Sample records for template biopolymerization processes

  1. Template-Directed Biopolymerization: Tape-Copying Turing Machines (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish


    DNA, RNA and proteins are among the most important macromolecules in a living cell. These molecules are polymerized by molecular machines. These natural nano-machines polymerize such macromolecules, adding one monomer at a time, using another linear polymer as the corresponding template. The machine utilizes input chemical energy to move along the template which also serves as a track for the movements of the machine. In the Alan Turing year 2012, it is worth pointing out that these machines are "tape-copying Turing machines". We review the operational mechanisms of the polymerizer machines and their collective behavior from the perspective of statistical physics, emphasizing their common features in spite of the crucial differences in their biological functions. We also draw the attention of the physics community to another class of modular machines that carry out a different type of template-directed polymerization. We hope this review will inspire new kinetic models for these modular machines.

  2. Nozzleless Fabrication of Oil-Core Biopolymeric Microcapsules by the Interfacial Gelation of Pickering Emulsion Templates. (United States)

    Leong, Jun-Yee; Tey, Beng-Ti; Tan, Chin-Ping; Chan, Eng-Seng


    Ionotropic gelation has been an attractive method for the fabrication of biopolymeric oil-core microcapsules due to its safe and mild processing conditions. However, the mandatory use of a nozzle system to form the microcapsules restricts the process scalability and the production of small microcapsules (microcapsules through ionotropic gelation at the interface of an O/W Pickering emulsion. This approach involves the self-assembly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles at the interface of O/W emulsion droplets followed by the addition of a polyanionic biopolymer into the aqueous phase. Subsequently, CaCO3 nanoparticles are dissolved by pH reduction, thus liberating Ca(2+) ions to cross-link the surrounding polyanionic biopolymer to form a shell that encapsulates the oil droplet. We demonstrate the versatility of this method by fabricating microcapsules from different types of polyanionic biopolymers (i.e., alginate, pectin, and gellan gum) and water-immiscible liquid cores (i.e., palm olein, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, and toluene). In addition, small microcapsules with a mean size smaller than 100 μm can be produced by selecting the appropriate conventional emulsification methods available to prepare the Pickering emulsion. The simplicity and versatility of this method allows biopolymeric microcapsules to be fabricated with ease by ionotropic gelation for numerous applications.

  3. Multi input single output model predictive control of non-linear bio-polymerization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugasamy, Senthil Kumar; Ahmad, Z. [School of Chemical Engineering, Univerisiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan,14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)


    This paper focuses on Multi Input Single Output (MISO) Model Predictive Control of bio-polymerization process in which mechanistic model is developed and linked with the feedforward neural network model to obtain a hybrid model (Mechanistic-FANN) of lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) for Poly (ε-caprolactone) production. In this research, state space model was used, in which the input to the model were the reactor temperatures and reactor impeller speeds and the output were the molecular weight of polymer (M{sub n}) and polymer polydispersity index. State space model for MISO created using System identification tool box of Matlab™. This state space model is used in MISO MPC. Model predictive control (MPC) has been applied to predict the molecular weight of the biopolymer and consequently control the molecular weight of biopolymer. The result shows that MPC is able to track reference trajectory and give optimum movement of manipulated variable.

  4. Multi input single output model predictive control of non-linear bio-polymerization process (United States)

    Arumugasamy, Senthil Kumar; Ahmad, Z.


    This paper focuses on Multi Input Single Output (MISO) Model Predictive Control of bio-polymerization process in which mechanistic model is developed and linked with the feedforward neural network model to obtain a hybrid model (Mechanistic-FANN) of lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ɛ-caprolactone (ɛ-CL) for Poly (ɛ-caprolactone) production. In this research, state space model was used, in which the input to the model were the reactor temperatures and reactor impeller speeds and the output were the molecular weight of polymer (Mn) and polymer polydispersity index. State space model for MISO created using System identification tool box of Matlab™. This state space model is used in MISO MPC. Model predictive control (MPC) has been applied to predict the molecular weight of the biopolymer and consequently control the molecular weight of biopolymer. The result shows that MPC is able to track reference trajectory and give optimum movement of manipulated variable.

  5. US Federal LCA Commons Life Cycle Inventory Unit Process Template (United States)

    The US Federal LCA Commons Life Cycle Inventory Unit Process Template is a multi-sheet Excel template for life cycle inventory data, metadata and other documentation. The template comes as a package that consistent of three parts: (1) the main template itself for life cycle inven...

  6. Business Process Variability : A Tool for Declarative Template Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, P.; Groefsema, H.; Aiello, M.


    To lower both implementation time and cost, many Business Process Management tools use process templates to implement highly recurring processes. However, in order for such templates to be used, a process has to adhere substantially to the template. Therefore, current practice for processes which

  7. Design of a process template for amine synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Godfrey, Andy; Gregertsen, Björn

    A conceptual nitro reduction process template that should be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with sim ilar molecular functionality has been designed. The reduction process is based on a continuo us plug-flow slurry reactor. The process template aims at speeding up the proce...

  8. A generic process template for continuous pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Rozada-Sanches, Raquel; Dean, William


    In the work reported here, a conceptual generic continuous process template for pharmaceutical production is presented. The template is demonstrated on a nitro reduction case study that should in principle be generic such that it can handle a series of substrates with similar molecular...

  9. Excel Template For Processing Examination Results For Higher

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: In this work, we designed, developed and implemented an examination result processing template for all the Postgraduate programmes in the Faculty of Science, Kaduna State. University, Kaduna. The designed template when fed in with data computes and grades students appropriately. Its design was done ...

  10. General Template for the FMEA Applications in Primary Food Processing. (United States)

    Özilgen, Sibel; Özilgen, Mustafa

    Data on the hazards involved in the primary steps of processing cereals, fruit and vegetables, milk and milk products, meat and meat products, and fats and oils are compiled with a wide-ranging literature survey. After determining the common factors from these data, a general FMEA template is offered, and its use is explained with a case study on pasteurized milk production.

  11. Modelling Template for the Development of the Process Flowsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Gani, Rafiqul


    provides building blocks for the templates (generic models previously developed); 3) computer aided methods and tools, that include procedures to perform model translation, model analysis, model verification/validation, model solution and model documentation. In this work, the integrated use of all three......Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals/bio-chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Model-based methods and tools have the potential to decrease the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and point to candidates...

  12. Using templates and linguistic patterns to define process performance indicators (United States)

    del-Río-Ortega, Adela; Resinas, Manuel; Durán, Amador; Ruiz-Cortés, Antonio


    Process performance management (PPM) aims at measuring, monitoring and analysing the performance of business processes (BPs), in order to check the achievement of strategic and operational goals and to support decision-making for their optimisation. PPM is based on process performance indicators (PPIs), so having an appropriate definition of them is crucial. One of the main problems of PPIs definition is to express them in an unambiguous, complete, understandable, traceable and verifiable manner. In practice, PPIs are defined informally - usually in ad hoc, natural language, with its well-known problems - or they are defined from an implementation perspective, hardly understandable to non-technical people. In order to solve this problem, in this article we propose a novel approach to improve the definition of PPIs using templates and linguistic patterns. This approach promotes reuse, reduces both ambiguities and missing information, is understandable to all stakeholders and maintains traceability with the process model. Furthermore, it enables the automated processing of PPI definitions by its straightforward translation into the PPINOT metamodel, allowing the gathering of the required information for their computation as well as the analysis of the relationships between them and with BP elements.

  13. Processing of Nanosensors Using a Sacrificial Template Approach (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.; Hunter, Gary W.


    A new microsensor fabrication approach has been demonstrated based upon the use of nanostructures as templates. The fundamental idea is that existing nanostructures, such as carbon nano tubes or biological structures, have a material structure that can be used advantageously in order to provide new sensor systems but lack the advantages of some materials to, for example, operate at high temperatures. The approach is to start with a template using nanostructures such as a carbon nanotube. This template can then be coated by an oxide material with higher temperature capabilities. Upon heating in air, the carbon nanotube template is burned off, leaving only the metal oxide nanostructure. The resulting structure has a combination of the crystal structure and surface morphology of the carbon nanotube, combined with the material durability and hightemperature- sensing properties of the metal oxide. Further, since the metal oxide nanocrystals are deposited on the carbon nanotube, after burn-off what is left is a metal oxide porous nanostructure. This makes both the interior and the exterior of this nano structured sensor available for gas species detection. This, in effect, increases the surface area available for sensing, which has been shown in the past to significantly increase sensor performance.

  14. Radical change in healthcare organization: mapping transition between templates, enabling factors, and implementation processes. (United States)

    Chreim, Samia; Williams, B E; Coller, Kristene E


    The purpose of this paper is to examine: the content of radical change by mapping differences between two templates for organizing delivery of healthcare; the enabling and constraining mechanisms underlying major change from one template to another; and the processes implicated in change implementation. Longitudinal, qualitative case study design allowed the tracking, over a four-year period, of the transformation of healthcare service in a community from provider-centered, fragmented delivery to patient-centered, integrated delivery. The authors conducted 90 interviews at three intervals, observed meetings, and analyzed internal and external documents. Concepts on content, process and mechanisms were used to analyze the data. Transition from one template to another involves radical change in structures/systems and underlying values. Mechanisms precipitating and enabling change include: powerful stakeholders' dissatisfaction with current template and commitment to a new one, willingness to resource the change, provision of credible leadership, and manipulation of incentive programs. Radical change is underlain by a series of micro change processes that involve emergent, non-linear dynamics, and that follow their own track with enabling and constraining mechanisms. The paper describes a case of positive, successful change. Implications include importance of: attention to power dynamics, persistent leadership, elimination of boundaries between collaborating groups, and aligning incentives with desired practice changes; and attending to both variance and process in understanding healthcare change.

  15. Biopolymeric receptor for peptide recognition by molecular imprinting approach—Synthesis, characterization and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Lav Kumar; Singh, Monika; Singh, Meenakshi, E-mail:


    The present work is focused on the development of a biocompatible zwitterionic hydrogel for various applications in analytical chemistry. Biopolymer chitosan was derivatized to obtain a series of zwitterionic hydrogel samples. Free amino groups hanging on the biopolymeric chain were reacted with γ-butyrolactone to quaternize the N-centers of polymeric chain. N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide acts as a crosslinker via Michael-type addition in the subsequent step and facilitated gelation of betainized chitosan. These biopolymeric hydrogel samples were fully characterized by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR spectra, SEM and XRD. Hydrogels were further characterized for their swelling behavior at varying parameters. The extent of swelling was perceived to be dictated by solvent composition such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. This valuable polymeric format is herein chosen to design an artificial receptor for dipeptide ‘carnosine’, which has adequate societal significance to be analytically determined, by molecular imprinting. Electrostatic interactions along with complementary H-bonding and other hydrophobic interactions inducing additional synergetic effect between the template (carnosine) and the imprinted polymer led to the formation of imprinted sites. The MIP was able to selectively and specifically take up carnosine from aqueous solution quantitatively. Thus prepared MIPs were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM providing evidence for the quality and quantity of imprinted gels. The binding studies showed that the MIP illustrated good recognition for carnosine as compared to non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). Detection limit was estimated as 3.3 μg mL{sup −1}. Meanwhile, selectivity experiments demonstrated that imprinted gel had a high affinity to carnosine in the presence of close structural analogues (interferrants). - Highlights: • Development of a biocompatible zwitterionic hydrogel • A series of chitosan-derived zwitterionic hydrogel samples

  16. Room-Temperature-Processable Wire-Templated Nanoelectrodes for Flexible and Transparent All-Wire Electronics. (United States)

    Min, Sung-Yong; Lee, Yeongjun; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Tae-Woo


    Sophisticated preparation of arbitrarily long conducting nanowire electrodes on a large area is a significant requirement for development of transparent nanoelectronics. We report a position-customizable and room-temperature-processable metallic nanowire (NW) electrode array using aligned NW templates and a demonstration of transparent all-NW-based electronic applications by simple direct-printing. Well-controlled electroless-plating chemistry on a polymer NW template provided a highly conducting Au NW array with a very low resistivity of 7.5 μΩ cm (only 3.4 times higher than that of bulk Au), high optical transmittance (>90%), and mechanical bending stability. This method enables fabrication of all-NW-based electronic devices on various nonplanar surfaces and flexible plastic substrates. Our approach facilitates realization of advanced future electronics.

  17. Ultrahigh surface area carbon from carbonated beverages: Combining self-templating process and in situ activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jihua; Dai, Sheng


    Ultrahigh surface area carbons (USACs, e.g., >2000 m2/g) are attracting tremendous attention due to their outstanding performance in energy-related applications. The state-of-art approaches to USACs involve templating or activation methods and all these techniques show certain drawbacks. In this work, a series of USACs with specific surface areas up to 3633 m2/g were prepared in two steps: hydrothermal carbonization (200 °C) of carbonated beverages (CBs) and further thermal treatment in nitrogen (600–1000 °C). The rich inner porosity is formed by a self-templated process during which acids and polyelectrolyte sodium salts in the beverage formulas make some contribution. This strategy covers various CBs such as Coca Cola®, Pepsi Cola®, Dr. Pepper®, and Fanta® and it enables an acceptable product yield (based on sugars), for example: 21 wt% for carbon (2940 m2/g) from Coca Cola®. Being potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, those carbon materials possessed a good specific capacitance (57.2–185.7 F g-1) even at a scan rate of 1000 mV s-1. Thus, a simple and efficient strategy to USACs has been presented.

  18. Harmonic template neurons in primate auditory cortex underlying complex sound processing. (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Wang, Xiaoqin


    Harmonicity is a fundamental element of music, speech, and animal vocalizations. How the auditory system extracts harmonic structures embedded in complex sounds and uses them to form a coherent unitary entity is not fully understood. Despite the prevalence of sounds rich in harmonic structures in our everyday hearing environment, it has remained largely unknown what neural mechanisms are used by the primate auditory cortex to extract these biologically important acoustic structures. In this study, we discovered a unique class of harmonic template neurons in the core region of auditory cortex of a highly vocal New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), across the entire hearing frequency range. Marmosets have a rich vocal repertoire and a similar hearing range to that of humans. Responses of these neurons show nonlinear facilitation to harmonic complex sounds over inharmonic sounds, selectivity for particular harmonic structures beyond two-tone combinations, and sensitivity to harmonic number and spectral regularity. Our findings suggest that the harmonic template neurons in auditory cortex may play an important role in processing sounds with harmonic structures, such as animal vocalizations, human speech, and music.

  19. Aligning complex processes and electronic health record templates: a quality improvement intervention on inpatient interdisciplinary rounds. (United States)

    Mosher, Hilary J; Lose, Daniel T; Leslie, Russell; Pennathur, Priyadarshini; Kaboli, Peter J


    Interdisciplinary rounds (IDR) with documentation have become a standard of care, but the process has been incompletely described in academic general medical settings. Checklists are promoted, yet standardized formats may not reflect the variability and work flow of rounds or support the cognitive development of medical trainees. We describe IDR processes in an academic general medicine inpatient setting and present a rapid cycle quality improvement (QI) project that improved IDR documentation rates in the electronic health record. The project team observed existing daily IDR rounds on two medical inpatient units at the Iowa City VA Medical Center, with three resident teams and maximum census of 42 patients. The major intervention was a redesigned note template, with accompanying resident educational materials. The primary outcome was note completion rates by charge nurses; IDR team member satisfaction and participation, discussion time and balancing metrics (i.e., excess bed days of care, length of stay, and 30-day readmissions) were also assessed. An electronic template and accompanying educational materials designed to parallel the heuristic problem-solving activities of the IDR team led to improvements in IDR note completion rates from 27 to 69 %. Team member satisfaction was high and participation was stable. Discussion time per patient increased modestly, but varied widely between resident teams and by patient. Balancing metrics were unchanged. Unstructured evaluation indicated that documentation times were reduced, and IDR documentation became more timely and useful. IDR notes designed to support the problem-solving processes of an interdisciplinary group improved the timeliness and perceived value of IDR documentation and met regulatory standards. Aligning complex processes and educational and documentation needs during IDR may create an efficient opportunity for sustainable interdisciplinary work and learning in an academic setting.

  20. Immunomodulatory activity of biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 from Picrorhiza kurroa. (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Khajuria, Anamika; Singh, Jaswant; Bedi, K L; Satti, N K; Dutt, Prabhu; Suri, K A; Suri, O P; Qazi, G N


    In the last three decades, numerous biopolymeric fractions have been isolated from medicinal plants and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The most promising biopharmacological activities of these biopolymers are their immunomodulatory effects. The biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 was isolated and purified from the rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa. We evaluated the effects of biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 from P. kurroa on the in vivo immune function of the mouse. Balb/c mice were treated with the biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as an antigen. Haemagglutination antibody (HA) titre, plaque forming cell (PFC) assay, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, phagocytic index, proliferation of lymphocytes, analysis of cytokines in serum and CD4/CD8 population in spleen (determined by flowcytometry) were studied. At the dose of 50 mg/kg, significant increases in the proliferation of lymphocytes (p<0.001) and cytokine levels (IL-4 and IFN-gamma) in serum (p<0.001) were observed. A dose dependent increase was demonstrated in HA titre (p<0.05), DTH (p<0.01), PFC (p<0.05), phagocytic index (p<0.05) and CD4/CD8 (p<0.01) population. This suggests that the biopolymeric fraction RLJ-NE-205 improves the immune system and might be regarded as a biological response modifier.

  1. Study for creation of biopolymeric materials under microgravity; Bijuryokuka deno seitai kobunshi zairyo no sosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A study is made for the creation of biopolymeric materials under microgravity. In the synthesis of polymer grains by fast polymerization, the process of polymer grain formation by the oxidation polymerization of pyrrole and long-chain alkyl pyrroles is examined by measuring absorbance, and then it is found that the process is quite different according to the reaction conditions, that is, on the ground or under microgravity. Bacteriorhodopsin, which is a light energy converted protein, is electrodeposited on conductive glass electrodes in an experiment of forming a highly oriented thin film (under microgravity where there is little convection or little difference in specific gravity). Application to electrochemical cells is also performed. A suspension of a substance with biological affinity (chitin, etc.) and an acrylic polymer different in specific gravity from the said substance is filtered, and a thin film of homogeneous structure is obtained. Basic data such as growth rates on the ground and under microgravity are gained by the study of viscous fingering (pseudo 2-dimensional fluid phenomenon) between two planes inserted into a macromolecular water solution. A mixture of silicone oil and macromolecular solution are agitated, and it is found that homogeneous dispersion occurs under microgravity. Crystallization is also experimented of proteins and acidic protease A. 6 refs., 36 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Craniofacial Reconstruction by a Cost-Efficient Template-Based Process Using 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Msallem, MD, DMD


    Full Text Available Summary:. Craniofacial defects often result in aesthetic and functional deficits, which affect the patient’s psyche and wellbeing. Patient-specific implants remain the optimal solution, but their use is limited or impractical due to their high costs. This article describes a fast and cost-efficient workflow of in-house manufactured patient-specific implants for craniofacial reconstruction and cranioplasty. As a proof of concept, we present a case of reconstruction of a craniofacial defect with involvement of the supraorbital rim. The following hybrid manufacturing process combines additive manufacturing with silicone molding and an intraoperative, manual fabrication process. A computer-aided design template is 3D printed from thermoplastics by a fused deposition modeling 3D printer and then silicone molded manually. After sterilization of the patient-specific mold, it is used intraoperatively to produce an implant from polymethylmethacrylate. Due to the combination of these 2 straightforward processes, the procedure can be kept very simple, and no advanced equipment is needed, resulting in minimal financial expenses. The whole fabrication of the mold is performed within approximately 2 hours depending on the template’s size and volume. This reliable technique is easy to adopt and suitable for every health facility, especially those with limited financial resources in less privileged countries, enabling many more patients to profit from patient-specific treatment.

  3. Biopolymeric Mucin and Synthetic Polymer Analogs: Their Structure, Function and Role in Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar P. Authimoolam


    Full Text Available Mucin networks are viscoelastic fibrillar aggregates formed through the complex self-association of biopolymeric glycoprotein chains. The networks form a lubricious, hydrated protective shield along epithelial regions within the human body. The critical role played by mucin networks in impacting the transport properties of biofunctional molecules (e.g., biogenic molecules, probes, nanoparticles, and its effect on bioavailability are well described in the literature. An alternate perspective is provided in this paper, presenting mucin’s complex network structure, and its interdependent functional characteristics in human physiology. We highlight the recent advances that were achieved through the use of mucin in diverse areas of bioengineering applications (e.g., drug delivery, biomedical devices and tissue engineering. Mucin network formation is a highly complex process, driven by wide variety of molecular interactions, and the network possess structural and chemical variations, posing a great challenge to understand mucin’s bulk behavior. Through this review, the prospective potential of polymer based analogs to serve as mucin mimic is suggested. These analog systems, apart from functioning as an artificial model, reducing the current dependency on animal models, can aid in furthering our fundamental understanding of such complex structures.

  4. Defluoridation of water using dicarboxylic acids mediated chitosan-polyaniline/zirconium biopolymeric complex. (United States)

    Muthu Prabhu, Subbaiah; Meenakshi, Sankaran


    The present investigation describes the preparation of hydrogen bonded chitosan-polyaniline/zirconium biopolymeric matrix by grafting method under dicarboxylic acid medium for the removal of fluoride, first time. Herein, the dicarboxylic acids, oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid were used as medium. The synthesized complex was characterized by usual analytical techniques like FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDAX analysis. From the batch equilibrium experiments, the maximum defluoridation capacity (DC) was found to be 8.713 mg/g at room temperature with the minimum contact time of 24 min at 100mg of the sorbent dosage. The temperature study results of adsorption kinetics showed the adsorption behavior could be better described by the pseudo-second-order equation than pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm was well fitted by the Freundlich equation rather than Langmuir and D-R isotherms. The mechanism of fluoride removal was ligand exchange at neutral pH and electrostatic attraction at acidic pH of the medium. Regeneration studies were carried out to identify the best regenerant which makes the process cost-effective. Conclusions of this work demonstrate the potential applicability of the dicarboxylic acid mediated chitosan-polyaniline/zirconium complex as an effective adsorbent for fluoride removal from water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Fluvial Geomorphology as a Physical Template in Process-Based and Recovery Enhancement Approaches to River Management (United States)

    Fryirs, K.


    In an `era of river repair' fluvial geomorphology has emerged as a key science in river management practice. Geomorphologists are ideally placed to use their science in an applied manner to provide guidance on the impact of floods and droughts, landuse and climate change, and water use on river forms, processes and evolution. Increasingly, fluvial geomorphologists are also asked to make forecasts about how systems might adjust in the future, and to work with managers to implement strategies on-the-ground. Using case study material from Eastern Australia (Bega, Hunter, Wollombi and Lockyer catchments) I will focus on how process-based understanding of rivers has developed and evolved to provide a coherent physical template for effective and proactive, river management practice. I will focus on four key principles and demonstrate how geomorphology has been, and should continue to be, used in process-based, recovery enhancement approaches to river management. How understanding the difference between river behaviour and river change is used to determine how a river is `expected' to function, and how to identify anomalous processes requiring a treatment response. How understanding evolutionary trajectory is used to make future forecasts on river condition and recovery potential, and how working with processes can enhance river recovery. How geomorphic information can be used as a physical template atop which to analyse a range of biotic processes and habitat outcomes. How geomorphic information is used to effectively prioritise and plan river conservation and rehabilitation activities as part of catchment and region-scale action plans.

  6. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj


    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  7. One-step synthesis of polyaniline fibers with double-soft templates and evaluation of their doping process (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Zhao, Hui; Han, Bing


    In this paper, we have developed a simple, facile, and efficient approach to synthesize polyaniline fibers (PANI fibers) from aniline in the presence of (NH4)2S2O8 with sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and L-camphorsulfonic acid (L-CSA) as double templates. The chemical constituents of the composites are characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results demonstrate that the PANI fibers were synthesized successfully. The morphology of the composites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM and UV-Vis images show an interesting growth and doping process. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the electrochemical properties of PANI microfibers. They also give a pair of redox peaks and have better operation stability, which indicates that the composites show distinct electrochemical performance. So the PANI microfibers would have potential applications in the fields of analytical chemistry, bioanalysis, etc.

  8. A mutation in the catalytic subunit of yeast telomerase alters primer-template alignment while promoting processivity and protein-DNA binding. (United States)

    Bairley, Robin C B; Guillaume, Gina; Vega, Leticia R; Friedman, Katherine L


    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that is required for maintenance of linear chromosome ends (telomeres). In yeast, the Est2 protein reverse transcribes a short template region of the TLC1 RNA using the chromosome terminus to prime replication. Yeast telomeres contain heterogeneous G(1-3)T sequences that arise from incomplete reverse transcription of the TLC1 template and alignment of the DNA primer at multiple sites within the template region. We have previously described mutations in the essential N-terminal TEN domain of Est2p that alter telomere sequences. Here, we demonstrate that one of these mutants, glutamic acid 76 to lysine (est2-LT(E76K)), restricts possible alignments between the DNA primer and the TLC1 template. In addition, this mutant exhibits increased processivity in vivo. Within the context of the telomerase enzyme, the Est2p TEN domain is thought to contribute to enzyme processivity by mediating an anchor-site interaction with the DNA primer. We show that binding of the purified TEN domain (residues 1-161) to telomeric DNA is enhanced by the E76K mutation. These results support the idea that the anchor-site interaction contributes to telomerase processivity and suggest a role for the anchor site of yeast telomerase in mediating primer-template alignment within the active site.

  9. Quiescence of human muscle stem cells is favored by culture on natural biopolymeric films. (United States)

    Monge, Claire; DiStasio, Nicholas; Rossi, Thomas; Sébastien, Muriel; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kalman, Benoit; Boudou, Thomas; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Marty, Isabelle; Bigot, Anne; Mouly, Vincent; Picart, Catherine


    Satellite cells are quiescent resident muscle stem cells that present an important potential to regenerate damaged tissue. However, this potential is diminished once they are removed from their niche environment in vivo, prohibiting the long-term study and genetic investigation of these cells. This study therefore aimed to provide a novel biomaterial platform for the in-vitro culture of human satellite cells that maintains their stem-like quiescent state, an important step for cell therapeutic studies. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from two donors and cultured on soft biopolymeric films of controlled stiffness. Cell adhesive phenotype, maintenance of satellite cell quiescence and capacity for gene manipulation were investigated using FACS, western blotting, fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. About 85% of satellite cells cultured in vitro on soft biopolymer films for 3 days maintained expression of the quiescence marker Pax7, as compared with 60% on stiffer films and 50% on tissue culture plastic. The soft biopolymeric films allowed satellite cell culture for up to 6 days without renewing the media. These cells retained their stem-like properties, as evidenced by the expression of stem cell markers and reduced expression of differentiated markers. In addition, 95% of cells grown on these soft biopolymeric films were in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle, as opposed to those grown on plastic that became activated and began to proliferate and differentiate. Our study identifies a new biomaterial made of a biopolymer thin film for the maintenance of the quiescence state of muscle satellite cells. These cells could be activated at any point simply by replating them onto a plastic culture dish. Furthermore, these cells could be genetically manipulated by viral transduction, showing that this biomaterial may be further used for therapeutic strategies.

  10. Batch-wise adsorption, saxs and microscopic studies of zeolite pelletized with biopolymeric alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chmielewská


    Full Text Available Removal of nitrates, sulfate and Zn(II ions from aqueous solutions through adsorption onto biopolymeric alginate/clinoptilolite-rich tuff pellets was studied by using an equilibrium batch technique. The idea of this approach of biosorbent fabrication is to promote the native zeolite adsorption performance and thus to prepare more efficient amphoteric tailor-made products for specific environmental targets. A flexible component, i.e., alginate biopolymer, and a rigid component (pulverized zeolite were crosslinked using Fe(III and Ca(II chlorides, additively. The extent of adsorption was found to be considerably higher than with the other mostly natural adsorbents examined towards similar pollutants. The equilibrium adsorption data for the above pollutants were satisfactorily fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, respectively. According to the linscale SAXS pattern, there was a strong background visible, which may indicate the presence of a considerable amount of biopolymeric phase in the composite samples analysed. Scanning Tunneling, Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies helped visualize their surface texture and morphology.

  11. Positively charged biopolymeric nanoparticles for the inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chronopoulou, Laura [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Di Domenico, Enea Gino [IRCCS, Department of Clinical Pathology and Microbiology, San Gallicano Institute (Italy); Ascenzioni, Fiorentina [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Biology and Biotechnology C. Darwin (Italy); Palocci, Cleofe, E-mail: [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Chemistry (Italy)


    Currently, many microbial infections have the potential to become lethal owing to the development of antimicrobial resistance by means of different mechanisms and mainly on the basis of the fact that many drugs are unable to reach therapeutic levels in the target sites. This requires the use of high doses and frequent administrations, causing adverse side effects or in some cases toxicity. The use of nanoparticle systems could help overcome such problems and increase drug efficacy. In the present study, we developed a new drug delivery system based on the use of biopolymeric nanovectors loaded with tobramycin (Tb), which is the standard antibiotic for the treatment of Cystic Fibrosis-associated P. aeruginosa lung infections. Tb-loaded biopolymeric nanoparticles composed by dextran sulfate (DS) and chitosan (CS) were prepared by ionotropic gelation. We optimized drug entrapment in DS/CS nanoparticles, obtaining particles of 170 nm and with a drug loading of 400 µg Tb/mg of nanoparticles. In accord with in vitro release experiments, such preparations were able to release approximately 25 % of their cargo in 60 h. In vitro, the antimicrobial efficacy of the drug delivery system on P. aeruginosa biofilm was tested and compared to the effects of free drug revealing that this formulation can reduce the viability of P. aeruginosa biofilms for 48 h with a single-dose administration.

  12. New insight in the template decomposition process of large zeolite ZSM-5 crystals: an in situ UV-Vis/fluorescence micro-spectroscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karwacki, L.; Weckhuysen, B.M.


    A combination of in situ UV-Vis and confocal fluorescence micro-spectroscopy was used to study the template decomposition process in large zeolite ZSM-5 crystals. Correlation of polarized light dependent UV-Vis absorption spectra with confocal fluorescence emission spectra in the 400–750 nm region

  13. Comparison of PET template-based and MRI-based image processing in the quantitative analysis of C11-raclopride PET. (United States)

    Kuhn, Felix P; Warnock, Geoffrey I; Burger, Cyrill; Ledermann, Katharina; Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Buck, Alfred


    Quantitative measures of 11C-raclopride receptor binding can be used as a correlate of postsynaptic D2 receptor density in the striatum, allowing 11C-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) to be used for the differentiation of Parkinson's disease from atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Comparison with reference values is recommended to establish a reliable diagnosis. A PET template specific to raclopride may facilitate direct computation of parametric maps without the need for an additional MR scan, aiding automated image analysis. Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent a dynamic 11C-raclopride PET and a high-resolution T1-weighted MR scan of the brain. PET data from eight healthy subjects was processed to generate a raclopride-specific PET template normalized to standard space. Subsequently, the data processing based on the PET template was validated against the standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method in 8 healthy subjects and 20 patients with suspected parkinsonian syndrome. Semi-quantitative image analysis was performed in Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) and in original image space (OIS) using VOIs derived from a probabilistic brain atlas previously validated by Hammers et al. (Hum Brain Mapp, 15:165-174, 2002). The striatal-to-cerebellar ratio (SCR) of 11C-raclopride uptake obtained using the PET template was in good agreement with the MRI-based image processing method, yielding a Lin's concordance coefficient of 0.87. Bland-Altman analysis showed that all measurements were within the ±1.96 standard deviation range. In all 20 patients, the PET template-based processing was successful and manual volume of interest optimization had no further impact on the diagnosis of PD in this patient group. A maximal difference of image analysis. There was no significant difference between the SCR values obtained with either PET- or MRI-based image processing. The method presented alleviates the clinical workflow and facilitates automated image

  14. A Deformable Template Model, with Special Reference to Elliptical Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Pedersen, Jan; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel


    This paper suggests a high-level continuous image model for planar star-shaped objects. Under this model, a planar object is a stochastic deformation of a star-shaped template. The residual process, describing the difference between the radius-vector function of the template and the object...

  15. GNU polyxmass: a software framework for mass spectrometric simulations of linear (bio-polymeric analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusconi Filippo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, a variety of (bio-polymers can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. The detailed interpretation of the spectra requires a huge number of "hypothesis cycles", comprising the following three actions 1 put forth a structural hypothesis, 2 test it, 3 (invalidate it. This time-consuming and painstaking data scrutiny is alleviated by using specialized software tools. However, all the software tools available to date are polymer chemistry-specific. This imposes a heavy overhead to researchers who do mass spectrometry on a variety of (bio-polymers, as each polymer type will require a different software tool to perform data simulations and analyses. We developed a software to address the lack of an integrated software framework able to deal with different polymer chemistries. Results The GNU polyxmass software framework performs common (bio-chemical simulations–along with simultaneous mass spectrometric calculations–for any kind of linear bio-polymeric analyte (DNA, RNA, saccharides or proteins. The framework is organized into three modules, all accessible from one single binary program. The modules let the user to 1 define brand new polymer chemistries, 2 perform quick mass calculations using a desktop calculator paradigm, 3 graphically edit polymer sequences and perform (bio-chemical/mass spectrometric simulations. Any aspect of the mass calculations, polymer chemistry reactions or graphical polymer sequence editing is configurable. Conclusion The scientist who uses mass spectrometry to characterize (bio-polymeric analytes of different chemistries is provided with a single software framework for his data prediction/analysis needs, whatever the polymer chemistry being involved.

  16. Web Template Extraction Based on Hyperlink Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alarte


    Full Text Available Web templates are one of the main development resources for website engineers. Templates allow them to increase productivity by plugin content into already formatted and prepared pagelets. For the final user templates are also useful, because they provide uniformity and a common look and feel for all webpages. However, from the point of view of crawlers and indexers, templates are an important problem, because templates usually contain irrelevant information such as advertisements, menus, and banners. Processing and storing this information is likely to lead to a waste of resources (storage space, bandwidth, etc.. It has been measured that templates represent between 40% and 50% of data on the Web. Therefore, identifying templates is essential for indexing tasks. In this work we propose a novel method for automatic template extraction that is based on similarity analysis between the DOM trees of a collection of webpages that are detected using menus information. Our implementation and experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the technique.

  17. Perl Template Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Chamberlain, Darren; Cross, David; Torkington, Nathan; Diaz, tatiana Apandi


    Among the many different approaches to "templating" with Perl--such as Embperl, Mason, HTML::Template, and hundreds of other lesser known systems--the Template Toolkit is widely recognized as one of the most versatile. Like other templating systems, the Template Toolkit allows programmers to embed Perl code and custom macros into HTML documents in order to create customized documents on the fly. But unlike the others, the Template Toolkit is as facile at producing HTML as it is at producing XML, PDF, or any other output format. And because it has its own simple templating language, templates

  18. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Mutations Accumulated in rad27Δ Yeast Strains with Defects in the Processing of Okazaki Fragments Indicates Template-Switching Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita Omer


    Full Text Available Okazaki fragments that are formed during lagging strand DNA synthesis include an initiating primer consisting of both RNA and DNA. The RNA fragment must be removed before the fragments are joined. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key player in this process is the structure-specific flap endonuclease, Rad27p (human homolog FEN1. To obtain a genomic view of the mutational consequence of loss of RAD27, a S. cerevisiae rad27Δ strain was subcultured for 25 generations and sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Out of the 455 changes observed in 10 colonies isolated the two most common types of events were insertions or deletions (INDELs in simple sequence repeats (SSRs and INDELs mediated by short direct repeats. Surprisingly, we also detected a previously neglected class of 21 template-switching events. These events were presumably generated by quasi-palindrome to palindrome correction, as well as palindrome elongation. The formation of these events is best explained by folding back of the stalled nascent strand and resumption of DNA synthesis using the same nascent strand as a template. Evidence of quasi-palindrome to palindrome correction that could be generated by template switching appears also in yeast genome evolution. Out of the 455 events, 55 events appeared in multiple isolates; further analysis indicates that these loci are mutational hotspots. Since Rad27 acts on the lagging strand when the leading strand should not contain any gaps, we propose a mechanism favoring intramolecular strand switching over an intermolecular mechanism. We note that our results open new ways of understanding template switching that occurs during genome instability and evolution.

  19. Code Generation with Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Arnoldus, Jeroen; Serebrenik, A


    Templates are used to generate all kinds of text, including computer code. The last decade, the use of templates gained a lot of popularity due to the increase of dynamic web applications. Templates are a tool for programmers, and implementations of template engines are most times based on practical experience rather than based on a theoretical background. This book reveals the mathematical background of templates and shows interesting findings for improving the practical use of templates. First, a framework to determine the necessary computational power for the template metalanguage is presen

  20. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Surdu, A. V.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Oprea, A. E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O.; Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Mihaiescu, D.; Enculescu, M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.


    Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization, highlighting their potential to be used for the design of anti-biofilm surfaces.

  1. Dispersions of nanoclays of different shapes into aqueous and solid biopolymeric matrices. Extended physicochemical study. (United States)

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Milioto, Stefana


    Dispersions of nanofillers into aqueous and solid biopolymeric matrices were studied from the physicochemical viewpoint. This work was carried out based on the idea that the combination of biopolymers, derived from renewable resources, and nanofiller, environmentally friendly, may form a new generation of nanomaterials with excellent and unique properties at low cost. To this purpose, two pectins with different degrees of methyl esterification and nanoclays like halloysite and laponite RD were selected. The thermodynamic and structural studies on the aqueous mixtures of pectin and nanoclay were able to discriminate the interactions, which control the adsorption of pectin onto the filler and the aggregation of both pectin and clay particles. The gained insights were useful to interpret the mesoscopic structure of the nanocomposites (prepared from the aqueous mixtures by means of the casting method) evidenced by SEM, thermal stability, tensile properties, and transparency investigations. The attained knowledge represents a basic point for designing new hybrid nanostructures in both the aqueous and the solid phase for specific purposes.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Biopolymeric Chitosan Derived from Land Snail Shells and Its Potential for Pb2+ Removal from Aqueous Solution (United States)

    Edokpayi, Joshua N.; Odiyo, John O.; Popoola, Elizabeth O.; Alayande, Oluwagbemiga S.; Msagati, Titus A. M.


