried to identify any factors which can predict this complication in patients with TBM. Patients admitted with TBM in the neurology wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 6 years formed the material for this study. Student's "t" test and univariate analysis were done to identify any predictors for this complication and the variables found to be significant were further analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. One hundred sixty-three patients with TBM, admitted over a 6-year period, were studied. Twenty-three (14%) patients developed OCA. Eighteen out of 23 (78%) developed this complication while on antituberculous treatment (ATT) and 5/23 (22%) were newly diagnosed cases of TBM. Of those already on treatment, 12/23 (52%) were receiving only ATT, the remaining 6/23 (26%) had received steroids along with ATT in varying doses and duration. The average period from diagnosis of TBM to visual symptoms was 6.4 months. On the multivariate logistic regression analysis, female sex (P 260 mg% (P < 0.021) were the factors predisposing toward this complication. At 6 months follow-up, on treatment with steroids and ATT, 17% had improvement and no further deterioration was noted in visual acuity in 52%. OCA can develop even while on treatment with ATT. Young women with a high CSF protein content seem to be more prone for this complication.

  2. Evaluation of CSF flow patterns of posterior fossa cystic malformations using CSF flow MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Harun; Yazici, Zeynep; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Parlak, Mufit [University of Uludag, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Differential radiologic diagnosis of cystic malformations of the posterior fossa is often difficult with conventional imaging techniques because of overlapping features of these entities. Posterior fossa cystic malformations occupy the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. They may create secondary dynamic effects on the movements of CSF. The aim of this study was to investigate CSF flow alterations in posterior fossa cystic malformations with CSF flow MR imaging. The study included 40 patients with cystic malformations of the posterior fossa. The patients underwent cardiac-gated phase-contrast cine MR imaging. CSF flow was qualitatively evaluated using an in-plane phase-contrast sequence in the midsagittal plane. The MR images were displayed in a closed-loop cine format. Twelve of the patients had communicating arachnoid cyst, seven had non-communicating arachnoid cyst, ten had mega cisterna magna, six had Dandy-Walker malformation, two had Dandy-Walker variant, and three had Blake's pouch cyst. CSF flow MR imaging indicated the regions of no, slow or higher flow, direction of flow, and abnormal cystic fluid motion. Each malformation displayed a distinct CSF flow pattern. Phase-contrast cine MR imaging for CSF flow evaluation may be a useful adjunct to routine MR imaging in the evaluation of the cystic malformations of the posterior fossa because it can improve the specificity in differentiating such malformations. (orig.)

  3. Endoscopic treatment of lumbar arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, J P; Mourgela, S

    2007-02-01

    The diagnosis of lumbar arachnoiditis remains complex and often inconclusive. Using the technique of lumbar subarachnoidal endoscopy (thecaloscopy), the pathology can be identified and the patient treated with long-term effects on the symptoms. Endoscopic operations were performed on 23 patients suffering from varying symptoms with an enlarged lumbar subarachnoidal space. Having confirmed the diagnosis of lumbar arachnoiditis, a number of endoscopic operations ranging from adhesiolysis to subarachno-epidurostomy were carried out. Radicular symptoms in lumbar arachnoiditis were successfully relieved by various endoscopic dissection techniques, such as restoration of the improved CSF flow by subarachno-epidurostomy along the rootlet. This has been identified as one of the causal factors of the clinical symptoms. In cases where lumbar pain persists in spite of a previous thecaloscopy, further treatment with a lumboperitoneal shunt device has proved most successful.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  5. A different approach to cysts of the posterior fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Marvin D. [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, 4650 Sunset Blvd, MS 81, 90027, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maher, Karima [Radiodiagnosis Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Gilles, Floyd H. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, 90027, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Posterior fossa cysts are frequently identified on MR studies. This paper takes a different approach to analyzing these cysts based on the pathology of the cyst wall and the embryology of the hindbrain, choroid plexus, and meninges. The type of cyst depends on the histologic components of the cyst wall. Frequent types of posterior fossa cysts are arachnoid, Blake's pouch, and cysts associated with Dandy Walker malformation. All of these cysts may mimic the others in terms of position of the torcula, vermian abnormalities, and mass effect on the cerebellum and occipital bone. A clue to the nature of the cyst may be the position of the choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle; normal in arachnoid cyst, absent in Dandy Walker malformation, and displaced into the superior cyst wall in Blake's pouch. When the cyst wall histology is not known, it is suggested to use a descriptive term such as ''retrocerebellar cyst''. (orig.)

  6. Syringomyelia caused by an arachnoid web in a patient with shunted Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Chang; Choi, Jung Won; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2017-04-01

    Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is a congenital brain anomaly characterized by dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis and the presence of a posterior fossa cyst. The association of syringomyelia with DWM is extremely rare. A 10-year-old patient who was diagnosed with DWM in infancy presented with progressive scoliosis and fecal incontinence. He had been treated with cystoventriculoperitoneal shunting with a Y-connection during infancy, which was followed by a revision 6 years later. During the revision surgery, intraventricular bleeding occurred and was managed conservatively. Imaging studies for the current visit revealed syringomyelia along the cervicothoracic spinal cord and a membranous structure around the cervicomedullary junction. Phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow across the membrane. We excised the arachnoid web that was tethering the brainstem and blocking CSF flow. Postoperatively, the patient experienced symptom relief, and the follow-up imaging study demonstrated a dramatic decrease in the size of the syringomyelia. We suggest that syrinx formation in this patient was possibly caused by disturbed CSF flow and tethering of the brainstem. We experienced an unusual case of DWM with syringomyelia which was caused by an arachnoid web blocking CSF flow and tethering the brainstem. The arachnoid web seems to be formed by previous bleeding which occurred at the time of shunt revision. After excision of the arachnoid web, the patient showed good outcome.

  7. Diffuse arachnoid ossification and multiple arachnoid cysts presenting with progressive thoracic myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Kashima, Masahiro; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yasui, Natsuo [The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    An ossified arachnoid membrane combined with cystic formation is rarely reported as a cause of spinal cord compression. We report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with diffuse ossification of the arachnoid membrane (arachnoid ossification) and multiple cystic changes (arachnoid cyst) at the thoracic and lumbar spine. The lesions were surgically removed and progressive deterioration was prevented, although no marked improvement of neurological symptoms was attained. (orig.)

  8. Cystic lesion of posterior cranial fossa: is it Dandy-Walker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella De Nardi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidental discovery of a fluid collection within the posterior cranial fossa in a fetus or a newborn can be a tricky incidental finding during a routine scan, alarming for a Dandy-Walker Malformation (DWM.The main cystic lesions of the posterior cranial fossa are DWM, Blake’s Pouch Cyst (BPC, Arachnoid Cyst (AC and Mega Cisterna Magna (MCM, although the latter is not a proper cyst. The key event for the development of a DWM is a cerebellar vermis hypoplasia that causes the persistence of the superior membranous area, which expands into the posterior fossa forming a large cystic 4th ventricle. BPC is caused by the persistence and herniation of a different membrane, the inferior membranous area, that is supposed to disappear leaving a median opening that would become the foramen of Magendie. MCM originates if this membrane eventually disappears, leaving an enlarged posterior fossa cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid physiologically connected with the subarachnoid fluid. Finally, ACs are caused by a defined duplication of the arachnoid membrane filled with CSF-like fluid. Consequently, the radiological finding of a regular cerebellar vermis excludes the hypothesis of DWM and the position of the choroid plexus helps differentiating between DWM and BPC in controversial cases. Moreover, radiological findings in DWM include cystic dilatation of the 4th ventricle and enlargement of the posterior fossa. Absence of hydrocephalus comes out in favor of MCM. Absence of communication with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid defines an AC.This review assesses the cystic lesions of posterior cranial fossa on the basis of embryological development, radiological findings and associated clinical aspects, in order to clarify the radiological differential diagnosis through embryology.

  9. Familial adhesive arachnoiditis associated with syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasoglou, V; Janin, N; Tebache, M; Tegos, T J; Born, J D; Collignon, L

    2014-06-01

    Adhesive arachnoiditis is a rare condition, often complicated by syringomyelia. This pathologic entity is usually associated with prior spinal surgery, spinal inflammation or infection, and hemorrhage. The usual symptoms of arachnoiditis are pain, paresthesia, and weakness of the low extremities due to the nerve entrapment. A few cases have had no obvious etiology. Previous studies have reported one family with multiple cases of adhesive arachnoiditis. We report a second family of Belgian origin with multiple cases of arachnoiditis and secondary syringomyelia in the affected individuals. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Familial adhesive arachnoiditis associated with syringomyelia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pasoglou, V; Janin, N; Tebache, M; Tegos, T J; Born, J D; Collignon, L

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive arachnoiditis is a rare condition, often complicated by syringomyelia. This pathologic entity is usually associated with prior spinal surgery, spinal inflammation or infection, and hemorrhage...

  11. A comprehensive review of spinal arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael H; Denney, Leann C

    2003-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is an insidious disease caused by an inflammatory process of the arachnoid membrane resulting from many possible causes, such as myelograms with oil-based radiographic contract agents and multiple back surgeries. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging. Arachnoiditis can also mimic the symptoms of other diseases, such as spinal cord tumors, cauda equina syndrome, arachnoiditis ossificans, and syringomyelia. Unfortunately, there is no cure, only treatment of the chronic symptoms. It is an incurable disease that can cause minor to severe symptoms from unexplained rashes to neurologic defects.

  12. Spontaneous hygroma in intracranial arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnoli, A.L.

    1984-06-01

    Anamnesis and treatment of two cases of arachnoid cysts extending into the subarachnoid space are described. No traumatic incident was discovered in the previous history of these two patients. The causal genesis of neurological signs of deficiency in patients with arachnoid and acquired cysts is discussed. However, the cause of the development of a subdural hygroma in arachnoid cysts remains unclarified. CT findings of arachnoid cysts with a hypodense zone between brain surface and the vault of the cranium always require an investigation into the possibility of a spontaneous emptying of the cyst or of a congenital and not only localised extension of the cyst itself.

  13. Adhesive arachnoiditis in patients with spinal block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalpe, I.O.; Sortland, O.

    1982-01-01

    Adhesive arachnoiditis was found in eight patients and spinal block was found in 7 of these in a series of 330 patients refered for thoracic myelography. This variety of adhesive arachnoiditis seems to be caused by spinal block/high CSF protein concentration.

  14. Recurrent spinal adhesive arachnoiditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Pitágoras de Mattos

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinal adhesive arachnoiditis is not an uncommon disease, usually having a monophasic course. We studied an atypical patient with recurrent spinal adhesive arachnoiditis nine years after intrathecal anesthesia and the first attack of the disease. Also noteworthy was the favorable evolution after surgery.

  15. Postlumbar puncture arachnoiditis mimicking epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Mehmet Sabri; Erdoğan, Baris; Yüksel, Mehmet Onur; Somay, Hakan

    2013-11-06

    Lumbar spinal arachnoiditis occurring after diagnostic lumbar puncture is a very rare condition. Arachnoiditis may also present with fever and elevated infection markers and may mimic epidural abscess, which is one of the well known infectious complications of lumbar puncture. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with lumbar spinal arachnoiditis occurring after diagnostic lumbar puncture who was operated on under a misdiagnosis of epidural abscess. In the intraoperative and postoperative microbiological and histopathological examination, no epidural abscess was detected. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient with postlumbar puncture arachnoiditis operated on under a misdiagnosis of epidural abscess reported in the literature. The authors suggest that arachnoiditis may mimic epidural abscess due to its clinical and radiological features and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of complications of lumbar puncture.

  16. Limits of endoscopic treatment of sylvian arachnoid cysts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Federico; R James, Syril; Roujeau, Thomas; Puget, Stephanie; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Zerah, Michel

    2010-02-01

    The optimal surgical management of sylvian arachnoid cysts is debated. We present our experience in children who were treated endoscopically, focusing on the limits and complications of this approach. Seventeen children with a temporo-sylvian arachnoid cyst have been treated using a purely temporal endoscopic approach. In all but one case, the recognition of anatomical landmarks was obtained at the insertion of the endoscope. In one child, the orientation and opening of the basal cisterns were more difficult due to the thickness and opacity of the membranes. Nevertheless, it was possible to perform the cysto-cisternostomy endoscopically in all children with several stomies in 13. In one child, a venous bleeding occurred. There were no other intraoperative complications. There were no postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. In two patients, a symptomatic subdural collection developed which required a transient subdural-peritoneal shunt. No subdural collection was noted on a delayed follow-up (mean, 23 months). Preoperative symptoms related to the mass effect exerted by the cyst resolved in all children. Two children presented a recurrence, 12 and 20 months after endoscopic surgery, respectively. At the redo-endoscopy, the stomies were found to be closed. Their reopening resulted in the disappearance of the symptoms. An endoscopic approach can be used safely in the management of sylvian arachnoid cysts. An effective opening of the deep arachnoid membranes into the basal cisterns could be performed in all patients with the resolution of the preoperative symptoms. However, the long-term efficacy of the stoma needs to be assessed.

  17. Hidroma subdural na fossa posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Vasques

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de hidroma subdural na fossa craniana posterior conseqüente a traumatismo na região occipital. O paciente foi operado com pleno sucesso. A raridade da localização de hidroma na fossa posterior é salientada, sendo discutidos os possíveis mecanismos etio-patogênicos.

  18. Myelographic differential diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis with an emphasis on Tbc arachnoiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yo Won; Yun, Ku Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. The arachnoiditis of various causes, leptomeningeal meatasis, leptomeningeal lymphoma, hypertrophic polyneuritis, etc. are known to have a similar radiologic manifestations. The authors reviewed myelographic findings of 20 patients with spinal arachnoiditis retrospectively to discovery any specific findings helpful to make a differential diagnosis. The causes of spinal arachnoiditis were tuberculous origin in 9 cases, pyogenic in 2, postoperative in one, lymphoma in 3 and leptomeningeal metastasis in 5. Myelographic findings of tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis were block of CSF (89%), especially at the conus medullar is level, multiple fine and/or coarse nodular filling defects (78%), nerve root thickening (56%), focal irregular adhesive filling defects (44%) and irregular or indistinct thecal sac margin (44%). Irregular adhesive band like filling defects and/or multiple fine nodular filling defects seem to be characteristics of the arachnoiditis. Myelographic findings showing coarse nodular filling defects without fine ones are suggestive of leptomeningeal metastasis.

  19. Supratentorial arachnoid cyst management by cystoperitoneal shunt in a 1-year-old European cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taroni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are defined as an accumulation of fluid within the arachnoid membrane. Feline intracranial arachnoid cysts are seldom reported, with only three cases in the veterinary literature. A 1-year-old male neutered European cat with a 24 h history of seizures was presented to the small animal neurology department at Vetagro Sup, Lyon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large intracranial arachnoid cyst ventral to the brain in the left temporal area. Cystoperitoneal shunt placement resulted in complete resolution of the cyst without recurrence (follow-up MRIs 3 weeks and 21 months after surgery. Anticonvulsant treatment (phenobarbital 2.5 mg/kg q12h was initiated at presentation and gradually stopped after 17 months. Seizures recurred 4 months after ending treatment, and seizure therapy was therefore restarted at the initial dose. We report a case of an intracranial arachnoid cyst in an unusual location not previously described. A cystoperitoneal shunt resolved the cyst without complications. Maintenance anticonvulsant treatment was required to control symptomatic epilepsy.

  20. Treatment options for intracranial arachnoid cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Vedel; Danielsen, Patricia L; Juhler, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The best surgical treatment of cerebral arachnoid cysts is yet to be established. Treatment options are shunting, endoscopic fenestration or microsurgical fenestration through craniotomy.Data from 69 patients with cerebral arachnoid cysts treated in our institution between 1997 and 2007 were......-up was 30 months. In the surgical series 79% (n = 45) had a good outcome.We conclude that the surgical treatment of arachnoid cysts has an overall good outcome. In our institution the best results were obtained with microsurgical decompression through craniotomy....

  1. Arachnoid granulation affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Chopard

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate using light microscopy the fibro-cellular components of arachnoid granulations affected by mild and severe subarachnoid hemorrage. The erythrocytes were in the channels delimitated by collagenous and elastic bundles and arachnoid cells, showing their tortuous and intercommunicating row from the pedicle to the fibrous capsule. The core portion of the pedicle and the center represented a principal route to the bulk outflow of cerebrospinal fluid and erythrocytes. In the severe hemorrhage, the fibrocellular components are desorganized, increasing the extracellular channels. We could see arachnoid granulations without erythrocytes, which cells showed big round nucleous suggesting their transformation into phagocytic cells.

  2. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  3. Arachnoid cyst with associated arachnoiditis developing after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumialán, Luis M; Cawley, C Michael; Barrow, Daniel L

    2005-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 53-year-old woman in whom a T1-T2 spinal arachnoid cyst with associated arachnoiditis developed, compressing the thoracic spinal cord 1 year after the patient had suffered a Hunt and Hess Grade IV subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Development of spinal arachnoiditis with or without an arachnoid cyst is a rare complication of aneurysmal SAH. Risk factors may include posterior circulation aneurysms, the extent and severity of the hemorrhage, and the need for cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Surgical drainage, shunt placement, or cyst excision, when possible, is the mainstay of treatment.

  4. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, T. [Department of Neurology, CN Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India); Kochar, D.K. [Department of Medicine, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India)

    2003-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We focused on early diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis by spinal MRI in asymptomatic patients in whom neurological examination was normal. We studied 16 patients with a diagnosis of probable or highly probable TBM with symptoms for less than 1 month; three had radiological evidence of spinal arachnoiditis. High cerebrospinal fluid protein appeared to be a risk factor for development of spinal arachnoiditis. MRI is sensitive to detect early spinal arachnoiditis. Earlier diagnosis may be helpful in management of spinal arachnoiditis in TBM. (orig.)

  5. Asymptomatic spinal arachnoiditis in patients with tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, T; Kochar, D K

    2003-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is one of the common and disabling complication of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). We focused on early diagnosis of spinal arachnoiditis by spinal MRI in asymptomatic patients in whom neurological examination was normal. We studied 16 patients with a diagnosis of probable or highly probable TBM with symptoms for less than 1 month; three had radiological evidence of spinal arachnoiditis. High cerebrospinal fluid protein appeared to be a risk factor for development of spinal arachnoiditis. MRI is sensitive to detect early spinal arachnoiditis. Earlier diagnosis may be helpful in management of spinal arachnoiditis in TBM.

  6. arachnoiditis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-02

    Sep 2, 2005 ... C/O Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences,. University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Rd. Parktown 2193,. Johannesburg, South Africa email: jmno@mweb.co.za. Visual deterioration 1½ years after wrapping an un-clippable anterior communicating artery aneurysm: report of a case and.

  7. Arachnoiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Dysgraphia Information Page Dyslexia Information Page Dystonias Information Page Empty Sella Syndrome ... Spotlight Find NINDS Clinical Trials Patient & Caregiver Education Fact Sheets Hope Through Research Know Your Brain Preventing ...

  8. An interesting case of primary spinal arachnoiditis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, Denis

    2012-02-27

    Spinal arachnoiditis describes inflammation of the meninges, subarachnoid space and, in most cases, also involve the pial layer. The vast majority of cases described are secondary and are preceded by a known event, for example,. trauma, infections or irritative substances. Here, we present the case of primary spinal arachnoiditis. A 35-year-old lady was referred to the neurosurgical services in Dublin, Ireland with a 15-month history of progressive, right lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cystic distortion of the lumbar spinal canal extending up to the conus. Initially, an L2-L4 laminectomy was performed revealing thickened and adherent arachnoid with a large cyst in the spinal canal. Four months after initial operation, the patient represented with bilateral lower limb weakness and loss of detrusor function. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed the development of a syrinx in the patient\\'s thoracic spine. We then performed a T9-T10 laminectomy, midline myelotomy and insertion of a syringe-arachnoid shunt. Post-operative imaging showed resolution of the syrinx and a vast improvement in lower limb power. The patient also regained bladder control. In conclusion, spinal arachnoiditis is a clearly defined pathological and radiological entity with a highly variable clinical presentation. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as there is no recognised treatment currently, with most interventions aimed at symptomatic relief.

  9. An interesting case of primary spinal arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Denis; Bolger, Ciaran; O'Brien, Donncha Finbar

    2012-08-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis describes inflammation of the meninges, subarachnoid space and, in most cases, also involve the pial layer. The vast majority of cases described are secondary and are preceded by a known event, for example,. trauma, infections or irritative substances. Here, we present the case of primary spinal arachnoiditis. A 35-year-old lady was referred to the neurosurgical services in Dublin, Ireland with a 15-month history of progressive, right lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cystic distortion of the lumbar spinal canal extending up to the conus. Initially, an L2-L4 laminectomy was performed revealing thickened and adherent arachnoid with a large cyst in the spinal canal. Four months after initial operation, the patient represented with bilateral lower limb weakness and loss of detrusor function. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed the development of a syrinx in the patient's thoracic spine. We then performed a T9-T10 laminectomy, midline myelotomy and insertion of a syringe-arachnoid shunt. Post-operative imaging showed resolution of the syrinx and a vast improvement in lower limb power. The patient also regained bladder control. In conclusion, spinal arachnoiditis is a clearly defined pathological and radiological entity with a highly variable clinical presentation. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as there is no recognised treatment currently, with most interventions aimed at symptomatic relief.

  10. Cisto de aracnóide e pseudotumor cerebral: relato de caso Arachnoid cyst and pseudotumor cerebri: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Domingos Cabral

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Relato do caso de paciente de 12 anos de idade com cisto de aracnóide na fossa craniana posterior e pseudotumor cerebral dependente de derivação cisto-peritoneal previamente instalada. Esta constatação corrobora assertivas da literatura que sugerem um mecanismo fisiopatológico em comum para estas duas entidades e que estaria relacionado a defeito no fluxo do líquido cefalorraqueano.Report on a 12 years old patient with an arachnoid cyst of posterior cranial fossa and pseudotumor cerebri. This patient is a shunt dependent of his cyst-peritoneal shunt. This association and evolution of this pacient suggest a common and specifical pathogenic mechanism of these two pathologies based in a disturbance of the cerebral fluid circulation.

  11. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  12. Arachnoid Membrane Suturing for Prevention of Subdural Fluid Collection in Extracranial-intracranial Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun Woo; Joo, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Sun; Moon, Hyung Sik; Jang, Jae Won; Seo, Bo Ra; Lee, Jung Kil; Kim, Jae Hyoo; Kim, Soo Han

    2014-06-01

    Water-tight closure of the dura in extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is impossible because the superficial temporal artery (STA) must run through the dural defect. Consequently, subdural hygroma and subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection frequently occur postoperatively. To reduce these complications, we prospectively performed suturing of the arachnoid membrane after STA-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) and evaluated the clinical usefulness. Between Mar. 2005 and Oct. 2010, extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass (EIAB) with/without encephalo-myo-synangiosis was performed in 88 cases (male : female = 53 : 35). As a control group, 51 patients (57 sides) underwent conventional bypass surgery without closure of the arachnoid membrane. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan was performed twice in three days and seven days later, respectively, for evaluation of the presence of subdural fluid collection and other mass lesions. The surgical result was excellent, with no newly developing ischemic event until recent follow-up. The additional time needed for arachnoid suture was five to ten minutes, when three to eight sutures were required. Post-operative subdural fluid collection was not seen on follow-up computed tomography scans in all patients. Arachnoid suturing is simple, safe, and effective for prevention of subdural fluid collection in EC-IC bypass surgery, especially the vulnerable ischemic hemisphere.

  13. Novel surgical management of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis by arachnoid microdissection and ventriculo-subarachnoid shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuyama, Tetsuryu; Asamoto, Shunji; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2011-12-01

    Spinal cord tethering and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow disturbance are two major features in the pathophysiology of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. We hypothesized that insufficient CSF supply to the surgically untethered spinal cord may be one of the causes of the typical post-operative recurrent extensive lesion. We report a patient with extensive spinal adhesive arachnoiditis, who was successfully treated using a novel surgical technique consisting of two procedures. First, microdissection of the thickened adherent arachnoid was performed to resolve spinal cord tethering. Next, a ventriculo-subarachnoid shunt was placed to provide sufficient flow of CSF. Clinical improvement was sustained for at least 22 months after surgery. The present surgical procedure may improve clinical outcome in patients with longitudinally extensive spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The presence of arachnoiditis affects the characteristics of CSF flow in the spinal subarachnoid space: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaokoon; Stoodley, Marcus A; Wong, Johnny; Hemley, Sarah; Fletcher, David F; Bilston, Lynne E

    2012-04-30

    Syringomyelia is a neurological disorder characterised by high pressure fluid-filled cysts within the spinal cord. As syringomyelia is associated with abnormalities of the central nervous system that obstruct cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, it is thought that changes in CSF dynamics play an important role in its pathogenesis. Using three-dimensional computational models of the spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), this study aims to determine SAS obstructions, such as arachnoiditis, change in CSF dynamics in the SAS. The geometry of the SAS was reconstructed from a series of MRI images. CSF is modelled as an incompressible Newtonian fluid with a dynamic viscosity of 1 mPa s. Three computational models simulated CSF flow in either the unobstructed SAS, or with the SAS obstructed by a porous region simulating dorsal or circumferential arachnoiditis. The permeability of this porous obstruction was varied for the model with dorsal arachnoiditis. The results show that arachnoiditis increases flow resistance in the SAS and this is accompanied by a modest increase in magnitude and/or shift in timing (with respect to the cardiac cycle) of the CSF pressure drop across the region of arachnoiditis. This study suggests that syrinx formation may be related to a change in temporal CSF pulse pressure dynamics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Population study of Pyxis arachnoides brygooi (Vuillemin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Madagascar spider tortoise (Pyxis arachnoides spp.) is faced with the threat of habitat destruction ... Both sexes were evenly represented in the field during the research period. Three individuals of the ... Their presence might be due to a transitional zone of both subspecies in the area of research. La tortue araignée de ...

  16. Arachnoiditis ossificans of the cauda equina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, Abad Cherif; El Mostarchid, Brahim; Akhaddar, Ali; Baallal, Hassan; Dao, Ibrahim; Naama, Okacha; Gazzaz, Miloudi; Boucetta, Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    A case of post-traumatic arachnoiditis ossificans of the cauda equina is reported. The lesion is a rare pathological entity usually confined to the thoracic and high lumbar regions that can cause progressive spinal cord and cauda equine compression. The pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy of this rare entity are still controversial.

  17. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalak, Charles F.; Opalak, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare disorder that was differentiated from leptomeningeal calcification by Kaufman and Dunsmore in 1971. It generally presents with progressive lower extremity myelopathy. Though the underlying etiology has yet to be fully described, it has been associated with various predisposing factors including vascular malformations, previous intradural surgery, myelograms, and adhesive arachnoiditis. Associated conditions include syringomyelia and arachnoid cyst. The preferred diagnostic method is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Surgical intervention is still controversial and can include decompression and duroplasty or durotomy. Case Description: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old male with a history of paraplegia who presented with a urinary tract infection and dysautonomia. His past surgical history was notable for a C4–C6 anterior fusion and an intrathecal phenol injection for spasticity. A magnetic resonance image (MR) also demonstrated a T6-conus syringx. At surgery, there was significant ossification of the arachnoid/dura, which was removed. After a drain was placed in the syrinx, there was a significant neurologic improvement. Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions. PMID:26693389

  18. Neurologic deficits and arachnoiditis following neuroaxial anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, J A

    2003-01-01

    Of late, regional anesthesia has enjoyed unprecedented popularity; this increase in cases has brought a higher frequency of instances of neurological deficit and arachnoiditis that may appear as transient nerve root irritation, cauda equina, and conus medullaris syndromes, and later as radiculitis, clumped nerve roots, fibrosis, scarring dural sac deformities, pachymeningitis, pseudomeningocele, and syringomyelia, etc., all associated with arachnoiditis. Arachnoiditis may be caused by infections, myelograms (mostly from oil-based dyes), blood in the intrathecal space, neuroirritant, neurotoxic and/or neurolytic substances, surgical interventions in the spine, intrathecal corticosteroids, and trauma. Regarding regional anesthesia in the neuroaxis, arachnoiditis has resulted from epidural abscesses, traumatic punctures (blood), local anesthetics, detergents, antiseptics or other substances unintentionally injected into the spinal canal. Direct trauma to nerve roots or the spinal cord may be manifested as paraesthesia that has not been considered an injurious event; however, it usually implies dural penetration, as there are no nerve roots in the epidural space posteriorly. Sudden severe headache while or shortly after an epidural block using the loss of resistance to air approach usually suggests pneumocephalus from an intradural injection of air. Burning severe pain in the lower back and lower extremities, dysesthesia and numbness not following the usual dermatome distribution, along with bladder, bowel and/or sexual dysfunction, are the most common symptoms of direct trauma to the spinal cord. Such patients should be subjected to a neurological examination followed by an MRI of the effected area. Further spinal procedures are best avoided and the prompt administration of IV corticosteroids and NSAIDs need to be considered in the hope of preventing the inflammatory response from evolving into the proliferative phase of arachnoiditis.

  19. [Intrasellar arachnoid cyst: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, S; Nakai, M; Ryujin, Y; Uematsu, Y; Nakai, K; Itakura, T

    1995-09-01

    Intrasellar arachnoid cyst is very rare. We report a case of intrasellar arachnoid cyst. A 44-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of his headache and visual disturbance on August 6, 1993. Neurological examination revealed bilateral decreased visual acuity and visual field defect. Endocrinological examination showed panhypopituitarism. Other neurological findings were normal. X-ray film of the skull showed a ballooning dilation of the sella turcica with thinning of the sellar floor. CT scan showed a cystic lesion with CSF-density occupied the sella. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, the cyst showed no enhancement. MRI showed the intrasellar mass had the same characteristics as the surrounding subarachnoid space. Bilateral carotid angiographies demonstrated that the carotid siphons were stretched and displaced laterally, and the A1 portions of the anterior cerebral arteries were raised. We made a diagnosis of intrasellar cystic lesion. On August 18, the sella turcica was opened via the transsphenoidal rhinoseptal approach. The cyst contained CSF-like fluid, and a part of the cyst wall was resected. The cavity was filled with Gelfoam and the sellar floor was repaired with bone flap. Postoperatively, the patient's visual disturbance improved, but diabetis insipidus appeared and required hormonal replacement. The patient was discharged on September 27 with improvement of visual acuity and visual field. Histological examination demonstrated that the cyst wall consisted of thick arachnoidal cells with fibrous connective tissue. The arachnoidal cells with oval nuclei was stained with epithelial membrane antigen. Symptoms, signs and radiological findings of intrasellar arachnoid cyst are similar to those of various sellar lesions including pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, empty sella, Rathke's cleft cyst, epidermoid et al.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Arachnoiditis Ossificans - A Rare Cause of Progressive Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christopher J; Abrames, Erik L; O'Brien, William T

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare cause of chronic, progressive myelopathy. In contrast to the more common benign causes of meningeal calcification, arachnoiditis ossificans results in replacement of portions of the spinal arachnoid by bone as an end-stage complication of adhesive arachnoiditis. It is usually the sequela of prior trauma or interventional procedures. Prognosis and treatment options depend upon the location and degree of spinal stenosis with thoracic involvement being more common and more severe than lumbar spine involvement. The imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging may be confusing; however, the findings of intraspinal ossification on computed tomography are characteristics and diagnostic. We present a classic case of arachnoiditis ossificans in an elderly man who presented with progressive myelopathy and a recent fall, along with a review of the literature. The imaging in this case not only identified the characteristic findings of arachnoiditis ossificans but also identified secondary findings of the underlying causative etiology.

  1. Arachnoiditis Ossificans – A Rare Cause of Progressive Myelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christopher J; Abrames, Erik L; O’Brien, William T

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare cause of chronic, progressive myelopathy. In contrast to the more common benign causes of meningeal calcification, arachnoiditis ossificans results in replacement of portions of the spinal arachnoid by bone as an end-stage complication of adhesive arachnoiditis. It is usually the sequela of prior trauma or interventional procedures. Prognosis and treatment options depend upon the location and degree of spinal stenosis with thoracic involvement being more common and more severe than lumbar spine involvement. The imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging may be confusing; however, the findings of intraspinal ossification on computed tomography are characteristics and diagnostic. We present a classic case of arachnoiditis ossificans in an elderly man who presented with progressive myelopathy and a recent fall, along with a review of the literature. The imaging in this case not only identified the characteristic findings of arachnoiditis ossificans but also identified secondary findings of the underlying causative etiology. PMID:26401174

  2. Cadaveric study of fossa ovalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanani SD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The interatrial septum of heart presents the fossa ovale, an oval depression above and to the left of the orifice of the inferior vena cava. Atrial septal defect is one of the most common but least severe congenital heart diseases in adult. Patent foramen ovale is a hemodynamically insignificant interatrial communication present in >25% of the adult population. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 40 cadavers with age range of 60 to 80 years in the dissection laboratory of various medical colleges of ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Standard dissection method was used and foramen ovale was observed after opening up the right atrium and data about the situation, shape, floor and margin of foramen ovale was noted. Result and Observation: Commonest position of fossa ovalis was the middle of the interatrial wall followed by mouth of the inferior caval vein and mouth of the superior caval vein. In 33 hearts the fossa was oval and in 07 hearts it was round. The floor was very thick 19, moderately thick in 13 and thin in 08. Two hearts had fenestrated floor. Conclusion: Patients with isolated atrial septal defects (ASD have benefited from important recent advances in the diagnosis, evaluation, & management of their conditions. More studies are necessary to address several unresolved issues related to patent foramen ovale for benefit of patients.

  3. Giant arachnoid granulation in a patient with benign intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Denizli (Turkey)

    2008-10-15

    We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)

  4. Thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syrinx formation secondary to myelography with Myodil, 30 years previously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingham, Kanna K; Joshi, Shabin Man; Sabin, Ian

    2006-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis can rarely occur following irritation from foreign body substances, including certain oil based contrast agents used for myelography. We describe a patient with thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syringomyelia, 30 years following a myelogram with Myodil. A 62-year-old female presented with chronic thoraco-lumbar back pain, a spastic paraparesis and sphincter disturbance. She had undergone a myelogram with Myodil, 30 years previously for investigation of back pain. A MRI scan revealed evidence of arachnoiditis, thoracic syringomyelia (T6-T8) and an anteriorly placed, extramedullary, arachnoid cyst at T10-T12, compressing the cord. At surgery, T7-T10 thoracic laminectomies were carried out and syringo- and cysto-subarachnoid shunts were inserted. At 12 months follow-up, the sphincter disturbance, lower limb weakness and mobility problems had almost resolved. Although, the use of oil based contrast agents such as Myodil has been discontinued, the present case illustrates some of the rare sequelae of its use, manifesting decades later. Aggressive surgical intervention produced symptomatic benefit.

  5. Syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with spinal arachnoiditis following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Shunsuke; Hayashi, Kentaro; Otsuka, Munehiro; Fukuda, Shuji; Tsunoda, Keishi; Ushijima, Ryujiro; Kitagawa, Naoki; Suyama, Kazuhiko; Nagata, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with primary Sjogren syndrome developed syringomyelia following two episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to the rupture of basilar artery aneurysms. Gait disturbance and abnormal sensation with pain over the foot and abdomen appeared 3 years after the last SAH. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a syringomyelia throughout the thoracic cord, from the T2 to T11 levels. In addition, the thoracic cord was compressed by multiple arachnoid cysts in the ventral side of spinal cord. Computed tomography myelography revealed complete block of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow at the T7 level. Surgery for microlysis of the adhesions and restoration of the CSF flow pathway was performed. Postoperatively, leg motor function slowly improved and she could walk unaided. However, abdominal paresthesia was persisted. Postoperative MR imaging revealed diminished size of the syrinxes. We should recognize syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts due to adhesive arachnoiditis as a late complication of SAH. Microlysis of the adhesions focusing on the lesion thought to be the cause of the symptoms is one of the choices to treat massive syringomyelia and arachnoid cysts associated with arachnoiditis following SAH.

  6. Giant non traumatic intradiploic arachnoid cyst in a young male

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajesh [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, ASCOMS Hospital, Sidhra, Jammu (India); Gupta, Puneet; Mahajan, Manik, E-mail: puneetgupta619@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi (India); Sharma, Poonam [Department of Pathology, GMC, Jammu (India); Gupta, Anchal; Khurana, Arti [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, GMC, Jammu (J and K) (India)

    2016-09-15

    Intradiploic arachnoid cysts have scarcely been reported in the literature, most reported cases being secondary to trauma. Non traumatic arachnoid cysts are quite rare and have been reported mostly in adults. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old male presenting with a slowly growing mass in the occipital region and intermittent headaches. On the basis of the findings of X-rays, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head, the mass was diagnosed as a giant intradiploic arachnoid cyst. Keywords: Arachnoid cysts; Cerebrospinal fluid; Headache/diagnosis. (author)

  7. Topographic relations of the high jugular fossa to the inner ear. A radioanatomic investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadin, K.; Wilbrand, H.

    The radioanatomy of high jugular fossae and their topographic relations to the inner ear structures were investigated in 245 unselected temporal bones. One hundred and fifty specimens were submitted to multidirectional and 10 to computed tomography. After careful chemical and fermentative maceration plastic casts were made, using polyester resin and silicone rubber. With the use of vacuum, even minute structures became filled with the casting material. The specimens offered a three-dimensional view of the jugular fossae and surrounding structures. Fifty-eight (24%) of the total 245 specimens had high jugular fossae at a level above the lower border of the round window. Five casts showed a dehiscence of the peripheral portion of the vestibular aqueduct caused by the high jugular fossa. In 2 casts the proximal portion of the cochlear aqueduct was affected. In some casts the posterior semicircular canal, the facial canal, the stapedial muscle and the round window lay so close to the fossa that a dehiscence could not be excluded. In a clinical material of 102 high fossae the radiographic findings were in accordance with the experimental results. High jugular fossae were predominantly found in pyramids with low-grade mastoid bone pneumatization and sparse or no perilabyrinthine air cells.

  8. [Flexible endoscopy in surgical treatment of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis and arachnoid cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashcheev, A A; Arestov, S O; Gushcha, A O

    2013-01-01

    Thecaloscopy is less invasive exploration of spinal subarachnoid space with ultra-thin flexible endoscope and endoscopic fenestration of scars and adhesions. Thecalopscopy was used in Russian neurosurgery at the first time. Since 2009 we operated 32 patients with following diagnosis: 17--spinal adhesive arachnoiditis (8--local forms, 9--diffuse forms), 12--spinal arachnoid cysts (7--posstraumatic cysts, 5--idiopathic cysts), 3--extramedullary tumors (thecaloscopic videoassistance and biopsy). In all cases we realized exploration of subarachnoid space and pathologic lesion with endoscopic perforation of cyst or dissection of adhesions using special instrumentation. Mean follow-up in our group was 11.4 months. Neurological improvement (mean 1.4 by modified Frankel scale, 1.8 by Ashworth spasticity scale) was seen in 87% of patients operated for spinal arachnopathies. Temporary neurological deterioration (mild disturbances of deep sensitivity) was seen in 9% of patients and managed successfully with conservative treatment. 1 (3.1%) patient was operated 3 times because of relapse of adhesions. There were no serious intraoperative complications (e.g., serious bleeding, dura perforation etc). Postoperative complications included 1 CSF leakage and 1 postoperative neuralgic pain. Mean term of hospitalization was 7.6 days. According to our data, we suppose that thecaloscopy is efficient and safe method, and should be widely used for spinal arachnopaties, adhesive arachnoiditis and arachnoid cysts. Taking into account that adhesive spinal arachnoiditis is systemic process and spinal arachnoid cysts can be extended as well, thecaloscopy may be regarded as the most radical and less-invasive way of surgical treatment existing currently in neurosurgery.

  9. Unexpected ruptured aneurysm during posterior fossa surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, L; Capel, C; N'Da, H; Lefranc, M; Peltier, J

    2014-10-01

    Surgery is the recommended treatment for unique significant cerebellar metastasis, particularly in cases of hydrocephalus. Complications of posterior fossa surgery are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. We present a unique case of unexpected peroperative rupture of a cerebellar superior artery aneurysm during posterior fossa surgery. During posterior cranial fossa surgery, severe arterial bleeding occurred in front of the medulla oblongata. Immediate postoperative computed tomographic (CT) angiography revealed a fusiform aneurysm from a distal branch of the left superior cerebellar artery. To our knowledge, this is the first reported operative case of unexpected infratentorial ruptured aneurysm during posterior fossa surgery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Radiologic findings of intraspinal epidural arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jeong Kwon; Eun, Choong Ki; Jeon, Young Seup; Lee, Jong Yuk; Lee, Young Joon; Shim, Jae Hong [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soon Seup [Donga Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of intraspinal epidural arachnoid cyst. Six patients with surgically proven intraspinal epidural arachnoid cyst were included in this study. Four were free of specific past history, but two had a history of trauma. All underwent examination by plain radiogr4aphy, CT-myelography and MRI, and the following aspects were retrospectively analysed:vertebral pressure erosion, interpedicular distance, enlargement of neural foramina, as seen on plain radiograph, contrast-filling and lateral bulging of lesions through neural foramina on CT-myelograph, and signal intensity, size and shape of margin and epidural fat pattern, as seen on MRI. Three of four congenital intraspinal epidural arachnoid cysts were single in the thoracolumbar region, while in the other case, there were multiple cysts in the mid-and lower thoracic regions. Cysts were equivaleut in size to between four and six vertebral bodies. Plain radiographic findings of pedicular pressure erosion, widened interpedicular distance, and bilateral neural foraminal enlargement of several contiguous vertebrae were observed in all four cases. One showed posterior vertebral scalloping. On CT-myelograph, a contrast-filled cystic lesion occupying the posterior epidural space, with lateral bulging through neural foramina and anterior displacement of the contrast-filled thecal sac, was seen. On MRI, longitudinally elongated, well-demarcated cysts were seen to be present in the posterior epidural space;their signal intensity was the same as in CSF. An epidural fat cap pattern enveloping the upper and lower ends of the cysts was apparent in all cases. In two cases, traumatic intraspinal epidural arachnoid cysts were situated in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral region, respectively, near a previously injured region and were smaller (equivalent to the height of three vertebral bodies). CT-myelograph and MRI showed that their effect on the thecal sac was compressive only. When pressure erosion of

  11. Subarachnoid-subarachnoid bypass for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Toshiya; Moriyama, Tokuhide; Maruo, Keishi; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2014-11-01

    The authors report a case of adhesive arachnoiditis (AA) and arachnoid cyst successfully treated by subarachnoid to subarachnoid bypass (S-S bypass). Arachnoid cysts or syringes sometimes compress the spinal cord and cause compressive myelopathy that requires surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment for AA is challenging. A 57-year-old woman developed leg pain and gait disturbance. A dorsal arachnoid cyst compressed the spinal cord at T7-9, the spinal cord was swollen, and a small syrinx was present at T9-10. An S-S bypass was performed from T6-7 to T11-12. The patient's gait disturbance resolved immediately after surgery. Two years later, a small arachnoid cyst developed. However, there was no neurological deterioration. The myelopathy associated with thoracic spinal AA, subarachnoid cyst, and syrinx improved after S-S bypass.

  12. Delayed occurrence of spinal arachnoiditis following a caudal block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Eun Hye; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare disease caused by fibrosis and adhesion of the arachnoid membrane due to chronic inflammation. The causes of arachnoiditis are infection, spinal surgery, intraspinal injection of steroid or myelography dye, and spinal anesthesia. Case report. A 60-year-old woman presented with progressive weakness and sensory change of both legs and urinary symptoms. She had received a single caudal block 6 months before symptom onset. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoraco-lumbar spine showed an intradural extramedullary tumor at the T5-T7 level. She underwent laminectomy and tumor resection. The pathological finding was arachnoiditis. After surgery, a rehabilitation program of strengthening exercises of both lower extremities and gait training was started. At 2-month follow-up, she was able to walk with orthoses and performed daily activities with minimal assistance. Symptoms of spinal arachnoiditis occurred 6 months after a single caudal block in this woman. Clinicians should be aware of this possible delayed complication.

  13. Petrous and sphenoid arachnoid cysts: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, Judith; Verillaud, Benjamin; Bresson, Damien; Tran, Hugo; Kania, Romain; Sauvaget, Elisabeth; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Herman, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Intraosseous arachnoid cysts are rare and difficult to diagnose. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and radiological semiology of petrous and sphenoid arachnoid cysts and to propose a specific management strategy. This was a retrospective, descriptive study of patients with arachnoid cysts, which utilized CT, MRI, and the patients' medical histories. Ten patients were included in this study. On CT, the lesions were lytic with bony delineation. On MRI, the lesions exhibited the same signals as cerebrospinal fluid and were not enhanced after contrast. On fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and diffusion-weighted sequences, the arachnoid cysts' signal disappeared, which is a key feature for eliminating the diagnosis of cholesteatoma. Two patients underwent surgery because of misdiagnosis, either with a meningocele or a cholesteatoma. MRI FLAIR and diffusion-weighted sequences, together with osseous CT scans, help to distinguish arachnoid cysts from meningoceles and avoid unnecessary surgeries with potential complications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Iophendylate myelography induced thoracic arachnoiditis, arachnoid cyst and syrinx, four decades later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, C V; Mishra, Atul; Thomas, Bejoy

    2010-12-01

    Iophendylate (Myodil) was a popular oil-based contrast agent used until late 1980s for myelography, ventriculography and cisternography. Although several long-term sequelae have been reported in literature, they are extremely rare. We report a rare occurrence of symptomatic dorsal arachnoid cyst 40 years after Myodil myelography.

  15. Aneurysm, arachnoiditis and intrathecal Au (gold)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pence, D.M.; Kim, T.H.; Levitt, S.H. (Univ. of Minnesota Hospital and Clinic, Minneapolis (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This report is a 20-year follow-up of 14 patients treated with external beam craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal gold (10-45 mCi) for medulloblastoma. Six of the patients died within 2 years of treatment from persistent disease. No patients are alive without complications. Six of eight surviving patients developed arachnoiditis and cauda equina syndrome within 5 to 10 years of treatment. Seven of eight survivors developed aneurysms and/or cerebrovascular accidents 9 to 20 years after treatment. Four of the cerebrovascular events were fatal. Intrathecal gold pools in the basal cisterns and cauda equina delivering an extremely inhomogeneous dose throughout the neuroaxis. Its use is discouraged.

  16. The changing pattern of spinal arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M D; Russell, J A; Grossart, K W

    1978-01-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a rare condition. Eighty cases, diagnosed during a period when 7600 spinal contrast investigations were undertaken, have been reviewed. The majority had suffered a previous spinal condition, the most common being lumbar disc disease. There has been a change in the distribution of arahnoiditis with the lumbar region now most frequently involved. This accounts for the persistence of radicular symptoms and the relatively low incidence of paraplegia when compared with earlier series. Surgery does not appear to have any role in the treatment. Images PMID:632824

  17. Syringomyelia associated with adhesive spinal arachnoiditis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Nemoto, Y.; Daikokuya, H.; Tashiro, T.; Shakudo, M.; Nakayama, K.; Yamada, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Osaka City University Medical School (Japan); Ohata, K.; Hakuba, A.; Nagai, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    We reviewed the MRI of seven patients with syringomyelia associated with surgically proven adhesive spinal arachnoiditis to describe clinical and MRI findings in this condition. Using 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 tesla units, we obtained sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and axial T1-weighted images. Additional sagittal T2-weighted images were obtained without using motion-artefact suppression. Contrast medium was given intravenously to five patients. The syrinx cavities were thoracic in five cases, cervicothoracic in one, and extended from C4 to L1 in one. No Chiari malformation or craniovertebral junction anomaly was demonstrated. Meningeal thickening was seen on T2-weighted sagittal images only in one case. Cord deformity due to adhesion or displacement due to an associated arachnoid cyst was seen in all cases best demonstrated on axial images. Focal blurring of the syrinx wall on axial images was seen in six patients. Flow voids were seen in the syrinx fluid in all cases on T2-weighted images obtained without motion-artefact suppression. No abnormal contrast enhancement was demonstrated. (orig.)

  18. Lumbar arachnoiditis as the differential diagnosis of chronic spine problems; Lumbale Arachnoiditis als Differenzialdiagnose chronischer Wirbelsaeulenbeschwerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T.; Brill, G. [Klinikum Saarbruecken (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik; Reith, W. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2001-11-01

    Lumbar epiduro-arachnoiditis is an infectious disaese of the three mengial layers. It is often caused by surgical interventions on the spine. In this survey etiologic factors, clinical symptoms and radiological findings are compared. The radiologic classification of Delamater is described by three clinical cases. The diagnostic value of different procedures such as myelography, postmyelographic computed tomography and MR imaging is evaluated. (orig.) [German] Die Arachnoiditis ist eine entzuendliche Erkrankung der 3 meningealen Schichten (Pia, Arachnoidea und Dura) die in aller Regel durch instrumentelle und chirurgische Eingriffe an der Wirbelsaeule entsteht. In diesem Uebersichtsbeitrag werden aetiologische Faktoren, klinische Beschwerden und die radiologischen Befunde vorgestellt. Die Einteilung nach Delamater wird anhand von 3 klinischen Faellen vorgestellt. Differenzial-diagnostische Kriterien zur Abgrenzung gegen andere, insbesondere postoperative Wirbelsaeulenbefunde, werden aufgezeigt. Die diagnostische Wertigkeit der Myelographie, postmyelographische Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie werden verglichen. (orig.)

  19. Are Homo sapiens nonsupranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa convergent traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta

    2011-04-01

    The autapomorphic status of the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was recently confirmed. This was a result of a detailed analysis of the internal bone composition in the area of the suprainiac depression on Neanderthal and Homo sapiens specimens. However, while anatomical differences between Neanderthal suprainiac fossa and the depression in the inion region of the occipital bone of fossil and recent Homo sapiens have been discussed in detail, the etiology of these structures has not been resolved. In this article, the hypothesis that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa both formed to maintain the optimal shape of the occipital plane (to minimize strain on the posterior cranial vault) is tested. First, the variation in the expression of the fossa above inion in the crania of recent Homo sapiens from European, African, and Australian samples was examined, and the degree of structural similarity between these depressions and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was assessed. Next, the relationship between the shape of the occipital squama in the midsagittal plane and two particular features (the degree of the occipital torus development and the occurrence of a depression in the inion region that is not the supranuchal fossa) were analyzed. Based on the results, it is suggested that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa are convergent traits. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Surgical anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentges, R T

    1975-01-01

    The pterygopalatine fossa is the distribution centre for the main vessels and nerves of the middle third of the face. Its surgical anatomy is discussed, with particular emphasis on the relationship between the medical plate of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone and the vertical plate of the palatine bone; the position of the several foramina is reviewed also. It is stressed that the vascular contents of the pterygopalatine fossa lie in a coronal plane, anterior to the neural contents. Finally, a short review is given of the different surgical approaches to the pterygopalatine fossa. It is concluded that the transantral approach to the fossa, as originally described by Carnochan (1858), still seems to be the best way to gain access to this space.

  1. Posterior Fossa Tumors and Intellectual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cerebellar damage on intellectual function in 76 children treated surgically for malignant posterior fossa tumor was investigated at the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, and the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

  2. Posterior fossa syndrome—a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Salima S.; Hettige, Samantha; Mankad, Kshtij; Aquilina, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS), or cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS), is a collection of neurological symptoms that occur following surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumour, and is characterised by either a reduction or an absence of speech. Some authors suggest that CM is only one symptom of the CMS complex that also includes ataxia, hypotonia and irritability as well as cranial nerve deficits, neurobehavioral changes and urinary retention or incontinence. It is seen almost exclusively ...

  3. An arachnoid cyst presenting as an intramedullary tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P. W.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Vandertop, W. P.

    2000-01-01

    A case of thoracic intradural extramedullary arachnoid cyst is presented in which an intramedullary low grade glioma was suspected preoperatively. The cyst was widely fenestrated and postoperatively, the patient experienced considerable improvement in her symptoms. As postoperative MRI studies also

  4. Arachnoiditis ossificans associated with syringomyelia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbing; Chen, Zhong; Song, Deyong; Xuan, Tianhang

    2017-11-02

    The association of arachnoiditis ossificans with syringomyelia is a rare pathological entity. We present an unusual case who presented with progressive myelopathy caused by arachnoidits ossificans and syringomyelia. The pathophysiology and treatment strategy of this rare entity are still controversial.

  5. Cervical spinal intradural arachnoid cysts in related, young pugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohdin, C; Nyman, H T; Wohlsein, P; Hultin Jäderlund, K

    2014-04-01

    Seven related young pugs were diagnosed with cervical spinal intradural arachnoid cysts by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 6) and myelography (n = 1). All dogs were presented with skin abrasions on their thoracic limbs and non-painful neurological deficits, indicating a C1-T2 myelopathy. In all six dogs examined by magnetic resonance imaging not only the spinal arachnoid cyst but also a concomitant, most likely secondary, syringohydromyelia was confirmed. Pedigree analysis suggested a genetic predisposition for spinal arachnoid cysts in this family of pugs. Generalised proprioceptive deficits more pronounced in the thoracic limbs suggesting a focal cervical spinal cord lesion, with concomitant skin abrasions on the dorsal aspect of the thoracic limbs in a young pug, should alert veterinarians to the possibility of cervical spinal arachnoid cysts. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. Treatment of Syringomyelia in Patients with Arachnoiditis at the Craniocervical Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Christopher L; Liu, Shinuo; Wong, Johnny H Y; Koustais, Stavros; Rogers, Jeffrey M; Stoodley, Marcus A

    2017-11-01

    Craniocervical junction arachnoiditis (CCJA) is an uncommon cause of syringomyelia. The pathophysiology of syrinx formation is uncertain, and the appropriate management unclear. A series of cases is reported to demonstrate variations in etiology, uniformity of functional cerebrospinal fluid obstruction at the foramen magnum, and results of surgical intervention. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiologic features of a consecutive series of patients treated for syringomyelia related to CCJA. Eight patients (5 male, 28-66 years old) were treated from 2000 to 2016. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated cervicothoracic syringomyelia in all cases, with the rostral extension of the syrinx suggesting communication with the fourth ventricle in all but one case. There was reduction of foramen magnum cerebrospinal fluid space in all cases, cerebellar ectopia in 5 cases, and fourth ventricular entrapment in 3 cases. Treatment consisted of posterior fossa decompression with either a GoreTex or pericranial patch graft. Six patients had a fourth-ventricle spinal subarachnoid shunt. Two patients had titanium mesh cranioplasty. The immediate postoperative period was associated with reduction in syrinx cavity size and improvement in neurologic symptoms in all cases. At follow-up 10-60 months postoperatively, 3 patients exhibited recurrence of the syrinx and underwent successful reoperation at the craniocervical junction. One patient with persistence of the inferior component of the syrinx was treated with a syrinx-spinal subarachnoid shunt. Most syrinx cavities associated with CCJA communicate with the fourth ventricle. Posterior fossa decompression and fourth ventricle to spinal subarachnoid space shunting appears a reasonable treatment for this form of syringomyelia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Focal spinal arachnoiditis increases subarachnoid space pressure: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilston, L E; Fletcher, D F; Stoodley, M A

    2006-07-01

    Enlarging fluid filled cystic cavitations form within the spinal cord in up to 28% of spinal cord injured patients. These post-traumatic syrinxes can cause neurological deterioration and current treatment results are unsatisfactory. Localized scar tissue (arachnoiditis) within the subarachnoid space at the level of injury has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of syrinx formation. This study tests the hypothesis that pressure pulses in the subarachnoid space are accentuated adjacent to regions of arachnoiditis, which may drive fluid into the spinal cord and contribute to syrinx formation. An axisymmetric, cylindrical computational fluid dynamics model was developed to represent the subarachnoid space under normal physiological conditions and in the presence of arachnoiditis. Cerebrospinal fluid flow into the model was estimated from magnetic resonance imaging flow studies. Arachnoiditis was modelled as a porous obstruction in the subarachnoid space. Peak fluid pressures were higher above the obstruction than in the absence of obstruction. The peak pressures were strongly dependent on the permeability of the obstruction. Elevations in subarachnoid space pressures due to arachnoiditis may facilitate fluid flow into the spinal cord, enhancing syrinx formation. This suggests that it may be worthwhile to investigate strategies that inhibit arachnoiditis or minimize systolic pressure peaks for treating or preventing syringomyelia.

  8. A Case of Lumbosacral Arachnoiditis Ossificans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Yuichi; Sudo, Takao; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Akeda, Koji; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 13-year-old boy who complained of pain in both buttocks. Plain and reconstructive computed tomography (CT) images showed an ossified lesion within the dura mater at the L5–S2 levels, and arachnoiditis ossificans in the lumbosacral area was suspected. In the operative findings obtained after cutting the dura, a bone fragment 4.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm in size was observed in the center of the strongly adhesive nerve bundle of the cauda equina, which was removed en bloc. The postoperative clinical course of the patient was excellent. The case, along with a review of literature is presented. PMID:28663987

  9. Syringomyelia Associated with Spinal Arachnoiditis Treated by Partial Arachnoid Dissection and Syrinx-Far Distal Subarachnoid Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Ohkawa, Toshika

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a new modified surgical approach to minimize the postoperative recurrence of a syrinx after surgery to treat syringomyelia associated with spinal adhesive arachnoiditis in two cases. Both patients presented with progressive gait disturbance without any remarkable history, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a syrinx and broad irregular disappearance of the subarachnoid space and/or deformity of the cord. We successfully performed a partial arachnoid dissection and syrinx-far distal subarachnoid shunt for both cases. PMID:25232285

  10. Arachnoid cysts do not contain cerebrospinal fluid: A comparative chemical analysis of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaland Øystein A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arachnoid cyst (AC fluid has not previously been compared with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from the same patient. ACs are commonly referred to as containing "CSF-like fluid". The objective of this study was to characterize AC fluid by clinical chemistry and to compare AC fluid to CSF drawn from the same patient. Such comparative analysis can shed further light on the mechanisms for filling and sustaining of ACs. Methods Cyst fluid from 15 adult patients with unilateral temporal AC (9 female, 6 male, age 22-77y was compared with CSF from the same patients by clinical chemical analysis. Results AC fluid and CSF had the same osmolarity. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium or glucose. We found significant elevated concentration of phosphate in AC fluid (0.39 versus 0.35 mmol/L in CSF; p = 0.02, and significantly reduced concentrations of total protein (0.30 versus 0.41 g/L; p = 0.004, of ferritin (7.8 versus 25.5 ug/L; p = 0.001 and of lactate dehydrogenase (17.9 versus 35.6 U/L; p = 0.002 in AC fluid relative to CSF. Conclusions AC fluid is not identical to CSF. The differential composition of AC fluid relative to CSF supports secretion or active transport as the mechanism underlying cyst filling. Oncotic pressure gradients or slit-valves as mechanisms for generating fluid in temporal ACs are not supported by these results.