    Pb2+ is considered to be a very toxic pollutant in the aquatic environmental media. Biopolymeric chitosan synthesized from snail shell has been studied for its potential to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted in the range of 1–50 mg/L initial Pb2+ concentration at 298 K. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time on the adsorptive property of the adsorbent were investigated and optimized. The derived chitosan was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray florescence (XRF). The experimental data obtained were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The Langmuir model and pseudo second order kinetic model suitably described the adsorption and kinetics of the process with regression coefficients of 0.99 and 1.00, respectively. Sodium hydroxide was a better desorbing agent than hydrochloric acid and de-ionized water. From the results obtained, it is concluded that synthesized biopolymers from land snail shells has the potential for the removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. PMID:28793734

  3. Influence of template fill in graphoepitaxy DSA (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Bekaert, Joost; Chan, Boon Teik; Hong, SungEun; Lin, Guanyang; Gronheid, Roel


    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP) is considered a promising patterning approach for the 7 nm node and beyond. Specifically, a grapho-epitaxy process using a cylindrical phase BCP may offer an efficient solution for patterning randomly distributed contact holes with sub-resolution pitches, such as found in via and cut mask levels. In any grapho-epitaxy process, the pattern density impacts the template fill (local BCP thickness inside the template) and may cause defects due to respectively over- or underfilling of the template. In order to tackle this issue thoroughly, the parameters that determine template fill and the influence of template fill on the resulting pattern should be investigated. In this work, using three process flow variations (with different template surface energy), template fill is experimentally characterized as a function of pattern density and film thickness. The impact of these parameters on template fill is highly dependent on the process flow, and thus pre-pattern surface energy. Template fill has a considerable effect on the pattern transfer of the DSA contact holes into the underlying layer. Higher fill levels give rise to smaller contact holes and worse critical dimension uniformity. These results are important towards DSA-aware design and show that fill is a crucial parameter in grapho-epitaxy DSA.

  4. Eutectic phases in water-ice : an efficient medium for biopolymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain; Dörr, Mark; Löffler, Philipp M. G.


    , in the eutectic phase in water-ice, starting from dilute aqueous solutions of from imidazole-activated ribonucleotides. When an aqueous solution is cooled below its freezing point, but above the eutectic point, two aqueous phases co-exist and form the eutectic phase system: a solid (crystals made of pure water...... monomers or short oligomers to a solution over several freeze-thawing cycles. In template-directed RNA polymerization, the initial elongation rates clearly depended on the complementarity of the monomers with the templating nucleobases (Monnard and Szostak, 2008). The presence of templates further allows...

  5. Screening for templates that promote crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Horst, J.H. ter; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.


    In Situ Product Recovery (ISPR) applied in fermentation processes leads to improved yield and productivity of these processes. In principle, ISPR can be achieved using Template Induced Crystallization (TIC), which is one possible ISPR technique. With TIC, templates are added to the solution as a

  6. Microbial colonization of biopolymeric thin films containing natural compounds and antibiotics fabricated by MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Oprea, A.E.; Trusca, R.; Vasile, O. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Politehnica University of Bucharest, Polizu Street No. 1–7, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Dorcioman, G.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, PO Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihaiescu, D. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Organic Chemistry, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Enculescu, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest—ICUB, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest, 77206 Bucharest (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)


    Highlights: • We deposited thin composite quercetin/polyvinylpyrrolidone/antibiotic films with close resemblance to the starting/drop-cast composition by MAPLE. • Quercetin flavonoid shows an anti-biofilm activity comparable to that of the tested large-spectrum antibiotics (norfloxacin or cefuroxime), especially in case of 72 h biofilms. • These results could account for the possible use of quercetin as an alternative to antibiotics to combat the mature biofilms developed on different substrates. • MAPLE may be used to produce implantable medical devices that provide a relatively long term in vitro stability and resistance to the growth of microorganisms. - Abstract: Although a great number of antibiotics are currently available, they are often rendered ineffective by the ability of microbial strains to develop genetic resistance and to grow in biofilms. Since many antimicrobial agents poorly penetrate biofilms, biofilm-associated infections often require high concentrations of antimicrobial agents for effective treatment. Among the various strategies that may be used to inhibit microbial biofilms, one strategy that has generated significant interest involves the use of bioactive surfaces that are resistant to microbial colonization. In this respect, we used matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) involving a pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) to obtain thin composite biopolymeric films containing natural (flavonoid) or synthetic (antibiotic) compounds as bioactive substances. Chemical composition and film structures were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Films morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antimicrobial assay of the microbial biofilms formed on these films was assessed by the viable cell counts method. The flavonoid-containing thin films showed increased resistance to microbial colonization

  7. Vertical Carbon Nanotube Device in Nanoporous Templates (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew Ralph (Inventor); Fisher, Timothy Scott (Inventor); Sands, Timothy (Inventor); Bashir, Rashid (Inventor)


    A modified porous anodic alumina template (PAA) containing a thin CNT catalyst layer directly embedded into the pore walls. CNT synthesis using the template selectively catalyzes SWNTs and DWNTs from the embedded catalyst layer to the top PAA surface, creating a vertical CNT channel within the pores. Subsequent processing allows for easy contact metallization and adaptable functionalization of the CNTs and template for a myriad of applications.

  8. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  9. Conversion of Radiology Reporting Templates to the MRRT Standard. (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E; Genereaux, Brad; Langlotz, Curtis P


    In 2013, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Radiology workgroup developed the Management of Radiology Report Templates (MRRT) profile, which defines both the format of radiology reporting templates using an extension of Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5), and the transportation mechanism to query, retrieve, and store these templates. Of 200 English-language report templates published by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), initially encoded as text and in an XML schema language, 168 have been converted successfully into MRRT using a combination of automated processes and manual editing; conversion of the remaining 32 templates is in progress. The automated conversion process applied Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) scripts, an XML parsing engine, and a Java servlet. The templates were validated for proper HTML5 and MRRT syntax using web-based services. The MRRT templates allow radiologists to share best-practice templates across organizations and have been uploaded to the template library to supersede the prior XML-format templates. By using MRRT transactions and MRRT-format templates, radiologists will be able to directly import and apply templates from the RSNA Report Template Library in their own MRRT-compatible vendor systems. The availability of MRRT-format reporting templates will stimulate adoption of the MRRT standard and is expected to advance the sharing and use of templates to improve the quality of radiology reports.

  10. Emergency department documentation templates: variability in template selection and association with physical examination and test ordering in dizziness presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurer William J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical documentation systems, such as templates, have been associated with process utilization. The T-System emergency department (ED templates are widely used but lacking are analyses of the templates association with processes. This system is also unique because of the many different template options available, and thus the selection of the template may also be important. We aimed to describe the selection of templates in ED dizziness presentations and to investigate the association between items on templates and process utilization. Methods Dizziness visits were captured from a population-based study of EDs that use documentation templates. Two relevant process outcomes were assessed: head computerized tomography (CT scan and nystagmus examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of each outcome for patients who did or did not receive a relevant-item template. Propensity scores were also used to adjust for selection effects. Results The final cohort was 1,485 visits. Thirty-one different templates were used. Use of a template with a head CT item was associated with an increase in the adjusted probability of head CT utilization from 12.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-16.6% to 29.3% (95% CI, 26.0%-32.9%. The adjusted probability of documentation of a nystagmus assessment increased from 12.0% (95%CI, 8.8%-16.2% when a nystagmus-item template was not used to 95.0% (95% CI, 92.8%-96.6% when a nystagmus-item template was used. The associations remained significant after propensity score adjustments. Conclusions Providers use many different templates in dizziness presentations. Important differences exist in the various templates and the template that is used likely impacts process utilization, even though selection may be arbitrary. The optimal design and selection of templates may offer a feasible and effective opportunity to improve care delivery.

  11. DTM: Deformable Template Matching


    Lee, Hyungtae; Kwon, Heesung; Robinson, Ryan M.; Nothwang, William D.


    A novel template matching algorithm that can incorporate the concept of deformable parts, is presented in this paper. Unlike the deformable part model (DPM) employed in object recognition, the proposed template-matching approach called Deformable Template Matching (DTM) does not require a training step. Instead, deformation is achieved by a set of predefined basic rules (e.g. the left sub-patch cannot pass across the right patch). Experimental evaluation of this new method using the PASCAL VO...

  12. Templated and template-free fabrication strategies for zero-dimensional hollow MOF superstructures. (United States)

    Kim, Hyehyun; Lah, Myoung Soo


    Various fabrication strategies for hollow metal-organic framework (MOF) superstructures are reviewed and classified using various types of external templates and their properties. Hollow MOF superstructures have also been prepared without external templates, wherein unstable intermediates obtained during reactions convert to the final hollow MOF superstructures. Many hollow MOF superstructures have been fabricated using hard templates. After the core-shell core@MOF structure was prepared using a hard template, the core was selectively etched to generate a hollow MOF superstructure. Another approach for generating hollow superstructures is to use a solid reactant as a sacrificial template; this method requires no additional etching process. Soft templates such as discontinuous liquid/emulsion droplets and gas bubbles in a continuous soft phase have also been employed to prepare hollow MOF superstructures.

  13. Template-free synthesis of ZnWO{sub 4} powders via hydrothermal process in a wide pH range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos, E-mail: [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Nano-materials and Technology, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Zhu, Gangqiang [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Xu, Yunhua [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Nano-materials and Technology, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China)


    ZnWO{sub 4} powders with different morphologies were fabricated through a template-free hydrothermal method at 180 {sup o}C for 8 h in a wide pH range. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometers were applied to study the effects of pH values on crystallinity, morphology, optical and luminescence properties. The XRD results showed that the WO{sub 3} + ZnWO{sub 4}, ZnWO{sub 4}, and ZnO phases could form after hydrothermal processing at 180 {sup o}C for 8 h with the pH values of 1, 3-11, and 13, respectively. The SEM and TEM observation revealed that the morphological transformation of ZnWO{sub 4} powders occurred with an increase in pH values as follows: star anise-, peony-, and desert rose-like microstructures and soya bean- and rod-like nanostructures. The highest luminescence intensity was found to be in sample consisting of star anise-like crystallites among all the samples due to the presence of larger particles with high crystallinity resulted from the favorable pH under the current hydrothermal conditions.

  14. Micro-seeding and soft template effects on the control of polymorph and morphology of HMX micro particles in solvent-antisolvent process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Damiri


    Full Text Available A seeding strategy was developed in the preparation of cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX explosive micro-particles by solvent-antisolvent method, to control their polymorphs from dangerous gamma (γ type to the desired and standard beta (β form with the size distribution of <10.0 μm, by using a low concentration of β-HMX fine particles as micro-seed in the antisolvent medium. All products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and dynamic light scattering particle size analyzer. In the next step, the effective factors on the sizes and morphologies of micro-particles in the presence and absence of two soft templates of poly (ethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400 polymer and coconut fatty acid diethanolamide (lauramide surfactant were investigated. The results of experiments showed that using of water-soluble PEG-400 in the low antisolvent temperatures leads to the production of very spherical particles. Also non-ionic surfactant of lauramide, direct the crystal growth to needle-like structures. The advantages of this method are its capability for the simple production of β-HMX micro-particles in the large scale production process, with the various crystal structures and particles size distributions.

  15. S-template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Bhagchandani


    Full Text Available Recently introduced Yen angle and W angle suggest the use of center of premaxilla (M and mandibular symphysis (G as landmarks for assessing sagittal jaw base discrepancies. These landmarks have been considered to be more stable than traditionally used points A and B. This article is an attempt to develop a simple tool that will enable the clinician to identify the centers of premaxilla and mandibular symphysis and hence the name Simplified template, i.e., S-template. This tool would aid the orthodontist in locating the centroids of maxilla and mandibular symphysis more easily and accurately than prefabricated templates.

  16. A fast template periodogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman John


    Full Text Available This proceedings contribution presents a novel, non-linear extension to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that allows periodograms to be generated for arbitrary signal shapes. Such periodograms are already known as “template periodograms” or “periodic matched filters,” but current implementations are computationally inefficient. The “fast template periodogram” presented here improves existing techniques by a factor of ∼a few for small test cases (O(10 observations, and over three orders of magnitude for lightcurves containing O(104 observations. The fast template periodogram scales asymptotically as O(HNf log HNf + H4Nf, where H denotes the number of harmonics required to adequately approximate the template and Nf is the number of trial frequencies. Existing implementations scale as O(NobsNf, where Nobs is the number of observations in the lightcurve. An open source Python implementation is available on GitHub.

  17. A fast template periodogram (United States)

    Hoffman, John; VanderPlas, Jake; Hartman, Joel; Bakos, Gáspár


    This proceedings contribution presents a novel, non-linear extension to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram that allows periodograms to be generated for arbitrary signal shapes. Such periodograms are already known as "template periodograms" or "periodic matched filters," but current implementations are computationally inefficient. The "fast template periodogram" presented here improves existing techniques by a factor of ˜a few for small test cases (O(10) observations), and over three orders of magnitude for lightcurves containing O(104) observations. The fast template periodogram scales asymptotically as O(HNf log HNf + H4Nf), where H denotes the number of harmonics required to adequately approximate the template and Nf is the number of trial frequencies. Existing implementations scale as O(NobsNf), where Nobs is the number of observations in the lightcurve. An open source Python implementation is available on GitHub.

  18. Design reflowable digital book template (United States)

    Prasetya, Didik Dwi; Widiyaningtyas, Triyanna; Arifin, M. Zainal; Wahyu Sakti G., I.


    Electronic books (e-books or digital books) increasingly in demand and continue to grow in the form of future books. One of the standard format electronic books that potential is EPUB (electronic publication) published by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). This digital book has major advantages are able to provide interactive and reflowable content, which are not found in another book format, such as PDF. Reflowable content allows the book can be accessed through a variety of reader device, like desktop and mobile with a fit and comfort view. However, because the generating process of an EPUB digital book is not as easy a PDF, so this format is less popular. Therefore, in order to help overcome the existing problems, this paper develops digital reflowable text book templates to support electronic learning, especially in Indonesia. This template can be used by anyone to produce a standard digital book quickly and easily without requiring additional specialized knowledge.

  19. Fast Legendre moment computation for template matching (United States)

    Li, Bing C.


    Normalized cross correlation (NCC) based template matching is insensitive to intensity changes and it has many applications in image processing, object detection, video tracking and pattern recognition. However, normalized cross correlation implementation is computationally expensive since it involves both correlation computation and normalization implementation. In this paper, we propose Legendre moment approach for fast normalized cross correlation implementation and show that the computational cost of this proposed approach is independent of template mask sizes which is significantly faster than traditional mask size dependent approaches, especially for large mask templates. Legendre polynomials have been widely used in solving Laplace equation in electrodynamics in spherical coordinate systems, and solving Schrodinger equation in quantum mechanics. In this paper, we extend Legendre polynomials from physics to computer vision and pattern recognition fields, and demonstrate that Legendre polynomials can help to reduce the computational cost of NCC based template matching significantly.

  20. Templated growth of graphenic materials. (United States)

    Nicholas, Nolan W; Connors, L Matthew; Ding, Feng; Yakobson, Boris I; Schmidt, Howard K; Hauge, Robert H


    A novel strategy is proposed for the topologically controlled synthesis of extended graphenic sheets by additively reacting carbon into a pre-existing graphene sheet which is on top of a templating substrate. This concept is implemented and demonstrated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Novel morphological features observed in this study suggest unusual aspects of the CVD growth process. CVD results demonstrate the basic soundness of the synthesis strategy but highlight the sensitivity of the process to certain types of disruption and the need for alternative forms of embodiment.

  1. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar


    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  2. Joomla! 3 template essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Frankowski, Pawel


    Using this hands-on, step-by step tutorial filled with practical examples, the readers will be able to create beautiful templates and themes for your websites that will make them stand out from others.This book is written for all of you who wish to create your own unique templates for Joomla! 3.x. This book can be used by Joomla! administrators or visual designers (with no programming experience) or those of you who are used to working with common web developer tools like HTML/CSS editors for coding purposes. You would need basic knowledge of Joomla! and some knowledge of CSS and HTML.

  3. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chihan


    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  4. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio


    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  5. The Cadastral Template Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Steudler, Daniel; Williamson, Ian P.


      While many country reports have been compiled in the area of land administration over the last decade, there has not much attention been given to the basic cadastral issues. As a result, one of the objectives of Working Group 3 ?Cadastre? of the PCGIAP is the establishment of a cadastral template...

  6. Controlling Nanostructures by Templated Templates: Inheriting Molecular Orientation in Binary Heterostructures. (United States)

    Breuer, Tobias; Witte, Gregor


    Precise preparation strategies are required to fabricate molecular nanostructures of specific arrangement. In bottom-up approaches, where nanostructures are gradually formed by piecing together individual parts to the final structure, the self-ordering mechanisms of the involved structures are utilized. In order to achieve the desired structures regarding morphology, grain size, and orientation of the individual moieties, templates can be applied, which influence the formation process of subsequent structures. However, this strategy is of limited use for complex architectures because the templates only influence the structure formation at the interface between the template and the first compound. Here, we discuss the implementation of so-called templated templates and analyze to what extent orientations of the initial layers are inherited in the top layers of another compound to enable structural control in binary heterostructures. For that purpose, we prepared crystalline templates of the organic semiconductors pentacene and perfluoropentacene in different exclusive orientations. We observe that for templates of both individual materials the molecular orientation is inherited in the top layers of the respective counterpart. This behavior is also observed for various other molecules, indicating the robustness of this approach.

  7. NLG vs. Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R


    One of the most important questions in applied NLG is what benefits (or `value-added', in business-speak) NLG technology offers over template-based approaches. Despite the importance of this question to the applied NLG community, however, it has not been discussed much in the research NLG community, which I think is a pity. In this paper, I try to summarize the issues involved and recap current thinking on this topic. My goal is not to answer this question (I don't think we know enough to be able to do so), but rather to increase the visibility of this issue in the research community, in the hope of getting some input and ideas on this very important question. I conclude with a list of specific research areas I would like to see more work in, because I think they would increase the `value-added' of NLG over templates.

  8. Templating mesoporous zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Christina Hviid; Kustova, Marina


    phase. It is shown that the available templating approaches are quite versatile, and accordingly, it is possible to produce a very wide range of hierarchical zeolite materials. The resulting zeolite materials, featuring noncrystallographic mesopores in addition to the crystallographic micropores......, exhibit significantly enhanced diffusional properties in comparison with purely microporous zeolite materials. These enhanced mass transport properties have been shown in several cases to result in significantly improved catalytic properties in a range of important reactions....

  9. In search of the song template. (United States)

    Adret, Patrice


    The auditory template theory-the conversion of memorized song to produced song using feedback as an error-correction mechanism-is central to neurobiological studies of birdsong learning. The essence of the theory is the construction of a complex sound replica based on a set of both genetic and environmental instructions. These premises, as yet unchallenged, have stimulated much research on the process of vocal imitation. Two somewhat distinct, but closely related streams of research have emerged. One seeks to determine the neural mechanisms that underlie the formation, storage, and retrieval of vocal memories as a consequence of experience during a sensitive phase-the template concept in its purest form. The other aims at establishing an explanatory basis for genetically based species differences in auditory responsiveness; here, the prime focus is on innately specified templates that guide learning preferences in young, naïve birds. The chapter begins with an historical overview of conceptual issues. Then recent progress in the attempt to characterize template properties is reviewed, focusing on selected studies of sparrows, nightingales, and zebra finches. The chapter concludes with a discussion of research strategy and tactics, including suggestions for criteria that must be met in identifying neural substrates for template specification and localization. The chapter is intended to provide a conceptual framework for further progress in this critical area.

  10. Recyclable Waste Paper Sorting Using Template Matching (United States)

    Osiur Rahman, Mohammad; Hussain, Aini; Scavino, Edgar; Hannan, M. A.; Basri, Hassan

    This paper explores the application of image processing techniques in recyclable waste paper sorting. In recycling, waste papers are segregated into various grades as they are subjected to different recycling processes. Highly sorted paper streams will facilitate high quality end products, and save processing chemicals and energy. Since 1932 to 2009, different mechanical and optical paper sorting methods have been developed to fill the demand of paper sorting. Still, in many countries including Malaysia, waste papers are sorted into different grades using manual sorting system. Due to inadequate throughput and some major drawbacks of mechanical paper sorting systems, the popularity of optical paper sorting systems is increased. Automated paper sorting systems offer significant advantages over human inspection in terms of fatigue, throughput, speed, and accuracy. This research attempts to develop a smart vision sensing system that able to separate the different grades of paper using Template Matching. For constructing template database, the RGB components of the pixel values are used to construct RGBString for template images. Finally, paper object grade is identified based on the maximum occurrence of a specific template image in the search image. The outcomes from the experiment in classification for White Paper, Old Newsprint Paper and Old Corrugated Cardboard are 96%, 92% and 96%, respectively. The remarkable achievement obtained with the method is the accurate identification and dynamic sorting of all grades of papers using simple image processing techniques.

  11. Enhanced Photophysical Properties of Nanopatterned Titania Nanodots/Nanowires upon Hybridization with Silica via Block Copolymer Templated Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinakaran Kannaiyan


    Full Text Available We fabricated titanium dioxide (TiO2-silica (SiO2 nanocomposite structures with controlled morphology by a simple synthetic approach using cooperative sol-gel chemistry and block copolymer (BCP self-assembly. Mixed TiO2-SiO2 sol-gel precursors were blended with amphiphilic poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO BCPs where the precursors were selectively incorporated into the hydrophilic PEO domains. Changing the volumetric ratio of TiO2-SiO2 sol-gel precursor from 5% to 20%, a stepwise structural inversion occurred from nanodot arrays to discrete nanowires. Template free hybrid inorganic nanostructures were produced after the removal of PS-b-PEO by irradiation of UV light. The morphological evolution and photophysical properties were investigated by microscopic studies, UV-visible absorption and photocatalytic properties.

  12. Fusing Sensor Paradigms to Acquire Chemical Information: An Integrative Role for Smart Biopolymeric Hydrogels. (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Liu, Yi; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Winkler, Thomas E; Yan, Kun; Shi, Xiaowen; Shen, Jana; Kelly, Deanna L; Ghodssi, Reza; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F


    The Information Age transformed our lives but it has had surprisingly little impact on the way chemical information (e.g., from our biological world) is acquired, analyzed and communicated. Sensor systems are poised to change this situation by providing rapid access to chemical information. This access will be enabled by technological advances from various fields: biology enables the synthesis, design and discovery of molecular recognition elements as well as the generation of cell-based signal processors; physics and chemistry are providing nano-components that facilitate the transmission and transduction of signals rich with chemical information; microfabrication is yielding sensors capable of receiving these signals through various modalities; and signal processing analysis enhances the extraction of chemical information. The authors contend that integral to the development of functional sensor systems will be materials that (i) enable the integrative and hierarchical assembly of various sensing components (for chemical recognition and signal transduction) and (ii) facilitate meaningful communication across modalities. It is suggested that stimuli-responsive self-assembling biopolymers can perform such integrative functions, and redox provides modality-spanning communication capabilities. Recent progress toward the development of electrochemical sensors to manage schizophrenia is used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges for enlisting sensors for chemical information processing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. GPP Webinar: Solar Procurement Templates and Tools for Higher Education (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on solar procurement for Higher Education which features various tools and templates that schools can use to shape and manage the solar procurement process to a successful outcome.

  14. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu


    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  15. Biomimetic self-assembly of apatite hybrid materials: from a single molecular template to bi-/multi-molecular templates. (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Ai, Xin; Zhang, Shengmin


    The self-assembly of apatite and proteins is a critical process to induce the formation of the bones and teeth in vertebrates. Although hierarchical structures and biomineralization mechanisms of the mineralized tissues have been intensively studied, most researches focus on the self-assembly biomimetic route using one single-molecular template, while the natural bone is an outcome of a multi-molecular template co-assembly process. Inspired by such a mechanism in nature, a novel strategy based on multi-molecular template co-assembly for fabricating bone-like hybrid materials was firstly proposed by the authors. In this review article we have summarized the new trends from single-molecular template to bi-/multi-molecular template systems in biomimetic fabrication of apatite hybrid materials. So far, many novel apatite hybrid materials with controlled morphologies and hierarchical structures have been successfully achieved using bi-/multi-molecular template strategy, and are found to have multiple common features in comparison with natural mineralized tissues. The carboxyl, carbonyl and amino groups of the template molecules are identified to initiate the nucleation of calcium phosphate during the assembling process. For bi-/multi-molecular templates, the incorporation of multiple promotion sites for calcium and phosphate ions precisely enables to regulate the apatite nucleation from the early stage. The roles of acidic molecules and the synergetic effects of protein templates have been significantly recognized in recent studies. In addition, a specific attention is paid to self-assembling of apatite nanoparticles into ordered structures on tissue regenerative scaffolds due to their promising clinical applications ranging from implant grafts, coatings to drug and gene delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CPU and GPU (Cuda Template Matching Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas


    Full Text Available Image processing, computer vision or other complicated opticalinformation processing algorithms require large resources. It isoften desired to execute algorithms in real time. It is hard tofulfill such requirements with single CPU processor. NVidiaproposed CUDA technology enables programmer to use theGPU resources in the computer. Current research was madewith Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4500 2.3 GHz processor with4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU I, NVidia GeForce GT320M CUDAcompliable graphics card (GPU I and Intel Core I5-2500K3.3 GHz processor with 4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU II, NVidiaGeForce GTX 560 CUDA compatible graphic card (GPU II.Additional libraries as OpenCV 2.1 and OpenCV 2.4.0 CUDAcompliable were used for the testing. Main test were made withstandard function MatchTemplate from the OpenCV libraries.The algorithm uses a main image and a template. An influenceof these factors was tested. Main image and template have beenresized and the algorithm computing time and performancein Gtpix/s have been measured. According to the informationobtained from the research GPU computing using the hardwarementioned earlier is till 24 times faster when it is processing abig amount of information. When the images are small the performanceof CPU and GPU are not significantly different. Thechoice of the template size makes influence on calculating withCPU. Difference in the computing time between the GPUs canbe explained by the number of cores which they have.

  17. The construction of MRI brain/head templates for Chinese children from 7 to 16 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanze Xie


    Full Text Available Population-specific brain templates that provide detailed brain information are beneficial to both structural and functional neuroimaging research. However, age-specific MRI templates have not been constructed for Chinese or any Asian developmental populations. This study developed novel T1-weighted average brain and head templates for Chinese children from 7 to 16 years of age in two-year increments using high quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and well-validated image analysis techniques. A total of 138 Chinese children (51 F/87 M were included in this study. The internally and externally validated registrations show that these Chinese age-specific templates fit Chinese children's MR images significantly better than age-specific templates created from U.S. children, or adult templates based on either Chinese or North American adults. It implies that age-inappropriate (e.g., the Chinese56 template, the US20–24 template and nationality-inappropriate brain templates (e.g., U.S. children's templates, the US20–24 template do not provide optimal reference MRIs for processing MR brain images of Chinese pediatric populations. Thus, our age-specific MRI templates are the first of the kind and should be useful in neuroimaging studies with children from Chinese or other Asian populations. These templates can also serve as the foundations for the construction of more comprehensive sets of nationality-specific templates for Asian developmental populations. These templates are available for use in our database.

  18. Templated Native Silk Smectic Gels (United States)

    Jin, Hyoung-Joon (Inventor); Park, Jae-Hyung (Inventor); Valluzzi, Regina (Inventor)


    One aspect of the present invention relates to a method of preparing a fibrous protein smectic hydrogel by way of a solvent templating process, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; and collecting the resulting fibrous protein smectic hydrogel and allowing it to dry. Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of obtaining predominantly one enantiomer from a racemic mixture, comprising the steps of pouring an aqueous fibrous protein solution into a container comprising a solvent that is not miscible with water; sealing the container and allowing it to age at about room temperature; allowing the enantiomers of racemic mixture to diffuse selectively into the smectic hydrogel in solution; removing the smectic hydrogel from the solution; rinsing predominantly one enantiomer from the surface of the smectic hydrogel; and extracting predominantly one enantiomer from the interior of the smectic hydrogel. The present invention also relates to a smectic hydrogel prepared according to an aforementioned method.

  19. Elemental Metals or Oxides Distributed on a Carbon Substrate or Self-Supported and the Manufacturing Process Using Graphite Oxide as Template (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Chen (Inventor)


    A process for providing elemental metals or metal oxides distributed on a carbon substrate or self-supported utilizing graphite oxide as a percursor. The graphite oxide is exposed to one or more metal chlorides to form an intermediary product comprising carbon, metal, chloride, and oxygen. This intermediary product can be further processed by direct exposure to carbonate solutions to form a second intermediary product comprising carbon, metal carbonate, and oxygen. Either intermediary product may be further processed: a) in air to produce metal oxide; b) in an inert environment to produce metal oxide on carbon substrate; c) in a reducing environment to produce elemental metal distributed on carbon substrate. The product generally takes the shape of the carbon precursor.

  20. Template matching techniques in computer vision theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brunelli, Roberto


    The detection and recognition of objects in images is a key research topic in the computer vision community.  Within this area, face recognition and interpretation has attracted increasing attention owing to the possibility of unveiling human perception mechanisms, and for the development of practical biometric systems. This book and the accompanying website, focus on template matching, a subset of object recognition techniques of wide applicability, which has proved to be particularly effective for face recognition applications. Using examples from face processing tasks throughout the book to illustrate more general object recognition approaches, Roberto Brunelli: examines the basics of digital image formation, highlighting points critical to the task of template matching;presents basic and  advanced template matching techniques, targeting grey-level images, shapes and point sets;discusses recent pattern classification paradigms from a template matching perspective;illustrates the development of a real fac...

  1. Silicon template preparation for the fabrication of thin patterned gold films via template stripping (United States)

    Schmidl, G.; Dellith, J.; Dellith, A.; Teller, N.; Zopf, D.; Li, G.; Dathe, A.; Mayer, G.; Hübner, U.; Zeisberger, M.; Stranik, O.; Fritzsche, W.


    Metallic nanostructures play an important role in the vast field of modern nanophotonics, which ranges from the life sciences to biomedicine and beyond. Gold is a commonly-used and attractive material for plasmonics in the visible wavelength range, most importantly due to its chemical stability. In the present work, we focused on the different methods of plasmonic nanostructure fabrication that possess the greatest potential for cost-efficient fabrication. Initially, reusable (1 0 0) silicon templates were prepared. For this purpose, three different lithography methods (i.e. e-beam, optical, and nanoparticle lithography) were used that correspond to the desired structural scales. The application of a subsequent anisotropic crystal orientation-dependent wet etching process produced well-defined pyramidal structures in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from several microns to less than 100 nm. Finally, a 200 nm-thick gold layer was deposited by means of confocal sputtering on the silicon templates and stripped in order to obtain gold films that feature a surface replica of the initial template structure. The surface roughness that was achieved on the stripped films corresponds well with the roughness of the template used. This makes it possible to prepare cost-efficient high-quality structured films in large quantities with little effort. The gold films produced were thoroughly characterized, particularly with respect to their plasmonic response.

  2. Wide band gap semiconductor templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Stan, Liliana (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); DePaula, Raymond F. (Santa Fe, NM); Usov, Igor O. (Los Alamos, NM)


    The present invention relates to a thin film structure based on an epitaxial (111)-oriented rare earth-Group IVB oxide on the cubic (001) MgO terminated surface and the ion-beam-assisted deposition ("IBAD") techniques that are amendable to be over coated by semiconductors with hexagonal crystal structures. The IBAD magnesium oxide ("MgO") technology, in conjunction with certain template materials, is used to fabricate the desired thin film array. Similarly, IBAD MgO with appropriate template layers can be used for semiconductors with cubic type crystal structures.

  3. Electroless Fabrication of Cobalt Alloys Nanowires within Alumina Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Dadvand


    Full Text Available A new method of nanowire fabrication based on electroless deposition process is described. The method is novel compared to the current electroless procedure used in making nanowires as it involves growing nanowires from the bottom up. The length of the nanowires was controlled at will simply by adjusting the deposition time. The nanowires were fabricated within the nanopores of an alumina template. It was accomplished by coating one side of the template by a thin layer of palladium in order to activate the electroless deposition within the nanopores from bottom up. However, prior to electroless deposition process, the template was pretreated with a suitable wetting agent in order to facilitate the penetration of the plating solution through the pores. As well, the electroless deposition process combined with oblique metal evaporation process within a prestructured silicon wafer was used in order to fabricate long nanowires along one side of the grooves within the wafer.

  4. Supply-Chain Optimization Template (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.


    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  5. Examples Performance Testing Templates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siple, Bud H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The purpose of this Performance Testing Program Plan is to identify the process and phased approach that will be implemented at Site XYZ . The purpose of the testing program at Site XYZ is specifically designed to evaluate the effectiveness of systems that are employed at this site. This plan defines tasks to be accomplished to ensure that performance testing is conducted as effectively and efficiently as possible.

  6. Influence of solvent polarity and supersaturation on template-induced nucleation of carbamazepine crystal polymorphs (United States)

    Parambil, Jose V.; Poornachary, Sendhil K.; Tan, Reginald B. H.; Heng, Jerry Y. Y.


    Studies on the use of template surfaces to induce heterogeneous crystal nucleation have gained momentum in recent years-with potential applications in selective crystallisation of polymorphs and in the generation of seed crystals in a continuous crystallisation process. In developing a template-assisted solution crystallisation process, the kinetics of homogeneous versus heterogeneous crystal nucleation could be influenced by solute-solvent, solute-template, and solvent-template interactions. In this study, we report the effect of solvents of varying polarity on the nucleation of carbamazepine (CBZ) crystal polymorphs, a model active pharmaceutical ingredient. The experimental results demonstrate that functionalised template surfaces are effective in promoting crystallisation of either the metastable (form II) or stable (form III) polymorphs of CBZ only in moderately (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol) and low polar (toluene) solvents. A solvent with high polarity (acetonitrile) is thought to mask the template effect on heterogeneous nucleation due to strong solute-solvent and solvent-template interactions. The current study highlights that a quality-by-design (QbD) approach-considering the synergistic effects of solute concentration, solvent type, solution temperature, and template surface chemistry on crystal nucleation-is critical to the development of a template-induced crystallisation process.

  7. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L


    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  8. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Jianhua; Song, Changhui; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zimian; Lin, Hui; Zhen, Yongqiang; Liao, Suixiang


    In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM) technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient's body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient's surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness) were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units) in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  9. Design and Fabrication of a Precision Template for Spine Surgery Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang


    Full Text Available In order to meet the clinical requirements of spine surgery, this paper proposes the fabrication of the customized template for spine surgery through computer-aided design. A 3D metal printing-selective laser melting (SLM technique was employed to directly fabricate the 316L stainless steel template, and the metal template with tiny locating holes was used as an auxiliary tool to insert spinal screws inside the patient’s body. To guarantee accurate fabrication of the template for cervical vertebra operation, the contact face was placed upwards to improve the joint quality between the template and the cervical vertebra. The joint surface of the printed template had a roughness of Ra = 13 ± 2 μm. After abrasive blasting, the surface roughness was Ra = 7 ± 0.5 μm. The surgical metal template was bound with the 3D-printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS plastic model. The micro-hardness values determined at the cross-sections of SLM-processed samples varied from HV0.3 250 to HV0.3 280, and the measured tensile strength was in the range of 450 MPa to 560 MPa, which showed that the template had requisite strength. Finally, the metal template was clinically used in the patient’s surgical operation, and the screws were inserted precisely as the result of using the auxiliary template. The geometrical parameters of the template hole (e.g., diameter and wall thickness were optimized, and measures were taken to optimize the key geometrical units (e.g., hole units in metal 3D printing. Compared to the traditional technology of screw insertion, the use of the surgical metal template enabled the screws to be inserted more easily and accurately during spinal surgery. However, the design of the high-quality template should fully take into account the clinical demands of surgeons, as well as the advice of the designing engineers and operating technicians.

  10. Template security analysis of multimodal biometric frameworks based on fingerprint and hand geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal


    Full Text Available Biometric systems are automatic tools used to provide authentication during various applications of modern computing. In this work, three different design frameworks for multimodal biometric systems based on fingerprint and hand geometry modalities are proposed. An analysis is also presented to diagnose various types of template security issues in the proposed system. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is applied with five decision parameters on all the designs and framework 1 is found to be better in terms of template data security, templates fusion and computational efficiency. It is noticed that template data security before storage in database is a challenging task. An important observation is that a template may be secured at feature fusion level and an indexing technique may be used to improve the size of secured templates.

  11. Efficiency, comprehensiveness and cost-effectiveness when comparing dictation and electronic templates for operative reports. (United States)

    Laflamme, Mark R; Dexter, Paul R; Graham, Marilyn F; Hui, Siu L; McDonald, Clement J


    Surgeons typically document operative events using dictation services. Dictated reports are frequently incomplete or delayed. Electronic note templates could potentially improve this process. Using a study design of alternating four week blocks, we compared the timeliness and comprehensiveness of operative notes created through the use of electronic templates versus dictation services for five surgical procedures. Templates resulted in dramatically faster times to the presence of a verified operative report in the medical record compared to dictation services (mean 28 v. 22,440 minutes). Templates increased overall compliance with national standards for operative note documentation and avoided transcription costs. Documentation with templates took slightly more time than dictation (mean 6.77 v. 5.96 minutes; P=0.036), not including the additional time necessary to subsequently verify dictated reports. We conclude that electronic note templates can improve the timeliness and comprehensiveness of operative documentation, while decreasing transcription costs and requiring minimal additional effort on the part of surgeons.