  11. CT of perineural tumor extension: pterygopalatine fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, H.D.; Williams, R.; Johnson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Tumors of the oral cavity and paranasal sinuses can spread along nerves to areas apparently removed from the primary tumor. In tumors of the palate, sinuses, and face, this perineural spread usually involves the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. The pterygopalatine fossa is a pathway of the maxillary nerve and becomes a key landmark in the detection of neural metastasis by computed tomography (CT). Obliteration of the fat in the fossa suggests pathology. Case material illustrating neural extension is presented and the CT findings are described.

  12. [Hydatid cyst of the posterior fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqui, Abderrazzak El; Aggouri, Mohamed; Benzagmout, Mohamed; Chakour, Khaled; Faizchaoui, Mohamed El

    2017-01-01

    Hydatidosis is an endemic affection in Morocco. Cerebral echinococcosis is a relatively rare entity accounting for only 1-2% of all hydatid cysts in humans. hydatid cyst of the posterior fossa is a very uncommon site for the disease. We report the case of a 12 year-old child admitted for high intracranial pressure. Brain CT scan showed a posterior fossa cyst without enhancement after contrast medium injection. Operative finding revealed a hydatid cyst. The histological examination of the tissue sample confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was given albendazole post operatively. He feels well six months later.

  13. Fibromyalgia and arachnoiditis presented as an acute spinal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Zamzuri; Ghazali, Faizul H; Abdullah, Jafri M

    2014-01-01

    Adhesive arachnoiditis is a chronic, insidious condition that causes debilitating intractable pain and a range of other neurological problems. Its pathophysiology is not well understood. This manuscript discusses its presentations, which can mimic an acute spinal disorder, its hypothetical pathophysiology, treatment, and its relationship with fibromyalgia. The authors present a case of a 47-year-old female who presented with clinical features mimicking an acute spinal disorder but later found to have an adhesive arachnoiditis. She was admitted following a trauma with complaints of back pain and paraplegia. On examination, there was marked tenderness over thoracolumbar spine with lower limbs upper motor neuron weakness. An urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed multiple lesions at her thoracic and lumbar spinal canals, which did not compress the spinal cord. Therefore, conservative management was initiated. Despite on regular therapies, her back and body pain worsened and little improvement in her limbs power was noted. Laminectomy was pursued and found to have spinal cord arachnoiditis. Subsequently, she was operated by other team members for multiple pelvic masses, which later proved to be benign. After gathering all the clinical information obtained at surgery and after taking detailed history inclusive of cognitive functions, diagnosis of an adhesive arachnoiditis syndrome was made. Currently, she is managed by neuropsychologist and pain specialist. This case report highlights the importance of knowing an adhesive arachnoiditis syndrome - a rarely discussed pathology by the neurosurgeon, which discloses a significant relationship between immune and nervous systems.

  14. [The presyrinx state due to adhesive arachnoiditis: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yasuhiro; Yagishita, Akira; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2006-06-01

    We report a 66-year-old woman with a presyrinx state due to adhesive arachnoiditis. She had a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage one year ago. She became aware of gait disturbance and abnormal sensation at the chest 6 months ago. Neurological examination revealed weakness of the both lower extremities and sensory disturbance below the T6 level. MR images of the thoracic spine revealed swelling of the thoracic cord at the T3-4 level, with an intramedullary hyperintensity on T2 weighted images (WI) and hypointensity on T1-WI. The intramedullary hypointensity on T1-WI was less than the CSF intensity. In addition, the thoracic cord lower than T5 level was compressed by an arachnoid cyst in the spinal canal. The preoperative diagnosis was the presyrinx state due to adhesive arachnoiditis. An operation for detachment of arachnoidal adhesion and restoration of CSF flow pathway was performed. After one month from the operation, neurological findings were improved. Postoperative MR images revealed improvement of swelling of the thoracic cord and intramedullary abnormal intensity. The arachnoid cyst in the spinal canal was decreased in the size. The presyrinx state is recently recognized condition before the formation of syringomyelia and that is known to resolve with proper treatment. We wish to emphasize we could prevent a progression to syringomyelia by a proper treatment for the presyrinx state.

  15. 21 CFR 872.3950 - Glenoid fossa prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification. A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to be implanted in the temporomandibular...

  16. Lumbar arachnoiditis and thecaloscopy: brief review and proposed treatment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ieva, A; Barolat, G; Tschabitscher, M; Rognone, E; Aimar, E; Gaetani, P; Tancioni, F; Lorenzetti, M; Crotti, F M; Rodriguez Baena, R; Warnke, J P

    2010-11-01

    The term arachnoiditis describes the inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid spaces. Lumbar arachnoiditis is characterized by obliterated nerve root sleeves and the adherence of nerve roots to each other in the proximity of the cauda equina, and may be secondary to infectious diseases or tumors, iatrogenic (subsequent to spinal surgery) or idiopathic. It is not very clearly defined epidemiologically or clinically, and various theories regarding its pathophysiology have been proposed; furthermore, its treatment is difficult because there is a lack of evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic gold standards. Thecaloscopy has been recently described as a novel technique for retrograde transcutaneous neuroendoscopic inspection of the subarachnoid structures of the lumbar thecal sac; it has also been suggested for the treatment of lumbar arachnoiditis. We here review the most modern techniques for the treatment of this disease such as thecaloscopy and neurostimulation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Chronic adhesive arachnoiditis after repeat epidural blood patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlswärd, C; Darvish, B; Tunelli, J; Irestedt, L

    2015-08-01

    Epidural blood patching is an effective treatment for postdural puncture headache but has potential risks. Arachnoiditis is a very rare disabling condition and few cases have been described following an epidural blood patch. We present a case of chronic adhesive arachnoiditis in a parturient treated with a repeat epidural blood patch. A healthy 29-year-old woman had an accidental dural puncture following epidural insertion during labour. Initial treatment of postdural puncture headache with an epidural blood patch was ineffective and was therefore repeated. She gradually developed severe neurological symptoms consistent with arachnoiditis confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Despite intensive multimodal treatment with analgesics and physiotherapy, her neurological condition remains unresolved two years later. This serious but rare complication should encourage caution when treating parturients with postdural puncture headache with a repeat epidural blood patch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extensive Supratentorial Hemorrhages Following Posterior Fossa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agarwal, et al.: Supratentorial hemorrhages following posterior fossa surgery. Author Institution Mapping (AIM). Please note that not all the institutions may get mapped due to non-availability of the requisite information in the Google Map. For AIM of other issues, please check the Archives/Back Issues page on the journal's ...

  19. Isolated posterior fossa involvement of progressive multifocal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... Open Access frontal lobe. Supratentorial lesions typically involve the subcortical white matter with a scalloping appearance.2. White matter of the posterior fossa is the next common area of involvement; however, isolated cerebellar white matter or isolated medullary involvement is less common.2. One study ...

  20. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do.

  1. POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA TUMOURS IN CHILDREN AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... symptoms were the most common mode of presentation (30%) followed by headaches and vomiting. Twenty percent of our patients ... paediatric posterior fossa tumours are medulloblastoma. (20%) astrocytoma (15%) ... cranial nerve palsies, headaches, vomiting and blindness due to raised intracranial ...

  2. Clinical features and pathomechanisms of syringomyelia associated with spinal arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Izumi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2005-04-01

    Syringomyelia is a common intramedullary lesion associated with spinal arachnoiditis and obstruction of the foramen magnum such as in Chiari's malformation. Disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid flow around the spinal cord has an important role in the development of syringomyelia due to spinal arachnoiditis; however, the exact mechanisms have not been clarified. The purpose of this retrospective study is to understand the clinical features and pathomechanisms of syringomyelia secondary to spinal arachnoiditis and to provide the current choice of surgical treatment in this difficult clinical entity. Clinical and radiological findings in 15 patients with syringomyelia associated with spinal arachnoiditis who underwent surgical treatment in our institutes between 1982 and 2000 were reviewed. All patients presented with paraparesis or tetraparesis on admission. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography-myelography revealed that the syrinx predominantly existed at the thoracic levels. Five patients showed complete block of the thoracic subarachnoid space by conventional myelography. T2-weighted MRI showed diffuse intramedullary hyperintensity at the level of arachnoiditis. As the first surgical treatment, 10 patients underwent syringo-peritoneal shunt placement. Three patients were treated with a syringo-subarachnoid shunt, and 2 patients were treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Eight patients required further shunting operations for syringomyelia 2 months to 12 years after the first surgery. Neurologic improvement was obtained in 9 patients (60%) with decreased size of the syrinx. One patient remained stable; 5 patients showed gradual deterioration. The syrinx originated from the thoracic levels where severe adhesion of the subarachnoid space was present. The mechanisms of syrinx formation may be based on the increased interstitial fluid in the spinal cord. Shunting procedures were effective in some population of the patients. Decompression procedures

  3. Spinal arachnoiditis and cyst formation with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhinav, Kumar; Bradley, Marcus; Aquilina, Kristian; Patel, Nikunj K

    2012-08-01

    We present the case of a 58-year-old lady with p-ANCA vasculitis who suffered a WFNS grade 1 subarachnoid haemorrhage (Fisher grade 1) secondary to a ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm and then developed a rare complication of radiologically progressive spinal arachnoiditis despite maintained clinical response to definitive treatment measures.

  4. Dermoid cyst of the posterior fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzagmout, Mohammed; Agharbi, Sanae; Chakour, Khalid; Chaoui, Mohammed E

    2011-04-01

    Intracranial dermoid tumors represent a rare clinical entity accounting for 0.1-0.7% of all intracranial tumors. Their location in the posterior fossa is uncommon. We report a 16-year-old male patient who presented with clinical signs of increased intracranial pressure and cerebellar symptoms. The CT scan revealed a median cystic lesion of the fourth ventricle causing an active triventicular hydrocephalus. The MRI showed a median well shaped cystic lesion, of low signal intensity compared to the CSF, with capsular contrast enhancement. He underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy before subtotal removal of the lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the histological diagnosis was a dermoid cyst. Through this observation, we aim to discuss the clinical, and radiological aspects of the posterior fossa dermoid cyst, and to review the therapeutic strategies.

  5. Magnetic resonance cisternography for preoperative evaluation of arachnoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awaji, M. [Niigata University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Okamoto, K. [Niigata University, Center for Integrated Human Brain Science, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan); Nishiyama, K. [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    With a high likelihood of clinical improvement and low rates of complications, minimally invasive neuroendoscopic surgery is becoming the treatment of choice for symptomatic or growing arachnoid cysts. In neuroendoscopic surgery, visualization of anatomical landmarks is essential in achieving successful fenestration without complications. Because of the restricted visual field in neuroendoscopic surgery, preoperative anatomical assessment is very helpful. Magnetic resonance cisternography (MRC) with high spatial resolution and contrast, using for example 3-D Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady state (CISS) or fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences, is able to detect the arachnoid cyst wall and neighboring anatomical structures as the anatomical landmarks. We retrospectively reviewed T2-weighted (T2-W) fast spin-echo images, and the MRC and intraoperative findings. Axial and coronal T2-W images (6 and 3 mm thickness, respectively) and axial and coronal 0.8 mm thick MRC images with CISS or FIESTA were obtained from four patients with arachnoid cysts treated by neuroendoscopic surgery. Intraoperative findings were reviewed on videotape recorded during the procedures. At the brain surface, the arachnoid cyst wall could be detected clearly in any of the four patients on MRC images, and was only partly seen in the fourth patient T2-W images. Adjacent important anatomical structures including vessels and cranial nerves, and an enough space for cystocisternostomy were identified on MRC images, and the findings were consistent with the findings during neuroendoscopic surgery. Preoperative identification of the arachnoid cyst wall and surrounding anatomical structures by MRC may help avoid complications and allow safer neuroendoscopic surgery. (orig.)

  6. [Paraplegia due to adhesive arachnoiditis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Luna, José Guadalupe; Sandoval Sánchez, Víctor; Benavides Rodríguez, David; Olivares Camacho, Jorge L; Taboada, Jesús B

    2009-01-01

    Various conditions of the spinal column occur at the lumbar level and new therapeutic surgical techniques have been applied to reduce the length of hospital stay, contribute to a quick return of patients to their activities of daily living, and reduce the postoperative limitations. However, a silent complication, adhesive arachnoiditis, has been reported with a frequency of 6-16% in cases undergoing lumbar surgery or with a history of revision surgery, and thus a second complication may occur, paraplegia, since the common symptom of arachnoiditis is persistent low back pain. The case of a 40-year-old patient is presented herein, who underwent lumbar spine surgery for herniated discs, and developed adhesive arachnoiditis involving the cauda equina, which was diagnosed with MRI. He had irreversible paraplegia with diffuse involvement of the cauda equina despite the mechanical lavage and surgical debridement performed due to the persistence of serous fluid discharge from the wound. The interbody implant placed during the first surgery was removed and the treatment was completed with posterior stabilization reinstrumentation; the patient had persistent neurologic impairment. There are few reports in the world literature of paraplegia due to non-infectious adhesive arachnoiditis. The remaining reports of paraplegia have been in patients with spinal infection, such as HIV-TB, mycosis, brucellosis or meningeal hemorrhage. It is not easy for patients to understand the very likely irreversible neurologic lesion of his complication. However, it is important for the spine surgeon to bear in mind the occurrence and frequency of adhesive arachnoiditis which could lead to irreversible neurologic deficit in patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery.

  7. [Adhesive lumbar arachnoiditis. Endoscopic subarachnoepidurostomy as a new treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, J-P; Mourgela, S

    2007-10-01

    Adhesive lumbar arachnoiditis is essentially an unknown, unreported, and unrecognised disease. It was better known at a time when oil-based dye was used for myelography. The factors causing this pathogenesis remain unknown. In addition, diagnosis is hard to achieve and frequently attained only by an exclusion process. Only in severe cases, using high-resolution MRI, is evidence for the diagnosis obtainable. Modern neuroendoscopic techniques allow diagnosis at a reasonable risk (comparable with lumbar tap) and enable us substantially to treat the pain. Taken together, this means a radical new method of treatment for adhesive arachnoiditis. The treatment of a 23-patient research group suffering from adhesive lumbar arachnoiditis is monitored and described. Various endoscopic manoeuvres were carried out. Endoscopic reduction of adhesions and internal shunting for CSF flow between subarachnoidal and epidural space improved both the biomechanical abilities of rootlets and restoration of blocked CSF pathways. Its main result is the significant reduction of long-term pain registered by a visual analogue pain scale. No bad side effect other than temporary headache was found. No CSF leak syndrome was observed. The success of the method was directly influenced by the interventional procedure on the disturbed CSF circulation and its partial restoration (subarachnoepidurostomy). In cases of severe lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis, it was found very beneficial to implant special gravity-controlled valve systems for subarachnoid-peritoneal shunts. Adhesive lumbar arachnoiditis is no longer a devastating diagnosis. Due to a novel endoscopic treatment of the local CSF disturbances that restores physiologic pathways, the chance exists for long-lasting improvement of the clinical condition.

  8. Posterior fossa syndrome-a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Salima S; Hettige, Samantha; Mankad, Kshtij; Aquilina, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS), or cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS), is a collection of neurological symptoms that occur following surgical resection of a posterior fossa tumour, and is characterised by either a reduction or an absence of speech. Some authors suggest that CM is only one symptom of the CMS complex that also includes ataxia, hypotonia and irritability as well as cranial nerve deficits, neurobehavioral changes and urinary retention or incontinence. It is seen almost exclusively in children. In 1985 Rekate et al. published the first work describing CM as a clinical entity, occurring as a consequence of bilateral cerebellar injury. Other associated symptoms include visual impairment, altered mood, impaired swallowing and significant gross and fine motor deficits. The effects of this can have a devastating impact on both the patient and their carers, posing a significant clinical challenge to neurorehabilitation services. The reported incidence was between 8% and 31% of children undergoing surgery for posterior fossa tumour. The underlying pathologies include vasospasm, oedema, and axonal/neuronal injury. Neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the anatomical location of postoperative injury. There have been a number of suggestions for treatment interventions for PFS. However, apart from some individual reports, there have been no clinical trials indicating possible benefit. Occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, as well as neurocognitive support, contribute to the recovery of these patients.

  9. [Treatment of syringomyelia associated with adhesive arachnoiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, A A; Lebedev, V B; Pedyash, N V; Epifanov, D S; Levin, R S

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of syringomyelia (SM) caused by adhesive arachnoiditis (AA) is 2 to 4 cases per 100000 population. Surgical treatment of this pathology usually includes implantation of shunts into the cyst cavity or opening and drainage of the cavity. In this case, SM continues to progress in 72-100% of patients. Unsatisfactory outcomes of this surgical approach necessitate searching for other treatment options. To define the optimal amount of surgery for SM associated with AA and the criteria for assessment of surgery outcomes. The authors treated 47 SM patients in the period from 2010 to 2015. Of these, 34 (72.3%) patients underwent surgery; a total of 40 operations were performed. The patients' age ranged from 18 to 64 years (mean, 43.5 years). Tethering of the spinal cord was eliminated in 25 patients; 9 patients underwent cyst shunting. Among operated patients, 5 patients had grade 1 arachnopathy, 13 patients had grade 2 arachnopathy, 12 patients had grade 3 arachnopathy, and 4 patients had grade 4 arachnopathy. The minimal postoperative follow-up period was 11 months. After shunting, the condition improved in 8 of 9 patients; in 7 patients, the condition returned to the baseline level within the first postoperative year; in 6 (66.7%) of these patients, the disease continued to progress. After surgical release of spinal cord tethering, satisfactory long-term results were achieved in 13 (86.6%) patients with grade 1-2 arachnopathy. In 3 (50%) patients with grade 3 arachnopathy, the condition was stabilized. Among patients with grade 4 arachnopathy, progression of the disease was stopped in 1 patient; the condition worsened in 2 (50%) patients. Among all the operated patients, complications developed in 7 patients. There were no lethal outcomes. In grade 1-2 arachnopathy, progression of SM after release of spinal cord tethering occurs only in 13.4% of patients. Therefore, release of spinal cord tethering is recommended for these patients. In grade 3

  10. Adhesive arachnoiditis with extensive syringomyelia and giant arachnoid cyst after spinal and epidural anesthesia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Takashi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Kawabata, Shigenori; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Tomizawa, Shoji; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Sakaki, Kyohei; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Okawa, Atsushi

    2012-02-01

    A case report of a patient with adhesive arachnoiditis after combined spinal and epidural anesthesia. To report an extremely rare case of paraplegia due to adhesive arachnoiditis with extensive syringomyelia (ES) and a giant anterior arachnoid spinal cyst (AASC) after spinal and epidural anesthesia for obstetric surgery. Progressive inflammation of the arachnoid mater due to trauma, infection, or hydrocortisone was reported as early as the 1970s. However, coexistence of ES and a giant AASC after spinal and epidural anesthesia is extremely rare. A 29-year-old woman suffered from sudden anuresis 5 months after spinal and epidural anesthesia for a cesarean section and subsequently experienced paraplegia and numbness below the chest. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an AASC compressing the spinal cord at T1-T6 and an adhesive lesion at T7. Posterior laminectomy at T6-T7 and adhesiolysis for arachnoid adhesion at T7 were performed. Although there was slight recovery of locomotive function postoperatively, it gradually worsened until 3 years after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging at that time demonstrated a giant AASC and ES at the lower-thoracic cord. The cord compressed by the AASC became thinner sagittally. Secondary surgery involving posterior laminectomy at T5-T6 and insertion of a cyst-peritoneal shunt into the AASC was performed. The patient could walk without a cane 3 years after the shunt operation, although numbness and motor weakness of the lower extremities remained. Magnetic resonance imaging 3 years after the shunt operation showed a reduction of the AASC and decompression of the cord despite no improvement in ES. This is the first report of a patient with a giant AASC and ES caused by spinal and epidural anesthesia. Although the optimal surgical treatment for these conditions remains unclear, shunting of the cyst effectively prevented the progression of symptoms.

  11. Benign neurilemmoma in the infratemporal fossa involving maxillary sinus and pterygopalatine fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Jin Koo; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Chang Hyeon [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    Neurilemmoma is a benign tumor of the nerve sheath that arises on cranial and spinal nerve roots as well as along the course of peripheral nerves. A case of a neurilemmoma that arose in the left infratemporal fossa of a 29- year-old male was presented. Plain radiographs, enhanced computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large, well-circumscribed, heterogeneously enhanced mass with extension into the pterygopalatine fossa. Displaced by the large mass, bowing-in of the posterior maxillary antral wall was noted and a provisional diagnosis of a benign soft tissue tumor was made. The mass was completely excised and a diagnosis of neurilemmoma was confirmed.

  12. Severe optochiasmatic arachnoiditis after rupture of an internal carotid artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ramina

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 24-year-old man with progressive visual loss due to optochiasmatic arachnoiditis is presented. The cause of the arachnoiditis was subarachnoidal bleeding due to rupture of an internal carotid artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was clipped 5 years after the first episode of bleeding. The diagnosis of optochiasmatic arachnoiditis was confirmed during the operation. This case, is presented in order to discuss the causes, the symptoms and the therapeutical possibilities of this rare condition.

  13. Cauda equina syndrome resulting from lumbar arachnoiditis after intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Kirk E; Crane, Deborah A

    2013-06-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a known but very rare late complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Since 1943, 17 cases of spinal arachnoiditis after intracranial hemorrhage have been reported internationally. The vast majority of these cases were related to aneurysmal SAH. All previously published cases have involved spinal arachnoiditis at the cervical and thoracic levels. In this report, we present an adult woman with lumbar spinal arachnoiditis causing cauda equina syndrome as a result of posterior circulation aneurysmal SAH. We believe this is the first reported case of this specific condition causing cauda equina syndrome. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. MRI and FDG PET/CT findings in 3 cases of spinal infectious arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Aisheng; Zuo, Changjing; Zhang, Ping; Lu, Jianping; Bai, Yushu

    2014-10-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis is a disease characterized by inflammation and scarring of the arachnoid membrane of the spinal cord. FDG PET/CT findings of spinal arachnoiditis have been rarely reported. We present 3 cases of spinal infectious arachnoiditis (1 pyogenic and 2 tuberculous). MRI was performed in these 3 cases showing thickened spinal meninges with marked enhancement. FDG PET/CT was performed in 2 cases showing intense linear FDG uptake along the spinal canal. The combination of MRI and FDG PET/CT may be helpful in identifying the infectious sites and evaluating the activity of the infection.

  15. Radiological diagnosis of spinal arachnoid cysts: A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina Moreno, Carolina; Vela Marín, Ana Carmen; Castán Senar, Alba; Montejo Gañán, Inmaculada; Cózar Bartos, Magdalena; Marín Cárdenas, Miguel Angel

    2016-10-01

    Spinal arachnoid cysts (AC) are intraspinal extramedullary loculated cerebral spinal fluid collections. They are relatively uncommon lesions. Spinal AC often cause symptoms such as pain, weakness and radiculopathy. In this pictorial essay we demonstrate the main radiological features of spinal AC, as well as symptoms and complications associated with them. We also describe the main differential diagnoses. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Automatic detection of arachnoid contours in MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardekani, Babak A.; Braun, Michael; Hutton, Brian F.; Kanno, I.

    1994-09-01

    An algorithm is presented for the automatic detection of arachnoid contours in MR images of the human head. The primary motivation behind the present work has been to serve as a pre- processing step in automatic segmentation of brain tissue and CSF. A second objective was to use the algorithm in a fully automatic PET-MR registration algorithm. The method is primarily designed for, and requires, dual-echo (T1- and T2-weighted) MR images with transaxial orientations. The algorithm consists of three main stages. First, the head contour is detected using a series of low-level image processing techniques. In the second stage, the pixels inside the head contour are clustered into a number of connected components using the K-means algorithm. Finally, the extra-arachnoid connected components are eliminated based on a number of heuristics. Test results are presented for 10 MR image sets. As a quantitative measure of accuracy, manual segmentations were performed by radiologists on a number of slices and compared with the results obtained automatically. Visual inspection and quantitative validation of the results indicate that the algorithm accurately detects the arachnoid contours in MR images. This is an important step in fully automatic segmentation and registration of MR images.

  17. Acute Spontaneous Posterior Fossa Subdural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute posterior fossa subdural hematomas are rare and most of them are trauma-related. Non-traumatic ones have been reported in patients who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or those who had been receiving anticoagulant therapy. We report on the case of 57-year-old Iranian man who developed sudden severe occipital headache, drowsiness, repeated vomiting, and instability of stance and gait. He was neither hypertensive nor diabetic. No history of head trauma was obtained and he denied illicit drug or alcohol ingestion. A preliminary diagnosis of acute intra-cerebellar hemorrhage was made. His CT brain scan revealed an acute right-sided, extra-axial, crescent-shaped hyperdense area at the posterior fossa. His routine blood tests, platelets count, bleeding time, and coagulation profile were unremarkable. The patient had spontaneous acute infratentorial subdural hematoma. He was treated conservatively and discharged home well after 5 days. Since then, we could not follow-up him, clinically and radiologically because he went back to Iran. Our patient’s presentation, clinical course, and imaging study have called for conservative management, as the overall presentation was relatively benign. Unless the diagnosis is entertained and the CT brain scan is well-interpreted, the diagnosis may easily escape detection.

  18. Unusual Cubital Fossa Anatomy – Case Report | Shetty | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But in almost all cases it passes through the cubital fossa. We saw a cubital fossa without a median nerve. The median nerve had a normal course in the upper part of front of the arm but in the distal third of the arm it passed in front of the medial epicondyle of humerus, surrounded by fleshy fibres of pronator teres muscle.

  19. Fetal MRI for characterising a variety of posterior fossa anomalies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to more accurately assess abnormalities detected on screening ultrasound. The procedure is more pertinent when the initial ultrasound is done late in the third trimester and when the abnormality involves the posterior fossa of the brain. Four cases with a variety of unusual posterior fossa ...

  20. An unusual foreign body in the infratemporal fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Ramdas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infratemporal fossa injuries are uncommon and often go undetected presenting later with complications. We present a case of an infratemporal fossa penetrating injury with a ball point spring following a vehicular accident. Post-traumatic trismus even following supposedly trivial injury in the area should raise suspicion of possible injury in this location.

  1. [Effect comparison of arachnoid cysts in sacral canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baichuan; Shao, Zengwu; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Shuhua; Wu, Yongchao; Ma, Zhilin; Yu, Peng

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of two different surgical treatments for arachnoid cysts in sacral canal. From January 2004 to March 2009, 55 cases of arachnoid cysts in the sacral canal were treated by traditional simple sacral laminectomies with resection of the cysts (group A, 25 cases) and novel CT-guided percutaneous fibrin glue therapy of arachnoid cysts (group B, 30 cases). Of them, there were 23 males and 32 females, aging 15-66 years with an average of 42.6 years; the duration of symptoms was 6 months to 15 years with an average of 3.5 years. L5-S1 was involved in 22 cases, S1,2 in 25 cases, S2,3 in 12 cases, S2 in 8 cases, and presacral in 2 cases. The size of cysts was 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 6.0 cm x 2.8 cm. The MRI examination showed that all patients had cysts in the sacral canal. There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sex, ages, disease duration and cysts size between two groups. Preoperative data and postoperative lumbosacral pain and function improvement were analyzed and compared between two groups. All operations were performed successfully. The operative time, blood loss and hospitalization days of group B were significantly less than those of group A (P root irritation (8 cases) occurred; in group B, mild meningitis (3 cases) and low grade fever (5 cases) occurred. Except for nerve injury, other complications were cured after symptomatic management. During the follow-up, 2 recurrent cases were found in group A and 1 case in group B. Of them, 2 recurrent cases were treated with CT-guided percutaneous fibrin glue therapy of arachnoid cysts, and cysts disappeared. For two groups, there were significant differences in Oswestry functional disability index and visual analogue scale score between preoperation and postoperation (P cysts in the sacral canal is a mini-invasive, safe, effective, and economical method, it may be better choices for the treatment of arachnoid cysts in the sacral canal.

  2. Question of 'contrast media arachnoiditis' after lumbosacral myelography with watersoluble contrast mnedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claass, A.; Piepgras, U.; Wussow, W.

    1982-05-01

    The role of watersoluble myelography contrast media in the generation of the so called arachnoiditis spinalis after myelography is disussed. Two hundred and two patients were selected out of a patient collective of 3141 myelographies of the year 1975-1980, that were repeatedly treated with the water soluble contrast media Dimer X. The patients' myeloradiculogramms were evaluated with respect to arachnoid changes. The size and the frequency of these alterations were investigated as well as their dependence of other arachnoiditis supporting factors. Only a few of the cases withstand a critical test. Myelographic limiting findings are numerous and are difficult to validate. In 3 out of 59 (5.1 percent) of patients that were not submitted to surgery small to medium arachnoid alterations were found. In 77 out of 115 (67 percent) of the patients that were submitted to surgery between the myelography leptomeningeal alterations could be detected with different difficulty. Twelve out of 21 (57 percent) of the patients submitted to surgery without pre-surgical myelography showed signs of arachnoiditis in the post-surgical myelogramm. Different origins of arachnoiditis, the pathomechanisms of their formation are discussed as well as the correlation of radiologic findings with the clinical and histological observations. The authors' opinion is, that it is not possible to exclude or to prove safely that a water-soluble myelographic contrast media can cause solely, that means without additional factors that support arachnoiditis, a clinical relevant arachnoiditis with a single application.

  3. Trans-zygomatic middle cranial fossa approach to access lesions around the cavernous sinus and anterior parahippocampus: a minimally invasive skull base approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Itay; Tubbs, R Shane; Payner, Troy D; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2009-08-01

    Exposure of the cavernous sinus or anterior parahippocampus often involves a wide exposure of the temporal lobe and mobilization of the temporalis muscle associated with temporal lobe retraction. The authors present a cadaveric study to illustrate the feasibility, advantages and landmarks necessary to perform a trans-zygomatic middle fossa approach to lesions around the cavernous sinus and anterior parahippocampus. The authors performed bilateral trans-zygomatic middle fossae exposures to reach the cavernous sinus and parahippocampus in five cadavers (10 sides). We assessed the morbidity associated with this procedure and compared the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of this method versus more extensive skull base approaches. A vertical linear incision along the middle portion of the zygomatic arch was extended one finger breadth inferior to the inferior edge of the zygomatic arch. Careful dissection inferior to the arch allowed preservation of facial nerve branches. A zygomatic osteotomy was followed via a linear incision through the temporalis muscle and exposure of the middle cranial fossa floor. A craniotomy along the inferolateral temporal bone and middle fossa floor allowed extradural dissection along the middle fossa floor and exposure of the cavernous sinus including all three divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Intradural inspection demonstrated adequate exposure of the parahippocampus. Exposure of the latter required minimal or no retraction of the temporal lobe. The trans-zygomatic middle fossa approach is a simplified skull base exposure using a linear incision, which may avoid the invasivity of more extensive skull base approaches while providing an adequate corridor for resection of cavernous sinus and parahippocampus lesions. The advantages of this approach include its efficiency, ease, minimalism, preservation of the temporalis muscle, and minimal retraction of the temporal lobe.

  4. Arachnoiditis ossificans: clinical series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulucci, Christopher M; Ghobrial, George M; Oppenlander, Mark E; Flanders, Adam E; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Harrop, James S

    2014-09-01

    Ossification of the leptomeninges, or arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) of the spine resulting in neurologic decline is a rarely reported disease. To date, there are 72 cases in the literature. The natural history of the disease and the best management strategy for patients with this condition is unknown. A series of five cases is presented adding to the relative paucity of knowledge of this potentially debilitating disease. A retrospective review of five cases of patients with arachnoiditis ossificans from 2009 to 2013 was conducted. All cases were obtained from a single institution. The diagnosis was based upon computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All five patients in the series were found have a history of prior spinal procedures. Three of the five patients had no history of intradural procedures or violation of the dura. Three of the patients underwent surgery to address neurologic deficits related to AO. Surgical intervention mainly consisted of decompression via laminectomy without resection of the intradural bony lesions. All patients improved neurologically postoperatively. Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare disease typically affecting the thoracolumbar spine. It may result in devastating neurological deficits. There is no consensus as to the appropriate treatment strategy and the surgical procedures can be technically demanding due to the tight adherence of the abnormal bone to neural structures. For those patients who exhibit no symptoms referable to the AO, close observation may be performed. However, once progressive neurologic deficits occur due to AO, decompression via laminectomy can be a successful strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging Appearance of Advanced Chronic Adhesive Arachnoiditis: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tara L; Morris, Jonathan M; Wald, John T; Kotsenas, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    Chronic adhesive arachnoiditis (CAA) is rare and has potentially devastating clinical consequences. The objective of this article is to review the clinical features of CAA and describe its appearance on imaging, to increase radiologists' awareness of this challenging diagnosis. Twenty-nine cases of advanced CAA seen at our institution over 18 years (1995-2013) were retrospectively reviewed. Chart review was performed, with attention given to data on clinical presentation, suspected cause, and interventions performed. All patients underwent MRI, and seven patients also underwent CT myelography. Clinical and imaging features were evaluated and categorized. The 29 patients ranged in age from 23 to 96 years and included 11 women and 18 men. Suspected underlying causative factors included trauma (n = 10), prior surgery (n = 9), nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 7), infection (n = 3), myelography with iophendylate used as contrast medium (n = 1), Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 1), and unknown causes (n = 1). Imaging characteristics include loculated CSF collections (n = 23), nerve root clumping, enhancement, and displacement (n = 15), cord swelling with increased T2 signal (n = 12), arachnoid septations (n = 11), cord atrophy (n = 6), syrinx (n = 5), and intrathecal calcifications (n = 3). Ten patients underwent surgical procedures, and most had only brief clinical improvement. CAA is a rare cause of devastating neurologic symptoms and chronic pain. The imaging features of CAA range from subtle to severe. Advanced arachnoiditis can present with spinal cord swelling and syrinx formation, which can mimic other disease processes. Inclusion of advanced CAA in the differential diagnosis can prevent unnecessary interventions.

  6. Delayed visual loss from optochiasmatic arachnoiditis after resection of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Erick M; Lyons, Christopher J; Cochrane, David Doug

    2014-05-01

    Visual loss following surgery for craniopharyngioma is usually the result of operative injury or tumor recurrence. The authors present the case of a 12-year-old boy who developed progressive visual field constriction 11 years after gross-total resection of a solid and cystic craniopharyngioma. No tumor recurrence was evident on multiple MRI studies, and it was only at surgical exploration that the diagnosis of optochiasmatic arachnoiditis was established. Lysis of the adhesions around the optic nerves and chiasm resulted in substantial and sustained visual improvement.

  7. [Arachnoiditis and tuberculuos cortical encephalitis in an HIV+ patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Fernández, Cynthia Pamela; Venzor-Castellanos, Juan Pablo; Contreras-Cabrera, Jassive Adriana; Fuentes-venegas, Abel; Castro-Martínez, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    HIV infection is a major risk factor for tuberculosis. We describe the case of a 30-year-old male presenting with headache, compromised mental status, seizures, neck stiffness and fever that was subsequently diagnosed with HlV and neuroinfection. Clinical data, cerebrospinal fluid and brain imaging supported a diagnosis of neurotuberculosis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse arachnoidal enhancement, mainly at the basal cisterns and cortical encephalitis. Such imaging findings play a key role in the diagnosis of central nervous system tuberculosis.

  8. Severe progressive late onset myelopathy and arachnoiditis following neonatal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Christian G E L; Jardine, Philip E; Eunson, Paul; Renowden, Shelley; Sharples, Peta; Newton, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    This case series describes four children who had meningitis in the neonatal period. After a stable period of years, they developed a myelopathy caused by chronic arachnoiditis. The myelopathy was precipitated by a fall in two cases, and in two cases there was an acute deterioration after surgery. A history of neonatal meningitis should be taken into consideration before planning surgery or anaesthesia. Careful intra-operative positioning, immobilisation of the neck, and maintenance of blood pressure is important but may not prevent this complication.

  9. High-resolution constructive interference in a steady state imaging of cervicothoracic adhesive arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, I; Korogi, Y; Hirai, T; Yamashita, Y

    2007-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of constructive interference in a steady state (CISS) sequence for an evaluation of cervicothoracic adhesive arachnoiditis. Seven patients with arachnoiditis underwent magnetic resonance imaging with T1- and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) and 3-dimensional CISS sequences. Three observers compared T2-weighted FSE and 3-dimensional CISS images with regard to image quality for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. Magnetic resonance appearances accompanied with cervicothoracic adhesive arachnoiditis on CISS coupled with T2-weighted FSE sequences were also evaluated. The CISS images were superior to T2-weighted FSE images in the demarcation of spinal cord, dura matter, nerve root, and adhesive point. In our 7 cases with cervicothoracic adhesive arachnoiditis, dural thickening in 2 cases, syringomyelia in 6, arachnoidal cysts in 3, findings of presyrinx in 2, intramedullary microcyst in 2, and deformity of the spinal cord were present. A CISS sequence was more desirable for an evaluation of the cervicothoracic adhesive arachnoiditis than T2-weighted FSE images and could provide useful additional information.

  10. Evaluation of tenoxicam on prevention of arachnoiditis in rat laminectomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemil, Berker; Kurt, Gokhan; Aydın, Cansel; Akyurek, Nalan; Erdogan, Bulent; Ceviker, Necdet

    2011-08-01

    Post laminectomy arachnoiditis has been shown by experiments with rats and post operative radiological imaging in humans. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the efficacy of tenoxicam in preventing arachnoiditis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and L3 laminectomy was performed. In the tenoxicam group, 0.5 mg/kg tenoxicam was applied intraperitoneally. Normal saline was applied intraperitoneally in the control group. Later, the rats were killed at weeks 3 and 6, and the laminectomy sites were evaluated pathologically for arachnoiditis. The results showed that 6 weeks after surgery, the tenoxicam group showed lowest arachnoiditis grades. However, statistically significant difference was not found in arachnoiditis between the control group and the tenoxicam group. Based on these findings it is concluded that application of the tenoxicam after lumbar laminectomy did not effectively reduce arachnoiditis. Performing the most effective surgical technique without damage around tissue in a small surgical wound and having meticulous hemostasis in surgery seem to be the key for preventing arachnoiditis effectively.

  11. PHACE syndrome in antenatally diagnosed posterior fossa anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Pavaman Sindgikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PHACE is a neurocutaneous syndrome, an acronym to describe patients with facial segmental hemangiomas and other malformations. We describe a newborn antenatally diagnosed to have posterior fossa anomaly and subsequently as PHACE syndrome.

  12. Patient adaptable cerebellar retractor system: Use in posterior fossa surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Borghei-Razavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new patient adaptable dual use soft tissue spreader and cerebellar retractor system designed for use during surgery of the posterior fossa is described. We found that this new retractor design allowed for excellent exposure, plus greater freedom and dexterity during the posterior fossa surgery. This novel instrument is an improvement over the existing instrument, because it provided more force/power transmission from pins/connectors to the brain spatula via the shorter flexible arm.

  13. External hernia of the supravesical fossa: Rare or simply misidentified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G; Romano, G; Erdas, E; Medas, F; Gordini, L; Podda, F; Calò, P

    2017-05-01

    External hernias of the supravesical fossa are considered rare, perhaps wrongly. Highlighting clinical and anatomical features could be useful for correct, preoperative diagnosis, thus avoiding the risk of complications such as incarceration. The study aims to demonstrate that the incidence of external protrusions of the supravesical fossa is higher that supposed. Probably, being mistaken for direct hernias, these hernia types are misidentified and not included in current classifications. This issue deserves attention due to the elevated risk of incarceration related to its distinctive structure. 249 consecutive open anterior inguinal hernia procedures were analyzed. Hernias were categorized according to the Nyhus classification. A subgroup of direct hernias involved true hernias of the supravesical fossa. Multiple ipsilateral, as well as combined hernias having a multi-component structure, were also considered. 13 true hernias of the supravesical fossa and 19 multiple ipsilateral or combined hernias composed of direct and/or indirect hernia, together with one hernia of the supravesical fossa were identified. 4 true hernias of the supravesical fossa presented signs of incarceration. In three other combined protrusions, the herniated component of the supravesical fossa also showed incarceration of the visceral content. Hernias of the supravesical fossa would appear to be more frequent than imagined. These protrusions show a diverticular shape and the base is often tightened by the stiffer medial umbilical fold. This explains the apparently higher tendency to incarceration that distinguishes this hernia type. Preoperative signs of inguinal pain and irreducibility are pathognomonic for correct diagnosis. In these cases, surgical treatment in the short term is recommended. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma contralateral to an arachnoid cyst Hematoma subdural agudo espontâneo contralateral a cisto aracnóideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto de Brito Henriques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts (AC are extra-cerebral cerebrospinal fluid collections of unknown origin. They correspond to 1% of all intracranial nontraumatic space-occupying lesions and appear more frequently in the middle fossa (50%. More than 25% of these cysts are incidental findings and the majority of patients are asymptomatic. Seizures, intracranial hypertension signs, neurological deficits, macrocrania, developmental delay and bulging of the skull are the main signs and symptoms of the lesion. AC rupture and bleeding are rare, usually occurring in young adults and associated with trauma. The risk of hemorrhage does not exceed 0.04% / year. We describe the case of a ten-year-old boy who presented with acute signs of intracranial hypertension secondary to a spontaneous acute subdural hematoma, contralateral to an AC of the middle fossa. Three factors were significant in this case: signs and symptoms occurred spontaneously; the presence of an acute subdural hematoma exclusively contralateral to the AC; successful outcome of the conservative treatment.Os cistos aracnóideos (CA são coleções liquóricas extra-cerebrais e intra-aracnóideas de origem desconhecida. Correspondem a 1% de todas as lesões expansivas intracranianas não traumáticas e têm nítido predomínio na fossa média (50%. Até 25% destes cistos são achados incidentais sendo que a maioria dos pacientes é assintomática. Crises epilépticas, sinais de hipertensão intracraniana, déficits neurológicos focais, macrocrania, atraso no desenvolvimento e abaulamento da calota craniana são os principais sinais e sintomas da lesão. A ruptura dos CA, assim como seu sangramento, são situações raras, geralmente associadas a traumas e acometem adultos jovens. O risco de hemorragia em pacientes com CA não excede 0,04% ao ano. É descrito caso de paciente de dez anos de idade que subitamente apresentou sinais de hipertensão intracraniana secundários a hematoma subdural agudo espont

  15. Arachnoiditis ossificans in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis, syringomyelia, and a history of spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasturk, Askin Esen; Coven, Ilker; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Erinanc, Hilal; Bal, Ajda

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe a patient unusual presenting with both arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia. We have reviewed the patient's evaluation, surgery, and treatment. This patient developed paraparesis following thoracolumbar spinal surgery to treat kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis. We performed a T9-T11 total laminectomy, drained the cyst, dissected and removed the calcified plaques posterior to the cord, and decompressed the neural structures. Symptomatic arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) a rare clinical manifestation is characterized by the calcification or ossification of the spinal arachnoid. The occurrence of AO with syringomyelia is rare. To date, a few cases with both AO and ankylosing spondylitis have been reported.

  16. Spinal arachnoiditis as a consequence of aneurysm-related subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Jolandi; McAuliffe, William

    2013-02-01

    Only a few case reports currently exist regarding symptomatic spinal arachnoiditis following aneurysm-related subarachnoid haemorrhage. We present three patients who developed symptomatic spinal arachnoiditis following spontaneous aneurysm rupture. Following initial aneurysm and subarachnoid haemorrhage management (including ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement), all three patients developed gradually worsening neurological abnormalities, and subsequent imaging demonstrated spinal arachnoiditis. Despite spinal decompression, all three patients experienced progressively worsening neurological decline. © 2012 The Authors; Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. Functional morphology of the Neandertal scapular glenoid fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Marisa E; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Neandertals and Homo sapiens are known to differ in scapular glenoid fossa morphology. Functional explanations may be appropriate for certain aspects of glenoid fossa morphology; however, other factors--e.g., allometry, evolutionary development--must be addressed before functional morphology is considered. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, shape of the scapular glenoid fossa was compared among Neandertals, early and recent modern humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, Australopithecus afarensis, and Au. sediba. Permutation analysis revealed that side, sex, and lifestyle did not correlate with shape. Of the features we found to differ between groups, anterior glenoid rim morphology and fossa curvature did not correlate with the aforementioned shape variables; thus, a functional explanation is appropriate for these components of glenoid fossa shape. Shared morphology among recent humans and chimpanzees (to the exclusion of Neandertals and orangutans) suggests independent forces contributing to these morphological configurations. Potential explanations include adaptations to habitual behavior and locomotor adaptations in the scapulae of recent humans and chimpanzees; these explanations are supported by clinical and experimental literature. The absence of these morphological features in Neandertals may support the lack of these selective forces on their scapular glenoid fossa morphology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma in the Infratemporal Fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in late adult life, but its incidence in oral and maxillofacial region is extremely rare. We report a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma which occurred in the infratemporal fossa. Conventional radiograph of this case showed an ill-defined radiolucent lesion in the alveolar bone of the right maxillary first molar area, the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, and the ascending ramus of mandible. MRI demonstrated well defined mass of intermediate signal intensity in T1 weighted images but T2 weighted images showed two distinctive regions of different characteristics. Infratemporal portion of the lesion was of hyperintense signal but under that region, the signal intensity decreased clearly, which might mean this case composed of two different subtypes, though it couldn't be confirmed by histopathological examination. Biopsy was taken in the only soft tissue of the maxillary posterior alveolar region and confirmed the lesion as the storiform-pleomorphic type of malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Histopathological subtype was well consistent with the relatively aggressive imaging findings of that region. We expect more detailed analysis of the nature of malignant fibrous histiocytoma with improvement of the imaging modality and the identification of the relationship between diagnostic imaging and histopathologic findings.

  19. [Expansive duralplasty and subarachnoid reconstruction for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis using Gore-Tex surgical membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Toshitaka; Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Syunsuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2004-12-01

    Effective surgical treatment of adhesive spinal arachnoiditis has not been established because of its complex clinical manifestation. The authors present a new surgical technique to minimize the postoperative recurrence of adhesion after microlysis of adhesion to treat spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. After complete release and reconstruction of the spinal cord, a 0.1 mm Gore-Tex surgical membrane was placed over the cord and fixed to the lateral dural surface with stay sutures. Furthermore, maximal expansion of a subarachnoid space was performed by expansive dural plasty with a 0.3 mm Gore-Tex surgical membrane. We performed this surgical method in tree cases of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis. During a postoperative follow-up period ranging from 2 to 3 years, postoperative neurological deterioration did not occur in all cases, and postoperative MR imaging studied showed no adhesion spinal cord and reconstructed subarachnoid space. The authors believe that this procedure is an effective surgical treatment for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.

  20. MRI of the fetal posterior fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsbaum, Catherine; Andre, Christine; Merzoug, Valerie; Ferey, Solene [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Moutard, Marie Laure [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Quere, Marie Pierre [CHU, Department of Radiology, Nantes (France); Lewin, Fanny [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Maternity Department, Paris (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Ste Anne Hospital, Department of Neuropathology, Paris (France)

    2005-02-01

    MRI is a useful tool to complement US for imaging of the fetal posterior fossa (PF). In France, the discovery of a PF malformation in the fetus frequently leads to termination of pregnancy (80% in a personal series). However, despite improved accuracy in the diagnosis of PF abnormalities, prognosis remains uncertain. The first objective of this review is to document the normal MRI landmarks of the developing fetal PF. Because of their thinness, the visibility of the cerebellar fissures is dramatically delayed on MRI compared to macroscopic data. An important landmark is identification of the primary fissure of the vermis, normally seen at around 25-26 weeks' gestation (WG) on the sagittal slice, separating the larger posterior lobe from the anterior lobe (volume ratio around 2:1). The prepyramidal and secondary fissures are usually only identifiable after 32 WG and the hemispheric fissures are difficult to see until the end of pregnancy. Considering the signal changes, high signal on T2-weighted (T2-W) sequences is seen from 25 WG in the posterior part of the brain stem (tegmentum and ascending sensory tracts) related to myelination. The low signal intensities seen within the cerebellum on T2-W images correspond to high cellularity of grey matter (deep nuclei), as there is no myelination within the white matter before 38 WG. The second objective is to highlight the signs highly predictive of a poor neurological prognosis. Lack of pontine curvature or vermian agenesis without a PF cyst (small volume of PF) is greatly associated with poor neurological status. The third objective is to propose a diagnostic strategy in difficult cases where prognosis is important, e.g. the Dandy Walker continuum. (orig.)

  1. Spinal cord atrophy associated with arachnoiditis as demonstrated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, I.; Gibson, R.

    1982-11-01

    Two cases showing the features of spinal arachnoiditis on metrizamide myelography were examined by concurrent computed tomography. This showed severe atrophy and deformity of the spinal cord with its cross sectional shape changing dramatically from one segmental level to the next. These features may be the result of friction on the cord by arachnoid adhesions. Filling defects in the canal or apparent enlargment of the cord may result from pouches of subarachnoid space which are not in free communication with the contrast material.

  2. Evaluation of tenoxicam on prevention of arachnoiditis in rat laminectomy model

    OpenAIRE

    Cemil, Berker; Kurt, Gokhan; Aydın, Cansel; Akyurek, Nalan; Erdogan, Bulent; Ceviker, Necdet

    2011-01-01

    Post laminectomy arachnoiditis has been shown by experiments with rats and post operative radiological imaging in humans. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the efficacy of tenoxicam in preventing arachnoiditis in rats. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and L3 laminectomy was performed. In the tenoxicam group, 0.5 mg/kg tenoxicam was applied intraperitoneally. Normal saline was applied intraperitoneally in the control group. Later, the rats were killed...

  3. Postoperative spinal adhesive arachnoiditis presenting with hydrocephalus and cauda equina syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerts, Guus; Rooijakkers, Herbert; Abu-Serieh, Basel; Cosnard, Guy; Raftopoulos, Christian

    2008-02-01

    To our knowledge, the association between hydrocephalus and postoperative spinal adhesive arachnoiditis (SAA) has never been reported. Herein we describe an unusual case of a 45-year-old man with spinal adhesive arachnoiditis (SAA) who developed delayed-onset hypertensive hydrocephalus and cauda equina syndrome (CES) after multiple low-back surgeries. The patient's clinical presentation, imaging findings, surgical management, and the possible mechanisms are discussed in the light of the present literature.

  4. Characteristics and management of arachnoid cyst in the pediatric headache clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlitz-Markus, Tal; Zeharia, Avi; Cohen, Yishai Haimi; Konen, Osnat

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are generally identified incidentally on brain imaging, although they occasionally cause symptoms because of expansion or bleeding. This study aims to describe patients in whom an arachnoid cyst was identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study performed for the evaluation of headache in a pediatric headache clinic and to highlight the clinical dilemma posed by this finding. A retrospective descriptive study design was used. The electronic database of a tertiary pediatric headache clinic was searched for all newly admitted patients with headache who underwent MRI evaluation in 2008-2013. The indications for imaging were based on clinical practice parameters recommended by the Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Clinical and imaging parameters were collected from the files. Findings were compared between patients with and without an arachnoid cyst. Of the 250 (31%) of 800 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 11 (4.4%) had an arachnoid cyst. Two patients had a ruptured cyst with midline shifting and a large subdural collection. Both presented with headache, vomiting, phonophobia, and photophobia. In the other 9 asymptomtic patients with an arachnoid cyst, imaging showed only a mild mass effect without midline shifting; their symptoms were considered unrelated to the cyst. The patients with a symptomatic arachnoid cyst were referred for surgery, with good outcome. Arachnoid cysts are found in a small percentage of brain scans performed for evaluation of headache in the setting of a hospital-based pediatric headache clinic. For the long run in these clinical settings, most of the cysts are asymptomatic. Precise anamnesis, neurologic examination, and imaging performed according to accepted practice guidelines may help clinicians determine if the headache and symptoms are caused by the cyst or if they should seek primary headache diagnosis with overlapping symptoms. The clinical distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic

  5. Syringomyelia secondary to "occult" dorsal arachnoid webs: Report of two cases with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag P Sayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a certain group of patients with syringomyelia, even with the advent of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, no associated abnormality or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF block is easily identified. This type of syringomyelia is often termed idiopathic. Current literature has less than 10 reports of arachnoid webs to be the causative factor. We present our experience in the management of two cases of syringomyelia secondary to arachnoid webs. Both our patients presented with progressive neurological deterioration with MRI scans demonstrating cervical/thoracic syrinx without Chiari malformation or low-lying cord. There was no history of previous meningitis or trauma. Both patients underwent myelography that demonstrated dorsal flow block implying CSF obstruction. Cord displacement/change in caliber was also noted and this was not evident on MRI scans. Both patients underwent thoracic laminectomy. After opening the dura, thickened/abnormal arachnoid tissue was found that was resected thus widely communicating the dorsal subarachnoid space. Postoperatively at 6 months, both patients had significant symptomatic improvement with follow-up MRI scans demonstrating significant resolution of the syrinx. In patients with presumed idiopathic syringomyelia, imaging studies should be closely inspected for the presence of a transverse arachnoid web. We believe that all patients with idiopathic symptomatic syringomyelia should have MRI CSF flow studies and/or computed tomography (CT myelography to identify such arachnoid abnormalities that are often underdiagnosed. Subsequent surgery should be directed at the establishment of normal CSF flow by laminectomy and excision of the offending arachnoid tissue.

  6. Syringomyelia secondary to "occult" dorsal arachnoid webs: Report of two cases with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayal, Parag P; Zafar, Arif; Carroll, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    In a certain group of patients with syringomyelia, even with the advent of sophisticated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), no associated abnormality or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) block is easily identified. This type of syringomyelia is often termed idiopathic. Current literature has less than 10 reports of arachnoid webs to be the causative factor. We present our experience in the management of two cases of syringomyelia secondary to arachnoid webs. Both our patients presented with progressive neurological deterioration with MRI scans demonstrating cervical/thoracic syrinx without Chiari malformation or low-lying cord. There was no history of previous meningitis or trauma. Both patients underwent myelography that demonstrated dorsal flow block implying CSF obstruction. Cord displacement/change in caliber was also noted and this was not evident on MRI scans. Both patients underwent thoracic laminectomy. After opening the dura, thickened/abnormal arachnoid tissue was found that was resected thus widely communicating the dorsal subarachnoid space. Postoperatively at 6 months, both patients had significant symptomatic improvement with follow-up MRI scans demonstrating significant resolution of the syrinx. In patients with presumed idiopathic syringomyelia, imaging studies should be closely inspected for the presence of a transverse arachnoid web. We believe that all patients with idiopathic symptomatic syringomyelia should have MRI CSF flow studies and/or computed tomography (CT) myelography to identify such arachnoid abnormalities that are often underdiagnosed. Subsequent surgery should be directed at the establishment of normal CSF flow by laminectomy and excision of the offending arachnoid tissue.

  7. Nerve root prolapse into a spinal arachnoid cyst--an unusual cause of radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangala, Jaypal Reddy; Uribe, Juan S; Park, Paul; Martinez, C; Vale, Fernando L

    2009-06-01

    Arachnoid cysts are rare lesions of the spine and can present with myelopathy, radiculopathy, local pain or a combination of these symptoms. Nerve root prolapse into an arachnoid cyst causing radiculopathy has not been reported before. We report a nerve root prolapse into a spinal arachnoid cyst presenting clinically as radiculopathy. An 18-year-old female patient presented with mid-back pain, right anterior thigh pain and hip flexor weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) myelography revealed an arachnoid cyst at T12-L1 level on the right side. At surgery, a nerve root was seen prolapsing into an extradural arachnoid cyst. The nerve root was replaced back into dural sac and the dural defect closed. At 20 months of follow-up, the patient continues to be asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrence on imaging. Replacing the prolapsed nerve root into the dural sac with meticulous closure of the dural defect could lead to good clinical outcome. We propose a modification to the popular classification of these lesions to better rationalize their surgical management. Classification of extradural arachnoid spinal cysts (Nabors's type 1) should be based on the presence or absence of dural communication. Sacral meningoceles (Nabors' type 1B) should be excluded from the classification as they have free communication with the thecal sac and are not true spinal cysts.

  8. ANTERIOR CERVICAL INTRADURAL ARACHNOID CYST - A RARE CAUSE OF SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollam Chandra Sekhar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Arachnoid cysts of spinal cord are relatively uncommon lesions. Most of them arise dorsal to the cord, and anteriorly placed intradural arachnoid cyst is a rare cause of cervical cord compression. To the best of our knowledge, only 30 cases were reported in the literature. We present a case of anterior cervical intradural arachnoid cyst with review of literature. METHODS We performed a literature search for anteriorly placed intradural arachnoid cysts in the cervical spinal cord through http://pubmed.com, a well-known worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, only 30 cases were reported in the literature. We reviewed the literature with illustration of our case. We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient who presented with insidious onset of radicular pain. MRI cervical spine demonstrated cervical intradural cystic lesion extending from C2 to upper border of C4, lying anteriorly with compression over the cord. Cervical laminectomy followed by wide cyst fenestration and subtotal excision of cyst was done. Histopathological diagnosis was arachnoid cyst. RESULTS Patient totally recovered from his pain and sensory symptoms within a week and motor symptoms improved gradually over a period of six to eight weeks. With two years followup, patient had no further complaints. CONCLUSION Anterior cervical intradural arachnoid cysts are rare. These are amenable to resection through posterior approach safely with good postoperative recovery.