  12. A pilot study of a heuristic algorithm for novel template identification from VA electronic medical record text. (United States)

    Redd, Andrew M; Gundlapalli, Adi V; Divita, Guy; Carter, Marjorie E; Tran, Le-Thuy; Samore, Matthew H


    Templates in text notes pose challenges for automated information extraction algorithms. We propose a method that identifies novel templates in plain text medical notes. The identification can then be used to either include or exclude templates when processing notes for information extraction. The two-module method is based on the framework of information foraging and addresses the hypothesis that documents containing templates and the templates within those documents can be identified by common features. The first module takes documents from the corpus and groups those with common templates. This is accomplished through a binned word count hierarchical clustering algorithm. The second module extracts the templates. It uses the groupings and performs a longest common subsequence (LCS) algorithm to obtain the constituent parts of the templates. The method was developed and tested on a random document corpus of 750 notes derived from a large database of US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic medical notes. The grouping module, using hierarchical clustering, identified 23 groups with 3 documents or more, consisting of 120 documents from the 750 documents in our test corpus. Of these, 18 groups had at least one common template that was present in all documents in the group for a positive predictive value of 78%. The LCS extraction module performed with 100% positive predictive value, 94% sensitivity, and 83% negative predictive value. The human review determined that in 4 groups the template covered the entire document, with the remaining 14 groups containing a common section template. Among documents with templates, the number of templates per document ranged from 1 to 14. The mean and median number of templates per group was 5.9 and 5, respectively. The grouping method was successful in finding like documents containing templates. Of the groups of documents containing templates, the LCS module was successful in deciphering text belonging to the template

  13. Template Matching of Colored Image Based on Quaternion Fourier Transform and Image Pyramid Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Template matching method is one of the most significant object recognition techniques and it has many applications in the field of digital signal processing and image processing and it is the base for object tracking in computer vision field. The traditional template matching by correlation is performed between gray template image w and the candidate gray image f where the template’s position is to be determined in the candidate image. This task can be achieved by measuring the similarity between the template image and the candidate image to identify and localize the existence of object instances within an image. When applying this method to colored image, the image must be converted to a gray one or decomposed to its RGB components to be processed separately. The current paper aims to apply the template matching technique to colored images via generating the quaternion Fourier transforms of both the template and candidate colored image and hence performing the cross-correlation between those transforms. Moreover, this approach is improved by representing both the image and template as pyramid multi-resolution format to reduce the time of processing. The proposed algorithm is implemented and applied to different images and templates using Matlab functions.

  14. The role of the geophysical template and environmental regimes in controlling stream-living trout populations (United States)

    Brooke E. Penaluna; Steve F. Railsback; Jason B. Dunham; Sherri Johnson; Robert E. Bilby; Arne E. Skaugset; Michael Bradford


    The importance of multiple processes and instream factors to aquatic biota has been explored extensively, but questions remain about how local spatiotemporal variability of aquatic biota is tied to environmental regimes and the geophysical template of streams. We used an individual-based trout model to explore the relative role of the geophysical template versus...

  15. A Novel Approach Based on PCNNs Template for Fingerprint Image Thinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dacheng, X.; Bailiang, L.; Nijholt, Antinus; Kacprzyk, J.


    A PCNNs-based square-and-triangle-template method for binary fingerprint image thinning is proposed. The algorithm is iterative, in which a combined sequential and parallel processing is employed to accelerate execution. When a neuron satisfies the square template, the pixel corresponding to this

  16. Kinetic theory of amyloid fibril templating. (United States)

    Schmit, Jeremy D


    The growth of amyloid fibrils requires a disordered or partially unfolded protein to bind to the fibril and adapt the same conformation and alignment established by the fibril template. Since the H-bonds stabilizing the fibril are interchangeable, it is inevitable that H-bonds form between incorrect pairs of amino acids which are either incorporated into the fibril as defects or must be broken before the correct alignment can be found. This process is modeled by mapping the formation and breakage of H-bonds to a one-dimensional random walk. The resulting microscopic model of fibril growth is governed by two timescales: the diffusion time of the monomeric proteins, and the time required for incorrectly bound proteins to unbind from the fibril. The theory predicts that the Arrhenius behavior observed in experiments is due to off-pathway states rather than an on-pathway transition state. The predicted growth rates are in qualitative agreement with experiments on insulin fibril growth rates as a function of protein concentration, denaturant concentration, and temperature. These results suggest a templating mechanism where steric clashes due to a single mis-aligned molecule prevent the binding of additional molecules.

  17. Weaving Nanoscale Cloth through Electrostatic Templating. (United States)

    Champsaur, Anouck M; Mézière, Cécile; Allain, Magali; Paley, Daniel W; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin; Batail, Patrick


    Here we disclose a simple route to nanoscopic 2D woven structures reminiscent of the methods used to produce macroscopic textiles. We find that the same principles used in macroscopic weaving can be applied on the nanoscale to create two-dimensional molecular cloth from polymeric strands, a molecular thread. The molecular thread is composed of Co6Se8(PEt3)4L2 superatoms that are bridged with L = benzene bis-1,4-isonitrile to form polymer strands. As the superatoms that make up the polymer chain are electrochemically oxidized, they are electrostatically templated by a nanoscale anion, the tetragonal Lindqvist polyoxometalate Mo6O19(2-). The tetragonal symmetry of the dianionic template creates a nanoscale version of the box weave. The crossing points in the weave feature π-stacking of the bridging linker. By examining the steps in the weaving process with single crystal X-ray diffraction, we find that the degree of polymerization at the crossing points is crucial in the cloth formation. 2D nanoscale cloth will provide access to a new generation of smart, multifunctional materials, coatings, and surfaces.

  18. Computer-Aided Template for Model Reuse, Development and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul


    A template-based approach for model development is presented in this work. Based on a model decomposition technique, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool , which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps......, as well as the guidance through the steps providing additional information and comments. The application of the tool is highlighted with a multiscale modeling case study involving a catalytic membrane fixed bed reactor. The modeling templates for reactor as well as particle scales have been developed...... . For the particle scale, two alternative mechanisms to describe the diffusion inside catalyst pellets are available: a Fickian diffusion model and a dusty gas model . Moreover, the effects of isothermal and non-isothermal catalyst are also considered during the model development process. Thereby, any number...

  19. Controlled growth of single nanowires within a supported alumina template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Faniel, S.


    A simple technique for fabricating single nanowires with well-defined position is presented. The process implies the use of a silicon nitride mask for selective electrochemical growth of the nanowires in a porous alumina template. We show that this method allows the realization of complex nanowire...

  20. A visual template-matching method for articulation angle measurement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Saxe, C


    Full Text Available and proposed sensing methods are limited either in terms of commercial feasibility or measurement accuracy. This paper investigates a vision-based system consisting of a single tractor-mounted camera, a template-matching image processing algorithm...

  1. A computationally efficient approach for template matching-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Image registration using template matching is an important step in image processing. In this paper, a simple, robust and computationally efficient approach is presented. The proposed approach is based on the properties of a normalized covariance matrix. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that the image ...

  2. Functional Programming with C++ Template Metaprograms (United States)

    Porkoláb, Zoltán

    Template metaprogramming is an emerging new direction of generative programming. With the clever definitions of templates we can force the C++ compiler to execute algorithms at compilation time. Among the application areas of template metaprograms are the expression templates, static interface checking, code optimization with adaption, language embedding and active libraries. However, as template metaprogramming was not an original design goal, the C++ language is not capable of elegant expression of metaprograms. The complicated syntax leads to the creation of code that is hard to write, understand and maintain. Although template metaprogramming has a strong relationship with functional programming, this is not reflected in the language syntax and existing libraries. In this paper we give a short and incomplete introduction to C++ templates and the basics of template metaprogramming. We will enlight the role of template metaprograms, and some important and widely used idioms. We give an overview of the possible application areas as well as debugging and profiling techniques. We suggest a pure functional style programming interface for C++ template metaprograms in the form of embedded Haskell code which is transformed to standard compliant C++ source.

  3. Dynamic Compilation of C++ Template Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Cole


    Full Text Available Generic programming using the C++ template facility has been a successful method for creating high-performance, yet general algorithms for scientific computing and visualization. However, adding template code tends to require more template code in surrounding structures and algorithms to maintain generality. Compiling all possible expansions of these templates can lead to massive template bloat. Furthermore, compile-time binding of templates requires that all possible permutations be known at compile time, limiting the runtime extensibility of the generic code. We present a method for deferring the compilation of these templates until an exact type is needed. This dynamic compilation mechanism will produce the minimum amount of compiled code needed for a particular application, while maintaining the generality and performance that templates innately provide. Through a small amount of supporting code within each templated class, the proper templated code can be generated at runtime without modifying the compiler. We describe the implementation of this goal within the SCIRun dataflow system. SCIRun is freely available online for research purposes.

  4. I - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  5. Solvothermal removal of the organic template from L{sub 3} ('sponge') templated silica monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabbs, Daniel M. [Princeton University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Mulders, Norbert [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Aksay, Ilhan A. [Princeton University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)], E-mail: iaksay@princeton.EDU


    We compare the methods of continuous solvent (Soxhlet) and supercritical solvent extractions for the removal of the organic template from nanostructured silica monoliths. Our monoliths are formed by templating the L{sub 3} liquid crystal phase of cetylpyridinium chloride in aqueous solutions with tetramethoxy silane. The monoliths that result from both Soxhlet and supercritical extraction methods are mechanically robust, optically clear, and free of cracks. The Soxhlet method compares favorably with supercritical solvent extraction in that equivalent L{sub 3}-templated silica can be synthesized without the use of specialized reactor hardware or higher temperatures and high pressures, while avoiding noxious byproducts. The comparative effectiveness of various solvents in the Soxhlet process is related to the Hildebrand solubility parameter, determined by the effective surface area of the extracted silica.

  6. A template for design personas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Storgaard Nielsen, Kira; Stage, Jan


    The persona method is gaining widespread use and support. Many researchers have reported from single cases and from novel domains on how they have used the method. However, the way companies and design groups describe personas has not been the focus of attention. This paper analyses 47 descriptions...... from 13 companies and compares these to an analysis of recommendations from 11 templates from literature. Furthermore, 28 interviews with Danish practitioners with experience in using personas are analyzed for content on persona descriptions. The study finds that a Danish persona style has developed...

  7. Making Deformable Template Models Operational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Rune


    for estimation of the model parameters, which applies a combination of a maximum likelihood and minimum distance criterion. Another contribution is a very fast search based initialization algorithm using a filter interpretation of the likelihood model. These two methods can be applied to most deformable template...... models making a non-expert user able to use the model. A comparative study of a number of optimization algorithms is also reported. In addition a general polygon-based model, an ellipse model and a textile model are proposed and a number of applications have been solved. Finally the Grenander model...

  8. Cross-catalytic peptide nucleic acid (PNA) replication based on templated ligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhal, Abhishek; Nielsen, Peter E


    We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected and identif......We report the first PNA self-replicating system based on template directed cross-catalytic ligation, a process analogous to biological replication. Using two template PNAs and four pentameric precursor PNAs, all four possible carbodiimide assisted amide ligation products were detected...... and identified by HPLC and MALDI-TOF analysis. We conclude that the two template complementary reaction products are generated via cross-catalysis, while the other two self-complementary (and in principle auto-catalytic) products are formed via intra-complex coupling between the two sets of complementary PNA...

  9. Hard template synthesis of metal nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go eKawamura


    Full Text Available Metal nanowires (NWs have attracted much attention because of their high electron conductivity, optical transmittance and tunable magnetic properties. Metal NWs have been synthesized using soft templates such as surface stabilizing molecules and polymers, and hard templates such as anodic aluminum oxide, mesoporous oxide, carbon nanotubes. NWs prepared from hard templates are composites of metals and the oxide/carbon matrix. Thus, selecting appropriate elements can simplify the production of composite devices. The resulting NWs are immobilized and spatially arranged, as dictated by the ordered porous structure of the template. This avoids the NWs from aggregating, which is common for NWs prepared with soft templates in solution. Herein, the hard template synthesis of metal NWs is reviewed, and the resulting structures, properties and potential applications are discussed.

  10. Template-Directed Olefin Cross Metathesis


    Cantrill, Stuart J.; Grubbs, Robert H; Lanari, Daniela; Leung, Ken C.-F.; Nelson, Alshakim; Poulin-Kerstien, Katherine G.; Smidt, Sebastian P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Tirrell, David A.


    A template containing two secondary dialkylammonium ion recognition sites for encirclement by olefin-bearing dibenzo[24]crown-8 derivatives has been used to promote olefin cross metatheses with ruthenium-alkylidene catalysts. For monoolefin monomers, the rates of metatheses and yields of the dimers are both amplified in the presence of the template. Likewise, for a diolefin monomer, the yield of the dimer is enhanced in the presence of the template under conditions where higher oligomers are ...

  11. Ferritin-Templated Quantum-Dots for Quantum Logic Gates (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Park, Yeonjoon; King, Glen C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Elliott, James R.


    Quantum logic gates (QLGs) or other logic systems are based on quantum-dots (QD) with a stringent requirement of size uniformity. The QD are widely known building units for QLGs. The size control of QD is a critical issue in quantum-dot fabrication. The work presented here offers a new method to develop quantum-dots using a bio-template, called ferritin, that ensures QD production in uniform size of nano-scale proportion. The bio-template for uniform yield of QD is based on a ferritin protein that allows reconstitution of core material through the reduction and chelation processes. One of the biggest challenges for developing QLG is the requirement of ordered and uniform size of QD for arrays on a substrate with nanometer precision. The QD development by bio-template includes the electrochemical/chemical reconsitution of ferritins with different core materials, such as iron, cobalt, manganese, platinum, and nickel. The other bio-template method used in our laboratory is dendrimers, precisely defined chemical structures. With ferritin-templated QD, we fabricated the heptagonshaped patterned array via direct nano manipulation of the ferritin molecules with a tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). We also designed various nanofabrication methods of QD arrays using a wide range manipulation techniques. The precise control of the ferritin-templated QD for a patterned arrangement are offered by various methods, such as a site-specific immobilization of thiolated ferritins through local oxidation using the AFM tip, ferritin arrays induced by gold nanoparticle manipulation, thiolated ferritin positioning by shaving method, etc. In the signal measurements, the current-voltage curve is obtained by measuring the current through the ferritin, between the tip and the substrate for potential sweeping or at constant potential. The measured resistance near zero bias was 1.8 teraohm for single holoferritin and 5.7 teraohm for single apoferritin, respectively.

  12. Virus Assemblies as Templates for Nanocircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James N Culver; Michael T Harris


    The goals of this project were directed at the identification and characterization of bio-mineralization processes and patterning methods for the development of nano scale materials and structures with novel energy and conductive traits. This project utilized a simple plant virus as a model template to investigate methods to attach and coat metals and other inorganic compounds onto biologically based nanotemplates. Accomplishments include: the development of robust biological nanotemplates with enhanced inorganic coating activities; novel coating strategies that allow for the deposition of a continuous inorganic layer onto a bio-nanotemplate even in the absence of a reducing agent; three-dimensional patterning methods for the assemble of nano-featured high aspect ratio surfaces and the demonstrated use of these surfaces in enhancing battery and energy storage applications. Combined results from this project have significantly advanced our understanding and ability to utilize the unique self-assembly properties of biologically based molecules to produce novel materials at the nanoscale level.

  13. Nanomolar determination of Pb (II ions by selective templated electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazloum-Ardakani Mohammad


    Full Text Available Polypyrrole modified electrode, prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of methyl red as a dopant, was templated with respect to Pb2+ ion and applied for potentiometric and voltammetric detection of this ion. The templating process improved the analytical response characteristics of the electrode, specially their selectivity, with respect to Pb2+ ion. The improvement depends on both the incorporated ligand (dopant and the templating process, with the latter being more vital. The potentiometric response of the electrode was linear within the Pb2+ concentration range of 2.0×10-6 to 5.0×10-2 M with a near-Nernstian slope of 28.6 mV decade-1 and a detection limit of 7.0 ×10-7 M. The electrode was also used for preconcentration differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV and results showed that peak currents for the incorporated lead species were dependent on the metal ion concentration in the range of 1.0×10-8 to 1.0×10-3 M. The detection limit of DPASV method was 3.5 ×10-9 M. The selectivity of the electrode with respect to some transition metal ions was investigated. The modified-templated electrode was used for the successful assay of lead in two standard reference material samples.

  14. Exploring Many-Core Design Templates for FPGAs and ASICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Lebedev


    Full Text Available We present a highly productive approach to hardware design based on a many-core microarchitectural template used to implement compute-bound applications expressed in a high-level data-parallel language such as OpenCL. The template is customized on a per-application basis via a range of high-level parameters such as the interconnect topology or processing element architecture. The key benefits of this approach are that it (i allows programmers to express parallelism through an API defined in a high-level programming language, (ii supports coarse-grained multithreading and fine-grained threading while permitting bit-level resource control, and (iii reduces the effort required to repurpose the system for different algorithms or different applications. We compare template-driven design to both full-custom and programmable approaches by studying implementations of a compute-bound data-parallel Bayesian graph inference algorithm across several candidate platforms. Specifically, we examine a range of template-based implementations on both FPGA and ASIC platforms and compare each against full custom designs. Throughout this study, we use a general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU implementation as a performance and area baseline. We show that our approach, similar in productivity to programmable approaches such as GPGPU applications, yields implementations with performance approaching that of full-custom designs on both FPGA and ASIC platforms.

  15. Battery Data MI Importer Template Quick Start Guide (United States)

    Levinson, Laurie H.


    In order to ensure the persistent availability and reliability of test data generated over the course of the project, the M-SHELLS Project has decided to store acquired test data, as well as associated pedigree information, in the Granta Materials Intelligence (MI) database. To facilitate that effort, an importer template and associated graphical user interface (GUI) software have been developed, with this guide providing the operating instructions for their use. The template and automation software GUI are contained in the BatteryDataImporter.xlsm Excel workbook, and are to be used to import M-SHELLS summary, or pedigree, data and the associated raw test data results into an importer template-based file, formatted in such a way as to be ready for immediate upload to the Test Data: Battery Performance table of the Granta MI database. The provided GUI enables the user to select the appropriate summary data file(s), with each file containing the required information to identify any associated raw test data file(s) to be processed. In addition to describing the setup and operation of the importer template and GUI software, this guide also provides instructions for uploading processed data to the database and for viewing the data following upload.

  16. Preformed template fluctuations promote fibril formation: Insights from lattice and all-atom models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouza, Maksim, E-mail:; Kolinski, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszaw (Poland); Co, Nguyen Truong [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of HCM City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Phuong H. [Laboratoire de Biochimie Theorique, UPR 9080 CNRS, IBPC, Universite Paris 7, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)


    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Despite the fact that the fibril formation process is very slow and thus poses a significant challenge for theoretical and experimental studies, a number of alternative pictures of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation have been recently proposed. What seems to be common for the majority of the proposed models is that fibril elongation involves the formation of pre-nucleus seeds prior to the creation of a critical nucleus. Once the size of the pre-nucleus seed reaches the critical nucleus size, its thermal fluctuations are expected to be small and the resulting nucleus provides a template for sequential (one-by-one) accommodation of added monomers. The effect of template fluctuations on fibril formation rates has not been explored either experimentally or theoretically so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt at solving this problem by two sets of simulations. To mimic small template fluctuations, in one set, monomers of the preformed template are kept fixed, while in the other set they are allowed to fluctuate. The kinetics of addition of a new peptide onto the template is explored using all-atom simulations with explicit water and the GROMOS96 43a1 force field and simple lattice models. Our result demonstrates that preformed template fluctuations can modulate protein aggregation rates and pathways. The association of a nascent monomer with the template obeys the kinetics partitioning mechanism where the intermediate state occurs in a fraction of routes to the protofibril. It was shown that template immobility greatly increases the time of incorporating a new peptide into the preformed template compared to the fluctuating template case. This observation has also been confirmed by simulation using lattice models and may be invoked to understand the role of template fluctuations in

  17. Comparison between the standard SPM2 template and Korean-standard template in FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Byeong Il; Song, Ho Chun; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The preprocessing step of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) requires the procedure of spatial normalization that consists of applying the nonlinear deformations needed to force every particular PET scan to match a reference template. The purpose of this study is to asses the statistic influence of using 2 different templates (the standard SPM2-PET template and Korean-standard PET template) in the normalization. We compared the regional metabolic patterns on 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) images obtained from 4 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 16 normal subjects. The statistical outcome of between- group comparison was analyzed with SPM2 and was applied into two levels of thresholds (an uncorrected P value of P <0.001, a corrected P value of P < 0.05). As a result, the most significant hypometabolic region was commonly found in the left temporal gyrus regardless of template type or thresholds. However, inconsistent results including different extent and the t-score statistics representing metabolic changes could be also observed between two templates. While the standard SPM2 template showed hypometabolic regions corresponding to Brodman area (BA) 7 and 9, Korean-standard template was not observed these regions. In addition, hypometabolic regions corresponding to BA 38 and 46 indicated not the standard SPM2 template but Korean-standard template. Statistic result showed that the standard SPM2 template effectively reflects the dorsal region of the brain while Korean-standard template is more sensitive to the medial region of the brain.

  18. Age-specific average head template for typically developing 6-month-old infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Akiyama

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid anatomical changes that occur within the brain structure in early human development and the significant differences between infant brains and the widely used standard adult templates, it becomes increasingly important to utilize appropriate age- and population-specific average templates when analyzing infant neuroimaging data. In this study we created a new and highly detailed age-specific unbiased average head template in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system for healthy, typically developing 6-month-old infants by performing linear normalization, diffeomorphic normalization and iterative averaging processing on 60 subjects' structural images. The resulting age-specific average templates in a standard MNI152-like infant coordinate system demonstrate sharper anatomical detail and clarity compared to existing infant average templates and successfully retains the average head size of the 6-month-old infant. An example usage of the average infant templates transforms magnetoencephalography (MEG estimated activity locations from MEG's subject-specific head coordinate space to the standard MNI152-like infant coordinate space. We also created a new atlas that reflects the true 6-month-old infant brain anatomy. Average templates and atlas are publicly available on our website (

  19. Practical Biometric Authentication with Template Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyls, P.; Akkermans, A.H.M.; Kevenaar, T.A.M.; Schrijen, G.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Kanade, T.; Jain, A.K.; Ratha, N.K.

    We show the feasibility of template protecting biometric authentication systems. In particular, we apply template protection schemes to fingerprint data. Therefore we first make a fixed length representation of the fingerprint data by applying Gabor filtering. Next we introduce the reliable

  20. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    applicability of surgical templates used in the placement of dental implants. KEYWORDS: Dental implants, surgical templates, surgical procedure, stent. Access this .... ended up with the identification of basic three‑fabrication design concepts; (1) ... surgical guide on mounted diagnostic models of patient's mouth. He also ...

  1. Script identification from images using cluster-based templates (United States)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Kelly, P.M.; Thomas, T.R.


    A computer-implemented method identifies a script used to create a document. A set of training documents for each script to be identified is scanned into the computer to store a series of exemplary images representing each script. Pixels forming the exemplary images are electronically processed to define a set of textual symbols corresponding to the exemplary images. Each textual symbol is assigned to a cluster of textual symbols that most closely represents the textual symbol. The cluster of textual symbols is processed to form a representative electronic template for each cluster. A document having a script to be identified is scanned into the computer to form one or more document images representing the script to be identified. Pixels forming the document images are electronically processed to define a set of document textual symbols corresponding to the document images. The set of document textual symbols is compared to the electronic templates to identify the script. 17 figs.

  2. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang


    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  3. Automatic capture of attention by conceptually generated working memory templates. (United States)

    Sun, Sol Z; Shen, Jenny; Shaw, Mark; Cant, Jonathan S; Ferber, Susanne


    Many theories of attention propose that the contents of working memory (WM) can act as an attentional template, which biases processing in favor of perceptually similar inputs. While support has been found for this claim, it is unclear how attentional templates are generated when searching real-world environments. We hypothesized that in naturalistic settings, attentional templates are commonly generated from conceptual knowledge, an idea consistent with sensorimotor models of knowledge representation. Participants performed a visual search task in the delay period of a WM task, where the item in memory was either a colored disk or a word associated with a color concept (e.g., "Rose," associated with red). During search, we manipulated whether a singleton distractor in the array matched the contents of WM. Overall, we found that search times were impaired in the presence of a memory-matching distractor. Furthermore, the degree of impairment did not differ based on the contents of WM. Put differently, regardless of whether participants were maintaining a perceptually colored disk identical to the singleton distractor, or whether they were simply maintaining a word associated with the color of the distractor, the magnitude of attentional capture was the same. Our results suggest that attentional templates can be generated from conceptual knowledge, in the physical absence of the visual feature.

  4. A green approach toward antibody purification: a sustainable biomimetic ligand for direct immobilization on (bio)polymeric supports. (United States)

    Barroso, Telma; Lourenço, Anita; Araújo, Marco; Bonifácio, Vasco D B; Roque, Ana C A; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana


    This paper presents a sustainable strategy for improving the capture of antibodies by affinity chromatography. A novel biomimetic ligand (4-((4-chloro-6-(3-hydroxyphenoxy)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)oxy)naphthalen-1-ol) (TPN-BM) was synthesized using a greener and simple protocol to overcome solubility limitations associated with ligand 22/8, known as artificial protein A. Furthermore, its subsequent immobilization on chitosan-based monoliths induced by plasma surface activation allowed the design of a fast and efficient chromatographic platform for immunoglobulin G (IgG) purification. The TPN-BM functionalized monoliths exhibited high-binding capacity (160 ± 10 mg IgG per gram of support), and a selective capture of monoclonal antibodies directly from mammalian crude extracts in 85 ± 5% yield and 98% of purity. The synthesis of ligand TPN-BM and the routes followed for monoliths preparation and functionalization were inspired in the green chemistry principles allowing the reduction of processing time, solvents and purification steps involved, turning the integrated system attractive from an economical and chemical point of view. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Influence of the normalization template on the outcome of statistical parametric mapping of PET scans. (United States)

    Gispert, J D; Pascau, J; Reig, S; Martínez-Lázaro, R; Molina, V; García-Barreno, P; Desco, M


    Spatial normalization is an essential preprocessing step in statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-based analysis of PET scans. The standard template provided with the SPM99 software package was originally constructed using (15)O-H(2)O PET scans and is commonly applied regardless of the tracer actually used in the scans being analyzed. This work studies the effect of using three different normalization templates in the outcome of the statistical analysis of PET scans: (1) the standard SPM99 PET template; (2) an (18)F-FDG PET template, constructed by averaging PET scans previously normalized to the standard template; and (3) an MRI-aided (18)F-FDG PET template, constructed by averaging PET scans normalized according to the deformation parameters obtained from MRI scans. A strictly anatomical MRI normalization of each PET was used as a reference, under the rationale that a normalization based only upon MRI should provide higher spatial accuracy. The potential bias involved in the normalization process was estimated in a clinical SPM study comparing schizophrenic patients with control subjects. For each between-group comparison, three SPM maps were obtained, one for each template. To evaluate the influence of the template, these SPM maps were compared to the reference SPM map achieved using the anatomical normalization. SPMs obtained by MRI-aided normalization showed the highest spatial specificity, and also higher sensitivity when compared to the standard normalization using the SPM99 (15)O-H(2)O template. These results show that the use of the standard template under inappropriate conditions (different tracer or mental state) may lead to inconsistent interpretations of the statistical analysis.

  6. A new route of synthesizing perovskite nanotubes by templating approach (United States)

    Habiballah, Anisah Shafiqah; Osman, Nafisah; Jani, Abdul Mutalib Md


    A perovskite oxide for example Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) has attracted growing attention due to its high catalytic activity and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Recent research of BSCF is more comprehensively based on a remarkable trajectory of innovation, in particular with regards to the synthesis of perovskite structures in one-dimensional (1-D) nanometric scales as they promote not only to increase an active electrode area for the oxygen reduction reaction, but also allow the tailoring of electrode's architecture. Nevertheless, achieving the desired 1-D structure by a conventional method such as hydrothermal, solvothermal, or sonochemical are far from satisfactory. Herein, the aim of this work is to synthesize the BSCF perovskite nanotubes via soft templating approach, particularly using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) as a template, focusing on the morphology, composition and structural properties were demonstrated. After the AAO template was anodized at 80 V, the fabricated template was clamped between apair of spectroscopic cells containing BSCF sol and deionized water (with a hole of both sides) for 24 hours. After that, the sample was removed from the cells followed by heat treatment process. The FESEM images showed that BSCF nanotubes were successfully achieved, with the diameter of the nanotubes' approximately 80 nm. The EDX result also confirmed the nominal stoichiometry of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Meanwhile, the XRD pattern confirmed a single crystalline phase of BSCF nanotubes was successfully obtained and congruent to a cubic perovskite structure of BSCF. Possible formation mechanism,as well as the schematic illustration of BSCF nanotubes inside the template was also discussed in this paper.

  7. A novel memristive cellular neural network with time-variant templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Hu


    Full Text Available A cellular neural network (CNN is a massively parallel analog array processor capable of solving various complex processing problems by using specific templates that characterize the synaptic connections. The hardware implementation and applications of CNN have attracted a great deal of attention. Recently, memristors with nanometer-scale and variable gradual conductance have been exploited to make compact and programmable electric synapses. This paper proposes and studies a novel memristive CNN (Mt-CNN with time-variant templates realized by memristor crossbar synaptic circuits. The template parameters are estimated analytically. The Mt-CNN provides a promising solution to hardware realization of real-time template updating processes, which can be used to effectively deal with various complicated problems of cascaded processing. Its effectiveness and advantages are demonstrated by practical examples of edge detection on noisy images.

  8. Topological defects in liquid crystals as templates for molecular self-assembly (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Miller, Daniel S.; Bukusoglu, Emre; de Pablo, Juan J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.


    Topological defects in liquid crystals (LCs) have been widely used to organize colloidal dispersions and template polymerization, leading to a range of assemblies, elastomers and gels. However, little is understood about molecular-level assembly processes within defects. Here, we report that nanoscopic environments defined by LC topological defects can selectively trigger processes of molecular self-assembly. By using fluorescence microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and super-resolution optical microscopy, we observed signatures of molecular self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules in topological defects, including cooperativity, reversibility and controlled growth. We also show that nanoscopic o-rings synthesized from Saturn-ring disclinations and other molecular assemblies templated by defects can be preserved by using photocrosslinkable amphiphiles. Our results reveal that, in analogy to other classes of macromolecular templates such as polymer-surfactant complexes, topological defects in LCs are a versatile class of three-dimensional, dynamic and reconfigurable templates that can direct processes of molecular self-assembly.

  9. Comparison of five-axis milling and rapid prototyping for implant surgical templates. (United States)

    Park, Ji-Man; Yi, Tae-Kyoung; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyoon; Park, Eun-Jin; Heo, Seong-Joo


    This study aims to compare and evaluate the accuracy of surgical templates fabricated using coordinate synchronization processing with five-axis milling and design-related processing with rapid prototyping (RP). Master phantoms with 10 embedded gutta-percha cylinders hidden under artificial gingiva were fabricated and imaged using cone beam computed tomography. Vectors of the hidden cylinders were extracted and transferred to those of the planned implants through reverse engineering using virtual planning software. An RP-produced template was fabricated by stereolithography in photopolymer at the RP center according to planned data. Metal sleeves were bonded after holes were bored (group RP). For the milled template, milling coordinates were synchronized using the conversion process for the coordinate synchronization platform located on the model's bottom. Metal bushings were set on holes milled on the five-axis milling machine, on which the model was fixed through the coordinate synchronization plate, and the framework was constructed on the model using orthodontic resin (group CS). A computed tomography image was taken with templates firmly fixed on models using anchor pins (RP) or anchor screws (CS). The accuracy was analyzed via reverse engineering. Differences between the two groups were compared by repeated measures two-factor analysis. From the reverse-engineered image of the template on the experimental model, RP-produced templates showed significantly larger deviations than did milled surgical guides. Maximum deviations of the group RP were 1.58 mm (horizontal), 1.68 mm (vertical), and 8.51 degrees (angular); those of the group CS were 0.68 mm (horizontal), 0.41 mm (vertical), and 3.23 degrees (angular). A comparison of milling and RP template production methods showed that a vector-milled surgical guide had significantly smaller deviations than did an RP-produced template. The accuracy of computer-guided milled surgical templates was within the safety

  10. Templated Growth of Magnetic Recording Media (United States)

    Sundar, Vignesh

    Current and potential next-generation magnetic recording technologies are based on the writing and reading of bits on a magnetic thin film with a granular microstructure, with grains of the magnetic material surrounded by an amorphous segregant. In order to realize the highest achievable data storage capabilities, there is a need for better control of the magnetic media microstructure, particularly in terms of minimizing grain size and grain boundary thickness distributions. In this work, a guided magnetic media growth is attempted by creating a pre-fabricated template with a specific material and morphology. The template is designed in such a way that, when magnetic media consisting of the magnetic alloy and segregant are sputtered, the sites on the template result in a controlled two-phase growth of magnetic media. The template is fabricated using self-assembling block copolymers, which can be used to fabricate nanostructures with a regular hexagonal lattice of spheres of one block in the other's matrix. These are then used as etch-masks to fabricate the template. In this thesis, we describe the approach used to fabricate these templates and demonstrate the two-phase growth of magnetic recording media. In such an approach, the magnetic grain size is defined by the uniform pitch of the block copolymer pattern, resulting in a uniform microstructure with much better grain size distribution than can be obtained with conventional un-templated media growth. The templated growth technique is also a suitable additive technique for the fabrication of Bit Patterned Media, another potential next-generation technology wherein the magnetic bits are isolated patterned islands. Combining nanoimprint lithography with templated growth, we can generate a long range spatially ordered array of magnetic islands with no etching of the magnetic material.

  11. Metal-organic framework templated electrodeposition of functional gold nanostructures


    Worrall, Stephen D.; Bissett, Mark A.; Hill, Patrick I.; Rooney, Aidan. P.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Attfield, Martin P.; Dryfe, Robert A. W.


    Utilizing a pair of quick, scalable electrochemical processes, the permanently porous MOF HKUST-1 was electrochemically grown on a copper electrode and this HKUST-1-coated electrode was used to template electrodeposition of a gold nanostructure within the pore network of the MOF. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a proportion of the gold nanostructures exhibit structural features replicating the pore space of this ~1.4 nm maximum pore diameter MOF, as well as regions that are...

  12. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis


    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.


    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  14. Template-assisted fabrication of protein nanocapsules (United States)

    Dougherty, Shelley A.; Liang, Jianyu; Kowalik, Timothy F.


    Bionanomaterials have recently begun to spark a great amount of interest and could potentially revolutionize biomedical research. Nanoparticles, nanocapsules, and nanotubular structures are becoming attractive options in drug and gene delivery. The size of the delivery vehicles greatly impacts cellular uptake and makes it highly desirable to precisely control the diameter and length of nanocarriers to make uniform nanoparticles at low cost. Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential within the field of drug and gene delivery. However, their insolubility and cytotoxicity could severely delay FDA approval. A desirable alternative would be to fabricate nanostructures from biomaterials such as proteins, peptides, or liposomes, which are already FDA approved. In this article we demonstrate the preparation of protein nanocapsules with both ends sealed using a template-assisted alternate immersion method combined with controlled cleaving. Glucose oxidase nanocapsules with controllable diameter, wall thickness, and length were fabricated and characterized with SEM and TEM. The biochemical activity of glucose oxidase in the form of nanocapsules after processing was confirmed using UV spectrometry. Our future work will explore proteins suitable for drug encapsulation and cellular uptake and will focus on optimizing the cleaving process to gain precise control over the length of the nanocapsules.

  15. Numerical Control Device for Preparation Nano-Carbon Granule Coating Superhydrophobic Template and Its Application (United States)

    Shang, G. R.; Li, Y.


    It is one of the ways for changing surface property by fabricating superhydrophibic coating with the help of template that is made of depositing nano-carbon particles of fuel flame on substrate such as pure copper or aluminium alloy. In the process of making template, it is difficult to keep the deposition layer uniformed. In this work, the problem was solved by manufacturing a set of numerical control equipment. It has been proved by application test that the deposition layer was uniformed by means of this facility. The contact angle is more than 150°. A new way has been developed for making superhydrohibic template.

  16. Nanoscale Si template for the growth of self-organized one-dimensional nanostructures (United States)

    Masson, Laurence; Sahaf, Houda; Amsalem, Patrick; Dettoni, Florent; Moyen, Eric; Koch, Norbert; Hanbücken, Margrit


    Through silicon deposition onto the silver (1 1 0) surface, we have fabricated in a one-step process a highly perfect nanoscale template consisting of a self-assembled Si nanostripe array with a pitch of 2 nm, covering uniformly the entire surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy investigations show that this system can be used, in a very simple way, as a template for the growth of identical highly ordered one-dimensional nanostructures. The adsorption of Co at room temperature and C60 at 190 °C gives rise to the growth of self-organized one-dimensional nanostructures reproducing the one-dimensional pattern of the Si template.

  17. Template for safety reports with descriptive example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report provides a template for future safety reports on long-term safety in support of important decisions and permit applications in connection with the construction of a deep repository system. The template aims at providing a uniform structure for describing long-term safety, after the repository has been closed and sealed. The availability of such a structure will simplify both preparation and review of the safety reports, and make it possible to follow how safety assessments are influenced by the progressively more detailed body of data that emerges. A separate section containing `descriptive examples` has been appended to the template. This section illustrates what the different chapters of the template should contain. 279 refs.

  18. Template-based prediction of protein function. (United States)

    Petrey, Donald; Chen, T Scott; Deng, Lei; Garzon, Jose Ignacio; Hwang, Howook; Lasso, Gorka; Lee, Hunjoong; Silkov, Antonina; Honig, Barry


    We discuss recent approaches for structure-based protein function annotation. We focus on template-based methods where the function of a query protein is deduced from that of a template for which both the structure and function are known. We describe the different ways of identifying a template. These are typically based on sequence analysis but new methods based on purely structural similarity are also being developed that allow function annotation based on structural relationships that cannot be recognized by sequence. The growing number of available structures of known function, improved homology modeling techniques and new developments in the use of structure allow template-based methods to be applied on a proteome-wide scale and in many different biological contexts. This progress significantly expands the range of applicability of structural information in function annotation to a level that previously was only achievable by sequence comparison. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration


    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  20. Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbing, Jana; Koidl, Kevin


    Please, cite this publication as: Abbing, J. & Koidl, K. (2006). Template Approach for Adaptive Learning Strategies. Proceedings of Adaptive Hypermedia. June, Dublin, Ireland. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from

  1. In search of the visual pigment template


    Govardovskii, V.I.; Fyhrquist, N; Reuter, T; Kuzmin, D.G.; Donner, K


    Absorbance spectra were recorded by microspectrophotometry from 39 different rod and cone types representing amphibians, reptiles, and fishes, with A1- or A2-based visual pigments and [lambda]max ranging from 357 to 620 nm. The purpose was to investigate accuracy limits of putative universal templates for visual pigment absorbance spectra, and if possible to amend the templates to overcome the limitations. It was found that (1) the absorbance spectrum of frog rhodopsin extract very precisely ...

  2. Template-directed synthesis using the heterogeneous templates produced by montmorillonite catalysis. A possible bridge between the prebiotic and RNA worlds (United States)

    Ertem, G.; Ferris, J. P.


    The synthesis of oligoguanylates [oligo(G)s] is catalyzed by a template of oligocytidylates [oligo(C)s] containing 2',5'- and 3',5'-linked phosphodiester bonds with and without incorporated C5'ppC groupings. An oligo(C) template containing exclusively 2',5'-phosphodiester bonds also serves as a template for the synthesis of complementary oligo(G)s. The oligo(C) template was prepared by the condensation of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of cytidine on montmorillonite clay. These studies establish that RNA oligomers prepared by mineral catalysis, or other routes on the primitive earth, did not have to be exclusively 3',5'-linked to catalyze template-directed synthesis, since oligo(C)s containing a variety of linkage isomers serve as templates for the formation of complementary oligo(G)s. These findings support the postulate that origin of the RNA world was initiated by the RNA oligomers produced by polymerization of activated monomers formed by prebiotic processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Selwal


    Full Text Available Biometric is the science of human recognition based upon using their biological, chemical or behavioural traits. These systems are used in many real life applications simply from biometric based attendance system to providing security at very sophisticated level. A biometric system deals with raw data captured using a sensor and feature template extracted from raw image. One of the challenges being faced by designers of these systems is to secure template data extracted from the biometric modalities of the user and protect the raw images. To minimize spoof attacks on biometric systems by unauthorised users one of the solutions is to use multi-biometric systems. Multi-modal biometric system works by using fusion technique to merge feature templates generated from different modalities of the human. In this work a new scheme is proposed to secure template during feature fusion level. Scheme is based on union operation of fuzzy relations of templates of modalities during fusion process of multimodal biometric systems. This approach serves dual purpose of feature fusion as well as transformation of templates into a single secured non invertible template. The proposed technique is cancelable and experimentally tested on a bimodal biometric system comprising of fingerprint and hand geometry. Developed scheme removes the problem of an attacker learning the original minutia position in fingerprint and various measurements of hand geometry. Given scheme provides improved performance of the system with reduction in false accept rate and improvement in genuine accept rate.

  4. Automated epileptiform spike detection via affinity propagation-based template matching. (United States)

    Thomas, John; Jing Jin; Dauwels, Justin; Cash, Sydney S; Westover, M Brandon


    Interictal epileptiform spikes are the key diagnostic biomarkers for epilepsy. The clinical gold standard of spike detection is visual inspection performed by neurologists. This is a tedious, time-consuming, and expert-centered process. The development of automated spike detection systems is necessary in order to provide a faster and more reliable diagnosis of epilepsy. In this paper, we propose an efficient template matching spike detector based on a combination of spike and background waveform templates. We generate a template library by clustering a collection of spikes and background waveforms extracted from a database of 50 patients with epilepsy. We benchmark the performance of five clustering techniques based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In addition, background templates are integrated with existing spike templates to improve the overall performance. The affinity propagation-based template matching system with a combination of spike and background templates is shown to outperform the other four conventional methods with the highest area-under-curve (AUC) of 0.953.

  5. Multi-template polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kalle


    Full Text Available PCR is a formidable and potent technology that serves as an indispensable tool in a wide range of biological disciplines. However, due to the ease of use and often lack of rigorous standards many PCR applications can lead to highly variable, inaccurate, and ultimately meaningless results. Thus, rigorous method validation must precede its broad adoption to any new application. Multi-template samples possess particular features, which make their PCR analysis prone to artifacts and biases: multiple homologous templates present in copy numbers that vary within several orders of magnitude. Such conditions are a breeding ground for chimeras and heteroduplexes. Differences in template amplification efficiencies and template competition for reaction compounds undermine correct preservation of the original template ratio. In addition, the presence of inhibitors aggravates all of the above-mentioned problems. Inhibitors might also have ambivalent effects on the different templates within the same sample. Yet, no standard approaches exist for monitoring inhibitory effects in multitemplate PCR, which is crucial for establishing compatibility between samples.

  6. A Generic Stochastic Template Bank Placement Algorithm (United States)

    Frei, Melissa; Fotopoulos, N.; Priviteria, S.


    Black hole binary (BBH) systems represent strong candidates for gravitational wave (GW) detection by GW detectors LIGO and Virgo. BBH searches are template based searches where the templates describe potential GWs. Most BBH sources are spinning strongly enough to affect orbital dynamics though past searches have all been for non-spinning systems. Neglecting spin results in a significant decrease in a BBH search's sensitivity to spinning systems while the inclusion of leading order, single parameter spin corrections regain much of that sensitivity. BBH templates in past searches were chosen so that the overlap between neighboring templates was 97%. The optimal placement of non-spinning, inspiral templates is known but does not work for systems described by more parameters. For spinning systems, the placement metric is not known and stochastic methods like the one described in this poster are necessary. The method described here is based on previous stochastic work. It represents a fast, flexible, open-source tool using publicly available LIGO Algorithms Library (LAL) to generate stochastic banks for any template family no matter the number of parameters used to describe it. The method shows more efficient coverage of the parameter space of interest than a discrete stacking of a two-dimensional bank in a third direction.

  7. Percolation transition in the porous structure of latex-templated silica monoliths


    Guillemot, François; Brunet-Bruneau, Aline; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Barthel, Etienne; Gacoin, Thierry


    International audience; Porous sol-gel silica monoliths are prepared using PMMA nanoparticles, 60 nm in diameter, as sacrificial templates. The pore-structure of the calcined pellets is investigated through nitrogen adsorption to assess the evolution of the porosity when varying the amount of porogen. The latex templated monoliths present a well defined spherical extrinsic porosity and an intrinsic microporosity due to preparation process. As a result of a careful analysis of the adsorption h...

  8. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template for catalytic membrane fixed bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul


    and users to generate and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be faster, cheaper and very efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific catalytic...... membrane fixed bed models is developed. The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene....

  9. Computer-aided modeling framework – a generic modeling template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    This work focuses on the development of a computer-aided modeling framework. The framework is a knowledge-based system that is built on a generic modeling language and structured on workflows for different modeling tasks. The overall objective is to support model developers and users to generate...... and test models systematically, efficiently and reliably. In this way, development of products and processes can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient. In this contribution, as part of the framework, a generic modeling template for the systematic derivation of problem specific models is presented....... The application of the modeling template is highlighted with a case study related to the modeling of a catalytic membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene...

  10. Fabrication of Nanostructures Using Self-Assembled Peptides as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime


    This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self-organize into nanostruc......This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self......-organize into nanostructures (nanotubes, nanofibers or nanospheres) under very mild conditions; some of its properties make them excellent candidates to be use as, for instance, dry-etch masks in a reactive ion etching process for the rapid fabrication of silicon micro and nanowires. Here, the methods used to exploit...

  11. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang


    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  12. Templates for Fabricating Nanowire/Nanoconduit-Based Devices (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Holt, Todd; Welker, David


    An effort is underway to develop processes for making templates that could be used as deposition molds and etching masks in the fabrication of devices containing arrays of nanowires and/or nanoconduits. Highly-ordered, optical-fiber arrays consisting of dissimilar polymers comprise the template technology. The selective removal of the fiber cores in specific solvents creates the porous templates to be filled with a "top-down" deposition process such as electrochemical deposition, sputter deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, and the like. Typically, the fiber bundles consist of polystyrene (PS) fiber cores, which are clad with varying thickness poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). When arranged in hexagonal, close-packed configuration and pulled, the fibers form highly-ordered arrays comprised of PS fiber cores surrounded by a continuous matrix of PMMA. The ratio of PMMA cladding thickness to PS core diameter determines the spacing between PS fiber cores and typically ranges from 3:1 to 1:1. Essentially, the simultaneous heating and drawing or pulling in the longitudinal direction of polymer-fiber arrays fuses the fibers together.

  13. Process for the production of a molecular sieve material


    Melian, C.I.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.


    The invention concerns a process for the production of a molecular sieve material by growing the molecular sieve material structure in the presence of a template for the pore structure, followed by removal of the template from the molecular sieve material, in which process the template is removed by oxidation of the template material using an oxidising agent.

  14. An evaluation of automated homology modelling methods at low target template sequence similarity. (United States)

    Dalton, James A R; Jackson, Richard M


    There are two main areas of difficulty in homology modelling that are particularly important when sequence identity between target and template falls below 50%: sequence alignment and loop building. These problems become magnified with automatic modelling processes, as there is no human input to correct mistakes. As such we have benchmarked several stand-alone strategies that could be implemented in a workflow for automated high-throughput homology modelling. These include three new sequence-structure alignment programs: 3D-Coffee, Staccato and SAlign, plus five homology modelling programs and their respective loop building methods: Builder, Nest, Modeller, SegMod/ENCAD and Swiss-Model. The SABmark database provided 123 targets with at least five templates from the same SCOP family and sequence identities Modeller as the common modelling program, 3D-Coffee outperforms Staccato and SAlign using both multiple templates and the best single template, and across the sequence identity range 20-50%. The mean model RMSD generated from 3D-Coffee using multiple templates is 15 and 28% (or using single templates, 3 and 13%) better than those generated by Staccato and Salign, respectively. 3D-Coffee gives equivalent modelling accuracy from multiple and single templates, but Staccato and SAlign are more successful with single templates, their quality deteriorating as additional lower sequence identity templates are added. Evaluating the different homology modelling programs, on average Modeller performs marginally better in overall modelling than the others tested. However, on average Nest produces the best loops with an 8% improvement by mean RMSD compared to the loops generated by Builder.

  15. Initiator tRNA genes template the 3' CCA end at high frequencies in bacteria. (United States)

    Ardell, David H; Hou, Ya-Ming


    While the CCA sequence at the mature 3' end of tRNAs is conserved and critical for translational function, a genetic template for this sequence is not always contained in tRNA genes. In eukaryotes and Archaea, the CCA ends of tRNAs are synthesized post-transcriptionally by CCA-adding enzymes. In Bacteria, tRNA genes template CCA sporadically. In order to understand the variation in how prokaryotic tRNA genes template CCA, we re-annotated tRNA genes in tRNAdb-CE database version 0.8. Among 132,129 prokaryotic tRNA genes, initiator tRNA genes template CCA at the highest average frequency (74.1%) over all functional classes except selenocysteine and pyrrolysine tRNA genes (88.1% and 100% respectively). Across bacterial phyla and a wide range of genome sizes, many lineages exist in which predominantly initiator tRNA genes template CCA. Convergent and parallel retention of CCA templating in initiator tRNA genes evolved in independent histories of reductive genome evolution in Bacteria. Also, in a majority of cyanobacterial and actinobacterial genera, predominantly initiator tRNA genes template CCA. We also found that a surprising fraction of archaeal tRNA genes template CCA. We suggest that cotranscriptional synthesis of initiator tRNA CCA 3' ends can complement inefficient processing of initiator tRNA precursors, "bootstrap" rapid initiation of protein synthesis from a non-growing state, or contribute to an increase in cellular growth rates by reducing overheads of mass and energy to maintain nonfunctional tRNA precursor pools. More generally, CCA templating in structurally non-conforming tRNA genes can afford cells robustness and greater plasticity to respond rapidly to environmental changes and stimuli.

  16. Nacre-like calcium carbonate controlled by ionic liquid/graphene oxide composite template. (United States)

    Yao, Chengli; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua; Zhu, Jinmiao; Li, Hongying


    Nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures have been mediated by an ionic liquid (IL)-graphene oxide (GO) composite template. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that either 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4) or graphene oxide can act as a soft template for calcium carbonate formation with unusual morphologies. Based on the time-dependent morphology changes of calcium carbonate particles, it is concluded that nacre-like calcium carbonate nanostructures can be formed gradually utilizing [BMIM]BF4/GO composite template. During the process of calcium carbonate formation, [BMIM]BF4 acted not only as solvents but also as morphology templates for the fabrication of calcium carbonate materials with nacre-like morphology. Based on the observations, the possible mechanisms were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles and Polymers Enabled by Vapor Permeable Polymer Templates (United States)

    Demko, Michael Thomas

    The structure and chemistry of nanoparticles and polymers are interesting for applications in electronics and sensors. However, because they are outside of the standard material set typically used for these applications, widespread use of these materials has not yet been realized. This is due in part to the limited ability of traditional manufacturing processes to adapt to these unique materials. As a result, several alternative manufacturing methods have been developed, including nanoimprint lithography, gravure printing, inkjet printing, and screen printing, among many others. However, these current processes are not able to simultaneously produce patterns with high resolution and high dimensional fidelity, rapidly, over large areas, and in a completely additive manner. In this work, high-resolution patterns of nanoparticles and polymers are created on a variety of substrates in a completely additive manner using a template-based microfluidic process. Permeation of solvent through a vapor-permeable polymer template is used to both drive the flow of ink and concentrate the solute inside of template features. This fluidic process is shown to allow gradual packing of solute inside the template features, enabling creation of three-dimensional features with low defect densities. Additionally, because the mechanical properties of the template material are found to significantly impact patterning resolution and fidelity, and a process for creating rigid, vapor permeable templates from poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) is developed. These templates are used for creating patterning of nanoparticles and polymers with a minimum line width of smaller than 350 nm. The process is then applied to the creation of low temperature metallization for polymer electronics using metallic nanoparticles and a highly-sensitive ultraviolet light sensor from zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  18. Monosaccharide templates for de novo designed 4-alpha-helix bundle proteins: template effects in carboproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jesper; Dideriksen, J.M.; Nielsen, John


    Da 4-alpha-helix bundles by oxime ligation of tetra-aminooxyacetyl functionalized D-galacto-, D-gluco-, and D-altropyranoside templates with an amphiphilic C- terminal hexadecapeptide aldehyde sequence. CD spectroscopy indicated that the choice of template has an effect on the overall structure...

  19. Biomolecular templating of functional hybrid nanostructures using repeat protein scaffolds. (United States)

    Romera, David; Couleaud, Pierre; Mejias, Sara H; Aires, Antonio; Cortajarena, Aitziber L


    The precise synthesis of materials and devices with tailored complex structures and properties is a requisite for the development of the next generation of products based on nanotechnology. Nowadays, the technology for the generation of this type of devices lacks the precision to determine their properties and is accomplished mostly by 'trial and error' experimental approaches. The use of bottom-up approaches that rely on highly specific biomolecular interactions of small and simple components is an attractive approach for the templating of nanoscale elements. In nature, protein assemblies define complex structures and functions. Engineering novel bio-inspired assemblies by exploiting the same rules and interactions that encode the natural diversity is an emerging field that opens the door to create nanostructures with numerous potential applications in synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Self-assembly of biological molecules into defined functional structures has a tremendous potential in nano-patterning and the design of novel materials and functional devices. Molecular self-assembly is a process by which complex 3D structures with specified functions are constructed from simple molecular building blocks. Here we discuss the basis of biomolecular templating, the great potential of repeat proteins as building blocks for biomolecular templating and nano-patterning. In particular, we focus on the designed consensus tetratricopeptide repeats (CTPRs), the control on the assembly of these proteins into higher order structures and their potential as building blocks in order to generate functional nanostructures and materials. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mesoscopic high aspect ratio ferroelectric tube structures of a diverse range of compositions with tailored physical properties can be used as key components in miniaturized flexible electronics, nano- and micro-electro-mechanical systems, nonvolatile FeRAM memories, and tunable photonic applications. They are usually produced through advanced “bottom-up” or “topdown” fabrication techniques. In this study, a template wetting approach is employed for fabrication of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. Prior to crystallization at 750°C, free-standing tubes of a 2-μm outer diameter, extending to over 30 μm in length were released from the Si template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching. To facilitate rapid electrical characterization and enable future integration process, directed positioning and aligning of the PZT tubes was performed by dielectrophoresis. The electric field-assisted technique involves an alternating electric voltage that is applied through pre-patterned microelectrodes to a colloidal suspension of PZT tubes dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. The most efficient biasing for the assembly of tubes across the electrode gap of 12 μm was a square wave signal of 5 Vrms and 10 Hz. By varying the applied frequency in between 1 and 10 Hz, an enhancement in tube alignment was obtained.

  1. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates. (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq


    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  2. Synthesis of ordered ZnO nanowire arrays from aqueous solution using AAO template (United States)

    Kumar, Nagesh; Varma, G. D.; Nath, R.; Srivastava, A. K.


    In this paper we report a simple method that enables the easy fabrication of ordered ZnO nanowire arrays using Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) template. We have used a vacuum injection technique to fill solution into the pores of an AAO template. The AAO template has been fabricated by a two-step anodization process using 0.3 M oxalic acid (H2C2O4) solution under a constant voltage of 40 V. The AAO template formed through this process has been detached from Al substrate via an anodic voltage pulse using perchloric acid (HClO4) solution (70%). The nanowires of ZnO have been synthesized by injecting the saturated Zn(NO3)2 solution into the pores of the detached AAO template using a vacuum pump. The ZnO nanowires synthesized by this technique have been found dense & continuous with uniform diameter throughout the length of the wire. The structural characteristics of AAO template and ZnO nanowires have been studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).

  3. Recycling of surfactant template in mesoporous MCM-41 synthesis (United States)

    Lai, J. Y.; Twaiq, F.; Ngu, L. H.


    The recycling of surfactant template is investigated through the reuse of the surfactant template in the mesoporous MCM-41 synthesis process. In the synthesis of MCM-41, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) solution in water was utilized as the silica source while hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution in ethyl alcohol was used as a surfactant template. The synthesized gel is formed thoroughly by mixing the two solutions under acid conditions with a pH value of 0.5 for 1 hour and kept for crystallization for 48 hours. The as-synthesized MCM-41 powder is recovered by filtration while the filtrate (mother liquor) was then reused for the second synthesis cycle. The synthesis procedure was repeated till no further solid product was formed. The synthesized gel was not produced in the unifying solution in the fifth cycle of MCM-41 synthesis. The quality of the calcined MCM-41 powder produced in each synthesis cycle was evaluated by calculating the amount of MCM-41 produced and the surface area of the powder product. The result showed that 1.28, 0.37, 1.64, 1.90 and 0.037 g were obtained in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th synthesis cycle, respectively. The surface area of the powder produced was found to be 1170, 916, 728, and 508 m2/g for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th respectively. The concentration of the surfactant template has reached value lower than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and remained constant after the 4th cycle. There was no further formation of gel due to low availability in the interaction between silicate anions and surfactant cations when the amount of TEOS was fixed for every synthesis cycle.

  4. Advanced cleaning of nano-imprint lithography template in patterned media applications (United States)

    Singh, Sherjang; Chen, Ssuwei; Dress, Peter; Kurataka, Nobuo; Gauzner, Gene; Dietze, Uwe


    As the magnetic storage industry roadmap calls for aggressive terabit/in2 densities over the next few years, the shift from the current planar media to patterned media; grooved surfaces (discrete track media / DTM) and/or individually defined magnetic dots (bit patterned media / BPM), will be necessary. Both types of patterned media require lithography to produce the pattern on the disk and the most promising lithography candidate today is nano-imprint lithography (NIL). During the imprinting process a thin, round, transparent template made of quartz is functioned as a mold to inversely transfer the features from its surface to the patterning medium on the disks by direct contact. One issue with this technique is the high probability of defects due to repeated contact of the template with the resist before, during, and after UV radiation. Defect management through template cleaning, inspection and defect characterization is critical to preserve integrity of the process. In this paper, advanced acid-free cleaning combined with MegaSonic treatment for defect elimination is investigated for effectiveness on discrete track recording (DTR) and BPM patterned templates. For the experiments, templates containing 250KTPI (100nm track pitch) full surface DTR pattern, 450 KTPI (56nm track pitch) with narrow band DTR pattern, and 250Gdpsi (50nm track pitch) with narrow band BPM pattern are used. The effect of MegaSonic cleaning on the pattern integrity of fragile features is studied. General characterization of defect attributes is made feasible through a series of imprinting and template cleaning cycles focused on resist residues and contaminant removal. Imprinted disks are analyzed using Candela disk inspection and SEM imaging of the pattern. Template cleaning is performed using HamaTech MaskTrack TeraPure automated template cleaning system.

  5. Liquid as template for next generation micro devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmet, Jerome; Haquette, Henri; Laux, Edith; Keppner, Herbert [HES-SO ARC, Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquees, La Chaux de Fonds (Switzerland); Gorodyska, Ganna; Textor, Marcus [ETHZ, BioInterfaceGroup, Zuerich (Switzerland); Durante, Guido Spinola; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Knapp, Helmut [CSEM Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Alpnach (Switzerland); Bitterli, Roland; Noell, Wilfried, E-mail: Jerome.Charmet@he-arc.c [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institute of Microengineering, Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems laboratory, Rue Jaquet Droz 1, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)


    Liquids have fascinated generations of scientists and engineers. Since ancient Greece, the perfect natural shape of liquids has been used to create optical systems. Nowadays, the natural shape of liquid is used in the fabrication of microlens arrays that rely on the melting of glass or photoresist to generate high quality lenses. However shrinkage normally associated to the liquid to solid phase transition will affect the initial shape and quality of the liquid structure. In this contribution, a novel fabrication technique that enables the encapsulation and replication of liquid templates without affecting their natural shape is presented. The SOLID (SOlid on LIquid Deposition) process allows for a transparent solid film to be deposited and grown onto a liquid template (droplet, film, line) in a way that the liquid shapes the overgrowing solid layer. The resulting configuration of the SOLID devices is chemically and mechanically stable and is the base of a huge variety of new micro-nano systems in the field of microfluidics, biomedical devices and micro-optics among others. The SOLID process enables in a one step process the encapsulation of liquid microlenses, fluidics channels, drug reservoir or any naturally driven liquid structure. The phenomenon and solid-liquid interface resulting from the SOLID process is new and still unexploited. The solid layer used for the SOLID process chosen in this paper is poly-para-xylylene called Parylene, a transparent biocompatible polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties. Moreover, as the solid layer is growing over a liquid template, atomically smooth surfaces channels can be obtained. The polymerization of Parylene does not exert stress and does not change the shape of the liquid; this latter aspect is particularly interesting for manufacturing naturally driven liquid structures. In this paper the authors explore the limits of this new method by testing different designs of SOLID encapsulated structures and

  6. High resolution patterning of nanoparticles by evaporative self-assembly enabled by in situ creation and mechanical lift-off of a polymer template (United States)

    Demko, Michael T.; Choi, Sun; Zohdi, Tarek I.; Pisano, Albert P.


    High-resolution patterning of nanostructured materials into open templates is limited by the processes of creation and removal of the necessary template. In this work, a process for forming a micropatterned template from cellulose acetate polymer in situ on the substrate is demonstrated. Nanoparticles are patterned by evaporative self-assembly, and the template is removed by mechanical means. The process is demonstrated by patterning zinc oxide nanoparticles on silicon and cyclic olefin copolymer substrates and by creating a highly sensitive ultraviolet light detector.

  7. Learning probabilistic document template models via interaction (United States)

    Ahmadullin, Ildus; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan


    Document aesthetics measures are key to automated document composition. Recently we presented a probabilistic document model (PDM) which is a micro-model for document aesthetics based on a probabilistic modeling of designer choice in document design. The PDM model comes with efficient layout synthesis algorithms once the aesthetic model is defined. A key element of this approach is an aesthetic prior on the parameters of a template encoding aesthetic preferences for template parameters. Parameters of the prior were required to be chosen empirically by designers. In this work we show how probabilistic template models (and hence the PDM cost function) can be learnt directly by observing a designer making design choices in composing sample documents. From such training data our learning approach can learn a quality measure that can mimic some of the design tradeoffs a designer makes in practice.

  8. A Hybrid Approach to Protect Palmprint Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Liu


    Full Text Available Biometric template protection is indispensable to protect personal privacy in large-scale deployment of biometric systems. Accuracy, changeability, and security are three critical requirements for template protection algorithms. However, existing template protection algorithms cannot satisfy all these requirements well. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that combines random projection and fuzzy vault to improve the performances at these three points. Heterogeneous space is designed for combining random projection and fuzzy vault properly in the hybrid scheme. New chaff point generation method is also proposed to enhance the security of the heterogeneous vault. Theoretical analyses of proposed hybrid approach in terms of accuracy, changeability, and security are given in this paper. Palmprint database based experimental results well support the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed hybrid approach.

  9. Three-particle templates for boosted Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Leandro G; Juknevich, José; Lee, Seung J; Perez, Gilad; Sterman, George


    We explore the ability of three-particle templates to distinguish color neutral objects from QCD background. This method is particularly useful to identify the standard model Higgs, as well as other massive neutral particles. Simple cut-based analysis in the overlap distributions of the signal and background is shown to provide a significant rejection power. By combining with other discriminating variables, such as planar flow, and several variables that depend on the partonic template, three-particle templates are used to characterize the influence of gluon emission and color flow in collider events. The performance of the method is discussed for the case of a highly boosted Higgs in association with a leptonically-decaying W boson.

  10. Polymer templated nickel cobaltate for energy storage★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albohani Shaymaa


    Full Text Available In order to take advantage of the increasing sophistication of technology for harnessing renewable energy resources, serious attention must be paid to how to store and re-access this energy. Electrochemical storage, in the guise of batteries, supercapacitors and pseudocapacitors, has attracted much attention as a viable option for enhanced energy storage applications. But in order for these technologies to be implemented successfully we need to find materials that perform better and are relatively easy to synthesise. Bimetallic transition metal oxides are materials that are readily synthesised and may be multifunctional, i.e. have a role at the electrochemical atomic level as well as the device level. In order for these materials to work efficiently in new generation systems based on sodium and lithium they also need to be mesoporous. This can be achieved by trying to find synthetic techniques that produce specific, highly regulated nanostructures or by adding a ‘templating’ agent during the bulk synthesis step. We have investigated the simple hydrothermal preparation of a number of nickel cobaltate (NiCo2O4 materials using polymer templates, eggshell membrane (ESM and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA, as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors. The ESM was expected to act as a fibrous, random polymeric template while the PMMA should produce a much more ordered material. Electrochemical testing showed that the different templates have led to changes in material morphology and these have resulted in a difference in electrochemical properties. Templated materials increased specific capacitance compared to non-templated and the choice of template could influence the capacitance by as much as 30%.

  11. 2D vector-cyclic deformable templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Conradsen, Knut


    matrices applied to the vector cycle. An approximation in the parameter distribution is introduced. The main advantage by using the deformable template model is the ability to simulate a wide range of objects trained by e.g. their biological variations, and thereby improve restoration, segmentation...... and probabillity measurement. The case study concerns estimation of meat percent in pork carcasses. Given two cross-sectional images - one at the front and one near the ham of the carcass - the areas of lean and fat and a muscle in the lean area are measured automatically by the deformable templates....

  12. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Hiroaki, E-mail: [Department of Informatics and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Shimogamo Nakaragi-cyo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishima, Yuya [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Takenaka, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, Yonago National College of Technology, 4448, Hikona-cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Isao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  13. Affordance Templates for Shared Robot Control (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kim


    This paper introduces the Affordance Template framework used to supervise task behaviors on the NASA-JSC Valkyrie robot at the 2013 DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Trials. This framework provides graphical interfaces to human supervisors that are adjustable based on the run-time environmental context (e.g., size, location, and shape of objects that the robot must interact with, etc.). Additional improvements, described below, inject degrees of autonomy into instantiations of affordance templates at run-time in order to enable efficient human supervision of the robot for accomplishing tasks.

  14. Introduction to ASPNET 4 AJAX Client Templates

    CERN Document Server

    Shoemaker, Craig


    This Wrox Blox will teach you how to create and customize ASP.NET 4 AJAX Preview 4 Client Templates. The author shows you how to use declarative as well as imperative data-binding techniques to address the simple to advanced UI requirements. He also covers how the observer pattern is fully implemented in ASP.NET 4 AJAX and, when used in conjunction with the Client Template markup extensions, provides a developer experience much like XAML-based applications like WPF and Silverlight. This Wrox Blox walks you through how to implement examples that fetch data from ASP.NET Web Forms using Page Meth

  15. A collection of suggested electronic course templates for use in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill W. Fresen


    Full Text Available The collection of electronic course templates suggested in this article results from collaborative investigation between instructional support staff and academic staff users of the virtual learning environment (VLE at two institutions, one in the United Kingdom and the other in the United States. The particular VLE in use at both institutions was Sakai, although the experience described here can be applied to the design process and workflow using any VLE that allows the selection and some configuration of standard tools.We applied the lattice model of Hill, Fresen and Geng (2012 to design and build a set of six course site templates, which are used as the basis on which site owners can easily build new sites in the VLE. As the ultimate goal of template provision is to underpin pedagogy, academics are free to use a template or build a site from scratch, based on their own teaching context, and they may adapt any template according to the pedagogical purpose and nature of the course. The underlying assumptions are that academic staff retain full control over the content, tools and permissions in their new site. The templates are not mutually exclusive – that is, aspects from any template may be incorporated, where applicable, into another one.We conclude that it is helpful for the VLE support team to take the lead in proposing a set of templates according to the predominant teaching and learning models in use at a particular institution, which may contribute to consistency across course sites and ultimately result in an improved student learning experience.

  16. Controlled synthesis of one-dimensional inorganic nanostructures using pre-existing one-dimensional nanostructures as templates. (United States)

    Liang, Hai-Wei; Liu, Shuo; Yu, Shu-Hong


    Template-directed strategy has become one of the most popular methods for the fabrication of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with uniform size and controllable physical dimensions in recent years. This Review article describes the recent progress in the synthesis of 1D inorganic nanostructures by using suitable templates. A brief survey on the templating method based on the organic templates and porous membrane is firstly given. Then, the article is focused on recent emerging synthetic strategies by templating against the pre-existing 1D nanostructures using different physical and chemical transformation techniques, including epitaxial growth, nonepitaxial growth, direct chemical transformation, solid-state interfacial diffusion reaction, and so on. The important reactivity role of the 1D nanostructures will be emphasized in such transformation process. Finally, we conclude this paper with some perspectives and outlook on this research topic.

  17. Self-Templated Formation of Hollow Structures for Electrochemical Energy Applications. (United States)

    Yu, Le; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David


    The rational design and synthesis of hollow structured functional materials are of great significance as both fundamental challenges in materials science and practical solutions for efficient energy utilization in modern society. The unique structural features of hollow functional materials bring outstanding electrochemical properties for both energy storage and electrocatalysis. However, conventional templating methods are normally less efficient in constructing hollow structures with desirable compositions and architectures. In the past decade, many novel synthetic approaches directly converting templates into hollow structures have been developed. Collectively termed as the "self-templated" strategy, it makes use of various physical/chemical processes to transform solid templates into hollow structures of target materials. Of particular note is the outstanding capability to construct complex hollow architectures of a wide variety of inorganic or hybrid functional materials, thus providing effective solutions for various electrochemical energy applications. In this Account, we present the recent progress in self-templated formation of hollow structures especially with complex architectures, and their remarkable performance in electrochemical energy-related technologies. These advanced self-templated methods are summarized as three categories. "Selective etching" creates hollow structures from solid templates of same materials by removing some of the internal parts, forming multishelled or unusual hollow architectures. "Outward diffusion" utilizes the relocation of mass in templates from inner region to outer region driven by various mechanisms, to construct hollow structures with multiple or hierarchical shells. "Heterogeneous contraction" typically applies to thermally decomposable templates and generates various hollow structures under nonequilibrium heating conditions. We further demonstrate some remarkable electrochemical properties of such hollow structures

  18. The biogeochemical cycle of the adsorbed template. II - Selective adsorption of mononucleotides on adsorbed polynucleotide templates (United States)

    Lazard, Daniel; Lahav, Noam; Orenberg, James B.


    Experimental results are presented for the verification of the specific interaction step of the 'adsorbed template' biogeochemical cycle, a simple model for a primitive prebiotic replication system. The experimental system consisted of gypsum as the mineral to which an oligonucleotide template attaches (Poly-C or Poly-U) and (5-prime)-AMP, (5-prime)-GMP, (5-prime)-CMP and (5-prime)-UMP as the interacting biomonomers. When Poly-C or Poly-U were used as adsorbed templates, (5-prime)-GMP and (5-prime)-AMP, respectively, were observed to be the most strongly adsorbed species.

  19. Triggered Templated Assembly of Protein Polymersomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Wolf, de F.A.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Stuart, M.A.C.; Leermakers, F.A.M.


    Trigger the block: Stable biocompatible protein polymersomes can be generated by a triggered templated self-assembly route (see picture). Pluronic L121 vesicles (red core with blue corona) take up a biosynthetic triblock copolymer CSXSXC into their unilamellar shell. In response to changes in pH

  20. Template Based Low Data Rate Speech Encoder (United States)


    95 with unquantized parameters. 9" Frame size 20 ms is preferred Excelent (Our choice) 95 "•. FrmeSietme Fig. 2 - Frame size vs. spech ...synthesized from the filter coefficients selected from the reference templates that are free from nonspeech sounds. We again use a similar technique but take it

  1. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.


    A method is given for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and LiF for 2 days with an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by US patent No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, June 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have water-solubility, positive charge, and thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  2. Performance Templates and the Regulation of Learning (United States)

    Lyons, Paul


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed, theoretical underpinning for the training and performance improvement method: performance template (P-T). The efficacy of P-T, with limitations, has been demonstrated in this journal and in others. However, the theoretical bases of the P-T approach had not been well-developed. The other…

  3. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical templates for dental implant. 5. Nigerian Journal of Surgery. Jan‑Jun 2015 | Volume 21 | Issue 1. 18. Tarlow JL. Fabrication of an implant surgical stent for the edentulous mandible. J Prosthet Dent 1992;67:217‑8. 19. Stellino G, Morgano SM, Imbelloni A. A dual‑purpose, implant stent made from a provisional fixed ...

  4. Ceramic microfluidic monoliths by ice templating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jumeng; Salamon, David; Lefferts, Leonardus; Wessling, Matthias; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.


    Meso/macro-porous alumina microfluidic monoliths were fabricated by an ice-templating (or freeze-casting) technique. A (green) compact with sufficient strength is obtained after controlled freezing and simple drying under ambient conditions by starting with an aqueous suspension of a mixture of

  5. Stampless fabrication of sheet bars using disposable templates (United States)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.


    The article is devoted to the new method of small-scale fabrication of sheet bars. The procedure is performed by using disposable overlay templates, or those associated with a sheet, which parameters are obtained directly from the drawing. The proposed method used as a substitution of die cutting enables to intensify the preparatory technological process, which is particularly effective when launching the market-oriented items into production. It significantly increases the competitiveness of mechanical engineering and creates the conditions for technical support of present-day flexible production systems.

  6. Computational templates for introductory nuclear science using mathcad (United States)

    Sarantites, D. G.; Sobotka, L. G.


    Computational templates used to teach an introductory course in nuclear chemistry and physics at Washington University in St. Louis are presented in brief. The templates cover both basic and applied topics.

  7. Visual cluster analysis and pattern recognition template and methods (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil; Martinez, Rubel Francisco


    A method of clustering using a novel template to define a region of influence. Using neighboring approximation methods, computation times can be significantly reduced. The template and method are applicable and improve pattern recognition techniques.

  8. Multiple template-based fluoroscopic tracking of lung tumor mass without implanted fiducial markers (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Dy, Jennifer G.; Sharp, Gregory C.; Alexander, Brian; Jiang, Steve B.


    Precise lung tumor localization in real time is particularly important for some motion management techniques, such as respiratory gating or beam tracking with a dynamic multi-leaf collimator, due to the reduced clinical tumor volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin and/or the escalated dose. There might be large uncertainties in deriving tumor position from external respiratory surrogates. While tracking implanted fiducial markers has sufficient accuracy, this procedure may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previously, we have developed a technique to generate gating signals from fluoroscopic images without implanted fiducial markers using a template matching method (Berbeco et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4481-90, Cui et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 741-55). In this paper, we present an extension of this method to multiple-template matching for directly tracking the lung tumor mass in fluoroscopy video. The basic idea is as follows: (i) during the patient setup session, a pair of orthogonal fluoroscopic image sequences are taken and processed off-line to generate a set of reference templates that correspond to different breathing phases and tumor positions; (ii) during treatment delivery, fluoroscopic images are continuously acquired and processed; (iii) the similarity between each reference template and the processed incoming image is calculated; (iv) the tumor position in the incoming image is then estimated by combining the tumor centroid coordinates in reference templates with proper weights based on the measured similarities. With different handling of image processing and similarity calculation, two such multiple-template tracking techniques have been developed: one based on motion-enhanced templates and Pearson's correlation score while the other based on eigen templates and mean-squared error. The developed techniques have been tested on six sequences of fluoroscopic images from six lung cancer patients against the reference

  9. Templates for integrated nanofiber growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de

    -crystalline substrates, such as muscovite mica, on which long, mutually parallel nanofibers are self-assembled upon vapor deposition of the organic material under high vacuum conditions. However, the lack of ability to further process these substrates and for integration of such fragile nanostructures with the necessary...... the morphology of the resulting structures leading to notably different electrical properties. The transistor design influences its electrical characteristics, and the top-gate configuration shows to have the stronger gate effect. In addition, platforms for light-emitting devices were fabricated......, and the nanofibers did emit light when an AC voltage was applied to the gate. Platforms for 4-point measurements were fabricated to eliminate contact resistances and determine the nanofibers intrinsic resistance and resistivity. The large-scale fabrication of such small device platforms was demonstrated by using...