  9. Tuberculosis with meningitis, myeloradiculitis, arachnoiditis and hydrocephalus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pin-Wen; Chiang, Tsuey-Ru; Lee, Mei-Ching; Huang, Cheng-Hua

    2010-09-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by tuberculosis is rare; it can affect either immunocompromised or immunocompetent people. Here, we report a case of tuberculosis with CNS involvement. We present the case of an immunocompetent young man who developed fever, subacute headache, disturbance of consciousness, paraparesis, sphincter dysfunction, and hypoesthesia. The final diagnosis was tuberculous meningitis, myeloradiculitis and arachnoiditis based on clinical signs, imaging studies, and cerebrospinal fluid culture. The patient received antituberculosis medication with adjunct intravenous steroid therapy. Although his clinical condition improved significantly, some neurological sequelae persisted. Methods for detection of CNS TB and treatment protocols should be constantly re-evaluated to improve treatment outcome and reduce likelihood and severity of neurological sequelae.

  10. Acquired cervical spinal arachnoid diverticulum in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R J; Garosi, L; Matiasek, K; Lowrie, M

    2015-04-01

    A one-year-old, female entire, domestic, shorthair cat presented with acute onset non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a C3-C4 acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion and the cat was treated conservatively. The cat was able to walk after 10 days and was normal 2 months after presentation. The cat was referred five and a half years later for investigation of an insidious onset 3-month history of ataxia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine was repeated, demonstrating a spinal arachnoid diverticulum at C3 causing marked focal compression of the spinal cord. This was treated surgically with hemilaminectomy and durectomy. The cat improved uneventfully and was discharged 12 days later. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Thoracolumbar extradural arachnoid cyst--three surgical case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomii, Masato; Mizuno, Junichi; Takeda, Masaaki; Matsushima, Tadao; Itoh, Yasunobu; Numazawa, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Three cases of symptomatic extradural arachnoid cyst were treated by surgery. Total excision of the cyst followed by tight closure of the fistula by suture was achieved in all 3 cases. Surgery improved the neurological deficits but urinary incontinence persisted in all three patients. Obliteration of the fistula is considered to be important at surgery from the etiological perspective of the cyst. There are many surgical options, but surgical removal of the cyst and obliteration of the communication usually leads to prompt improvement in neurological deficits. Instability, malalignment, and worsening scoliosis are well-recognized postoperative complications of excessive laminotomy, but the exposure should be wide enough to cover the cyst completely at the operation. Wide exposure of the entire cyst is preferable to avoid missing the fistula and to identify any adhesions or fistula between the cyst and the dura. Identification of the fistula location based on preoperative imaging studies is also important.

  12. Vascular Anomalies of Posterior Fossa and Their Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajani; Kumar, Raj; Kumar, Arushi

    2017-11-01

    Posterior fossa houses very vital and sensitive structures namely midbrain, pons, medulla, and cerebellum. These structures are irrigated by vertebral, posterior inferior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, and superior cerebellar arteries. Parts of brain located in posterior fossa control important parts of body so any variation pertaining to stenosis, atresia, hypoplasia, fenestration, agenesis, and duplication in the arteries supplying these parts alter the irrigation pattern culminating into various morbid and mortal neurologic disorders. Therefore, a sound understanding and thorough knowledge of posterior circulation vascular variant anatomy builds the foundation for the accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of neurovascular ischemic and hemorrhagic diseases of posterior fossa. To aid in addressing these complex neurologic disorders and neurosurgical treatment to be carried out successfully, updating and consolidating the knowledge of all the variations/insults of these arteries becomes essential. Therefore, review study has been carried out.Literature search was carried out using databases, including Scielo, Scopmed, Medline, PubMed, and Wiley online library. Papers containing original data were selected and secondary references retrieved from bibliographies. Search terms used were posterior fossa, anomalies of vertebral, posterior inferior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, and superior cerebellar arteries.The study will be of paramount importance to angiographers in interpreting angiographs, neurologists in diagnosis and treatment of neurologic disorders, and neurosurgeons in performing surgery in posterior fossa and craniovertebral region particularly dealing with tumors and vascular malformations.

  13. Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Nishizaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

  14. Ultrafast MR imaging of the normal posterior fossa in fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazzone, M M; Hubbard, A M; Bilaniuk, L T; Harty, M P; Meyer, J S; Zimmerman, R A; Mahboubi, S

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if a standard imaging protocol using ultrafast MR sequences could adequately reveal normal posterior fossa anatomy in fetuses and, if so, to document a template on MR imaging for normal posterior fossa development. A retrospective review found 66 MR imaging studies of 63 fetuses, 16-39 weeks' gestation age (mean, 25 weeks' gestation), who were referred between June 1996 and May 1999 for evaluation of non-central nervous system anomalies revealed on prenatal sonography. All fetuses had normal brains and spines on prenatal sonography. The standard MR imaging protocol included axial, sagittal, and coronal half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE); sagittal and coronal two-dimensional fast low-angle shot (FLASH); and axial turbo T1-weighted FLASH images through the fetal brain. Structures that we analyzed were the fourth ventricle, the cisterna magna, the vermis, the cerebellar hemispheres, and the brainstem. Using the HASTE sequences, we documented gestational age-specific signal intensity changes in the cerebellar hemispheres and the brainstem. The posterior fossa anatomy was sufficiently well defined to exclude abnormalities of the fourth ventricle and cerebellar vermis in all cases. Because of high T2-weighting, good contrast enhancement, and good signal-to-noise ratios, HASTE images provided the best anatomic definition of the posterior fossa. Normal posterior fossa anatomy can be adequately shown on ultrafast MR images, which can be helpful when prenatal sonography is equivocal.

  15. Fossa navicularis magna detection on cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Ali Z. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland(United States); Mupparapu, Mel [Div. of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, Philadelphia (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Herein, we report and discuss the detection of fossa navicularis magna, a close radiographic anatomic variant of canalis basilaris medianus of the basiocciput, as an incidental finding in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. The CBCT data of the patients in question were referred for the evaluation of implant sites and to rule out pathology in the maxilla and mandible. CBCT analysis showed osseous, notch-like defects on the inferior aspect of the clivus in all four cases. The appearance of fossa navicularis magna varied among the cases. In some, it was completely within the basiocciput and mimicked a small rounded, corticated, lytic defect, whereas it appeared as a notch in others. Fossa navicularis magna is an anatomical variant that occurs on the inferior aspect of the clivus. The pertinent literature on the anatomical variations occurring in this region was reviewed.

  16. Posterior fossa dermoid cyst in a patient with Goldenhar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dange, N; Bonde, V; Goel, A; Muzumdar, D

    2007-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy with Goldenhar syndrome was diagnosed to have a posterior cranial fossa dermoid cyst. The presence of such a combination of clinical entities has not been reported earlier. The embryonic dysgenesis causing midline posterior fossa dermoid and other anomalies observed in Goldenhar syndrome occur between the third and fifth week of intrauterine life and are probably interrelated. This report emphasizes the need for a high index of suspicion and the value of cranial imaging in a case with Goldenhar syndrome. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Intraspinal arachnoiditis and hydrocephalus after lumbar myelography using methylglucamine iocarmate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T S; Hein, O

    1978-01-01

    A 35 year old woman developed a severe meningeal reaction after lumbar myelography using the water-soluble contrast medium methylglucamine iocarmate. Three months after myelography the findings were a transverse spinal cord syndrome corresponding to the middle thoracic segments resulting from well developed leptomeningeal adhesions. This was combined with a noncommunicating hydrocephalus, probably the result of leptomeningeal fibrosis in the posterior fossa. After treatment with a ventriculoatrial shunt the patient is almost free of symptoms. A possible pathogenetic relationship between the contrast medium, the chronic leptomeningeal changes, and the symptoms of our patient is discussed on the basis of the literature. Images PMID:305466

  18. The effects of blood and blood products on the arachnoid cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric A; Romanova, Liudmila; Janson, Christopher; Lam, Cornelius H

    2017-06-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI), large amounts of red blood cells and hemolytic products are deposited intracranially creating debris in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This debris, which includes heme and bilirubin, is cleared via the arachnoid granulations and lymphatic systems. However, the mechanisms by which erythrocytes and their breakdown products interfere with normal CSF dynamics remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to model in vitro how blood breakdown products affect arachnoid cells at the CSF-blood barrier, and the extent to which the resorption of CSF into the venous drainage system is mechanically impaired following TBI. Arachnoid cells were grown to confluency on permeable membranes. Rates of growth and apoptosis were measured in the presence of blood and lysed blood, changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured in the presence of blood and hemoglobin, and small molecule permeability was determined in the presence of blood, lysed blood, bilirubin, and biliverdin. These results were directly compared with an established rat brain endothelial cell line (RBEC4) co-cultured with rat brain astrocytes. We found that arachnoid cells grown in the presence of whole or lysed erythrocytes had significantly slower growth rates than controls. Bilirubin and biliverdin, despite their low solubilities, altered the paracellular transport of arachnoid cells more than the acute blood breakdown components of whole and lysed blood. Mannitol permeability was up to four times higher in biliverdin treatments than controls, and arachnoid membranes demonstrated significantly decreased small molecule permeabilities in the presence of whole and lysed blood. We conclude that short-term (5 days) arachnoid cell viability are affected by blood and blood breakdown products, with important consequences for CSF flow and blood clearance after TBI.

  19. Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops in Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae as identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit. Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleo-environments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes in these regions. The results of this work will include two 1:1M scale geologic maps of twelve MTM quadrangles (Mawrth Vallis - 20022, 20017, 20012, 25022, 25017, and 25012; and Nili Fossae - 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, 30282).

  20. 3DCRT for posterior fossa: Sparing of surrounding organs at risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azza Helal

    2013-06-25

    Jun 25, 2013 ... Methods: Ten patients underwent CT simulation for treatment planning of posterior fossa boost. The CT data were transferred to Precise Elekta treatment planning system where posterior fossa, non-posterior fossa brain, pituitary, cochlea, parotid glands, cervical spinal cord, thyroid gland, pharynx, mandible ...

  1. Middle cranial fossa variations including bilateral foramina entering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current observation indicated the presence of unusual bilateral foramina in the middle cranial fossa communicating with the sphenoid air sinuses. They were located anterolateral to the sella turcica and medial to the superior orbital fissure behind the optic canal. The complexity of sphenoid bone development and non ...

  2. Patterns of superficial venous arrangement in the cubital fossa of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The cubital fossa is a common site for the removal of venous blood for analysis, transfusion, and intravenous therapy. The superficial venous return from the upper limb follows two or three major superficial veins, which are extremely variable; these include the cephalic, basilic, median cubital, and antebrachial ...

  3. Transpterygoid Approach to a Dermoid Cyst in Pterygopalatine Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordones, Alexandre Beraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe a case of dermoid cyst arising from the pterygopalatine fossa and review the literature. Methods We report a case of a 23-year-old man who suffered a car accident 2 years before otolaryngologic attendance. He had one episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure and developed a reduction of visual acuity of the left side after the accident. Neurologic investigation was performed and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an incidental finding of a heterogeneous ovoid lesion in the pterygopalatine fossa, hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. Results Endoscopic sinus surgery with transpterygoid approach was performed. The ovoid lesion was noted in the pterygopalatine fossa. Puncture for intraoperative evaluation showed a transparent thick fluid. Surprisingly, hair and sebaceous glands were found inside the cyst capsule. The cyst was excised completely. Histologic examination revealed a dermoid cyst. The patient currently has no evidence of recurrence at 1 year postoperatively. Conclusion This unique case is a rare report of a dermoid cyst incidentally diagnosed. An endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach may be performed to treat successfully this kind of lesion. Although rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of expansive lesions in the pterygopalatine fossa, including schwannoma, angiofibroma, esthesioneuroblastoma, osteochondroma, cholesterol granuloma, hemangioma, lymphoma, and osteoma.

  4. Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the nasal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lagunas, Javier; Alasà-Caparrós, Cristian; Vendrell-Escofet, Gerard; Huguet-Redecilla, Pere; Raspall-Martin, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    An unusual case of a T4N2CMx polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma located in the nasal fossae and extending to the pterygoid area is presented. The primary tumor was excised through a Lefort I maxillotomy and the neck was managed with a supraomohyoid neck dissection. Adjuntive postoperative radiotherapy was also administered to the patient.

  5. Posterior cranial fossa tumours in children at Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The management of children with posterior fossa tumours is a challenge to health care professionals worldwide. Difficulties in diagnosis especially in children less than three years is well documented. Limited diagnostic modalities and lack of awareness of the symptoms and signs as well as societal perception ...

  6. Tumors of the posterior cranial fossa; Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Various types of brain tumor can occur in the region of the posterior fossa. Brain metastases in adults are the most common malignancies at this localization. Ependymomas, medulloblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas occur mostly in children and only rarely in adults. Other tumors that occur in the posterior fossa are meningiomas, schwannomas, hemangioblastomas, brain stem gliomas and epidermoid tumors. Due to the fact that the various tumors of the posterior fossa have different treatment approaches and prognoses, an accurate and specific diagnosis is mandatory. This review discusses the imaging aspects by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the most frequent tumors of the posterior fossa. (orig.) [German] Im Bereich der hinteren Schaedelgrube treten verschiedene Typen von Hirntumoren auf, wobei Hirnmetastasen bei Erwachsenen die haeufigsten Malignitaeten in dieser Region darstellen. Ependymome, Medulloblastome und pilozytische Astrozytome kommen meistens bei Kindern und nur selten bei Erwachsenen vor. Weitere Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube sind Meningeome, Schwannome, Haemangioblastome, Hirnstammgliome und Epidermoide. Da die verschiedenen Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube unterschiedliche Behandlungsansaetze sowie Prognosen haben, ist eine genaue und spezifische Diagnose obligatorisch. Dieser Review diskutiert die bildgebenden CT- und MRT-Aspekte der haeufigsten Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube. (orig.)

  7. Postoperative arachnoiditis diagnosed by high resolution fast spin-echo MRI of the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitt, G.J. [St. Mary`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Stevens, J.M. [St. Mary`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology]|[National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    Chronic adhesive arachnoiditis is cited as an important cause of recurrent pain and disability after extradural lumbar disc surgery. Myelography using oil-based or ionic water-soluble contrast media was a major contributing factor, and it was not possible to distinguish the prevalence of arachnoiditis probably due to surgery alone. Today it should be possible to make this distinction, which was the purpose of this study. Using high-resolution MRI in 129 patients symptomatic at least 1 year after surgery, a prevalence of arachnoiditis of 20% was found, which dropped to 3% when patients who had undergone oil-based myelography were excluded. Arachnoiditis was diffuse in 88% and focal in 12%. When oil-based media were involved it was focal in 13%, and when not, in one of three cases. It was concluded that arachnoiditis does occur after extradural lumbar disc surgery independently of the use of some myelographic contrast media, and that it may be diffuse or confined only to the operated level. Its prevalence was estimated at 4.6%, four cases focal and two cases diffuse. The causes and clinical significance can only be the subject of speculation. (orig.)

  8. STUDY OF POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMORS BY HIGH RESOLUTION MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Hari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging modality used for the assessment of infratentorial neoplasms. Although Computed Tomography (CT provides better demonstration of small or subtle calcifications within tumors. OBJECTIVES Study is done to assess the potential of MRI in characterisation of different tumors in posterior fossa by evaluating various unenhanced and gadolinium enhanced sequences and to compare high resolution FSE MRI sequences with routine FSE MRI sequences in diagnosing posterior fossa brain tumors. Also correlate findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 52 patients were diagnosed by CT brain as having posterior fossa brain for a year of 2 years were included in the study. In all studies MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5 T system (General electrical medical systems. A dedicated phased-array coil was used. RESULTS The age group ranged from 1 year to 60 years, majority were between 1 to 20 years (39%. Slight male preponderance was seen (males 29, females 23. Commonest tumor encountered in our study was vestibular schwannoma. DWI alone can differentiate different pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors. One case of pilocytic astrocytoma showed solid lesion instead of typical cystic lesion with mural nodule. One case AT-RT showed 2 lesions one in cerebrum, one in CP angle. Common feature being intra-axial lesion involving cerebellum. MRI was able to predict diagnosis in 50 of the 52 tumors. CONCLUSION Magnetic Resonance Imaging was found to be a highly sensitive imaging procedure and method of choice for posterior fossa brain tumors.

  9. A Symptomatic Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Kadono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (EAC is a rare, usually asymptomatic condition of unknown origin, which typically involves the lower thoracic spine. We report a case of posttraumatic symptomatic EAC with lumbar disc herniation. A 22-year-old man experienced back pain and sciatica after a traffic accident. Neurological examination revealed a right L5 radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic lesion at the L3 to L5 level and an L4-5 disc herniation; computed tomography myelography showed that the right L5 root was sandwiched between the cyst and the herniation. A dural defect was identified during surgery. The cyst was excised completely and the defect was repaired. A herniation was excised beside the dural sac. Histology showed that the cyst wall consisted of collagen and meningothelial cells. Postoperatively the symptoms resolved. Lumbar spinal EACs are rare; such cysts may arise from a congenital dural crack and grow gradually. The 6 cases of symptomatic lumbar EAC reported in the literature were not associated with disc herniation or trauma. In this case, the comorbid disc herniation was involved in symptom progression. Although many EACs are asymptomatic, comorbid spinal disorders such as disc herniation or trauma can result in symptom progression.

  10. Thoracolumbar extradural arachnoid cysts: a study of 14 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae Keun; Lee, Dong Youp; Kim, Tae Yup; Yi, Seong; Ha, Yoon; Kim, Keung Nyun; Shin, Hyunchul; Kim, Dong Seok; Yoon, Do Heum

    2012-02-01

    To investigate characteristic clinical and radiological features of extradural arachnoid cysts (EDACs) in the thoracolumbar region, a retrospective review of medical records and imaging studies was performed. EDACs are well known but relatively rare lesions in the thoracolumbar spinal canal. The most common site is the lower thoracic spine, and it may cause neurological symptoms by compressing the spinal cord or nerve root. In this study, the pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnostic approach, and surgical management of EDACs will be discussed. We studied 14 consecutive patients who were surgically treated for EDACs in the thoracolumbar region at our institute between March 2000 and January 2011. The history, clinical presentations, image findings, operative findings, and surgical outcomes of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 28 months (range: 6-72 months). Progressive motor weakness was the predominant symptom in all patients. Nine patients had radicular leg pain and back pain in the thoracolumbar area. On MRI, the cyst compressed the dural sac and spinal cord posteriorly typically with bilateral foraminal extensions. On radiological study, a communication point with the subarachnoid was hardly observed. The surgical treatment of EDACs included complete resection of the walls and closing the communicating point with the subarachnoid space. All patients showed excellent outcomes according to Odom's criteria without recurrence. One CSF leakage and one postoperative hematoma were noted. Thoracolumbar EDAC patients presented paraparesis and leg pain. Complete excision and closing the communicating point with the subarachnoid space were the choices of treatment, and the outcomes were favorable.

  11. Hemifacial spasm caused by a cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst. Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Vargas, Antonio; González-Rodrigalvarez, Rosario; Garcia-Leal, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts involving the cerebellopontine angle are an unusual cause of hemifacial spasm. The case is reported of a 71-year old woman presenting with a right hemifacial spasm and an ipsilateral arachnoid cyst. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a neurovascular compression caused by displacement of the facial-acoustic complex and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery by the cyst. Cyst excision and microvascular decompression of the facial nerve achieved permanent relief. The existing cases of arachnoid cysts causing hemifacial spasm are reviewed and the importance of a secondary neurovascular conflict identification and decompression in these cases is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital spinal intradural arachnoid cyst associated with intrathoracic meningocele in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zheng-xi; Li, Jin; Hang, Si-qing; You, Chao

    2010-06-01

    Congenital spinal intradural arachnoid cyst associated with intrathoracic meningocele is very rare. We report a case in a 9-year-old Chinese boy who presented with a two-week history of progressive paraparesis and gait ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that a dorsal intradural extramedullary cystic lesion extended from T1 to T5 and compressed the spinal cord. A left lateral intrathoracic meningocele pouch was found incidentally at the level of T1. The arachnoid cyst as well as meningocele was removed and the spinal cord compression was relieved. Arachnoid cyst was confirmed by histological examination. The patient recovered well postoperatively. This is the second report of such a case in the world according to the available literature. The take-home message for our case is that the surgical approach should be individualized, depending on the size and location.

  13. Tuberculous lumbar arachnoiditis mimicking conus cauda tumor: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Subhas K; Rao, KVL Narasinga; Mahadevan, Anita; Devi, B Indira

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis involving cauda equina is rare. A patient with lumbar tuberculous arachnoiditis in the absence of both vertebral and meningeal tuberculosis, which was mimicking spinal intradural extramedullary tumor is described here. Diagnosis was made based on intraoperative findings and was confirmed by histopathology. Surgical decompression along with a combination of steroid and antitubercular therapy resulted in a good outcome. At 3 months follow-up, the patient regained bladder control and was able to walk with support. Clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative findings are described. Pathology and the relevant literature are discussed. Based on the patient's clinical and radiologic findings, it was believed that the patient had a conus cauda tumor and was operated on. Histologic examination of the mass revealed tuberculoma. Surgical decompression followed by antituberculosis medication resulted in good outcome. Hence tuberculous arachnoiditis should be considered in differential diagnosis of conus cauda tumors. PMID:21716842

  14. Adhesive arachnoiditis in mixed connective tissue disease: a rare neurological manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maria Usman; Devlin, James Anthony Joseph; Fraser, Alexander

    2016-12-16

    The overall incidence of neurological manifestations is relatively low among patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). We recently encountered a case of autoimmune adhesive arachnoiditis in a young woman with 7 years history of MCTD who presented with severe back pain and myeloradiculopathic symptoms of lower limbs. To the best of our knowledge, adhesive arachnoiditis in an MCTD patient has never been previously reported. We report here this rare case, with the clinical picture and supportive ancillary data, including serology, cerebral spinal fluid analysis, electrophysiological evaluation and spinal neuroimaging, that is, MRI and CT (CT scan) of thoracic and lumbar spine. Her neurological deficit improved after augmenting her immunosuppressant therapy. Our case suggests that adhesive arachnoiditis can contribute to significant neurological deficits in MCTD and therefore requires ongoing surveillance. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Tuberculous lumbar arachnoiditis mimicking conus cauda tumor: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas K Konar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis involving cauda equina is rare. A patient with lumbar tuberculous arachnoiditis in the absence of both vertebral and meningeal tuberculosis, which was mimicking spinal intradural extramedullary tumor is described here. Diagnosis was made based on intraoperative findings and was confirmed by histopathology. Surgical decompression along with a combination of steroid and antitubercular therapy resulted in a good outcome. At 3 months follow-up, the patient regained bladder control and was able to walk with support. Clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging, and intraoperative findings are described. Pathology and the relevant literature are discussed. Based on the patient′s clinical and radiologic findings, it was believed that the patient had a conus cauda tumor and was operated on. Histologic examination of the mass revealed tuberculoma. Surgical decompression followed by antituberculosis medication resulted in good outcome. Hence tuberculous arachnoiditis should be considered in differential diagnosis of conus cauda tumors.

  16. Brown-Séquard syndrome following intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced spinal arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew-Weng Fong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Arachnoid cyst associated with spinal arachnoiditis following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a rare complication. Correctly diagnosing this condition and providing an effective treatment are extremely important. Case report: A 60-year-old women had a history of SAH due to an intradural vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm post-coil embolization, without neurologic deficits on discharge from our institution. She experienced left hemiparesis with muscle power graded at 4/5 eight months later due to a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct. Nine months after stroke rehabilitation, there was a progression of left-side weakness and right-side numbness down below the nipple level. On neurological examination, there were right sensory deficits below T6, and left hemiparesis with muscle power of the left upper extremity graded at 4/5 and that of the left lower extremity graded at 3/5. Deep tendon reflex was symmetrically increased at the bilateral lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a cervicothoracic multiseptated arachnoid cyst with a major compression effect at T6. Eight months after T5–6 hemilaminectomy and fenestration of the cyst wall, the neurologic deficits had not improved. The patient then underwent a cysto-peritoneal shunt. A follow-up MRI documented a complete resolution of the arachnoid cyst. The patient's Brown-Séquard syndrome showed clinical improvement. Conclusion: Prompt investigation revealed a spinal arachnoid cyst in a patient with a history of intracranial SAH presenting with unexplained progressive Brown-Séquard syndrome. For cases of multiseptated and long arachnoid cyst, as in our patient, a shunting procedure is a better choice than fenestration alone.

  17. Intradural Extramedullary Capillary Hemangioma In the Upper Thoracic Spine with Simultaneous Extensive Arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, Ikchan; Kim, Sang Woo

    2017-06-01

    Capillary hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors on skin and soft tissues, but developing as an intradural and extramedullary (IDEM) tumor in spine is extremely rare. In this report, we present IDEM tumor compressing thoracic cord in T2-3 level with extensive arachnoiditis below the tumor level in a 60-year-old man. The lesion was removed and histological diagnosis was capillary hemangioma. Prompt diagnosis and resection are important to avoid neurological deterioration from acute hemorrhagic condition. Simultaneous arachnoiditis may be originated from old subarachnoid hemorrhage associated tumor before diagnosis, and we suggest it as a helpful diagnostic feature to suspect vascular tumors such as capillary hemangioma.

  18. Cauda equina syndrome after spinal anaesthesia in a patient with asymptomatic tubercular arachnoiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sethi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy underwent emergency debridement surgery of right foot under spinal anaesthesia. Four hours after the surgery, the patient developed symptoms of cauda equina syndrome (CES. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the patient′s spine suggested underlying tubercular arachnoiditis. The boy was started on intravenous methylprednisolone and antitubercular therapy. He responded to the therapy and recovered completely in 2 weeks without any residual neurological deficits. We suggest that underlying pathological changes in the subarachnoid space due to tubercular arachnoiditis contributed to maldistribution of the local anaesthetic drug leading to CES.

  19. Extramedullary plasmacytoma imitating neoplasm of the gallbladder fossa after cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerović, Matea; Bogdanić, Branko; Drinković, Niksa; Kinda, Sandra Basić; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Gasparović, Vladimir

    2012-03-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that arise outside of the bone marrow. They account for approximately 3% of plasma cell neoplasms and are most frequently located in the head and neck region. Five months after undergoing cholecystectomy, a 69-year-old patient presented with the pain under the right costal margin and a 12 kg weight loss. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated irregular, vascular mass in the gallbladder fossa that dents towards the duodenum and the pylorus and lowers caudally to the hepatic flexure. His laboratory tests indicated normocytic anemia and showed elevated sedimentation rate. During operative procedure, a tumorous mass in the gallbladder fossa was found, inseparable of the peritoneum of the hepatoduodenal ligament and the IVb liver segment. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining determined the diagnosis of the plasmacytoma. Total resection of the tumor was achieved and after 24-month follow-up patient showed no signs of local recurrence or dissemination of the disease.

  20. Severe macroglossia after posterior fossa and craniofacial surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaoud, J; Joly, A; Picard, A; Thierry, B; Arnaud, E; James, S; Hennessy, I; McGarvey, B; Cairet, P; Vecchione, A; Vergnaud, E; Duracher, C; Khonsari, R H

    2018-01-01

    Massive swelling of the tongue can occur after posterior fossa and craniofacial surgery. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of such severe postoperative macroglossia, but this phenomenon is still poorly understood. Severe postoperative macroglossia can be a life-threatening condition due to upper airway obstruction. Three cases of severe postoperative macroglossia that occurred after cervical spine, craniofacial, and posterior fossa surgical procedures are reported here. These cases required specialized maxillofacial management and a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit. Causal factors involved in this condition are reported, in order to highlight appropriate prevention and treatment options adapted to the management of paediatric patients. An overview of the current literature on severe postoperative macroglossia in paediatric populations is also provided. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroendoscopic diagnosis of central nervous system histoplasmosis with basilar arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Hwang, Steven W; White, A Clinton; Zhang, Yi Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Histoplasmosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is seen in 10% to 20% of patients with disseminated histoplasmosis and/or in association with immunocompromised patients. Meningitis, arachnoiditis, and hydrocephalus are the most common clinical manifestations of CNS histoplasmosis. Patients with CNS histoplasmosis present similarly to other infectious etiologies, and confirmatory diagnosis is important in the management of these patients. However, diagnosis of CNS histoplasmosis can be difficult, and sometimes performing a parenchymal biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. We describe the case of a 41-year-old man with HIV/AIDS who presented with the signs, symptoms, and radiologic evidence of basal meningitis and hydrocephalus. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis from multiple lumbar punctures was negative. The patient underwent a neuroendoscopic procedure with diagnostic and therapeutic goals. Internal CSF diversion (endoscopic third ventriculostomy) and biopsy of the floor of the third ventricle and subarachnoid space were performed; surgical biopsies identified noncaseating granulomas, and ventricular CSF was positive for Histoplasmosis antibodies. The patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole. The patient had resolution of his symptoms immediately after surgery, and 1-month follow-up computed tomography of the head demonstrated resolution of the hydrocephalus. At the last follow-up 12 months postoperatively, the patient has not required insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for fungal basal meningitis in patients with AIDS and hydrocephalus. With nondiagnostic lumbar CSF sampling, neuroendoscopy can be considered as an alternative for diagnosis and treatment of basal meningitis and hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antecubital Fossa Solitary Osteochondroma with Associated Bicipitoradial Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecubital fossa lesions are uncommon conditions that present to the orthopaedic clinic. Furthermore, the radius bone is an uncommonly reported location for an osteochondroma, especially when presenting with a concurrent reactive bicipitoradial bursitis. Osteochondromas are a type of developmental lesion rather than a true neoplasm. They constitute up to 15% of all bone tumours and up to 50% of benign bone tumours. They may occur as solitary or multiple lesions. Multiple lesions are usually associated with a syndrome known as hereditary multiple exostoses (HME. Malignant transformation is known to occur but is rare. Bicipitoradial bursitis is a condition which can occur as primary or secondary (reactive pathology. In our case, the radius bone osteochondroma caused reactive bicipitoradial bursitis. The differential diagnosis of such antecubital fossa masses is vast but may be narrowed down through a targeted history, stepwise radiological investigations, and histological confirmation. Our aim is to ensure that orthopaedic clinicians keep a wide differential in mind when dealing with antecubital fossa mass lesions.

  3. Investigation of the ischioanal fossa: Application to abscess spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Fei; Du, Mei-Ling; Sui, Hong-Jin; Yang, Yong; Zhou, Huan-Yu; Meng, Chao; Qu, Mei-Jing; Zhang, Qian; Du, Bin; Fu, Yuan-Shan

    2017-11-01

    The location of perianal abscesses and the course of the fistula follow certain patterns, especially in the relationship between external and internal openings. However, it is still not clear how the contents of the ischioanal fossa, especially the fibrous network of fat tissue, affect the route for such diseases. Ten male adult cadavers were selected for the study. Seven horizontal transverse section planes from 1 cm above the pubic symphysis to the inferior border of the lesser trochanter of the femur were recorded after P45 sheet plastination. We observed characteristics of fiber distribution in the ischioanal fossa and its relationship with surrounding structures in every plane. There was a dense strip-type fiber connecting with junction fascia between the obturator internus and gluteus maximus muscles. Close to the levator ani, obturator internus, and gluteus maximus, the fibers were very dense and continuous with the fascia on the surfaces of these three muscles. The function of the fibrous network was considered to be not only the support of fat tissue in the fossa but also cushioning during physiological actions such as defecation. We hope that these morphological results could help to elucidate the passage of fistulae and the locations susceptible to perianal abscesses. Clin. Anat. 30:1029-1033, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Microsurgery Simulator of Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping with Interactive Cerebral Deformation Featuring a Virtual Arachnoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Naoyuki; Kin, Taichi; Nomura, Seiji; Miyawaki, Satoru; Saito, Toki; Imai, Hideaki; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2017-08-01

    A virtual reality simulator for aneurysmal clipping surgery is an attractive research target for neurosurgeons. Brain deformation is one of the most important functionalities necessary for an accurate clipping simulator and is vastly affected by the status of the supporting tissue, such as the arachnoid membrane. However, no virtual reality simulator implementing the supporting tissue of the brain has yet been developed. To develop a virtual reality clipping simulator possessing interactive brain deforming capability closely dependent on arachnoid dissection and apply it to clinical cases. Three-dimensional computer graphics models of cerebral tissue and surrounding structures were extracted from medical images. We developed a new method for modifiable cerebral tissue complex deformation by incorporating a nonmedical image-derived virtual arachnoid/trabecula in a process called multitissue integrated interactive deformation (MTIID). MTIID made it possible for cerebral tissue complexes to selectively deform at the site of dissection. Simulations for 8 cases of actual clipping surgery were performed before surgery and evaluated for their usefulness in surgical approach planning. Preoperatively, each operative field was precisely reproduced and visualized with the virtual brain retraction defined by users. The clear visualization of the optimal approach to treating the aneurysm via an appropriate arachnoid incision was possible with MTIID. A virtual clipping simulator mainly focusing on supporting tissues and less on physical properties seemed to be useful in the surgical simulation of cerebral aneurysm clipping. To our knowledge, this article is the first to report brain deformation based on supporting tissues.

  5. Focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord: Imaging diagnosis and surgical resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisako, Hiroki; Takami, Toshihiro; Yamagata, Toru; Chokyu, Isao; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ohata, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord can cause progressive symptoms associated with syringomyelia or myelomalacia, its surgical resolution based on the imaging diagnosis is not well characterized. This study aims to describe the use of imaging for the diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord and its surgical resolution using microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive patients with symptomatic syringomyelia or myelomalacia caused by focal adhesive arachnoiditis underwent microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Comprehensive imaging evaluation using constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelographic MR imaging using true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) sequences was included before surgery to determine the surgical indication. Results: In all four patients a focal adhesion was identified at the cervical or thoracic level of the spinal cord, a consequence of infection or trauma. Three patients showed modest or minor improvement in neurological function, and one patient was unchanged after surgery. The syringomyelia or myelomalacia resolved after surgery and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period, which ranged from 5 months to 30 months. Conclusions: MRI diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis is critical to determine the surgical indication. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis appears to be a straightforward method for stabilizing the progressive symptoms, though the procedure is technically demanding. PMID:21572630

  6. Tensile radial stress in the spinal cord related to arachnoiditis or tethering: a numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, C D; Bilston, L E; Stoodley, M A

    2008-07-01

    Spinal arachnoiditis comprises fibrous scarring of the subarachnoid space, following spinal trauma or inflammation, and is often associated with syringomyelia. We hypothesised that cord-to-dura attachments could cause transient tensile cord radial stress, as pressure waves propagate. This was tested in a fluid-structure interaction model, simulating three types of cord tethering, with 'arachnoiditis' confined to a short mid-section of the cord. The annular system was excited abdominally with a short transient, and the resulting Young and Lamb waves and reflections were analysed. Radial mid-section tethering was less significant than axial tethering, which gave rise to tensile radial stress locally when the cord was not fixed cranially. Simulated as inextensible string connections to the dura, arachnoiditis caused both localised tensile radial stress and localised low pressure in the cord as the transient passed. The extent of these effects was sensitive to the relative stiffness of the dura and cord. Tensile radial stress may create a syrinx in previously normal cord tissue, and transiently lowered pressure may draw in interstitial fluid, causing the syrinx to enlarge if fluid exit is inhibited. The suggested mechanism could also explain the juxtaposition of syrinxes to regions of arachnoiditis.

  7. Recurrent Attacks of Raised Intracranial Pressure in Case of Tuberculous Arachnoiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Ameli

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available A ase of recurre'nt raised interacranial pressure is described. At operation posterio-rcfossa arachnoiditis was found. Histological examination suggested a Tuberculous etiology. Four months after the operation she died from an apparently acute tuberculoua meningiti

  8. Focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord: Imaging diagnosis and surgical resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Morisako

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord can cause progressive symptoms associated with syringomyelia or myelomalacia, its surgical resolution based on the imaging diagnosis is not well characterized. This study aims to describe the use of imaging for the diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord and its surgical resolution using microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive patients with symptomatic syringomyelia or myelomalacia caused by focal adhesive arachnoiditis underwent microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Comprehensive imaging evaluation using constructive interference in steady-state (CISS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or myelographic MR imaging using true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP sequences was included before surgery to determine the surgical indication. Results: In all four patients a focal adhesion was identified at the cervical or thoracic level of the spinal cord, a consequence of infection or trauma. Three patients showed modest or minor improvement in neurological function, and one patient was unchanged after surgery. The syringomyelia or myelomalacia resolved after surgery and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period, which ranged from 5 months to 30 months. Conclusions: MRI diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis is critical to determine the surgical indication. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis appears to be a straightforward method for stabilizing the progressive symptoms, though the procedure is technically demanding.

  9. Role of Merlin in the Growth and Transformation of Arachnoidal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Table of Contents...and arachnoidal tissue. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 106: 337–347, 2003 23. Hodgson G, Hager JH, Volik S, Hariono S, Wernick M, Moore D, Nowak N

  10. Spinal cord compression by an arachnoid cyst: a case report and review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuenen, B van; Grotenhuis, A.; Vliet, T. van der; Gijtenbeek, A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intradural extramedullary cysts are a rare cause of spinal cord compression. We present a case with slowly progressive radicular pain and gait disorder over several years, due to medullary compression by a giant cervico-thoracic arachnoid cyst. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old man presented

  11. Traumatic acute posterior fossa subdural hematoma – A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Manish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic subdural hematomas of the posterior fossa are rare but dangerous neurosurgical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and management to avoid the uniformly poor outcome. We present a case of a teenager with severe TBI and acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa that deteriorated rapidly before surgery but eventually made a good recovery. We also the review the literature concerning traumatic posterior fossa subdural hematomas [PFSDH].

  12. Interstitial deletion of chromosome 4p associated with mild mental retardation, epilepsy and polymicrogyria of the left temporal lobe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, R S; Hansen, C P; Jackson, G D

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we present a 38-year-old woman with an interstitial deletion of 4p15.1-15.3, mild mental retardation, epilepsy and polymicrogyria adjacent to an arachnoid cyst of the left temporal lobe. The deletion was ascertained through array-comparative genome hybridization screening of patien...

  13. Development of intracranial hypertension after surgical management of intracranial arachnoid cyst: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2013-11-12

    To describe three cases of delayed development of intracranial hypertension (IH) after surgical treatment of intracranial arachnoid cyst, including the pathogenesis of IH and a review of the literature.

  14. The rising root sign: the magnetic resonance appearances of post-operative spinal subdural extra-arachnoid collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharath, A.; Uhiara, O.; Botchu, Rajesh; Davies, A.M.; James, S.L. [The Royal Orthopedic Hospital, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    We present a case series of symptomatic post-operative spinal subdural extra-arachnoid collections that displace the cauda equina roots anteriorly. This is described as the ''rising root sign''. (orig.)

  15. Sonoembryology of the fetal posterior fossa at 11 + 3 to 13 + 6 gestational weeks on three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Reinhard; Scharnreitner, Iris; Scheier, Thomas; Mayer, Richard; Arzt, Wolfgang; Scheier, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    To describe the sonographic appearance and temporal changes of the structures of the posterior cranial fossa in fetuses at a crown-rump length (CRL) between 45 and 84 mm in transvaginal acquired three-dimensional volume blocks. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study including 80 fetuses, whose mothers attended Kepler University Hospital Linz or the Ambulatorium für Fetalmedizin Feldkirch for first-trimester sonography. Three-dimensional volume blocks were acquired in a standardized way and after processing the sonographic characteristics of the brainstem, cerebellar vermis, choroid plexus, anterior membranous area (AMA) and Blake's metapore were described. Measurements of the length of the cerebellar vermis, the length of the AMA and the medulla-oblongata-pons angle (MOPA) were performed. In 20 fetuses the intra- and interobserver repeatability was calculated. The sonomorphologic characteristics of posterior fossa structures as cerebellar vermis, AMA, Blake's metapore, choroid plexus, pons and medulla oblongata were described. There is a significant correlation between CRL and vermis length, CRL and MOPA and CRL and AMA. Transvaginal three-dimensional sonography allows a detailed depiction of the structures of the posterior fossa and their temporal course in early pregnancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.

  17. Subtemporal-anterior transtentoral approach to middle cranial fossa microsurgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiming; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yugong; Li, Gang

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the topography of inferior and external dura mater of the middle cranial fossa through subtemporal-anterior transpetrosal approach and discuss the feasibility of improving the approach. Eight formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were studied, with the bones milled away in the lateral triangle region of the petrous bone, Kawase rhombus region, and inner triangle region of the petrous apex. The distances between the targets in these regions, as well as the angles after the dissection of zygomatic arch, were measured, and then the exposed petroclival and retrochiasmatic areas were observed under the microscope. There were significant variations in the distances between targets in the 3 milled regions among the specimens. After the dissection of zygomatic arch, the surgical view got an average increase of 12 degrees. The subtemporal anterior transpetrosal approach, as an improved subtemporal approach, can expose the lesions optimally, causing no injury to the hearing and reducing injuries to temporal lobe. On the other hand, the lateral bone of the petrous parts of the temporal bone is removed so as to improve the view to the retrochiasmatic area and expand the operative field.

  18. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.M.; Shih, H.C.; Huang, Y.C.; Wang, Y.H. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of cytoskeletal and junctional proteins expressed by cells cultured from human arachnoid granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Bhavya C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are projections of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses. They function, along with the extracranial lymphatics, to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF to the systemic venous circulation. Disruption of normal CSF dynamics may result in increased intracranial pressures causing many problems including headaches and visual loss, as in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus. To study the role of AGs in CSF egress, we have grown cells from human AG tissue in vitro and have characterized their expression of those cytoskeletal and junctional proteins that may function in the regulation of CSF outflow. Methods Human AG tissue was obtained at autopsy, and explanted to cell culture dishes coated with fibronectin. Typically, cells migrated from the explanted tissue after 7–10 days in vitro. Second or third passage cells were seeded onto fibronectin-coated coverslips at confluent densities and grown to confluency for 7–10 days. Arachnoidal cells were tested using immunocytochemical methods for the expression of several common cytoskeletal and junctional proteins. Second and third passage cultures were also labeled with the common endothelial markers CD-31 or VE-cadherin (CD144 and their expression was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. Results Confluent cultures of arachnoidal cells expressed the intermediate filament protein vimentin. Cytokeratin intermediate filaments were expressed variably in a subpopulation of cells. The cultures also expressed the junctional proteins connexin43, desmoplakin 1 and 2, E-cadherin, and zonula occludens-1. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that second and third passage cultures failed to express the endothelial cell markers CD31 or VE-cadherin in significant quantities, thereby showing that these cultures did not consist of endothelial cells from the venous sinus wall. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of

  20. Perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis: case report Gliomatose aracnoidal perineural: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Sousa Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common infiltrative neoplasms of the optic nerve and can present as two distinct growth patterns: intraneural glial proliferation and perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis (PAG. It has been suggested that perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis is seen almost exclusively in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. We describe a child with perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis occurring without neurofibromatosis type 1, supported by both radiographic and histological findings. A 4-year-old female without neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with rapidly progressive right-sided proptosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed an enhancing fusiform intraconal lesion, which was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images: characteristic of perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis, the optic nerve was visualized coursing the tumor. Histopathologic study was consistent with perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis. Perineural arachnoidal gliomatosis can develop independent of neurofibromatosis type 1, as demonstrated by this case.Gliomas são as neoplasias infiltrativas mais freqüentes do nervo óptico e podem se apresentar através de dois padrões distintos de crescimento: proliferação glial intraneural e gliomatose aracnoidal perineural. Existem evidências de que a gliomatose aracnoidal perineural é vista quase exclusivamente em pacientes com neurofibromatose tipo 1. Descrevemos um caso de gliomatose aracnoidal perineural ocorrendo em criança sem neurofibromatose tipo 1, comprovado tanto por achados radiológicos quanto histológicos. Uma criança de quatro anos de idade, do sexo feminino, sem evidências de neurofibromatose tipo 1, apresentou quadro de proptose à direita rapidamente progressiva. Ressonância magnética revelou lesão intraconal fusiforme hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2 - característico de gliomatose aracnoidal perineural, o nervo óptico pôde ser observado atravessando o tumor. O estudo histol

  1. Tratamento cirúrgico da cisticircose da fossa craniana posterior Surgical treatment of cysticercosis in posterior cranial fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia Lopes

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A cisticercose, um dos mais sérios problemas parasitológicos do sistema nervoso, apresenta, quando localizada na fossa posterior, um quadro clínico dramático, no qual predomina a hipertensão intracraniana. Foram estudados neste trabalho, 70 pacientes com cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior, atendidos no Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo de 1945 a 1968. Considerando-se a grande diversidade existente em torno das técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico, foi objetivo deste trabalho o estudo dos resultados obtidos nestes pacientes, nos quais várias técnicas foram empregadas. As cirurgias paliativas que derivam o trânsito do líquido cefalorraqueano para regiões extracranianas, quando comparadas aos outros tipos de cirurgias utilizados, foram as que proporcionaram maior índice de recuperação, exigiram menos reoperações, além de terem sido acompanhadas de menor número de complicações, bem como de menor mortalidade pós-operatória. Por outro lado, a neurocisticercose geralmente é um processo difuso, encontrando-se parasitas em várias regiões do encéfalo e/ou aracnoidite, conforme comprovou-se, também, entre os casos ora reunidos e que vieram a falecer. Baseando-se nestes fatos, não se justificam as derivações intracranianas e, a não ser eventualmente, a abordagem direta do parasita. Os casos estudados permitem cone- tatar, portanto, que as derivações extracranianas, por sua simplicidade e eficácia, apresentam-se, atualmente, como a terapêutica cirúrgica mais propriada à cisticercose de fossa craniana posterior.Cysticercosis is one of the most severe parasitic diseases of the nervous system. When located in the posterior fossa, it presents a dramatic picture of intracranial hypertension. Seventy patients of cysticercosis in posterior cranial fossa have been studied, all of them attended at the Neurosurgery Service of the University of São Paulo

  2. Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors of the posterior fossa in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatri, Arthur J; Sredni, Simone Treiger; Grahovac, Gordan; Tomita, Tadanori

    2015-10-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare, aggressive, central nervous system neoplasms that typically affect children under 3 years of age and have a very poor prognosis. Early case series consistently demonstrated rapid recurrence with progression to death, but more recent experience has shown significant improvements in progression free and overall survival. A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of children diagnosed with AT/RT at the Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago (formerly Children's Memorial Hospital) between 2000 and 2014 was performed. Overall survival (OS) was used to describe outcome. Our small sample size and the utilization of different adjuvant regimens over the study period precluded a detailed statistical analysis. Eight children with AT/RT of the posterior fossa were included in our report. Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in five children (63 %), two children underwent subtotal resection (25 %), and there was one who underwent biopsy. Patients were treated with various combinations of chemotherapy with or without conformal radiation therapy (RT). Median overall survival was 5 months (range 1 to 107 months) with two patients achieving sustained responses to 45 and 107 months. Our experience is in line with prior reports that show that children diagnosed with AT/RT of the posterior fossa have a poor prognosis, but that long-term survival is possible. These tumors provide many challenges, but contemporary series are beginning to show improvements in survival.

  3. Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An Anthropological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailadda Kaewma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84% was much greater than that of female (1.94% compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type.

  4. 3DCRT for posterior fossa: Sparing of surrounding organs at risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... adequate coverage of the target volume while sparing of the cochlea and other surrounding organs at risk (OARs) at same time inevitable. Aim of the work: To compare the coverage of posterior fossa and the dose to surrounding OARs including non-posterior fossa brain, pituitary, cochlea, eyes, optic nerves, optic chiasm, ...

  5. Cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with brain tumours of the posterior fossa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Morten; Cappelen, Johan; Castor, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has ...

  6. Post-traumatic arachnoiditis: an unusual cause of Brown-Sequard syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N.; Merican, A.M.; Lim, A.; Kumar, G. [Depts. of Radiology and Orthopaedic Surgery, University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2001-10-01

    Brown-Sequard syndrome (BSS) is a unilateral cord injury characterised by an ipsilateral motor deficit with contralateral pain and temperature hypoaesthesia. Although there are a variety of causes, the majority of cases are generally of neoplastic origin or are traumatic in origin. We describe a rare cause of Brown-Sequard syndrome as a result of post-traumatic arachnoiditis. Magnetic resonance imaging with the use of thin-slice high-resolution constructive interference in steady state (CISS) and T2-weighted spin-echo sequence were used to demonstrate the cause and appearance of the lesion in the spinal canal and was useful in the assessment and management of the patient. This case illustrates the usefulness of the CISS sequence in MRI for elucidating arachnoiditis. (orig.)

  7. Intrathecal hematoma and arachnoiditis mimicking bacterial meningitis after an epidural blood patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Gash, F; Engrand, N; Lecarpentier, E; Bonnet, M P

    2017-11-01

    We present a case of arachnoiditis and an intrathecal hematoma after an epidural blood patch. A 24-year-old parturient underwent an epidural blood patch three days after an accidental dural puncture during epidural labor analgesia. Four days later, the patient developed severe lower back pain, bilateral leg pain, persistent headache and fever. Bacterial meningitis was initially suspected and antibiotics started. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging was performed and showed an intrathecal hematoma, with no blood in the epidural space. This report briefly reviews the few cases in the literature of arachnoiditis caused by an intrathecal hematoma and discusses the mechanism which resulted in blood in the subarachnoid space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Idiopathic intradural dorsal thoracic arachnoid cysts: A case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Heath; Somasundaram, Arjuna; Biggs, Michael; Parkinson, Jonathon; Allan, Rodney; Ball, Jonathon; Little, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts (SIAC) are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled sacs formed by arachnoid membranes and may be either idiopathic or acquired. Idiopathic cysts represent a separate entity and their aetiology remains uncertain. By far the most difficult differential diagnosis is distinguishing between idiopathic anterior spinal cord herniation (IASCH) and dorsal thoracic intradural arachnoid cysts (TIAC), due to their similarity in radiological appearance. Cine-mode (SSFP) is emerging as a novel technique in the diagnosis and operative planning of SIAC. Retrospective analysis of patients with idiopathic TIACs that were surgically managed at Royal North Shore Hospital and North Shore Private Hospital between November 2000 and November 2015. Ten patients were included in this study. Age ranged from 20 to 77years with a mean age of 60years and a female preponderance. The most common clinical features were progressive gait ataxia and lower limb myelopathy. Radicular pain tends to improve following surgery, however gait ataxia may not. While there are circumstances in which the distinction between dorsal thoracic intradural arachnoid cysts and idiopathic anterior spinal cord herniation are radiologically obvious, in cases where the appearances are less clear, cine-mode SSFP MRI imaging can provide an invaluable tool to differentiate these pathologies and lead the clinician towards the correct diagnosis and management. The mainstay of surgical management for dorsal TIACs is laminectomy and cyst excision or fenestration. Surgery for gait ataxia should be aimed towards preventing deterioration, while maintaining the potential for symptomatic improvement, whereas surgery for radicular pain should be curative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Syringomyelia associated with post-meningitic spinal arachnoiditis due to Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanthumchinda, K.; Kaoropthum, S.

    1991-01-01

    A 63 year old man who suffered from syringomyelia related to post-meningitic spinal arachnoiditis caused by Candida tropicalis is reported. The clinical syndrome of syringomyelia developed gradually and a definite diagnosis was delayed for more than 10 years. The patient has partially recovered after surgical treatment. This form of fungal infection and its delayed neurological complication in the form of syringomyelia has not been reported previously, to our knowledge. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1754530

  10. Thoracic spinal iophendylate-induced arachnoiditis mimicking an intramedullary spinal cord neoplasm. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Steven W; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A; Wu, Julian

    2008-03-01

    Iophendylate (Pantopaque or Myodil) was commonly used from the 1940s until the late 1980s for myelography, cisternography, and ventriculography. Although such instances are rare, several different long-term sequelae have been described in the literature and associated with intrathecal iophendylate. The authors describe an unusual case of arachnoiditis caused by residual thoracic iophendylate imitating an expansile intramedullary lesion on magnetic resonance images obtained 30 years after the initial myelographic injection.

  11. Ruptured spinal dermoid cyst with chemical arachnoiditis and disseminated intracranial lipid droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, M.B. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Neuroradiology Section; Bazan, C. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Neuroradiology Section; Jinkins, J.R. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Neuroradiology Section

    1995-02-01

    A 33-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of gradually progressive leg weakness. Spinal MRI and myelography with CT demonstrated an extensive intradural abnormality suggesting a diffuse inflammatory or neoplastic process. Only after cranial CT and MRI demonstrated lipid droplets was the diagnosis of a ruptured spinal dermoid cyst suggested. Subsequent laminectomy revealed a ruptured intradural dermoid cyst in the lumbar spine, with chemical arachnoiditis. (orig.)

  12. Pediatric intraventricular arachnoid cysts in the body of lateral ventricle: surgical outcome and its embryologic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, Bettina; Morota, Nobuhito; Ihara, Satoshi; Tamura, Goichiro; Ogiwara, Hideki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is for the surgical treatment and outcome of the endoscopic fenestration of the arachnoid cyst located in the ventricular body to trigone in the pediatric population. Special concern was paid for the developmental origin of the intraventricular cysts estimated from the postoperative follow-up neuroimagings. Between July 2002 and June 2015, we performed endoscopic and partly CT/MRI navigated fenestrations of intraventricular arachnoid cysts located at the body to trigone of the lateral ventricle in ten pediatric patients aged 2 months to 5 years. Based on the long axis of the cyst, we have opted for two surgical approaches: anterior approach via burr hole at Kocher's point and posterior approach via burr hole at the posterior occipital region. Fenestration was performed based on the intraoperative findings, either ventriculocystostomy, ventriculocystoventriculostomy, or ventriculocystocisternostomy. Intraventricular arachnoid cysts located in the body-trigone region showed a favorable outcome after endoscopic fenestration. All of the cysts shrank postoperatively. Follow-up neuroimagings taken between 6 and 126 months after surgery strongly suggested its relationship with the midline cisterns. Of our ten cases, eight were suggestive for originating from the velum interpositum cistern while two seemed to root from the quadrigeminal cistern. In the present study, we found that endoscopic fenestration of intraventricular arachnoid cysts in the body to trigone is a safe procedure with a satisfactory outcome. In our limited experience, there are two anatomic backgrounds; velum interpositum cistern and quadrigeminal cistern. Differentiation can be possible by neuroimagings, especially those obtained after surgery.

  13. Relationships between Regional Radiation Doses and Cognitive Decline in Children Treated with Cranio-Spinal Irradiation for Posterior Fossa Tumors

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    Elodie Doger de Speville

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric posterior fossa tumor (PFT survivors who have been treated with cranial radiation therapy often suffer from cognitive impairments that might relate to IQ decline. Radiotherapy (RT distinctly affects brain regions involved in different cognitive functions. However, the relative contribution of regional irradiation to the different cognitive impairments still remains unclear. We investigated the relationships between the changes in different cognitive scores and radiation dose distribution in 30 children treated for a PFT. Our exploratory analysis was based on a principal component analysis (PCA and an ordinary least square regression approach. The use of a PCA was an innovative way to cluster correlated irradiated regions due to similar radiation therapy protocols across patients. Our results suggest an association between working memory decline and a high dose (equivalent uniform dose, EUD delivered to the orbitofrontal regions, whereas the decline of processing speed seemed more related to EUD in the temporal lobes and posterior fossa. To identify regional effects of RT on cognitive functions may help to propose a rehabilitation program adapted to the risk of cognitive impairment.

  14. Epidermoid cyst of the posterior fossa: a case report Cisto epidermoide da fossa posterior: relato de caso

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    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts of the central nervous system are uncommon conditions, which are frequently located in the cerebellopontine angle and around the pons. They are covered with keratinized squamous epithelium and keratin lamella, which give its contents a soft, white-pearly appearance. Epidermoid cysts are mostly originated from malformations, presumably associated with surface elements of the nervous system ectoderm during the closure of the neural groove or formation of secondary cerebral vesicles. The authors describe a case of epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa causing hydrocephalus and review morphologic and diagnostic criteria of this lesion.Os cistos epidermoides do sistema nervoso central (SNC são condições incomuns, estando localizados mais frequentemente no ângulo pontocerebelar e ao redor da ponte. Eles são revestidos por epitélio escamoso queratinizado e lamelas de queratina, tornando seu conteúdo branco-perolado e pastoso. Os cistos epidermoides são, na maioria das vezes, originados de malformações, possivelmente associados ao entremeio de elementos superficiais do ectoderma do SNC durante o fechamento da placa neural, ou formação das vesículas cerebrais secundárias. Os autores descrevem um caso de cisto epidermoide da fossa posterior determinando hidrocefalia e revisam critérios morfológicos e diagnósticos dessa lesão.

  15. Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panackal, Anil A; Komori, Mika; Kosa, Peter; Khan, Omar; Hammoud, Dima A; Rosen, Lindsey B; Browne, Sarah K; Lin, Yen-Chih; Romm, Elena; Ramaprasad, Charu; Fries, Bettina C; Bennett, John E; Bielekova, Bibiana; Williamson, Peter R

    2017-02-01

    Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology. All 6 exhibited severe lower motor neuron involvement in addition to cognitive changes and gait disturbances from meningoencephalitis. Spinal involvement was associated with asymmetric weakness and urinary retention. Diagnostic specificity was improved by MRI imaging which demonstrated lumbar spinal nerve root enhancement and clumping or lesions. Despite negative fungal cultures, CSF inflammatory biomarkers, sCD27 and sCD21, as well as the neuronal damage biomarker, neurofilament light chain (NFL), were elevated compared to healthy donor (HD) controls. Elevations in these biomarkers were associated with clinical symptoms and showed improvement with adjunctive high dose pulse corticosteroids. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. Published by Oxford University Press for the Clinical Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Arachnoiditis Following Caudal Epidural Injections for the Lumbo-Sacral Radicular Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjayan, Shashi Kumar; Yallappa, Sachin; Bommireddy, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Caudal epidural steroid injection is a very common intervention in treatment of low back pain and sciatica symptoms. Although extensively used, it is not devoid of complications. A few reports of chemical and infective arachnoiditis exist following lumbar epidural anaesthesia, but none following a caudal epidural steroid injection.We report a case of arachnoiditis following caudal epidural steroid injections for lumbar radiculopathy. The patient presented with contralateral sciatica, worsening low back pain and urinary retention few days following the injection, followed by worsening motor functions in L4/L5/S1 myotomes with resultant dense foot drop. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging suggested infective arachnoiditis with diffuse enhancement and clumping of the nerve roots within the lumbar and sacral thecal sac. As the number of injections in the management of back pain and lumbo-sacral radicular pain is increasing annually, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of this potentially dangerous complication and educate the patients appropriately. PMID:24353855

  17. Theoretical analysis of the pathophysiology of syringomyelia associated with adhesive arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H S; Nakagawa, H

    2004-05-01

    To apply a theoretical model to analyse the derangement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in syringomyelia associated with adhesive arachnoiditis. An electrical circuit model of CSF dynamics in the spine was used. With this model, the derangement of CSF dynamics in adhesive arachnoiditis was simulated. The effects of various surgical procedures were then analysed, such as syringo-subarachnoid shunting, subarachnoid bypass, and foramen magnum decompression. When CSF flow in the subarachnoid space was obstructed at a certain point, the pressure inside the spinal cord increased in the segment immediately distal to the blockage. This location of increased pressure corresponded to the preferred site of syrinx formation in adhesive arachnoiditis. Syringo-subarachnoid shunting, subarachnoid bypass, and foramen magnum decompression were all effective at reducing this pressure gradient. Blockage of the spinal subarachnoid CSF pathway produces a relative increase in the pressure inside the spinal cord distal to the blockage point. Repetitive formation of this pressure gradient then induces CSF leakage into the spinal parenchyma, leading to the formation of syringomyelia. Using this model, alternative surgical procedures could be suggested that might be effective in treating this disease.