  10. Patterning and templating for nanoelectronics. (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas; Wang, Kang L; Ozkan, Mihri; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Huang, Yu; Chang, Jane P; Monbouquette, Harold G; Chen, Yong; Nealey, Paul; Botros, Youssry


    The semiconductor industry will soon be launching 32 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology node using 193 nm lithography patterning technology to fabricate microprocessors with more than 2 billion transistors. To ensure the survival of Moore's law, alternative patterning techniques that offer advantages beyond conventional top-down patterning are aggressively being explored. It is evident that most alternative patterning techniques may not offer compelling advantages to succeed conventional top-down lithography for silicon integrated circuits, but alternative approaches may well indeed offer functional advantages in realising next-generation information processing nanoarchitectures such as those based on cellular, bioinsipired, magnetic dot logic, and crossbar schemes. This paper highlights and evaluates some patterning methods from the Center on Functional Engineered Nano Architectonics in Los Angeles and discusses key benchmarking criteria with respect to CMOS scaling.

  11. PAM50: Unbiased multimodal template of the brainstem and spinal cord aligned with the ICBM152 space. (United States)

    De Leener, Benjamin; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Callot, Virginie; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien


    Template-based analysis of multi-parametric MRI data of the spinal cord sets the foundation for standardization and reproducibility, thereby helping the discovery of new biomarkers of spinal-related diseases. While MRI templates of the spinal cord have been recently introduced, none of them cover the entire spinal cord. In this study, we introduced an unbiased multimodal MRI template of the spinal cord and the brainstem, called PAM50, which is anatomically compatible with the ICBM152 brain template and uses the same coordinate system. The PAM50 template is based on 50 healthy subjects, covers the full spinal cord (C1 to L2 vertebral levels) and the brainstem, is available for T1-, T2-and T2*-weighted MRI contrasts and includes a probabilistic atlas of the gray matter and white matter tracts. Template creation accuracy was assessed by computing the mean and maximum distance error between each individual spinal cord centerline and the PAM50 centerline, after registration to the template. Results showed high accuracy for both T1- (mean = 0.37 ± 0.06 mm; max = 1.39 ± 0.58 mm) and T2-weighted (mean = 0.11 ± 0.03 mm; max = 0.71 ± 0.27 mm) contrasts. Additionally, the preservation of the spinal cord topology during the template creation process was verified by comparing the cross-sectional area (CSA) profile, averaged over all subjects, and the CSA profile of the PAM50 template. The fusion of the PAM50 and ICBM152 templates will facilitate group and multi-center studies of combined brain and spinal cord MRI, and enable the use of existing atlases of the brainstem compatible with the ICBM space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijenburg, A.W.


    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the

  13. FDG-PET template MNI152 1mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A FDG-PET template in MNI space aligned to the MNI152 atlas This PET-FDG template is provided as is free of charge for all purposes, provided that the following paper is cited......(to appear) when ever the template is used. The authors cannot, under any circumstances, be held responsible for any...

  14. Assessing ligand efficiencies using template-based molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    on a series of 38 TIBO derivatives as HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) inhibitors. Four different templates of the Cl-TIBO (1-REV) were created and used as reference templates for docking and align- ing. On the basis of the optimal conformation of the ligands, when fitting to the template, the respective scoring functions ...

  15. The effect of template selection on diffusion tensor voxel-based analysis results. (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Sage, Caroline A; Emsell, Louise; Veraart, Jelle; Sijbers, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Parizel, Paul M


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is increasingly being used to study white matter (WM) degeneration in patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders. In order to compare diffusion measures across subjects in an automated way, voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods were introduced. In VBA, all DTI data are transformed to a template, after which the diffusion measures of control subjects and patients are compared quantitatively in each voxel. Although VBA has many advantages compared to other post-processing approaches, such as region of interest analysis or tractography, VBA results need to be interpreted cautiously, since it has been demonstrated that they depend on the different parameter settings that are applied in the VBA processing pipeline. In this paper, we examine the effect of the template selection on the VBA results of DTI data. We hypothesized that the choice of template to which all data are transformed would also affect the VBA results. To this end, simulated DTI data sets as well as DTI data from control subjects and multiple sclerosis patients were aligned to (i) a population-specific DTI template, (ii) a subject-based DTI atlas in MNI space, and (iii) the ICBM-81 DTI atlas. Our results suggest that the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect WM abnormalities in a VBA setting was achieved using the population-specific DTI atlas, presumably due to the better spatial image alignment to this template. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inter-ictal spike detection using a database of smart templates. (United States)

    Lodder, Shaun S; Askamp, Jessica; van Putten, Michel J A M


    Visual analysis of EEG is time consuming and suffers from inter-observer variability. Assisted automated analysis helps by summarizing key aspects for the reviewer and providing consistent feedback. Our objective is to design an accurate and robust system for the detection of inter-ictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in scalp EEG. IED Templates are extracted from the raw data of an EEG training set. By construction, the templates are given the ability to learn by searching for other IEDs within the training set using a time-shifted correlation. True and false detections are remembered and classifiers are trained for improving future predictions. During detection, trained templates search for IEDs in the new EEG. Overlapping detections from all templates are grouped and form one IED. Certainty values are added based on the reliability of the templates involved. For evaluation, 2160 templates were used on an evaluation dataset of 15 continuous recordings containing 241 IEDs (0.79/min). Sensitivities up to 0.99 (7.24fp/min) were reached. To reduce false detections, higher certainty thresholds led to a mean sensitivity of 0.90 with 2.36fp/min. By using many templates, this technique is less vulnerable to variations in spike morphology. A certainty value for each detection allows the system to present findings in a more efficient manner and simplifies the review process. Automated spike detection can assist in visual interpretation of the EEG which may lead to faster review times. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep Human Parsing with Active Template Regression. (United States)

    Liang, Xiaodan; Liu, Si; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Liu, Luoqi; Dong, Jian; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng


    In this work, the human parsing task, namely decomposing a human image into semantic fashion/body regions, is formulated as an active template regression (ATR) problem, where the normalized mask of each fashion/body item is expressed as the linear combination of the learned mask templates, and then morphed to a more precise mask with the active shape parameters, including position, scale and visibility of each semantic region. The mask template coefficients and the active shape parameters together can generate the human parsing results, and are thus called the structure outputs for human parsing. The deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is utilized to build the end-to-end relation between the input human image and the structure outputs for human parsing. More specifically, the structure outputs are predicted by two separate networks. The first CNN network is with max-pooling, and designed to predict the template coefficients for each label mask, while the second CNN network is without max-pooling to preserve sensitivity to label mask position and accurately predict the active shape parameters. For a new image, the structure outputs of the two networks are fused to generate the probability of each label for each pixel, and super-pixel smoothing is finally used to refine the human parsing result. Comprehensive evaluations on a large dataset well demonstrate the significant superiority of the ATR framework over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F1-score reaches 64.38 percent by our ATR framework, significantly higher than 44.76 percent based on the state-of-the-art algorithm [28].

  18. A Neonatal Bimodal MR-CT Head Template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Ghadimi

    Full Text Available Neonatal MR templates are appropriate for brain structural analysis and spatial normalization. However, they do not provide the essential accurate details of cranial bones and fontanels-sutures. Distinctly, CT images provide the best contrast for bone definition and fontanels-sutures. In this paper, we present, for the first time, an approach to create a fully registered bimodal MR-CT head template for neonates with a gestational age of 39 to 42 weeks. Such a template is essential for structural and functional brain studies, which require precise geometry of the head including cranial bones and fontanels-sutures. Due to the special characteristics of the problem (which requires inter-subject inter-modality registration, a two-step intensity-based registration method is proposed to globally and locally align CT images with an available MR template. By applying groupwise registration, the new neonatal CT template is then created in full alignment with the MR template to build a bimodal MR-CT template. The mutual information value between the CT and the MR template is 1.17 which shows their perfect correspondence in the bimodal template. Moreover, the average mutual information value between normalized images and the CT template proposed in this study is 1.24±0.07. Comparing this value with the one reported in a previously published approach (0.63±0.07 demonstrates the better generalization properties of the new created template and the superiority of the proposed method for the creation of CT template in the standard space provided by MR neonatal head template. The neonatal bimodal MR-CT head template is freely downloadable from

  19. Effect of template-induced surface species on electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Xiaojuan; Bo, Xiangkun; Wang, Yongzheng; Guo, Xiangke; Xie, Mingjiang; Guo, Xuefeng


    In view of the fact that the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is greatly influenced by its electronic structure, herein, effect of templates induced surface species variation on the electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of the templated g-C3N4 was investigated. By mixing the precursor of cyanamide with different templates (SiO2, Al2O3 and template-free) in the preparation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), carbon nitrides with different surface species were obtained. The obtained carbon nitride (g-C3N4-Si) templated by SiO2 nanoparticles exhibits enlarged band gap (3.26 eV) and enhanced photo-degradation ability towards Methyl Orange (MO) compared to that of bulk g-C3N4 (2.67 eV) synthesized from direct condensation/carbonization of melamine and Al2O3-templated g-C3N4-Al (2.76 eV). Detailed characterizations confirm that the introduction of templates in the synthesis process resulted in more non-graphitic species (sp3sbnd Csbnd Csbnd and sbnd NHx) on the surface of the derived carbon nitrides, exerting remarkable effect on the electronic structure and photocatalytic performance.

  20. Challenges for Successful Planning of Open and Distance Learning (ODL: A Template Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansie Minnaar


    Full Text Available How to plan an open and distance learning (ODL unit in higher education is not clearly described in the literature. A number of ODL facilities at residential universities have not been successful because of a lack of planning or because of failure to ensure that all the different systems for ODL delivery were in place and functioning. This paper sheds light on how to plan strategically and how to implement an ODL unit at an existing university.A template analysis was used to construct a road map for ODL planners. We used this analytical tool to organise data from a large collection of articles, books, and documents from 1980-2010. We purposefully chose template analysis as a document analysis process to foster the recurring themes found in published articles on planning and implementing ODL facilities in higher education.The results indicate four main strategies for successful implementation of an ODL unit. The template consists of strategic planning, policies, systems, and challenges. It was concluded that the template for ODL planning offers new insight into distance education. It could be used as a foundation for ODL planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. We recommend further research on the template with the aim of theory construction for ODL planning and implementation.

  1. Bulky Macroporous TiO2 Photocatalyst with Cellular Structure via Facile Wood-Template Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Sun


    Full Text Available We report a bulky macroporous TiO2 particles with cellular structure prepared in the presence of wood slices as template. Firstly, TiO2 sol was coated onto the wood slices by repeated dip-coating process. Then, after calcinations at 550°C, the wood template could be removed, and the bulky TiO2 structure was obtained. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission electron microscope (TEM techniques. XRD pattern confirmed the crystalline phase of the wood-templated TiO2 is anatase phase. And interestingly, from the observation of SEM image, the wood-templated TiO2 inherited the initial cellular structures of birch lumber (B. albosinensis Burk, and numerous macropores were observed in the sample. Meanwhile, the wood-templated TiO2 presented a superior photocatalytic ability to decompose Rhodamine B (RhB under ultraviolet irradiation.

  2. Microparticles Produced by the Hydrogel Template Method for Sustained Drug Delivery (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Sturek, Michael; Park, Kinam


    Polymeric microparticles have been used widely for sustained drug delivery. Current methods of microparticle production can be improved by making homogeneous particles in size and shape, increasing the drug loading, and controlling the initial burst release. In the current study, the hydrogel template method was used to produce homogeneous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles and to examine formulation and process-related parameters. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was used to make hydrogel templates. The parameters examined include PVA molecular weight, type of PLGA (as characterized by lactide content, inherent viscosity), polymer concentration, drug concentration and composition of solvent system. Three model compounds studied were risperidone, methylprednisolone acetate and paclitaxel. The ability of the hydrogel template method to produce microparticles with good conformity to template was dependent on molecular weight of PVA and viscosity of the PLGA solution. Drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were found to be influenced by PLGA lactide content, polymer concentration and composition of the solvent system. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 28.7% and 82% for risperidone, 31.5% and 90% for methylprednisolone acetate, and 32.2 % and 92 % for paclitaxel, respectively. For all three drugs, release was sustained for weeks, and the in vitro release profile of risperidone was comparable to that of microparticles prepared using the conventional emulsion method. The hydrogel template method provides a new approach of manipulating microparticles. PMID:24333903

  3. Fabrication of nanostructure via self-assembly of nanowires within the AAO template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust Mathias


    Full Text Available AbstractThe novel nanostructures are fabricated by the spatial chemical modification of nanowires within the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. To make the nanowires better dispersion in the aqueous solution, the copper is first deposited to fill the dendrite structure at the bottom of template. During the process of self-assembly, the dithiol compound was used as the connector between the nanowires and nanoparticles by a self-assembly method. The nanostructures of the nano cigars and structure which is containing particles junction are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. These kinds of novel nanostructure will be the building blocks for nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices.

  4. Pompano subsea development: Template/manifold, tree and ROV intervention systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M.M.; Byrd, M.L.; Holt, J.; Riley, J.W.; Snell, C.K.; Tyer, C.; Brewster, D.


    BP Exploration`s Pompano Subsea Development, in 1,865 ft of water in the Gulf of Mexico, uses a subsea production system to produce oil to a host platform 4{1/2} miles away. The 10-slot subsea template/manifold supports Through FlowLine (TFL) wells, which are controlled by means of an electrohydraulic control system. All process components of the system are retrievable with ROV intervention. This paper describes the template/manifold system, TFL tree system and ROV intervention systems.

  5. Hemispherical Shell Nanostructures from Metal-Stripped Embossed Alumina on Aluminum Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Albrektsen, Ole; Simonsen, Adam Cohen


    anodized Al. Utilizing for this process the linear relationship between anodization voltage and the resulting interpore distance in the formed oxide, it is possible to tune the radius of curvature of the resulting hemispherical shells continuously, which in turn results in tunable optical properties...... confirmed by reflection spectroscopy. It is demonstrated how such embossed Al/Al2O3 templates can be reused repeatedly without observable degradation of the template or the stripped metal nanostructures. This fabrication procedure allows a complete sealing of the film surface preventing oxidation...

  6. Template-based education toolkit for mobile platforms (United States)

    Golagani, Santosh Chandana; Esfahanian, Moosa; Akopian, David


    Nowadays mobile phones are the most widely used portable devices which evolve very fast adding new features and improving user experiences. The latest generation of hand-held devices called smartphones is equipped with superior memory, cameras and rich multimedia features, empowering people to use their mobile phones not only as a communication tool but also for entertainment purposes. With many young students showing interest in learning mobile application development one should introduce novel learning methods which may adapt to fast technology changes and introduce students to application development. Mobile phones become a common device, and engineering community incorporates phones in various solutions. Overcoming the limitations of conventional undergraduate electrical engineering (EE) education this paper explores the concept of template-based based education in mobile phone programming. The concept is based on developing small exercise templates which students can manipulate and revise for quick hands-on introduction to the application development and integration. Android platform is used as a popular open source environment for application development. The exercises relate to image processing topics typically studied by many students. The goal is to enable conventional course enhancements by incorporating in them short hands-on learning modules.

  7. Templated Control of Au nanospheres in Silica Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J W; Vanamu, G; Zaidi, S H


    The formation of regularly-spaced metal nanostructures in selectively-placed insulating nanowires is an important step toward realization of a wide range of nano-scale electronic and opto-electronic devices. Here we report templated synthesis of Au nanospheres embedded in silica nanowires, with nanospheres consistently spaced with a period equal to three times their diameter. Under appropriate conditions, nanowires form exclusively on Si nanostructures because of enhanced local oxidation and reduced melting temperatures relative to templates with larger dimensions. We explain the spacing of the nanospheres with a general model based on a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, in which an Au/Si alloy dendrite remains liquid in the nanotube until a critical Si concentration is achieved locally by silicon oxide-generated nanowire growth. Additional Si oxidation then locally reduces the surface energy of the Au-rich alloy by creating a new surface with minimum area inside of the nanotube. The isolated liquid domain subsequently evolves to become an Au nanosphere, and the process is repeated.

  8. qsubsec: a lightweight template system for defining sun grid engine workflows. (United States)

    Droop, Alastair P


    The Sun Grid Engine (SGE) high-performance computing batch queueing system is commonly used in bioinformatics analysis. Creating re-usable scripts for the SGE is a common challenge. The qsubsec template language and interpreter described here allow researchers to easily create generic template definitions that encapsulate a particular computational job, effectively separating the process logic from the specific run details. At submission time, the generic template is filled in with specific values. This system provides an intermediate level between simple scripting and complete workflow management tools. Qsubsec is open-source and is available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. A meta-analysis of the mechanical properties of ice-templated ceramics and metals (United States)

    Deville, Sylvain; Meille, Sylvain; Seuba, Jordi


    Ice templating, also known as freeze casting, is a popular shaping route for macroporous materials. Over the past 15 years, it has been widely applied to various classes of materials, and in particular ceramics. Many formulation and process parameters, often interdependent, affect the outcome. It is thus difficult to understand the various relationships between these parameters from isolated studies where only a few of these parameters have been investigated. We report here the results of a meta analysis of the structural and mechanical properties of ice templated materials from an exhaustive collection of records. We use these results to identify which parameters are the most critical to control the structure and properties, and to derive guidelines for optimizing the mechanical response of ice templated materials. We hope these results will be a helpful guide to anyone interested in such materials.

  10. Ostwald Ripening of Platinum Nanoparticles Confined in a Carbon Nanotube/Silica-Templated Cylindrical Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Mateo-Mateo


    Full Text Available Sintering of nanoparticles mediated by an Ostwald ripening mechanism is generally assessed examining the final particle size distributions. Based on this methodology, a general approach for depositing platinum nanoparticles onto carbon nanotubes in solution has been employed in order to evaluate the sintering process of these metallic nanoparticles at increasing temperatures in a carbon nanotube/silica-templated confined space.

  11. In-line surface preparation and resist plug removal on NIL templates (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Katada, Osamu; Ishida, Shingo; Ueno, Takehiko; Ando, Toshiaki; Kawanobe, Yoshio; Beschorner, Klaus; Dietze, Uwe


    Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) is valued as a cost effective alternative to other Next Generation Lithography (NGL) choices, especially for memory device applications. In order to achieve an attractive Cost of Ownership (CoO), replicas are made from a master and those replicas are then used in the actual pattern transfer onto the device wafer. During the pattern transfer process from a template to a device wafer, droplets of imaging material are applied to the surface of the substrate, in the area where the imaging is to take place. The image to be transferred is then brought into direct contact with the imaging material, at which time it will spread between the two surfaces by means of capillary force, and the imaging material is then solidified through UV irradiation. As the template is pulled away, it leaves its image imprinted into the imaging material. Any resist adhering to the template will cause defects in subsequent imprints, hence such template contamination, so called resist plugs, must either be avoided or removed. This work focuses on the resist removal techniques employing ambient pressure plasma, and their benefit to improve throughput, i.e. CoO. In our studies, we found that resist removal efficiency is highly depending on the process gas mixture and the process temperature. This dry cleaning process has a good potential as an efficient in-line imprint mask cleaning system.

  12. Synthesis of templated carbons starting from clay and clay-derived zeolites for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M


    Full Text Available to the carbon burning out in air and hence shows that successful templation process had taken place since the weight loss was up to ~98% within the temperature range of 600–1000 °C. This range was also found to be similar to that observed by Masika and Mokaya...

  13. Nanowire templated semihollow bicontinuous graphene scrolls: designed construction, mechanism, and enhanced energy storage performance. (United States)

    Yan, Mengyu; Wang, Fengchao; Han, Chunhua; Ma, Xinyu; Xu, Xu; An, Qinyou; Xu, Lin; Niu, Chaojiang; Zhao, Yunlong; Tian, Xiaocong; Hu, Ping; Wu, Hengan; Mai, Liqiang


    Graphene scrolls have been widely investigated for applications in electronics, sensors, energy storage, etc. However, graphene scrolls with tens of micrometers in length and with other materials in their cavities have not been obtained. Here nanowire templated semihollow bicontinuous graphene scroll architecture is designed and constructed through "oriented assembly" and "self-scroll" strategy. These obtained nanowire templated graphene scrolls can achieve over 30 μm in length with interior cavities between the nanowire and scroll. It is demonstrated through experiments and molecular dynamic simulations that the semihollow bicontinuous structure construction processes depend on the systemic energy, the curvature of nanowires, and the reaction time. Lithium batteries based on V3O7 nanowire templated graphene scrolls (VGSs) exhibit an optimal performance with specific capacity of 321 mAh/g at 100 mA/g and 87.3% capacity retention after 400 cycles at 2000 mA/g. The VGS also shows a high conductivity of 1056 S/m and high capacity of 162 mAh/g at a large density of 3000 mA/g with only 5 wt % graphene added which are 27 and 4.5 times as high as those of V3O7 nanowires, respectively. A supercapacitor made of MnO2 nanowire templated graphene scrolls (MGSs) also shows a high capacity of 317 F/g at 1A/g, which is over 1.5 times than that of MnO2 nanowires without graphene scrolls. These excellent energy storage capacities and cycling performance are attributed to the unique structure of the nanowire templated graphene scroll, which provides continuous electron and ion transfer channels and space for free volume expansion of nanowires during cycling. This strategy and understanding can be used to synthesize other nanowire templated graphene scroll architectures, which can be extended to other fabrication processes and fields.

  14. Nanometer-Scale Chemistry of a Calcite Biomineralization Template: Implications for Skeletal Composition and Nucleation (United States)

    Bonnin, Elisa A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Spero, Howard J.; Zhu, Zihua; Winters, Maria; Hönisch, Bärbel; Russell, Ann D.; Fehrenbacher, Jennifer S.; Gagnon, Alexander C.


    Plankton, corals, and other organisms produce calcium carbonate skeletons that are integral to their survival, form a key component of the global carbon cycle, and record an archive of past oceanographic conditions in their geochemistry. A key aspect of the formation of these biominerals is the interaction between organic templating structures and mineral precipitation processes. Laboratory-based studies have shown that these atomic-scale processes can profoundly influence the architecture and composition of minerals, but their importance in calcifying organisms is poorly understood because it is difficult to measure the chemistry of in vivo biomineral interfaces at spatially relevant scales. Understanding the role of templates in biomineral nucleation, and their importance in skeletal geochemistry requires an integrated, multiscale approach, which can place atom-scale observations of organic-mineral interfaces within a broader structural and geochemical context. Here we map the chemistry of an embedded organic template structure within a carbonate skeleton of the foraminifera Orbulina universa using both atom probe tomography (APT), a 3D chemical imaging technique with Ångström-level spatial resolution, and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), a 2D chemical imaging technique with submicron resolution. We quantitatively link these observations, revealing that the organic template in O. universa is uniquely enriched in both Na and Mg, and contributes to intraskeletal chemical heterogeneity. Our APT analyses reveal the cation composition of the organic surface, offering evidence to suggest that cations other than Ca2+, previously considered passive spectator ions in biomineral templating, may be important in defining the energetics of carbonate nucleation on organic templates. PMID:27794119

  15. Progress of UV-NIL template making (United States)

    Hiraka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Jun; Nakanishi, Yuko; Yusa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Shiho; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya


    Nano-imprint lithography (NIL) has been counted as one of the lithography candidates for hp32nm node and beyond and has showed excellent resolution capability with remarkable low line edge roughness that is attracting many researchers in the industry who were searching for the finest patterning technology. Therefore, recently we have been focusing on the resolution improvement on the NIL templates with the 100keV acceleration voltage spot beam (SB) EB writer and the 50keV acceleration voltage variable shaped beam (VSB) EB writer. The 100keV SB writers have high resolution capability, but they show fatally low throughput if we need full chip writing. Usually templates for resolution pioneers needed just a small field (several hundred microns square or so), but recently requirements for full chip templates are increasing. For full chip writing, we have also started the resolution improvement with the 50keV VSB writers used in current 4X photomask manufacturing. The 50keV VSB writers could generate full chip pattern in a reasonable time though resolution limits are inferior to that with the 100keV SB writers. In this paper, we will show latest results with both the 100keV SB and the 50keV VSB EB writers. With the 100keV SB EB writer, we have achieved down to hp15nm resolution for line and space pattern, but found that to achieve further improvement, an innovation in pattern generation method or material would be inevitable. With the 50keV VSB EB writer, we have achieved down to hp22nm resolution for line and space pattern. Though NIL has excellent resolution capability, solutions for defect inspection and repair are not clearly shown yet. In this paper, we will show preliminary inspection results with an EB inspection tool. We tested an EB inspection tool by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI), which was originally developed for and are currently used as a wafer inspection tool, and now have been started to seek the application for mask use, using a programmed defect

  16. Robust structural identification via polyhedral template matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Mahler; Schmidt, Søren; Schiøtz, Jakob


    thresholds thereof) to classify atomic structure. As a consequence they are sensitive to strain and thermal displacements, and preprocessing such as quenching or temporal averaging of the atomic positions is necessary to provide reliable identifications. We propose a new method, polyhedral template matching...... to identify structures even in simulations near the melting point, and that it can identify the most common ordered alloy structures as well. In addition, the method makes it easy to identify the local lattice orientation in polycrystalline samples, and to calculate the local strain tensor. An implementation...

  17. Rigid, vapor-permeable poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) templates for high resolution patterning of nanoparticles and polymers. (United States)

    Demko, Michael T; Cheng, Jim C; Pisano, Albert P


    Soft lithography methods are emerging as useful tools for high-resolution, three-dimensional patterning of polymers and nanoparticles. However, the low Young's modulus of the standard template material, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), limits attainable resolution, fidelity, and alignment capability. While much research has been performed to find other more rigid polymer template materials, the high solvent and vapor permeability that is characteristic of PDMS is often sacrificed, preventing their use in those processes reliant on this property. In this work, a highly rigid, chemically robust, optically transparent and vapor-permeable poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) template is developed. The combination of high rigidity and high vapor permeability enables high resolution patterning with simplified ink handling. This material was nanopatterned to create a template for patterning polymers and nanoparticles, achieving a resolution of better than 350 nm.

  18. 20 The Tools - 07 Threshold Concepts - Threshold Concepts: Poster template (TC poster template for case study)


    TfLN-Transforming Perspectives project


    Part of a toolkit used in the Transforming Perspectives project, looking at using 'threshold concepts' as a framework for identifying areas of conceptual difficulty in disciplinary curricula. This is a blank 'poster' template used by the project by participants sharing 'their' identified threshold concepts with other participants at a seminar series.

  19. Biocompatibility of Soft-Templated Mesoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gencoglu, Maria F. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Spurri, Amanda [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Franko, Mitchell [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Heldt, Caryn L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Saha, Dipendu [Widener Univ., Chester, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    We report that soft-templated mesoporous carbon is morphologically a non-nano type of carbon. It is a relatively newer variety of biomaterial, which has already demonstrated its successful role in drug delivery applications. To investigate the toxicity and biocompatibility, we introduced three types of mesoporous carbons with varying synthesis conditions and pore textural properties. We compared the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and pore width and performed cytotoxicity experiments with HeLa cells, cell viability studies with fibroblast cells and hemocomapatibility studies. Cytotoxicity tests reveal that two of the carbons are not cytotoxic, with cell survival over 90%. The mesoporous carbon with the highest surface area showed slight toxicity (~70% cell survival) at the highest carbon concentration of 500 μg/mL. Fibroblast cell viability assays suggested high and constant viability of over 98% after 3 days with no apparent relation with materials property and good visible cell-carbon compatibility. No hemolysis (<1%) was confirmed for all the carbon materials. Protein adsorption experiments with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen revealed a lower protein binding capacity of 0.2–0.6 mg/m2 and 2–4 mg/m2 for BSA and fibrinogen, respectively, with lower binding associated with an increase in surface area. The results of this study confirm the biocompatibility of soft-templated mesoporous carbons.

  20. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes


    Maijenburg, A.W.


    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the formation of different types of nanostructures. Throughout this thesis, three different nanostructures were made: nanowires (Chapters 2 to 6), nanotubes (Chapters 2 and 5) and nanocubes (Chapters 7 and ...

  1. Implementation of a template management interface for document systems


    Kmet, Damjan


    In the development of document management systems we are often confronted with the implementation of office packages into the document management system. By doing this, we face similar concerns regarding the implementation of the template, therefore we can put the requirements together and create an interface to manage the template into the document management system. The interface can shorten the time required for the construction and maintenance of templates of the office packages in the do...

  2. Photonic hyperuniform networks by silicon double inversion of polymer templates

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Nicolas; Marichy, Catherine; Scheffold, Frank


    Hyperuniform disordered networks belong to a peculiar class of structured materials predicted to possess partial and complete photonic bandgaps for relatively moderate refractive index contrasts. The practical realization of such photonic designer materials is challenging however, as it requires control over a multi-step fabcrication process on optical length scales. Here we report the direct-laser writing of hyperuniform polymeric templates followed by a silicon double inversion procedure leading to high quality network structures made of polycrystalline silicon. We observe a pronounced gap in the shortwave infrared centered at a wavelength of $\\lambda_{\\text{Gap}}\\simeq $ 2.5 $\\mu$m, in nearly quantitative agreement with numerical simulations. In the experiments the typical structural length scale of the seed pattern can be varied between 2 $\\mu$m and 1.54 $\\mu$m leading to a blue-shift of the gap accompanied by an increase of the silicon volume filling fraction.

  3. Growth of hollow cell spheroids in microbead templated chambers. (United States)

    Wang, Eddie; Wang, Dong; Geng, Andrew; Seo, Richard; Gong, Xiaohua


    Cells form hollow, spheroidal structures during the development of many tissues, including the ocular lens, inner ear, and many glands. Therefore, techniques for in vitro formation of hollow spheroids are valued for studying developmental and disease processes. Current in vitro methods require cells to self-organize into hollow morphologies; we explored an alternative strategy based on cell growth in predefined, spherical scaffolds. Our method uses sacrificial, gelatin microbeads to simultaneously template spherical chambers within a hydrogel and deliver cells into the chambers. We use mouse lens epithelial cells to demonstrate that cells can populate the internal surfaces of the chambers within a week to create numerous hollow spheroids. The platform supports manipulation of matrix mechanics, curvature, and biochemical composition to mimic in vivo microenvironments. It also provides a starting point for engineering organoids of tissues that develop from hollow spheroids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Silica needle template fabrication of metal hollow microneedle arrays (United States)

    Zhu, M. W.; Li, H. W.; Chen, X. L.; Tang, Y. F.; Lu, M. H.; Chen, Y. F.


    Drug delivery through hollow microneedle (HMN) arrays has now been recognized as one of the most promising techniques because it minimizes the shortcomings of the traditional drug delivery methods and has many exciting advantages—pain free and tunable release rates, for example. However, this drug delivery method has been hindered greatly from mass clinical application because of the high fabrication cost of HMN arrays. Hence, we developed a simple and cost-effective procedure using silica needles as templates to massively fabricate HMN arrays by using popular materials and industrially applicable processes of micro- imprint, hot embossing, electroplating and polishing. Metal HMN arrays with high quality are prepared with great flexibility with tunable parameters of area, length of needle, size of hollow and array dimension. This efficient and cost-effective fabrication method can also be applied to other applications after minor alterations, such as preparation of optic, acoustic and solar harvesting materials and devices.

  5. Pseudo-template synthesis of gold nanoparticles based on polyhydrosilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarescu, Liviu, E-mail: [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Simionescu, Mihaela; Sacarescu, Gabriela [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania)


    Highly stable colloidal gold nanoparticles are obtained in a pseudo-template system using a specific polyhydrosilane copolymeric structure. This process takes place in situ by microwaves activation of the polymer solution in a non-polar solvent followed by stirring with solid HAuCl{sub 4} in natural light. The experimental procedure is very simple and the resulted colloidal gold solution is indefinitely stable. The specific surface plasmon resonance absorption band of the gold nanoparticles is strongly red shifted and is strictly related to their size. AFM correlated with DLS analysis showed flattened round shaped colloidal polymer-gold nanoparticles with large diameters. SEM-EDX combined analysis reveals that the polysilane-gold nanoparticles show a natural tendency to auto-assemble in close packed structures which form large areas over the polymer film surface.

  6. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Preiss


    Full Text Available Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth of inorganic materials; (ii biopolymers as supports, either as molecular supports or as carrier particles acting as cores of core–shell structures; and (iii so-called “soft templates”, which include on one hand stabilized droplets, micelles, and vesicles, and on the other hand continuous scaffolds generated by gelling biopolymers.

  7. Self-templated chemically stable hollow spherical covalent organic framework (United States)

    Kandambeth, Sharath; Venkatesh, V.; Shinde, Digambar B.; Kumari, Sushma; Halder, Arjun; Verma, Sandeep; Banerjee, Rahul


    Covalent organic frameworks are a family of crystalline porous materials with promising applications. Although active research on the design and synthesis of covalent organic frameworks has been ongoing for almost a decade, the mechanisms of formation of covalent organic frameworks crystallites remain poorly understood. Here we report the synthesis of a hollow spherical covalent organic framework with mesoporous walls in a single-step template-free method. A detailed time-dependent study of hollow sphere formation reveals that an inside-out Ostwald ripening process is responsible for the hollow sphere formation. The synthesized covalent organic framework hollow spheres are highly porous (surface area ~1,500 m2 g-1), crystalline and chemically stable, due to the presence of strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding. These mesoporous hollow sphere covalent organic frameworks are used for a trypsin immobilization study, which shows an uptake of 15.5 μmol g-1 of trypsin.

  8. Templating fullerenes by domain boundaries of a nanoporous network. (United States)

    den Boer, Duncan; Han, Ggoch Ddeul; Swager, Timothy M


    We present a new templating approach that combines the templating properties of nanoporous networks with the dynamic properties and the lattice mismatch of domain boundaries. This templating approach allows for the inclusion of guests with different sizes without the need for a strict molecular design to tailor the nanoporous network. With this approach, nonperiodic patterns of functional molecules can be formed and studied. We show that domain boundaries in a trimesic acid network are preferred over pores within the network as adsorption sites for fullerenes by a factor of 100-200. Pristine fullerenes of different sizes and functionalized fullerenes were templated in this way.

  9. Directed self-assembly graphoepitaxy template generation with immersion lithography (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Andres Torres, J.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert


    We present an optimization methodology for the template designs of subresolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with graphoepitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60-nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of template error enhancement factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data show that source mask optimization and inverse lithography technology are critical to achieve sub-80 nm non-L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  10. Autoclave method for rapid preparation of bacterial PCR-template DNA. (United States)

    Simmon, Keith E; Steadman, Dewey D; Durkin, Sarah; Baldwin, Amy; Jeffrey, Wade H; Sheridan, Peter; Horton, Rene; Shields, Malcolm S


    An autoclave method for preparing bacterial DNA for PCR template is presented, it eliminates the use of detergents, organic solvents, and mechanical cellular disruption approaches, thereby significantly reducing processing time and costs while increasing reproducibility. Bacteria are lysed by rapid heating and depressurization in an autoclave. The lysate, cleared by microcentrifugation, was either used directly in the PCR reaction, or concentrated by ultrafiltration. This approach was compared with seven established methods of DNA template preparation from four bacterial sources which included boiling Triton X-100 and SDS, bead beating, lysozyme/proteinase K, and CTAB lysis method components. Bacteria examined were Enterococcus and Escherichia coli, a natural marine bacterial community and an Antarctic cyanobacterial-mat. DNAs were tested for their suitability as PCR templates by repetitive element random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The autoclave method produced PCR amplifiable template comparable or superior to the other methods, with greater reproducibility, much shorter processing time, and at a significantly lower cost.

  11. Process for the production of a molecular sieve material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melian, C.I.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.


    The invention concerns a process for the production of a molecular sieve material by growing the molecular sieve material structure in the presence of a template for the pore structure, followed by removal of the template from the molecular sieve material, in which process the template is removed by


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canggih Setya Budi


    Full Text Available Mesoporous titania powders with high-order crystalline building blocks had been synthesized through the sol-gel process using potato starch gel template. Internal spongelike pore structure of starch gel template was generated by heating the starch granules at 95 °C in water solution and freezing the starch gel at -15 °C. The synthesis routes were performed by immersing the starch gel template for 4 days into the white colloidal solution of TiO2 nanoparticles, which were prepared by hydrolyzing titanium (IV tetraisopropoxide (TTIP in ethanol at pH 1. Mesoporous TiO2 powders were obtained by two different ways of template removal, performed by calcination of the TiO2-starch composites at 600 °C for 4 h or combination of extraction with ethanol-HCl (2:1 at 80 °C and calcination at 500 °C for 4 h. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR spectra shows both of template removal methods result in decreasing of characteristic vibrational band of the starch hydrocarbon on the resulted TiO2 powders. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD pattern imply that the concentrations of starch gel template influence the anatase crystallite peaks intensity of the synthesized TiO2 powders. TiO2 templated by 20% of starch sponges gel has highest intensity of anatase crystallite. Scherrer calculation inidicated that anatase particle size has nanoscale dimmension up to 12.96 nm. The nano-architecture feature of mesoporous TiO2 scaffolds was also evaluated by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. It is shown that mesoporous TiO2 framework consist of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles as buiding blocks. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm curves assign that TiO2 powder resulted from extraction-calcination route has higher mesoporosity than that of only calcinated. The synthesized mesoporous TiO2 powder exhibits high Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET specific surface area up to 65.65 m2/g.   Keywords: mesoporous TiO2, potato starch, template

  13. Use of a structured template to facilitate practice-based learning and improvement projects. (United States)

    McClain, Elizabeth K; Babbott, Stewart F; Tsue, Terance T; Girod, Douglas A; Clements, Debora; Gilmer, Lisa; Persons, Diane; Unruh, Greg


    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to meet and demonstrate outcomes across 6 competencies. Measuring residents' competency in practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) is particularly challenging. We developed an educational tool to meet ACGME requirements for PBLI. The PBLI template helped programs document quality improvement (QI) projects and supported increased scholarly activity surrounding PBLI learning. We reviewed program requirements for 43 residency and fellowship programs and identified specific PBLI requirements for QI activities. We also examined ACGME Program Information Form responses on PBLI core competency questions surrounding QI projects for program sites visited in 2008-2009. Data were integrated by a multidisciplinary committee to develop a peer-protected PBLI template guiding programs through process, documentation, and evaluation of QI projects. All steps were reviewed and approved through our GME Committee structure. An electronic template, companion checklist, and evaluation form were developed using identified project characteristics to guide programs through the PBLI process and facilitate documentation and evaluation of the process. During a 24 month period, 27 programs have completed PBLI projects, and 15 have reviewed the template with their education committees, but have not initiated projects using the template. The development of the tool generated program leaders' support because the tool enhanced the ability to meet program-specific objectives. The peer-protected status of this document for confidentiality and from discovery has been beneficial for program usage. The document aggregates data on PBLI and QI initiatives, offers opportunities to increase scholarship in QI, and meets the ACGME goal of linking measures to outcomes important to meeting accreditation requirements at the program and institutional level.