  18. Synovial sarcoma of the temporomandibular joint and infratemporal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Fuminori; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2014-12-01

    Synovial sarcoma in the head and neck region is rare, and is difficult to resect with adequate safety margins because of its anatomical complexity. We herein report our experiences with synovial sarcoma in this region, and review the literature regarding the management of such cases. We retrospectively examined four cases of synovial sarcoma arising from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area and infratemporal fossa. Only one patient remains alive without disease, while the other three patients have died. The local control of these tumors has improved because of the progress in the surgical operation methods, while it is expected that there is still a high rate of deaths due to distant metastasis increase. The development of strong chemotherapy is needed for the use after the initial treatment and surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hematoma extradural da fossa posterior: relato de sete casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro A. Oliveira

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematomas da fossa posterior são complicação incomum de traumatismo cra-nioencefálico. Quase invariavelmente eles ocorrem após traumatismo da região occipital e estão associados com fraturas de crânio. O diagnóstico e tratamento dessa patologia tem sido grandemente favorecido pela tomografia computadorizada. Na presente série, a maioria dos pacientes teve evolução aguda, indicando o risco potencial de um tratamento conservador. Nossos resultados (29% de mortalidade são similares àqueles previamente relatados para outras séries dessas lesões.

  20. Aracnoidite constritiva causada por pantopaque resultando em siringomielia e paraparesia: relato de caso Thoracic constrictive arachnoiditis after pantopaque myelography causing syringomyelia and paraparesis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de aracnoidite constritiva torácica, verificada 10 anos após o uso de pantopaque, que foi utilizado em mielografia no diagnóstico de cisto aracnóideo.We present an unusual case of thoracic constrictive arachnoiditis after pantopaque myelography, used 10 years before in the diagnosis of intradural arachnoid cyst.

  1. Cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst: a case of hemifacial spasm caused by an organic lesion other than neurovascular compression: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Luciano; Taniguchi, Raymond; Caroli, Manuela; Crispo, Francesco; Ferrante, Luigi; Fukushima, Takanori

    2009-12-01

    A rare case of cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst manifesting as hemifacial spasm (HFS) is reported. The patient is a 42-year-old woman with 10-month history of left HFS. A preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a well-demarcated area, hypointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging, in the left cerebellopontine angle, without contrast enhancement, resembling an arachnoid cyst. The cyst was excised with microneurosurgical technique and the facial, vestibular, and acoustic nerves were completely decompressed from the arachnoid wall. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the left HFS disappeared immediately. Histologically, the cyst wall was a typical arachnoidal membrane. Ten months after surgery, the patient is symptom free. It is well-known that in approximately 10% of cases, trigeminal neuralgia can be caused by a space-occupying mass. However, the fact that HFS can also be caused by organic lesions as well as neurovascular compression is less well-known. Although the occurrence of tumor compression causing HFS has been previously recognized, cerebellopontine angle cysts have very rarely been described. The observation of a patient with a cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst causing HFS prompted us to review the literature relative to HFS caused by an organic lesion rather than neurovascular compression.

  2. Symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with ossification of the ligamentum flavum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Yoshiiwa, Toyomi; Ishihara, Toshinobu; Kaku, Nobuhiro; Kawano, Masanori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-15

    A case report. To describe a rare case of symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF). Spinal cord kinking without spinal surgery is rare, and symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with OLF is even rarer. A 66-year-old female presented with numbness of the lower extremities and subsequently experienced gait disturbance due to motor weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed anterior displacement and kinking of the spinal cord from T11 to T12. Laminectomy and OLF resection were performed. The arachnoid membrane at the affected part was markedly thick and seemed cloudy. Adhesiolysis for arachnoid adhesion and release of spinal kinking were performed. She could walk with a cane 6 months postoperatively. One year postoperatively, thoracic computed tomography-myelography showed that the cord was repositioned in the dural sac, and that release of the spinal cord kink was maintained. Symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with OLF is a rare clinical condition. It was difficult to diagnose the precise pathology of the spinal cord before surgery. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis resolved the spinal cord kinking, and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period. N/A.

  3. Development of intracranial hypertension after surgical management of intracranial arachnoid cyst: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O'Connor, Brendan; Marks, Charles

    2013-01-01

    To describe three cases of delayed development of intracranial hypertension (IH) after surgical treatment of intracranial arachnoid cyst, including the pathogenesis of IH and a review of the literature. A retrospective and prospective analysis of three male patients (two 18 years old and one 45 years old) was performed. All patients underwent surgical intervention for symptomatic intracranial arachnoid cyst in the form of fenestration of the cyst and a cystoperitoneal shunt. All three patients presented at a later stage with new-onset headaches after the initial management of arachnoid cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography ruled out any intracranial vascular pathology. Lumbar puncture and intracranial pressure monitoring showed increased intracranial pressure suggestive of idiopathic IH. To manage IH, intracranial pressure monitoring, cystoperitoneal shunt, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and lumboperitoneal shunt were performed. The pathogenesis of delayed development of IH in this clinical setting is not clearly elucidated. When intracranial arachnoid cysts are treated, the possibility of future development of IH should be borne in mind. Delayed presentation with headaches in patients after treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts should raise the possibility of IH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Caudal Fossa Ratio in Normal Dogs and Eurasier Dogs with VLDLR-Associated Genetic Cerebellar Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lauda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar and hindbrain malformations, such as cerebellar hypoplasia (CH, vermis hypoplasia, and Dandy–Walker malformation, occur in dogs as well as in humans. Neuroimaging is essential for a precise description of these malformations and defining translational animal models. Neuroimaging is increasingly performed in puppies, but there is a lack of data on developmental changes in the caudal fossa, which can impair assessment of caudal fossa size in this age group. The purpose of this study was to validate caudal fossa ratio (CFR in dogs and to explore CFR in Eurasier dogs with genetic CH. CFR was calculated from midsagittal brain images of 130 dogs as caudal fossa area/total cranial cavity area. In addition, the volume of the caudal fossa was measured in 64 randomly selected dogs from this group. Repeated measurements were used to investigate inter- and intra-rater variability and influence of imaging modality. Furthermore, the influence of age, weight, and breed was explored. The CFR was a reliable parameter with negligible influence from the examiners, imaging modality, and weight of the dog. The midsagittal area of the caudal fossa and the volume of the caudal fossa correlated closely with each other. In this study, we observed a smaller CFR in puppies. The CFR in adult dogs lies within 0.255 and 0.330, while CFR is smaller in puppies up to 4 months of age. Besides age, there was also an effect of breed, which should be explored in larger data sets. Measurements of CFR in Eurasier dogs with genetic CH caused by a mutation in the very-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor gene revealed the presence of two variants, one with an enlarged caudal fossa and one with a normal to small caudal fossa. This observation indicates that there is phenotypic heterogeneity and interaction between the developing cerebellum and the surrounding mesenchyme in this animal model.

  5. Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Taylor J.; Howard, Matthew A.; Menezes, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options. PMID:25013348

  6. Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor J Abel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options.

  7. 3DCRT for posterior fossa: Sparing of surrounding organs at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Helal

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: 3DCRT using parallel opposed fields is recommended for posterior fossa irradiation boost as it minimizes the exit dose to all structures other than the cochlea, however its mean dose was within the tolerance.

  8. Glenoid fossa position in Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Cristina; Giuntini, Veronica; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion to better clarify the role of this craniofacial component in Class III skeletal disharmony. A sample of 30 subjects, aged 8 years +/- 6 months, with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion, normal skeletal vertical relationships, and normal mandibular dimensions, was compared with a control group of 33 subjects with skeletal and dental Class I relationships. The comparisons between the Class III group and the control group on the cephalometric measures for the assessment of glenoid fossa position were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test at P mandibular protrusion. An effective measurement to evaluate glenoid fossa position in craniofacial relationships is the cephalometric distance from the glenoid fossa to the frontomaxillary-nasal suture.

  9. Radiological imaging detection of tumors localized in fossa cranii posterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin; Ahmetgjekaj, Ilir; Gashi, Sanije; Fazliu, Ilir; Dreshaj, Shemsedin; Shala, Nexhmedin

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial tumors are characterized by a variety imaging aspects and their detection is always a challenge. Clinical application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computerized Tomography has provided an earlier detection and treatment of many CNS pathologies. The aim of this study is to estimate the role of CT and MRI in the determination of posterior fossa tumors. During period 2000-2005 in UCCK-Prishtina, 368 patients were diagnosed with intracranial tumors. Fifty-nine of them were found to have tumor localized in fossa crani posterior (FCP) without any significant difference between genders (50.8% female vs. 49.2% male, chi2 test=0.02 p=0.896). The average age of patients with FCP tumors was 33.1 (SD +/- 22.5, rank 1-70). The most of these patients were registered in 2003 (20.3%) whereas the least in 2000 (11.9%). The most affected age-group was 0-9 (25.4%) and 50-59 (23.7%) whereas the incidences was between 30-39 years of age (3.4%). Tumor types that more often were found in young's individuals were: Astrocytomas with a peak incidence in teenagers (average age was 12-year-old SD +/- 7.5, rank 3-23), next was Medulloblastomas (average age was 11-years-old, SD +/- 2.9, rank 6-16 years) and ependymomas (average age was 6.8-years-old, SD +/- 4.6, rank 1-12). Patients with osseous tumors are characterized by older age than median (61.0, SD +/- 4.2, rank 58-64), then metastases (53.0, SD +/- 5.3, rank 45-60) and meningiomas (50.8, SD +/- 7.7, rank 38-63). The overall average mortality was 0.41 cases per 100,000 inhabitants with variations through years from 0.30-0.50/100,000 inhabitants. Comparing with other countries, for some types of FCP tumors, lower morbidity is shown in Kosova, with mean incidence 0.41/100,000. The most frequent tumors in children were medulloblastomas, brainstem gliomas, astrocytomas and ependymomas whereas meningiomas and metastasis were most often found in adults. For FCP tumors detection, MRI had 100% sensitivity, specificity and

  10. Supratentorial Neurometabolic Alterations in Pediatric Survivors of Posterior Fossa Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckriegel, Stefan M., E-mail: rueckriegel.s@nch.uni-wuerzburg.de [Pediatric Neurooncology Program, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Driever, Pablo Hernaiz [Pediatric Neurooncology Program, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Bruhn, Harald [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiology, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Erlanger (Germany)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Therapy and tumor-related effects such as hypoperfusion, internal hydrocephalus, chemotherapy, and irradiation lead to significant motor and cognitive sequelae in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors. A distinct proportion of those factors related to the resulting late effects is hitherto poorly understood. This study aimed at separating the effects of neurotoxic factors on central nervous system metabolism by using H-1 MR spectroscopy to quantify cerebral metabolite concentrations in these patients in comparison to those in age-matched healthy peers. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with World Health Organization (WHO) I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated by resection only, 24 patients with WHO IV medulloblastoma (MB), who additionally received chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation, and 43 healthy peers were investigated using single-volume H-1 MR spectroscopy of parietal white matter and gray matter. Results: Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly decreased in white matter (p < 0.0001) and gray matter (p < 0.0001) of MB patients and in gray matter (p = 0.005) of PA patients, compared to healthy peers. Decreased creatine concentrations in parietal gray matter correlated significantly with older age at diagnosis in both patient groups (MB patients, p = 0.009, r = 0.52; PA patients, p = 0.006, r = 0.7). Longer time periods since diagnosis were associated with lower NAA levels in white matter of PA patients (p = 0.008, r = 0.66). Conclusions: Differently decreased NAA concentrations were observed in both PA and MB groups of posterior fossa tumor patients. We conclude that this reflects a disturbance of the neurometabolic steady state of normal-appearing brain tissue due to the tumor itself and to the impact of surgery in both patient groups. Further incremental decreases of metabolite concentrations in MB patients may point to additional harm caused by irradiation and chemotherapy. The stronger decrease of NAA in MB

  11. Coma after greater occipital nerve blockade in a patient with previous posterior fossa surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Till; Seifert, Christian L

    2013-03-01

    We here report the case of a patient who previously underwent posterior fossa surgery and was later treated with greater occipital nerve blockade for unilateral facial pain. The patient went into coma immediately post-injection but made a full recovery without sequelae after intensive care treatment. Physicians should be aware of the risks of greater occipital nerve blockade after previous posterior fossa craniotomy. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  12. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) with sub-arachnoid haemorrhage after bevacizumab and 5-FU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    PRES is a neurological syndrome characterised by reversible subcortical vasogenic brain oedema in patients with acute neurological signs and symptoms. It occurs in the context of fluctuations in blood pressure, renal failure, autoimmune disorders, eclamptic syndromes and with use of cytotoxic drugs. We present the case of a 60year old female with advanced bowel cancer who was admitted with seizures and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage, with radiographic features of PRES, shortly after receiving bevacizumab (Avastin), a VEGF-inhibitor. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MRI tight posterior fossa sign for prenatal diagnosis of Chiari type II malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Kumiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Ogawa, Masayo; Takada, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Hirota, Shozo [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Shakudo, Miyuki [Osaka City General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Gynecology, Nishinomiya (Japan); Minagawa, Kyoko [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2007-12-15

    Chiari type II malformation (CMII) is one of three hindbrain malformations that display hydrocephalus. We have observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal in the posterior fossa, which is always apparent on normal fetal MR images, is not visible in a fetus with CMII. We use the term 'tight posterior fossa' for this MR imaging finding, and evaluate the diagnostic value of this finding on fetal MR images. Included in the study were 21 fetuses which underwent brain MR imaging at 1.5 T using two-dimensional balanced turbo-field-echo (2-D balanced-TFE) in the axial and sagittal planes. Postnatal diagnoses were CMII (n=5), CNS abnormalities other than CMII (n=8), and no abnormality (n=8). A tight posterior fossa was defined as an absent or slit-like water signal space around the hindbrain in the posterior fossa on both sagittal and axial MR images. All CMII fetuses displayed a tight posterior fossa on MR images. Hydrocephalus was visualized in all CMII fetuses and myelomeningocele in four fetuses, but hindbrain herniation was visualized only in two of five fetuses. The CSF signal surrounding the hindbrain was clearly visible in all the other 16 fetuses, including five with hydrocephalus not associated with CMII, although it was slightly narrower in a fetus with a cloverleaf skull than in the normal fetuses. Tight posterior fossa in the presence of hydrocephalus is a useful and characteristic finding of CMII on fetal MRI. (orig.)

  14. The management of right iliac fossa pain - is timing everything?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCartan, D P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Right iliac fossa (RIF) pain remains the commonest clinical dilemma encountered by general surgeons. We prospectively audited the management of acute RIF pain, examining the relationship between symptom duration, use of pre-operative radiological imaging and patient outcome. METHODS: Over a six-month period, 302 patients, median age 18 years, 59% female, were admitted with RIF pain. Symptoms, clinical findings and laboratory results were documented. Patient management, timing of radiological investigations and operations, and outcome were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: Non-specific abdominal pain (26%), gynaecological (22%) and miscellaneous causes (14%) accounted for most admissions. Ultimately, 119 patients (39%) had appendicitis. Anorexia, tachycardia or rebound tenderness in the RIF significantly predicted a final diagnosis of appendicitis. Patients with perforated appendicitis (n = 29) had a longer duration of pre-hospital symptoms (median 50h) compared to those with simple appendicitis (median 17 h) (p<0.001). The use of pre-operative imaging resulted in an increased time to surgery but was not associated with increased post-operative morbidity or perforated appendicitis. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients presenting to hospital with RIF pain did not have appendicitis. Increased duration of pre-hospital symptoms was the main factor associated with perforated appendicitis. However, increased in-hospital time to theatre was not associated with perforated appendicitis or post-operative morbidity.

  15. Desmoid Tumor of the Popliteal Fossa during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Weschenfelder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors are fibroblastic neoplasms that have an intermediate behavior with a highly aggressive infiltrative growth arising from deep muscle or aponeurosis. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman that developed a painless mass in the right popliteal fossa during pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and hormonal therapy. The MRI scan showed a hyperintense mass of 6,7 cm × 4,7 cm × 3,8 cm surrounding the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The open biopsy was done one week after delivery, and the histology showed a desmoid tumor. We performed the resection one week later and found the common peroneal nerve completely surrounded by the tumor. The close resection due to the neurolysis was the reason why an adjuvant radiation with 56 Gy was done. The last clinical examination, 18 month later, did not show any signs of recurrence and an excellent functional outcome. This case demonstrates the possible influences of pregnancy and hormonal therapy on the evolution of desmoid tumors.

  16. 3-D simulation of posterior fossa reduction in Chiari I

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    Yvens Barbosa Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We proposed a 3D model to evaluate the role of platybasia and clivus length in the development of Chiari I (CI. Using a computer aided design software, two DICOM files of a normal CT scan and MR were used to simulate different clivus lengths (CL and also different basal angles (BA. The final posterior fossa volume (PFV was obtained for each variation and the percentage of the volumetric change was acquired with the same method. The initial normal values of CL and BA were 35.65 mm and 112.66º respectively, with a total PFV of 209 ml. Ranging the CL from 34.65 to 29.65 – 24.65 – 19.65, there was a PFV decrease of 0.47% – 1.12% – 1.69%, respectively. Ranging the BA from 122.66º to 127.66º – 142.66º, the PFV decreased 0.69% – 3.23%, respectively. Our model highlights the importance of the basal angle and clivus length to the development of CI.

  17. [A rare cause of spinal cord compression: spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (about 3 cases)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Saqui, Abderrazzak; Aggouri, Mohamed; Benzagmout, Mohamed; Chakour, Khalid; Chaoui, Mohamed El Faiz

    2017-01-01

    Spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a benign condition whose pathophysiology is still uncertain. It is most commonly asymptomatic but it can cause severe neurological sequelae especially when treatment is not received in time. We conducted a retrospective study of three patients treated for SEAC conducted in the Neurosurgery Department, Hassan II University Hospital, Fez. We report the case of two male patients and a woman, with an average age of 35 years (range: 16-56 years), admitted with slow progressive spinal cord compression. All patients underwent spinal cord MRI showing epidural fluid collection, having the same signal as that of cerebrospinal fluid, compressing the opposite marrow. The collection was located in the chest in all cases. All patients underwent surgery via posterior approach for cyst resection and cyst neck ligation in two cases and dural plasty in a single case. Anatomo-pathologic examination showed arachnoid cysts. Postoperative outcome was simple in all cases. This study aims to update the current understanding of this pathology while insisting on the need for early management given its tendency toward gradual worsening in the absence of adapt therapy. It also aims to review the clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic features of this condition.

  18. Spinal intradural hydatid cyst causing arachnoiditis: A rare etiology of cauda equina syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suyash; Sardhara, Jayesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Mehrotra, Anant; Sahu, Rabi N; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to focus on a rare presentation of spinal hydatid cyst as cauda equine syndrome and misdiagnosed as intradural extramedullary (IDEM) benign lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we report a case of spinal hydatid cyst masquerading as IDEM tumor, and intraoperatively, we accidently find clumped granuloma with severe arachnoiditis and hydatid cyst in lumber region, which was present as bilateral S1 radiculopathy with cauda equina syndrome. An 11-year-old boy who presented with symptoms and signs of cauda equina syndrome and planned for surgical excision. His radiological impression was IDEM possibly neurofibroma. To our surprise, we found multiple intradural cystic lesions with arachnoiditis. Dissecting in plane cyst was flushed out, and surgical cavity was irrigated with 3% saline. Postoperatively histopathology and serum tests confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease is rare cause of cauda equine syndrome which can be miss diagnosed on radiological investigations. A high index of suspicion should be kept especially in a young patient from the Indian subcontinent.

  19. Severe adhesive arachnoiditis resulting in progressive paraplegia following obstetric spinal anaesthesia: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, T; Kamat, A; Walsh, D; Parker, A; Aliashkevich, A

    2012-12-01

    A 27-year-old woman developed severe adhesive arachnoiditis after an obstetric spinal anaesthetic with bupivacaine and fentanyl, complicated by back pain and headache. No other precipitating cause could be identified. She presented one week postpartum with communicating hydrocephalus and syringomyelia and underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting and foramen magnum decompression. Two months later, she developed rapid, progressive paraplegia and sphincter dysfunction. Attempted treatments included exploratory laminectomy, external drainage of the syrinx and intravenous steroids, but these were unsuccessful and the patient remains significantly disabled 21 months later. We discuss the pathophysiology of adhesive arachnoiditis following central neuraxial anaesthesia and possible causative factors, including contamination of the injectate, intrathecal blood and local anaesthetic neurotoxicity, with reference to other published cases. In the absence of more conclusive data, practitioners of central neuraxial anaesthesia can only continue to ensure meticulous, aseptic, atraumatic technique and avoid all potential sources of contamination. It seems appropriate to discuss with patients the possibility of delayed, permanent neurological deficit while taking informed consent. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Spinal intradural hydatid cyst causing arachnoiditis: A rare etiology of cauda equina syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to focus on a rare presentation of spinal hydatid cyst as cauda equine syndrome and misdiagnosed as intradural extramedullary (IDEM benign lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we report a case of spinal hydatid cyst masquerading as IDEM tumor, and intraoperatively, we accidently find clumped granuloma with severe arachnoiditis and hydatid cyst in lumber region, which was present as bilateral S1 radiculopathy with cauda equina syndrome. An 11 year old boy who presented with symptoms and signs of cauda equina syndrome and planned for surgical excision. His radiological impression was IDEM possibly neurofibroma. To our surprise, we found multiple intradural cystic lesions with arachnoiditis. Dissecting in plane cyst was flushed out, and surgical cavity was irrigated with 3% saline. Postoperatively histopathology and serum tests confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease is rare cause of cauda equine syndrome which can be miss diagnosed on radiological investigations. A high index of suspicion should be kept especially in a young patient from the Indian subcontinent.

  1. [Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst: A case report and review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillo-Olvera, Javier; Quillo-Reséndiz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Partida, Carlos-Francisco; Rodríguez-García, Manuel

    Arachnoid cysts of spine are a very rare occurrence. The aetiology still remains unclear, but the most accepted explanation is the existence of areas of weakness in the spinal dura. Symptoms depend on the location in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging is used for its diagnosis. Management depends of clinical presentation, and the surgery is reserved for patients with neurological impairment. A case is described of 67 year-old male with myelopathy and radiculopathy symptoms, both diagnosed simultaneously. The magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose a thoracolumbar extradural arachnoid cyst from T12-L2 and lumbar spinal canal stenosis. The patient was treated with a puncture procedure to empty the cyst and decompress the neural elements. There was a clinical improvement of myelopathy syndrome after puncture procedure. One month later, the patient underwent a minimally invasive surgical approach to decompress the neural elements in lumbar spine, achieving improvement of the radiculopathy syndrome and neurogenic claudication in both legs. There is currently no standard minimally invasive approach to surgically treat these cysts, but if the patient has mild symptoms, clinical observation is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. [Clinical presentation of a dorsal epidural arachnoid cyst after an epidural anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obil-Chavarría, Claudia Alejandra; García-Ramos, Carla Lisette; Castro-Quiñonez, Sergio Alberto; Huato-Reyes, Raúl; Santillán-Chapa, Concepción Guadalupe; Reyes-Sánchez, Alejandro Antonio

    Arachnoid cysts are dural diverticula with liquid content similar to cerebrospinal fluid, with 1% occurring in the spinal cord. They locate mainly in the dorsal region of the thoracic spine, and are unusual causes of spinal cord compression. The case is presented of a previously healthy 15-year-old boy, with a 20-month history of spastic paraparesis that started apparently after epidural block for ankle osteosynthesis. There was decreased sensitivity and strength of the pelvic limbs and gradually presented with anaesthesia from T12 to L4 dermatomes, L5 and S1 bilateral hypoaesthesia and 4+/5 bilateral strength, in the L2 root and 2+/5 in L3, L4, L5, S1, hyperreflexia, Babinski and clonus, but with no alteration in the sacral reflexes. In the magnetic resonance it was diagnosed as an extradural arachnoid cyst from T6 to T9. The patient underwent a T6 to T10 laminotomy, cyst resection, dural defect suture, and laminoplasty. One year after surgery, the patient had recovered sensitivity, improvement of muscle strength up to 4+/5 in L2 to S1, and normal reflexes. After the anaesthetic procedure, increased pressure and volume changes within the cyst could cause compression of the spinal cord, leading to symptoms. Despite being a long-term compression, the patient showed noticeable improvement. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Spinal intradural hydatid cyst causing arachnoiditis: A rare etiology of cauda equina syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suyash; Sardhara, Jayesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Arun Kumar; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Mehrotra, Anant; Sahu, Rabi N; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to focus on a rare presentation of spinal hydatid cyst as cauda equine syndrome and misdiagnosed as intradural extramedullary (IDEM) benign lesion on magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we report a case of spinal hydatid cyst masquerading as IDEM tumor, and intraoperatively, we accidently find clumped granuloma with severe arachnoiditis and hydatid cyst in lumber region, which was present as bilateral S1 radiculopathy with cauda equina syndrome. An 11-year-old boy who presented with symptoms and signs of cauda equina syndrome and planned for surgical excision. His radiological impression was IDEM possibly neurofibroma. To our surprise, we found multiple intradural cystic lesions with arachnoiditis. Dissecting in plane cyst was flushed out, and surgical cavity was irrigated with 3% saline. Postoperatively histopathology and serum tests confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Hydatid disease is rare cause of cauda equine syndrome which can be miss diagnosed on radiological investigations. A high index of suspicion should be kept especially in a young patient from the Indian subcontinent. PMID:27891041

  4. The Vindija Neanderthal scapular glenoid fossa: comparative shape analysis suggests evo-devo changes among Neanderthals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Churchill, Steven E; Manzi, Giorgio

    2012-02-01

    Although the shape of the scapular glenoid fossa (SGF) may be influenced by epigenetic and developmental factors, there appears to be strong genetic control over its overall form, such that variation within and between hominin taxa in SGF shape may contain information about their evolutionary histories. Here we present the results of a geometric morphometric study of the SGF of the Neanderthal Vi-209 from Vindjia Cave (Croatia), relative to samples of Plio-Pleistocene, later Pleistocene, and recent hominins. Variation in overall SGF shape follows a chronological trend from the plesiomorphic condition seen in Australopithecus to modern humans, with pre-modern species of the genus Homo exhibiting intermediate morphologies. Change in body size across this temporal series is not linearly directional, which argues against static allometry as an explanation. However, life history and developmental rates change directionally across the series, suggesting an ontogenetic effect on the observed changes in shape (ontogenetic allometry). Within this framework, the morphospace occupied by the Neanderthals exhibits a discontinuous distribution. The Vindija SGF and those of the later Near Eastern Neanderthals (Kebara and Shanidar) approach the modern condition and are somewhat segregated from both northwestern European (Neandertal and La Ferrassie) and early Mediterranean Neanderthals (Krapina and Tabun). Although more than one scenario may account for the pattern seen in the Neanderthals, the data is consistent with palaeogenetic evidence suggesting low levels of gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans in the Near East after ca. 120-100 ka (thousands of years ago) (with subsequent introgression of modern human alleles into eastern and central Europe). Thus, in keeping with previous analyses that document some modern human features in the Vindija Neanderthals, the Vindija G(3) sample should not be seen as representative of 'classic'--that is, unadmixed, pre

  5. Glenoid fossa position in surgically repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Nipun, Cheerkoly Appunninair

    2015-08-01

    Relative position of the glenoid fossa would play a significant role in the morphology of lower face. The aim of the present study was to cephalometrically evaluate the position of the glenoid fossa in a group of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients in order to better clarify the role of this craniofacial component in skeletal disharmonies associated with this anomaly. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 59 patients (32 males and 27 females) with surgically repaired UCLP (mean age 19.5±1.4 years) along with an equal number of age and gender matched skeletal Class I controls were analyzed for sagittal and vertical position of the glenoid fossa as well as lower anterior face height (LAFH), mandibular plane and length. Paired samples t-test revealed a statistically significant anterior positioning of the glenoid fossa in UCLP subjects. A more cranial positioning of the glenoid fossa, basion, pterygomaxillary fissure, and posterior nasal spine were also seen to be associated with the cleft group on vertical evaluation. Effective length of mandible was normal with significantly steeper mandibular plane and increased LAFH. Further investigations using three dimensional imaging techniques is necessary for better clinical interpretation. The glenoid fossa is positioned more cranially and anteriorly in UCLP individuals, clinically contributing to the mandibular prominence and concave facial profile inspite of their mandibular length being normal. Steep mandibular planes and increased LAFH reportedly associated with a cranially positioned glenoid fossa is observed in UCLP patients also. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa with congenital aural atresia and mastoiditis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Aziz Mosaad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital cholesteatoma may be expected in abnormally developed ear, it may cause bony erosion of the middle ear cleft and extend to the infratemporal fossa. We present the first case of congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa in a patient with congenital aural atresia that has been complicated with acute mastoiditis. Case presentation A sixteen year old Egyptian male patient presented with congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa with congenital aural atresia complicated with acute mastoiditis. Two weeks earlier, the patient suffered pain necessitating hospital admission, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a soft tissue mass in the right infratemporal fossa. On presentation to our institute, Computerized tomography was done as a routine, it proved the diagnosis of mastoiditis, pure tone audiometry showed an air-bone gap of 60 dB. Cortical mastoidectomy was done for treatment of mastoiditis, removal of congenital cholesteatoma was carried out with reconstruction of external auditory canal. Follow-up of the patient for 2 years and 3 months showed a patent, infection free external auditory canal with an air-bone gap has been reduced to 35db. One year after the operation; MRI was done and it showed no residual or recurrent cholesteatoma. Conclusions Congenital cholesteatoma of the infratemporal fossa in cases of congenital aural atresia can be managed safely even if it was associated with mastoiditis. It is an original case report of interest to the speciality of otolaryngology.

  7. Sandwich wound closure reduces the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leaks in posterior fossa surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Heymanns

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Posterior fossa surgery is demanding and hides a significant number of obstacles starting from the approach to the wound closure. The risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage in posterior fossa surgery given in the literature is around 8%. The present study aims to introduce a sandwich closure of the dura in posterior fossa surgery, which reduces significantly the number of CSF leaks (3.8% in the patients treated in our department. Three hundred and ten patients treated in our hospital in the years 2009-2013 for posterior fossa pathologies were retrospectively evaluated. The dura closure method was as following: lyophilized dura put under the dura and sealed with fibrin glue and sutures, dura adapting stitches, TachoSil® (Takeda Pharma A/S, Roskilde, Denmark, Gelfoam® (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA and polymethylmethacrylate (osteoclastic craniotomy. The incidence of postsurgical complications associated with the dural closure like CSF leakage, infections, bleeding is evaluated. Only 3.8% of patients developed CSF leakage and only 0.5% needed a second surgery for CSF leakage closure. Two percent had a cerebellar bleeding with no need for re-operation and 3% had a wound infection treated with antibiotics. The sandwich wound closure we are applying for posterior fossa surgery in our patients correlates with a significant reduction of CSF leaks compared to the literature.

  8. Improved Depiction of Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 7 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Q. Oomen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF using ultrahigh-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods. A human cadaveric tissue block containing the pterygopalatine fossa was examined on a clinical 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. Subsequently, cryosections of the tissue block were created in a coronal plane. The cryosections were photographed and collected on adhesive tape. The on-tape sections were stained for Mallory-Cason, in order to detail the anatomic structures within the fossa. Magnetic resonance images were compared with surface photos of the tissue block and on-tape sections. Results. High-resolution magnetic resonance images demonstrated the common macroscopic structures in the PPF. Smaller structures, best viewed at the level of the operation microscope, which have previously been obscured on magnetic resonance imaging, could be depicted. Some of the orbital pterygopalatine ganglion branches and the pharyngeal nerve were clearly viewed. Conclusions. In our experience with one human cadaver specimen, magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla seems effective in depicting pterygopalatine fossa anatomy and provides previously unseen details through its demonstration of the pharyngeal nerve and the orbital pterygopalatine ganglion branches. The true viability of depicting the pterygopalatine fossa with ultrahigh-resolution MR will depend on confirmation of our results in larger studies.

  9. 3D printing the pterygopalatine fossa: a negative space model of a complex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Ross; Parihar, Shivani; Skarparis, Yiannis; Varsou, Ourania; Cezayirli, Enis

    2017-08-30

    The pterygopalatine fossa is one of the most complex anatomical regions to understand. It is poorly visualized in cadaveric dissection and most textbooks rely on schematic depictions. We describe our approach to creating a low-cost, 3D model of the pterygopalatine fossa, including its associated canals and foramina, using an affordable "desktop" 3D printer. We used open source software to create a volume render of the pterygopalatine fossa from axial slices of a head computerised tomography scan. These data were then exported to a 3D printer to produce an anatomically accurate model. The resulting 'negative space' model of the pterygopalatine fossa provides a useful and innovative aid for understanding the complex anatomical relationships of the pterygopalatine fossa. This model was designed primarily for medical students; however, it will also be of interest to postgraduates in ENT, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and radiology. The technical process described may be replicated by other departments wishing to develop their own anatomical models whilst incurring minimal costs.

  10. Implante coclear via fossa craniana média: uma nova técnica para acesso ao giro basal da cóclea Cochlear implantation through the middle cranial fossa: a novel approach to access the basal turn of the cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gomes Bittencourt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A técnica clássica para o implante coclear é realizada através de mastoidectomia e timpanotomia posterior. A abordagem pela fossa craniana média provou ser uma alternativa valiosa, embora venha sendo usada para o implante coclear apenas esporadicamente e sem normatização. OBJETIVO: Descrever uma nova abordagem para expor o giro basal da cóclea para o implante coclear através da fossa craniana média. MÉTODO: Cinquenta ossos temporais foram dissecados. A cocleostomia foi realizada através de uma abordagem via fossa craniana média, na parte mais superficial do giro basal da cóclea, usando o plano meatal e seio petroso superior como pontos de reparo. A parede lateral do meato acústico interno foi dissecada após o broqueamento e esqueletização do ápice petroso. A parede dissecada do meato acústico interno foi acompanhada longitudinalmente até a cocleostomia. Design: Estudo anatômico de osso temporal. RESULTADOS: Em todos os ossos temporais, apenas a parte superficial do giro basal da cóclea foi aberta. A exposição do giro basal da cóclea permitiu que as escalas timpânica e vestibular fossem visualizadas. Assim, não houve dificuldade na inserção do feixe de eletrodos através da escala timpânica. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica proposta é simples e permite exposição suficiente do giro basal da cóclea.The classic approach for cochlear implant surgery includes mastoidectomy and posterior tympanotomy. The middle cranial fossa approach is a proven alternative, but it has been used only sporadically and inconsistently in cochlear implantation. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new approach to expose the basal turn of the cochlea in cochlear implant surgery through the middle cranial fossa. METHOD: Fifty temporal bones were dissected in this anatomic study of the temporal bone. Cochleostomies were performed through the middle cranial fossa approach in the most superficial portion of the basal turn of the cochlea, using the meatal plane and

  11. Retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst resulting in syringomyelia in a patient without tonsillar herniation: successful surgical treatment with reconstruction of CSF flow in the foramen magnum region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyong; Emich, Stephan; Fu, Wenzhuo; Chen, Zan; Hao, Wu; Ling, Feng; Jian, Fengzeng

    2016-04-01

    A retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst causing syringomyelia is extremely rare without tonsillar herniation. The authors present a 44-year-old woman with symptoms of foramen magnum compression and syringomyelia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst with a large cervicothoracic syrinx but no signs of tonsillar herniation or hydrocephalus. The patient underwent a foramen magnum decompression with C1 laminectomy, microsurgical fenestration of the cyst, and duraplasty. After successful reconstruction of CSF flow, the patient experienced a relief of symptoms and a significant reduction of the syrinx. The intraoperative findings support the theory of a piston mechanism in the development of syringomyelia. Additional arachnoidal adhesions may also obstruct the CSF flow around the craniocervical junction. We recommend the surgical treatment should consist of an adequate decompression of the foramen magnum, wide microsurgical arachnoidal debridement, and duraplasty with autologous grafts sutured in a watertight way.

  12. Adhesive arachnoiditis causing cauda equina syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis: CT and MRI demonstration of dural calcification and a dorsal dural diverticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgen, I.G.; Yunten, N.; Ustun, E.E. [Ege Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Oksel, F.; Gumusdis, G. [Ege Univ., Dept. of Rheumatology, Izmir (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    We present the radiological features of a 42-years-old man with long-standing inactive ankylosing spondylitis (AS), demonstrating that arachnoiditis is a cause of a cauda equina syndrome (CES) in this disease. CT showed a dorsal arachnoid diverticulum causing scalloped erosion of the laminae, and punctate and curvilinear dural calcification. MRI revealed adhesion and convergence of the cauda equina dorsally into the arachnoid pouch, causing the dural sca to appear empty canal. To the best of our knowledge, dural calcification on CT is a new finding in AS, which may be related to the CES. Our findings support the hyopthesis that chronic adhesive arachnoiditis with subsequent loss of meningeal elasticity may be the main cause of CES in AS. (orig.)

  13. Posterior fossa imaging in 158 children with ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddaert, N; Desguerre, I; Bahi-Buisson, N; Romano, S; Valayannopoulos, V; Saillour, Y; Seidenwurm, D; Grevent, D; Berteloot, L; Lebre, A-S; Zilbovicius, M; Puget, S; Salomon, R; Attie-Bitach, T; Munnich, A; Brunelle, F; de Lonlay, P

    2010-10-01

    To propose a MRI cerebellar algorithm that may be applied to guide genetic/malformative or biochemical investigations for patients with cerebellar ataxia. Cerebral MRI of 158 patients with cerebellar ataxia and no supratentorial abnormality were examined according to a new categorization system based on posterior fossa imaging. The clinical and radiological findings were confronted to biochemical and/or genetic results using the MR cerebellar algorithm. Seven groups of cerebellar MRI pattern were described: vermian dysgenesis (n=27), cerebellar hypoplasia (n=15), hemispheric cerebellar dysgenesis (n=6), unilateral hemispheric atrophy (n=5), global cerebellar atrophy (n=84), signal abnormalities (n=11) and normal MRI (n=10). Cerebellar hypoplasia, vermian dysgenesis and hemispheric cerebellar dysgenesis groups were classified as malformative disorders. Global atrophy and signal abnormality groups were classified as metabolic disorders. In the vermian dysgenesis group, a specific genetic diagnosis was obtained in eight children (8/27) and all of the mutated genes (AHI1 (JBS3), CEP290 (JBS5), TMEM67 (JBS6), and RPGRIP1L (JBS7)) are involved in primary cilia function. In the group of pontocerebellar hypoplasia specific genetic diagnosis was obtained in one patient (PCH2) (1/15). Thus, nine of 42 children classified as malformative disorder had a molecular diagnosis. Global atrophy and signal abnormality groups were classified as metabolic disorders, specific biochemical was obtained in 46/95 children. In global atrophy group, respiratory chain deficiency was diagnosed in 18 children (18/84). In 21 children a congenital disorders of glycosylation type 1a (CDG Ia) was diagnosed (21/84) and infantile neuroaxonale dystrophy (INAD) was diagnosed in one child. In signal abnormalities group, specific biochemical diagnosis was obtained in six out of 11 children, five children with respiratory chain deficiency and one child with sulphite oxidase deficiency. In hemispheric

  14. CT evaluation of tumorous lesion extending in and into the infratemporal fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariji, Yoshiko; Ariji, Eiichiro; Moriguchi, Shinji; Kanda, Shigenobu (Kyusyu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Dentistry)

    1990-04-01

    Twenty patients with tumorous lesions extending in and into the infratemporal fossa were examined by CT at the Department of Dental Radiology, Kyusyu University Dental Hospital during the period from March, 1985 to September, 1988. They ranged in age from 6 to 75 years (mean, 52.7 years). Eleven were males. CT images of these patients were analyzed in detail and the results include: CT appearances of extension in and into the infratemporal fossa were classified into four types according to the primary site. Further, in cases of tumors originating in the oral cavity the appearances were subclassified into three types. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), bone involvement adjacent to the infratemporal fossa was detected by CT. The changes on CT images were considered to reflect clinical signs, such as trismus and sensory changes involving the fifth nerve (the second and the third division) and others. (author).

  15. Delayed removal of a maxillary third molar from the infratemporal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Oliveira, Guillermo; Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alvarez-Flores, Modesto; Gregoire-Ferriol, Johanna; Martínez-Gimeno, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Removal of an impacted superior third molar is usually a simple and uncomplicated procedure for an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon. Nevertheless, complications are possible and include infection, facial swallowing, trismus, wound dehiscence, root fracture or even orosinusal fistula. Iatrogenic displacement into the infratemporal fossa is frequently mentioned but rarely reported. This anatomical fossa includes several important structures such as the internal maxillary artery, the venous pterygoid plexus, the sphenopalatine nerve, the coronoid process of the mandible and the pterygoid muscles. Recommended treatment includes immediate surgical removal if possible or initial observation and secondary removal, as necessary, because of infection, limited mandibular movement, inability to extract the tooth, or the patient's psychological unease. Sometimes, the displaced tooth may spontaneously migrate inferiorly and becomes accessible intraorally. This report describes the location and secondary surgical removal of a left maxillary third molar displaced into the infratemporal fossa, two weeks after first attempt at extraction.

  16. PDGF activation in PGDS-positive arachnoid cells induces meningioma formation in mice promoting tumor progression in combination with Nf2 and Cdkn2ab loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Matthieu; Salaud, Céline; Clermont-Taranchon, Estelle; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Goutagny, Stephane; Mawrin, Christian; Giovannini, Marco; Kalamarides, Michel

    2015-10-20

    The role of PDGF-B and its receptor in meningeal tumorigenesis is not clear. We investigated the role of PDGF-B in mouse meningioma development by generating autocrine stimulation of the arachnoid through the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) using the RCAStv-a system. To specifically target arachnoid cells, the cells of origin of meningioma, we generated the PGDStv-a mouse (Prostaglandin D synthase). Forced expression of PDGF-B in arachnoid cells in vivo induced the formation of Grade I meningiomas in 27% of mice by 8 months of age. In vitro, PDGF-B overexpression in PGDS-positive arachnoid cells lead to increased proliferation.We found a correlation of PDGFR-B expression and NF2 inactivation in a cohort of human meningiomas, and we showed that, in mice, Nf2 loss and PDGF over-expression in arachnoid cells induced meningioma malignant transformation, with 40% of Grade II meningiomas. In these mice, additional loss of Cdkn2ab resulted in a higher incidence of malignant meningiomas with 60% of Grade II and 30% of Grade III meningiomas. These data suggest that chronic autocrine PDGF signaling can promote proliferation of arachnoid cells and is potentially sufficient to induce meningiomagenesis. Loss of Nf2 and Cdkn2ab have synergistic effects with PDGF-B overexpression promoting meningioma malignant transformation.

  17. Spontaneous chronic spinal subdural hematoma associated with spinal arachnoiditis and syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, F; Hammond, R; Lee, D; Duggal, N

    2005-11-01

    Spontaneous chronic spinal subdural hematoma is rare. We describe a case of spontaneous chronic spinal subdural hematoma associated with arachnoiditis and syringomyelia in a 76-year old woman who presented with a 14-year history of progressive myelopathy. MRI scan revealed a thoraco-lumbar subdural cystic lesion and a thoracic syrinx. The patient underwent thoracic laminectomy and decompression of the lesion, which was a subdural hematoma. A myelotomy was performed to drain the syrinx. Pathological examination revealed features consistent with chronic subdural membrane. This report attempts to elucidate the pathogenesis of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. We discuss possible etiological factors in light of the current literature and pathogenesis of both spinal subdural hematoma and syrinx formation.

  18. [Arachnoid cysts of the central nervous system. Algorithms and recommendations for management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros López, Bienvenido; Martín Gallego, Álvaro; Iglesias Moroño, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The symptoms related to the presence of arachnoid cysts in the Central Nervous System depend on the size of the cyst and its growth rate, its location and, in some cases, the associated CSF dynamic disorder. Sometimes there is acute clinical presentation due to cyst rupture or acute bleeding. Although it is generally accepted that asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic cysts do not require surgical treatment, there is no consensus on the therapeutic approach of choice in symptomatic cases. The aim of this paper is to review the literature, analyzing the pros and cons of the three main surgical options (microsurgery, neuroendoscopy, and CSF shunt) based primarily on the location of the cyst. Although treatment must be always individualized, basic management recommendations may be offered. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Cerebellar mutism syndrome in children with brain tumours of the posterior fossa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Morten; Cappelen, Johan; Castor, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system tumours constitute 25% of all childhood cancers; more than half are located in the posterior fossa and surgery is usually part of therapy. One of the most disabling late effects of posterior fossa tumour surgery is the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) which has...... standardized online registration at pre-determined time points pre- and postoperatively. Neurological status and speech functions are examined pre- operatively and postoperatively at 1-4 weeks, 2 and 12 months. Pre- and postoperative speech samples are recorded and analysed. Imaging will be reviewed centrally...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  1. Transmastoid resurfacing versus middle fossa plugging for repair of superior canal dehiscence: Comparison of techniques from a retrospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rodgers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare and contrast our experience with middle cranial fossa approach (MFR and transmastoid approach with capping of the dehiscence (TMR of superior semicircular canal dehiscence and to determine guidelines to help guide management of these patients. Methods: All patients from 2005 to 2014 with symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome with dehiscence demonstrated on CT scan of the temporal bone who underwent surgical repair and had a minimum 3 months of follow up. Surgical repair via the MFR or TMR, preoperative CT temporal bone, preoperative, and postoperative cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP testing and anterior canal video head thrust testing (vHIT. Success of repair was stratified as complete success, moderate success, mild success, or failure based on resolution of all symptoms, the chief complaint, some symptoms, or no improvement, respectively. Results: A total of 29 ears in 27 patients underwent surgical repair of canal dehiscence. Complete or moderate success was seen in 71% of the MFR group compared to 80% of the TMR group. There were zero failures with the MFR group and no major intracranial complications. There were 2 failures out of 15 ears that underwent the TMR. Residual symptoms were most commonly vertigo or disequilibrium in the MFR and aural fullness or autophony in the TMR groups, respectively. MFR hospital stay was approximately 2 days longer. Average cVEMP threshold shifted 18 dB with surgical correction in the MFR group. A 29 dB average shift was seen in the TMR group. The MFR group had a significant reduction in their anterior canal gain compared to the TMR group. Conclusions: TMR is a less invasive alternative to MFR. However, in our series, we have not seen any intracranial complications (aphasia, stroke, seizures, etc. in our MFR patients. Interestingly, vestibular symptoms were better addressed than audiological symptoms by the TMR suggesting its usefulness as a

  2. Adhesive arachnoiditis after percutaneous fibrin glue treatment of a sacral meningeal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Nagano, Junji; Hattori, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    The authors present the case of a 64-year-old woman who was referred for severe sacral pain. She reported that her pain had been longstanding, and had greatly increased after percutaneous fibrin glue placement therapy for a sacral meningeal cyst 2 months earlier at a different hospital. An MRI scan obtained immediately after fibrin glue placement at that hospital suggested that fibrin glue had migrated superiorly into the subarachnoid space from the sacral cyst to the level of L-4. On admission to the authors' institution, physical examination demonstrated no abnormal findings except for perianal hypesthesia. An MRI study obtained at admission demonstrated a cystic lesion in the peridural space from the level of S-2 to S-4. Inhomogeneous intensity was identified in this region on T2-weighted images. Because the cauda equina and nerve roots appeared to be compressed by the lesion, total cyst excision was performed. The cyst cavity was filled with fluid that resembled CSF, plus gelatinous material. Histopathological examination revealed that the cyst wall was composed of hyaline connective tissue with some calcification. No nervous tissue or ganglion cells were found in the tissue. The gelatinous material was acellular, and appeared to be degenerated fibrin glue. Sacral pain persisted to some extent after surgery. The authors presumed that migrated fibrin glue caused the development of adhesive arachnoiditis. The risk of adhesive arachnoiditis should be considered when this therapy is planned. Communication between a cyst and the subarachnoid space should be confirmed to be sufficiently narrow to prevent the migration of injected fibrin glue.

  3. Temporal Approach to Removal of a Large Orbital Foreign Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Hécio Henrique Araújo; Barbalho, Jimmy Charles Melo; de Souza Dias, Tasiana Guedes; Grempel, Rafael Grotta; Vasconcellos, Ricardo José de Holanda

    2015-09-01

    Accidents with firearms can result in extensive orbital trauma. Moreover, gun parts can come loose and impale the maxillofacial region. These injuries can cause the loss of visual acuity and impair eye movements. Multidisciplinary treatment is required for injuries associated with this type of trauma. Computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction is useful for determining the precise location and size of the object lodged in the facial skeleton, thereby facilitating the planning of the correct surgical approach. The temporal approach is a fast, simple technique with few complications that is indicated for access to the infratemporal fossa. This article describes the use of the temporal approach on a firearm victim in whom the breech of a rifle had impaled orbital region, with the extremity lodged in the infratemporal fossa.

  4. Surgical Management of Syringomyelia Associated with Spinal Adhesive Arachnoiditis, a Late Complication of Tuberculous Meningitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seok; Song, Geun Sung; Son, Dong Wuk

    2017-04-01

    Syringomyelia associated with tuberculous meningitis is an extremely rare condition. Only a few studies have reported clinical experience with syringomyelia as a late complication of tuberculous meningitis. Twenty-six years after a tuberculous meningitis episode, a 44-year-old man presented with progressively worsening spastic paresis of the lower limbs and impaired urinary function for 2 years. Radiological examination revealed syringomyelia extending from the level of C2 to T9 and arachnoiditis with atrophy of the spinal cord between C2 and T3. We performed laminectomy from C7 to T1, dissected the arachnoid adhesion and placed a syringo-pleural shunt via keyhole myelotomy. One year after the operation, his neurological condition improved. The postoperative control magnetic resonance imaging revealed the correctly located shunt and significantly diminished syringomyelia cavities. We aim to discuss the mechanism of syrinx formation following tuberculous meningitis and to share our surgical therapeutic experience with this rare disease entity.

  5. Surgical Management of Syringomyelia Associated with Spinal Adhesive Arachnoiditis, a Late Complication of Tuberculous Meningitis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seok; Son, Dong Wuk

    2017-01-01

    Syringomyelia associated with tuberculous meningitis is an extremely rare condition. Only a few studies have reported clinical experience with syringomyelia as a late complication of tuberculous meningitis. Twenty-six years after a tuberculous meningitis episode, a 44-year-old man presented with progressively worsening spastic paresis of the lower limbs and impaired urinary function for 2 years. Radiological examination revealed syringomyelia extending from the level of C2 to T9 and arachnoiditis with atrophy of the spinal cord between C2 and T3. We performed laminectomy from C7 to T1, dissected the arachnoid adhesion and placed a syringo-pleural shunt via keyhole myelotomy. One year after the operation, his neurological condition improved. The postoperative control magnetic resonance imaging revealed the correctly located shunt and significantly diminished syringomyelia cavities. We aim to discuss the mechanism of syrinx formation following tuberculous meningitis and to share our surgical therapeutic experience with this rare disease entity. PMID:28512616

  6. Catatonic syndrome preceded by symptoms of anorexia nervosa in a 14-year-old boy with arachnoid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolańczyk, T; Komender, J; Brzozowska, A

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports a case of a 14-year-old boy with arachnoid cyst in the right parietal region, who was referred to the child psychiatry department due to anorexia nervosa. A few days after admission he developed nihilistic and guilt delusions and lapsed into catatonia. The diagnostic problems and relations between his various pathological conditions (anorexia, catatonia, organic brain lesion) are discussed in this paper.

  7. Arterial relationships to the nerves and some rigid structures in the posterior cranial fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surchev, N

    2008-09-01

    The close relationships between the cranial nerves and the arterial vessels in the posterior cranial fossa are one of the predisposing factors for artery-nerve compression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to some skull and dural structures and the nerves in the posterior cranial fossa. For this purpose, the skull bases and brains of 70 cadavers were studied. The topographic relationships of the vertebral and basilar arteries to the cranial nerves in the posterior cranial fossa were studied and the distances between the arteries and some osseous formations were measured. The most significant variations in arterial position were registered in the lower half of the basilar artery. Direct contact with an artery was established for the hypoglossal canal, jugular tubercle, and jugular foramen. The results reveal additional information about the relationships of the nerves and arteries to the skull and dural formations in the posterior cranial fossa. New quantitative information is given to illustrate them. The conditions for possible artery-nerve compression due to arterial dislocation are discussed and two groups (lines) of compression points are suggested. The medial line comprises of the brain stem points, usually the nerve root entry/exit zone. The lateral line includes the skull eminences, on which the nerves lie, or skull and dural foramina through which they exit the cranial cavity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Infraorbital Foramen and Pterygopalatine Fossa Location in Dry Skulls: Anatomical Guidelines for Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Masabni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to locate the infraorbital foramen (IOF in relation to the infraorbital margin (IOM for proper injections of local anesthetics in skull specimens. Another aim was to determine the depth of needle penetration into pterygopalatine fossa through the greater palatine canal (GPC. Materials and Methods. 102 skull halves were used to measure the distances between (1 IOF and IOM and (2 IOF and alveolar ridge of maxilla at second premolar. Needles were inserted and bent at a 45° angle, passing through the GPC at the level of hard palate. The depth of the tip of needle emerging out of GPC into pterygopalatine fossa was measured. Results. The mean distance between IOF and IOM was 6.46±1.57 mm on the right side and 6.74±1.72 mm on the left. The mean distance between IOF and alveolar bone process of the maxilla at second premolar was 29.07±3.58 mm on the right side and 29.39±3.78 mm on the left. The mean depth of penetration of the needle into the pterygopalatine fossa was similar on both sides. Conclusions. Proper identification of IOF and pterygopalatine fossa is of great significance during local anesthesia injections, due to their close proximity to vital anatomic structures.

  9. Modified folding radial forearm flap in soft palate and tonsillar fossa reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Gu; Park, Myong Chul; Lim, Hyoseob; Kim, Joo Hyoung; Lee, Il Jae

    2013-03-01

    Wide excision of cancer arising from the tonsillar fossa and soft palate has several functional sequelae (e.g., speech, swallowing, chewing, and breathing) that require surgical restoration of the pharyngeo-palatal structure and optimal velopharyngeal function. For this purpose, several kinds of surgical procedures have been introduced. Our method to reconstruct the tonsillar fossa and soft palate entails folding the flaps and reconstructions at the same time as the oral and nasal planes, with some modifications.Patient 1 was a 64-year-old man with left soft palate cancer. After wide excision of the tumor, the defect size of the nasal floor was 3 × 3 cm, and that of soft palate and tonsillar fossa was 8 × 5 cm. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man with left tonsil cancer. The defect size of the nasal floor was 3 × 3 cm, and that of left lateral wall of the tonsillar fossa was 8 × 3 cm. For reconstruction of oral, nasal, and tonsillar plane, we designed the flap fit to the defect site, especially cutting of the edge of the square plane of the flap to a round shape.Both patients achieved good functional recovery without surgical complications. The average speech intelligibility score in the 2 patients was 10. Swallowing functional score was 4 in both patients. Creative reconstruction with modified radial forearm free flap for tonsillar and soft palate area makes it possible to restore velopharyngeal function to levels close to the preoperative condition.

  10. 3DCRT for posterior fossa: Sparing of surrounding organs at risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azza Helal

    2013-06-25

    Jun 25, 2013 ... as the majority of patients will survive (long-term survival in this disease is about 55–65%).11 Recent reports highlighted the importance of minimizing the dose to these OARs below their tolerance values during cranio spinal and/or posterior fossa boost irradiation, otherwise, late effects of radiation ther-.

  11. Posterior fossa midline cryptococcoma in a patient with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL is a rare disorder which is often diagnosed as HIV-negative AIDS in the light of poor immunity and AIDS-defining illnesses. We present a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with a midline posterior fossa tumour with ICL diagnosed as cerebellar cryptococcoma.

  12. [Recurrent right iliac fossa pain in children: two cases report related to food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Urribarri, Ana; Sabrá, Aderbal; Tenorio, Isaac; Sabrá, Selma; Arias-Stella Castillo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    To present two cases of food allergy of uncommon presentation and discuss the diagnostic approach to give in these cases: Case N° 1: 11-year-old girl, afflicting pain in the right iliac fossa 3 months ago. Prematurity, atopy (dermatitis, rhinitis, cramping). Sister and mother are atopic too. The physical exam show exquisite pain on right iliac fossa at palpation. Laboratory: Urine normal, parasitological serial negative. EDN (neurotoxin derived from eosinophils) fecal >3210 ng/ml (V. N. Right fossa iliac painful three months ago, predominantly nocturnal and with irradiation to right thigh. A child psychiatrist may prescribe antidepressants. Personal History: Breastfeeding and formula since newborn. Atopy: asthma, atopic dermatitis, infant colic. Family history: Mother allergic to food, father presents rhinitis. The physical examination: Pain on palpation in the right iliac fossa. Laboratory: Immunoglobulin E 160.5 IU/ml (V. N. < 90) Colonoscopy: lymphoid hyperplasia in the distal ileum. Both cases relieved by hypoallergenic diet. When both, ileal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and atopy personal or familiar are present, we must be think in food allergy therapeutic.