  14. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and modeling of multicomponent nanosystems templated by self-assembled virus capsids. The design principles, synthesis, analysis, and future directions for these capsid-based materials are presented. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the literature on the application of virus capsids in constructing nanomaterials. The uses of capsids in three main areas are considered: (1) as templates for inorganic materials or nanoparticles; (2) as vehicles for biological applications like medical imaging and treatment; and (3) as scaffolds for catalytic materials. In light of this introduction, an overview of the material in this dissertation is described. Chapters 2-4 all describe integrated nanosystems templated by bacteriophage MS2, a spherical icosahedral virus capsid. MS2 possesses an interior and exterior surface that can be modified orthogonally using bioconjugation chemistry to create multivalent, multicomponent constructs with precise localization of components attached to the capsid proteins. Chapter 2 describes the use of MS2 to synthesize a photocatalytic construct by modifying the internal surface with sensitizing chromophores and the external surface with a photocatalytic porphyrin. The chromophores absorbed energy that the porphyrin could not, and transferred it to the porphyrin via FRET through the protein shell. The porphyrin was then able to utilize the energy to carry out photocatalysis at new wavelengths. In Chapter 3, porphyrins were installed on the interior surface of MS2 and DNA aptamers specific for Jurkat leukemia T cells on the exterior surface. The dual-modified capsids were able to bind to Jurkat cells, and upon illumination the porphyrins generated singlet oxygen to kill them selectively over non-targeted cells. Chapter 4 explores integrating MS2 with DNA origami in order to arrange the capsids at larger length scales. Capsids modified with fluorescent dyes inside and single-stranded DNA outside were able to

  15. Taxonomy-driven adaptation of multi-layer applications using templates


    Popescu, Razvan; STAIKOPOULOS, ATHANASIOS; Liu, Peng; Brogi, Antonio; Clarke, Siobh??n


    peer-reviewed Current adaptation approaches mainly work in isolation and cannot be easily integrated to tackle complex adaptation scenarios. The few existing cross-layer adaptation techniques are somewhat inflexible because the adaptation process is predefined and static. In this paper we propose a methodology for the dynamic and flexible adaptation of multi-layer applications. We use events to trigger the process of matching adaptation templates, which expose adaptation logic as BPEL pro...

  16. Transdisciplinary Pedagogical Templates and Their Potential for Adaptive Reuse (United States)

    Dobozy, Eva; Dalziel, James


    This article explores the use and usefulness of carefully designed transdisciplinary pedagogical templates (TPTs) aligned to different learning theories. The TPTs are based on the Learning Design Framework outlined in the Larnaca Declaration (Dalziel et al. in this collection). The generation of pedagogical plans or templates is not new. However,…

  17. A non-parametric 2D deformable template classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut


    feature space the ship-master will be able to interactively define a segmentation map, which is refined and optimized by the deformable template algorithms. The deformable templates are defined as two-dimensional vector-cycles. Local random transformations are applied to the vector-cycles, and stochastic...

  18. New NIR light-curve templates for classical Cepheids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inno, L.; Matsunaga, N.; Romaniello, M.; Bono, G.; Monson, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Persson, E.; Buonanno, R.; Freedman, W.; Gieren, W.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Ita, Y.; Laney, C.D.; Lemasle, B.; Madore, B.F.; Nagayama, T.; Nakada, Y.; Nonino, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Primas, F.; Scowcroft, V.; Soszyński, I.; Tanabé, T.; Udalski, A.


    Aims. We present new near-infrared (NIR) light-curve templates for fundamental (FU, J, H, KS) and first overtone (FO, J) classical Cepheids. The new templates together with period-luminosity and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations provide Cepheid distances from single-epoch observations with a precision

  19. Tailoring the porosity of hierarchical zeolites by carbon-templating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kake; Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.


    We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of hierarchical porous zeolite single crystal materials with a range of porosities made available by carbon-templating using differently-sized carbon particles as templates for the additional non-micropore porosity. The materials were...

  20. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2S,3S-ketols. 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme– substrate ...

  1. Proline-catalysed asymmetric ketol cyclizations: The template ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified template mechanism based on modelling studies of energy minimised complexes is presented for the asymmetric proline-catalysed cyclization of triketones 1, 2 and 3 to the 2, 3-ketols 1a, 2a and 3a respectively. The template model involves a three-point contact as favoured in enzyme-substrate interactions.

  2. Synthesis and Study of Guest-Rebinding of MIP Based on MAA Prepared using Theophylline Template (United States)

    Nurhayati, T.; Yanti; Royani, I.; Widayani; Khairurrijal


    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer and theophylline template has been synthesized using a modified bulk polymerization method. Theophylline was employed as a template and it formed a complex with MAA through hydrogen bonding. Self-assembly of template-monomer was followed by cross-linking process using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) cross-linker. The polymerization process was initiated by thermal decomposition of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the initiator at 60oC after cooling treatment at -5oC. After 7 hours, a rigid polymer was obtained and followed by grinding the polymer and removing the template. As a reference, a nonimprinted polymer (NIP) has also been synthesized using similar procedure by excluding the template. FTIR study was carried out to investigate the presence of theophylline in the as- prepared polymer, MIP, and NIP. The spectra indicated that theophylline was successfully incorporated in the as-prepared polymer. This result was also confirmed by EDS analysis showing that N atoms of the as-prepared polymer were derived from amino group of theophylline. Furthermore, the polymer particles of MIP were irregular in shape and size as shown by its SEM image. The capability of guest-rebinding of the MIP was analyzed through Batchwise guest-binding experiment. The results showed that for initial concentration of theophylline in methanol/chloroform (1/1, v/v) of 0.333 mM, the binding capacity of the MIP was 23.22 /mol/g. Compared to the MIP, the adsorption capacity of the NIP was only 3.73 /mol/g. This result shows that MIP has higher affinity than NIP.

  3. A series of template plasmids for Escherichia coli genome engineering. (United States)

    Deb, Shalini S; Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Lali, Arvind M


    Metabolic engineering strategies often employ multi-copy episomal vectors to overexpress genes. However, chromosome-based overexpression is preferred as it avoids the use of selective pressure and reduces metabolic burden on the cell. We have constructed a series of template plasmids for λ Red-mediated Escherichia coli genome engineering. The template plasmids allow construction of genome integrating cassettes that can be used to integrate single copies of DNA sequences at predetermined sites or replace promoter regions. The constructed cassettes provide flexibility in terms of expression levels achieved and antibiotics used for selection, as well as allowing construction of marker-free strains. The modular design of the template plasmids allows replacement of genetic parts to construct new templates. Gene integration and promoter replacement using the template plasmids are illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of metallic pivot-based imprinted monolith for polar template. (United States)

    Zhong, Dan-Dan; Huang, Yan-Ping; Xin, Xue-Lei; Liu, Zhao-Sheng; Aisa, Haji Akber


    One of the main challenges in MIPs preparation is the proper MIP monolith design for water-soluble compounds due to the difficulty in satisfying the demands of both good column permeability and affinity to polar template. A new strategy of metallic pivot in a ternary porogenic system of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-dimethylformamide (DMF)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim]BF4) was suggested to solve this problem. An imprinted monolithic column with high porosity and good permeability was synthesized using a mixture of methyl gallate (template), 4-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and cobalt acetate. Some polymerization factors, such as template-monomer molar ratio and the composition of the ionic liquid, on the imprinting effect of the resulting MIPs monoliths were systematically investigated. In a mobile phase of acetonitrile-buffer, the greatest imprinting factor of 10.9 was obtained on the MIPs monolith with the optimized polymerization parameters. Thermodynamic analysis for separation demonstrated that the separation between the template and its analogs on the ion-mediated MIPs monolith is an enthalpy-controlled process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of zinc oxide nanowire array properties with electron-beam lithography templating for photovoltaic applications (United States)

    Nicaise, Samuel M.; Cheng, Jayce J.; Kiani, Amirreza; Gradečak, Silvija; Berggren, Karl K.


    Hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanowire arrays have been used as nanostructured acceptors in emerging photovoltaic (PV) devices. The nanoscale dimensions of such arrays allow for enhanced charge extraction from PV active layers, but the device performance critically depends on the nanowire array pitch and alignment. In this study, we templated hydrothermally-grown ZnO nanowire arrays via high-resolution electron-beam-lithography defined masks, achieving the dual requirements of high-resolution patterning at a pitch of several hundred nanometers, while maintaining hole sizes small enough to control nanowire array morphology. We investigated several process conditions, including the effect of annealing sputtered and spincoated ZnO seed layers on nanowire growth, to optimize array property metrics—branching from individual template holes and off-normal alignment. We found that decreasing template hole size decreased branching prevalence but also reduced alignment. Annealing seed layers typically improved alignment, and sputtered seed layers yielded nanowire arrays superior to spincoated seed layers. We show that these effects arose from variation in the size of the template holes relative to the ZnO grain size in the seed layer. The quantitative control of branching and alignment of the nanowire array that is achieved in this study will open new paths toward engineering more efficient electrodes to increase photocurrent in nanostructured PVs. This control is also applicable to inorganic nanowire growth in general, nanomechanical generators, nanowire transistors, and surface-energy engineering.

  6. Sensitive surface plasmon resonance enabled by templated periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts (United States)

    Dou, Xuan; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Choi, Baeck; Wu, Kedi; Jiang, Peng


    Here we report a simple and scalable colloidal lithography technology for fabricating periodic arrays of gold nanodonuts for sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. This new bottom-up approach leverages a unique polymer wetting layer between a self-assembled, non-close-packed monolayer silica colloidal crystal and a silicon substrate to template ordered gold nanodonuts with tunable geometries over wafer-sized areas. The processes involved in this templating nanofabrication approach, including spin coating, oxygen plasma etching, and metal sputtering, are all compatible with standard microfabrication technologies. Specular reflection measurements reveal that the efficient electromagnetic coupling of the incident light with the tunable SPR modes of the templated gold nanodonut arrays enables good spectral tunability. Bulk refractive index sensing experiments show that a high SPR sensitivity of ∼758 nm per refractive index unit, which outperforms many plasmonic nanostructures fabricated by both top-down and bottom-up approaches, can be achieved using the templated gold nanodonut arrays. Numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations have also been performed to complement the optical characterization and the theoretical results match well with the experimental measurements.

  7. Diatom-inspired templates for 3D replication: natural diatoms versus laser written artificial diatoms. (United States)

    Belegratis, M R; Schmidt, V; Nees, D; Stadlober, B; Hartmann, P


    The diatoms are ubiquitous, exist in large numbers and show a great diversity of features on their porous silica structures. Therefore, they inspire the fabrication of nanostructured templates for nanoimprint processes (NIL), where large structured areas with nanometer precision are required. In this study, two approaches regarding the respective challenges and potential exploitations are followed and discussed: the first one takes advantage of a template that is directly made of natural occurring diatoms. Here, two replication steps via soft lithography are needed to obtain a template which is subsequently used for NIL. The second approach exploits the technical capabilities of the precise 3D laser lithography (3DLL) based on two-photon polymerization of organic materials. This method enables the fabrication of arbitrary artificial diatom-inspired micro- and nanostructures and the design of an inverse structure. Therefore, only one replication step is needed to obtain a template for NIL. In both approaches, a replication technique for true 3D structures is shown.

  8. Properties of ordered titanium templates covered with Au thin films for SERS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14 St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, Katarzyna [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14 St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Sokołowski, Michał; Karczewski, Jakub [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12 St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Szkoda, Mariusz [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14 St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12 St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Śliwiński, Gerard [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14 St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dimpled Ti substrates prepared via anodization followed by etching. • Highly ordered nano-patterned titanium templates covered with thin Au films. • Enhanced Raman signal indicates on promising sensing material. - Abstract: Currently, roughened metal nanostructures are widely studied as highly sensitive Raman scattering substrates that show application potential in biochemistry, food safety or medical diagnostic. In this work the structural properties and the enhancement effect due to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of highly ordered nano-patterned titanium templates covered with thin (5–20 nm) gold films are reported. The templates are formed by preparation of a dense structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes on a flat Ti surface (2 × 2 cm{sup 2}) and their subsequent etching down to the substrate. SEM images reveal the formation of honeycomb nanostructures with the cavity diameter of 80 nm. Due to the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the Au film discontinuities the measured average enhancement factor (10{sup 7}–10{sup 8}) is markedly higher than observed for bare Ti templates. The enhancement factor and Raman signal intensity can be optimized by adjusting the process conditions and thickness of the deposited Au layer. Results confirm that the obtained structures can be used in surface enhanced sensing.

  9. Template-based automatic breast segmentation on MRI by excluding the chest region. (United States)

    Lin, Muqing; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Wang, Xiaoyong; Chan, Siwa; Chen, Siping; Su, Min-Ying


    Methods for quantification of breast density on MRI using semiautomatic approaches are commonly used. In this study, the authors report on a fully automatic chest template-based method. Nonfat-suppressed breast MR images from 31 healthy women were analyzed. Among them, one case was randomly selected and used as the template, and the remaining 30 cases were used for testing. Unlike most model-based breast segmentation methods that use the breast region as the template, the chest body region on a middle slice was used as the template. Within the chest template, three body landmarks (thoracic spine and bilateral boundary of the pectoral muscle) were identified for performing the initial V-shape cut to determine the posterior lateral boundary of the breast. The chest template was mapped to each subject's image space to obtain a subject-specific chest model for exclusion. On the remaining image, the chest wall muscle was identified and excluded to obtain clean breast segmentation. The chest and muscle boundaries determined on the middle slice were used as the reference for the segmentation of adjacent slices, and the process continued superiorly and inferiorly until all 3D slices were segmented. The segmentation results were evaluated by an experienced radiologist to mark voxels that were wrongly included or excluded for error analysis. The breast volumes measured by the proposed algorithm were very close to the radiologist's corrected volumes, showing a % difference ranging from 0.01% to 3.04% in 30 tested subjects with a mean of 0.86% ± 0.72%. The total error was calculated by adding the inclusion and the exclusion errors (so they did not cancel each other out), which ranged from 0.05% to 6.75% with a mean of 3.05% ± 1.93%. The fibroglandular tissue segmented within the breast region determined by the algorithm and the radiologist were also very close, showing a % difference ranging from 0.02% to 2.52% with a mean of 1.03% ± 1.03%. The total error by adding the

  10. YBCO nanowires grown by the alumina template method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblischka, Michael R.; Hartmann, Uwe [Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Campus C 6 3, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Koblischka-Veneva, Anjela [Functional Materials, Saarland University, Campus C 6 3, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Skumryev, Vassil [Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)


    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) nanowires are grown by the anodized alumina template method, starting from pre-sintered YBCO powder. As templates, we have employed commercially available alumina templates with pore diameters of 30 nm and 100 nm, and an overall thickness of 50 {mu}m. An oxygen annealing step is required to obtain superconducting nanowires. Superconductivity with a transition temperature of 88 K is confirmed by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements. The resulting nanowires are analyzed in detail employing electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The separation of the nanowires of the templates is not yet established, but individual nanowires of up to 10 {mu}m length could be separated from the template. In several cases, the template pores are not completely filled by the superconducting material, which implies that the observed length is similar to what could be expected from regular grain growth. Resistance measurements using cut pieces of the filled templates were carried out as a function of temperature. These pieces were covered with Au films on top and bottom in order to provide the electric contacts. The measurements confirmed the magnetically determined critical temperatures.

  11. Radiographic templating of total hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures. (United States)

    Lakstein, Dror; Bachar, Ira; Debi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Cohen, Ornit; Tan, Zachary; Atoun, Ehud


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of pre-operative digital templating to minimize complications including limb length discrepancy (LLD), intraoperative fractures and early dislocations in patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures. We retrospectively compared 23 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) for intracapsular femoral fractures with pre-operative digital templating and 48 patients without templating. The mean post-operative LLD was significantly lower in patients who had pre-operative templating than in the control group (6.7 vs. 11.5 mm, p = 0.023). Only three patients (13 %) with templating had LLD greater than 1.5 cm, compared to the 15 patients (31 %) without templating (p = 0.17). In eight cases the final femoral stem size matched the templated size, while 19 patients were within two size increments. Complications included one dislocation and one intra-operative fracture in the control group. The present study demonstrated that careful pre-operative planning may reduce LLD in patients undergoing THA due to intracapsular hip fractures.

  12. Preparation of pHEMA-CP composites with high interfacial adhesionvia template-driven mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Saiz, Eduardo; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.


    We report a template-driven nucleation and mineral growth process for the high-affinity integration of calcium phosphate (CP) with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel scaffold. A mineralization technique was developed that exposes carboxylate groups on the surface of crosslinked pHEMA, promoting high-affinity nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate on the surface along with extensive calcification of the hydrogel interior. External factors such as the heating rate, the agitation of the mineral stock solution and the duration of the process that affect the outcome of the mineralization were investigated. This template-driven mineralization technique provides an efficient approach toward bonelike composites with high mineral-hydrogel interfacial adhesion strength.

  13. Synthesis of Inorganic Nanocomposites by Selective Introduction of Metal Complexes into a Self-Assembled Block Copolymer Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Wakayama


    Full Text Available Inorganic nanocomposites have characteristic structures that feature expanded interfaces, quantum effects, and resistance to crack propagation. These structures are promising for the improvement of many materials including thermoelectric materials, photocatalysts, and structural materials. Precise control of the inorganic nanocomposites’ morphology, size, and chemical composition is very important for these applications. Here, we present a novel fabrication method to control the structures of inorganic nanocomposites by means of a self-assembled block copolymer template. Different metal complexes were selectively introduced into specific polymer blocks of the block copolymer, and subsequent removal of the block copolymer template by oxygen plasma treatment produced hexagonally packed porous structures. In contrast, calcination removal of the block copolymer template yielded nanocomposites consisting of metallic spheres in a matrix of a metal oxide. These results demonstrate that different nanostructures can be created by selective use of processes to remove the block copolymer templates. The simple process of first mixing block copolymers and magnetic nanomaterial precursors and then subsequently removing the block copolymer template enables structural control of magnetic nanomaterials, which will facilitate their applicability in patterned media, including next-generation perpendicular magnetic recording media.

  14. Synthesis of naturally cross-linked polycrystalline ZrO{sub 2} hollow nanowires using butterfly as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yu, E-mail: [School of Physics Science and Electronics Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Gu Jiajun, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Shenmin; Su Huilan [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Di, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng Chuanliang [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhuang Leyan [Measurement Center of Anti-Counterfeiting Technical Products, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Naturally cross-linked ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes with {approx}2.4 {mu}m in length, {approx}35 nm in diameter and {approx}12 nm in wall thickness was synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contractions, which are main defects of the former hard-template method based on butterflies, are well controlled with the help of the surface tension effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The achieved hollow ZrO{sub 2} nanowires suggest a new optional approach that uses bio-templates in fabricating and designing nano systems. - Abstract: Butterfly wing skeleton is a widely used hard-template in recent years for fabricating photonic crystal structures. However, the smallest construction units for the most species of butterflies are commonly larger than {approx}50 nm, which greatly hinders their applications in designing much smaller functional parts down to real 'nano scale'. This work indicates, however, that hollow ZrO{sub 2} nanowires with {approx}2.4 {mu}m in length, {approx}35 nm in diameter and {approx}12 nm in wall thickness can be synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Especially, the successful fabrication of these naturally cross-linked ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes suggests a new optional approach in fabricating assembled nano systems.

  15. Alkyltin Keggin Clusters Templated by Sodium. (United States)

    Saha, Sumit; Park, Deok-Hie; Hutchison, Danielle C; Olsen, Morgan R; Zakharov, Lev N; Marsh, David; Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Frederick, Ryan T; Diulus, J Trey; Kenane, Nizan; Herman, Gregory S; Johnson, Darren W; Keszler, Douglas A; Nyman, May


    Dodecameric (Sn12 ) and hexameric topologies dominate monoalkyltin-oxo cluster chemistry. Their condensation, triggered by radiation exposure, recently produced unprecedented patterning performance in EUV lithography. A new cluster topology was crystallized from industrial n-BuSnOOH, and additional characterization techniques indicate other clusters are present. Single-crystal X-ray analysis reveals a β-Keggin cluster, which is known but less common than other Keggin isomers in polyoxometalate and polyoxocation chemistry. The structure is formulated [NaO4 (BuSn)12 (OH)3 (O)9 (OCH3 )12 (Sn(H2 O)2 )] (β-NaSn13 ). SAXS, NMR, and ESI MS differentiate β-NaSn13 , Sn12 , and other clusters present in crude "n-BuSnOOH" and highlight the role of Na as a template for alkyltin Keggin clusters. Unlike other alkyltin clusters that are cationic, β-NaSn13 is neutral. Consequently, it stands as a unique model system, absent of counterions, to study the transformation of clusters to films and nanopatterns. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Open Cell Aerogel Foams via Emulsion Templating. (United States)

    Teo, Nicholas; Jana, Sadhan C


    The water-in-oil emulsion-templating method is used in this work for fabrication of open cell aerogel foams from syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS). A surfactant-stabilized emulsion is prepared at 60-100 °C by dispersing water in a solution of sPS in toluene. sPS gel, formed upon cooling of the emulsion to room temperature, locks the water droplets inside the gel. The gel is solvent exchanged in ethanol and then dried under supercritical condition of carbon dioxide to yield the aerogel foams. The aerogel foams show a significant fraction of macropores with a diameter of a few tens of micrometers, defined as macrovoids that originated from the emulsified water droplets. In conjunction, customary macropores of diameter 50-200 nm are derived from sPS gels. The macrovoids add additional openness to the aerogel structures. This paper evaluates the structural characteristics of the macrovoids, such as diameter distribution, macrovoid interconnect density, and skin layer density, in conjunction with the final aerogel foam properties.

  17. Convex Lens-Induced Nanoscale Templating (United States)

    Berard, Daniel; Michaud, Francois; McFaul, Christopher; Mahsid, Sara; Reisner, Walter; Leslie, Sabrina


    We demonstrate a new platform, ``Convex Lens-Induced Nanoscale Templating'' (CLINT), for dynamic manipulation and trapping of single DNA molecules. In the CLINT technique, the curved surface of a convex lens is used to deform a flexible coverslip above a substrate containing embedded nanotopography, creating a nanoscale gap that can be adjusted during an experiment to confine molecules within the embedded nanostructures. Critically, CLINT has the capability of actively transforming a macroscale flow-cell into a nanofluidic device without need for high-temperature direct bonding, leading to ease of sample loading and greater accessibility of the surface. Moreover, as DNA molecules present in the gap will be driven into the embedded topography from above, CLINT eliminates the need for the high pressures or electric fields necessitated by direct bonded nanofluidic devices for loading DNA in the confined structures. To demonstrate the versatility of CLINT, we confine DNA to nanogroove structures, demonstrating DNA nanochannel-based stretching. Using ionic strengths that are in line with typical biological buffers, we have successfully extended DNA in sub 30nm nanochannels, achieving high stretching (90%) that is in good agreement with Odijk deflection theory.

  18. Templated Chemically Deposited Semiconductor Optical Fiber Materials (United States)

    Sparks, Justin R.; Sazio, Pier J. A.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Badding, John V.


    Chemical deposition is a powerful technology for fabrication of planar microelectronics. Optical fibers are the dominant platform for telecommunications, and devices such as fiber lasers are forming the basis for new industries. High-pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) allows for conformal layers and void-free wires of precisely doped crystalline unary and compound semiconductors inside the micro-to-nanoscale-diameter pores of microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). Drawing the fibers to serve as templates into which these semiconductor structures can be fabricated allows for geometric design flexibility that is difficult to achieve with planar fabrication. Seamless coupling of semiconductor optoelectronic and photonic devices with existing fiber infrastructure thus becomes possible, facilitating all-fiber technological approaches. The deposition techniques also allow for a wider range of semiconductor materials compositions to be exploited than is possible by means of preform drawing. Gigahertz bandwidth junction-based fiber devices can be fabricated from doped crystalline semiconductors, for example. Deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon, which cannot be drawn, allows for the exploitation of strong nonlinear optical function in fibers. Finally, crystalline compound semiconductor fiber cores hold promise for high-power infrared light-guiding fiber devices and subwavelength-resolution, large-area infrared imaging.

  19. Macroporous inorganic solids from a biomineral template (United States)

    Yue, Wenbo; Park, Robert J.; Kulak, Alex N.; Meldrum, Fiona C.


    A range of macroporous inorganic solids, with unique, sponge-like structures were synthesised by templating sea urchin skeletal plates. Although composed of a single crystal of calcite, a sea urchin plate exhibits a bicontinuous morphology with pores of diameter 10-15 μm. As both the solid and porous fractions of the plate exhibit identical form and dimensions, filling the porous network with an alternative material and dissolving away the CaCO 3 generates a cast with identical morphology to the original plate. The versatility of this approach is demonstrated in this paper, which provides both a review of previously published work, and a description of the application to a number of new systems. Macroporous metals, including gold and nickel were synthesised either from pre-prepared particles or via electroless deposition, while silica and titania were generated by sol-gel techniques. Sponge-like polymer membranes, formed as casts of the sea urchin plates, were also used as an environment in which to precipitate a range of single crystals with complex morphologies: CaCO 3, SrSO 4, PbSO 4, PbCO 3, NaCl and CuSO 4·5H 2O. These experiments demonstrate that single crystals with intricate forms are not restricted to the realms of biology, but that shape constraint provides an extremely general route for morphological control.

  20. Novel fabrication approaches toward nanostructured functional surfaces : from artificial leaves to block copolymer templates


    Park, Sungjune


    This thesis describes novel approaches for fabrication of nanostructured functional surfaces: a fast molding and curing for reproduction of artificial leaves, facile replication for ceramic nanostructures, one-step self-assembly for sequenced patterns and functional templates of block copolymer. In a first approach, a simple and fast two-step molding process has been demonstrated the successful replication of hierarchical structures on a native leaf surface. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) negative...

  1. Iris-based authentication system with template protection and renewability (United States)

    Ercole, Chiara; Campisi, Patrizio; Neri, Alessandro


    Biometrics is the most emerging technology for automatic people authentication, nevertheless severe concerns raised about security of such systems and users' privacy. In case of malicious attacks toward one or more components of the authentication system, stolen biometric features cannot be replaced. This paper focuses on securing the enrollment database and the communication channel between such database and the matcher. In particular, a method is developed to protect the stored biometric templates, adapting the fuzzy commitment scheme to iris biometrics by exploiting error correction codes tailored on template discriminability. The aforementioned method allows template renewability applied to iris based authentication and guarantees high security performing the match in the encrypted domain.

  2. Vacuum template synthesis of multifunctional nanotubes with tailored nanostructured walls (United States)

    Filippin, A. Nicolas; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Saghi, Zineb; Idígoras, Jesús; Burdet, Pierre; Barranco, Angel; Midgley, Paul; Anta, Juan A.; Borras, Ana


    A three-step vacuum procedure for the fabrication of vertical TiO2 and ZnO nanotubes with three dimensional walls is presented. The method combines physical vapor deposition of small-molecules, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of inorganic functional thin films and layers and a post-annealing process in vacuum in order to remove the organic template. As a result, an ample variety of inorganic nanotubes are made with tunable length, hole dimensions and shapes and tailored wall composition, microstructure, porosity and structure. The fabrication of multishell nanotubes combining different semiconducting oxides and metal nanoparticles is as well explored. This method provides a feasible and reproducible route for the fabrication of high density arrays of vertically alligned nanotubes on processable substrates. The emptying mechanism and microstructure of the nanotubes have been elucidated through SEM, STEM, HAADF-STEM tomography and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In this article, as a proof of concept, it is presented the straightforward integration of ZnO nanotubes as photoanode in a photovoltaic cell and as a photonic oxygen gas sensor.

  3. Adsorptive removal of PPCPs by biomorphic HAP templated from cotton. (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Xiong, Dan; Zhao, Tingting; He, Huan; Pan, Xuejun


    Biomorphic nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) was fabricated by a co-precipitation method using cotton as bio-templates and employed in adsorptive removal of ofloxacin (OFL) and triclosan (TCS) that are two representative pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The surface area and porosity, crystal phase, functional group, morphology and micro-structure of the synthesized HAP were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron macroscopic and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of initial pH, ionic strength, initial concentration, contact time and temperature on the removal of PPCPs were studied in a batch experiment. The adsorption of OFL and TCS was rapid and almost accomplished within 50 min. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process of OFL and TCS followed the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm described the OFL adsorption process well but the adsorption of TCS fitted the Langmuir isotherm better. Thermodynamics and isotherm parameters suggested that both OFL and TCS adsorption were feasible and spontaneous. Hydrogen bond and Lewis acid-base reaction may be the dominating adsorption mechanism of OFL and TCS, respectively. Compared to other adsorbents, biomorphic HAP is environmentally friendly and has the advantages of high adsorption capacity, exhibiting potential application for PPCPs removal.

  4. The biogeochemical cycle of the adsorbed template. I - formation of the template (United States)

    Lazard, Daniel; Lahav, Noam; Orenberg, J. B.


    Experimental results are presented for the verification of the first adsorption step of the 'adsorbed template' biogeochemical cycle, a simple model for a primitive prebiotic replication system. The adsorption of Poly-C, Poly-U, Poly-A, Poly-G, and 5'-AMP, 5'-GMP, 5'-CMP and 5'-UMP onto gypsum was studied. It was found that under the conditions of the experiment, the polymers have a very high affinity for the mineral surface, while the monomers adsorb much less efficiently.

  5. Performance of Nano Fibrillated Cellulose (NFC and Chitosan Bio-polymeric System on Recycled Pulp and Paper Properties of Old Corrugated Containers (OCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosrin Pourkarim Dodangeh1


    Full Text Available Application of dry strength additives is regarded as a sustainable strategy toward improvement of recycle paper properties, and Bio-based materials utilization enhanced in this aspect extensively, respecting to different technological and environmental issues. In order to improving products properties, Cellulose and Chitosan as the most abundant biopolymers with unique characteristics, have been focused under ever increasing researches as natural and processed forms. Effects of the biopolymers, chitosan and nano fibrillated cellulose (NFC, individually and combined together on recycled pulp and paper properties showed that density and strength indices of paper (tensile, burst and tear, pulp drainage and retention during sheet formation improved with reduction in the material loss compared to the blank. Chitosan addition caused significant enhancement on all of the strengths, density and pulp retention and also reduction in material loss. Dewatering of the pulp suspension (CSF was significantly improved by chitosan presence, with decline resulted from the higher addition level. The resulted developments were attributed to polymeric character, structural similarity and high bonding ability of chitosan with cellulosic fibers. Individually addition of NFC produced boost in the pulp retention, paper density, tensile and burst indices and fall in pulp freeness, material loss and tear index. Anionic nature, high specific surface area and hydrogen bonding ability of NFC were ascribed to these. Application of NFC just after chitosan as a complex mechanism in papermaking wet end not only had no increment in density and strength indices of recycled paper (except NFC 0.15%, reduced strengths in some cases. In the complex, the pulp properties were fluctuated compared to chitosan treatment, but were prior compared to nano fibrillated cellulose.

  6. Improving your target-template alignment with MODalign.

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Alessandro


    SUMMARY: MODalign is an interactive web-based tool aimed at helping protein structure modelers to inspect and manually modify the alignment between the sequences of a target protein and of its template(s). It interactively computes, displays and, upon modification of the target-template alignment, updates the multiple sequence alignments of the two protein families, their conservation score, secondary structure and solvent accessibility values, and local quality scores of the implied three-dimensional model(s). Although it has been designed to simplify the target-template alignment step in modeling, it is suitable for all cases where a sequence alignment needs to be inspected in the context of other biological information. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Freely available on the web at Website implemented in HTML and JavaScript with all major browsers supported. CONTACT:

  7. Template-Framework Interactions in Tetraethylammonium-Directed Zeolite Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Fu, Donglong; Deem, Michael W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.


    Zeolites, having widespread applications in chemical industries, are often synthesized using organic templates. These can be cost-prohibitive, motivating investigations into their role in promoting crystallization. Herein, the relationship between framework structure, chemical composition, synthesis

  8. CT Study of Radiopaque Implant Template for Gingival Form

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsutsumi, Toyoshige


    .... The concentrations of barium sulfate were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 vol%. The CT template were replaced the porcine mandibule and was fixed by immersion in a water vessel using a phantom before cone beam CT examination...

  9. Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template (United States)

    The Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template can be use to issue a Tier 1 Public Notification when it has been determined that source ground water is contaminated with E. Coli bacteria.

  10. Dental rehabilitation of amelogenesis imperfecta using thermoformed templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNMP Sockalingam


    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta represents a group of dental developmental conditions that are genomic in origin. Hypoplastic AI, hypomineralised AI or both in combination were the most common types seen clinically. This paper describes oral rehabilitation of a 9-year-old Malay girl with inherited hypoplastic AI using transparent thermoforming templates. The defective surface areas were reconstructed to their original dimensions on stone cast models of the upper and lower arches using composite, and transparent thermoform templates were fabricated on the models. The templates were used as crown formers to reconstruct the defective teeth clinically using esthetically matching composite. The usage of the templates allowed direct light curing of the composite, accurate reproducibility of the anatomic contours of the defective teeth, reduced chair-side time and easy contouring and placement of homogenous thickness of composite in otherwise inaccessible sites of the affected teeth.

  11. The Address on Umueri Airport City Project: A Template for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; and (3) a template that governors of other States, especially those who are obviously not performing effectively, should adopt and adapt towards efficiency and effectiveness in leadership and governance at the subnational level of Nigeria.

  12. A Survey On Various Web Template Detection And Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Mary Varghese


    Full Text Available Abstract In todays digital world reliance on the World Wide Web as a source of information is extensive. Users increasingly rely on web based search engines to provide accurate search results on a wide range of topics that interest them. The search engines in turn parse the vast repository of web pages searching for relevant information. However majority of web portals are designed using web templates which are designed to provide consistent look and feel to end users. The presence of these templates however can influence search results leading to inaccurate results being delivered to the users. Therefore to improve the accuracy and reliability of search results identification and removal of web templates from the actual content is essential. A wide range of approaches are commonly employed to achieve this and this paper focuses on the study of the various approaches of template detection and extraction that can be applied across homogenous as well as heterogeneous web pages.

  13. Ordered Nanomaterials Thin Films via Supported Anodized Alumina Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eES-SOUNI


    Full Text Available Supported anodized alumina template films with highly ordered porosity are best suited for fabricating large area ordered nanostructures with tunable dimensions and aspect ratios. In this paper we first discuss important issues for the generation of such templates, including required properties of the Al/Ti/Au/Ti thin film heterostructure on a substrate for high quality templates. We then show examples of anisotropic nanostructure films consisting of noble metals using these templates, discuss briefly their optical properties and their applications to molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Finally we briefly address the possibility to make nanocomposite films, exemplary shown on a plasmonic-thermochromic nanocomposite of VO2-capped Au-nanorods.

  14. Template-based Quality Assessment of the Doppler Ultrasound Signal for Fetal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo E. Valderrama


    Full Text Available One dimensional Doppler Ultrasound (DUS is a low cost method for fetal auscultation. However, accuracy of any metrics derived from the DUS signals depends on their quality, which relies heavily on operator skills. In low resource settings, where skill levels are sparse, it is important for the device to provide real time signal quality feedback to allow the re-recording of data. Retrospectively, signal quality assessment can help remove low quality recordings when processing large amounts of data. To this end, we proposed a novel template-based method, to assess DUS signal quality. Data used in this study were collected from 17 pregnant women using a low-cost transducer connected to a smart phone. Recordings were split into 1990 segments of 3.75 s duration, and hand labeled for quality by three independent annotators. The proposed template-based method uses Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD to allow detection of the fetal heart beats and segmentation into short, time-aligned temporal windows. Templates were derived for each 15 s window of the recordings. The DUS signal quality index (SQI was calculated by correlating the segments in each window with the corresponding running template using four different pre-processing steps: (i no additional preprocessing, (ii linear resampling of each beat, (iii dynamic time warping (DTW of each beat and (iv weighted DTW of each beat. The template-based SQIs were combined with additional features based on sample entropy and power spectral density. To assess the performance of the method, the dataset was split into training and test subsets. The training set was used to obtain the best combination of features for predicting the DUS quality using cross validation, and the test set was used to estimate the classification accuracy using bootstrap resampling. A median out of sample classification accuracy on the test set of 85.8% was found using three features; template-based SQI, sample entropy and the relative

  15. III - Template Metaprogramming for massively parallel scientific computing - Templates for Iteration; Thread-level Parallelism

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  16. II - Template Metaprogramming for Massively Parallel Scientific Computing - Vectorization with Expression Templates

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Large scale scientific computing raises questions on different levels ranging from the fomulation of the problems to the choice of the best algorithms and their implementation for a specific platform. There are similarities in these different topics that can be exploited by modern-style C++ template metaprogramming techniques to produce readable, maintainable and generic code. Traditional low-level code tend to be fast but platform-dependent, and it obfuscates the meaning of the algorithm. On the other hand, object-oriented approach is nice to read, but may come with an inherent performance penalty. These lectures aim to present he basics of the Expression Template (ET) idiom which allows us to keep the object-oriented approach without sacrificing performance. We will in particular show to to enhance ET to include SIMD vectorization. We will then introduce techniques for abstracting iteration, and introduce thread-level parallelism for use in heavy data-centric loads. We will show to to apply these methods i...