  13. Value of systematic analysis of the olfactory cleft in case of cerebrospinal rhinorrhea: incidence of olfactory arachnoid dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharzouli, Imen; Verillaud, Benjamin; Tran, Hugo; Blancal, Jean-Philippe; Sauvaget, Elisabeth; Kania, Romain; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Herman, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    To report on the presence of olfactory arachnoid dilatations (OAD), a previously undescribed radiologic feature of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea originating from the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. The medical records of all patients treated between 2001 and 2011 at a tertiary care center for a spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea originating from the cribriform plate were retrospectively reviewed. The radiological work-up included high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with at least the following sequences: T1, T2, and T2 with fast imaging employing steady state acquisition (FIESTA). Thirty cases were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 49. Fourteen patients (47 %) had a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more and 3 patients (10 %) had a BMI between 25 and 29.9. Five patients had a history of meningitis. The imaging work-up revealed a bone defect of the cribriform plate in 6 cases (20 %), associated to a typical meningocele in 14 cases (47 %). In ten patients (33 %), there was no defect of the cribriform plate, but ultrathin coronal T2-FIESTA sequences revealed an OAD, i.e. a dilatation of the arachnoid sheath of the olfactory fibers, in nine cases (30 %), or a "pseudo-polyp" outlined by a thin layer of arachnoid (1 patient, 3 %). Preoperative imaging should be carefully analyzed for the presence of OAD or "pseudo-polyp" in patients presenting with a CSF rhinorrhea without bony defect of the cribriform plate.

  14. Tridimensional architecture of the collagen element in the arachnoid granulations in humans: a study on scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conegero Celso Ivan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The arachnoid granulations of adult individual of both sexes were studied through scanning electron microscopy. The dura mater and arachnoid meninges of individuals were collected at the Service of Death Verification of São Paulo - USP and fixed in Karnovsky solution. After this period the material was prepared for analysis in electron microscope. Our results demonstrated that the arachnoid granulations are formed by a pedicle, body and apex, being surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, which in turn is composed of, basically, bundles of collagen fibers that line pores of different shapes and sizes. The smaller pores are lined by tiny bundles and are located at the apical region of the granulation and the larger are lined by thicker bundles and are located at the lateral regions. In the body we verified that the bundles of collagen fibers compose a fibrous meshwork and in some regions these bundles have circular orientation, forming pores similar to those found at the region of the capsule.

  15. Morphometric features of posterior cranial fossa are different between Chiari I malformation with and without syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huang; Han, Xiao; Jin, Mengran; Liu, Zhen; Xie, Dingding; Sha, Shifu; Qiu, Yong; Zhu, Zezhang

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) morphology in Chiari I malformation without syringomyelia (also called syrinx) (CMI-only) is different from that in Chiari I malformation with syrinx (CMI-S). Nineteen CMI patients without syrinx constituted the CMI-only group, whereas 48 CMI patients with syrinx were assigned to the CMI-S group. Another cohort of 40 age-matched asymptomatic adolescents was enrolled to serve as the control group. Six measurements were evaluated and compared between these three groups from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including the length of the clivus (AB), the anteroposterior diameter of the foramen magnum (BC), the length of the supraocciput (CD), the anteroposterior diameter of the posterior fossa (DA), the posterior fossa height (BE) and the clivus gradient ([Formula: see text]). The posterior cranial fossa morphology in relation to syrinx severity was also investigated. Compared to the normal controls, the AB, CD, DA, BE and [Formula: see text] were significantly larger in the CMI-S group. Similar changes in AB, CD, DA and BE were also demonstrated in the CMI-only group, while the clivus gradient ([Formula: see text]) was found to be normal when compared with the control group. A significantly decreased clivus gradient was observed in the CMI-S group as compared to CMI-only group. In addition, the clivus was significantly flattened in patients with a distended-syrinx in comparison to those with a non-distended syrinx. Small size of the posterior fossa was detected both in CMI cases with and without syrinx. The clivus gradient served as the only morphologic difference in the PCF between CMI-S and CMI-only patients and was correlated with the severity of the syrinx, may support the theory that the restricted circulation of cerebrospinal fluid at the anterior paramedial subarachnoid space contributes to the formation of a syrinx.

  16. Compression of the posterior fossa venous sinuses by epidural hemorrhage simulating venous sinus thrombosis: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sumit; Ramakrishnaiah, Raghu H.; Hegde, Shilpa V.; Glasier, Charles M. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Pediatric Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Posterior fossa dural venous sinus thrombus is a well-described complication of head trauma, especially when fracture crosses the dural sinus grooves or in association with epidural hemorrhage. We have found that post-traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma compressing a dural venous sinus can mimic dural venous thrombus. To discuss the CT and MRI findings of posterior fossa epidural hemorrhages simulating sinus thrombosis, to make radiologists aware of this important imaging pitfall. We describe radiologic findings in four children in whom a posterior fossa epidural hemorrhage mimicked dural venous sinus thrombus. Routine CT head and CT venography were obtained on Toshiba volume and helical CT scanners. MRI and MR venography were performed on a Philips scanner. In all cases there was medial displacement and compression of the posterior fossa dural venous sinuses without intraluminal thrombosis. The epidural hemorrhage was seen tracking along sinus grooves in the occipital bone, peeling the dura containing the sinuses from the calvarium and compressing the sinus, simulating thrombosis on axial CT views. Both venous sinus thrombosis and posterior fossa epidural hemorrhages in children are well-described complications of head trauma. Posterior fossa epidural hemorrhage can mimic a sinus thrombus by compressing and displacing the sinuses. It is important to recognize this pitfall because treatment of a suspected thrombus with anticoagulation can worsen epidural hemorrhage. (orig.)

  17. Properties of the Medussae Fossae Formation and its relation to the volcanic history of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Anton B.; Cantini, Federico

    2016-10-01

    Medussae Fossae (MFF) is a well known formation, stretching west of Tharsis volanoes. It is characterized as a relatively young Amazonian units (Amm, Amu), due to widespread signs of erosion. Earth based imaging radar observations at 3.5 cm [1] and 12 cm [2] have discovered a dark radar feature (Stealth), which roughly correlates with the MFF outline.Recent investigations [3], suggested that the unit emplacement is in fact during Hesperian period, but it is composed of material that can be easily eroded. It is not clear when the erosion happened and if it is a continuing process. Hypotheses on MFF formation range from volcanic material emplacement (ash flow tuffs or pyroclastic materials) to an ice-rich dusty mantle, deposited during high obliquity.In this work, we will present the latest observations of the East Medussae Fossae formation by the long wavelength MARSIS radar, continuing the work reported in [4], as well as complementing data surveyed by SHARAD data in [5]. The MARSIS radar has detected strong subsurface interfaces in the areas of Gordi and Eumenides Dorsae at depths up to 1.5km. We will present our analysis of the data, inferring the dielectric properties of the material to constrain properties of the material constituting the Medusae Fossae formation. We will also demonstrate an efficient user interface to work with MARSIS data inside a Geographical Information System (GIS).The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement 607379.[1] D. Muhleman, et al., "Radar images of mars," Science, vol. 253, no. 5027, 1991.[2] J. K. Harmon, et al., "Arecibo radar imagery of Mars: The major volcanic provinces," Icarus, vol. 220, aug 2012.[3] L. Kerber, et al., "The dispersal of pyroclasts from Apollinaris Patera, Mars: Implications for the origin of the Medusae Fossae Formation," Icarus, vol. 216, nov 2011.[4] T. R. Watters, et al., "Radar Sounding of the

  18. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  19. Arachnoiditis ossificans after revision adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: a 22-year follow-up and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsh, Wajeeh R; Mesfin, Addisu; Bridwell, Keith H

    2013-08-15

    Case report. To report the clinical and imaging findings of a patient with arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) 22 years after revision surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature that describe AO developing after primary or revision surgery for AIS. Ararchnoiditis ossificans is a rare finding and we provide a review of its presentation and management. We report the patient's history, physical examination, radiographical findings, and management in addition to providing a literature review. A 43 year-old-male who underwent revision surgery for AIS due to intradural migration of a laminar hook presented 22 years after surgery with subjective leg weakness. On physical examination, no weakness was elicited and radiographs demonstrated the instrumentation to be intact. Computed tomographic imaging was performed to assess for adjacent segment disease and diffuse ossification or AO of the thecal sac from L3 to S1 was noted. We recommended observation and nonoperative management because the patient's symptoms were relatively mild. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AO after surgical management of primary or revision AIS. A discussion on the management of AO and a literature review is presented.

  20. Increasing back and radicular pain 2 years following intrathecal pump implantation with review of arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochany, Jacob Z; Tran, Nam D; Sarria, Jose E

    2013-11-01

    Implanted intrathecal drug delivery pumps are now regularly used for the treatment of chronic benign and cancer-related pain that is refractory to conservative treatment methods. In most cases, the pumps are successful at reducing the intensity of pain and improving function and quality of life for pain patients. Limited studies have discussed the complications associated with intrathecal pump placement. Academic tertiary care center. We describe an unusual case of a patient who presented with progressive weakness and worsening lumbar and lower extremity pain following implantation of an intrathecal drug delivery system (IDDS). Work-up for the patient's symptoms includes a magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed lumbar arachnoiditis. Patient underwent a laminectomy and detethering of spinal cord and nerve roots below level of catheter insertion. There was transient improvement in her pain and weakness. Subsequent surgery for pump explantation revealed a retained Touhy introducer needle from her pump placement procedure. The entire IDDS was removed including the retained Touhy introducer needle. The patient later went on to receive a successful spinal cord stimulator trial and implantation with moderate relief of her chronic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Success of pure neuroendoscopic technique in the treatment of Sylvian arachnoid cysts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabagli, Hakan; Etus, Volkan

    2012-03-01

    Neuroendoscopic approaches to Sylvian arachnoid cysts (SACs) constitute an alternative treatment option to craniotomy for fenestration and shunting procedures. In this study, the authors discuss their experience on pure neuroendoscopic technique in the treatment of SACs in children. The results of treatment of 20 children (range of age, between 7 months and 17 years) with Galassi type II (n, 5) or III (n, 15) SACs who were subjected to pure neuroendoscopic fenestration procedure were presented. It was possible to perform the cystocisternostomy endoscopically in all children with several stomies. The site of the opening was between the optic nerve and the carotid artery in 19, between the carotid artery and the oculomotor nerve in 17, and below the oculomotor nerve in 7. The stomies were enlarged in all cases using the double balloon. Three of the cases required repetition of the operation and two cases required "cystoperitoneal shunt" implantation. There was one minor complication in a patient who had an asymptomatic postoperative subdural effusion, which resolved spontaneously. Of the 18 cases, in which the neuroendoscopic procedures succeeded, 10 showed a reduction in cyst size. The mean follow-up period was 53 months. Our results suggest that "pure neuroendoscopic" approach can be used safely in the management of SACs in children. We recommend at least two fenestration sites for an effective marsupialization of the cyst within the basal cisterns. In pediatric cases, the use of a small diameter rigid endoscope allows to reach safely the planned target areas.

  2. A prospective randomised controlled trial of ultrasound guided versus nerve stimulation guided distal sciatic nerve block at the popliteal fossa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, G.J. van; Broek, E. van den; Braak, G.J.J.; Giele, J.L.P.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The direct visualisation of nerves and adjacent anatomical structures may make ultrasonography the preferred method for nerve localisation. In this prospective randomised study, we investigated whether, for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa, an ultrasound guided technique would

  3. Stereotactic radiosurgery and vestibular schwannoma: hydrocephalus associated with the development of a secondary arachnoid cyst: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, C; Dhir, J; Dias, P S

    2005-04-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery for vesibular schwannoma requires long-term follow-up with complete MR imaging. We report two cases of a large secondary arachnoid cyst developing in the cerebellopontine angle following stereotactic radiosurgery. In one case this was associated with progressive ventriculomegaly and the onset of symptomatic hydrocephalus requiring emergency treatment. The second patient had ventriculomegaly at diagnosis, but developed an arachnoid cyst following treatment. Although both arachnoid cysts and hydrocephalus may also occur spontaneously in patients with vestibular schwanomma, the incidence is higher after stereotactic radiosurgery. As both complications may be associated with sudden clinical deterioration, follow-up with full cranial T1 and T2 weighted MR imaging is required to reveal these complications, in addition to assessing tumour response.

  4. The extended pterional approach allows excellent results for removal of anterior cranial fossa meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Lynch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe a unique operative strategy, instead the classical pterional approach, and to analyses it safety and effectiveness for removal of anterior cranial fossa meningiomas. Method We identify 38 patients with tuberculum sellae and olphactory groove meningiomas operated between 1986 and 2013. Medical charts, operative reports, imaging studies and clinical follow-up evaluations were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. The pterional craniotomy is extended toward the frontal bone providing access through the subfrontal route, besides the usual anterolateral view provided by the classical pterional approach. Results Surgical mortality occurred in one patient (2.6%. Gross total resection was achieved in 27 patients (86.8%. Median time of follow-up was 69.4 months. Conclusion The extended pterional approach allows excellent results. Total removal of meningiomas of the anterior cranial fossa was obtained in 86.8 % of patients, with low morbidity and mortality.

  5. [Role of computed tomography in the radiologic exploration of the pterygomaxillary fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierucci, F; Rubini, B; Chassagne, J F

    1985-01-01

    The authors show the interest of C.T. examination of pterygo-maxillary region, principally in the pre-therapeutic staging of the maxillo-facial neoplasy. The anatomical division of the fossa in four regions (pterygoïd muscle area, lateropharyngeal area, pterygo-palatine fossa and retro-maxillary-malar area) can be easily applied to C.T. study. Cuts must be taken axially, in the orbito-meatal plane, and coronally always if possible, before and after administration of contrast medium. Six, out of thirty six cases studied were demonstrative. It appears that C.T. examination must be performed immediately after conventional radiology in the staging of maxillo-facial neoplasy. It shows with considerable accuracy not only the bony involvement, but also the extension in the soft tissues (interest of the densitometric study of fat) and aeric structures. It sometimes brings the solution of special clinical problems (Trismus, neuralgia of the facial nerve).

  6. Comparative morphology and histology of the nasal fossa in four mammals: gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote and white-tailed deer

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Karen K.; Craven, Brent A.; Wysocki, Charles J.; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2016-01-01

    Although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. In this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array ...

  7. The Lost City Hydrothermal Field: A Spectroscopic and Astrobiological Analogue for Nili Fossae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Elena S.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Brazelton, William J.; Kelley, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface. Results from Lost City show a spectrally distinguishable suite of Mg-rich serpentine, Ca carbonates, talc, and amphibole minerals. Aggregated detections of low-grade metamorphic minerals in rocks from Nili Fossae were mapped and yielded a previously undetected serpentine exposure in the region. Direct comparison of the two spectral suites indicates similar mineralogy at both Lost City and in the Noachian (4-3.7 Ga) bedrock of Nili Fossae, Mars. Based on mapping of these spectral phases, the implied mineralogical suite appears to be extensive across the region. These results suggest that serpentinization was once an active process, indicating that water and energy sources were available, as well as a means for prebiotic chemistry during a time period when life was first emerging on Earth. Although the mineralogical assemblages identified on Mars are unlikely to be directly analogous to rocks that underlie the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, related geochemical processes (and associated sources of biologically accessible energy) were once present in the subsurface, making Nili Fossae a compelling candidate for a once-habitable environment on Mars.

  8. A nomenclature for vertebral fossae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The axial skeleton of extinct saurischian dinosaurs (i.e., theropods, sauropodomorphs, like living birds, was pneumatized by epithelial outpocketings of the respiratory system. Pneumatic signatures in the vertebral column of fossil saurischians include complex branching chambers within the bone (internal pneumaticity and large chambers visible externally that are bounded by neural arch laminae (external pneumaticity. Although general aspects of internal pneumaticity are synapomorphic for saurischian subgroups, the individual internal pneumatic spaces cannot be homologized across species or even along the vertebral column, due to their variability and absence of topographical landmarks. External pneumatic structures, in contrast, are defined by ready topological landmarks (vertebral laminae, but no consistent nomenclatural system exists. This deficiency has fostered confusion and limited their use as character data in phylogenetic analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a simple system for naming external neural arch fossae that parallels the one developed for the vertebral laminae that bound them. The nomenclatural system identifies fossae by pointing to reference landmarks (e.g., neural spine, centrum, costal articulations, zygapophyses. We standardize the naming process by creating tripartite names from "primary landmarks," which form the zygodiapophyseal table, "secondary landmarks," which orient with respect to that table, and "tertiary landmarks," which further delineate a given fossa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed nomenclatural system for lamina-bounded fossae adds clarity to descriptions of complex vertebrae and allows these structures to be sourced as character data for phylogenetic analyses. These anatomical terms denote potentially homologous pneumatic structures within Saurischia, but they could be applied to any vertebrate with vertebral laminae that enclose spaces, regardless of their developmental

  9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy restricted to the posterior fossa in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabricio Guimaraes; Lamb, Leslie; Del Carpio-O' Donovan, Raquel, E-mail: goncalves.neuroradio@gmail.com [McGill University Health Center Montreal General Hospital (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a neurological infectious disease caused by the John Cunningham polyoma virus (JCV), an opportunistic agent with worldwide distribution. This disease is frequently seen in immunosuppressed patients and rarely associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. In the central nervous system PML demyelinating lesions occur in the supratentorial compartment. The authors describe a rare case of PML secondary to SLE treatment with atypical presentation restricted to the posterior fossa (author)

  10. Spontaneous bilateral subdural haematomas in the posterior cranial fossa revealed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollo, C.; Porchet, F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R. [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2003-08-01

    A 52-year-old woman treated for acute myeloproliferative disease developed progressive stupor. CT showed obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from unexplained mass effect on the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed bilateral extra-axial collections in the posterior cranial fossa, giving high signal on T1- and T2-weighted images, suggesting subacute subdural haematomas. Subdural haematomas can be suspected on CT when there is unexplained mass effect. MRI may be essential to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  11. Relationship between external and histologic features of progressive stages of caries in the occlusal fossa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Kuzmina, I; Bjørndal, L

    1995-01-01

    The material comprised 140 extracted maxillary third molars. The central fossa area was examined with a stereomicroscope (SM) (x16) and macroscopically (M) under standardized conditions after cleaning and air-drying. Signs of caries were classified using a detailed scoring system involving 12 (SM...... and the internal enamel and dentine reactions. The data did not support routine usage of radiographic examination for occlusal caries diagnosis....

  12. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geo-logic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.

  13. Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of mapping projects supported by NASA grant NNX07AP42G, through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) program. The PGG grant is focused on 1:2M-scale mapping of portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars. Also described below is the current status of two Venus geologic maps, generated under an earlier PGG mapping grant.

  14. Intrathecal gadolinium (gadopentetate dimeglumine) - enhanced MR cisternography used to determine potential communication between the cerebrospinal fluid pathways and intracranial arachnoid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Ercan, Nil [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Ankara (Turkey); Kaymaz, Memduh; Pasaoglu, Aydin [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara (Turkey); Jinkins, J. Randy [Drexel University, Medical College of Pennsylvania-Hahnemann Hospitals, Department of Radiologic Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2004-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of intrathecal gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance cisternography (MRC) for the evaluation of the presence or absence of communication of cranial arachnoid cysts with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways of the central nervous system (CNS). This prospective study included 20 patients (12 males and 8 females) with a mean age of 37 years, who had, as a group, 22 intracranial arachnoid cysts identified on prior CT and/or MR examinations. Routine pre-contrast cranial MR imaging was followed by the intrathecal administration of 0.5 cc gadopentetate dimeglumine (GD) (Magnevist, Schering, Germany). Immediate and delayed (24 h) MR cisternography was then carried out. Eleven of 22 arachnoid cysts showed immediate CSF communication by the demonstration GD-contrast enhancement of the cyst fluid on the immediate post-injection scan. Contrast enhancement of the cyst was observed only on delayed MRC in six patients. MR imaging in five patients demonstrated no contrast enhancement of the arachnoid cysts on either immediate or delayed imaging. Six patients had mild transient post-procedure headache that was relieved by oral analgesics within 24 h. No serious immediate or chronic adverse effects or complications relating to the intrathecal contrast administration were observed. This study showed the relative safety, feasibility and reliability of low-dose intrathecal GD MR imaging in the demonstration of the communication or non-communication of intracranial arachnoid cysts with the CSF pathways of the CNS. In the future, this may have bearing on the selection for surgery of patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts presenting with clinical signs and symptoms potentially related to the location and mass effect of the cyst. (orig.)

  15. Chronic Expanding Hematoma in the Popliteal Fossa after Pseudoaneurysm Surgery because of Nail Puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematomas caused by surgery or trauma that persist and expand slowly for more than a month are defined as chronic expanding hematomas (CEH. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is useful for the diagnosis. Total excision with the pseudocapsule is the treatment method. Pseudoaneurysms result from arterial wall disruptions and can be mistaken for CEH. We present a rare case report of a 45-year-old man with a large, painful swelling in his left popliteal fossa. He had a puncture wound by a nail 11 years ago and a gradually expanding mass occurred in his popliteal fossa. A pseudoaneurysm was detected and operated a year later. After surgery, a gradually expanding mass recurred in his popliteal fossa. On the arteriography, the popliteal artery was occluded and the blood flow was maintained with collateral vessels. On MRI, an enormous swelling of 115 × 107 × 196 cm in diameter was seen. It was diagnosed as CEH and was excised completely protecting the collateral vessels and there was no recurrence after a year from the surgery.

  16. Hip arthroscopy: intra-articular saucerization of the acetabular cotyloid fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, James K

    2012-02-17

    Hip arthroscopy is increasingly recognized as a treatment option for patients with hip pain and labral tears. When emphasis is placed on labral tears as a primary clinical finding in the peripheral compartment, a broader view of the pathophysiology of these tears may be missed. Therefore, it is imperative to gain arthroscopic surgical access to the central compartment and determine if its contents affect the congruency of the hip joint. Abnormal bone and fibro-fatty tissue in the cotyloid fossa decrease the space available for the ligamentum teres, leading to lateral subluxation of the femoral head and rim loading of the acetabulum at the chondrolabral junction. Rim loading of the acetabulum may induce articular-sided labral tears due to hip incongruency. Although these labral tears may require refixation, the congruency of the hip joint should be restored to the best extent possible. Arthroscopic intra-articular saucerization and debridement of space-occupying lesions in the cotyloid fossa increase the space available for the ligamentum teres, improve the congruency of the hip joint, and mitigate against acetabular rim loading. This article describes a case of arthroscopic intra-articular saucerization of the cotyloid fossa in a 25-year-old man with chronic hip pain. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. The use of wavelet filters for reducing noise in posterior fossa Computed Tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pita-Machado, Reinado [Centro de Ingeniería Clínica. Guacalote y Circunvalación, Santa Clara 50200 (Cuba); Perez-Diaz, Marlen, E-mail: mperez@uclv.edu.cu; Lorenzo-Ginori, Juan V., E-mail: mperez@uclv.edu.cu; Bravo-Pino, Rolando, E-mail: mperez@uclv.edu.cu [Centro de Estudios de Electrónica y Tecnologías de la Información (CEETI), Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas, Carretera a Camajuaní, km. 5 1/2 Santa Clara 54830 (Cuba)

    2014-11-07

    Wavelet transform based de-noising like wavelet shrinkage, gives the good results in CT. This procedure affects very little the spatial resolution. Some applications are reconstruction methods, while others are a posteriori de-noising methods. De-noising after reconstruction is very difficult because the noise is non-stationary and has unknown distribution. Therefore, methods which work on the sinogram-space don’t have this problem, because they always work over a known noise distribution at this point. On the other hand, the posterior fossa in a head CT is a very complex region for physicians, because it is commonly affected by artifacts and noise which are not eliminated during the reconstruction procedure. This can leads to some false positive evaluations. The purpose of our present work is to compare different wavelet shrinkage de-noising filters to reduce noise, particularly in images of the posterior fossa within CT scans in the sinogram-space. This work describes an experimental search for the best wavelets, to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Results showed that de-noising with wavelet filters improved the quality of posterior fossa region in terms of an increased CNR, without noticeable structural distortions.

  18. Delayed effect of radiation therapy on extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Shobu; Mori, Kazuo

    1988-07-01

    This is a report of a case with extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa which had received radiation therapy. Follow-up study with serial computed tomography during and after irradiation were presented. A 62-year-old housewife complained of vertigo. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the left middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Left carotid angiography demonstrated a large avascular mass in the left middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. Irradiation with a total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. At the end of radiation, CT scan revealed a slight decrease in size and CT number of the tumor. Follow-up CT scans 5 months later showed 50 % regression of the tumor and 19 months later were negative for tumor. It is concluded that in case of an extracerebral cavernous angioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 30 - 50 Gy was a method of choice. The treatment results in the possibility of eliminating surgery and the benefit of irradiation may not become evident until the first year.

  19. Packing of renal fossa: Useful technique for intractable bleeding after open pyelolithotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohinder Kumar Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no documented study to indicate the role of prolonged packing of renal fossa (24 to 48 hours to control bleeding in life threating haemorrhage following open pyelolithotomy without compromise in the renal functions. On the contrary emergency nephrectomy was performed for intractable bleeding during renal stone surgery in peripheral hospitals. Several studies have shown the usefulness of temporary packing to control bleeding in liver injuries and following open heart operations. Packing of the renal fossa with laparotomy pads in unstable patients, and transferring the patient to the surgical intensive care unit (ICU is also described in trauma but not in controlling bleeding after open pyelolithotomy .This study comprises of three such patients whose kidneys were salvaged by a simple procedure of temporary packing of renal fossa for period of 24-48 hours who had developed life threatening haemorrhage after open pyelolithotomy. This technique is simple and worth trying especially for surgeons who are contemplating nephrectomy as prolonged packing has not lead to any compromise in renal functions. The aim of this manuscript is very limited and clear. Packing is not a licence to carry out open pyelolithotomy without proper expertise and local backup or resources. Principles of safe and ethical surgical practice should never be violated as it can lead to medico legal complications.

  20. Pressure Sore at an Unusual Site- the Bilateral Popliteal Fossa: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kataria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature.

  1. Avaliação dos selantes de fossas e fissuras aplicados por estudantes de Odontologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Cristiano de Souza Rastelli

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Selantes de fossas e fissuras são indicados para prevenir lesão de cárie em superfícies oclusais. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os selantes de fossas e fissuras aplicados por estudantes do Curso de Graduação em Odontologia da Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB, Santa Catarina. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O estudo descritivo retrospectivo desenvolveu-se em três etapas: na primeira, procedeu-se à análise dos prontuários do Setor de Triagem, tendo como critério de inclusão a existência de radiografias dos dentes selados. Na segunda etapa, analisaram-se as radiografias dos prontuários selecionados e a história clínica da criança. A terceira etapa foi realizada por meio de exames clínicos e radiográficos, pelos quais eram verificadas as condições dos selantes de fossas e fissuras. RESULTADO: Foram analisados 800 prontuários, sendo selecionados 131 (16,37% para a segunda etapa, quando se observou que 321 selantes de fossas e fissuras foram aplicados. Compareceram à consulta de controle 119 (90,84% crianças, ocasião em que se confirmou a aplicação de 160 (49,85% selantes resinosos, 126 (39,25% com cimento de ionômero de vidro e 35 (10,90% com resina flow. Foram observados 296 (92,21% selantes em dentes permanentes. Ao exame clínico, verificou-se que 114 (35,51% selantes haviam sido perdidos totalmente em diferentes períodos de tempo. Nenhuma lesão de cárie foi observada em 294 (91,59% dentes selados. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que os selantes de fossas e fissuras, aplicados por estudantes do Curso de Odontologia da FURB, foram eficazes na manutenção da maioria das superfícies dentárias livres de lesão de cárie, mesmo quando foram perdidos parcial ou totalmente.

  2. Sport-related structural brain injury associated with arachnoid cysts: a systematic review and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Prather, Colin T; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Bonfield, Christopher M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital lesions bordered by an arachnoid membrane. Researchers have postulated that individuals with an AC demonstrate a higher rate of structural brain injury after trauma. Given the potential neurological consequences of a structural brain injury requiring neurosurgical intervention, the authors sought to perform a systematic review of sport-related structural-brain injury associated with ACs with a corresponding quantitative analysis. METHODS Titles and abstracts were searched systematically across the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed case reports, case series, or observational studies that reported a structural brain injury due to a sport or recreational activity (hereafter referred to as sport-related) with an associated AC were included. Patients were excluded if they did not have an AC, suffered a concussion without structural brain injury, or sustained the injury during a non-sport-related activity (e.g., fall, motor vehicle collision). Descriptive statistical analysis and time to presentation data were summarized. Univariate logistic regression models to assess predictors of neurological deficit, open craniotomy, and cystoperitoneal shunt were completed. RESULTS After an initial search of 994 original articles, 52 studies were found that reported 65 cases of sport-related structural brain injury associated with an AC. The median age at presentation was 16 years (range 4-75 years). Headache was the most common presenting symptom (98%), followed by nausea and vomiting in 49%. Thirteen patients (21%) presented with a neurological deficit, most commonly hemiparesis. Open craniotomy was the most common form of treatment (49%). Bur holes and cyst fenestration were performed in 29 (45%) and 31 (48%) patients, respectively. Seven patients (11%) received

  3. Predictors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage

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    Wang Yi-Min

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrocephalus following spontaneous aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is often associated with unfavorable outcome. This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal SAH patients but without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight aneurysmal SAH patients were evaluated. Using functional scores, those without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital were compared to those already with hydrocephalus on admission, those who developed it during hospitalization, and those who did not develop it throughout their hospital stay. The Glasgow Coma Score, modified Fisher SAH grade, and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade were determined at the emergency room. Therapeutic outcomes immediately after discharge and 18 months after were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Results Hydrocephalus accounted for 61.9% (104/168 of all episodes, including 82 with initial hydrocephalus on admission and 22 with subsequent hydrocephalus. Both the presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage on admission and post-operative intra-cerebral hemorrhage were independently associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without hydrocephalus on admission. After a minimum 1.5 years of follow-up, the mean Glasgow outcome score was 3.33 ± 1.40 for patients with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and 4.21 ± 1.19 for those without. Conclusions The presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, and higher mean scores of the modified Fisher SAH and World Federation of Neurosurgical grading on admission imply risk of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without initial hydrocephalus. These patients have worse short- and long-term outcomes and longer hospitalization.

  4. Computed tomography evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in Class I malocclusion patients: condylar symmetry and condyle-fossa relationship.

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    Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the condyle-fossa relationship, the concentric position of the condyles, and the dimensional and positional symmetries between the right and left condyles in subjects with Class I malocclusion. Thirty subjects from 13 to 30 years of age with Class I malocclusion had computed tomography imaging of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from axial slices were evaluated for possible asymmetries in size and position between the condylar processes associated with this malocclusion. The images obtained from sagittal slices were used to assess the depth of the mandibular fossa, the condyle-fossa relationship, and the concentric position of the condyles of this malocclusion. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations were determined after measurements on both sides were obtained. We found no statistically significant asymmetries between the condylar processes in this sample. No statistically significant asymmetries were found in the mandibular fossa depth, the anterior joint space, and the superior joint space. The posterior joint space showed statistically significant asymmetry (P temporomandibular joint. Evaluation of the concentric position of the condyles in their mandibular fossae showed nonconcentric positioning for the 2 sides.

  5. Craniotomy vs. craniectomy for posterior fossa tumors: a prospective study to evaluate complications after surgery.

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    Legnani, Federico G; Saladino, Andrea; Casali, Cecilia; Vetrano, Ignazio G; Varisco, Marco; Mattei, Luca; Prada, Francesco; Perin, Alessandro; Mangraviti, Antonella; Solero, Carlo L; DiMeco, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    Posterior fossa surgery traditionally implies permanent bone removal. Although suboccipital craniectomy offers an excellent exposure, it could lead to complications. Thus, some authors proposed craniotomy as a valuable alternative to craniectomy. In the present study we compare postoperative complications after craniotomy or craniectomy for posterior fossa surgery. We prospectively collected data for a consecutive series of patients who underwent either posterior fossa craniotomy or craniectomy for tumor resection. We divided patients into two groups based on the surgical procedure performed and safety, complication rates and length of hospitalization were analyzed. Craniotomies were performed with Control-Depth-Attachment(®) drill and chisel, while we did craniectomies with perforator and rongeurs. One-hundred-fifty-two patients were included in the study (craniotomy n =100, craniectomy n =52). We detected no dural damage after bone removal in both groups. The total complication rate related to the technique itself was 7 % for the craniotomy group and 32.6 % for the craniectomy group (<0.0001). Pseudomeningocele occurred in 4 % vs. 19.2 % (p =0.0009), CSF leak in 2 % vs. 11.5 % (p =0.006) and wound infection in 1 % vs. 1.9 % (p =0.33), respectively. Post-operative hydrocephalus, a multi-factorial complication which could affect our results, was also calculated and occurred in 4 % of the craniotomy vs. 9.6 % of the craniectomy group (p =0.08). The mean length of in-hospital stay was 9.3 days for the craniotomy group and 11.8 days for the craniectomy group (p =0.10). The present study suggests that fashioning a suboccipital craniotomy is as effective and safe as performing a craniectomy; both procedures showed similar results in preserving dural integrity, while post-operative complications were fewer when a suboccipital craniotomy was performed.

  6. Presentation and management of lateral sinus thrombosis following posterior fossa surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Kotbi, Owais; Turc, Guillaume; Corns, Robert; Pagès, Mélanie; Souillard-Scémama, Raphaëlle; Dezamis, Edouard; Parraga, Eduardo; Meder, Jean-François; Sauvageon, Xavier; Devaux, Bertrand; Oppenheim, Catherine; Pallud, Johan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE There are no guidelines for the management of postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis following posterior fossa surgery. Introducing treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy during the immediate postoperative period increases the risk of intracranial bleeding. This study assessed the incidence of and risk factors associated with postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis and the complications related to thrombosis and/or anticoagulation. METHODS This study was a retrospective monocentric analysis of adult patients who underwent surgical removal of a posterior fossa space-occupying lesion with available postoperative imaging. Postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis was defined as a T2* hypointensity within the venous sinus and/or a filling defect on postcontrast MRI or CT scan. RESULTS Among 180 patients, 12 (6.7%; 95% CI 3.0-10.4) were found to have lateral sinus thrombosis on postoperative imaging, none of whom were symptomatic. Unadjusted risk factors for postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis were a history of deep venous thrombosis (p = 0.016), oral contraceptive pill (p = 0.004), midline surgical approach (p = 0.035), and surgical exposure of the sinus (p postoperative lateral sinus thrombosis received immediate treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy. Lateral sinus recanalization occurred radiologically at a mean time of 272 ± 23 days in 85.7% of patients (6 of 7) undergoing treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy and in 20% of patients (1 of 5) not receiving treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy. Postoperative complications occurred in 56.2% of patients (9 of 16) who received treatment-dose curative anticoagulant therapy and in 27% of patients (45 of 164) who did not. CONCLUSIONS Incidental radiological lateral sinus thrombosis following posterior fossa surgery has an incidence of 6.7%. To further define the benefit-to-risk ratio of a treatment-dose anticoagulant therapy, a prospective trial should be considered.

  7. Avian cerebellar floccular fossa size is not a proxy for flying ability in birds.

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    Stig A Walsh

    Full Text Available Extinct animal behavior has often been inferred from qualitative assessments of relative brain region size in fossil endocranial casts. For instance, flight capability in pterosaurs and early birds has been inferred from the relative size of the cerebellar flocculus, which in life protrudes from the lateral surface of the cerebellum. A primary role of the flocculus is to integrate sensory information about head rotation and translation to stabilize visual gaze via the vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR. Because gaze stabilization is a critical aspect of flight, some authors have suggested that the flocculus is enlarged in flying species. Whether this can be further extended to a floccular expansion in highly maneuverable flying species or floccular reduction in flightless species is unknown. Here, we used micro computed-tomography to reconstruct "virtual" endocranial casts of 60 extant bird species, to extract the same level of anatomical information offered by fossils. Volumes of the floccular fossa and entire brain cavity were measured and these values correlated with four indices of flying behavior. Although a weak positive relationship was found between floccular fossa size and brachial index, no significant relationship was found between floccular fossa size and any other flight mode classification. These findings could be the result of the bony endocranium inaccurately reflecting the size of the neural flocculus, but might also reflect the importance of the flocculus for all modes of locomotion in birds. We therefore conclude that the relative size of the flocculus of endocranial casts is an unreliable predictor of locomotor behavior in extinct birds, and probably also pterosaurs and non-avian dinosaurs.

  8. Imprint cytology facilitating the diagnosis of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma of iliac fossa

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    Suman Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (C-ALCL is a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that is characterized by solitary nodules and plaques. In this report, the authors present an unusual case of a 59-year-old male with a solitary ulcerofungative mass in the left iliac fossa clinically masquerading as sqaumous cell carcinoma. The imprint smears of the lesion had characterstic morphological features which helped in the diagnosis. Subsequently, the imprint cytology correlated well with the histopathology and immunohistochemical studies highlighting its utility as simple, rapid, and easy test.

  9. Medulloblastoma arising from an immature teratoma of the posterior fossa. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sunit; Muro, Kenji; Goldman, Stewart; Rajaram, Veena; DiPatri, Arthur J

    2007-01-01

    Teratomas, a group of nongerminomatous germ cell tumors, account for 3% of all childhood tumors. These unusual lesions reproduce the cellular and structural phenotypic traits associated with the three classic germ layers in inappropriate places in the body and often retain an embryonal character. These immature cells can differentiate into more malignant neoplasms. An intracranial location for this lesion type is rare. The authors describe the case of a 2-year-old boy with a teratoma of the posterior fossa that had partially differentiated into a medulloblastoma.

  10. Congenital piriform fossa sinus tract presenting as an asymptomatic neck mass in an infant

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    Bloom, David A. [Department of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3901 Beaubien Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Adler, Brent H. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Forsythe, Robert C. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mutabagani, Khaled; Teich, Steven [Department of Surgery, Columbus Children' s Hospital, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A 5-month-old girl with an asymptomatic left-sided neck mass was demonstrated by ultrasound and upper gastrointestinal series (UGI), and confirmed at surgery, to have a congenital piriform fossa sinus tract (CPFST) that communicated with an intrathyroidal cyst. To demonstrate a case of CPFST presenting as an asymptomatic neck mass. Nearly all cases of CPFST present with infection or pain, making this case unique. Case report and review of the literature. CPFST with an associated cyst should be added to the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic cystic neck masses in infants, especially if the cyst is intrathyroidal by ultrasound. (orig.)

  11. Patterns of chronic inflammation in extensively treated patients with arachnoiditis and chronic intractable pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilello, John A; Tennant, Forest S

    2017-01-01

    To use biomarkers to gain insight into and gauge the residual (post-treatment) level of inflammation in two groups of intensively treated patients with severe chronic pain. Three study groups were analyzed, and included: (i) patients (n = 90) with chronic intractable pain (CIP), (ii) patients (n = 26) with chronic pain and MRI-documented arachnoiditis (ARC) and (iii) normal subjects without a diagnosis of chronic pain (n = 86). We determined and compared the serum concentrations of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (A1AT), Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor receptor type 2 (sTNFR2) in each of the patient populations studied. Patients treated for ARC or CIP had higher serum levels of A1AT and MPO than normal untreated subjects without a diagnosis of chronic pain. ARC patients had an A1AT mean serum concentration of 167.9 ± 41.9 mg/dL as compared to 148.9 ± 35.2 mg/dL for normal subjects (p = 0.023). CIP patients had the highest mean serum A1AT level 183.6 ± 39.2 mg/dL with p values of <0.0001 or 0.08 when compared to normal subjects or ARC patients respectively. ARC patients had an MPO mean serum concentration of 344.6 ± 227.9 ng/mL as compared to 188.2 ± 107.5 ng/mL for normal subjects (p = < 0.0001). CIP patients had a similar mean serum MPO level of 352.3 ± 164 ng/mL with p values of <0.0001 or 0.85 when compared to normal subjects or ARC patients respectively. In addition, we noted a difference in the pattern of MPO expression in patients with ARC in that 34% had levels of MPO at normal or below and 31% had levels 2-fold or greater than normal. This data supports the concept that in centralized pain, sites of neuroinflammation elaborate MPO and other inflammatory factors which may not be completely cleared from the system despite extensive and complex treatment regimens.

  12. Cisticercose do quarto ventrículo simulando neoplasia da fossa posterior a cintilografia cerebral: relato de um caso

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    Sydney F. de Morais-Rego

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de uma criança de 12 anos de idade apresentando quadro de hipertensão endocraniana e síndrome cerebelar, cujos exames neurológico e neuroradiológicos foram sugestivos de neoplasia de fossa posterior. A cintilografia cerebral mostrou um quadro compatível com a existência de tumor da fossa posterior, da linha mediana, mais provavelmente meduloblastoma ou astrocitoma. Pela intervenção cirúrgica foi verificado tratar-se de cisticercose, sendo removido um cisto do 4ºventrícuio. Os autores sugerem que em áreas geográficas com alta prevalência de neurocisticercose na população infantil a hipótese da forma pseudotumoral seja lembrada, quando da tentativa de caracterização do tipo de lesão da fossa posterior, detectada pela cintilografia cerebral.

  13. Posttraumatic Temporal Bone Meningocele Presenting as a Cystic Mass in the External Auditory Canal.

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    Alijani, Babak; Bagheri, Hamid Reza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Behzadnia, Hamid; Dehghani, Siavash

    2016-07-01

    Temporal bone meningoencephalic herniation may occur in head trauma. It is a rare condition with potentially dangerous complications. Several different routes for temporal bone meningoencephalocele have been proposed. An11-year-old boy with history of head trauma initially presented with a 9-months history of progressive right-sided hearing loss and facial weakness. The other complaint was formation of a cystic mass in the right external auditory canal. The patient underwent surgery via a mini middle cranial fossa craniotomy associated with a transmastoid approach. Although presenting symptoms can be subtle, early suspicion and confirmatory imaging aid in establishing the diagnosis. The combination of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging will help in proper preoperative diagnosis. The operation includes transmastoid, middle cranial fossa repair, or combination of both. The multilayer closure of bony defect is very important to avoid cerebrospinal fluid leak. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and surgical approaches for posttraumatic meningoencephaloceles arising in the head and neck region are briefly discussed.

  14. A modified retromaxillary approach to the infratemporal fossa: three case studies.

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    Woodford, Rebecca; Chaudhary, Navjot; Wolf, Amparo; Lownie, Stephen; Armstrong, Jerrold E

    2015-04-01

    The infratemporal fossa (ITF) is an anatomically complex region with multiple neural and vascular structures entering and exiting through foramina in the skull base. The main obstacles to approaching the ITF are the zygomatic arch, the parotid gland, the facial nerve, and the ascending ramus AND condylar head of the mandible. Different surgical approaches to the ITF exist and the best approach should provide optimal visibility, minimal impairment of temporomandibular joint function, and preservation of motor and sensory nerve integrity. This report describes a modified Obwegeser retromaxillary approach to access lesions within the ITF. A multidisciplinary team was involved, which included an oral and maxillofacial surgery team, a neurosurgery team, and an otolaryngology team. Three patients with large skull base lesions, including an aneurysmal bone cyst, a giant cell tumor of the bone, and an invasive melanoma, underwent resection using this approach and were followed postoperatively. Excellent exposure of the floor of the middle cranial fossa and ITF was achieved with this approach. Functional status remained unchanged with respect to mastication, speech, swallowing, and cosmesis. Given the severity of the patients' conditions and extent of involvement of the skull base, outcomes were favorable, with minimal morbidity. This experience suggests that this approach provides safe access to an anatomically complex region and lessens challenges associated with more conventional approaches. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eurythmy therapy in the aftercare of pediatric posterior fossa tumour survivors--a pilot study.

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    Kanitz, Jenny Lena; Pretzer, Kim; Calaminus, Gabriele; Wiener, Andreas; Längler, Alfred; Henze, Günter; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Seifert, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Pediatric posterior fossa brain tumour survivors are burdened with extensive neurologic, emotional, behavioral and mental impairments. Even long-term common remediation therapies such as conventional physical therapy and occupational therapy do not warrant full recovery. Innovative complementary therapy strategies offer a new option that needs evaluation. EYT is a movement therapy that belongs to the field of mind-body therapies (MBTs). This holistic approach aims to promote self-regulation and self-healing powers e.g. in cancer patients. This pilot study is a first attempt to assess the feasibility, treatment adherence and impact of eurythmy therapy (EYT) in pediatric neurooncology. Seven posterior fossa tumour survivors who each participated in 25 EYT interventions over 6 months were followed for an additional 6 months. The outcome parameters cognitive functioning, neuromotor functioning and visuomotor integration were assessed at baseline as well as six and 12 months afterwards. We found good adherence and improvements in cognitive and neuromotor functioning in all children and better visuomotor integration in 5/7 children after 6 months. After 12 months, neuromotor functioning and visuomotor integration diminished again to some extent. EYT in pediatric cerebellar tumour survivors is feasible and patients may profit from this new approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Traumatic Frontal Epidural Hematoma Caused by Multiple Arterial Injuries in the Anterior Fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, J Willis; Hertzler, Dean A; Drucker, David E M; Spader, Heather S

    2017-01-01

    This case report illustrates the need to evaluate the possibility of multiple arterial sources when presented with a frontal epidural hematoma associated with facial trauma. The patient presented after being struck in the face by a baseball. Computed tomography of the brain revealed a large frontal epidural hematoma. Intraoperatively, bleeding from a frontal branch of the middle meningeal artery was encountered and cauterized, and the hematoma was removed. Routine follow-up imaging performed the next day showed a residual frontal hematoma; however, the epidural hematoma was in a more medial location than the initial hematoma. The patient was taken back to the operating room; after frontal lobe retraction and extensive exploration, a different source of bleeding from posterior ethmoidal artery feeders was encountered. After the second operation, the patient's hematoma did not recur, and he was discharged home with no neurologic deficits 3 days later. We report a case of an epidural hematoma caused by 2 distinct arterial feeders. We discuss radiologic review and operative management of anterior fossa epidural hematomas and stress the importance of considering arterial bleeding from sources other than the middle meningeal artery in anterior fossa epidural hematomas. We discuss the utility of preoperative angiography for these patients and reinforce the need for acute postoperative imaging to ensure successful operative and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscular Variation In The Neck Region With Narrowing Of The Minor And Major Supraclavicular Fossa

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    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sternocleidomastoideus muscle is the most prominent landmarks of the surface anatomy of the neck, separates the anterior part of the neck (anterior triangle from the posterior part of the neck (posterior triangle. An accessory head of sternocleidomastoideus muscle may cause complications while trying to access vital neurovascular structures that are located in the minor and major supraclavicular fossa. The purpose of this study is to describe an anatomical variation of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and clinical impact. Methods and Findings: The anatomical variations described were found during routine dissection conducted in the laboratory of Morphology of the University of Pamplona in two male cadavers of 47 and 75 years respectively. Measurements were taken using a Vernier caliper. Topographic details of the variations were examined, recorded and photographed. The morphological variations in the number of heads (three and four of origin of sternocleidomastoideus muscle was found in two male subjects in right and left neck, bilaterally.  The posterior cervical triangle was diminished. The bilateral narrowing of the minor and major supraclavicular fossa minimizing space needed for potential surgical access. The branching patterns of the spinal accessory nerve and arterial patterns were normal. Conclusions: The Knowledge of the presence of additional heads of sternocleidomastoideus muscle it might cause difficulties in subclavian or external jugular vein catheterization, and in surgical interventions involving structures lying under the sternocleidomastoideus muscle. These variations must be kept in mind while approaching the region to avoid complications as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse.

  18. Fetal MRI for characterising a variety of posterior fossa anomalies suspected on 3rd trimester ultrasound examination – a short series of four cases

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    Amaresh Indravadan Ranchod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to more accurately assess abnormalities detected on screening ultrasound. This procedure is more pertinent when the initial ultrasound is done late in the third trimester and when the abnormality involves the posterior fossa of the brain. Four cases with a variety of unusual posterior fossa anomalies are presented.

  19. Symptomatic Thoracic Nerve Root Herniation into an Extradural Arachnoid Cyst: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Nagesh C; Duyff, Ruurd F; Groen, Rob J M

    2017-10-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEACs) are relatively rare and usually asymptomatic. They preferentially are situated in the thoracic extradural space and almost always dorsal. SEACs may present with back pain and/or cord compression symptoms. Needle aspiration, needle fenestration, or open surgical resection/fenestration have been reported as treatment modalities. We present a 35-year-old woman who complained of radiating pain from the right lower thoracic region of her back toward the right inguinal region, which was aggravated upon defecation and straining. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an extradural cyst located laterally at T11-T12 level on the right, with a nerve root herniation. During a T11-T12 hemilaminectomy, on resection of the cyst wall, a nerve root was noted to be herniating into the cyst cavity through a dural defect. The nerve root was released and repositioned intradurally, followed by direct suture of the dural tear. Histologic findings of the cyst wall confirmed an arachnoid cyst. Postoperative course was uneventful without complications. Postoperative MRI confirmed a complete resection of the cyst. Five years after surgery, the patient is asymptomatic with complete recovery. Thoracic SEACs can present with radiating pain due to a transdural herniation of a thoracic nerve root into the cyst, potentially due to a mechanism of intermittent pressure gradients between the intradural and extradural spaces. MRI can prove beneficial in visualizing the nerve prolapsing into the cyst. Open resection of the cyst wall, reduction of the nerve root herniation, and subsequent direct closure of the dural tear led to complete recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative research of the thin transverse sectional anatomy and the multislice spiral CT on Pterygopalatine Fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chun; Chen, Zhong-Xiao; Yang, Xin-Dong; Zheng, Jian-Wu; Li, Zhen-Ping; Huang, Fei; Kong, Fan-Zhen; Zhang, Chuan-Sen

    2010-04-01

    To explore a method to obtain sub-millimeter data of the thin transverse section of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF), and to study the thin transverse sectional anatomy of the adult pterygopalatine fossa and its communicating structure for providing anatomic gist for the imaging diagnosis and minimal invasive operation when PPF diseased. Two heads of adult cadaver without macroscopic trauma (four sides of PPF) were selected to observe. Images of 0.6 mm-thick multi-planar construction (MPR) were obtained with multislice spiral CT (MSCT) based on the superior orbitomeatal line. Then, the specimens were sliced into 0.1 mm serial section on the transverse plane with the computerized milling machine, the figures were taken with digital camera and the sectional data were stored in the computer. Lastly, the thin transversal section of PPF was investigated and compared with multislice spiral CT images acquired by MPR technique to explore and discuss the anatomy of the thin transverse section of the internal structure of PPF. PPF was divided into four portions: infrapterygopalatine portion, pterygopalatine ganglionic one, suprapterygopalatine one and roof of PPF according to the structural characteristics of the transverse section of PPF. The infrapterygopalatine portion communicated laterally with the infratemporal fossa through the pterygomaxillary fissure and communicated downwards with the oral cavity via palatine greater and lesser canals. The pterygopalatine ganglion was shown clearly in the pterygopalatine ganglionic portion, and its dimensions were 3.91x1.92 mm at the best layer. In the suprapterygopalatine portion, the sphenopalatine foramen and artery were obviously shown on the medial wall, while the palatovaginal canal and artery, the pterygoid canal and artery, and the foramen rotundum and maxillary nerve were shown from the inferiomedial to laterosuperior on the posterior wall. The vomerovaginal canal and artery were located at the slightly superior portion of

  1. Topographic Constraints on the Mode of Formation of an Enigmatic Flow in Cerberus Fossae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Wilson, L.

    2013-12-01

    We use a digital elevation model (DEM), derived from stereo Context Camera (CTX) images referenced to Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data, and shadow length measurements made from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images, to investigate the geometry of a young enigmatic flow in S.W. Cerberus Fossae, Mars. The flow originates from an almost circular (1.2 x 1.5 km) pit within a remnant of a yardang at 0o 35'N, 155o 17'E, within the lower unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. The flow is ~42 km long and 0.5 to 2.0 km wide, and MOLA data indicate that the flow falls ~50 m along its length. The flow has a broad distal fan of material ~8 x 14 km in size that has a platey surface texture. The source area of the flow displays several sets of semi-concentric ridges with different centers of curvature, and the CTX DEM shows this depression is ~20 m deep, implying a volume of ~0.03 km3 for the removed material. Measurements made from the DEM of the height of the bounding walls of several 160 - 200 m wide constrictions, where 'over-spill' from the flow forms a clear disrupted margin to the flow on the adjacent hills, indicate that the flow was never more than ~8 - 10 m thicker than it currently appears. The total surface area of the flow is ~153 km2 and 25 shadow length measurements made from HiRISE images of the flow margins at 16 different places along the flow give a typical thickness of ~4 m. These measurements imply a volume for the flow of ~0.6 km3, which is 20 times larger than the volume of the flow's source area, thereby demonstrating that a significant amount of new material was erupted to form the flow. The available morphologic and topographic data raise the intriguing probability that the flow is most likely not a lava flow, but is instead a mud flow produced by water reaching the surface within the yardang materials and the subsequent mobilization of the unconsolidated material that comprised the yardang. This proposed mud flow origin

  2. Spectral classification and mineralogical characterization of Nili Fossae for a better understanding of hydrated mineralogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serventi, Giovanna; Carli, Cristian; Altieri, Francesca; Geminale, Anna; Sgavetti, Maria; Grassi, Davide; Orosei, Roberto; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of hydrated minerals on Mars provides a record of water-related processes and, in particular, the identification of phyllosilicates puts constraints on the evolution of Mars (Poulet et al., 2005). Even if data from the Observatoire pour la Minèralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activitè (OMEGA) and from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) show the presence of different hydrated minerals, on Mars the spectral regions where hydrated minerals absorb are also affected by atmospheric features due to gaseous components, mostly CO2 and H2O. Among the different methods that have been proposed to separate the atmospheric signatures from the hydrated absorptions, we use the Surface Atmosphere Separation (SAS) method proposed by Geminale et al. (2015) to analyze the Nili Fossae region (in particular, four MEX orbit have been selected and a mosaic have been created). In this work, we spectrally classify the Nili Fossae region using the Spectral Angle Mapping (SAM, Kruse et al., 1993) classification and using a spectral library iteratively built from the image though the Pixel Purity Index (PPI, Boardman, 1995). Mainly, we recognized five spectral regions dominated by: iron-hydroxides, pyroxenes (both orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene), olivine and phyllosilicates, in accordance with the literature. Then, we focused on the hydrated regions: absorptions in the 1.9-2.3 µm are fundamental to recognize a hydrated mineralogy, and to discriminate between phyllosilicates characterized by different cations in the octahedral environment. Comparing our results with maps from Mangold et al. (2007) and Poulet et al (2007), we demonstrated that the SAS+SAM technique permits to identify hydrated regions that cannot be easily recognized using the spectral mapping applied to images corrected with Mons Olympus method (Langevin et al., 2005). Furthermore, applying the MGM algorithm to a set of spectra selected from hydrated regions, we recognized the

  3. Role of Cerebellum in Fine Speech Control in Childhood: Persistent Dysarthria after Surgical Treatment for Posterior Fossa Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. T.; Liegeois, F.; Liederkerke, C.; Vogel, A. P.; Hayward, R.; Harkness, W.; Chong, K.; Vargha-Khadem, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dysarthria following surgical resection of childhood posterior fossa tumour (PFT) is most commonly documented in a select group of participants with mutism in the acute recovery phase, thus limiting knowledge of post-operative prognosis for this population of children as a whole. Here we report on the speech characteristics of 13 cases seen…

  4. Life-threatening posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the cerebellum treated by posterior fossa decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusabha, Yousef; Petridis, Athanasios K; Kraus, Bastian; Kamp, Marcel A; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Beseoglu, Kerim

    2017-07-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological syndrome associated with various clinical conditions, such as headache, encephalopathy, and seizures. It is reversible if a prompt diagnosis is made and treatment undertaken. We report a 52-year-old male with hypertensive crisis. Progressing somnolence and an unresponsive left pupil occurred. MRI revealed an intra-axial hyperintensity of the cerebellum and brainstem and occlusive hydrocephalus suggestive of encephalitis or a tumor. Because of the life-threatening clinical picture, posterior fossa decompression was performed. Histopathology failed to identify any pathology. After decompression, the edema improved immediately. Under life-threatening conditions, a decompressive craniectomy in PRES seems to achieve the same results as supportive treatment.

  5. Distinct erosional progressions in the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars, indicate contrasting environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, Kathleen; de Silva, Shanaka; Zimbelman, James; Wyrick, Danielle

    2009-12-01

    The form of erosional remnants of the Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars provide evidence of their development progression and implicate two spatially distinct environments in the equatorial regions of Mars. Ubiquitous yardangs are clearly the product of strong unidirectional winds acting over time on variably indurated deposits. Yardang orientation is used as a proxy to map regional and local wind direction at meso-scale resolution. In other, more limited areas not subjected to strong unidirectional winds, randomly oriented kilometer-scale mesas and buttes are found to be remnants of progressive cliff recession through mass wasting as support is lost from within the MFF lithology at its margins. The differing processes that dominate the formation of the distinctive landforms have implications for meso-scale variations in climate that remain unresolved by current modeling efforts. Additionally, the variability of erosional forms within the deposit emphasizes the overall complexity of this extensive formation.

  6. Correlation of Acute and Late Brainstem Toxicities With Dose-Volume Data for Pediatric Patients With Posterior Fossa Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Ronica H., E-mail: rhazari@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Ganju, Rohit G.; Schreibmann, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Chen, Zhengjia; Zhang, Chao [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Shared Resource, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Jegadeesh, Naresh; Cassidy, Richard; Deng, Claudia; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University College of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced brainstem toxicity after treatment of pediatric posterior fossa malignancies is incompletely understood, especially in the era of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The rates of, and predictive factors for, brainstem toxicity after photon RT for posterior fossa tumors were examined. Methods and Materials: After institutional review board approval, 60 pediatric patients treated at our institution for nonmetastatic infratentorial ependymoma and medulloblastoma with IMRT were included in the present analysis. Dosimetric variables, including the mean and maximum dose to the brainstem, the dose to 10% to 90% of the brainstem (in 10% increments), and the volume of the brainstem receiving 40, 45, 50, and 55 Gy were recorded for each patient. Acute (onset within 3 months) and late (>3 months of RT completion) RT-induced brainstem toxicities with clinical and radiographic correlates were scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Results: Patients aged 1.4 to 21.8 years underwent IMRT or volumetric arc therapy postoperatively to the posterior fossa or tumor bed. At a median clinical follow-up period of 2.8 years, 14 patients had developed symptomatic brainstem toxicity (crude incidence 23.3%). No correlation was found between the dosimetric variables examined and brainstem toxicity. Vascular injury or ischemia showed a strong trend toward predicting brainstem toxicity (P=.054). Patients with grade 3 to 5 brainstem toxicity had undergone treatment to significant volumes of the posterior fossa. Conclusion: The results of the present series demonstrate a low, but not negligible, risk of brainstem radiation necrosis for pediatric patients with posterior fossa malignancies treated with IMRT. No specific dose-volume correlations were identified; however, modern treatment volumes might help limit the incidence of severe toxicity. Additional work investigating inherent biologic sensitivity might also provide

  7. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  8. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts.

  9. Comparison of the condyle-fossa relationship between skeletal class III malocclusion patients with and without asymmetry: a retrospective three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomograpy study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyoun Oak Kim; Won Lee; Yoon-Ah Kook; Yoonji Kim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle-fossa relationships are bilaterally symmetric in class III malocclusion patients with and without asymmetry and compared to those with normal occlusion...

  10. Minimally invasive posterior approach in the popliteal fossa for semitendinosus and gracilis tendon harvesting: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussignol, X; Bertiaux, S; Rahali, S; Potage, D; Duparc, F; Dujardin, F

    2015-04-01

    Harvesting the semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis (GR) tendons at the anteromedial side of the knee may be hampered by a conjoint tendon insertion on the tibial metaphysis and an accessory bundle between the ST and the medial gastrocnemius. Locating and sparing the terminal branches of the saphenous nerve are difficult on an anteromedial approach. The principal objective of the present anatomic study was to assess the feasibility of ST and GR harvesting from a minimally invasive posterior approach in the popliteal fossa. The secondary objective was to analyze the risk of saphenous nerve branch lesion during harvesting. Ten cadaver knees, free of scarring, were used. The whole body was positioned supine. The tendons were located in the popliteal fossa with the knee in 30° flexion. A mini-incision was performed in the fossa. The ST and GR tendons were located, and retrograde followed by anterograde stripping was performed. Tendon lengths and diameters were measured. The knees were then dissected to check for saphenous nerve branch lesions (anterior, infrapatellar and posterior branches). The GR and ST tendons were respectively located at 14.4 and 24 mm from the medial edge of the knee. In 90% of cases, there was an accessory ST bundle toward the medial gastrocnemius muscle, 26 mm below the posterior edge. Tendons could be harvested without deviation of the stripper. Knee dissection did not find any saphenous nerve branches, these being protected by the sartorius fascia. Posterior ST and GR tendon harvesting in the popliteal fossa is reliable and reproducible. It allows easy sectioning of the accessory ST bundle, without deviation during retrograde stripping. Unlike anterior harvesting, which leads to a rate of saphenous branch lesion of 50-78%, posterior harvesting protects the nerve branches by keeping away from the sartorius. Level 4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal MRI assessment: the identification of relevant features in the development of Posterior Fossa Syndrome in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, M.; Lewis, E.; Windridge, D.; Avula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Up to 25% of children who undergo brain tumour resection surgery in the posterior fossa develop posterior fossa syndrome (PFS). This syndrome is characterised by mutism and disturbance in speech. Our hypothesis is that there is a correlation between PFS and the occurrence of hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) in lobes within the posterior fossa, known as the inferior olivary nuclei (ION). HOD is exhibited as an increase in size and intensity of the ION on an MR image. Intra-operative MRI (IoMRI) is used during surgical procedures at the Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liver- pool, England, in the treatment of Posterior Fossa tumours and allows visualisation of the brain during surgery. The final MR scan on the IoMRI allows early assessment of the ION immediately after the surgical procedure. The longitudinal MRI data of 28 patients was analysed in a collaborative study with Alder Hey Children's Hospital, in order to identify the most relevant imaging features that relate to the development of PFS, specifically related to HOD. A semi-automated segmentation process was carried out to delineate the ION on each MRI. Feature selection techniques were used to identify the most relevant features amongst the MRI data, demographics and clinical data provided by the hospital. A support vector machine (SVM) was used to analyse the discriminative ability of the selected features. The results indicate the presence of HOD as the most efficient feature that correlates with the development of PFS, followed by the change in intensity and size of the ION and whether HOD occurred bilaterally or unilaterally.

  12. New information on the modifications of the Neandertal suprainiac fossa during growth and development and on its etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Rougier, Hélène

    2013-05-01

    The question of whether suprainiac depressions observed on Neandertals and in other human samples are homologous is widely discussed. Recently (Balzeau and Rougier, 2010), we ascertained the autapomorphic status of the Neandertal suprainiac fossa as a depression showing specific external bone features together with a thinning of the diploic layer with no substantial remodeling nor variation in the external table thickness. A suprainiac fossa with these characteristics is systematically present on Neandertals from the earliest developmental stages on, and since the beginning of the differentiation of the Neandertal lineage. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the micro-CT dataset (resolution of 50 μm) of the occipital bone of the La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child, whose proposed age-at-death is around 2 years, and we compare it to the adult condition as represented by La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 (resolution of 122 μm). We describe and quantify the boundaries between the different structural layers of the occipital bone, namely the external and internal tables and the diploic layer. We also describe very fine details of the diploic layer structure that had never before been observed on fossil hominins. This study illustrates for the first time that the internal particularities that make the suprainiac fossa a Neandertal autapomorphy are evident early during growth and development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the developmental pattern and causes of expression for the features observed in modern humans and Neandertals are certainly different, indicating that these features are not homologous traits from evolutionary and functional perspectives. Consequently, we confirm the autapomorphic status of the Neandertal suprainiac fossa. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Geometrical variations in white and gray matter affect the biomechanics of spinal cord injuries more than the arachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo Fradet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord contusions lead to loss of quality of life, but their pathomechanisms are not fully understood. Previous studies have underlined the contribution of the cerebrospinal fluid in spinal cord protection. However, it remains unclear how important the contribution of the cerebrospinal fluid is relative to other factors such as the white/gray matter ratio. A finite element model of the spinal cord and surrounding morphologic features was used to investigate the spinal cord contusion mechanisms, considering subarachnoid space and white/gray matter ratio. Two vertebral segments (T6 and L1 were impacted transversely at 4.5 m s−1, which demonstrated three major results: While the presence of cerebrospinal fluid plays a significant contributory role in spinal cord protection (compression percentage decreased by up to 19%, the arachnoid space variation along the spine appears to have a limited (3% compression decrease impact. Differences in the white and gray matter geometries from lumbar to thoracic spine levels decrease spinal cord compression by up to 14% at the thoracic level. Stress distribution in the sagittal spinal cord section was consistent with central cord syndrome, and local stress concentration on the anterior part of the spinal cord being highly reduced by the presence of cerebrospinal fluid. The use of a refined spinal cord finite element method showed that all the geometrical parameters are involved in the spinal cord contusion mechanisms. Hence, spinal cord injury criteria must be considered at each vertebral level.

  14. Cisto aracnóideo intracraniano: relato de nove casos operados Intracranial arachnoid cysts: report of nine operated cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ CORREIA DE FARIAS BRITO

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Análise de nove casos de cisto aracnóideo intracraniano operados no período de 1974 a 1995. Os procedimentos cirúrgicos consistiram de derivação cistoperitoneal em sete pacientes e craniotomia com membranectomia nos outros dois casos. Complicações pós-cirúrgicas, do tipo infecção bacteriana e falha no sistema de drenagem, ocorreram em três casos, as quais foram debeladas e corrigidas, respectivamente. Baseados em revisão de literatura, alguns aspectos fisiopatológicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos são discutidos.Analysis of nine patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts surgically treated from 1974 to 1995. The treatment consisted of cystoperitoneal shunt in seven patients and craniotomy with excision of cyst membrane in the other two cases. After surgery, bacterial meningitis and failure shunt device were observed in three cases. Both the infectious process and the shunt device were respectively treated and corrected at once. It has been observed total clinical improvement in all nine cases. A review of the literature has been made and some pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects are discussed.

  15. Cisto aracnóideo extradural do canal espinal Arachnoideal extradural cyst of the spinal canal. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Ferreira

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available É relatado o caso de um paciente que apresentava paraparesia sensitivo-motora evolutiva, datando de um ano. As radiográficas da coluna vertebral e mielografia permitiram o diagnóstico de cisto de aracnóide extradural do canal espinal de localização torácica, que foi confirmado pelo ato cirúrgico. Os autores revisam a literatura assinalando 76 casos já publicados. São comentadas a incidência do processo patológico nos diversos grupos etários, sua localização ao longo do canal raqueano, a evolução do quadro clínico, a etiología e a fisiopatologia do crescimento do cisto, o diagnóstico, a terapêutica e o prognóstico.The case of a pacient with thoracic arachnoideal cyst is reported. There was a neurological picture of a spinal cord compression in thoracic level with analgesia and anesthesia in T12 and L1 at left. Radiographs showed compression of the pedicles with widening of interpedicular spaces of the eight to twelfth thoracic vertebrae. The myelogram and the laminectomy confirmed the hypothesis of aracnoideal cyst. This case of extradural cyst of the spinal canal is added to the 76 previously described in the literature. The incidence, etiology, phisiopathology, clinical-picture, diagnosis, surgical treatment and prognosis are discussed.

  16. Transperineal ultrasound-guided implantation of electromagnetic transponders in the prostatic fossa for localization and tracking during external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garsa, Adam A; Verma, Vivek; Michalski, Jeff M; Gay, Hiram A

    2014-01-01

    To describe a transperineal ultrasound-guided technique for implantation of electromagnetic transponders into the prostatic fossa. Patients were placed in the dorsal lithotomy position, and local anesthetic was administered. On ultrasound, the bladder, urethra, vesicourethral anastomosis, rectum, and the prostatic fossa were carefully identified. Three transponders were implanted into the prostatic fossa under ultrasound guidance in a triangular configuration and implantation was verified by fluoroscopy. Patients underwent computed tomography (CT) simulation approximately 1 week later. All patients in this study were subsequently treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the prostatic fossa. From 2008 to 2012, 180 patients received transperineal implantation of electromagnetic transponders into the prostatic fossa and subsequently received IMRT. There were no cases of severe hematuria or rectal bleeding requiring intervention. There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Three patients (1.7%) had a transponder missing on the subsequent CT simulation. Thirteen patients (7.3%) had transponder migration with a geometric residual that exceeded 2 mm for 3 consecutive days (5.6%) or rotation that exceeded 10 degrees for 5 consecutive days (1.7%). These patients underwent a resimulation CT scan to identify the new transponder coordinates. A transperineal technique for implantation of electromagnetic transponders into the prostatic fossa is safe and well tolerated, with no severe toxicity after implantation. There is a low rate of transponder loss or migration.

  17. I-gel Laryngeal Mask Airway Combined with Tracheal Intubation Attenuate Systemic Stress Response in Patients Undergoing Posterior Fossa Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoliang Tang

    2015-01-01

    patients. In this study, we proposed that I-gel combined with tracheal intubation could reduce the stress response of posterior fossa surgery patients. Methods. Sixty-six posterior fossa surgery patients were randomly allocated to receive either tracheal tube intubation (Group TT or I-gel facilitated endotracheal tube intubation (Group TI. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables, stress and inflammatory response, oxidative stress, anesthesia recovery parameters, and adverse events during emergence were compared. Results. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were lower in Group TI during intubation and extubation (P<0.05 versus Group TT. Respiratory variables including peak airway pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension were similar intraoperative, while plasma β-endorphin, cortisol, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, malondialdehyde concentrations, and blood glucose were significantly lower in Group TI during emergence relative to Group TT. Postoperative bucking and serious hypertensions were seen in Group TT but not in Group TI. Conclusion. Utilization of I-gel combined with endotracheal tube in posterior fossa surgery patients is safe which can yield more stable hemodynamic profile during intubation and emergence and lower inflammatory and oxidative response, leading to uneventful recovery.

  18. Morphological variation of the caudal fossa of domestic cat skulls assessed with computed tomography and geometric morphometrics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Caroline R; Marchant, Thomas W; Lodzinska, Joanna; Schoenebeck, Jeffery J; Schwarz, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate differences and demonstrate a normal range of morphological variation of the caudal fossa of the cranium of domestic cats. Methods CT scans of 32 domestic cat heads of 11 breeds were included. Isosurfaces from skulls were characterised through three-dimensional geometric morphometrics using geographical landmarks placed on the internal surface of the caudal fossa and foramen magnum. Raw data was transformed with a Procrustes fit and coordinate covariance was analysed by principal components to establish breed- and sex-level differences. Skulls were also classified according to the number of concavities along the mid-sagittal vermiform impression. Differences were investigated between breed groups and sex, and correlation was sought with age. Results Analyses revealed size-independent differences in occipital bone morphology across breeds and sex; however, no clustering was evident. Most variability was observed at the exoccipital bones, ventral portion of the supraoccipital bone, dorsum sellae of the basisphenoid and the osseous tentorium cerebelli. No statistically significant differences were identified via two-sample t-tests between breed groups or sexes. No statistically significant correlation using Spearman rho correlation coefficient was identified with age. Conclusions and relevance The feline caudal fossa displays a wide range of intra- and inter-breed variation, not linked to age or sex. Concavities along the vermiform impression have not previously been described. As advanced imaging modalities are becoming more frequently used for domestic felids, an established range of normality is important for discriminating pathological changes from anatomical variances.

  19. Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethmann, Christin; Scheer, Ianina; Kellenberger, Christian Johannes [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); Meuli, Martin; Mazzone, Luca; Moehrlen, Ueli [University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Level of bony spinal defect was defined with exactness of ± one vertebral body. Of surgically confirmed 18 myelomeningoceles (MMC) and 9 myeloschisis (MS), 3 MMC were misdiagnosed as MS due to non-visualisation of a flat membrane on MRI. Hindbrain herniation was more severe in MS than MMC (p < 0.001). After repair, hindbrain herniation resolved in 25/27 cases at 4 weeks and liquor spaces increased. While posterior fossa remained small (p < 0.001), its configuration normalised. Lateral ventricle diameter indexed to cerebral width decreased in 48% and increased in 12% of cases, implying a low rate of progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. Neonatally evident subependymal heterotopias were detected in 33% at preoperative and 50% at postoperative foetal MRI. MRI demonstrates change of Chiari malformation type II (CM-II) features. (orig.)

  20. Estenose da fossa intercondilar após estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata em cães Intercondylar fossa stenosis after joint stabilization using a fascial strip in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Selmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os índices de largura da fossa intercondilar (FI, após transecção do ligamento cruzado cranial em nove cães adultos submetidos à estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata. Os joelhos foram alocados em dois grupos, sendo o joelho direito (GI submetido à incisuroplastia troclear (ITR e posterior estabilização articular, e o joelho esquerdo submetido somente à substituição ligamentar (GC. Cada grupo foi dividido em três subgrupos correspondentes aos momentos de eutanásia aos 30, 90 e 180 dias de pós-operatório. Os índices de largura da FI foram determinados, macroscópica e radiograficamente, pela mensuração da abertura cranial da FI nos terços cranial, médio e caudal, e indexados em relação à largura epicondilar. Observou-se aumento significativo dos índices macroscópicos e radiográficos nas articulações do GI, sendo estes estatisticamente diferentes daqueles das articulações de GC. Não foi observada estenose intercondilar nos joelhos de GC após a estabilização articular. Conclui-se que a estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata preveniu a estenose da fossa intercondilar, e que a ITR promoveu o alargamento permanente dessa estrutura.Intercondylar fossa width indexes (IFWI were determined in nine adult dogs submitted to intercondylar notchplasty (IN after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL followed by a fascial strip stabilization. The right stifle was submitted to IN followed by fascial strip reconstruction of the CCL (GI while in the left stifle IN was not performed (GC. Each group was then divided into three subgroups which corresponded to time of euthanasia at 30, 90 and 180 days after surgery. IFWI were determined, both macroscopically and radiographically, by measuring the cranial outlet of the intercondylar fossa in relation to the epicondylar width. A significant increase was observed in indexes of GI following IN, and these differed from indexes of

  1. Posterior fossa syndrome with a large inflammatory ponto-mesencephalic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, S; Keserü, B; Nyffeler, T; Sturzenegger, M; Krestel, H

    2017-02-01

    Demonstration of a posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) in a 32-year-old male patient with clinically isolated syndrome which subsequently developed into relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis. The patient suffered from double vision, coordination problems including unsteady gait and atactic dysarthria, concentration difficulties, as well as adynamia and impaired decision making. The patient clinically presented a cerebellar and dysexecutive syndrome. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a contrast enhancing ponto-mesencephalic lesion with a volume of 4.8cm3. Neuropsychological tests showed pronounced executive dysfunctions, reduced visuoconstructive skills, attentional deficits, echolalia, and non-fluent speech production. After cortisone and plasmapheresis, the cerebellar syndrome improved but manual fine motor skills and executive dysfunctions persisted. After three months, symptoms remitted except for a slight gait imbalance. After six months, neuropsychological tests were normal except for a moderate attention deficit. MRI revealed a clear regression of the ponto-mesencephalic lesion to a volume of 2.4cm3 without contrast enhancement. This case report intends to provide an overview of the symptomatology and etiology of PFS and offers new insights into its pathomechanism demonstrating a pontine disconnection syndrome caused by a large demyelinating plaque. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Minimally Invasive Supraorbital Key-hole Approach for the Treatment of Anterior Cranial Fossa Meningiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    IACOANGELI, Maurizio; NOCCHI, Niccolò; NASI, Davide; DI RIENZO, Alessandro; DOBRAN, Mauro; GLADI, Maurizio; COLASANTI, Roberto; ALVARO, Lorenzo; POLONARA, Gabriele; SCERRATI, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The most important target of minimally invasive surgery is to obtain the best therapeutic effect with the least iatrogenic injury. In this background, a pivotal role in contemporary neurosurgery is played by the supraorbital key-hole approach proposed by Perneczky for anterior cranial base surgery. In this article, it is presented as a possible valid alternative to the traditional craniotomies in anterior cranial fossa meningiomas removal. From January 2008 to January 2012 at our department 56 patients underwent anterior cranial base meningiomas removal. Thirty-three patients were submitted to traditional approaches while 23 to supraorbital key-hole technique. A clinical and neuroradiological pre- and postoperative evaluation were performed, with attention to eventual complications, length of surgical procedure, and hospitalization. Compared to traditional approaches the supraorbital key-hole approach was associated neither to a greater range of postoperative complications nor to a longer surgical procedure and hospitalization while permitting the same lesion control. With this technique, minimization of brain exposition and manipulation with reduction of unwanted iatrogenic injuries, neurovascular structures preservation, and a better aesthetic result are possible. The supraorbital key-hole approach according to Perneckzy could represent a valid alternative to traditional approaches in anterior cranial base meningiomas surgery. PMID:26804334

  3. High-resolution MRI of cranial nerves in posterior fossa at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zi-Yi; Chen, Jing; Liang, Qi-Zhou; Liao, Hai-Yan; Cheng, Qiong-Yue; Fu, Shui-Xi; Chen, Cai-Xiang; Yu, Dan

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-resolution imaging obtainable with the higher field strength of 3.0 T on the visualization of the brain nerves in the posterior fossa. In total, 20 nerves were investigated on MRI of 12 volunteers each and selected for comparison, respectively, with the FSE sequences with 5 mm and 2 mm section thicknesses and gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequences acquired with a 3.0-T scanner. The MR images were evaluated by three independent readers who rated image quality according to depiction of anatomic detail and contrast with use of a rating scale. In general, decrease of the slice thickness showed a significant increase in the detection of nerves as well as in the image quality characteristics. Comparing FSE and GRE imaging, the course of brain nerves and brainstem vessels was visualized best with use of the three-dimensional (3D) pulse sequence. The comparison revealed the clear advantage of a thin section. The increased resolution enabled immediate identification of all brainstem nerves. GRE sequence most distinctly and confidently depicted pertinent structures and enables 3D reconstruction to illustrate complex relations of the brainstem. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations in posterior fossa abnormalities diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography.

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    Lei, Ting; Feng, Jie-Ling; Xie, Ying-Jun; Xie, Hong-Ning; Zheng, Ju; Lin, Mei-Fang

    2017-11-01

    To explore the genetic aetiology of fetal posterior fossa abnormalities (PFAs). This study involved cases of PFAs that were identified by prenatal ultrasonographic screening and confirmed postnatally between January 2012 and January 2016. Conventional cytogenetic analyses and chromosomal microarray analysis were performed, and chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variations (CNVs) were identified. Among 74 cases included in this study, 8 were of Blake's pouch cyst; 7, Dandy-Walker malformation; 11, vermian hypoplasia; 32, enlarged cisterna magna; and 16, cerebellar hypoplasia. The rates of nonbenign chromosomal aberrations (including chromosomal aneuploidies, pathogenic CNVs, and variants of unknown significance) were 2/8 (25.0%), 2/7 (28.5%), 8/11 (72.7%), 7/32 (21.9%), and 6/16 (37.5%), respectively. Cases were also classified as isolated PFAs (30/74), PFAs with other central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities (13/74), or PFAs with extra-CNS structural abnormalities (31/74). No fetuses with isolated PFAs or PFAs accompanied by other CNS abnormalities exhibited chromosomal aneuploidies or pathogenic CNVs. The rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations in the remaining fetuses was 17/31 (22.9%). The combined use of chromosomal microarray analysis and karyotype analysis might assist the prenatal diagnosis and management of PFAs, with extra-CNS structural abnormalities being detected by ultrasonography. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Improved Treatment of the Breast and Supraclavicular Fossa Based on a Simple Geometrical Principle

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    Yavetz, Dalia, E-mail: dalia.yavetz@gmail.com [Institute of Radiotherapy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Corn, Benjamin W.; Matceyevsky, Diana; Ben-Josef, Rahamim; Soyfer, Viacheslav [Institute of Radiotherapy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bershtein, Igal [Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Inbar, Moshe; Ron, Ilan [Department of Medical Oncology, Tel Aviv (Israel); Jiveliouk, Irena [Institute of Radiotherapy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Medical Oncology, Tel Aviv (Israel); Diagnostic Imaging, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schifter, Dan [Institute of Radiotherapy, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2011-01-01

    In breast cancer, nodal irradiation has become routine, but adds time and creates concerns for field overlap if the 'match' is not accurate. We developed a technique to address these issues by using only one isocenter for both areas. Tangents are designed at simulation. The isocenter is then shifted to the upper border of the breast using a straightforward geometrical calculation. After determining the new isocenter, fields are recreated wherein the tangents are treated with a quarter beam and the supraclavicular field fashioned with a half-beam block. The gantry, collimator, and couch angles of the supraclavicular field are adjusted to achieve an accurate match. Ten patients were evaluated. Doses to the spinal cord and brachial plexus were lowered relative to conventional techniques. The hot spots were not augmented. In comparison with standard arrangements, setup time decreased. Accurate matching was consistently achieved and verified by portal imaging. A new approach for treating the supraclavicular fossa is easily executed. Advantages include negligible doses to the critical neural structures (i.e., spinal cord and brachial plexus), optimized matchline, and reduced setup time.

  6. Progressive tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion of the infratemporal fossa treated by radiation therapy

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    Brian O’Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesion (TFIL is a rare benign tumor in the head and neck region. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with a benign but progressive lesion of the infratemporal fossa, which was diagnosed as TFIL. Patient responded briefly to a course of steroid treatment but eventually showed progression and was unresponsive to further steroids. She was then treated with external beam radiation to a dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. After radiation a slow, gradual decrease in tumor size was noted over the course of years and she is free of disease after more than 11 years of follow-up. The major longterm side effect this patient developed was an expected unilateral radiation-induced retinopathy, due to the close proximity of the lesion to the orbit. The dilemma of treatment of benign disease with radiation with potential long-term complications is discussed and a review of the literature on TFIL is presented.

  7. Excision versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemocauterization for branchial sinus of the pyriform fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jihee; Kim, Seong Chul; Kim, Dae Yeon; Namgoong, Jung-Man; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the outcomes of open surgical excision and endoscopic trichloroacetic acid (TCA) chemocauterization for the treatment of branchial sinus of the pyriform fossa (BSPF). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 27 patients (16 males and 11 females) who were treated for BSPF at the Asan Medical Center between 1996 and 2013. The median age of the 27 patients was 4.5years (range, 0 to 15years). Before definitive surgery, 19 (70.3%) of the patients had histories of neck infection, and 16 (59.2%) patients had neck abscesses that were drained. The lesions were predominantly located on the left side (26 of 27; 96.2%). Excisions were performed for 14 (48.1%) patients. TCA chemocauterizations were performed for 13 patients. After a median follow-up period of 5.5years, 11 patients developed recurrence. The recurrence rates were not significantly different between the excision and chemocauterization groups (35.7% vs 46.1%, respectively, p=0.704). All of the recurred patients were successfully treated with repeated chemocauterization or reexcision. Analyses of the risk factors for recurrence revealed that a previous infection history tended to increase the rate of recurrence (90.9% vs 56.2%, p=0.090). Our experience suggests that the outcomes of excision and TCA chemocauterization are not significantly different. Additional studies are needed to reach a consensus regarding the best treatment strategy for BSPF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Update on lateral and medial spaces of the dorsal wall of the axillary fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoye, J M; Armstrong, O; Rogez, J M; Sow, M L; Le Borgne, J

    2002-01-01

    Lateral and medial axillary spaces (also named quadrilateral and triangular spaces) correspond to orifices of the posterior wall of axillary fossa communicating with deltoid and scapular areas. We attempt to become clear the anatomic boundaries of these spaces and the structures passing through. We studied by dissection 18 fresh and embaulmed human upper limb of both sex. Lateral axillary space was limited by lateral edge of the long head of the triceps muscle medialy, the medial edge of the surgical neck of the humerus lateraly. The tendon of teres major and latissimus dorsi muscles constituted lower limit and the superior boundary was the scapulohumeral capsule rather than the teres minor muscle. Structures passing through the quadrilateral space where the axillary nerve and the posterior humeral circumflex vascular pedicle. Boundaries of the triangular space where, lateraly the medial edge of the long head of the triceps, superiorly the inferior edge of the teres minor and the axillary border of the scapula; the upper edge of the teres major corresponded to the superior limit. Abduction of the upper limb is a movement which increase the risk of entrapment phenomenon of the axillary nerve in relation to rigid anatomic structures like the surgical neck of the humerus, the scapulohumeral capsule and the tendon of latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles. Neverless genetics cause of anatomic predisposition is evocated in the quadrilatere space syndrome.

  9. A report of the anesthesia in posterior fossa operations in the sitting position in 55 patients

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    Jahanguiri B

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, 55 patients were studied in a period of six years for having the anesthesia in the sitting position. In this position, the surgeon will had a better access to the location, whose damages have been sustained, so less damages would be given to the healthy tissues. For the patients, due to their critical general conditions, one week prior to giving anesthesia to the posterior fossa, operation in the sitting position the right ventriculoatiral shunt was placed. For preventing the fall of blood pressure, a bandage was placed in the lower limbs after inducing anesthesia and changing supine position to sitting position. Before the induction, central venous pressure was measured for treating the air embolism. The head of catheter was placed inside the right atrial. Premedications such as atropine, pethidine, and inductive agents like thiopenton, and muscle relaxants, maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide. All of the patients endured this condition without the fall of blood pressure and air embolism

  10. Posterior fossa tuberculoma in a Huichol native Mexican child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-Meléndez, Griselda; Portillo-Gómez, Leopoldo; Andrade-Ramos, Miguel A; Bocanegra, David; Mercado-Pimentel, Rodrigo; Arredondo, Luis; Torres, Dara; Caniza, Miguela A

    2014-12-16

    Tuberculosis is a major health concern in Mexico, especially among the native population. Tuberculomas are a frequent and severe complication of pediatric tuberculosis, these are observed as tumors in neuroimaging studies but are often not diagnosed adequately. We present a case of a 12-year-old native Mexican girl Huichol ethnicity diagnosed with a large posterior fossa tuberculoma found by imaging. This tuberculoma was surgically removed. Histopathologic examination and staining with hematoxylin and eosin, and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques of the surgical specimen were performed. Cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed by using the newly available Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA, USA). Granulomatous inflammation with central caseous necrosis surrounded by edematous brain with reactive gliosis and acid-fast bacilli were revealed on histopathologic analysis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA susceptible to rifampicin was detected in the patient's cerebrospinal fluid and the patient was started on anti-tuberculosis treatment. The girl continued to show severe neurologic damage despite surgery and anti-tuberculosis treatment, and she eventually died of respiratory complications. Our case highlights the need for early confirmation of tuberculoma diagnosis by molecular assay so that timely treatment can be initiated to prevent severe brain damage. Furthermore, it emphasizes the need to consider tuberculomas in the differential diagnosis of children with neurologic symptoms living in areas of high tuberculosis incidence and those belonging to native populations in developing countries.

  11. Volcanic emissions from soils at the base of La Fossa volcano, Vulcano island, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenholzner, J. H.; Parks, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    A top-sealed plastic tube with a diameter of ca. 15 cm had been buried vertically at the base of La Fossa volcano, Volcano island, Italy, next to the front of the obsidian flow. The tube had been filled with quartz wool to condense vapors emanating from the soil. At ca. 75 cm below the surface the sample had been exposed to vapors from Sept. 2005 to April 2006. The leached sample had not been in touch with the ground. Another glass wool cushion (ca. 3 cm thick) had been underneath to minimize capillary effects. Leaching of the quartz wool and ICP-MS analysis documented positive values for: Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb. Leaching with nitric acid documented also V and Fe. Acid leaching produced higher values for all elements, except K and Sn, than leaching with deionized water. Negative values had been obtained for As, Se, Mo. Influence from soil breathing can be excluded as the active fumaroles contain As and Se. This experiment documents for the first time an unknown element transport by vapors/gases through a volcanic edifice interacting with hydrothermal and magmatic gases. It remains unknown if elements detected are entering the atmosphere or are getting adsorbed onto the volcanic ash soil particles derived from reworked surge beds. This question is very important as soils might be an unknown filter medium to filter volcanically polluted air in case of major volcanic crises. Data can be obtained from the authors.

  12. Long-term Outcomes After Middle Fossa Approach for Traumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Richard B; Thomson, Rhett S; Shelton, Clough; Gurgel, Richard K

    2016-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding the role of surgery for patients with skull base trauma and facial paralysis. Our goal is to report the long-term outcomes of early facial nerve decompression and repair via the middle fossa (MF) approach for patients with traumatic paralysis. Retrospective case series. Academic medical center. There were 18 patients who met surgical criteria: immediate complete paralysis, greater than 90% degeneration on electroneurography (ENoG), and no voluntary electromyography (EMG) potentials within 14 days after trauma and 1 year minimum follow-up. MF approach for traumatic facial paralysis and for irreversible injuries nerve grafting was performed. Long-term facial function, hearing results, and surgical complications. At MF decompression, 11 patients had an anatomically intact facial nerve. Of these patients with intact nerves, 72.7% obtained normal to near normal facial function (HB I or II) at 1 year: 27.3% to HB I, 45.5% to HB II, and 27.3% to HB III. At surgery, seven patients were found to have injuries that required nerve grafting and 100% improved to HB III. For all patients, facial nerve function significantly improved after surgery (p paralysis and poor facial prognosis achieved a long-term outcome of HB III or better after MF approach for decompression and repair of the facial nerve.

  13. Sleep Apnea Syndrome after Posterior Fossa Surgery: A Case of Acquired Ondine's Curse

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    Elnaz Faraji rad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ondine’s Curse is a catastrophic but rare condition in adults. It is referred to as a congenital or acquired condition, in which the patient cannot breathe automatically while asleep. Acquired causes of this disease can be any cause affecting the ventrolateral part of the medulla, which is considered to be the breathing center in humans.    Case Report:   A 51-year-old woman, with ataxia and the symptoms and signs of rising Intra-Cranial Pressure, who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting and removal of tumour, developed episodic apnea during sleep after surgery and hypercapnia when awake. In her post-operative CT scan, some fine spots of hypodensity in the left lateral part of the medulla were observed. She was managed pharmacologically and underwent tracheotomy. After 50 days, she was discharged from the hospital when she was able to breathe normally.   Conclusion:  Having experience with this condition after resection of a fourth ventricle tumor, it was found that Ondine’s Curse can be considered as one of the complications of  posterior fossa surgery and is curable by proper management.

  14. Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia Lavas, Mars: Source Vents, Flow Rates, Edifice Styles and Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia regions have been suggested as some of the youngest martian surfaces since the Viking mission, although there was doubt whether the origins were predominantly volcanic or fluvial. The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions have shown that the region is certainly young in terms of the topographic preservation and the youthful crater counts (e.g. in the tens to a few hundred million yrs.). Numerous authors have shown that fluvial and volcanic features share common flow paths and vent systems, and that there is evidence for some interaction between the lava flows and underlying volatiles as well as the use by lavas and water of the same vent system. Given the youthful age and possible water-volcanism interaction environment, we'd like constraints on water and volcanic flux rates and interactions. Here, we model ranges of volcanic flow rates where we can well-constrain them, and consider the modest flow rate results results in context with local eruption styles, and track vent locations, edifice volumes, and flow sources and data.

  15. Effect of Posterior Fossa Decompression for Chiari Malformation-I on Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotai, Silky; Basem, Jade; Gannon, Stephen; Dewan, Michael; Shannon, Chevis N; Wellons, John C; Bonfield, Christopher M

    2018-01-04

    Scoliosis is common in patients with Chiari malformation-I (CM-I). This study examined the change in scoliosis severity after posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for CM-I. We conducted a retrospective review at a single tertiary center for children undergoing PFD with untreated scoliosis, and identified 17 patients with complete follow-up data and imaging. Overall, scoliosis improved in 7 (41.2%) patients, worsened in 9 (52.9%), and remained unchanged in 1 (5.9%) after PFD (mean follow-up of 7.8 ± 4.1 months). We found that 3 of the 8 (38%) children with early-onset scoliosis eventually needed scoliosis corrective surgery, which was needed in 7 of the 9 (78%) patients with adolescent-onset scoliosis. In addition, only 1 patient (17%) with a preoperative scoliosis curve scoliosis correction despite PFD (p = 0.018). In certain patients, PFD for CM-I may lead to improvement or stabilization of scoliosis. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Developmental venous anomalies of the posterior fossa with transpontine drainage: report of 3 cases

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    Kueker, W. [Department of Neuroradiology, Technical University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52 057 Aachen (Germany); Mull, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, Technical University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52 057 Aachen (Germany); Thron, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Technical University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52 057 Aachen (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) are considered as variant patterns of cerebral venous drainage. Although generally not rare in the cerebellum, DVA of the brain stem or of the cerebellum with drainage through the brain stem are exceptional findings. Because it is not clear whether DVA may sometimes be of clinical significance, we try to correlate the clinical findings of the patients with the course of the variant vessels. We reviewed the literature and report three additional cases. All patients were examined by MRI and digital subtraction angiography. In particular, we discuss the drainage route as compared with the established patterns of posterior fossa blood drainage, which is directed to the dural sinuses, the petrosal vein or the vein of Galen. In one of our patients suffering from trigeminal neuralgia, the close topical relation of the DVA and the trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal nerve entry zone suggests a causal relationship. In a second case the brain stem symptoms were due to haemorrhage of a concomitant cavernoma. It remains unclear if the occurrence of dysarthria and dysaesthesia in the third patient with brain stem DVA was purely coincidental. The only clinical symptom directly attributable to a DVA with transpontine drainage in our series was trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Efficacy of texture, shape, and intensity features for robust posterior-fossa tumor segmentation in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Ogg, R. J.; Laningham, F. H.

    2009-02-01

    Our previous works suggest that fractal-based texture features are very useful for detection, segmentation and classification of posterior-fossa (PF) pediatric brain tumor in multimodality MRI. In this work, we investigate and compare efficacy of our texture features such as fractal and multifractional Brownian motion (mBm), and intensity along with another useful level-set based shape feature in PF tumor segmentation. We study feature selection and ranking using Kullback -Leibler Divergence (KLD) and subsequent tumor segmentation; all in an integrated Expectation Maximization (EM) framework. We study the efficacy of all four features in both multimodality as well as disparate MRI modalities such as T1, T2 and FLAIR. Both KLD feature plots and information theoretic entropy measure suggest that mBm feature offers the maximum separation between tumor and non-tumor tissues in T1 and FLAIR MRI modalities. The same metrics show that intensity feature offers the maximum separation between tumor and non-tumor tissue in T2 MRI modality. The efficacies of these features are further validated in segmenting PF tumor using both single modality and multimodality MRI for six pediatric patients with over 520 real MR images.

  18. Efficacy of texture, shape, and intensity feature fusion for posterior-fossa tumor segmentation in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shaheen; Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Vossough, Arastoo

    2011-03-01

    Our previous works suggest that fractal texture feature is useful to detect pediatric brain tumor in multimodal MRI. In this study, we systematically investigate efficacy of using several different image features such as intensity, fractal texture, and level-set shape in segmentation of posterior-fossa (PF) tumor for pediatric patients. We explore effectiveness of using four different feature selection and three different segmentation techniques, respectively, to discriminate tumor regions from normal tissue in multimodal brain MRI. We further study the selective fusion of these features for improved PF tumor segmentation. Our result suggests that Kullback-Leibler divergence measure for feature ranking and selection and the expectation maximization algorithm for feature fusion and tumor segmentation offer the best results for the patient data in this study. We show that for T1 and fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI modalities, the best PF tumor segmentation is obtained using the texture feature such as multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) while that for T2 MRI is obtained by fusing level-set shape with intensity features. In multimodality fused MRI (T1, T2, and FLAIR), mBm feature offers the best PF tumor segmentation performance. We use different similarity metrics to evaluate quality and robustness of these selected features for PF tumor segmentation in MRI for ten pediatric patients.

  19. Total spine and posterior fossa MRI screening in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (177 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: MRI screening for idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Considering our clinical experiences, the results of MRI in all patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. Methods: In a prospective clinical study, all neurologically normal patients with idiopathic scoliosis screened by posterior fossa and total spine MRI. Results: After excluding 9 patients for mild neurological findings, in other 177 patients (132 female, 45 male, the average age and curve angle was 15±2 years and 59±17º (30 to 135º, respectively. Convexity was to right in 146 and to left in 31 cases. MRI was positive in 12 cases (6.8%. In 5 cases (2.8%, neurosurgical intervention was necessary prior to scoliosis surgery. There was no relation between age, sex, presence of pain or curve angle and positive MRI findings (P>0.05. Left convexity was significantly related to positive MRI findings (P=0.013. In males with left convex curves, the probability of positive MRI findings was 8.8 folds other patients. Conclusion: Considering our results and other reported articles, it seems that routine MRI screening of all patients presenting as idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for detection of underlying pathologies. Key words: Idiopathic Scoliosis, MRI, Spine Syrinx, Chiari

  20. Postoperative Imaging Findings Associated with Transpalpebral Craniotomy Approach to Anterior Cranial Fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Dennis; Weyer, Allison; Thurlow, Peter; Aziz, Khaled; Happ, Erik; Goldberg, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Background and Purpose  The transpalpebral "eyelid" approach is a novel alternative to the traditional ciliary or supraciliary incision for supraorbital frontal craniotomy and access to the anterior cranial fossa. Though a prior publication from our institution has described the surgical approach in detail along with cosmetic and clinical outcomes, postoperative imaging findings have not yet been described. As this surgical technique becomes more widely practiced, it is essential for neuroradiologists, oculoplastic surgeons, and skull base neurosurgeons to be familiar with the expected postoperative imaging findings, especially those that prompt subsequent intervention. Materials and Methods  A retrospective, institutional review board approved review was performed of 102 patients who underwent transpalpebral surgical approach at Allegheny General Hospital from June 2007 through May 2015. Operative reports, pathology reports, preoperative imaging, postoperative imaging, and postoperative clinical documentation were reviewed. Results  Forty-nine percent of patients had solely benign expected postoperative imaging findings, 37% had various atypical findings not requiring further intervention (most commonly asymmetric globe protrusion and bone cement in a paranasal sinus), 6% had findings prompting minimally invasive bedside procedures (most commonly pseudomeningocele), and 8% had findings requiring surgical intervention. Conclusion  The majority of imaging following the transpalpebral approach showed typical, benign findings, such as minimal pneumocephalus and asymmetric globe protrusion. Nonetheless, members of the clinical team should be aware of the small number of findings requiring intervention, especially pseudomeningocele.

  1. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  2. Factors associated with spinal fusion after posterior fossa decompression in pediatric patients with Chiari I malformation and scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackel, Charles E; Cahill, Patrick J; Roguski, Marie; Samdani, Amer F; Sugrue, Patrick A; Kawakami, Noriaki; Sturm, Peter F; Pahys, Joshua M; Betz, Randal R; El-Hawary, Ron; Hwang, Steven W

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors performed a study to identify clinical characteristics of pediatric patients diagnosed with Chiari I malformation and scoliosis associated with a need for spinal fusion after posterior fossa decompression when managing the scoliotic curve. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 44 patients, aged 18 years or younger, diagnosed with Chiari I malformation and scoliosis who underwent posterior fossa decompression from 2000 to 2010. The outcome of interest was the need for spinal fusion after decompression. RESULTS Overall, 18 patients (40%) underwent posterior fossa decompression alone, and 26 patients (60%) required a spinal fusion after the decompression. The mean Cobb angle at presentation and the proportion of patients with curves > 35° differed between the decompression-only and fusion cohorts (30.7° ± 11.8° vs 52.1° ± 26.3°, p = 0.002; 5 of 18 vs 17 of 26, p = 0.031). An odds ratio of 1.0625 favoring a need for fusion was established for each 1° of increase in Cobb angle (p = 0.012, OR 1.0625, 95% CI 1.0135-1.1138). Among the 14 patients older than 10 years of age with a primary Cobb angle exceeding 35°, 13 (93%) ultimately required fusion. Patients with at least 1 year of follow-up whose curves progressed more 10° after decompression were younger than those without curve progression (6.1 ± 3.0 years vs 13.7 ± 3.2 years, p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). Left apical thoracic curves constituted a higher proportion of curves in the decompression-only group (8 of 16 vs 1 of 21, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS The need for fusion after posterior fossa decompression reflected the curve severity at clinical presentation. Patients presenting with curves measuring > 35°, as well as those greater than 10 years of age, may be at greater risk for requiring fusion after posterior fossa decompression, while patients less than 10 years of age may require routine monitoring for curve progression. Left apical thoracic curves

  3. Complications following large-volume epidural blood patches for postdural puncture headache. Lumbar subdural hematoma and arachnoiditis: initial cause or final effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Cara A; Spiegel, Joan E

    2009-08-01

    Significant complications following large-volume epidural blood patches (LEBPs) in two parturients following LEBP for postdural puncture headache are reported. A 39-year-old woman developed a spinal subdural hematoma causing both lumbar back and radicular pain following a single LEBP using 58 mL of blood. The second case was a 33-year-old woman who received three LEBPs over a 4-day period totaling 165 mL of blood. She developed arachnoiditis and chronic sacral radiculopathy with resolution 4 months later.

  4. Geological Structure of the Itoigawa - Shizuoka Tectonic Line, Northern Fossa Magna, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Iwasaki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Geological structure of two different natures is recognized in the Northern Fossa Magna (NFM). NFM is situated near the zone where the central Japan Island bent geographically and a graben zone formed between the North Alps and the Kanto highland. NFM is characterized by thick Neogene deposits and with active tilting of the crustal blocks and active folding bloc. At the present the sedimentary basin is the Saigawa hill due to the active faulting and folding in the Fossa Magna. Active fault system of Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) is an eastward - dip of reverse fault which strikes N-S along the western margin of the NFM. The vertical displacement rate of ISTL is estimated to be maximum 9 mm/yr from the offset amount and the formation age of flexure scarp which appeared in the fluvial terrace [ex. Ikeda et al., (2002)]. Besides, the last event and the reccurrence interval are presumed to be about about 1,500 years aga and 2,000 years, respectively [Okumura (2001)]. In addition the western margin fault of the Nagano basin (NBF) strikes NNE-SSW along the east edge of NFM. The NBF is an eastward-dip of reverse fault, and the Zenkoji earthquake (M7.4) in 1847 was occurred. The purpose of present study is to discuss the geometry of ISTL and geological process of NFM based on the geomorphological and geological survey using the geological dip and strike already obtained at the more than 1,500 data points. Based on these geological data, the geological structure provinceis divided into two types those are a tilt block and a folding belt at west and east sides, respectively. The Western tilting block and an Eastern folding belt trend NS strike and NNE-SSW strike, respectively. As a result of the geomorphic decipherment in alignment with ISTL using the air photograph, flexure scarp of east side upheaval is formed in the fluvial terrace side and it is difficult for the terrace riser which crosses flexure scarp and a valley to observe lateral offset. The tilt block,

  5. Physical functioning in pediatric survivors of childhood posterior fossa brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscione, P Janine; Bouffet, Eric; Mabbott, Donald J; Shams, Iffat; Kulkarni, Abhaya V

    2014-01-01

    Survival rates for children diagnosed with posterior fossa brain tumors (PFBTs) have improved significantly over the past several decades, and long-term functioning assessments have become priorities. These evaluations have occurred frequently in adults but only rarely in children. This study describes a cross-sectional assessment of physical functioning in pediatric survivors of PFBTs using the Bruininks-Osteretsky Test of Motor Performance, Second Edition (BOT-2). Primary analyses compared BOT-2 scores to normative data using 1-sample t tests for each gross motor subscale (Bilateral Coordination, Balance, Running Speed/Agility, Strength) and motor-area composite (Body Coordination and Strength and Agility). Second, the cohort was stratified by diagnostic or treatment variables. Group differences and groups vs norms were evaluated using independent 2-sample and 1-sample t tests, respectively. Primary analyses compared BOT-2 scores with normative data using 1-sample t tests for each gross motor subscale (Bilateral Coordinationcoordination, Balance, Running Speed/Agility, Strength) and motor-area composite (Body Coordination and Strength and Agility). Second, the cohort was stratified by diagnostic or treatment variables. Group differences and groups vs norms were evaluated using independent 2-sample and 1-sample t tests, respectively. Mean age of 30 participants was 11.4 years (range, 4.9y-18.2y), and mean time from diagnosis was 6.1 years (range, 1.1y-16.7y). Cerebellar astrocytoma (43.3%) and medulloblastoma (40%) were the most common diagnoses. As a group, significantly decreased functioning, compared with norms, was observed in Balance (P Survivors with tumors infiltrating the vermis demonstrated significantly lower Body Coordination than norms (P Pediatric survivors of PFBTs demonstrated decreased physical functioning, most notably in Balance. These data underscore the need for further research and implementation of physical activity programs aimed

  6. Dosimetry and field matching for radiotherapy to the breast and superclavicular fossa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Elizabeth

    Radiotherapy for early breast cancer aims to achieve local disease control and decrease loco-regional recurrence rates. Treatment may be directed to breast or chest wall alone or, include regional lymph nodes. When using tangential fields to treat the breast a separate anterior field directed to the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (SCF) is needed to treat nodal areas. The complex geometry of this region necessitates matching of adjacent radiation fields in three dimensions. The potential exists for zones of overdosage or underdosage along the match line. Cosmetic results may be compromised if treatment fields are not accurately aligned. Techniques for field matching vary between centres in the UK. A study of dosimetry across the match line region using different techniques, as reported in the multi-centre START Trial Quality Assurance (QA) programme, was undertaken. A custom-made anthropomorphic phantom was designed to assess dose distribution in three dimensions using film dosimetry. Methods with varying degrees of complexity were employed to match tangential and SCF beams. Various techniques combined half beam blocking and machine rotations to achieve geometric alignment. Matching of asymmetric beams allowed a single isocentre technique to be used. Where field matching was not undertaken a gap between tangential and SCF fields was employed. Results demonstrated differences between techniques in addition to variations within the same technique between different centres. Geometric alignment techniques produced more homogenous dose distributions in the match region than gap techniques or those techniques not correcting for field divergence. For this multi-centre assessment of match plane techniques film dosimetry used in conjunction with a breast shaped phantom provided relative dose information. This study has highlighted the difficulties of matching treatment fields to achieve homogenous dose distribution through the region of the match plane and the degree of

  7. Posterior fossa syndrome in adults: a new case and comprehensive survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, Peter; De Smet, Hyo Jung; Wijgerde, Ellen; Verhoeven, Jo; Crols, Roel; De Deyn, Peter P

    2013-01-01

    Although the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) can be considered as an aetiologically heterogeneous condition affecting children and adults, it most often occurs in paediatric patients after cerebellar tumour surgery. In patients with a tumoural aetiology, the syndrome is typically characterised by a short symptom-free postoperative period followed by mutism of variable duration and behavioural and affective changes. More than 200 paediatric cases have been described but reports of adult patients are extremely rare. This paper discusses PFS in adults on the basis of a comprehensive literature survey and describes the pre- and postoperative findings in a new adult patient. In the preoperative phase, cognitive, behavioural and affective abnormalities were identified, matching a diagnosis of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) (Schmahmann and Sherman, 1998; Schmahmann, 2004). The immediate postoperative course was characterised by prefrontal-like behavioural and affective abnormalities, peduncular hallucinations and confusion evolving to psychosis. Akinetic mutism subsequently developed, lasted for 12 days and then alternated with episodes of diminished responsiveness in which pathological laughing and crying (PLC) occurred. Akinetic mutism resolved after treatment with a non-ergoline dopamine-agonist but CCAS persisted during longitudinal follow-up. From a semiological point of view "relapsing-remitting akinetic mutism" and PLC in our patient might add relevant information to current insights in the clinical expression of the PFS. As evidenced by a close parallelism between single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and clinical findings, CCAS as well as PFS seem to reflect functional disruption of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in cognitive, behavioural and affective functions. These findings may indicate that both syndromes share overt semiological resemblances and a common pathophysiological substrate. Consequently, CCAS and PFS may both

  8. Incidence of mutism, dysarthria and dysphagia associated with childhood posterior fossa tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Cristina; Morgan, Angela T

    2011-07-01

    Dysarthria and dysphagia are known complications following posterior fossa tumour (PFT) surgery. Outcome studies for these disorders, however, have focused on a select sub-group of children with mutism. Little is known regarding the incidence or features of these impairments in a consecutively admitted sample of children with PFT. This study describes the incidence and features of mutism, dysarthria and dysphagia during the acute post-surgical phase in a consecutive sample of children with PFT, unselected for the presence of mutism. A retrospective medical chart review of children aged 2 to 18 years consecutively admitted with PFT between January 2003 and January 2008 was conducted. Twenty-seven children with PFT were identified. Post-surgical mutism, dysarthria and dysphagia were recorded in 9/27 (33%), 8/27 (30%) and 9/27 (33%) cases, respectively. Dysarthria most commonly involved deficits in articulation; however, impairments in respiration, phonation and prosody were also reported. Dysphagia involved all stages of swallowing (i.e., pre-oral anticipatory, oral preparatory, oral and pharyngeal). Eighty-nine percent of children (8/9) presented with dysphagia at hospital discharge. The incidence of acute presentation of mutism, dysarthria and dysphagia post-surgery was relatively high, affecting around one in three cases. This incidence rate, considered together with the fact that over half of all cases had co-morbid communication or swallowing impairments, suggests that health professionals should be aware of the likelihood of dysarthria and dysphagia presentation in the acute period and consider speech pathology referral where necessary.

  9. Quantitative approach to the posterior cranial fossa and craniocervical junction in asymptomatic children with achondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calandrelli, Rosalinda; Panfili, Marco; D' Apolito, Gabriella; Pedicelli, Alessandro; Colosimo, Cesare [Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Area Diagnostica per Immagini, Roma (Italy); Zampino, Giuseppe [Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Area Salute del Bambino, Roma (Italy); Pilato, Fabio [Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Area Neuroscienze, Roma (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    We propose an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based quantitative morphovolumetric approach to the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and craniocervical junction (CCJ) changes in achondroplastic patients investigating possible associations with ventriculomegaly and medullary compression. We analyzed MRI of 13 achondroplastic children not treated by surgery. 3D FSPGR T1-weighted images were used to analyze (1) PCF synchondroses; (2) PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV), PCFV/PCFBV ratio, cerebellar volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces volume, and IV ventricle volume; (3) PCF (clivus, supraocciput, exocciput lengths, tentorial angle) and CCJ (AP and LL diameters of foramen magnum (FM)) morphometry; (4) measurements of FM and jugular foramina (JF) areas; and (5) supratentorial ventricular volume. All patients showed synostosis of spheno-occipital synchondroses, eight showed synostosis of intra-occipital synchondroses, nine showed CCJ impingement on the cervical cord but only three had cervical myelopathy. Compared to controls, clivus and exocciput lengths, LL and AP diameters of FM, FM area and JF area were significantly reduced, supraocciput length, tentorial angle, PCFV, PCFBV, cerebellar volume, supratentorial ventricular system volume were significantly increased. A correlation was found between clivus length and supratentorial ventricular volume, premature closure of intra-occipital synchondroses and FM area while a trend was found between FM area and supraocciput length. Our analysis demonstrates a relationship between the shortening of the clivus and the ventriculomegaly. On the other hand the premature closure of PCF synchondroses, the shape, and the growth direction of supraocciput bone contribute to reduce the FM area, causing in some patients medullary compression. (orig.)

  10. Right Iliac Fossa Pain Treatment (RIFT) Study: protocol for an international, multicentre, prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-13

    Patients presenting with right iliac fossa (RIF) pain are a common challenge for acute general surgical services. Given the range of potential pathologies, RIF pain creates diagnostic uncertainty and there is subsequent variation in investigation and management. Appendicitis is a diagnosis which must be considered in all patients with RIF pain; however, over a fifth of patients undergoing appendicectomy, in the UK, have been proven to have a histologically normal appendix (negative appendicectomy). The primary aim of this study is to determine the contemporary negative appendicectomy rate. The study's secondary aims are to determine the rate of laparoscopy for appendicitis and to validate the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) and Alvarado prediction scores. This multicentre, international prospective observational study will include all patients referred to surgical specialists with either RIF pain or suspected appendicitis. Consecutive patients presenting within 2-week long data collection periods will be included. Centres will be invited to participate in up to four data collection periods between February and August 2017. Data will be captured using a secure online data management system. A centre survey will profile local policy and service delivery for management of RIF pain. Research ethics are not required for this study in the UK, as determined using the National Research Ethics Service decision tool. This study will be registered as a clinical audit in participating UK centres. National leads in countries outside the UK will oversee appropriate registration and study approval, which may include completing full ethical review. The study will be disseminated by trainee-led research collaboratives and through social media. Peer-reviewed publications will be published under corporate authorship including 'RIFT Study Group' and 'West Midlands Research Collaborative'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  11. Supra-orbital keyhole removal of anterior fossa and parasellar meningiomas Minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar no tratamento de meningiomas na fossa craniana anterior e para-selares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Antonio de Paiva-Neto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of surgical techniques as well as the introduction of new surgical instruments promoted the use of keyhole craniotomies in neurosurgery. We evaluated the technical aspects of the supra-orbital keyhole approach considering the indications, limitations, and complications of this approach to treat anterior cranial fossa and parasellar meningiomas. Twenty-four patients (21 females; mean age, 53±8.6 years operated on between 2002 and 2006 through a supra-orbital eyebrow approach were studied. Maximal tumor diameter ranged from 1.6 to 6 cm. Gross total resection was done in 20 (83.3%. All tumors were histologically benign. Two patients (8% experienced CSF rinorhea and another two patients suffered transitory diabetes insipidus (8%. One patient experienced transitory hemiparesis. There was one case of meningitis and one mortality. Follow-up ranged between 6 to 66 months (mean 31.5±20.1 months, with no recurrence. The supra-orbital keyhole craniotomy is a useful minimally invasive approach to treat selected anterior fossa and parasellar meningiomas.A evolução técnica e a introdução de instrumentais cirúrgicos mais delicados proporcionaram o uso de craniotomias menores no tratamento de patologias intracranianas. Avaliamos os aspectos técnicos da minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar, considerando as indicações, limitações e complicações no tratamento de meningiomas na fossa craniana anterior e para-selares. Vinte e quarto pacientes (21 mulheres; idade média, 53±8,6 anos operados entre 2002 e 2006 foram estudados. O diâmetro tumoral máximo variou de 1,6 a 6 cm. Ressecção total foi obtida em 20 (83,3%. Todos os tumores eram histologicamente benignos. Dois pacientes (8% apresentaram fistula liquórica pós-operatória e outros dois diabetes insipido transitórioa (8%. Um paciente evoluiu com hemiparesia transitória. Houve um caso de meningite e um de evolução fatal. O seguimento variou de 6 a 66 meses (m

  12. Building a virtual reality temporal bone dissection simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppersmith, R B; Johnston, R; Moreau, D; Loftin, R B; Jenkins, H

    1997-01-01

    The temporal bone is one of seven bones that comprise the human skull, and has an intimate relationship with many vital structures. Anatomically, its three-dimensional relationships make it one of the most challenging areas for surgeons to understand and master. In addition, the temporal bone contains minute structures that are among the most sophisticated and delicate in the human body. These structures include the cochlea and vestibular organs, which are responsible for hearing and balance; the middle ear, including the ossicles, which conduct acoustic energy to the cochlea; and the facial nerve, which is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and contributes to the sensation of taste. Additionally, the temporal bone forms a major portion of the skull base, and has intimate relationships to vital structures including the carotid artery, jugular vein, cerebral cortex, brainstem, and cranial nerves. Surgical procedures performed on the temporal bone include: procedures to eradicate chronic and acute infections; procedures to remove malignant and benign tumors within the temporal bone, from the skull base, or from the posterior cranial fossa; procedures to restore the hearing mechanism; procedures to eliminate balance disorders; and procedures to correct congenital anomalies. For surgeons-in-training, and even surgeons-in-practice, mastery of the anatomy of the temporal bone and the many complex approaches necessary to treat patients takes years of focused endeavor. This is typically accomplished through the dissection of human cadaver temporal bones, which are scarce, and require a dedicated laboratory facility. Efforts are currently underway to develop a realistic simulator for temporal bone procedures. Users immersed in the simulator will interact with a three-dimensional temporal bone, derived from patient-specific data, using a haptic interface to simulate traditional surgical procedures. Feedback from experts in otologic surgery will be

  13. Analysis by computed tomography of bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in relation to clinical findings in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Nakajima, Tamio; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1994-12-01

    Bone changes in the mandibular head and mandibular fossa in 33 patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders were studied with axial computed tomography in relation to clinical findings to clarify possible factors leading to bone changes in this phenomenon. Bone changes of the mandibular head were observed in 45 (68%) of the 66 TMJs. The mandibular head was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in 13 (29%) of the 45 joints in centric occlusion and in 29 joints (64%) in the anterior position on CT, whereas the mandibular head with no pathological bone change was juxtaposed to the mandibular fossa in none of the 21 joints in centric occlusion and in only 1 joint (5%) in the anterior position. In the two groups of patients with and without juxtaposition of the mandibular head and mandibular fossa with bone changes, the incidence of the initial symptoms such as pain, crepitus, and difficulty in opening the mouth was increased compared with the symptoms at presentation. However, the former group had severer symptoms than the latter group. These findings suggest that bony degeneration of the TMJ is accelerated by juxtaposition of the head and fossa. (author).