  17. Acquiring Common Sense Spatial Knowledge through Implicit Spatial Templates


    Collell, Guillem; Van Gool, Luc; Moens, Marie-Francine


    Spatial understanding is a fundamental problem with wide-reaching real-world applications. The representation of spatial knowledge is often modeled with spatial templates, i.e., regions of acceptability of two objects under an explicit spatial relationship (e.g., "on", "below", etc.). In contrast with prior work that restricts spatial templates to explicit spatial prepositions (e.g., "glass on table"), here we extend this concept to implicit spatial language, i.e., those relationships (genera...

  18. A competition-based deformable template for junction extraction


    Cazorla Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Escolano Ruiz, Francisco; Gallardo López, Domingo; Colomina Pardo, Otto


    We propose a deformable template for junction extraction. Our method evolves from the Kona approach. Junction detection is performed in two steps: center detection and wedge extraction. In the first stage, a local filter is used to detect candidates. Then a template deformation method is used to find the optimal number of sections. Comunicación presentada en el VIII Simposium Nacional de Reconocimiento de Formas y Análisis de Imágenes, Bilbao, mayo 1999.

  19. Template directed synthesis of highly organized functional biomimetic silica nanostructures


    Kind, Lucy


    Silica is an important mineral in technological and biological applications. Many protocols have been developed for the synthesis of complex silica architectures. Most prominent is the silicification approach, where polymers build up the templates for the revealed polymer/silica structures. The current thesis demonstrates that star-shaped polymers and block copolymers are efficient templates for the fabrication of silica particles with spherical or raspberry-like morphology....

  20. Study of program defects of 22nm nanoimprint template with an advanced e-beam inspection system (United States)

    Hiraka, Takaaki; Mizuochi, Jun; Nakanishi, Yuko; Yusa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Shiho; Kurihara, Masaaki; Toyama, Nobuhito; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Xiao, Hong; Kuan, Chiyan; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Jau, Jack


    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a candidate of alternative, low cost of ownership lithography solution for deep nano-meter device manufacturing12. For the NIL template pattern making, we have been developing the processes with 100keV SB EB writer and 50keV VSB EB writer to achieve the fine resolution of near 20nm1-7. However, inspection of nanoimprint template posed a big challenge to inspection system due to the small geometry, 1x comparing to 4x of Optical mask and EUV mask. Previous studies of nanoimprint template inspection were performed indirectly on a stamped wafer and/or on a round quartz wafer13. Electron beam inspection (EBI) systems have been widely used in semiconductor fabs in nanometer technology nodes. Most commonly EBI applications are electrical defects, or voltage contrast (VC) defects detection and monitoring8-11. In this study, we used a mask EBI system developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI) to directly inspect a NIL template with line/space and hole patterns half pitched from 22nm to 90nm and with program defects sized from 4nm to 92nm. Capability of inspection with 10nm pixel size has been demonstrated and capability of capturing program defects sized 12nm and smaller has been shown. This study proved the feasibility of EBI as inspection solution of nanoimprint template for 22nmHP and beyond.

  1. Genomic RNAs of Borna disease virus are elongated on internal template motifs after realignment of the 3' termini. (United States)

    Martin, Arnold; Hoefs, Nadja; Tadewaldt, Josefine; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs


    The terminal structures of the Borna disease virus (BDV) genome (vRNA) and antigenome (cRNA) differ from those of other negative strand RNA viruses, as both molecules possess four nucleotides at the 3' terminus without an apparent template at the 5' end of the opposite strand. Consequently, the v- and cRNA molecules are not perfect mirror images, a situation that is not compatible with conventional strategies to maintain genetic information. We show here that recombinant viruses recovered from cDNA lacking the nontemplated nucleotides efficiently reconstitute the 3' overhangs. Analyses of recombinant viruses encoding genetic markers in potential alternative template sequences demonstrated that the BDV v- and cRNA molecules are extended by a realign-and-elongation process on internal template motifs located in close proximity to the 3' ends of v- and cRNA, respectively. The data further suggest that cRNA elongation is restricted to a single template motif of the nascent strand, whereas elongation of vRNA might use multiple template motifs. We propose that the elongation of the 3' termini supports the terminal integrity of the genomic RNA molecules during BDV persistence, and furthermore provides an elegant strategy to eliminate the triphosphate groups from the 5' termini of the BDV v- and cRNA without compromising the genetic information of the virus.

  2. Genomic RNAs of Borna disease virus are elongated on internal template motifs after realignment of the 3′ termini (United States)

    Martin, Arnold; Hoefs, Nadja; Tadewaldt, Josefine; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs


    The terminal structures of the Borna disease virus (BDV) genome (vRNA) and antigenome (cRNA) differ from those of other negative strand RNA viruses, as both molecules possess four nucleotides at the 3′ terminus without an apparent template at the 5′ end of the opposite strand. Consequently, the v- and cRNA molecules are not perfect mirror images, a situation that is not compatible with conventional strategies to maintain genetic information. We show here that recombinant viruses recovered from cDNA lacking the nontemplated nucleotides efficiently reconstitute the 3′ overhangs. Analyses of recombinant viruses encoding genetic markers in potential alternative template sequences demonstrated that the BDV v- and cRNA molecules are extended by a realign-and-elongation process on internal template motifs located in close proximity to the 3′ ends of v- and cRNA, respectively. The data further suggest that cRNA elongation is restricted to a single template motif of the nascent strand, whereas elongation of vRNA might use multiple template motifs. We propose that the elongation of the 3′ termini supports the terminal integrity of the genomic RNA molecules during BDV persistence, and furthermore provides an elegant strategy to eliminate the triphosphate groups from the 5′ termini of the BDV v- and cRNA without compromising the genetic information of the virus. PMID:21482759

  3. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly


    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  4. Silver nanowires-templated metal oxide for broadband Schottky photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Kim, Joondong, E-mail: [Photoelectric and Energy Device Application Lab (PEDAL) and Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy Rd. Yeonsu, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeong-Ho [Applied Device and Material Lab., Device Technology Division, Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center (KANC), Suwon 443270 (Korea, Republic of)


    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-templated transparent metal oxide layer was applied for Si Schottky junction device, which remarked the record fastest photoresponse of 3.4 μs. Self-operating AgNWs-templated Schottky photodetector showed broad wavelength photodetection with high responsivity (42.4 A W{sup −1}) and detectivity (2.75 × 10{sup 15} Jones). AgNWs-templated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) showed band-to-band excitation due to the internal photoemission, resulting in significant carrier collection performances. Functional metal oxide layer was formed by AgNWs-templated from ITO structure. The grown ITO above AgNWs has a cylindrical shape and acts as a thermal protector of AgNWs for high temperature environment without any deformation. We developed thermal stable AgNWs-templated transparent oxide devices and demonstrated the working mechanism of AgNWs-templated Schottky devices. We may propose the high potential of hybrid transparent layer design for various photoelectric applications, including solar cells.

  5. A Robust and Engineerable Self-Assembling Protein Template for the Synthesis and Patterning of Ordered Nanoparticle Arrays (United States)

    McMillan, R. Andrew; Howard, Jeanie; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Li, Yi-Fen; Paavola, Chad D.; Trent, Jonathan D.


    Self-assembling biomolecules that form highly ordered structures have attracted interest as potential alternatives to conventional lithographic processes for patterning materials. Here we introduce a general technique for patterning materials on the nanoscale using genetically modified protein cage structures called chaperonins that self-assemble into crystalline templates. Constrained chemical synthesis of transition metal nanoparticles is specific to templates genetically functionalized with poly-Histidine sequences. These arrays of materials are ordered by the nanoscale structure of the crystallized protein. This system may be easily adapted to pattern a variety of materials given the rapidly growing list of peptide sequences selected by screening for specificity for inorganic materials.

  6. Preparation of organothiol self-assembled monolayers for use in templated crystallization. (United States)

    Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R I


    Organothiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have garnered much interest as templates for oriented crystallization of biominerals. While, on the surface, SAM preparation appears to be straightforward, there are many subtleties that may yield films that lack the desired effect on the mineral component in subsequent use for templated mineralization. Herein, we discuss literature that uses organothiol SAMs to understand various principles in biomineralization, to motivate the following discussion of preparation procedures and pitfalls that may arise while working with SAMs. We provide a range of parameters for each element of a SAM-forming process, which have been shown in the literature to produce monolayers suitable for mineralization experiments, and close with a step-by-step procedure, based on findings in the cited literature, that yields functional SAMs with very high fidelity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Template synthesis of test tube nanoparticles using non-destructive replication (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan; Yao, Jingyuan; Rodgers, David; Hinds, Bruce


    Nano test tubes are a promising delivery vehicle for a range of therapeutics, including small molecule drugs and biologics. However, current template synthesis methods of producing nano test tubes are prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Here, non-destructive template replication was used to increase nano test tube yield from porous alumina by more than a hundredfold. We demonstrate how to produce nano test tubes of several sizes and compositions, including hybrid tubes with different inner and outer surfaces for targeted surface chemistry. Nano test tubes were readily suspended and stored in aqueous solutions without the need for chemical treatment. These nano test tubes should find application as delivery vehicles for therapeutics, particularly for processive ‘bionanoreactors’ loaded with enzymes.

  8. Rapid Detection of miRNA Using Nucleic Acids-templated AgNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pratik

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ubiquitous RNA molecules (20-24nt) that negatively regulate target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Due to their roles in a variety of biological processes, the levels of miRNAs are dynamically changed in response to cellular and environmental signals....../AgNCs). I have showed that rapid, simple, sensitive and specific miRNA detection is possible. Two aspects of my research are 1) the implication of DNA secondary structure on the photoluminescence properties of DNA/AgNCs, 2) the development of a novel tool for miRNA detection in complex biological samples....... In the former, I revealed that the mismatched secondary structures of DNA-templates are important for the rapid formation of bright red fluorescence. Further, I suggest that the chromatic properties of DNA/AgNCs are modulated not only by sequence but also by secondary structure of DNA-templates. Moreover...

  9. Template-Directed Copolymerization, Random Walks along Disordered Tracks, and Fractals (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre


    In biology, template-directed copolymerization is the fundamental mechanism responsible for the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins. More than 50 years have passed since the discovery of DNA structure and its role in coding genetic information. Yet, the kinetics and thermodynamics of information processing in DNA replication, transcription, and translation remain poorly understood. Challenging issues are the facts that DNA or RNA sequences constitute disordered media for the motion of polymerases or ribosomes while errors occur in copying the template. Here, it is shown that these issues can be addressed and sequence heterogeneity effects can be quantitatively understood within a framework revealing universal aspects of information processing at the molecular scale. In steady growth regimes, the local velocities of polymerases or ribosomes along the template are distributed as the continuous or fractal invariant set of a so-called iterated function system, which determines the copying error probabilities. The growth may become sublinear in time with a scaling exponent that can also be deduced from the iterated function system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev


    Full Text Available The diagnosis of deviations in quality of yogurt is performed by approved methods set out in the Bulgarian national standard (BNS and its adjacent regulations. The basic method of evaluation of the microbiological quality of the product is the microscopic. The method is subjective and requires significant processing time of the samples. The precision of diagnosis is not high and depends on the qualifications of the expert. The systems for pattern recognition in the most natural way interpret this specific expert activity. The aim of this report is to assess the possibility of application of a method of processing and image analysis for determination of the microbiological quality of yogurt. Selected method is template matching. A comparative analysis is made of the methods for template matching. The comparative analysis of available algorithms showed that the known ones have certain disadvantages associated with their rapid-action, the use of simplified procedures, they are sensitive to rotation of the object in the template. It is developed algorithm that complement these known and overcome some of their disadvantages.

  11. Templated self-assembly of SiGe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dais, Christian


    This PhD thesis reports on the fabrication and characterization of exact aligned SiGe quantum dot structures. In general, SiGe quantum dots which nucleate via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode exhibit broad size dispersion and nucleate randomly on the surface. However, to tap the full potential of SiGe quantum dots it is necessary to control the positioning and size of the dots on a nanometer length, e.g. for electronically addressing of individual dots. This can be realized by so-called templated self-assembly, which combines top-down lithography with bottom-up selfassembly. In this process the lithographically defined pits serve as pre-defined nucleation points for the epitaxially grown quantum dots. In this thesis, extreme ultraviolet interference lithography at a wavelength of e=13.4 nm is employed for prepatterning of the Si substrates. This technique allows the precise and fast fabrication of high-resolution templates with a high degree of reproducibility. The subsequent epitaxial deposition is either performed by molecular beam epitaxy or low-pressure chemical vapour deposition. It is shown that the dot nucleation on pre-patterned substrates depends strongly on the lithography parameters, e.g. size and periodicity of the pits, as well as on the epitaxy parameters, e.g. growth temperature or material coverage. The interrelations are carefully analyzed by means of scanning force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Provided that correct template and overgrowth parameters are chosen, perfectly aligned and uniform SiGe quantum dot arrays of different period, size as well as symmetry are created. In particular, the quantum dot arrays with the so far smallest period (35 nm) and smallest size dispersion are fabricated in this thesis. Furthermore, the strain fields of the underlying quantum dots allow the fabrication of vertically aligned quantum dot stacks. Combining lateral and vertical dot alignment results in three

  12. Detection of Cancerous Masses in Mammograms by Template Matching: Optimization of Template Brightness Distribution by Means of Evolutionary Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bator, Marcin; Nieniewski, Mariusz


    .... This optimization is performed by the evolutionary algorithm using an auxiliary mass classifier. Brightness along the radius of the circularly symmetric template is coded indirectly by its second derivative...

  13. Electrochemical Characterization of Platinum Nanotubules Made via Template Wetting Nanofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Broaddus


    Full Text Available Standard oxidation-reduction reactions such as those of ferrocyanide and ferrocene have long been employed in evaluating and comparing new electrode structures with more traditional configurations. A variety of nanostructured carbon electrodes developed in recent years have been reported to exhibit faster electron transfer kinetics than more traditional carbon structures when studied with these redox reactions. This type of comparison has not been widely explored for nanostructured platinum electrodes that have become increasingly common. In this work, a platinum nanotubule array electrode was fabricated via a simple template-based process and evaluated using the standard ferrocyanide redox reaction. The nanotubule array electrodes were observed to more closely approach ideal reversible behavior than a typical Pt black/Nafion fuel cell electrode or a standard polished Pt disc electrode. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer coefficient was determined using the Nicholson method and found to be one to two orders of magnitude greater for the nanotubule array electrodes, depending on the diameter of the nanotubules, in comparison with these same two more traditional electrode structures.

  14. Extending Supernova Spectral Templates for Next Generation Space Telescope Observations (United States)

    Roberts-Pierel, Justin; Rodney, Steven A.; Steven Rodney


    Widely used empirical supernova (SN) Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) have not historically extended meaningfully into the ultraviolet (UV), or the infrared (IR). However, both are critical for current and future aspects of SN research including UV spectra as probes of poorly understood SN Ia physical properties, and expanding our view of the universe with high-redshift James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) IR observations. We therefore present a comprehensive set of SN SED templates that have been extended into the UV and IR, as well as an open-source software package written in Python that enables a user to generate their own extrapolated SEDs. We have taken a sampling of core-collapse (CC) and Type Ia SNe to get a time-dependent distribution of UV and IR colors (U-B,r’-[JHK]), and then generated color curves are used to extrapolate SEDs into the UV and IR. The SED extrapolation process is now easily duplicated using a user’s own data and parameters via our open-source Python package: SNSEDextend. This work develops the tools necessary to explore the JWST’s ability to discriminate between CC and Type Ia SNe, as well as provides a repository of SN SEDs that will be invaluable to future JWST and WFIRST SN studies.

  15. Rapid and simple preparation of thiol-ene emulsion-templated monoliths and their application as enzymatic microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P; Senkbeil, Silja; Novotny, Jakub


    electron microscopy showed that the methanol-based emulsion templating process resulted in a network of highly interconnected and regular thiol-ene beads anchored solidly inside thiol-ene microchannels. Surface area measurements indicate that the monoliths are macroporous, with no or little micro...

  16. Effect of template-induced surface species on electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Xiaojuan; Bo, Xiangkun; Wang, Yongzheng [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Guo, Xiangke [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Xie, Mingjiang, E-mail: [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Guo, Xuefeng, E-mail: [Key Lab of Mesoscopic Chemistry MOE, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China)


    Highlights: • The effect of template on the surface chemistry of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were investigated. • Template induces more non-graphitic species (sp{sup 3}−C−C− and −NH{sub x}) on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Non-graphitic species influence electronic structure and performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: In view of the fact that the photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) is greatly influenced by its electronic structure, herein, effect of templates induced surface species variation on the electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of the templated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was investigated. By mixing the precursor of cyanamide with different templates (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and template-free) in the preparation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), carbon nitrides with different surface species were obtained. The obtained carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si) templated by SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles exhibits enlarged band gap (3.26 eV) and enhanced photo-degradation ability towards Methyl Orange (MO) compared to that of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (2.67 eV) synthesized from direct condensation/carbonization of melamine and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-templated g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Al (2.76 eV). Detailed characterizations confirm that the introduction of templates in the synthesis process resulted in more non-graphitic species (sp{sup 3}−C−C− and −NH{sub x}) on the surface of the derived carbon nitrides, exerting remarkable effect on the electronic structure and photocatalytic performance.

  17. Anion-Templated Nanosized Silver Alkynyl Clusters: Cluster Engineering and Solution Behavior. (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Shan; Su, Hai-Feng; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Lina; Zhao, Quan-Qin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di; Zheng, Lan-Sun


    Assembly of nanosized polynuclear metal clusters from simple building blocks usually involves complicated self-organization processes and thus is a long-standing challenge. Here, we demonstrate the controllable assembly, single-crystal structures and solution behaviors of four molecular assemblies based on nanosized silver alkynyl clusters, formulated as {[(CrO4 )2 Cl@Ag42 (PhC≡C)34 (CF3 COO)2 ]⋅CF3 COO} (1), {(NH4 )[(CrO4 )2 Cl@Ag42 (PhC≡C)34 (CrO4 )(H2 O)2 ]⋅2BF4 ⋅CH3 OH}n (2), [(CrO4 )@Ag22 (PhC≡C)16 (CF3 SO3 )4 ]n (3), and {[(CrO4 )2 @Ag31 (PhC≡C)22 (CF3 SO3 )4 ]⋅CF3 SO3 ⋅2CH3 OH⋅H2 O}n (4). In the presence of concomitant CrO42- and Cl- templates, we could isolate a discrete cluster 1 and a polymeric chain-like compound 2 by using different silver salts. Both 1 and 2 have a similar 42-metallic cage, which traps two CrO42- and one Cl- as anion templates. Using sole CrO42- template, 3 and 4 were simultaneously isolated in a one-pot reaction. Both of them are 1D chain structures based on single CrO42- templated Ag18 and double CrO42- templated Ag30 clusters, respectively. HR-ESI-MS was used to study the solution behaviors of 1-4. This work has the following purposes: i) it presents the cluster engineering concept used in the assembly of polynuclear silver alkynyl clusters; ii) it exemplifies template effects from hetero and homo anions; and iii) it provides a controllable way to achieve assembly of silver alkynyl clusters. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Biopolymeric Formulations for Biocatalysis and Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy M. M. Elnashar


    Full Text Available Three gel disks formulations prepared using chitosan (Chito or polyethylenimine (PEI followed by glutaraldehyde were prepared for biocatalysis and biomedical applications. The carriers have been used to immobilize lactase covalently and it was evaluated in terms of enzyme loading capacity and enzyme kinetics (km and Vmax. The Km of the Chito formulation was almost half that of the PEI formulations, which is favored in industries. On the other hand, the gel disks were evaluated in terms of their swelling kinetics and the gels’ morphology using SEM. The mechanism of the three gels’ swelling was also studied and it was found to be non-Fickian, where the mechanism of transport depends on both the diffusion and polymer relaxation, which are controlling the overall rate of water uptake. The Chito formulation was 2–5 folds and PEI formulations were 33–62 folds in terms of the swelling rate constant and the diffusion rate, respectively. These results were highly supported by the SEM. This study will help scientists to design the right polymer network for enzymes immobilization as well as control the surface area and the swelling power of the polymers for different applications such as drug delivery systems and tissue engineering.

  19. Heterogeneous self-assembled media for biopolymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain


    compartments and lipid-bilayer lattices. Another kind of media is represented by self-assembled phases in the reaction medium, e.g., in water-ice matrices that are formed by two co-existing aqueous phases (a solid phase and a concentrated liquid phase) when an aqueous solution is cooled below its freezing...... point, but above the eutectic point. These media have the capacity to assemble chemical molecules or complex catalytic assemblies into unique configurations that are unstable or unavailable in bulk aqueous phases. Reactions can then proceed which do not readily occur in homogeneous solutions. To gauge...

  20. Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy of Biopolymeric Materials (United States)

    Curtis Marcott; Michael Lo; Kevin Kjoller; Craig Prater; Roshan Shetty; Joseph Jakes; Isao Noda


    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy have been combined in a single instrument capable of producing 100 nm spatial resolution IR spectra and images. This new capability enables the spectroscopic characterization of biomaterial domains at levels not previously possible. A tunable IR laser source generating pulses on the order of 10 ns was used...

  1. Microwave assisted template synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Easier, less time consuming, green processes, which yield silver nanoparticles of uniform size, shape and morphology are of interest. Various methods for synthesis, such as conventional temperature assisted process, controlled reaction at elevated temperatures, and microwave assisted process have been evaluated for ...

  2. Cooperative Reorganization of Mineral and Template during Directed Nucleation of Calcium Carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonathan R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Han, Yong J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Willey, Trevor M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nielsen, Michael H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Klivansky, Liana M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Yi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chung, Sungwook [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Terminello, Louis J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Van Buuren, Tony W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); De Yoreo, James J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prepared from organic thiol molecules on metal substrates are known to exert substantial influence over mineralization and, as such, provide model systems for investigating the mechanisms of templated crystallization by organic matrices. Characterizing the structural evolution at the organic/inorganic interface in SAM/crystal systems is of paramount importance in understanding these mechanisms. In this study, X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to characterize the structural evolution of SAMs prepared from purpose-synthesized organic thiols, with similar yet subtly different structures and compositions, during the course of mineralization at their surfaces. The studies reveal that the structure of the thiol molecules strongly affects their ability to reorient within the SAM. Complementary scanning electron microscopy measurements demonstrate that the feature of the SAMs is strongly correlated with the capability of the monolayers to induce preferential ordering among the organic crystals. Consistent with recent modeling studies of SAM/crystal systems, these findings provide experimental evidence that structural flexibility within the SAMs is crucial for achieving templated crystallization and that templating is inherently a cooperative process that selects the most favorable combination of SAM and crystal orientations.

  3. Morphology-dependent enhancement of the pseudocapacitance of template-guided tunable polyaniline nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei


    Polyaniline is one of the most investigated conducting polymers as supercapacitor material for energy storage applications. The preparation of nanostructured polyaniline with well-controlled morphology is crucial to obtaining good supercapacitor performance. We present here a facile chemical process to produce polyaniline nanostructures with three different morphologies (i.e., nanofibers, nanospheres, and nanotubes) by utilizing the corresponding tunable morphology of MnO2 reactive templates. A growth mechanism is proposed to explain the evolution of polyaniline morphology based on the reactive templates. The morphology-induced improvement in the electrochemical performance of polyaniline pseudocapacitors is as large as 51% due to the much enhanced surface area and the porous nature of the template-guided polyaniline nanostructures. In addition, and for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte is applied to the polyaniline pseudocapacitors to achieve significant enhancement of pseudocapacitance. Compared to the conventional electrolyte, the enhancement of pseudocapacitance in the redox-active electrolyte is 49%-78%, depending on the specific polyaniline morphology, reaching the highest reported capacitance of 896 F/g for polyaniline full cells so far. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. The impact of domain knowledge on structured data collection and templated note design. (United States)

    Windle, T; McClay, J C; Windle, J R


    The objective of this case report is to evaluate the importance of specialized domain knowledge when designing and using structured templated notes in a clinical environment. To analyze the impact of specialization on structured note generation we compared notes generated for three scenarios: 1) We compared the templated history of present illness (HPI) for patients presenting with a dermatology concern to the dermatologist versus the emergency department. 2) We compared the evaluation of chest pain by ED physicians versus cardiologists. 3) Finally, we compared the data elements asked for in the evaluation of the gastrointestinal system between cardiologists and the liver transplant service (LTS). We used the SNOMED CT representation via BioPortal to evaluate specificity and grouping between data elements and specialized physician groups. We found few similarities in structured data elements designed by and for the specific physician groups. The distinctness represented both differences in granularity as well as fundamental differences in data elements requested. When compared to ED physicians, dermatologists had different and more granular elements while cardiologists requested much more granular data. Comparing cardiologists and LTS, there were differences in the data elements requested. This case study supports the importance of domain knowledge in EHR design and implementation. That different specialities should want and use different information is well supported by cognitive science literature. Despite this, it is rare for domain knowledge to be considered in EHR implementation. Physicians with correct domain knowledge should be involved in the design process of templated notes.

  5. Blue emitting ZnO nanostructures grown through cellulose bio-templates. (United States)

    Oudhia, Anjali; Sharma, Savita; Kulkarni, Pragya; Kumar, Rajesh


    This paper presents a green and cost-effective recipe for the synthesis of blue-emitting ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using cellulose bio-templates. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf extract prepared in different solvents were used as biological templates to produce nanostructures of wurtzite ZnO with a particle size ~12-36 nm. A cellulose-driven capping mechanism is used to describe the morphology of ZnO NPs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) studies showed that solvents affect the growth process and the capping mechanism of bio-template severely. Structural changes in ZnO NPs were evident with variation in pH, dielectric constants (DC) and boiling points (BP) of solvents. Furthermore, an energy band model is proposed to explain the origin of the blue emission in the as-obtained ZnO NPs. PL excitation studies and the theoretical enthalpy values of individual defects were used to establish the association between the interstitial-zinc-related defect levels and the blue emission. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Precursor-induced template free hydrothermal synthesis of faujasite and its application in catalytic pyrolysis (United States)

    Rahman, Mati ur; Ullah Wazir, Hameed; Khan, Matiullah; Nosheen, Shaneela; Rahman, Sami Ur; Ullah, Asad


    This paper reports the fabrication of Faujasite type zeolite by template free hydrothermal method without using structural directing agent (SDA) and seed source. The effect of various modifiers during synthesis process such as mineralization source and solvent is investigated. The as-prepared materials are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). It is found that microwave process, solvent, and mineralization source significantly impact the morphology, pore structure, crystallization behavior and nature of resulting zeolites.

  7. Kinetic Analysis for Macrocyclizations Involving Anionic Template at the Transition State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martí-Centelles


    competitive oligomerization/polymerization processes yielding undesired oligomeric/polymeric byproducts. The effect of anions has also been included in the kinetic models, as they can act as catalytic templates in the transition state reducing and stabilizing the transition state. The corresponding differential equation systems for each kinetic model can be solved numerically. Through a comprehensive analysis of these results, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the different parameters that are involved in the macrocyclization reaction mechanism and to develop strategies for the optimization of the desired processes.

  8. UV-initiated template copolymerization of AM and MAPTAC: Microblock structure, copolymerization mechanism, and flocculation performance. (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zheng, Huaili; Gao, Baoyu; Sun, Yongjun; Liu, Bingzhi; Zhao, Chuanliang


    Flocculation as the core technology of sludge pretreatment can improve the dewatering performance of sludge that enables to reduce the cost of sludge transportation and the subsequent disposal costs. Therefore, synthesis of high-efficiency and economic flocculant is remarkably desired in this field. This study presents a cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) flocculant with microblock structure synthesized through ultraviolet (UV)-initiated template copolymerization by using acrylamide (AM) and methacrylamido propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MAPTAC) as monomers, sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) as template, and 2,2'-azobis [2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl) propane] dihydrochloride (VA-044) as photoinitiator. The microblock structure of the CPAM was observed through nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Furthermore, thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) analysis was used to evaluate its thermal decomposition property. The copolymerization mechanism was investigated through the determination of the binding constant MK and study on polymerization kinetics. Results showed that the copolymerization was conducted in accordance with the I (ZIP) template polymerization mechanism, and revealed the coexistence of bimolecular termination free-radical reaction and mono-radical termination in the polymerization process. Results of sludge dewatering tests indicated the superior flocculation performance of microblock flocculant than random distributed CPAM. The residual turbidity, filter cake moisture content, and specific resistance to filtration reached 9.37 NTU, 68.01%, and 6.24 (10(12) m kg(-1)), respectively, at 40 mg L(-1) of template poly(AM-MAPTAC) and pH 6.0. Furthermore, all flocculant except commercial CPAM showed a wide scope of pH application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Templated hydrogels for combination devices: therapeutic contact lenses. (United States)

    Ali, Maryam; Vaughan, Asa D; Zhang, Jeney; Venkatesh, Sid; Byrne, Mark E


    Molecular imprinting provides a rational design strategy for the development of controlled release drug delivery systems. We demonstrate that imprinting a network results in macromolecular memory for the template molecule, indicated by the two or more times greater partitioning into these networks as compared to non-imprinted networks. Partitioning of drug into networks synthesized from multiple functional monomers was 8 times greater than networks synthesized from single monomers. One-dimensional permeation studies showed that the gel with maximum incorporated chemical functionality had the lowest diffusion coefficient, which was at least an order of magnitude lower than all other gels studied. All imprinted networks had significantly lower diffusion coefficients than non-imprinted networks, in spite of comparable mesh sizes and equilibrium polymer volume fractions in the swollen state. This work also demonstrates molecular imprinting using a "living/controlled" polymerization strategy to enhance template loading/affinity and delay release in weakly crosslinked gels. Recognition studies revealed more than a 50% increase in template loading and dynamic template release studies showed that imprinting via "living" polymerization extends or delays the template release profile by two-fold over that of imprinting via conventional free-radical polymerization techniques and four-fold over the control network. The imprinted gel and imprinted gel prepared via "living/controlled" polymerization release profiles were less Fickian and moved toward zero-order release with profile coefficients of 0.68 and 0.70, respectively.

  10. Attempted nonenzymatic template-directed oligomerizations on a polyadenylic acid template: implications for the nature of the first genetic material (United States)

    Stribling, R.; Miller, S. L.


    Previous attempts to produce nonenzymatic template-directed oligomerizations of activated pyrimidines on polypurine templates have been unsuccessful. The only efficient reactions are those where the template is composed primarily of pyrimidines, especially cytosine. Because molecular evolution requires that a synthesized daughter polynucleotide be capable of acting as a template for the synthesis of the original polynucleotide, the one-way replication achieved thus far is inadequate to initiate an evolving system. Several uracil analogs were used in this investigation in order to search for possible replacements for uracil. The monomers used in this investigation were the imidazolides of UMP, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate, the bis-monophosphates of the acyclic nucleosides of uracil, and 2,4-quinazolinedione. The concentrations of various salts, buffers, pH, and temperature were among the different variables investigated in attempts to find conditions that would permit template-directed oligomerizations. Although the different monomers in this study demonstrated varying abilities to form very short oligomers, we were unable to detect any enhancement of this oligomerization that could be attributed to the poly(A) template. Although special conditions might be found that would allow purine-rich templates to work, these reactions cannot be considered robust. The results of our experiments suggest that pyrimidines were not part of the original replicating system on the primitive Earth. It has already been shown that ribose is an unlikely component of the first replicating systems, and we now suggest that phosphate was absent as well. This is due to the low solubility of phosphate in the present ocean (3 x 10(-6) M), as well as the difficulty of prebiotic activation of phosphates.

  11. Template-mediated ontogenesis: A novel approach to mesomorphic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.E.; Anderson, M.T.; Odinek, J.; Newcomer, P.


    In this report the authors describe the methods they have developed for producing stable periodic mesoporous silica gels, thin films of mesoporous silica for sensor applications, a route to nonaqueous synthesis, and the use of various additives in controlling the pore size and structure of these materials. Mesoporous silica is formed by templating silica precursors around micelles of cationic quaternary ammonium surfactants. During the synthesis these micelles undergo a phase transition to a hexagonal, lamellar or cubic liquid crystalline state, thus imposing periodic order on the amorphous silica which occupies the interface of the hydrophilic cationic headgroups of the surfactants. The product of the bulk wet synthesis is a gel composed of micron size silica/surfactant particles, each of which consists of one or more crystalline domains of silica condensed around the surfactant template. The wet gel can then be washed and pyrolyzed to remove the surfactant template, yielding the periodic mesoporous silica product.

  12. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Interleaving Templates of Human Behavior (United States)

    Matessa, Michael


    Performance modeling has been made easier by architectures which package psychological theory for reuse at useful levels of abstraction. CPM-GOMS uses templates of behavior to package at a task level (e.g., mouse move-click, typing) predictions of lower-level cognitive, perceptual, and motor resource use. CPM-GOMS also has a theory for interleaving resource use between templates. One example of interleaving is anticipatory eye movements. This paper describes the use of ACT-Stitch, a framework for translating CPM-GOMS templates and interleaving theory into ACT-R, to model anticipatory eye movements in skilled behavior. The anticipatory eye movements explain performance in a well-practiced perceptual/motor task, and the interleaving theory is supported with results from an eye-tracking experiment.

  13. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil


    -cultural field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a grounded theory of cultural variations in the production of a usability problem list. Study 2 was a follow-up, ethnographic interview study of how the companies typically perform usability......The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  14. Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijia Pan


    Full Text Available Conducting polymer nanostructures have received increasing attention in both fundamental research and various application fields in recent decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanostructures are expected to display improved performance in energy storage because of the unique properties arising from their nanoscaled size: high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short path lengths for the transport of ions, and high electrochemical activity. Template methods are emerging for a sort of facile, efficient, and highly controllable synthesis of conducting polymer nanostructures. This paper reviews template synthesis routes for conducting polymer nanostructures, including soft and hard template methods, as well as its mechanisms. The application of conducting polymer mesostructures in energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries, are discussed.

  15. In vitro transcription of a torsionally constrained template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E


    of torsionally constrained DNA by free RNAP. We asked whether or not a newly synthesized RNA chain would limit transcription elongation. For this purpose we developed a method to immobilize covalently closed circular DNA to streptavidin-coated beads via a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-biotin conjugate in principle...... mimicking a SAR/MAR attachment. We used this construct as a torsionally constrained template for transcription of the beta-lactamase gene by Escherichia coli RNAP and found that RNA synthesis displays similar characteristics in terms of rate of elongation whether or not the template is torsionally...... constrained. We conclude that transcription of a natural bacterial gene may proceed with high efficiency despite the fact that newly synthesized RNA is entangled around the template in the narrow confines of torsionally constrained supercoiled DNA....

  16. Fabrication of Gold Nanochains with Octreotide Acetate Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou


    Full Text Available We described a facile method for assembly gold nanochains by using octreotide acetate as template in aqueous environment. In acidic solution, octreotide acetate was conferred positive charges and its structure changed to chain-like. The monodisperse negative gold nanoparticles were bound to the surface of octreotide acetate template by electrostatic attraction and the interaction of gold nanoparticles with amino acid residues (tryptophan and lysine. The fabricated gold nanostructure presented chain-like observed by transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of gold nanochains was examined by tetrazolium dye-based microtitration (MTT assay, which demonstrated significantly less toxicity than that of octreotide acetate alone. The MTT assay also reflected the combinative action between the gold nanoparticles with octreotide acetate. Our work lays the groundwork for developing octreotide acetate-templated nanomaterials that can be used as a building block for the creation of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, the harmfulless gold nanochains have great application prospects in the biomedical filed.

  17. Self-assembly of polystyrene nanospheres and its applications as templates for plasmonic structures (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Hsin

    Monodispersed colloidal polystyrene spheres have been self-assembled into various structures as templates for the fabrication of different nanostructures. Two unique self-assembly processes have been developed and systematically investigated. A method to make the multi-layer and mono-layer close-packed structure by means of capillary-convective force has been developed. By directly visualizing the self-assembling process using optical microscopy, a mechanism based on the 2-D crystal formation and 3-D repulsive force model has been proposed to explain the process. A vertical deposition technique to produce nanosphere crystal structure with single orientation on hydrophilic glass substrate has also been developed. Using a lithographically patterned substrate with alternating areas of glass and Au, self-assembled crystal structures can be generated on the hydrophobic Au surface. It has been found that the contact angle of the colloid solution on the substrates controls this self-assembly process. Using self-assembled polystyrene nanosphere crystals as templates, Au nanovoid arrays, in which the voids about several hundreds of nanometer in diameter are embedded in a gold film with a thickness less than the void diameter, have been fabricated by templated electrodeposition. In order to use Au nanovoid arrays as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors on optical fiber tips for in situ and in vivo applications, a new structure has been designed. In such structure, each void has optical openings on both sides of the nanovoid array, one side is mounted to the fiber tip surface for introduction of incident light and collection of scattered light and the other side is for interrogation of analyte molecules in the voids. The effect of structural parameters, including void diameter, Au film thickness, and the bottom hole diameter of the nanovoid arrays on the electric field confinement are investigated using three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD

  18. Computer-aided modelling template: Concept and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul


    decomposition technique which identifies generic steps and workflow involved, the computer-aided template concept has been developed. This concept is implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for following the workflow steps and guidance through the steps providing additional......Modelling is an important enabling technology in modern chemical engineering applications. A template-based approach is presented in this work to facilitate the construction and documentation of the models and enable their maintenance for reuse in a wider application range. Based on a model...