  14. The acetabular fossa hot spot on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT: epidemiology, natural history, and proposed etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicki, Shelby L. [Trinity University, San Antonio, TX (United States); Richardson, Michael L. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Martin, Thomas [X-Ray Associates of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohren, Eric [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Wei, Wei [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Amini, Behrang [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-01-15

    To describe a benign focus of increased activity in the acetabular fossa (the acetabular fossa hot spot, AFHS) on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT that can mimic a neoplasm. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images from four patient populations were examined. Group 1 (n = 13) was collected from a search of radiology reports and used to define the AFHS and for hypothesis generation. Group 2 (n = 1,150) was used for prevalence of AFHS. Group 3 (n = 1,213) had PET/CT and MRI pelvis within a week of each other and was used to correlate metabolic and anatomic findings. Group 4 (n = 100) was used to generate the control group. Data were collected on demographics, common comorbidities, underlying cancer diagnosis and status, and hip symptoms. Prevalence of AFHS was 0.36 % (95 % CI 0.10-0.91 %). None progressed to malignancy or was associated with cancer status. The majority (71 %) were on the left, and 6 % were bilateral. Mean SUV{sub max} of the AFHS was 4.8 (range, 2.7-7.8). Male patients were more likely to have the AFHS (OR = 8.69, 95 % CI 1.88-40.13). There was no difference with respect to other collected data, including hip symptoms. Average minimum duration of AFHS was 346 days (range, 50-1,010 days). Readers did not detect corresponding hip abnormalities on MRIs. AFHS is a benign finding that may be caused by subclinical ligamentum teres injury, focal synovitis, or degeneration of acetabular fossa fat. Despite uncertainty regarding its etiology, recognition of AFHS as a benign finding can prevent morbidity associated with unnecessary biopsy or initiation of therapy. (orig.)

  15. Prevalence, associations, and predictors of apathy in adult survivors of infantile (<5 years of age) posterior fossa brain tumors†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Cliodhna; Watson, Peter; Spoudeas, Helen A.; Hawkins, Michael M.; Walker, David A.; Clare, Isabel C. H.; Holland, Anthony J.; Ring, Howard A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Apathy is associated with pervasive and disadvantageous effects on daily functioning. It has been observed transiently in some children after surgery for posterior fossa tumors. In this study, our objective was to examine prevalence, associations, and predictors of apathy in adult survivors of an infantile posterior fossa brain tumor (PFT). Methods One hundred seventeen adult survivors of a childhood PFT diagnosed before age 5 years and 60 of their siblings were assessed in a cross-sectional study a mean of 32 years (range, 18–53 years) after survivors' initial tumor diagnoses, using the Marin Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for psychiatric disorders. Results Marin Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Weschler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence reached or exceeded a criterion score for clinically significant apathy in 35% of survivors, compared with 18% in a sibling comparison group. In both siblings and survivors, apathy was associated with lower verbal and full-scale IQ and, among survivors, with having undergone partial rather than total tumor resection (independent of irradiation status). Apathy was not related to presence of concurrent International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, depression. Female sex was associated with late apathy after a PFT, with increased likelihood of women reaching the apathy criterion relative to men if they were survivors. Conclusions Clinically significant and potentially treatable apathy occurs relatively commonly in adult survivors of an infantile childhood PFT, particularly women. Clinicians, including those managing posterior fossa pathology in very young children, should be aware of this association, and future research should clarify whether specific treatment-related variables are implicated in increasing this risk of apathy. PMID:23502428

  16. Comparative Morphology and Histology of the Nasal Fossa in Four Mammals: Gray Squirrel, Bobcat, Coyote, and White-Tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karen K; Craven, Brent A; Wysocki, Charles J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2016-07-01

    Although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. In this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array of species that include the gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote, and white-tailed deer. Results show that much more of the nose is lined with olfactory epithelium in the smallest species (gray squirrel) than in the larger species. In two species with similar body masses, bobcat and coyote, the foreshortened felid snout influences turbinal size and results in a decrease of olfactory epithelium on the ethmoturbinals relative to the longer canine snout. Ethmoturbinal surface area exceeds that of the maxilloturbinals in all four sampled animals, except the white-tailed deer, in which the two are similar in size. Combining our results with published data from a broader array of mammalian noses, it is apparent that olfactory epithelial surface area is influenced by body mass, but is also affected by aspects of life history, such as diet and habitat, as well as skull morphology, itself a product of multiple compromises between various functions, such as feeding, vision, and cognition. The results of this study warrant further examination of other mammalian noses to broaden our evolutionary understanding of nasal fossa anatomy. Anat Rec, 299:840-852, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks following spinal or posterior fossa surgery: use of fat grafts for prevention and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, P

    2000-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are relatively common following spinal or posterior fossa surgery. A midline dural tear in the spine is readily repaired by direct application of a suture. However, far-lateral or ventral dural tears are problematic. Fat is an ideal sealant because it is impermeable to water. In this paper the author reports his experience with using fat grafts for the prevention or repair of CSF leaks and proposes a technique in which a large sheet of fat, harvested from the patient's subcutaneous layer, is used to cover not only the dural tear(s) but all of the exposed dura and is tucked into the lateral recess. This procedure prevents CSF from seeping around the fat, which may be tacked to the dura with a few sutures. Fibrin glue is spread on the surface of the fat and is further covered with Surgicel or Gelfoam. For ventral dural tears (associated with procedures in which disc material is excised), fat is packed into the disc space to seal off the ventral dural leak. Leaks in the posterior fossa are managed similarly to those in the spine. Dural suture lines, following suboccipital or spinal intradural exploration, are prophylactically protected from CSF leakage in the same manner. With one exception, 27 dural tears noted during 1650 spinal procedures were successfully repaired using this technique. There was one case of postoperative CSF leakage in 150 cases in which intradural exploration for tumor or other lesions was undertaken. Both postoperative CSF leaks were controlled by applying additional skin sutures. The use of a fat graft is recommended as a rapid, effective means of prevention and repair of CSF leaks following posterior fossa and spinal surgery.

  18. Appearance of fetal posterior fossa at 11-14 weeks in fetuses with Dandy-Walker malformation or chromosomal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, P; Contro, E; Fanelli, T; Muto, B; Pilu, G; Gentile, M

    2016-06-01

    To describe the sonographic appearance of fetal posterior fossa anatomy at 11-14 weeks of pregnancy and to assess the outcome of fetuses with increased intracranial translucency (IT) and/or brainstem-to-occipital bone (BSOB) diameter. Reference ranges for brainstem (BS), IT and cisterna magna (CM) measurements, BSOB diameter and the BS : BSOB ratio were obtained from the first-trimester ultrasound examination of 233 fetuses with normal postnatal outcome (control group). The intraobserver and interobserver variability of measurements were investigated using 73 stored ultrasound images. In addition, a study group of 17 fetuses with increased IT and/or BSOB diameter was selected to assess outcome. No significant intraobserver or interobserver variability was found for any measurement in the control group. In the study group, IT was increased in all cases and BSOB diameter was above the 95(th) centile of the calculated normal range in all but two (88%) cases. In 13/17 study cases, only two of the three posterior brain spaces were recognized on ultrasound. These 13 fetuses had a larger BSOB diameter than did the four cases that showed all three posterior brain spaces, and had severe associated anomalies including Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and/or chromosomal anomalies. Visualization of the fetal posterior fossa anatomy at 11-14 weeks' gestation is feasible. Increased fluid in the posterior brain at 11-14 weeks, particularly in the case of non-visibility of the septation that divides the future fourth ventricle from the CM, is an important risk factor for cystic posterior fossa malformations, in particular DWM, and/or chromosomal aberrations. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Upper cervical myelopathy due to arachnoiditis and spinal cord tethering from adjacent C-2 osteomyelitis. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Sharad; Chanbusarakum, Krisada; Deshmukh, Praveen R

    2007-01-01

    Myelopathy caused by a spinal cord infection is typically related to an adjacent compressive lesion such as an epidural abscess. The authors report a case of progressive high cervical myelopathy from spinal cord tethering caused by arachnoiditis related to an adjacent C-2 osteomyelitis. This 70-year-old woman initially presented with a methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis involving the C-2 odontoid process. She was treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy but, over the course of 4 weeks, she developed progressive quadriparesis. A magnetic resonance image revealed near-complete resolution of the C-2 osteomyelitis, but new ventral tethering of the cord was observed at the level of the odontoid tip. She subsequently underwent open surgical decompression and cord detethering. Postoperatively she experienced improvement in her symptoms and deficits, which continued to improve 1 year after her surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of progressive upper cervical myelopathy due to arachnoiditis and cord tethering from an adjacent methicillin-sensitive S. aureus C-2 osteomyelitis.

  20. Spinal level of myelomeningocele lesion as a contributing factor in posterior fossa volume, intracranial cerebellar volume, and cerebellar ectopia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Kieron J

    2013-02-01

    McLone and Knepper\\'s unified theory of Chiari malformation Type II (CM-II) describes how the loss of CSF via the open posterior neuropore fails to create adequate distending pressure for the developing rhomboencephalic vesicle. The authors of the present article describe the relationship between the posterior fossa volume and intracranial cerebellar volume as being related to the distance from the obex of the fourth ventricle to the myelomeningocele lesion using a common mathematical model, the Hagen-Poiseuille law.

  1. SU-E-I-67: Arachnoid Cysts: The Role of the BLADE Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroidis, P [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Vlachopoulou, A; Kostopoulos, S; Ninos, C; Glotsos, D; Bakas, A; Oikonomou, G; Roka, V; Lavdas, E [Technological Education Institute of Athens, Athens, Attika (Greece); Kapsalaki, E; Tsirika, A [University of Thessaly, Larissa, Thessaly (Greece); Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Stathakis, S [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is first to show the extent by which BLADE sequences can reduce all the image artifacts and second to verify that the usefulness of this technique in certain pathological conditions is significant. Methods: In this study, fourteen consecutive patients (5 females, 9 males), who routinely underwent MRI brain examination, between 2010–2014, were selected. The applied routine protocols for brain MR examination included the following sequences: 1) T2-W FLAIR axial; 2) T2-W TSE axial; 3) T2*-W axial, 4) T1-W TSE sagittal; 5) DWI-W axial; 6) T1-W TSE axial; 7) T1-W TSE axial+contrast. In cases of cystic tumors, the T2-W FLAIR BLADE sequence was added to the protocol. All the images were evaluated independently at two separate settings with 3 weeks interval by two radiologists. The radiologists also evaluated the presence of image artifacts (motion, flow, chemical shift, Gibbs ringing). To evaluate the size of the cyst, the two radiologists compared the two techniques (conventional and BLADE) by assessing the extent of the divergence in the measurements of the cysts. Results: Regarding the extent of the cyst size, BLADE measurements were found to be more reliable than the conventional ones with the differences being statistically significant (p<0.01). The qualitative measurements indicated that the T2 FLAIR BLADE sequences were superior to the conventional T2 FLAIR with statistically significant differences (p<0.001) in the following characteristics: 1) overall image quality, 2) CSF nulling; 3) contrast at the pathology and its surrounding; 4) limits of the pathology; 5) motion artifacts; 6) flow artifacts; 7) chemical shift artifacts and 8) Gibbs ringing artifacts. Conclusion: BLADE sequence was found to decrease both flow artifacts in the temporal lobes and motion artifacts from the orbits and it is proposed for clinical use.

  2. Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with cerebellar hemorrhage: report of rare disease with MRI findings Hematoma subdural crônico de fossa posterior associado a hemorragia cerebelar espontânea: relato de doença rara com achados de RNM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodante B. Costa Jr

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa is an uncommon entity, and spontaneous lesions are very rarely described, occurring mostly during anticoagulation therapy. The association of the posterior fossa chronic subdural hematoma with spontaneous parenchymal hemorrhage without anticoagulation therapy was never related in the literature, to our knowledge. We describe a case of a 64 year-old woman who suffered a spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage, treated conservatively, and presented 1 month later with a chronic subdural posterior fossa hematoma.Hematomas subdurais da fossa posterior são lesões raras, mais comumente relacionadas com traumas graves. A ocorrência de hematomas subdurais crônicos na fossa posterior é muito rara, sendo descritos 15 casos até o momento, boa parte relacionada ao uso de anticoagulantes. Em nossa revisão da literatura, não pudemos encontrar nenhum relato da associação entre hematoma subdural crônico da fossa posterior e hemorragia cerebelar espontânea. Relatamos o caso de paciente de 64 anos com hematoma intraparenquimatoso cerebelar tratado conservadoramente e hematoma subdural crônico, tratado cirurgicamente, cerca de 1 mês após o acidente vascular cerebelar.

  3. Posterior fossa decompression in Chiari I improves denervation of the paraspinal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Shifu; Li, Yang; Qiu, Yong; Liu, Zhen; Sun, Xu; Zhu, Weiguo; Feng, Zhenhua; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Zezhang

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether posterior fossa decompression (PFD) could improve denervation of the paraspinal muscles in patients with Chiari I malformation (CMI). Paraspinal muscle denervation is one of the essential elements in the pathophysiology of CMI/syringomyelia-related scoliosis. Although PFD has been widely used for managing CMI, whether denervation of the paraspinal muscles may benefit from this neurosurgical procedure remains ambiguous. Bax and Bcl-2 are two regulators of apoptosis that are closely related to the innervation status of skeletal muscles, and denervation is associated with upregulated Bax and downregulated Bcl-2. Thirty-seven patients who underwent PFD and subsequent deformity correction for CMI-associated scoliosis were enrolled. Biopsy specimens were obtained from bilateral erector spinae muscles during both procedures with an average interval of 6.5 months. The biopsy site was located within the spinal innervation region involved by the syrinx and near the level of upper instrumented vertebra. The expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 as well as histological features of the muscle fibres were examined at the two time points. After PFD, the mRNA level of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 was elevated by 178% and 260% in the convex and concave muscles, respectively, with a coincident decrease of 69% and 73% for proapoptotic Bax at the corresponding sites (pmuscles was increased by 75% on the convex and by 169% on the concave side following PFD. For Bax protein, decreases of 45% and 52% were detected in the convex and concave muscles, respectively (pmuscles. Histologically, the specimens demonstrated improvements in denervation-associated changes of the muscle fibres following PFD, with the number of atrophic and necrotic/degenerated fibres decreasing significantly from 6.7 and 8.5 before surgery to 3.2 (p=0.012) and 4.2 (pmuscles. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  4. A New Method to Explore the Spectral Impact of the Piriform Fossae on the Singing Voice: Benchmarking Using MRI-Based 3D-Printed Vocal Tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Bertrand; Howard, David

    2014-01-01

    The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4–5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output. PMID:25048199

  5. A new method to explore the spectral impact of the piriform fossae on the singing voice: benchmarking using MRI-based 3D-printed vocal tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Delvaux

    Full Text Available The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4-5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output.

  6. Fluid area measurements in the posterior fossa at 11-13 weeks in normal fetuses and fetuses with open spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Katrin; Heling, Kai Sven; Chaoui, Rabih

    2015-01-01

    To measure the area of the intracranial translucency (IT) (syn: 4th ventricle) and the future cisterna magna (CM) in normal fetuses and to compare with fetuses with open spina bifida. In the midsagittal plane of the face of 220 fetuses between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation, the areas of the IT and CM were measured and the sum, defined as the posterior fossa fluid (PFF) area was calculated. Reference ranges were constructed in relation to the crown-rump length. The study group consisted of 21 fetuses with open spina bifida and showed in all cases a single pocket of fluid in the posterior fossa. Fetuses with no fluid in the fossa were excluded. This PFF-area was measured and compared with the reference range of the IT-area and the PFF-area of normal fetuses and Z-scores were calculated. In normal fetuses, a significant increase of the IT-, the CM- and the PFF-area was found as a sign of the expanding posterior fossa. The mean PFF-area increased from 8.55 to 29.72 mm(2) in the observation period. Fetuses with open spina bifida had reduced fluid in the posterior fossa with values ranging between 2.39 and 5.08 mm(2) and significantly lower Z-scores. Fetuses with open spina bifida have an abnormally small posterior fossa at 11-13 weeks' and in cases where the cerebrospinal fluid is still present, the fluid area in the midsagittal plane is reduced when compared to normal fetuses. Area fluid assessment can be an additional useful measurement in suspicious cases for open spina bifida in early gestation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Giant Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Anterior Cranial Fossa and Paranasal Sinuses Presenting in Pregnancy: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnenny, Luke; Roundy, Neil; Zherebitskiy, Victor; Grafe, Marjorie; Mansoor, Atiya; Dogan, Aclan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) rarely involve the cranium and have seldom been reported in pregnancy. Clinical Presentation We describe a case of a 28-year-old woman who presented at 37 weeks of gestation with 3 months of gradually worsening vision, 10 months of proptosis, and restricted ocular motility on the left. Brain imaging revealed a multicystic enhancing mass measuring 5.9 × 5.3 × 3.7 cm, centered on the cribriform plate on the left, extending into the anterior cranial fossa superiorly as well as the left nasal cavity, maxillary, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses. Her clinical course is described in detail; 3-month postoperative imaging demonstrated no residual mass. Conclusion A literature review revealed five previous cases of ABCs associated with pregnancy. We report a rare case of a giant ABC of fibrous dysplasia involving the paranasal sinuses and anterior cranial fossa. We postulate on the possible influence of pregnancy on the clinical course. PMID:26623230

  8. A case of symptomatic mass in the right iliac fossa: a Bermuda Triangle which often lies the right diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarese, Alessandra; Pironi, Daniele; Pontone, Stefano; Vendettuoli, Maurizio; De Cristofaro, Flaminia; Antonelli, Manila; Romani, Annamaria; Filippini, Angelo

    2014-02-24

    Disease of the iliac fossa can often be accompanied by non-specific symptoms and some of these are exclusively caused by the compression of bulky masses of other neighboring structures. In young women a differential diagnosis is a non trivial task as several possible causes have to be taken into account. Thus, intraligamentary tumors, which are extremely rare finding, are frequently confused with uterus, ovary or intestinal tumors. Even if myomas are the most benign tumors of the female genital tract, broad ligament leiomyomas are an unusual finding in women of reproductive age. These tumors are often asymptomatic until they reach a volume likely to cause symptoms related to the mass pressure. An accurate patient's anamnesis and examination serve as a guide to further examinations. Ultrasound is the first line imaging as it can show ovarian or other pelvic mass and doesn't involve exposure to radiations in young patients, who can be pregnant. We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a broad ligament leiomyoma, which presented as an inguinal mass in a patient with a right iliac fossa pain. We also report our diagnostic process performing the differential diagnosis with other potential pathologies of RIF. In these cases, a preoperative disease classification discriminating the benign or malignant tumor nature is closely linked to the proper patient management.

  9. Diagnosis of small posterior fossa stroke on brain CT: effect of iterative reconstruction designed for brain CT on detection performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Taihei; Yoshida, Morikatsu; Yokoyama, Koichi [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan); Nakaura, Takeshi; Hirata, Kenichiro; Kidoh, Masafumi; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Harada, Kazunori [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether iterative model reconstruction designed for brain CT (IMR-neuro) would improve the accuracy of posterior fossa stroke diagnosis on brain CT. We enrolled 37 patients with ischaemic stroke in the posterior fossa and 37 patients without stroke (controls). Using axial images reconstructed using filtered back-projection (FBP) and IMR-neuro, we compared the CT numbers in infarcted areas, image noise in the pons, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of infarcted and non-infarcted areas on scans subjected to IMR-neuro and FBP. To analyse the performance of hypo-attenuation detection, we used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve techniques. The image noise was significantly lower (2.2 ± 0.5 vs. 5.1 ± 0.9 Hounsfield units, p < 0.01) and the difference in CNR between the infarcted and non-infarcted areas was significantly higher with IMR-neuro than with FBP (2.2 ± 1.7 vs. 4.0 ± 3.6, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the average area under the ROC curve was significantly higher with IMR-neuro (0.90 vs. 0.86 for FBP, p = 0.04). IMR-neuro yielded better image quality and improved hypo-attenuation detection in patients with ischaemic stroke. (orig.)

  10. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of transitional ceII carcinoma arising at penile fossa navicularis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Jae Ho; Jang, Han Won; Kim, Dong Sug; Moon, Gi Hak [College of Medicine, Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Primary carcinoma of the male urethra are rare. Among the malignant tumors of the male urethra, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common. Transitional cell carcinoma is very rare, particularly in the distal urethra. We experienced a case of distal urethral transitional cell carcinoma, arising at the fossa navicuIaris of the penis, which we report here with a review of the literature. A 68-year-old male patient presented with bloody discharge from the prepuce for 1 month. Ultrasonography showed a poorly marginating, heterogeneous mass, invading the glans penis and the corpus spongiosum. The mass encircled the glandular urethra of the penis glans, and obstructed the glandular urethra and the fossa navicularis. A Doppler ultrasonogram revealed hypervascularity in this mass. The mass was isointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T1-weighted images and slightly hypointense to the corpus carvernosum on the T2-weighted images. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging showed a poorly enhancing mass in the glans penis. This mass was confirmed as a transitional cell carcinoma by histologic study and a partial penectomy was performed.

  11. The Posterior Fossa and Foreign Accent Syndrome: Report of Two New Cases and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulen, Stefanie; Mariën, Peter; van Dun, Kim; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Manto, Mario; Verhoeven, Jo

    2017-08-01

    Foreign accent syndrome is a rare motor speech disorder that causes patients to speak their language with a non-native accent. In the neurogenic condition, the disorder develops after lesions in the language dominant hemisphere, often affecting Broca's area, the insula, the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex. Here, we present two new cases of FAS after posterior fossa lesions. The first case is a 44-year-old, right-handed, Dutch-speaking man who suffered motor speech disturbances and a left hemiplegia after a pontine infarction. Quantified SPECT showed a bilateral hypoperfusion in the inferior lateral prefrontal and medial inferior frontal regions as well as a significant left cerebellar hypoperfusion. Further clinical investigations led to an additional diagnosis of brainstem cognitive affective syndrome which closely relates to Schmahmann's syndrome. The second patient was a 72-year-old right-handed polyglot English man who suffered a stroke in the vascular territory of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and developed a foreign accent in his mother tongue (English) and in a later learnt language (Dutch). In this paper, we discuss how the occurrence of this peculiar motor speech disorder can be related to a lesion affecting the posterior fossa structures.

  12. Formações venosas superficiais da fossa cubital: aspectos de interesse para a prática da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o conhecimento que auxilie o profissional de enfermagem na identificação dos tipos mais comuns de formações venosas da região da fossa cubital e, ainda, enfocar a importância de estar sempre atento aos casos pouco comuns como o aqui relatado. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, constatamos que as formações venosas dessa região podem ser classificadas em 5 tipos mais comuns, sendo o tipo II o mais frequente. Constatamos ainda, que a VICo é o local de punção mais indicado, seguido pela VIB. Descrevemos também uma variação anatômica, onde observamos ausência de comunicação entre VC e VB no nível da fossa cubital e VIA drenando na VB, estando presente a VCA.

  13. Differential diagnosis of posterior fossa brain tumors: Multiple discriminant analysis of Tl-SPECT and FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Moritaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Okada, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the combined capability of thallium-201 (Tl)-SPECT and fluorine-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG)-PET for differential diagnosis of posterior fossa brain tumors using multiple discriminant analysis.This retrospective study was conducted under approval of the institutional review board. In the hospital information system, 27 patients with posterior fossa intra-axial tumor between January 2009 and June 2015 were enrolled and grouped as the following 7 entities: low grade glioma (LGG) 6, anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) 2, glioblastoma (GBM) 3, medulloblastoma (MB) 3, hemangioblastoma (HB) 6, metastatic tumor (Mets) 3, and malignant lymphoma (ML) 4. Tl and FDG uptakes were measured at the tumors and control areas, and several indexes were derived. Using indexes selected by the stepwise method, discriminant analysis was conducted with leave-one-out cross-validation.The predicted accuracy for tumor classification was 70.4% at initial analysis and 55.6% at cross-validation to differentiate 7 tumor entities. HB, LGG, and ML were well-discriminated, but AA was located next to LGG. GBM, MB, and Mets largely overlapped and could not be well distinguished even applying multiple discriminant analysis. Correct classification in the original and cross-validation analyses was 44.4% and 33.3% for Tl-SPECT and 55.6% and 48.1% for FDG-PET.

  14. A prospective randomised controlled trial of ultrasound guided versus nerve stimulation guided distal sciatic nerve block at the popliteal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, G J; van den Broek, E; Braak, G J J; Giele, J L P; Gielen, M J; Scheffer, G J

    2009-01-01

    The direct visualisation of nerves and adjacent anatomical structures may make ultrasonography the preferred method for nerve localisation. In this prospective randomised study, we investigated whether, for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa, an ultrasound guided technique would result in the use of less local anaesthetic without changing block characteristics and quality. Using electrical nerve stimulation or ultrasound guidance, the nerve was identified in two groups of 20 patients scheduled for lower limb surgery. Hereafter lignocaine 1.5% with adrenaline 5 microg/ml was injected. The attending anaesthesiologist assessed the injected volume. Significantly less local anaesthetic was injected in the ultrasound group compared to the nerve stimulation group (17 vs. 37 ml, P success rate was increased (100% vs. 75%; P = 0.017). We conclude that the use of ultrasound localisation for distal sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa reduces the required dose of local anaesthetic significantly, and is associated with a higher success rate compared to nerve stimulation without changing block characteristics.

  15. Successful Function-Preserving Therapy for Chondroblastoma of the Temporal Bone Involving the Temporomandibular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junkichi Yokoyama

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a case involving a late diagnosis of chondroblastoma of the temporal skull base involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Following an initial misdiagnosis and unsuccessful treatment over a period of 5 years, the patient was referred to our department for further evaluation and possible surgical intervention for occlusal abnormalities, trismus, clicking of the TMJ, and hearing impairment. Based on preoperative immunochemical studies showing positive reaction of multinucleated giant cells for S-100 protein, the final diagnosis was chondroblastoma. The surgical approach – postauricular incision and total parotidectomy, with complete removal of the temporal bone, including the TMJ via the extended middle fossa – was successful in preserving facial nerves and diminishing clinical manifestations. This study highlights a misdiagnosed case in an effort to underline the importance of medical examinations and accurate differential diagnosis in cases involving any tumor mass in the temporal bone.

  16. Osteoradionecrosis of sphenoid and temporal bones in a patient with maxillary sinus carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inokuchi, T.; Sano, K.; Kaminogo, M. (Nagasaki Univ. School of Dentistry (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    A case of radionecrosis of sphenoid and temporal bones is reported. The patient received a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for his left maxillary sinus carcinoma. After the combined therapy, necrosis accompanying inflammation developed in the maxillary and temporal regions. Excision of the necrotic tissues was done, and the left ascending ramus of the mandible was resected because of persistent tumor mass at the left infratemporal fossa. Although the excision wound of the maxilla healed by epithelialization, an area of nonvital bone remained exposed in the temporal region, where progressive osteonecrosis with infection led to breakdown of the skin. The necrotic bones of the zygomatic arch and the sphenotemporal sutural region became visible through the skin defect, and computerized tomography scan revealed bone necrosis involving the inferolateral area and the base of the skull. Excision of the necrotic bone and reconstruction with sternocleidomastoid myocutaneous flap were performed.

  17. Stereotactic radiosurgery for WHO grade I posterior fossa meningiomas: long-term outcomes with volumetric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Tata, Athreya; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary; Sheehan, Jason P

    2018-01-05

    OBJECTIVE Research over the past 2 decades has been characterizing the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the treatment of benign intracranial tumors, including meningiomas. However, few studies have examined the long-term outcomes of SRS treatment for posterior fossa meningiomas (PFMs). Furthermore, previous studies have typically used single diameter measurements when reporting outcomes, which can yield misleading results. The authors describe the use of SRS in the treatment of benign WHO grade I PFMs and correlate volumetric analysis with long-term outcomes. METHODS This study is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained IRB-approved database. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of WHO grade I PFM with subsequent treatment via single-session SRS and a minimum of 3 follow-up MRI studies available. Volumetric analysis was performed on the radiosurgical scan and each subsequently available follow-up scan by using slice-by-slice area calculations of the meningioma and numerical integration with the trapezoid rule. RESULTS The final cohort consisted of 120 patients, 76.6% (92) of whom were female, with a median age of 61 years (12-88 years). Stereotactic radiosurgery was the primary treatment for 65% (78) of the patients, whereas 28.3% (34) had 1 resection before SRS treatment and 6.7% (8) had 2 or more resections before SRS. One patient had prior radiotherapy. Tumor characteristics included a median volume of 4.0 cm 3 (0.4-40.9 cm 3 ) at treatment with a median margin dose of 15 Gy (8-20 Gy). The median clinical and imaging follow-ups were 79.5 (15-224) and 72 (6-213) months, respectively. For patients treated with a margin dose ≥ 16 Gy, actuarial progression-free survival rates during the period 2-10 years post-SRS were 100%. In patients treated with a margin dose of 13-15 Gy, the actuarial progression-free survival rates at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years were 97.5%, 97.5%, 93.4%, 93.4%, and 93.4%, respectively. Those who were treated with ≤ 12

  18. Endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Fuminari; Imai, Masaaki; Shigematsu, Hideaki; Aoki, Rie; Oda, Shinri; Shimoda, Masami; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2017-08-25

    The authors' initial experience with the endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area is reported. Fully endoscopic surgery using the extradural space via a supraorbital keyhole was performed for tumors in or around the temporal pole, including temporal pole cavernous angioma, sphenoid ridge meningioma, and cavernous sinus pituitary adenoma, mainly using 4-mm, 0° and 30° endoscopes and single-shaft instruments. After making a supraorbital keyhole, a 4-mm, 30° endoscope was advanced into the extradural space of the anterior cranial fossa during lifting of the dura mater. Following identification of the sphenoid ridge, orbital roof, and anterior clinoid process, the bone lateral to the orbital roof was drilled off until the dura mater of the anterior aspect of the temporal lobe was exposed. The dura mater of the temporal lobe was incised and opened, exposing the temporal pole under a 4-mm, 0° endoscope. Tumors in or around the temporal pole were safely removed under a superb view through the extradural corridor. The endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach was technically feasible and safe. The anterior trajectory to the temporal pole using the extradural space under endoscopy provided excellent visibility, allowing minimally invasive surgery. Further surgical experience and development of specialized instruments would promote this approach as an alternative surgical option.

  19. Combination of transverse myelitis and arachnoiditis in cauda equina syndrome of long-standing ankylosing spondylitis: MRI features and its role in clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Howard Haw-Chang; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang; Lan, Joung-Liang; Hsieh, Chia-Wei

    2007-11-01

    The cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurological complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Imaging diagnosis of CES in long-standing AS patients (CES-AS) using myelography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reported in the literature. They, however, demonstrate only the chronic abnormalities of CES-AS, i.e., dural ectasia, dorsal dural diverticula, and selective bone erosion at the posterior elements of the vertebrae. To our knowledge, imaging features of acute intradural inflammation in CES-AS were not described. We report a patient of CES-AS in whom MRI disclosed acute transverse myelitis and arachnoiditis along the lower spinal cord, and discuss the pathogenesis of CES-AS and the role of MRI in clinical management.

  20. A microanatomical map of the structures hidden in the middle fossa based on the facial nerve hiatus: measurements and their variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, Asem; Makiese, Orphee; Reiss, Alisha; Pillai, Promod; Sammet, Steffen; Ammirati, Mario

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships/variations between the facial nerve hiatus (FNH) and middle cranial fossa neuro-vascular structures. Twenty CT-scanned middle cranial fossae of fresh adult cadavers were used; the greater superficial petrosal nerves, and critical neuro-vascular structures were identified. Using the FNH as a reference point, a neuronavigation system was used to measure the distance between each structure and the FNH. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to quantify the degree of variation among each distance. The mean distances and standard deviations between the various landmarks and the FNH, and the associated CV were analyzed. Furthermore, a microanatomical map of the structures hidden in the middle fossa based on the greater superficial petrosal nerve was generated. The most reliable relationships of the FNH were with the internal auditory canal (CV = 14.59), and with the vertical portion of the intrapetrous internal carotid artery (CV = 15.54). Our data demonstrate that the FNH can be used as anatomical landmark to plot the position of several hidden neurovascular structures when performing a middle-fossa skull base approach. However, the pattern and the variation of these structures had to be recognized. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Head CT: Image quality improvement of posterior fossa and radiation dose reduction with ASiR - comparative studies of CT head examinations

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    Guzinski, Maciej; Waszczuk, Lukasz; Sasiadek, Marek J. [Wroclaw Medical University, Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate head CT protocol developed to improve visibility of the brainstem and cerebellum, lower bone-related artefacts in the posterior fossa and maintain patient radioprotection. A paired comparison of head CT performed without Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASiR) and a clinically indicated follow-up with 40 % ASiR was acquired in one group of 55 patients. Patients were scanned in the axial mode with different scanner settings for the brain and the posterior fossa. Objective image quality analysis was performed with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subjective image quality analysis was based on brain structure visibility and evaluation of the artefacts. We achieved 19 % reduction of total DLP and significantly better image quality of posterior fossa structures. SNR for white and grey matter in the cerebellum were 34 % to 36 % higher, respectively, CNR was improved by 142 % and subjective analyses were better for images with ASiR. When imaging parameters are set independently for the brain and the posterior fossa imaging, ASiR has a great potential to improve CT performance: image quality of the brainstem and cerebellum is improved, and radiation dose for the brain as well as total radiation dose are reduced. (orig.)

  2. Delayed migration of K-wire into popliteal fossa used for tension band wiring of patellar fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Breakage of K-wires and stainless steel wires which are used for fracture fixation is not uncommon, but migration is rare. We report a case of migration of bro-ken K-wire used for patella tension band wiring to the popliteal fossa. The broken hardware was removed surgically. We would like to suggest that K-wire and wire fixation used for treatment of patellar fractures can migrate into the posterior compartment of the knee and cause clini-cal symptoms. Close clinical and radiological follow-up af-ter internal fixation to identify the presence of hardware breakage or movement and removal of wires once fracture has united can avert such complications. Key words: Patella; Fracture fixation, internal; Bone wires

  3. Posterior fossa decompression with tonsillectomy in 104 cases of basilar impression, Chiari malformation and/or syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective in the surgical treatment of basilar impression (BI, Chiari malformation (CM and/or syringomyelia (SM is based on the restoration of the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics at the craniovertebral junction through the creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A small suboccipital craniectomy has been emphasized to avoid caudal migration of the hindbrain structures into the vertebral canal. Nevertheless, the results showed downward migration of the hindbrain related to that type of craniectomy. The authors present, otherwise, the results of 104 cases of BI, CM and/or SM, whose surgical treatment was characterized by a large craniectomy with the patient in the sitting position, tonsillectomy, large opening of the fourth ventricle and duraplasty with creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A significant upward migration of the posterior fossa structures was detected by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Relation of linear parameters of anterior cranial fossa with dimensional characteristics of facial part of the skull in different craniotypes

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    Aleshkina О.Yu.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the relation of linear parameters of the anterior cranial fossa with dimensional facial characteristics of the human skull in various craniotypes. Research Material: 100 adult skulls divided into three craniotypes have been used. Methods. Craniotopometry has been used for the measurement of the average values and the correlation model construction. Results. It has been revealed that the most significant correlation has been observed in the parameters of fleksibasilar craniotypes, in medio- and platybasilar craniotypes the multidirectional dependence of the studied parameters has been characterized as of moderate and mild degree. Conclusion. Results of research are necessary theoretical base for possible use by clinical physicians in elaboration of tactics of stereotaksichesky approach to tumoral or other pathological processes in the field of front and brain departments of a skull.

  5. Three-dimensional assessment of mandibular and glenoid fossa changes after bone-anchored Class III intermaxillary traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Hugo; Nguyen, Tung; de Paula, Leonardo Koerich; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2012-07-01

    Conventional treatment for young Class III patients involves extraoral devices designed to either protract the maxilla or restrain mandibular growth. The use of skeletal anchorage offers a promising alternative to obtain orthopedic results with fewer dental compensations. Our aim was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the mandibles and the glenoid fossae of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction. Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.1 year) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). The patients had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before initial loading and at the end of active treatment. Three-dimensional models were generated from these images, registered on the anterior cranial base, and analyzed by using color maps. Posterior displacement of the mandible at the end of treatment was observed in all subjects (posterior ramus: mean, 2.74 ± 1.36 mm; condyles: mean, 2.07 ± 1.16 mm; chin: mean, -0.13 ± 2.89 mm). Remodeling of the glenoid fossa at the anterior eminence (mean, 1.38 ± 1.03 mm) and bone resorption at the posterior wall (mean, -1.34 ± 0.6 mm) were observed in most patients. This new treatment approach offers a promising alternative to restrain mandibular growth for Class III patients with a component of mandibular prognathism or to compensate for maxillary deficiency in patients with hypoplasia of the midface. Future studies with long-term follow-up and comparisons with facemask and chincup therapies are needed to better understand the treatment effects. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management and clinical outcome of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations: report on a single-centre 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, L; Thines, L; Dehdashti, A R; Wallace, M C; Willinsky, R A; Tymianski, M; Schwartz, M L; ter Brugge, K G

    2009-04-01

    Posterior fossa brain arteriovenous malformations (PFbAVMs) are rare lesions. Management is complicated by eloquence of adjacent neurological structures, multimodality treatment is often necessary, and obliteration is not always possible. We describe a 15-year experience in the management of posterior fossa brain AVMs with a focus on clinical outcome. From 1989 to 2004, prospectively collected information on 106 patients with diagnosis of a PFbAVMs was obtained. Clinical and angioarchitectural characteristics, management options and complications are described and reviewed to evaluate their impact on final outcome as measured by the Modified Rankin Score (mRS). Ninety-eight patients were followed for an average of 3.3 years (1-14.6). The male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Ninety-five out of 98 patients (96.9%) were symptomatic at presentation, with 61 (62.2%) intracranial haemorrhages. Sixty-two patients were treated (46 cerebellar, 16 brainstem). Ten haemorrhages occurred in follow-up (4.1%/year). The mRS was obtained in 62 patients and was classified as low (good, mRSor=3). Haemorrhage was the only predictor of poor mRS at presentation (p = 0.0229). A poor clinical outcome was correlated with the presence of AA (p = 0.0276), a poor initial mRS (p<0.0001) and the number of treatments needed (p = 0.0434). Patients were significantly more likely to improve than to deteriorate over time (p = 0.0201). The final clinical outcome in PFbAVMs relates directly with the presence of associated aneurysms, number of treatments needed to obliterate the AVM and mRS at presentation. Despite the fact that patients tend to improve after brain AVM haemorrhage, the relationship of MRS at presentation and final outcome suggests that an expedited, more definitive treatment is probably a better choice, especially in patients with good grades after the initial bleeding.

  7. Uso da fáscia temporal na suspensão frontal: descrição da técnica cirúrgica - Relato de caso Use of temporal fascia in frontalis suspension: description of the surgical technique - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Pereira Nunes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Familiarizar o oftalmologista com a anatomia da região temporal, descrever a técnica cirúrgica da retirada da fáscia temporal e da suspensão frontal e analisar as vantagens e desvantagens da fáscia temporal na suspensão frontal. MÉTODOS: Revisão do prontuário de uma paciente com blefaroptose grave que foi submetida à suspensão frontal com fáscia temporal. Revisão da anatomia da fossa temporal e das técnicas cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: Bom resultado estético e funcional foi conseguido no caso descrito. CONCLUSÃO: A fáscia temporal é boa opção na suspensão frontal com algumas vantagens: é um tecido autógeno, de fácil obtenção e mínima morbidade no pós-operatório.PURPOSE: To familiarize the ophthalmologist with the anatomy of the temporal region, to describe the surgical technique of temporal fascia harvest and frontalis suspension and to demonstrate advantages and disadvantages of temporal fascia in frontalis suspension. METHODS: Review of the clinical and surgical data of one case with severe blepharoptosis who underwent frontalis suspension using temporal fascia. Review of the anatomy of the temporal fossa and the surgical techniques. RESULTS: Good esthetic and functional results were obtained in this case. CONCLUSION: Temporal fascia is a good choice for frontalis suspension with some advantages: it is autogenous, it is easily harvested and it yields minimal post-operative morbidity.

  8. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Most database applications manage time-referenced, or temporal, data. Temporal data management is difficult when using conventional database technology, and many contributions have been made for how to better model, store, and query temporal data. Temporal aggregation illustrates well the problem...

  9. [Surgery for intractable epilepsy in a patient with encephalocele of the temporal lobe: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M S; Belyakova-Bodina, A I; Murtazina, A F; Brutyan, A G; Golovteev, A L; Aziatskaya, G A; Samoylov, A S; Zabelin, M V; Udalov, Yu D

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of surgical treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy in a female patient with congenital middle cranial fossa encephalocele. We present clinical-anamnestic and neuroimaging data as well as the microscopic and macroscopic pictures of encephalocele. We analyze outcomes of surgery for this pathology, which have been reported in the literature. To date, there have been a few articles on this subject in the domestic literature. The development of neuroimaging techniques and a growing number of verified encephalocele cases promote the widespread use of surgery for treatment of intractable epilepsy. Congenital encephalocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intractable temporal epilepsy, and, if verified, surgical treatment is the method of choice in most cases.

  10. Uso da fáscia temporal na suspensão frontal: descrição da técnica cirúrgica - Relato de caso Use of temporal fascia in frontalis suspension: description of the surgical technique - Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Pereira Nunes; Mariluze Sardinha; Laura Cardoso; Flávio Buzalaf; Suzana Matayoshi

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Familiarizar o oftalmologista com a anatomia da região temporal, descrever a técnica cirúrgica da retirada da fáscia temporal e da suspensão frontal e analisar as vantagens e desvantagens da fáscia temporal na suspensão frontal. MÉTODOS: Revisão do prontuário de uma paciente com blefaroptose grave que foi submetida à suspensão frontal com fáscia temporal. Revisão da anatomia da fossa temporal e das técnicas cirúrgicas. RESULTADOS: Bom resultado estético e funcional foi conseguido n...

  11. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    Semantics of temporal models with multi temporal dimensions are examined progressing from non-temporal models unto uni-temporal, and further unto bi- and tri-temporal models. An example of a uni-temporal model is the valid time model, an example of a bi-temporal model is the valid time/transactio...

  12. Appendicular endometriosis as a cause of chronic abdominal pain alone in the right iliac fossa: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pandolfi Basso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma. Although its etiology is undefined, it is suggested to be a result of coelomic metaplasia, retrograde menstruation, to provide a genetic component, or to be one that occurs due to blood or lymphatic spread. The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is common. However, appendicular endometriosis is a rare condition. It is usually asymptomatic. Recurrent pain in the right iliac fossa is an unusual clinical manifestation. There are no non-invasive complementary tests to confirm the diagnosis. Laparoscopy is the main option for research, due to its diagnostic and therapeutic features. A histopathological examination is necessary for the diagnosis. Although surgical and drug therapies have special indications, the combination therapy showed lower symptom recurrence. This study reports a case of appendicular endometriosis that was diagnosed and treated in the service of Coloproctology of the Base Hospital at Faculdade de Medicina of São Jose do Rio Preto. There is also a literature review about this situation.Endometriose é uma doença caracterizada pela presença de estroma e glândulas endometriais ectópicas. Apesar de sua etiologia não definida, sugere-se que seja decorrente de metaplasia celômica, menstruação retrógada, apresente componente genético, ou ocorra devido à disseminação linfática ou sanguínea. O acometimento do trato gastrointestinal é comum; no entanto, a endometriose apendicular é condição rara e se apresenta com maior frequência de forma assintomática. Dor recorrente em fossa ilíaca direita é uma manifestação clínica incomum. Não há exames complementares não invasivos que confirmem o diagnóstico. A laparoscopia é a principal opção durante a investigação, por sua característica diagnóstica e terapêutica. O diagnóstico pode ser feito apenas após um exame histopatológico. Embora as terapias

  13. Pudendal nerve block in male goats: comparison of ischiorectal fossa and ischial arch approaches using low volume 1% lignocaine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeebur Rehman Fazili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty (30 adult male goats were injected xylazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM and randomly divided into three equal groups. Internal pudendal nerve block was tried using 3.5 ml (on each side of 1% lignocaine hydrochloride byischiorectal fossa or ischial arch approaches in goats from Group 1 and Group 2 respectively, 15 minutes after giving xylazine. Inadvertent puncture of the rectal wall and prick to the finger placed in the rectum was experienced once in Group 1 animal. None of the animals showed protrusion of the penis without manual manipulation. Prolapse of the prepucial ring was noticed in three animals from Group 1 and two each from Group 2 and 3. The application of mild manual push percutaneously resulted in the exposure of the penis in eight and six animals belonging to Group 1 and Group 2 respectively, 15 minutes after injection of the local anaesthetic. Statistically significant (P>0.05 difference between Group 1 and 2 values was detected only once at 90 minutes following injection of the local anaesthetic. The block lasted longer in animals of Group 1. The exposed organ was flaccid and insensitive. The organ retracted into the prepucial cover within five minutes of its release in all the animals. The penile exposure could not be achieved by similar manipulation in any of the Group 3 animals. From this study it was concluded that the ischiorectal fossa approach is cumbersome and may lead to inadvertent punctures, but the block develops in more number of animals for a longer period than with the ischial arch approach.The outcome of the two techniques did not show statistically significant (P>0.05 difference for most of the assessment period. Reducing the concentration of lignocaine hydrochloride may reduce the chances of continued relaxation of the penis beyond the required period and also the drug toxicity. However, studies using larger volume of 1% lignocaine hydrochloride may be undertaken for short term exposure of the penis without manual

  14. Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler syndrome) treated with posterior fossa decompression: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makler, Vyacheslav; Goldstein, Christina L; Hoernschemeyer, Daniel; Tanaka, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Hurler Syndrome is the most severe phenotype of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. With bone marrow transplant and enzyme replacement therapy, the life expectancy of a child with Hurler syndrome has been extended, predisposing them to multiple musculoskeletal issues most commonly involving the spine. This is the case report of a 6-year-old male with Hurler syndrome who was diagnosed with Chiari I malformation and cervicothoracic syringomyelia on a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for his thoracolumbar kyphosis. This report details the successful management of a Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia with posterior fossa decompression in a child with Hurler syndrome. Children born with MPS I can have complex spine issues that require surgical management. The most common orthopedic spinal condition for these patients, thoracolumbar kyphosis, requires evaluation with an MRI before performing surgery. This resulted in the diagnosis of a Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia in our patient with Hurler syndrome. This was successfully treated with decompression of the posterior fossa.

  15. Behandling af defaekationsblokade som følge af dyb fossa recto-genitalis med total baekkenbundsrekonstruktion med Prolene-net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Monrad, H; Kehlet, H

    1992-01-01

    of the abdominal pain and dependence on morphine in two of the patients. Rectal compression resulting from an abnormally deep recto-genital fossa should be included in the differential diagnostic deliberations in patients with severe constipation and defaecation blockage. Complete reconstruction of the pelvic......The causes of severe defaecation blockage resulting from compression of the rectum and deep recto-genital fossa are reviewed and are illustrated by three patients who had previously undergone hysterectomy and who had incapacitating defaecation blockage and abdominal pain requiring morphine in two...... of the patients. The condition had not been diagnosed despite previous hospital contact for many years in two of the patients. Complete reconstruction of the pelvic floor with prolene net was performed. Subsequent defaecography showed normalization of defaecation without rectal compression and with relief...

  16. The Middle Fossa Approach for the Removal of a Trochlear Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Boucher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Schwannomas originating from the trochlear nerve are extremely rare; only 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Many operative approaches have been utilized for lesion resection, but the advantages of the anterior transpetrosal approach are numerous and include excellent exposure, minimal extradural retraction of the temporal lobe, and minimal cerebrospinal fluid leaks. We report the second case of a trochlear schwannoma resected via the anterior transpetrosal approach. Setting. A 64-year-old male presented with 3-month history of diplopia and headaches. On physical examination, he was found to have a right fourth nerve palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass within the right ambient cistern compressing the adjacent midbrain. A right-sided anterior transpetrosal approach was used—which confirmed that the trochlear nerve entered the mass—to achieve gross total resection. Pathological examination confirmed diagnosis of schwannoma. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. He experienced a persistent fourth nerve palsy postoperatively with an otherwise normal neurological examination. Follow-up imaging confirmed complete removal of the tumor. Conclusion. The anterior transpetrosal approach is an excellent approach for removal of trochlear schwannomas involving the cisternal course of the trochlear nerve. It affords complete visualization of this anatomical region while introducing minimal morbidity.

  17. Uncommon evolution of probable central nervous system histoplasmosis: from leptomeningitis to posterior fossa granuloma. A case report with magnetic resonance images; Evolucao incomum de provavel histoplasmose de sistema nervoso central: de leptomeningite para granuloma da fossa posterior. Relato de caso com imagens por ressonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrilho, Paulo Eduardo Mestrinelli; Alves, Orival [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana - UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Medicina. Disciplina de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia]. E-mail: carrilho@certto.com.br; Budant, Manfredo [UNITOM - Unidade de Diagnostico por Imagem, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Tomografia; Bozo, Marlon K.; Meirelles, Noel [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana - UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Curso de Medicina; Bueno, Alexandre Galvao [ANATOM - Instituto de Anatomia Patologica de Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    We report a case of a young immunocompetent patient with probable central nervous system histoplasmosis with evolutive peculiar findings seen on magnetic resonance imaging. Leptomeningeal thickening was initially observed which subsequently became a posterior fossa granuloma. The diagnosis of fungal infection was only reached by histopathological study and the treatment was based on long term therapy with fluconazole wth good initial response. (author)

  18. Radio-anatomical Study of the Greater Palatine Canal and the Pterygopalatine Fossa in a Lebanese Population: A Consideration for Maxillary Nerve Block

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Aoun; Ibrahim Nasseh; Sayde Sokhn

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the component, greater palatine canal-pterygopalatine fossa (GPC-PPF), in a Lebanese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology. Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 79 Lebanese adult patients (38 females and 41 males) were included in this study, and a total of 158 cases were evaluated bilaterally. The length and path of the GPCs-PPFs were determined, and the data obtained analyzed statistically. Results: In ...

  19. Computed tomography evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in Class II Division 1 and Class III malocclusion patients: condylar symmetry and condyle-fossa relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the condyle-fossa relationship, the concentric position of the condyles, and the dimensional and positional symmetries between the right and left condyles in Class II Division 1 and Class III malocclusion samples. Thirty subjects from 12 to 38 years of age with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and 16 subjects from 13 to 41 years of age with Class III malocclusion had computed tomography of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from the axial slices were evaluated for possible asymmetries in size and position between the condylar processes associated with these malocclusions. The images obtained from the sagittal slices were used to assess the depth of the mandibular fossa, the condyle-fossa relationship, and the concentric position of the condyles associated with these malocclusions. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations were determined after measurements on both sides were obtained. In the Class II Division 1 sample, the distance of condylar process/midsagittal plane (P = 0.019) and posterior joint space (P = 0.049) showed statistically significant differences between the right and left sides. In the Class III sample, there was no statistically significant difference between sides. Statistically significant (P Class II Division 1 group and the Class III group. In the Class II Division 1 malocclusion sample, the distance of condylar process/midsagittal plane and posterior articular space had statistically significant differences between the right and left sides. In the Class III sample, there was no statistically significant difference between sides. Evaluation of the concentric position of the condyles in their mandibular fossae showed nonconcentric positioning for the right and left sides in both the Class II and Class III malocclusion groups.

  20. Trans aqueductal, third ventricle - Cervical subarachnoid stenting: An adjuvant cerebro spinal fluid diversion procedure in midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus: The technical note and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegala, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Persistent or progressive hydrocephalus is one of the complex problems of posterior fossa tumors associated with hydrocephalus. The author evaluated the effectiveness of single-stage tumor decompression associated with a stent technique (trans aqueductal third ventricle - Cervical subarachnoid stenting) as an adjuvant cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure in controlling the midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus. Prospective clinical case series of 15 patients was evaluated from July 2006 to April 2012. Fifteen clinicoradiological diagnosed cases of midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus were included in this study. All the tumors were approached through the cerebello medullary (telo velo tonsilar) fissure technique. Following the excision of the posterior fossa tumor, a sizable stent was placed across the aqueduct from the third ventricle to the cervical subarachnoid space. There were nine male and six female patients with an average age of 23 years. Complete tumor excision could be achieved in 12 patients and subtotal excision with clearance of aqueduct in remaining three patients. Hydrocephalus was controlled effectively in all the patients. There were no stent-related complications. This study showed the reliability of single-stage tumor excision followed by placement of aqueductal stent. The success rate of this technique is comparable to those of conventional CSF diversion procedures. This is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for the management of persistent and or progressive hydrocephalus. This technique may be very useful in situations where the patient's follow-up is compromised and the patients who are from a poor economic background. Long-term results need further evaluation to assess the overall functioning of this stent technique.

  1. RADIATION THERAPY QUALITY IN CCG/POG INTERGROUP 9961: IMPLICATIONS FOR CRANIOSPINAL IRRADIATION AND THE POSTERIOR FOSSA BOOST IN FUTURE MEDULLOBLASTOMA TRIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadine eDonahue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Associations of RT deviations and outcomes in medulloblastoma have not been defined well, particularly in the era of reduced-dose CSI and chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of RT on CCG/POG 9961 and analyze associations of RT deviations with outcome.Methods and Materials: Major volume deviations were assessed based on the distance from specified anatomical region to field edge. We investigated associations of RT deviations with progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and explored associations with demographics and clinical variables.Results: Of the 308 patients who were evaluable for volume deviations, 101 patients (33% did not have any. Of the remaining 207 patients, 50% had only minor deviations, 29% had only major deviations, and 21% had both minor and major deviations. Of the patients with major deviations, 73% had a single major deviation. The most common major deviation was in the cribriform plate region, followed by the posterior fossa; posterior fossa deviations resulted from treating less than whole posterior fossa. There were no significant differences in PFS or OS between patients with deviations and those without. There was no evidence of associations of deviations with patient age. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of patients had major volume deviations. There was no evidence of a significant association between these and outcome. This lack of correlation likely reflects the current high quality of radiation therapy delivered in COG institutions, our strict definition of volume deviations, and the relatively few instances of multiple major deviations in individual patients. In is noteworthy that the types of posterior fossa volume deviations observed in this study were not adversely associated with outcome. As we move forward, quality assurance will continue to play an important role to ensure that deviations on study do not influence study outcome.

  2. Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy Isolated to Posterior Fossa in a Patient with AIDS: DWI and 1H-MRS Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Sa; Yu, In Kyu; Lee, Byung Hee [Eulji University Hospital, College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We report a case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) isolated to the posterior fossa in a 55-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Initial MR images revealed a few foci of patchy increased signal intensity (SI) on a T2-weighted image and a diffusion weighted image (DWI) at the pons, right middle cerebellar peduncle, and right cerebellar hemisphere, with no enhancement. After anti-retroviral therapy, follow-up MR images revealed the more prominent extent of previously-seen lesions and newly discovered newly developed focal increased SI on T2-weighted images located left of the inferior cerebellar hemisphere. Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) showed a slightly increased choline peak (3.2 ppm) and lactate peak (1.35 ppm), as well as a decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak (2.0 ppm), which suggests active demyelinating disease. DWI and 1H-MRS may support the diagnosis of PML in patients with AIDS

  3. Post-operative diffusion weighted imaging as a predictor of posterior fossa syndrome permanence in paediatric medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Felicia H Z; Thien, Ady; Ng, Lee Ping; Seow, Wan Tew; Low, David C Y; Chang, Kenneth T E; Lian, Derrick W Q; Loh, Eva; Low, Sharon Y Y

    2017-03-01

    Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) is a serious complication faced by neurosurgeons and their patients, especially in paediatric medulloblastoma patients. The uncertain aetiology of PFS, myriad of cited risk factors and therapeutic challenges make this phenomenon an elusive entity. The primary objective of this study was to identify associative factors related to the development of PFS in medulloblastoma patient post-tumour resection. This is a retrospective study based at a single institution. Patient data and all related information were collected from the hospital records, in accordance to a list of possible risk factors associated with PFS. These included pre-operative tumour volume, hydrocephalus, age, gender, extent of resection, metastasis, ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion, post-operative meningitis and radiological changes in MRI. Additional variables included molecular and histological subtypes of each patient's medulloblastoma tumour. Statistical analysis was employed to determine evidence of each variable's significance in PFS permanence. A total of 19 patients with appropriately complete data was identified. Initial univariate analysis did not show any statistical significance. However, multivariate analysis for MRI-specific changes reported bilateral DWI restricted diffusion changes involving both right and left sides of the surgical cavity was of statistical significance for PFS permanence. The authors performed a clinical study that evaluated possible risk factors for permanent PFS in paediatric medulloblastoma patients. Analysis of collated results found that post-operative DWI restriction in bilateral regions within the surgical cavity demonstrated statistical significance as a predictor of PFS permanence-a novel finding in the current literature.

  4. Mechanisms for Olivine Carbonation at the Nili Fossae/Isidis Basin Boundary, Mars: Evidence of Intense Surface Aqueous Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most extensive surface deposits of carbonate on Mars is on the slopes of the Isidis Basin rising up to the Nili Fossae region (Ehlmann et al., 2008; Niles et al., 2012; Edwards and Ehlmann 2015). A key factor for the formation of carbonate in this region is the association of carbonate with olivine: this ubiquitous relationship shows the reactants and products are in direct association. There are four clear hypotheses for the geologic environment of formation. 1) Water-rock interaction in the shallow subsurface at slightly elevated temperatures altered olivine to Mg-carbonate perhaps through extended periods of heat and water with burial leading to olivine-serpentine-talc-chlorite alteration pathway (Brown et al., 2010; Viviano et al., 2013). 2) Olivine-rich material, heated by impact or volcanic processes, emplaced on top of a water-bearing phyllosilicate rich unit initiated hydrothermal alteration along the contact. 3) Olivine-rich rocks were weathered to carbonate at surface (cold) temperatures in a manner similar to olivine weathering of meteorites in Antarctica. 4) Carbonate precipitated from shallow ephemeral lakes. These hypotheses are quite different in their predictions of mineral assemblage, water requirements, and habitability. I will show new data and analyses that are providing insights to the question of the mineralogy and assemblages of carbonate-bearing units in the region, diagostic of processes. It is becoming more evident that surface aqueous activity, perhaps involving an extensive cryosphere in the form of Hesperian ice sheets.

  5. Experimental syringohydromyelia induced by adhesive arachnoiditis in the rabbit: changes in the blood-spinal cord barrier, neuroinflammatory foci, and syrinx formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kato, Katsura; Rodríguez Guerrero, Alexander; Baba, Hisatoshi; Yoshizawa, Hidezo

    2012-06-10

    There are many histological examinations of syringohydromyelia in the literature. However, there has been very little experimental work on blood permeability in the spinal cord vessels and ultrastructural changes. We prepared an animal model of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis by injecting kaolin into the subarachnoid space at the eighth thoracic vertebra of rabbits. The animals were evaluated 4 months later. Of the 30 rabbits given kaolin injection into the cerebrospinal fluid, 23 showed complete circumferential obstruction. In the 7 animals with partial obstruction of the subarachnoid space, intramedullary changes were not observed. However, among the 23 animals showing complete obstruction of the subarachnoid space, dilatation of the central canal (hydromyelia) occurred in 21, and intramedullary syrinx (syringomyelia) was observed in 11. In animals with complete obstruction, fluorescence microscopy revealed intramedullary edema around the central canal, extending to the posterior columns. Electron microscopy of hydromyelia revealed a marked reduction of villi on the ependymal cells, separation of the ependymal cells, and cavitation of the subependymal layer. The dilated perivascular spaces indicate alterations of fluid exchange between the subarachnoid and extracellular spaces. Syringomyelia revealed that nerve fibers and nerve cells were exposed on the surface of the syrinx, and necrotic tissue was removed by macrophages to leave a syrinx. Both pathologies differ in their mechanism of development: hydromyelia is attributed to disturbed reflux of cerebrospinal fluid, while tissue necrosis due to disturbed intramedullary blood flow is considered to be involved in formation of the syrinx in syringomyelia.

  6. Surgical Technique for High-Flow Internal Maxillary Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Bypass Using a Superficial Temporal Artery Interposition Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuequan; Meybodi, Ali Tayebi; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; El-Sayed, Ivan H; Lawton, Michael T; Benet, Arnau

    2017-04-01

    Extracranial-to-intracranial high-flow bypass often requires cranial, cervical, and graft site incisions. The internal maxillary artery (IMA) has been proposed as a donor to decrease invasiveness, but its length is insufficient for direct intracranial bypass. We report interposition of a superficial temporal artery (STA) graft for high-flow IMA to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass using a middle fossa approach. To assess the feasibility of an IMA-STA graft-MCA bypass using a new middle fossa approach. Twelve specimens were studied. A 7.5-cm STA graft was obtained starting 1.5 cm below the zygomatic arch. The calibers of STA were measured. After a pterional craniotomy, the IMA was isolated inside the infratemporal fossa through a craniectomy within the lateral triangle (lateral to the posterolateral triangle) in the middle fossa and transposed for proximal end-to-end anastomosis to the STA. The Sylvian fissure was split exposing the insular segment of the MCA, and an STA-M2 end-to-side anastomosis was completed. Finally, the length of graft vessel was measured. Average diameters of the proximal and distal STA ends were 2.3 ± 0.2 and 2.0 ± 0.1 mm, respectively. At the anastomosis site, the diameter of the IMA was 2.4 ± 0.6 mm, and the MCA diameter was 2.3 ± 0.3 mm. The length of STA graft required was 56.0 ± 5.9 mm. The STA can be used as an interposition graft for high-flow IMA-MCA bypass if the STA is obtained 1.5 cm below the zygomatic arch and the IMA is harvested through the proposed approach. This procedure may provide an efficient and less invasive alternative for high-flow EC-IC bypass.

  7. Inductive Temporal Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study the extension of techniques from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to temporal logic programming languages. Therefore we present two temporal logic programming languages and analyse the learnability of programs from these languages from finite sets of examples. In first order temporal logic the following topics are analysed: - How can we characterize the denotational semantics of programs? - Which proof techniques are best suited? - How complex is the learning task? In propositional ...

  8. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  9. An anatomic study using three-dimensional reconstruction for pterygopalatine fossa infiltration via the greater palatine canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Se Hwan; Seo, Jae Hyun; Joo, Young Hoon; Kim, Byung Guk; Cho, Jin Hee; Kang, Jun Myung

    2011-07-01

    The pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is accessed via the greater palatine canal (GPC) in an attempt to reduce bleeding during paranasal sinus surgery. This study aims to investigate the anatomy of the greater palatine foramen (GPF), GPC, and the PPF, with reference to PPF infiltration using three-dimensional reconstruction of computer tomographic (CT) scan measurements. The CT scans of 50 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The morphology of the GPF, GPC, and the PPF was assessed in a three-dimensional model. The thickness of the mucosa over the GPF was evaluated in the parasagittal plane. The mean length of the GPC was 13.8 ± 2.0 mm, and the mean height of the PPF was 21.0 ± 3.4 mm. The mean angles of the GPC in relation to the hard palate and the PPF were 67.4° ± 6.9° and 159.8° ± 7.1°, respectively. The GPF was 16.2 ± 1.3 mm lateral to the sagittal plane of the posterior nasal spine (PNS) and 6.1 ± 1.7 mm anterior to the coronal plane of the PNS. The mean volume of the PPF was 1039.9 ± 280.0 mm(3) . The mean thickness of the mucosa overlying the GPF was 10.7 ± 1.8 mm. We recommend that the PNS may be used as the bony landmark to locate the position of the GPF during PPF infiltration. The needle delivering the anesthetic should be bent 25 mm from the tip at a 45° angle, and a 1-ml injection of anesthetic should be administered in adults. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Immediate and Long-term Hearing Outcomes With the Middle Cranial Fossa Approach for Vestibular Schwannoma Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sameer; Arts, H Alexander; El-Kashlan, Hussam; Basura, Gregory J; Thompson, B Gregory; Telian, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the immediate postoperative and long-term hearing outcome data in patients who have undergone hearing preservation attempts with the middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach for the resection of sporadic vestibular schwannoma. Retrospective review of a surgical patient cohort. Tertiary academic referral center. Adult patients with unilateral sporadic vestibular schwannoma. Surgical treatment with a MCF approach. Comparison of pre- and postoperative audiometric data in accordance with the 1995 and 2012 American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery guidelines on reporting hearing outcomes and with a word recognition score only scale. Long-term hearing outcome data were analyzed in the following postoperative groups: 3 to 5, 6 to 8, 9 to 11, and 12+ years after surgery. From 1999 to 2016, 174 patients underwent the MCF approach and 155 of them met inclusion criteria for analysis of hearing outcome data. Class A or B hearing was preserved in 70% of the entire cohort after recovery. Seventy-one patients with measurable hearing met criteria for long-term data analysis. The rate of American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery class A or B hearing preservation was 82% at 3 to 5 years and declined thereafter. The rate of word recognition score class I or II hearing preservation was 98% at 3 to 5 years and declined less rapidly thereafter. Patients with preoperative Class A hearing had significantly higher rates of successful hearing preservation at all postoperative intervals. Delayed hearing loss occurs in a progressively increasing fashion but speech understanding remains durable for a majority of patients whose hearing is initially preserved with the MCF approach.

  11. Anterior and middle cranial fossa skull base reconstruction using microvascular free tissue techniques: surgical complications and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ernest S; Kraus, Dennis; Bui, Duc T; Mehrara, Babak J; Disa, Joseph J; Bilsky, Mark; Shah, Jatin P; Cordeiro, Peter G

    2008-05-01

    Surgical ablation for oncologic disease requiring skull base resection can result in both facial disfigurement and a complex wound defect with exposed orbital content, oral cavity, bone, and dural lining. Inadequate reconstruction can result in brain abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, visual disturbances, speech impairment, and altered oral intake. This study assesses the functional outcomes of patients who undergo anterior and middle cranial fossa skull base reconstruction using microsurgical free tissue transfer techniques. Using a prospectively maintained database, a 10-year, single institution retrospective chart review was performed on patients who had surgery for anterior and middle cranial base tumor resections. The type of resection, reconstruction method, complication rate, and functional outcomes were reviewed. From 1992 to 2003, 70 patients (49 men, 21 women) with a mean age of 54 (age 6-78) underwent anterior and middle cranial skull base tumor resection and reconstruction. The patients were divided into the following groups: maxillectomy with orbital content preservation (n = 21), orbitomaxillectomy with palatal preservation (n = 26), and orbitomaxillectomy with palatal resection (n = 23). The average length of hospital stay was 12.6 days. The vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was used in the majority of cases to correct midface defects. Two flaps required emergent re-exploration; however, there were no flap failures. Early and late postoperative complications were investigated. Cerebrospinal fluid was observed infrequently (7%) and did not require additional surgical intervention. Intracranial abscesses were encountered rarely (1.4%). Patients who had maxillectomy with orbital preservation and reconstruction had minor ophthalmologic eyelid changes that occurred frequently. Patients who required palatal reconstruction had a normal or intelligible speech (93%) and unrestricted or soft diet (88%). Using a multidisciplinary surgical team

  12. DTI fiber tractography of cerebro-cerebellar pathways and clinical evaluation of ataxia in childhood posterior fossa tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myung Eun; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Khajuria, Rajiv K; Rueckriegel, Stefan Mark; Koustenis, Elisabeth; Bruhn, Harald; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric posterior fossa (PF) tumor survivors experience long-term motor deficits. Specific cerebrocerebellar connections may be involved in incidence and severity of motor dysfunction. We examined the relationship between long-term ataxia as well as fine motor function and alteration of differential cerebellar efferent and afferent pathways using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography. DTI-based tractography was performed in 19 patients (10 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and 9 medulloblastoma patients (MB)) and 20 healthy peers. Efferent Cerebello-Thalamo-Cerebral (CTC) and afferent Cerebro-Ponto-Cerebellar (CPC) tracts were reconstructed and analyzed concerning fractional anisotropy (FA) and volumetric measurements. Clinical outcome was assessed with the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). Kinematic parameters of fine motor function (speed, automation, variability, and pressure) were obtained by employing a digitizing graphic tablet. ICARS scores were significantly higher in MB patients than in PA patients. Poorer ICARS scores and impaired fine motor function correlated significantly with volume loss of CTC pathway in MB patients, but not in PA patients. Patients with pediatric post-operative cerebellar mutism syndrome showed higher loss of CTC pathway volume and were more atactic. CPC pathway volume was significantly reduced in PA patients, but not in MB patients. Neither relationship was observed between the CPC pathway and ICARS or fine motor function. There was no group difference of FA values between the patients and healthy peers. Reduced CTC pathway volumes in our cohorts were associated with severity of long-term ataxia and impaired fine motor function in survivors of MBs. We suggest that the CTC pathway seems to play a role in extent of ataxia and fine motor dysfunction after childhood cerebellar tumor treatment. DTI may be a useful tool to identify relevant structures of the CTC pathway and possibly avoid surgically induced long

  13. MRI findings of temporal lobe epilepsy; Findings on superconducting MRI and a quantitative analysis of the hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Ichiro; Yin, Dali; Fukami, Masahiro; Kondo, Seiji; Takeuchi, Juji; Kanemoto, Kousuke; Sengoku, Akira; Kawai, Itsuo (National Utano Hospital, Kyoto (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    MRI findings were analyzed retrospectively in 46 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in which the side of epileptogenic focus had been confirmed by EEG studies. T[sub 1]- and T[sub 2]-weighted images were obtained by the use of a 1.0 or 1.5 T superconducting-type MRI machine with a coronal scan perpendicular to the axis of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. Additional axial and sagittal scans were performed in some cases. The area of the hippocampal body was measured quantitatively using a computerized image-analysis system in 26 cases in which the hippocampus had been visualized with enough contrast on T[sub 1]-weighted coronal images. Abnormal findings were observed in 31/46 (67%) cases. Hippocampal (HC) and temporal lobe (TL) atrophy were observed in 18/46 (39%) and 23/46 (50%) cases respectively, and the side of the atrophy corresponded with the side of the epileptogenic focus, as confirmed by EEG studies, with specificities of 89% and 74% respectively. A quantitative measurement of the area of the hippocampal body showed unilateral hippocampal atrophy more than 10% in 18/25 (69%) cases (10-25%: 10 cases, 25-50%: 7 cases, 50%<: 1 case), with a specificity of 89%. A medial temporal T[sub 2] abnormality was observed in only 4 cases. Structural lesions were observed in 4 cases including an arachnoid cyst, an astrocytoma in amygdala, the Dandy-Walker syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis, using the more efficient imaging qualities than the CT scan. From these observations, it is apparant that superconducting MRI is extremely useful in the diagnosis of the epileptogenic topography of temporal lobe epilepsy. Particularly, hippocampal atrophy was found to correspond with the side of the epileptogenic focus on EEG with a high specificity; its quantitative evaluation could be one of the most important standards in detecting the operative indications for temporal lobe epilepsy. (author).

  14. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity

  15. Temporal Linear System Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.

    2008-01-01

    Piecewise constant rank systems and the differential Kalman decomposition are introduced in this note. Together these enable the detection of temporal uncontrollability/unreconstructability of linear continuous-time systems. These temporal properties are not detected by any of the four conventional

  16. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    , constituting a temporal smoothing of rapidly changing illumination. In global illumination temporal smoothing can be achieved with distribution ray tracing (Cook et al., 1984). Unfortunately, this, and resembling methods, requires a high temporal resolution as samples has to be drawn from in-between frames. We...... present a novel method which is able to produce high quality temporal smoothing for indirect illumination without using in-between frames. Our method is based on ray differentials (Igehy, 1999) as it has been extended in (Sporring et al., 2009). Light rays are traced as bundles creating footprints, which......The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  17. High-resolution STIR for 3-T MRI of the posterior fossa: visualization of the lower cranial nerves and arteriovenous structures related to neurovascular compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, Akio; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Koji; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Preoperative evaluation of small vessels without contrast material is sometimes difficult in patients with neurovascular compression disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether 3D STIR MRI could simultaneously depict the lower cranial nerves--fifth through twelfth--and the blood vessels in the posterior fossa. The posterior fossae of 47 adults (26 women, 21 men) without gross pathologic changes were imaged with 3D STIR and turbo spin-echo heavily T2-weighted MRI sequences and with contrast-enhanced turbo field-echo MR angiography (MRA). Visualization of the cranial nerves on STIR images was graded on a 4-point scale and compared with visualization on T2-weighted images. Visualization of the arteries on STIR images was evaluated according to the segments in each artery and compared with that on MRA images. Visualization of the veins on STIR images was also compared with that on MRA images. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test. There were no significant differences between STIR and T2-weighted images with respect to visualization of the cranial nerves (p > 0.05). Identified on STIR and MRA images were 94 superior cerebellar arteries, 81 anteroinferior cerebellar arteries, and 79 posteroinferior cerebellar arteries. All veins evaluated were seen on STIR and MRA images. There were no significant differences between STIR and MRA images with respect to visualization of arteries and veins (p > 0.05). High-resolution STIR is a feasible method for simultaneous evaluation of the lower cranial nerves and the vessels in the posterior fossa without the use of contrast material.

  18. Fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) MRI to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within dural reflections of posterior fossa cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, David J; Scoffings, Daniel; Ajithkumar, Thankamma; Williams, Michael V; Jefferies, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    There is no consensus approach to covering skull base meningeal reflections-and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) therein-of the posterior fossa cranial nerves (CNs VII-XII) when planning radiotherapy (RT) for medulloblastoma and ependymoma. We sought to determine whether MRI and specifically fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequences can answer this anatomical question and guide RT planning. 96 posterior fossa FIESTA sequences were reviewed. Following exclusions, measurements were made on the following scans for each foramen respectively (left, right); internal acoustic meatus (IAM) (86, 84), jugular foramen (JF) (83, 85) and hypoglossal canal (HC) (42, 45). A protocol describes measurement procedure. Two observers measured distances for five cases and agreement was assessed. One observer measured all the remaining cases. IAM and JF measurement interobserver variability was compared. Mean measurement difference between observers was -0.275 mm (standard deviation 0.557). IAM and JF measurements were normally distributed. Mean IAM distance was 12.2 mm [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8-15.6]; JF was 7.3 mm (95% CI 4.0-10.6). The HC was difficult to visualize on many images and data followed a bimodal distribution. Dural reflections of posterior fossa CNs are well demonstrated by FIESTA MRI. Measuring CSF extension into these structures is feasible and robust; mean CSF extension into IAM and JF was measured. We plan further work to assess coverage of these structures with photon and proton RT plans. Advances in knowledge: We have described CSF extension beyond the internal table of the skull into the IAM, JF and HC. Oncologists planning RT for patients with medulloblastoma and ependymoma may use these data to guide contouring.

  19. Evaluation of temporomandibular fossa and mandibular condyle in adolescent patients affected by bilateral cleft lip and palate using cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Faruk Izzet; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmış; Şekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Celikoglu, Mevlut

    2016-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the position of the mandibular condyle and temporomandibular fossa between the adolescent patients affected by bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) and well-matched controls without any cleft by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study sample consisted of 17 patients (7 females and 10 males; mean age, 14.27 ± 2.83 years) affected by BCLP and 17 patients (6 females and 11 males; mean age, 14.27 ± 2.12 years) as age-and sex-matched control group without any cleft. Using cone-beam computed tomography segmented three-dimensional temporomandibular fossa and mandibular condyle images were reconstructed and angular, linear, and volumetric measurements of the patients in both sides of the groups were examined using Paired and Student's t-tests. Comparison of the sides showed that both sides were found to be similar in BCLP and control groups, except the condylar angulation of the right side was found to be higher compared to that of the left side in both groups (p cleft patients had similar values for all parameters, except for the condylar angulation in the right side (BCLP group had less angulation compared to controls; p  0.05). The positions of the mandibular condyle and temporomandibular fossa were found to be similar in patients affected by BCLP and control group of without any cleft. SCANNING 38:720-726, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Temporal properties of stereopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, E.

    2005-03-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis was to investigate temporal properties of disparity processing and depth perception in human subjects, in response to dynamic stimuli. The results presented in various chapters, reporting findings about different temporal aspects of disparity processing, are based on psychophysical experiments and computational model analysis. In chapter 1 we investigated which processes of binocular depth perception in dynamic random-dot stereograms (DRS), i.e., tolerance for interocular delays and temporal integration of correlation, are responsible for the temporal flexibility of the stereoscopic system. Our results demonstrate that (i) disparities from simultaneous monocular inputs dominate those from interocular delayed inputs; (ii) stereopsis is limited by temporal properties of monocular luminance mechanisms; (iii) depth perception in DRS results from cross-correlation-like operation on two simultaneous monocular inputs that represent the retinal images after having been subjected to a process of monocular temporal integration of luminance. In chapter 2 we examined what temporal information is exploited by the mechanisms underlying stereoscopic motion in depth. We investigated systematically the influence of temporal frequency on binocular depth perception in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS. Our results show that disparity-defined depth is judged differently in temporally correlated and uncorrelated DRS above a temporal frequency of about 3 Hz. The results and simulations indicate that: (i) above about 20 Hz, the complete absence of stereomotion is caused by temporal integration of luminance; (ii) the difference in perceived depth in temporally correlated and temporally uncorrelated DRS for temporal frequencies between 20 and 3 Hz, is caused by temporal integration of disparity. In chapter 3 we investigated temporal properties of stereopsis at different spatial scales in response to sustained and

  1. Biorremediação vegetal do esgoto domiciliar: o caso da fossa verde em comunidades rurais do Alto Sertão Alagoano

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Netto, Antonio; Universidade Federal de Alagoas; Guerra, Luciana da Rocha Melo; Universidade Federal de Alagoas – UFAL; Silva, Mário Rodrigues Pereira da; Universidade Federal da Alagoas – UFAL; Wanderley, Gabriel Farias; Universidade Federal da Alagoas – UFAL

    2015-01-01

    O imenso déficit de atendimento referente a cobertura de coleta e tratamento do esgoto requer desenvolvimento de sistemas que combinam destinação adequada dos efluentes e baixos custos de construção e operação. Nesse contexto surge a biorremediação vegetal, através da fossa verde, tecnologia social sustentável e de baixo custo, apresentando-se como alternativa viável principalmente para a zona rural de municípios. Essa tecnologia social objetiva contribuir para o enfrentamento da problemática...

  2. Anatomy of greater palatine foramen and canal and pterygopalatine fossa in Thais: considerations for maxillary nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methathrathip, D; Apinhasmit, W; Chompoopong, S; Lertsirithong, A; Ariyawatkul, T; Sangvichien, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the anatomy of the greater palatine foramen (GPF), greater palatine canal (GPC) and pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) with special reference to the blockage of the maxillary nerve. A correlation between the length of GPC and PPF and the heights of the orbit and the maxilla was also studied using simple linear regression analysis. The morphology of the GPF, GPC and PPF as well as heights of the orbit and the maxilla were assessed in 105 Thai skulls. The thickness of the mucosa over the GPF was also measured from the dissection of 55 cadavers. The results showed that most GPF appeared as an oval foramen located at the palatal aspect of the upper third molar. The GPF was 16.2+/-1.3 mm lateral to the median sagittal plane of the hard palate, 2.1+/-1.3 mm anterior to the posterior border of the hard palate and 5.1+/-1.3 mm from the greatest concavity of the distolateral margin of the hard palate. The mean length of GPC and PPF was 29.7+/-4.2 mm. The mean angles of the GPC in relation to the hard palate and the vertical plane were 57.9+/-5.8 degrees and 6.7+/-5.2 degrees , respectively. In attempting to insert a needle to reach the foramen rotundum through the GPF, 31.7% passed into the orbit while 8.7% passed into the brain. The mean thickness of the mucosa over GPF was 6.7+/-2.3 mm. Two models for estimating the depth of needle injection in maxillary nerve block have been developed as follows: Length of GPC and PPF=19.038+0.314 (orbital height) and length of GPC and PPF=21.204+0.187 (maxillary height). The calculated length combined with the mucosal thickness was the estimated depth of needle injection. In conclusion, our results concerning the GPF, GPC and PPF will provide the useful reference for clinicians to anesthetize the maxillary nerve with a greater degree of success.

  3. Skull-base foramina of the middle cranial fossa : assessment of normal variation with high-resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyae Young [Ewha Woman' s Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Eun Chul [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jeong Soo; Choi, Hye Young [Ewha Woman' s Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Joo [Eulgi Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung Sook [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To recognize foraminal variants of the foraminae of the skull base in the middle cranial fossa, and to thus understand and distinguish normal and potentially abnormal structures. We analysed 163 patients without intracranial disease who had undergone CT scanning. These comprised 82 men and 81 women with a mean age of 39 years (range, 4-73 years). HRCT was performed, using a GE 9800 scanner. All CT scans were obtained 6-7 slices at the base of the skull, with 1.5mm collimation at 1.5mm intervals parallel to the infraorbital line. We analysed the foraminae by closesly correlating imaging findings and established anatomic knowledge. In 45 cases (27.6%) the foramen ovale was 5-10mm in diameter and asymmetrical. Deficiency of the medial bony wall including persistent foramen lacerum medius was seen in five cases (3.1%). Confluence of the foramen ovale and the foramen spinosum was seen in 13 cases (8%) and confluence of the foramen ovale and the foramen of Vesalius in 23 (14.1%). Posterolateral groove for the accessory meningeal artery was observed in 36 cases (22%). The foramen spinosum was asymmetrical in 42 cases (25.8%). A small or absent foramen spinosum with a larger ipsilateral foramen ovale was observed in 11 cases (6.7%). Medial bony defect was seen in 16 cases (9.8%). The foramen spinosum was absent in four cases (2.5%). In 74 cases (45.4%), the foramen of Vesalius was absent; it was present unilaterally and bilaterally in 55 (33.7%) and 34 cases (20.9%), respectively. Five cases showed duplicated foramina. Canaliculus innominatus was seen in 14 cases (8.9%) and was present bilaterally in three (1.8%). HRCT clearly delineates bony structure and is well able to display the rich spectrum of anatomic variation found in the base of the skull. The recognition of these normal variants will result in a better understanding of skull base neurovascular anatomy and diminish speculation as to their true nature during the interpretation of CT images.

  4. Towards Temporal Graph Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Alexander; Mozzino, Jorge; Vaisman, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the extensive literature on graph databases (GDBs), temporal GDBs have not received too much attention so far. Temporal GBDs can capture, for example, the evolution of social networks across time, a relevant topic in data analysis nowadays. In this paper we propose a data model and query language (denoted TEG-QL) for temporal GDBs, based on the notion of attribute graphs. This allows a straightforward translation to Neo4J, a well-known GBD. We present extensive examples of the use...

  5. The effects of intrathecal injection of a hyaluronan-based hydrogel on inflammation, scarring and neurobehavioural outcomes in a rat model of severe spinal cord injury associated with arachnoiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James W; Kang, Catherine E; Baumann, M Douglas; DiDiodato, Lisa; Satkunendrarajah, Kajana; Wilson, Jefferson R; Stanisz, Greg J; Shoichet, Molly S; Fehlings, Michael G

    2012-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) comprises a heterogeneous condition caused by a complex array of mechanical forces that damage the spinal cord - making each case somewhat unique. In addition to parenchymal injury, a subset of patients experience severe inflammation in the subarachnoid space or arachnoiditis, which can lead to the development of fluid-filled cavities/syringes, a condition called post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS). Currently, there are no therapeutic means to address this devastating complication in patients and furthermore once PTS is diagnosed, treatment is often prone to failure. We hypothesized that reducing subarachnoid inflammation using a novel bioengineered strategy would improve outcome in a rodent model of PTS. A hydrogel of hyaluronan and methyl cellulose (HAMC) was injected into the subarachnoid space 24 h post PTS injury in rats. Intrathecal injection of HAMC reduced the extent of fibrosis and inflammation in the subarachnoid space. Furthermore, HAMC promoted improved neurobehavioural recovery, enhanced axonal conduction and reduced the extent of the lesion as assessed by MRI and histomorphometric assessment. These findings were additionally associated with a reduction in the post-traumatic parenchymal fibrous scar formation as evidenced by reduced CSPG deposition and reduced IL-1α cytokine levels. Our data suggest that HAMC is capable of modulating inflammation and scarring events, leading to improved functional recovery following severe SCI associated with arachnoiditis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacted cisterna magna without syringomyelia associated with lancinating headache, throbbed nuchal pain and paraparesis treated byposterior fossa decompression Cisterna magna impactada sem siringomielia associada a cefaléia lancinante, dor na nuca terebrante e paraparesia tratadas com descompressão da fossa posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman with acute lancinating headache, throbbed nuchal pain and subacute paraparesis underwent brain MRI in supine position that depicted: the absence of the cisterna magna, filled by non herniated cerebellar tonsils and compression of the brain stem and cisternae of the posterior fossa, which are aspects of the impacted cisterna magna without syringomyelia and without hydrocephalus. During eight days, pain was constant and resistant to drug treatment. Osteodural-neural decompression of the posterior fossa, performed with the patient in sitting position, revealed: compression of the brainstem, fourth ventricle and foramen of Magendie by herniated cerebellar tonsils, which were aspirated. Immediately after surgery, the headache and nuchal pain remmited. MRI depicted the large created cisterna magna and also that the cerebellar tonsils did not compress the fourth ventricle, the foramen of Magendie and the brainstem, besides the enlargement of posterior fossa cisternae. Four months after surgery, headache, nuchal pain and paraparesis had disappeared but hyperactive patellar and Achilles reflexes remained.Uma paciente de 29 anos de idade com quadro agudo de cefaléia lancinante, dor terebrante na nuca e paraparesia subaguda foi submetida a RM do encéfalo, em posição supina, que revelou: ausência da cisterna magna, preenchida por tonsilas cerebelares não herniadas e compressão do tronco encefálico e das cisternas da fossa posterior, compatíveis com o diagnóstico de cisterna magna impactada sem siringomielia e sem hidrocefalia. Por oito dias a dor foi constante e resistente aos analgésicos. Com a paciente em posição sentada, foi realizada descompressão osteodural-neural da fossa posterior associada a aspiração das tonsilas cerebelares. Os achados perioperatórios foram caracterizados por herniação das tonsilas cerebelares que comprimiam o tronco cerebral, o quarto ventrículo e o forame de Magendie. No p

  7. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy Temporal lobe seizure Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. During a temporal lobe seizure, you ... include: A sudden sense of unprovoked fear A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  9. Multisensory temporal numerosity judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippi, T.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    In temporal numerosity judgment, observers systematically underestimate the number of pulses. The strongest underestimations occur when stimuli are presented with a short interstimulus interval (ISI) and are stronger for vision than for audition and touch. We investigated if multisensory

  10. Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Eduard; Kumar, Balagobal Santosh; Mirsattari, Seyed M.

    2012-01-01

    Complex partial seizures (CPSs) can present with various semiologies, while mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a well-recognized cause of CPS, neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy (nTLE) albeit being less common is increasingly recognized as separate disease entity. Differentiating the two remains a challenge for epileptologists as many symptoms overlap due to reciprocal connections between the neocortical and the mesial temporal regions. Various studies have attempted to correctly localize the seizure focus in nTLE as patients with this disorder may benefit from surgery. While earlier work predicted poor outcomes in this population, recent work challenges those ideas yielding good outcomes in part due to better localization using improved anatomical and functional techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the diagnostic workup, particularly the application of recent advances in electroencephalography and functional brain imaging, in neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22953057

  11. Massive temporal lobe cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  12. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waidyasekara, Pasan; Dowthwaite, Samuel A; Stephenson, Ellison; Bhuta, Sandeep; McMonagle, Brent

    2015-01-01

    .... There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma...

  13. A new isocentric technique for exact geometric matching in the radiotherapy of the breast and ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa using dual asymmetric jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Nando

    2012-10-01

    In some clinical situations breast or chest wall radiotherapy for cancer is given in association with supraclavicular fossa irradiation. Often the treatment is delivered by two tangential fields to the breast or chest wall and an anterior field that irradiates the supraclavicular region. The tissue between the breast or chest wall and the supraclavicular region may be under or overdosed, because of the junction between the two tangential fields and the anterior field. To present a new isocentric technique for exact geometric matching between the two tangential fields and the anterior field. Patients are positioned with both arms raised. Using three-dimensional trigonometry, two half-fields, with isocenter between the breast and the supraclavicular region, are easily matched. The tangential fields have a collimator rotation to protect the lung without additional shielding. The correct gantry, collimator and couch positions are defined for the anterior field to match the tangential fields. A general formula for exact geometric matching in radiotherapy of the breast and supraclavicular fossa is presented. The method does not require additional shielding to eliminate divergence other than the four independent jaws. The result is simple to implement in modern delivery facilities. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treating Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea without Dura Repair: A Case Report of Posterior Fossa Choroid Plexus Papilloma and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechanoine, François; Zemmoura, Ilyess; Velut, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Choroid plexus papilloma revealed by nontraumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea has only been described 5 times, to our knowledge, in the literature. The challenges in this situation are to recognize CSF leak, to rapidly understand the pathophysiology of the leak, and to choose the best treatment strategy in emergency. We report an original case of posterior fossa choroid plexus papilloma revealed by CSF leak. We then discuss the surgical strategy and the pathophysiology of CSF leak, which is explained, in this case, by both hyperproduction of CSF and local skull base erosion. We report the case of a 47-year-old man who has developed spontaneous rhinorrhea, right hearing loss, and confusion. A choroid plexus papilloma of the right cerebellomedullary cistern was diagnosed. Hydrocephalus and pneumocephalus were associated with an erosion of the homolateral skull base. The patient underwent surgical total tumor removal by a median suboccipital approach after implantation of a temporary external ventricular drainage. The patient recovered completely without any recurrence of CSF rhinorrhea. The 5-month postoperative images show total bone re-growth and resolution of hydrocephalus. Our case shows that 1) causal reasoning is of major importance when dealing with CSF rhinorrhea and that 2) dura repair can be avoided when treating CSF leak secondary to posterior fossa choroid plexus papilloma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impairment of intellectual functions after surgery and posterior fossa irradiation in children with ependymoma is related to age and neurologic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalifa Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the neuropsychological outcome of children treated with surgery and posterior fossa irradiation for localized infratentorial ependymoma. Methods 23 patients (age 0.3 – 14 years at diagnosis who were treated with local posterior fossa irradiation (54 Gy underwent one (4 patients or sequential (19 patients neuropsychologic evaluation. The last evaluation was performed at a median of 4.5 (1 to 15.5 years after RT. Results Mean last full scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ and PIQ were 89.1, 94.0, and 86.2 respectively. All patients had difficulties with reading, and individual patients showed deficits in visuospatial, memory and attentional tasks. There was no trend for deterioration of intellectual outcome over time. All 5 children with IQ scores ≤ 75 were under the age of four at diagnosis. There was a significant association between the presence of cerebellar deficits and impaired IQ (72.0 vs 95.2, p Conclusion Within the evaluated cohort, intellectual functions were moderately impaired. Markedly reduced IQ scores were only seen with early disease manifestation and treatment, and postoperative neurological deficits had a strong impact on intellectual outcome.

  16. MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF THE GLENOID FOSSA WITH THE LABRUM ATTACHED. Parámetros morfométricos de la fosa glenoidea con el labrum incluido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abduelmenem Alashkham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The height and width of the glenoid fossa is important in total shoulder replacement. Previous studies, using different methods, have reported differences in glenoid fossa height and width. The current study aims to provide the morphometric parameters of the glenoid fossa with the labrum attached. Material and Methods: One hundred and forty shoulders from 30 males and 40 females were dissected and measurements taken. Exposure of the glenoid fossa with the labrum attached was undertaken, followed by direct measurement of glenoid height, width and level of maximum width using digital calipers. Data were double-entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 21. Kruskal-Wallis and One Way Analysis of Variance on Ranks tests were used. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Results: The overall mean height, width and the level of maximum width for both genders were 38.94 mm, 30.50 mm and 17.14 mm respectively. However, the mean height, width and level of maximum width were significantly greater in males than females (P<0.001 for each. Conclusion: The mean height, width and the level of maximum width with the glenoid labrum attached were significantly greater in males than females. It suggests that the increase in height and width is due to the glenoid labrum is proportionate to the height and width of the glenoid fossa thus accounting for the difference between males and females remaining significant with or without the glenoid labrum.  Introducción: La altura y la anchura de la cavidad glenoidea es importante en el reemplazo total de hombro. Estudios previos, utilizando diferentes métodos, han presentado diferencias respecto a la altura y a la anchura de la cavidad glenoidea. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo proporcionar los parámetros morfométricos de la fosa glenoidea con el labrum incluido. Materiales y métodos: Se disecaron y tomaron medidas de ciento cuarenta hombros pertenecientes a

  17. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  18. Meningoencephalocele of the temporal bone: pictorial essay on transmastoid extradural-intracranial repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjila, Sunil; Wick, Cameron C; Cramer, John; Semaan, Maroun T; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; Selman, Warren R; Megerian, Cliff A

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous meningoencephalocele of the temporal bone may present with effusion in the middle ear, a cerebrospinal fluid leak, hearing loss, or rarely otitic meningitis. Repair of spontaneous encephaloceles in the temporal bone has been performed using transmastoid and transcranial middle fossa approaches or a combination of the two with varied results. The authors present a technical paper on the transmastoid extradural intracranial approach for the management of temporal lobe encephaloceles. Case reports and cadaver dissections are used to provide a pictorial essay on the technique. Advantages and disadvantages compared with alternative surgical approaches are discussed. Traditional transmastoid approaches are less morbid compared with a transcranial repair as they avoid brain retraction. However, in the past, there has been a higher risk of graft failure and hearing loss due to downward graft migration and a potential need for ossicular disarticulation. For the appropriate lesion, the transmastoid extradural intracranial approach lesion offers a stable meningoencephalocele repair without the comorbidity of brain retraction. The authors describe a transmastoid extradural intracranial technique via case reports and cadaver dissections for the repair of spontaneous meningoencephalocele defects larger than 2 cm. This approach provides more support to the graft compared to the conventional transmastoid repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Temporal Bone Presenting with Headache and Partial Facial Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletke, Stephanie N.; Popovic, Snezana; Algird, Almunder; Alobaid, Abdullah; Reddy, Kesava K. V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign bony lesions that rarely affect the skull base. Very few cases of temporal bone ABCs have been reported. We describe the first case of a temporal bone ABC that was thought to be consistent with a meningioma based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Clinical Presentation An otherwise healthy 23-year-old woman presented with a pulsatile noise in her left ear and a 4-week history of throbbing headache with nausea. There was no associated emesis, visual or auditory changes, or other neurologic features. Neurologic examination revealed a left lower motor neuron facial paresis. Computed tomography and MRI studies demonstrated a large lesion in the left middle cranial fossa skull base with erosion of the petrous temporal bone. Based on the presence of a “dural tail” on preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, the lesion was interpreted to likely be consistent with a meningioma. An orbitozygomatic approach was utilized for surgical excision. Histopathologic evaluation was consistent with an ABC. Conclusion Postoperatively the patient had improvement in the lower motor neuron facial paresis. It is important to consider ABC in the differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions accompanied by the dural tail sign on MRI. PMID:26251800

  20. Quantifying temporal bone morphology of great apes and humans: an approach using geometric morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles A; Lynch, John M; Kimbel, William H

    2002-01-01

    The hominid temporal bone offers a complex array of morphology that is linked to several different functional systems. Its frequent preservation in the fossil record gives the temporal bone added significance in the study of human evolution, but its morphology has proven difficult to quantify. In this study we use techniques of 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify differences among humans and great apes and discuss the results in a phylogenetic context. Twenty-three landmarks on the ectocranial surface of the temporal bone provide a high level of anatomical detail. Generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) is used to register (adjust for position, orientation and scale) landmark data from 405 adults representing Homo, Pan, Gorilla and Pongo. Principal components analysis of residuals from the GPA shows that the major source of variation is between humans and apes. Human characteristics such as a coronally orientated petrous axis, a deep mandibular fossa, a projecting mastoid process, and reduced lateral extension of the tympanic element strongly impact the analysis. In phenetic cluster analyses, gorillas and orangutans group together with respect to chimpanzees, and all apes group together with respect to humans. Thus, the analysis contradicts depictions of African apes as a single morphotype. Gorillas and orangutans lack the extensive preglenoid surface of chimpanzees, and their mastoid processes are less medially inflected. These and other characters shared by gorillas and orangutans are probably primitive for the African hominid clade. PMID:12489757

  1. Vivienda temporal para refugiados

    OpenAIRE

    Amonarraiz Gutiérrez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto se centra en el diseño y desarrollo de un espacio destinado a vivienda temporal para dar hogar a personas que han perdido su casa. Este tipo de vivienda es fundamental dentro del proceso de recuperación post-desastre ya que la construcción inmediata de viviendas permanentes es utópica. El objetivo principal es la construcción de una vivienda temporal formada por elementos prefabricados, logrando así una mayor rapidez en su montaje. Esto también permitirá que cualquier component...

  2. SINGLE STAGE VENTRAL ONLAY BUCCAL MUCOSAL GRAFT URETHROPLASTY BASED ON TUNICA VAGINALIS FLAP FOR BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS RELATED URETHRAL MEATAL AND NAVICULAR FOSSA STRICTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Kumar G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO, also known as lichen sclerosus of penis is a chronic, progressive disease of the glans and prepuce that leads to phimosis and stricture of the urethra that can extend from the meatus and glanular urethra to the prostatic urethra. Urinary and sexual functions are affected and there is a severe reduction in quality of life. Many patients have been initially treated with tacrolimus or circumcision, when the disease has involved the prepuce and glans superficially, but conservative management has a limited role in this condition. Once stricture develops, surgical intervention in the form of grafts or flaps becomes necessary. We present our results with single-stage Ventral Onlay Buccal Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty (VOBMGU based on tunica vaginalis flap for BXO related strictures of meatus and fossa navicularis. MATERIALS AND METHODS From July 2014, six patients who underwent single stage Ventral Onlay Buccal Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty Graft (VOBMGU based on tunica vaginalis flap for BXO related strictures of urethral meatus and navicular fossa were included in the study. Patients presenting with BXO were clinically assessed for the extent of involvement as having BXO affecting the foreskin, glans, meatus, penile shaft, urethra and scrotum. They were radiologically assessed with a retrograde urethrogram and ultrasound abdomen. Outcome was assessed in terms of uroflowmetry, cosmetic appearance, stricture recurrence and complications. RESULTS Patients were reviewed every three months for over one year and six monthly. Only one patient had mild stenosis of the urethral meatus, as evidenced by change in flow, which was treated successfully with dilatation. One patient reported moderate splaying of urine, but this was mild in all other cases. All patients had a normal slit-like meatus, satisfactory voiding and sexual functions. CONCLUSION Isolated involvement of fossa navicularis and meatal stenosis stricture

  3. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  4. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  5. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...

  6. Mesial temporal sclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    2005-07-29

    Jul 29, 2005 ... Introduction. Mesial temporal sclerosis is the commonest cause of partial complex seizures. The aetiology of this condi- tion is controversial, but it is postulat- ed that both acquired and develop- mental processes may be involved. Familial cases have also been reported. Magnetic resonance imaging. (MRI) ...

  7. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  8. Communication, Technology, Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Martinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a media studies that foregrounds technological objects as communicative and historical agents. Specifically, I take the digital computer as a powerful catalyst of crises in communication theories and certain key features of modernity. Finally, the computer is the motor of “New Media” which is at once a set of technologies, a historical epoch, and a field of knowledge. As such the computer shapes “the new” and “the future” as History pushes its origins further in the past and its convergent quality pushes its future as a predominate medium. As treatment of information and interface suggest, communication theories observe computers, and technologies generally, for the mediated languages they either afford or foreclose to us. My project describes the figures information and interface for the different ways they can be thought of as aspects of communication. I treat information not as semantic meaning, formal or discursive language, but rather as a physical organism. Similarly an interface is not a relationship between a screen and a human visual intelligence, but is instead a reciprocal, affective and physical process of contact. I illustrate that historically there have been conceptions of information and interface complimentary to mine, fleeting as they have been in the face of a dominant temporality of mediation. I begin with a theoretically informed approach to media history, and extend it to a new theory of communication. In doing so I discuss a model of time common to popular, scientific, and critical conceptions of media technologies especially in theories of computer technology. This is a predominate model with particular rules of temporal change and causality for thinking about mediation, and limits the conditions of possibility for knowledge production about communication. I suggest a new model of time as integral to any event of observation and analysis, and that human mediation does not exhaust the

  9. Posterior reduction and internal fixation with posterior cranial fossa cranioectomy decompression for Chiari malformation type Ⅰ with basilar invagination, atlantoaxial subluxation, and syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Peng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Chiari malformation type Ⅰ(CM-Ⅰ is one of the soft tissue anomalies in craniovertebral junction (CVJ. This kind of soft tissue anomaly usually develops with bone anomaly, such as atlantoaxial subluxation, basilar invagination, platybasia, C1 assimilation, etc. For these complex combined anomalies, the treatment remains unaddressed. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of posterior reduction and internal fixation with posterior cranial fossa cranioectomy decompression for Chiari malformation type Ⅰ with basilar invagination, atlantoaxial subluxation, and syringomyelia. Methods Patients with basilar invagination and atlantoaxial subluxation treated from July 2004 to September 2011 were reviewed. Including criterions were made to screen matching patients. Including patients were retrospectively analyzed on both clinical outcomes and radiographical results. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score was used to evaluate the clinical outcomes, while the syrinx maximum size was measured on transverse view of MRI T2 image. The results were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 using t -text. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. Results Fourteen patients met the including criterions, including 4 male patients and 10 female patients, with a mean age of 31.86 ± 11.36 (standard deviation, range: 17-51 years. Mean JOA score preoperatively of 14 patients was 13.07 ± 1.59 (standard deviation, while that was 15.57 ± 1.02 (standard deviation postoperatively (t = 9.946, P = 0.000. The mean syrinx size was (7.05 ± 1.98 mm (standard deviation, while that was (2.21 ± 1.91 mm (standard deviation postoperatively (t = 7.271, P = 0.000. There were no procedure-related morbidity or mortality happened. Conclusion Direct posterior reduction and internal fixation with posterior cranial fossa cranioectomy decompression can obviously improve the clinical outcomes and shrink syrinx for patients suffered from Chiari malformation typeⅠ with

  10. Role of urethral plate and fossa navicularis biopsies in the detection of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys undergoing redo hypospadias repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sultan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the presence of balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO, clinically and pathologically, in the urethra of boys with failed previous hypospadias repair and where surgical management was planned. Patients and methods: Between February 2010 and March 2015, boys with failed distal penile hypospadias repair who were planned for surgical management were evaluated for the presence of clinical and pathological evidence of BXO. Samples were obtained from the urethral plate and fossa navicularis, after obtaining informed consent and ethical approval. The samples were fixed, sectioned, and haematoxylin and eosin stained for light microscopic examination. Results: In all, 157 boys were enrolled in our study, with a mean (SD age of 6.4 (2.8 years. All the boys had a history of failed hypospadias repair surgeries (once or more. The presentation was fistula in 34 boys (21.7%, meatal stenosis in 45 (28.7%, urethral stricture in 28 (17.8%, and total dehiscence in 50 (31.8%. BXO was detected clinically in 46 boys (29.3%. The total number of biopsies taken was 314, of which 124 (39.5% were pathologically BXO-positive samples. Of the 157 boys, BXO-positive cases were clinically associated with fistula in seven boys (4.5%, meatal stenosis in 18 (10.8%, urethral stricture in seven (4.5%, and total dehiscence in 15 (9.6%. Of the 314 pathological samples, pathologically BXO-positive samples were associated with fistula in 20 samples (6.4%, meatal stenosis in 40 (12.7%, urethral stricture in 22 (7%, and total dehiscence in 42 (13.4%. Conclusions: In failed hypospadias cases BXO should be considered, especially for cases with multiple failures, meatal stenosis, and total dehiscence. Urethral plate and fossa navicularis biopsies are important in planning a proper approach for subsequent repair. Keywords: Balanitis xerotica obliterans, Lichen sclerosus, Hypospadias

  11. A Peek into a Cul-De-Sac and a Mews of Martian Dust Storm Activity: Western Hellas and Syria-Claritas Fossae During Mars Year 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.

    2016-12-01

    Western Hellas Planitia (WHP) and the region encompassed by Syria Planum and Claritas Fossae are the main centers of textured dust storm activity in Mars's southern low to mid-latitudes. (Texture in this context refers to distinct fine structure at the cloud tops indicative of active lifting.) WHP is a well-known initiation zone for regional and global dust storm activity and often the end point of the Utopia "flushing storm" track. Syria-Claritas Fossae (SCF), too, can be a lifting center in global dust storm activity. Indeed, SCF and the area to its west was the region most denuded of dust by the Mars Year (MY) 25 global dust storm, perhaps suggesting that SCF contained the principal lifting center of the storm. Thus, if the Acidalia and Utopia storm tracks are Mars's dust storm alleys, through which dust storms pass quickly again and again; WHP might be a cul-de-sac and SCF something like a mews, where dust storm activity can enter more or less easily but may not as easily leave. In this presentation, I will focus on dust storm activity in these areas in a typical non-global dust storm year, MY 29. Synthesizing visible imagery by the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) also on board MRO, I will consider the climatology, morphology, texture, and vertical structure of dust storm activity in these areas in order to infer their governing dynamics. This investigation has two aims: (1) to understand why these areas are centers of textured dust storm activity; and (2) to connect the characteristics of smaller-scale dust storm activity in these regions to the underlying dynamics in order to understand the role of WHP and SCF in the dynamics of global dust storms. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G).

  12. A morphometric study of the atlas occipitalization and coexisted congenital anomalies of the vertebrae and posterior cranial fossa with neurological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Lyrtzis, Christos; Totlis, Trifon; Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Piagkou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Our study highlights the morphometry of the partial and complete atlas occipitalization (AOZ), its coexistence with fusions of the 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae and morphological and morphometric abnormalities of the posterior cranial fossa that are of paramount neurological importance. One hundred and eighty adult dry skulls, the atlas and axis vertebrae were examined. Four skulls (2.2 %) showed AOZ. Two of them (1.1 %) presented a partial AOZ, one male skull (0.6 %) a complete AOZ and a female skull (0.6 %) had a fused left hemiatlas with the occipital bone and a fusion of the 2nd and 3rd cervical vertebrae. The inner anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the foramen magnum (FM) in the control group were 34.6 ± 3.46 and 29.3 ± 3.47 mm. Only the skull with the complete AOZ had a reduced outer anteroposterior diameter of the FM (29.8 mm), while no specimen was found with a reduced transverse diameter. A wide total decrease (range 13.1-50.9 %) in the surface area of the FM in skulls with AOZ was detected. Extracranial, the clivus length in two skulls with AOZ was smaller than the normal range. No skull was detected with a reduction in the intracranial length of the clivus. All skulls with the AOZ had a vermian fossa. The study adds important morphometric details about the partial and complete AOZ and correlates the phenomenon of synostosis with the narrowing of the FM, particularly in the case of complete AOZ. Awareness of the AOZ and other fusions of the upper cervical vertebrae and their topographical relations and attendant problems are of paramount importance to surgeons, when operate to the craniocervical junction, or interpret imaging studies to plan a safe surgery for nerve or spinal tissue decompression.

  13. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological difference...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience...

  14. Temporal lobe epilepsy semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert D G

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy represents a multifaceted group of disorders divided into two broad categories, partial and generalized, based on the seizure onset zone. The identification of the neuroanatomic site of seizure onset depends on delineation of seizure semiology by a careful history together with video-EEG, and a variety of neuroimaging technologies such as MRI, fMRI, FDG-PET, MEG, or invasive intracranial EEG recording. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the commonest form of focal epilepsy and represents almost 2/3 of cases of intractable epilepsy managed surgically. A history of febrile seizures (especially complex febrile seizures) is common in TLE and is frequently associated with mesial temporal sclerosis (the commonest form of TLE). Seizure auras occur in many TLE patients and often exhibit features that are relatively specific for TLE but few are of lateralizing value. Automatisms, however, often have lateralizing significance. Careful study of seizure semiology remains invaluable in addressing the search for the seizure onset zone.

  15. Geologic Mapping of the Nili Fossae Region of Mars: MTM Quadrangles 20287, 20282, 25287, 25282, 30287, and 30282

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III; Crown, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic mapping studies at the 1:1M-scale are being used to assess geologic materials and processes that shape the highlands along the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary. In particular, this mapping will provide a regional context and evaluate the distribution, stratigraphic position, and potential lateral continuity of compositionally distinct outcrops identified by spectral instruments currently in orbit (i.e., CRISM and OMEGA). Placing these landscapes, their material units, structural features, and unique compositional outcrops into spatial and temporal context with the remainder of the Arabia Terra dichotomy boundary may provide constraints on: 1) origin of the dichotomy boundary, 2) paleoenvironments and climate conditions, and 3) various fluvial-nival modification processes related to past and present volatile distribution and their putative reservoirs (aquifers, lakes and oceans, surface and ground ice) and the influences of nearby volcanic and tectonic features on hydrologic processes, including hydrothermal alteration, across the region.

  16. Inflammatory effusion of the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension into the middle fossa: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Eddelman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report an unusual case of a 60-year-old female with headache and jaw pain found to have a peripherally enhancing subtemporal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. The patient underwent craniotomy for resection of this extradural lesion. Pathology confirmed the lesion as benign cyst components. There were no complications during surgery and the patient remained neurologically intact. The subject's headaches resolved with marginally improved jaw pain. Follow-up imaging at two years after surgery showed no lesion or recurrence of effusion. The final diagnosis was an inflammatory effusion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ that resulted in intracranial extension by erosion through the skull base. Surgical resection via temporal craniotomy proved to be a safe and effective means of diagnosis and treatment with good long-term results.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  18. Anatomy of the infratemporal crest: implications for cross-facial nerve grafting in temporal myoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asha; Lo, Steven; Nduka, Charles; Adds, Philip

    2012-03-01

    Temporalis transfers for reanimation in facial palsy have been criticised for the lack of neural input from a functioning facial nerve. Cross-facial nerve grafting to the deep temporal nerves may provide a solution. An anatomical study was performed to further elucidate the deep temporal nerves (DTN) and arteries, examining anatomical variation and infratemporal distribution. Seventeen temporalis muscles were dissected from 13 cadavers as part of a BSc project. The number, branching pattern, length and diameter of DTN were recorded. Arteries supplying the deep surface of temporalis and their relation to DTN were noted. Six specimens were processed using Sihler's staining technique. Arteries were injected with Iodixanol X-ray contrast medium and radiographs taken. All specimens displayed a single DTN originating from the anterior branch of V(3). A mean of 3 branches was observed. The nerve length was 14.22±3.95 mm. The point of entry of DTN into temporalis showed great consistency. Upon exiting the infratemporal fossa, the posterior deep temporal artery was deep and posterior to DTN in 65% of specimens. The branching pattern of DTN can be classified into three types. The deep arterial supply to temporalis was constant in all specimens. This study provides an anatomical basis for the planning and execution of cross-facial nerve grafting to temporalis, and for protection of vital structures. Furthermore, it helps to clarify inconsistencies in the literature regarding nomenclature of the nerve branching pattern of the deep temporal nerves. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Human Foramen Magnum Area and Posterior Cranial Fossa Volume Growth in Relation to Cranial Base Synchondrosis Closure in the Course of Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Guillaume; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques; Di Rocco, Federico; Barthélémy, Isabelle; Garcier, Jean-Marc; De Schlichting, Emmanuel; Sakka, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    To date, no study has compared the evolution of the foramen magnum area (FMA) and the posterior cranial fossa volume (PCFV) with the degree of cranial base synchondrosis ossification. To illustrate these features in healthy children. The FMA, the PCFV, and the ossification of 12 synchondroses according to the Madeline and Elster scale were retrospectively analyzed in 235 healthy children using millimeter slices on a computed tomography scan. The mean FMA of 6.49 cm in girls was significantly inferior to the FMA of 7.67 cm in boys (P < .001). In both sexes, the growth evolved in a 2-phase process, with a phase of rapid growth from birth to 3.75 years old (yo) followed by a phase of stabilization. In girls, the first phase was shorter (ending at 2.6 yo) than in boys (ending at 4.33 yo) and proceeded at a higher rate. PCFV was smaller in girls (P < .001) and displayed a biphasic pattern in the whole population, with a phase of rapid growth from birth to 3.58 yo followed by a phase of slow growth until 16 yo. In girls, the first phase was more active and shorter (ending at 2.67 yo) than in boys (ending at 4.5 yo). The posterior interoccipital synchondroses close first, followed by the anterior interoccipital and occipitomastoidal synchondroses, the lambdoid sutures simultaneously, then the petro-occipital and spheno-occipital synchondroses simultaneously. The data provide a chronology of synchondrosis closure. We showed that FMA and PCFV are constitutionally smaller in girls at birth (P ≤ .02) and suggest that a sex-related difference in the FMA is related to earlier closure of anterior interoccipital synchondroses in girls (P = .01). AIOS, anterior interoccipital synchondrosesFMA, foramen magnum areaLS, lambdoid suturesOMS, occipitomastoidal synchondrosesPCFV, posterior cranial fossa volumePIOS, posterior interoccipital synchondrosesPOS, petro-occipital synchondrosesSOS, spheno-occipital synchondrosisyo, years old.

  20. Discovering metric temporal constraint networks on temporal databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Miguel R; Félix, Paulo; Cariñena, Purificación

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we propose the ASTPminer algorithm for mining collections of time-stamped sequences to discover frequent temporal patterns, as represented in the simple temporal problem (STP) formalism: a representation of temporal knowledge as a set of event types and a set of metric temporal constraints among them. To focus the mining process, some initial knowledge can be provided by the user, also expressed as an STP, that acts as a seed pattern for the searching procedure. In this manner, the mining algorithm will search for those frequent temporal patterns consistent with the initial knowledge. Health organisations demand, for multiple areas of activity, new computational tools that will obtain new knowledge from huge collections of data. Temporal data mining has arisen as an active research field that provides new algorithms for discovering new temporal knowledge. An important point in defining different proposals is the expressiveness of the resulting temporal knowledge, which is commonly found in the bibliography in a qualitative form. ASTPminer develops an Apriori-like strategy in an iterative algorithm where, as a result of each iteration i, a set of frequent temporal patterns of size i is found that incorporates three distinctive mechanisms: (1) use of a clustering procedure over distributions of temporal distances between events to recognise similar occurrences as temporal patterns; (2) consistency checking of every combination of temporal patterns, which ensures the soundness of the resultant patterns; and (3) use of seed patterns to allow the user to drive the mining process. To validate our proposal, several experiments were conducted over a database of time-stamped sequences obtained from polysomnography tests in patients with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. ASTPminer was able to extract well-known temporal patterns corresponding to different manifestations of the syndrome. Furthermore, the use of seed patterns resulted in a reduction in the size of