  19. An Empirical Ultraviolet Iron Spectrum Template Applicable to Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.


    Iron emission is often a severe contaminant in optical-ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies. Its presence complicates emission line studies. A viable solution, already successfully applied at optical wavelengths, is to use an empirical iron emission template. We have generated FeII and Fe......III templates for ultraviolet active galaxy spectra based on HST archival 1100 - 3100 A spectra of IZw1. Their application allows fitting and subtraction of the iron emission in active galaxy spectra. This work has shown that in particular CIII] lambda 1909 can be heavily contaminated by other line emission...

  20. Template-Assisted Formation of Nanostructured Dopamine-Modified Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhu


    Full Text Available Dopamine-modified alginate and gelatin were prepared. The polymers were characterized and the properties of their aqueous solutions were investigated. Aqueous solutions of dopamine-modified alginate and gelatin with a concentration exceeding 20 mg/mL naturally formed gels after 16 h. Although polydopamine itself was not used for template-assisted nanostructure formation, the modified polymers could be used with dopamine. Mixing with dopamine allowed the precise shape of the template to be maintained in the resulting material, allowing nanopatterned surfaces and nanotubes to be prepared.

  1. A Bayesian Generative Model for Surface Template Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma


    Full Text Available 3D surfaces are important geometric models for many objects of interest in image analysis and Computational Anatomy. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian inference scheme for estimating a template surface from a set of observed surface data. In order to achieve this, we use the geodesic shooting approach to construct a statistical model for the generation and the observations of random surfaces. We develop a mode approximation EM algorithm to infer the maximum a posteriori estimation of initial momentum μ, which determines the template surface. Experimental results of caudate, thalamus, and hippocampus data are presented.

  2. Templating Routes to Supported Oxide Catalysts by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notestein, Justin M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)


    The rational design and understanding of supported oxide catalysts requires at least three advancements, in order of increasing complexity: the ability to quantify the number and nature of active sites in a catalytic material, the ability to place external controls on the number and structure of these active sites, and the ability to assemble these active sites so as to carry out more complex functions in tandem. As part of an individual investigator research program that is integrated with the Northwestern University Institute for Catalysis in Energy Processes (ICEP) as of 2015, significant advances were achieved in these three areas. First, phosphonic acids were utilized in the quantitative assessment of the number of active and geometrically-available sites in MOx-SiO2 catalysts, including nanocrystalline composites, co-condensed materials, and grafted structures, for M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta. That work built off progress in understanding supported Fe, Cu, and Co oxide catalysts from chelating and/or multinuclear precursors to maximize surface reactivity. Secondly, significant progress was made in the new area of using thin oxide overcoats containing ‘nanocavities’ from organic templates as a method to control the dispersion and thermal stability of subsequently deposited metal nanoparticles or other catalytic domains. Similar methods were used to control surface reactivity in SiO2-Al2O3 acid catalysts and to control reactant selectivity in Al2O3-TiO2 photocatalysts. Finally, knowledge gained from the first two areas has been combined to synthesize a tandem catalyst for hydrotreating reactions and an orthogonal tandem catalyst system where two subsequent reactions in a reaction network are independently controlled by light and heat. Overall, work carried out under this project significantly advanced the knowledge of synthesis-structure-function relationships in supported

  3. Detection of cancerous masses in mammograms by template matching: optimization of template brightness distribution by means of evolutionary algorithm. (United States)

    Bator, Marcin; Nieniewski, Mariusz


    Optimization of brightness distribution in the template used for detection of cancerous masses in mammograms by means of correlation coefficient is presented. This optimization is performed by the evolutionary algorithm using an auxiliary mass classifier. Brightness along the radius of the circularly symmetric template is coded indirectly by its second derivative. The fitness function is defined as the area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for the mass classifier. The ROC and AUC are obtained for a teaching set of regions of interest (ROIs), for which it is known whether a ROI is true-positive (TP) or false-positive (F). The teaching set is obtained by running the mass detector using a template with a predetermined brightness. Subsequently, the evolutionary algorithm optimizes the template by classifying masses in the teaching set. The optimal template (OT) can be used for detection of masses in mammograms with unknown ROIs. The approach was tested on the training and testing sets of the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). The free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) obtained with the new mass detector seems superior to the FROC for the hemispherical template (HT). Exemplary results are the following: in the case of the training set in the DDSM, the true-positive fraction (TPF) = 0.82 for the OT and 0.79 for the HT; in the case of the testing set, TPF = 0.79 for the OT and 0.72 for the HT. These values were obtained for disease cases, and the false-positive per image (FPI) = 2.

  4. Investigation of Terminology Coverage in Radiology Reporting Templates and Free‐text Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hong


    Full Text Available The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA is improving reporting practices by developing an online library of clear and consistent report templates. To compare term occurrences in free‐text radiology reports and RSNA reporting templates, the Wilcoxon signed‐rank test method was applied to investigate how much of the content of conventional narrative reports is covered by the terms included in the RSNA reporting templates. The results show that the RSNA reporting templates cover most terms that appear in actual radiology reports. The Wilcoxon test may be helpful in evaluatingexisting templates and guiding the enhancement of reporting templates.

  5. Microwave assisted template synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    shape and morphology are of interest. Various methods for synthesis, such as conventional temperature as- sisted process, controlled reaction at ... 2004; Navaladian et al 2008) in the presence of Pt seeds, polyvinyl pyrrolidine and ethylene glycol, has also been reported. Most of the methods reported in literature are.

  6. Surgical Templates for Dental Implant Positioning; Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dental implants have been used in a variety of different forms for many years. Since the mid‑20th century, there has been an increase in interest in the implant process for the replacement of missing teeth. Branemark was one of the initial pioneers who applied scientifically based research techniques to develop an ...

  7. organic template free synthesis of zsm11 from kaolinite clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    hydrocarbon, etc. Accordingly, this work present successful synthesis of zeolite ZSM11 from kaolinite clay, seeded with. NaY type zeolite and aged for 3-11 days, in an organic template free condition. The used kaolinite clays were sourced from two different mines in Nigeria, namely; Kankara and Onibode. They were both ...

  8. Ultrafast coherence transfer in DNA-templated silver nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling; Bogh, Sidsel Ammitzbøll; Carro, Miguel


    DNA-templated silver nanoclusters of a few tens of atoms or less have come into prominence over the last several years due to very strong absorption and efficient emission. Applications in microscopy and sensing have already been realized, however little is known about the excited-state structure...

  9. Public Notification - Revised Total Coliform Rule Failure To Report Template (United States)

    When a PWS fails to report their monitoring results for Total Coliform bacteria, it must issue a public notice to inform consumers of its water of that failure to report. This template can be used as a guide for preparing that public notice.

  10. On the anodic aluminium oxide refractive index of nanoporous templates (United States)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Alameda, J. M.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Araujo, J. P.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.


    In the present study, we have determined the intrinsic refractive index of anodic aluminium oxide, which is originated by the formation of nanoporous alumina templates. Different templates have been fabricated by the conventional two-step anodization procedure in oxalic acid. Their porosities were modified by chemical wet etching allowing the tuning of their effective refractive indexes (air-filled nanopores  +  anodic aluminium oxide). By standard spectroscopic light transmission measurements, the effective refractive index for each different template was extracted in the VIS-NIR region. The determination of the intrinsic anodic aluminium oxide refractive index was performed by using the Maxwell-Garnett homogenization theory. The results are coincident for all the fabricated samples. The obtained refractive index (~1.55) is quite lower (~22%) than the commonly used Al2O3 handbook value (~1.75), showing that the amorphous nature of the anodic oxide structure strongly conditions its optical properties. This difference is critical for the correct design and modeling of optical plasmonic metamaterials based on anodic aluminium oxide nanoporous templates.

  11. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) have been used as templates to synthesize these nanoparticles in a water- based medium at room ... Keywords. Manganese oxide; supported lipid bilayers; nanoparticles; organized assemblies. 1. Introduction .... before coating with two layers of the lipid DOMA,. DOMA+DPPC or ...

  12. Assessing ligand efficiencies using template-based molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Statistical modelling using artificial neural network (ANN: 2 = 0.922) and multiple linear regression method (MLR: 2 = 0.851) showed good correlation between the biological activity, binding affinity, and different ligand efficiencies of the compounds, which suggest the robustness of the template-based binding ...

  13. Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Herder, Eelco; De Coi, Juri; Abel, Fabian


    Koesling, A., Herder, E., De Coi, J., & Abel, F. (2008). Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 35-40). October, 6-8, 2008, Würzburg,

  14. Polymerase chain reaction preparation of template for massively parallel pyrosequencing. (United States)

    Whetten, Ross W; Sofía, Valenzuela A; Frampton, John


    Massively parallel pyrosequencing of DNA fragments immobilized on beads has been applied to genome survey sequencing and transcriptome analysis of a variety of eukaryotic organisms, including laboratory model species, agricultural crops and livestock, and species of interest to population biologists and ecologists. Preparation of sufficient high-quality template for sequencing has been an obstacle to sequence analysis of nucleic acids from tissues or cell types available in limited quantities. We report that the use of a biotinylated primer for polymerase chain reaction amplification allows removal of excess primer and poly(A) tract fragments from the sequencing templates, providing much higher yields of useful sequence information from pyrosequencing of amplified templates. This advance allows deep sequencing analysis of nucleic acids isolated from very small tissue samples. Massively parallel pyrosequencing is particularly useful for preliminary investigations of species that have not yet been the subject of significant genomic research, as genomic survey sequences and catalogs of expressed genes provide a means of linking the biology of less intensively studied species to that of more intensively studied model organisms. We obtained over 220 Mb of transcript DNA sequences from Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir., a conifer species native to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America. Comparison of the resulting assembled putative transcripts with similar data obtained by other sequencing methods from other conifers demonstrates the utility of the improved sequencing template preparation.

  15. Binary gabor statistical features for palmprint template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Ruan, Qiuqi; Shao, X.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    The biometric template protection system requires a highquality biometric channel and a well-designed error correction code (ECC). Due to the intra-class variations of biometric data, an efficient fixed-length binary feature extractor is required to provide a high-quality biometric channel so that

  16. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  17. Conformational studies of common protein templates in macromolecularly imprinted polymers. (United States)

    Kryscio, David R; Fleming, Michael Q; Peppas, Nicholas A


    Unlike the molecular imprinting of small molecule templates, molecularly imprinted polymers specific to large templates (>1,500 Da), have achieved limited success to date. Conformational stability of these labile macromolecules is one of the main factors that prevent the direct extension of successful procedures from the small molecule regime. We continue our systematic investigation of the effect of common components in macromolecular MIPs on the conformation of protein templates. Circular dichroism was used to show that frequently employed monomers and crosslinkers induce significant changes in the secondary structures of lysozyme and bovine hemoglobin. The extent to which this change occurs, at ligand concentrations far below what are typically used reported work, is cause for concern and provides as rational explanation for the lack of success in this arena. This is because a change in the template structure prior to polymerization would lead to the binding sites formed during polymerization to be specific to this alternate conformation. Subsequent studies with the macromolecule in its native state and the crosslinked network would not be successful. Using this information as a guide, we offer suggestions as to where work in macromolecular imprinted polymers should focus going forward in order for these antibody mimics to reach their vast potential as a new class of biomedical diagnostic devices.

  18. Synthesis of zeolite-templated carbons for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musyoka, Nicholas M


    Full Text Available Hydrogen storage has been a key bottle-neck in the actualization of hydrogen as an energy carrier. The new field of hydrogen storage in templated carbonaceous materials has excited many researchers and considerable effort is being directed...

  19. A Comparison Between Craniofacial Templates of Iranian and Western Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Hosseinzadeh Nik


    Full Text Available Templates are very useful tools for diagnosis of malocclusions. A number of templates have been provided for some populations in previous years. Since craniofacial characteristics of different ethnic groups are not the same, each population needs its own norms. The aim of this study was to provide orthodontic craniofacial templates for 8-16 year old Iranian boys and compare dentoskeletal features between Iranian and western populations. 3330 boys with the age range of 8-16 years were examined in Tehran, and 107 cases were finally chosen for the study and their lateral cephalograms were traced. Since there is no universal, consensus about the selection of one specific point or line for cephalometric superimposition, both the sella nasion (SN and basion nasion (Ba-N lines were chosen for this purpose. Based on both SN and Ba-N lines, a template was prepared for each age. Simple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the angles and the multivariant regression analysis for evaluation of landmark vectors. Posterior cranial base, maxillary and mandibular lengths, upper and lower anterior facial heights (N-ANS and ANS-Me and posterior facial height (S-Go are greater in Iranian population. But anterior cranial base, height and inclination of the incisors and molar height are similar in two populations.

  20. Involute Spur Gear Template Development by Parametric Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 3 (2), January, 2009. ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070-0083 (Online). Involute Spur Gear Template Development by ... The third method and the most accurate system is the graphic ..... a three-dimensional part directly from a parametric solid modeled gear file.

  1. Natural biopolymers : novel templates for the synthesis of nanostructures. (United States)

    Sonal Padalkar; J.R. Capadona; S.J. Rowan; C. Weder; Yu-Ho Won; Lia A. Stanciu; Robert J. Moon


    Biological systems such as proteins, viruses, and DNA have been most often reported to be used as templates for the synthesis of functional nanomaterials, but the properties of widely available biopolymers, such as cellulose, have been much less exploited for this purpose. Here, we report for the first time that cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have the capacity to assist...

  2. Ordered nanoparticle arrays formed on engineered chaperonin protein templates (United States)

    McMillan, R. Andrew; Paavola, Chad D.; Howard, Jeanie; Chan, Suzanne L.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Trent, Jonathan D.


    Traditional methods for fabricating nanoscale arrays are usually based on lithographic techniques. Alternative new approaches rely on the use of nanoscale templates made of synthetic or biological materials. Some proteins, for example, have been used to form ordered two-dimensional arrays. Here, we fabricated nanoscale ordered arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots by binding preformed nanoparticles onto crystalline protein templates made from genetically engineered hollow double-ring structures called chaperonins. Using structural information as a guide, a thermostable recombinant chaperonin subunit was modified to assemble into chaperonins with either 3 nm or 9 nm apical pores surrounded by chemically reactive thiols. These engineered chaperonins were crystallized into two-dimensional templates up to 20 microm in diameter. The periodic solvent-exposed thiols within these crystalline templates were used to size-selectively bind and organize either gold (1.4, 5 or 10nm) or CdSe-ZnS semiconductor (4.5 nm) quantum dots into arrays. The order within the arrays was defined by the lattice of the underlying protein crystal. By combining the self-assembling properties of chaperonins with mutations guided by structural modelling, we demonstrate that quantum dots can be manipulated using modified chaperonins and organized into arrays for use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices.

  3. Cu(I)/Cu(II) templated functional pseudorotaxanes and rotaxanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, (ii) donor/acceptor forces, (iii) hydrogen bond- ing, (iv) π–π stacking, (v) electrostatic forces.13 Metal ions as templates has shown accessible pathways ..... 34 456; (e) Sauvage J P (ed.) 2001 Molecu- lar machines and motors; Structure and bonding; Berlin,. Germany: Springer. 7. (a) Kay E R, Leigh D A and Zerbetto F ...

  4. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey W. Blanch


    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  5. Identification of inhibitors of checkpoint kinase 1 through template screening. (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P; Klair, Suki; Burns, Samantha; Boxall, Kathy; Cherry, Michael; Fisher, Martin; Westwood, Isaac M; Walton, Michael I; McHardy, Tatiana; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; Van Montfort, Rob; Williams, David; Aherne, G Wynne; Garrett, Michelle D; Reader, John; Collins, Ian


    Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is an oncology target of significant current interest. Inhibition of CHK1 abrogates DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints and sensitizes p53 deficient cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. Using template screening, a fragment-based approach to small molecule hit generation, we have identified multiple CHK1 inhibitor scaffolds suitable for further optimization. The sequential combination of in silico low molecular weight template selection, a high concentration biochemical assay and hit validation through protein-ligand X-ray crystallography provided 13 template hits from an initial in silico screening library of ca. 15000 compounds. The use of appropriate counter-screening to rule out nonspecific aggregation by test compounds was essential for optimum performance of the high concentration bioassay. One low molecular weight, weakly active purine template hit was progressed by iterative structure-based design to give submicromolar pyrazolopyridines with good ligand efficiency and appropriate CHK1-mediated cellular activity in HT29 colon cancer cells.

  6. Ionic liquid-templated preparation of mesoporous silica embedded with nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Antony


    Full Text Available Abstract A series of mesoporous silicas impregnated with nanocrystalline sulphated zirconia was prepared by a sol-gel process using an ionic liquid-templated route. The physicochemical properties of the mesoporous sulphated zirconia materials were studied using characterisation techniques such as inductively coupled optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Analysis of the new silicas indicates isomorphous substitution of silicon with zirconium and reveals the presence of extremely small (< 10 nm polydispersed zirconia nanoparticles in the materials with zirconium loadings from 27.77 to 41.4 wt.%.

  7. Synthesis of CoFe 2O 4 nanowire arrays by sol-gel template method (United States)

    Ji, Guangbin; Tang, Shaolong; Xu, Baolong; Gu, Benxi; Du, Youwei


    CoFe 2O 4 nanowire arrays with an average diameter of about 40 nm were prepared in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template using sol-gel process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) diffraction pattern and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline phase. Magnetic measurements showed the arrays of nanowires did not show a preferential magnetic orientation, the reason was briefly discussed. The effect of heating rate on the structure and magnetic properties of CoFe 2O 4 nanowire arrays was investigated. The result showed that the coercivity decreased with the increase of the heating rate.

  8. Metal-organic framework templated synthesis of porous inorganic materials as novel sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Lin, Wenbin; Abney, Carter W.


    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) templated process for the synthesis of highly porous inorganic sorbents for removing radionuclides, actinides, and heavy metals is disclosed. The highly porous nature of the MOFs leads to highly porous inorganic sorbents (such as oxides, phosphates, sulfides, etc) with accessible surface binding sites that are suitable for removing radionuclides from high level nuclear wastes, extracting uranium from acid mine drainage and seawater, and sequestering heavy metals from waste streams. In some cases, MOFs can be directly used for removing these metal ions as MOFs are converted to highly porous inorganic sorbents in situ.

  9. Pose estimation of occluded objects with an improved template matching method (United States)

    Su, J. H.; Liu, Z. Y.; Yang, G.


    Picking up objects in arbitrary poses is an important step in manufacturing. However, the occlusion of object will cause the picking process difficult. This paper presents a hierarchical detection method to estimate the pose of the object such as rod and bearing even in occluding. Combining the ellipse detection with the template matching, it is possible to identify the pose of a target object that is not be occluded. The propose method will enable a robot to grasp a non-occluded object and ensure a successful picking. Experiments witness the validity the method.

  10. Using a spreadsheet/table template for economic value added analysis. (United States)

    Cassey, Margaret


    Translating clinical research into practical applications that are cost effective has received significant attention as staff nurses attempt to expand new knowledge into an already complex daily workflow. spreadsheet/table template created in a word processing format can assist with setting up and carrying out the analysis of costs for comparing different approaches to routine activities. By encouraging nurses to take the initiative to examine parts of everyday nursing practice with an eye to cost analysis, significant contributions can be made to maximizing the bottom line.

  11. Julius – a template based supplementary electronic health record system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Gunnar O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background EHR systems are widely used in hospitals and primary care centres but it is usually difficult to share information and to collect patient data for clinical research. This is partly due to the different proprietary information models and inconsistent data quality. Our objective was to provide a more flexible solution enabling the clinicians to define which data to be recorded and shared for both routine documentation and clinical studies. The data should be possible to reuse through a common set of variable definitions providing a consistent nomenclature and validation of data. Another objective was that the templates used for the data entry and presentation should be possible to use in combination with the existing EHR systems. Methods We have designed and developed a template based system (called Julius that was integrated with existing EHR systems. The system is driven by the medical domain knowledge defined by clinicians in the form of templates and variable definitions stored in a common data repository. The system architecture consists of three layers. The presentation layer is purely web-based, which facilitates integration with existing EHR products. The domain layer consists of the template design system, a variable/clinical concept definition system, the transformation and validation logic all implemented in Java. The data source layer utilizes an object relational mapping tool and a relational database. Results The Julius system has been implemented, tested and deployed to three health care units in Stockholm, Sweden. The initial responses from the pilot users were positive. The template system facilitates patient data collection in many ways. The experience of using the template system suggests that enabling the clinicians to be in control of the system, is a good way to add supplementary functionality to the present EHR systems. Conclusion The approach of the template system in combination with various local EHR

  12. Voice Recognition System using Template Matching


    Luqman Gbadamosi


    It is easy for human to recognize familiar voice but using computer programs to identify a voice when compared with others is a herculean task. This is due to the problem that is encountered when developing the algorithm to recognize human voice. It is impossible to say a word the same way in two different occasions. Human speech analysis by computer gives different interpretation based on varying speed of speech delivery. This research paper gives detail description of the process behind imp...

  13. BioAssay templates for the semantic web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Clark


    Full Text Available Annotation of bioassay protocols using semantic web vocabulary is a way to make experiment descriptions machine-readable. Protocols are communicated using concise scientific English, which precludes most kinds of analysis by software algorithms. Given the availability of a sufficiently expressive ontology, some or all of the pertinent information can be captured by asserting a series of facts, expressed as semantic web triples (subject, predicate, object. With appropriate annotation, assays can be searched, clustered, tagged and evaluated in a multitude of ways, analogous to other segments of drug discovery informatics. The BioAssay Ontology (BAO has been previously designed for this express purpose, and provides a layered hierarchy of meaningful terms which can be linked to. Currently the biggest challenge is the issue of content creation: scientists cannot be expected to use the BAO effectively without having access to software tools that make it straightforward to use the vocabulary in a canonical way. We have sought to remove this barrier by: (1 defining a BioAssay Template (BAT data model; (2 creating a software tool for experts to create or modify templates to suit their needs; and (3 designing a common assay template (CAT to leverage the most value from the BAO terms. The CAT was carefully assembled by biologists in order to find a balance between the maximum amount of information captured vs. low degrees of freedom in order to keep the user experience as simple as possible. The data format that we use for describing templates and corresponding annotations is the native format of the semantic web (RDF triples, and we demonstrate some of the ways that generated content can be meaningfully queried using the SPARQL language. We have made all of these materials available as open source (, in order to encourage community input and use within diverse projects, including but not limited to our own

  14. Template-based automatic breast segmentation on MRI by excluding the chest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Muqing [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 and National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, 518060 China (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 and Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China); Wang, Xiaoyong; Su, Min-Ying, E-mail: [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 (United States); Chan, Siwa [Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40407, Taiwan (China); Chen, Siping [National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, 518060 China (China)


    Purpose: Methods for quantification of breast density on MRI using semiautomatic approaches are commonly used. In this study, the authors report on a fully automatic chest template-based method. Methods: Nonfat-suppressed breast MR images from 31 healthy women were analyzed. Among them, one case was randomly selected and used as the template, and the remaining 30 cases were used for testing. Unlike most model-based breast segmentation methods that use the breast region as the template, the chest body region on a middle slice was used as the template. Within the chest template, three body landmarks (thoracic spine and bilateral boundary of the pectoral muscle) were identified for performing the initial V-shape cut to determine the posterior lateral boundary of the breast. The chest template was mapped to each subject's image space to obtain a subject-specific chest model for exclusion. On the remaining image, the chest wall muscle was identified and excluded to obtain clean breast segmentation. The chest and muscle boundaries determined on the middle slice were used as the reference for the segmentation of adjacent slices, and the process continued superiorly and inferiorly until all 3D slices were segmented. The segmentation results were evaluated by an experienced radiologist to mark voxels that were wrongly included or excluded for error analysis. Results: The breast volumes measured by the proposed algorithm were very close to the radiologist's corrected volumes, showing a % difference ranging from 0.01% to 3.04% in 30 tested subjects with a mean of 0.86% ± 0.72%. The total error was calculated by adding the inclusion and the exclusion errors (so they did not cancel each other out), which ranged from 0.05% to 6.75% with a mean of 3.05% ± 1.93%. The fibroglandular tissue segmented within the breast region determined by the algorithm and the radiologist were also very close, showing a % difference ranging from 0.02% to 2.52% with a mean of 1.03% ± 1

  15. Design Automation Using Script Languages. High-Level CAD Templates in Non-Parametric Programs (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.


    The main purpose of this work is to study the advantages offered by the application of traditional techniques of technical drawing in processes for automation of the design, with non-parametric CAD programs, provided with scripting languages. Given that an example drawing can be solved with traditional step-by-step detailed procedures, is possible to do the same with CAD applications and to generalize it later, incorporating references. In today’s modern CAD applications, there are striking absences of solutions for building engineering: oblique projections (military and cavalier), 3D modelling of complex stairs, roofs, furniture, and so on. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into high-level CAD templates allows the automation of processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar designs or modifying their data, users should be able to use these templates to generate future variations of the same design. This paper presents the automation process of several complex drawing examples based on CAD script files aided with parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to solve complex geometry designs not currently incorporated in the current CAD applications and to subsequently create other new derivatives without user intervention. Automation in the generation of complex designs not only saves time but also increases the quality of the presentations and reduces the possibility of human errors.

  16. SEM metrology on bit patterned media nanoimprint template: issues and improvements (United States)

    Hwu, Justin J.; Babin, Sergey; Yushmanov, Peter


    Critical dimension measurement is the most essential metrology needed in nanofabrication processes and the practice is most commonly executed using SEMs for its flexibility in sampling, imaging, and data processing. In bit patterned media process development, nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is used for template replication and media fabrication. SEM imaging on templates provide not only individual dot size, but also information for dot size distribution, the location of dots, pitch and array alignment quality, etc. It is very important to know the SEM measurement limit since the feature nominal size is less than 20 nm and the dot feature size and other metrics will relate to the final media performance. In our work an analytical SEM was used. We performed and compared two imaging analysis approaches for metrology information. The SEM beam was characterized using BEAMETR test sample and software for proper beam condition setup. A series of images obtained on a 27 nm nominal pitch dot array patterns were analyzed by conventional brightness intensity threshold method and physical model based analysis using myCD software. Through comparison we identified the issues with threshold method and the strength of using model based analysis for its improvement in feature size and pitch measurement uncertainty and accuracy. TEM cross sections were performed as accuracy reference for better understanding the source of measurement accuracy deviation.

  17. Nanostructuring of thin Au films deposited on ordered Ti templates for applications in SERS (United States)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Macewicz, Łukasz; Skiba, Franciszek; Szkoda, Mariusz; Karczewski, Jakub; Burczyk, Łukasz; Śliwiński, Gerard


    In this work the results on thermal nanostructuring of the Au films on Ti templates as well as morphology and optical properties of the obtained structures are reported. The bimetal nanostructures are fabricated in a multi-step process. First, the titania nanotubes are produced on the surface of Ti foil by anodization in an ethylene glycol-water solution containing fluoride ions. This is followed by chemical etching in oxalic acid and results in a highly ordered dimpled surface. Subsequently, thin gold films (5-20 nm) are deposited onto prepared Ti substrates by magnetron sputtering. The as-prepared layers are then dewetted by the UV nanosecond laser pulses or alternatively in the furnace (temperature nanoparticles (NPs). It is observed that both the laser annealing and continuous thermal treatment in furnace can lead to the creation of NPs inside every Ti dimple and result in uniform coating of the whole area of structured templates. The size and localization of NPs obtained via both dewetting processes as well as their shape can be tuned by the annealing time and the laser processing parameters and also by initial thickness of Au layer and presence of the dimples themselves in the substrate. Results confirm that the prepared material can be used as substrate for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy).

  18. Track-etch membranes as templates enabled nano/micro technology: a review (United States)

    Chakarvarti, S. K.


    Many techniques are being used in order to synthesize nano-micro materials falling under the realm of nanotechnology. It need not be overemphasized that the miniaturization of devices and synthesis of new materials have a tremendous role in the development of powerful electronics as well as material based technologies in other areas but for the laws of quantum mechanics posing limitations besides the increasing cost and difficulties in manufacturing in such a small scale. The quest, therefore, for the alternative technologies, have stimulated a surge of interest in nano-meter scale materials and devices in the recent years. Metallic as well as semiconducting nano wires are the most attractive materials because of their unique properties having myriad of applications like interconnects for nano-electronics, magnetic devices, chemical and biosensors, whereas the hollow tubules are equally considered to be candidates for more potent applications — both in physical as well as biosciences. Materials' processing for nano-structured devices is indispensable to their rational design. The technique, known as "Template Synthesis", using electrochemical-electro less deposition is one of the most important processes for manufacturing nano-micro structures, nano-composites and devices and is relatively inexpensive and simple. The technique involves using membranes — ion crafted ones (popularly known as Particle Track-Etch Membranes or Nuclear Track Filters), alumite substrate membranes, besides other types of membranes as templates. The parameters viz., diameter as well as length i.e., aspect ratio, shape and wall surface traits in these membranes are controllable. In the present article a detailed review of this technique using track-etch membranes as templates in synthesis of nano-micro materials including hybrid materials and devices like field-ion emitters, resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) etc. is presented including most of the results obtained in our laboratory.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The template polymerization of N-vinylimidazole (VIm) along poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) in water at 50-degrees-C with 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane).2HCl (AAP) as initiator was studied by using variable initiator and monomer concentrations at constant [PMAA]/[VIm]0. From the order in [VIm] it was

  20. Analytical template protection performance and maximum key size given a Gaussian-modeled biometric source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; Breebaart, Jeroen; Buhan, I.R.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Prabhakar, Salil; Ross, Arun A.


    Template protection techniques are used within biometric systems in order to protect the stored biometric template against privacy and security threats. A great portion of template protection techniques are based on extracting a key from or binding a key to a biometric sample. The achieved

  1. Multi-template tensor-based morphometry: application to analysis of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart


    In this paper methods for using multiple templates in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) are presented and compared to the conventional single-template approach. TBM analysis requires non-rigid registrations which are often subject to registration errors. When using multiple templates and, therefore,...

  2. Multi-template synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon spheres with potential application in supercapacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Weizheng; Lin, Zhixing; Tong, Gangsheng; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Yan, Deyue; Mai, Yiyong; Zhu, Xinyuan


    A new and simple multi-template approach towards hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials was reported. HPC spheres were prepared by using hierarchical silica capsules (HSCs) as the hard template and triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as the soft template. Three types of pores were tunably

  3. Pitfall of the Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation within template protection and a remedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelkboom, E.J.C.; de Groot, K.T.J.; Chen, C.; Breebaart, J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    One of the requirements of a biometric template protection system is that the protected template ideally should not leak any information about the biometric sample or its derivatives. In the literature, several proposed template protection techniques are based on binary vectors. Hence, they require

  4. Quantitative Three-Dimensional Characterization of Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly on Combined Chemical and Topographical Prepatterned Templates. (United States)

    Segal-Peretz, Tamar; Ren, Jiaxing; Xiong, Shisheng; Khaira, Gurdaman; Bowen, Alec; Ocola, Leonidas E; Divan, Ralu; Doxastakis, Manolis; Ferrier, Nicola J; de Pablo, Juan; Nealey, Paul F


    Characterization of the three-dimensional (3D) structure in directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is crucial for understanding the complex relationships between the guiding template and the resulting polymer structure so DSA could be successfully implemented for advanced lithography applications. Here, we combined scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography and coarse-grain simulations to probe the 3D structure of P2VP-b-PS-b-P2VP assembled on prepatterned templates using solvent vapor annealing. The templates consisted of nonpreferential background and raised guiding stripes that had PS-preferential top surfaces and P2VP-preferential sidewalls. The full 3D characterization allowed us to quantify the shape of the polymer domains and the interface between domains as a function of depth in the film and template geometry and offered important insights that were not accessible with 2D metrology. Sidewall guiding was advantageous in promoting the alignment and lowering the roughness of the P2VP domains over the sidewalls, but incommensurate confinement from the increased topography could cause roughness and intermittent dislocations in domains over the background region at the bottom of the film. The 3D characterization of bridge structures between domains over the background and breaks within domains on guiding lines sheds light on possible origins of common DSA defects. The positional fluctuations of the PS/P2VP interface between domains showed a depth-dependent behavior, with high levels of fluctuations near both the free surface of the film and the substrate and lower fluctuation levels in the middle of the film. This research demonstrates how 3D characterization offers a better understanding of DSA processes, leading to better design and fabrication of directing templates.

  5. A template-free method for stable CuO hollow microspheres fabricated from a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) (United States)

    Zhang, Suoying; Liu, Hong; Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Zhuhong; Feng, Xin; Huo, Fengwei; Lu, Xiaohua


    Uniform CuO hollow microspheres were successfully achieved from a non-uniform metal organic framework by using a template-free method. The process mechanism has been revealed to be spherical aggregation and Ostwald ripening. When tested in CO oxidation and heat treatment, these assembled microspheres exhibited an excellent catalytic performance and show a much better stability than the inherited hollow structure from MOFs.Uniform CuO hollow microspheres were successfully achieved from a non-uniform metal organic framework by using a template-free method. The process mechanism has been revealed to be spherical aggregation and Ostwald ripening. When tested in CO oxidation and heat treatment, these assembled microspheres exhibited an excellent catalytic performance and show a much better stability than the inherited hollow structure from MOFs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The experiment details, auxiliary FESEM, XRD, BET and TG results of synthesized products. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01443c

  6. Self-assembled plasmonic templates produced by microwave annealing: applications to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, N. T.; Kalfagiannis, N.; Vasilopoulos, K. C.; Pliatsikas, N.; Kassavetis, S.; Vourlias, G.; Karakassides, M. A.; Patsalas, P.


    Perhaps the simplest method for creating metal nanoparticles on a substrate is by driving their self-assembly with the thermal annealing of a thin metal film. By properly tuning the annealing parameters one hopes to discover a recipe that allows the pre-determined design of the NP arrangement. However, thermal treatment is known for detrimental effects and is not really the manufacturer’s route of choice when it comes to large-scale applications. An alternative method is the use of microwave annealing, a method that has never been applied for metal processing, due to the high reflectance of microwave radiation at the surface of a metal. However, in this work we challenge the widely used nanostructuring methods by proving the microwave’s annealing ability to produce plasmonic templates, out of extremely thin metal films, by simply using a domestic microwave oven apparatus. We show that this process is generic and independent of the deposition method used for the metal and we further quantify the suitability of these plasmonic templates for use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering applications.

  7. Pantograph: A template-based method for genome-scale metabolic model reconstruction. (United States)

    Loira, Nicolas; Zhukova, Anna; Sherman, David James


    Genome-scale metabolic models are a powerful tool to study the inner workings of biological systems and to guide applications. The advent of cheap sequencing has brought the opportunity to create metabolic maps of biotechnologically interesting organisms. While this drives the development of new methods and automatic tools, network reconstruction remains a time-consuming process where extensive manual curation is required. This curation introduces specific knowledge about the modeled organism, either explicitly in the form of molecular processes, or indirectly in the form of annotations of the model elements. Paradoxically, this knowledge is usually lost when reconstruction of a different organism is started. We introduce the Pantograph method for metabolic model reconstruction. This method combines a template reaction knowledge base, orthology mappings between two organisms, and experimental phenotypic evidence, to build a genome-scale metabolic model for a target organism. Our method infers implicit knowledge from annotations in the template, and rewrites these inferences to include them in the resulting model of the target organism. The generated model is well suited for manual curation. Scripts for evaluating the model with respect to experimental data are automatically generated, to aid curators in iterative improvement. We present an implementation of the Pantograph method, as a toolbox for genome-scale model reconstruction, curation and validation. This open source package can be obtained from:

  8. Microstructured surfaces engineered using biological templates: a facile approach for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The fabrication of microstructured surfaces using biological templates was investigated with the aim of exploring of a facile and low cost approach for the fabrication of structured surfaces with superhydrophobic properties. Two soft lithographic techniques, i.e., replica moulding and nano-imprinting, were used to replicate the surfaces of a biological substrate. Leaves of the Agave plant (Agave attenuate, a cost-free biological template, were used as a model of a biosurface with superhydrophobic properties. The replication process was performed using two polymers: an elastomeric polymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS, and a polyurethane (PU based, UV-curable polymer (NOA 60. In the first replication step, negative polymer replicas of the surface of leaves were fabricated, which were used as masters to fabricate positive polymer replicas by moulding and soft imprinting. The pattern with micro and nanostructures of the surface of the leaf possesses superhydrophobic properties, which was successfully replicated into both polymers. Finally, the positive replicas were coated with a thin gold film and modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs to verify the importance of the surface chemistry on the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated structures. Wetting (contact angle and structural (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterisation was performed to confirm the hydrophobic properties of the fabricated surfaces (> 150°, as well as the precision and reproducibility of the replication process.

  9. A template-free method for stable CuO hollow microspheres fabricated from a metal organic framework (HKUST-1). (United States)

    Zhang, Suoying; Liu, Hong; Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Zhuhong; Feng, Xin; Huo, Fengwei; Lu, Xiaohua


    Uniform CuO hollow microspheres were successfully achieved from a non-uniform metal organic framework by using a template-free method. The process mechanism has been revealed to be spherical aggregation and Ostwald ripening. When tested in CO oxidation and heat treatment, these assembled microspheres exhibited an excellent catalytic performance and show a much better stability than the inherited hollow structure from MOFs.

  10. Sintesis Dan Karakterisasi Serbuk Nano α-Alumina Dengan Menggunakan Pulp Merang Sebagai Template Melalui Proses Kalsinasi Prekursor


    Edwin, Frank; Septawendar, Rifki; Purwasasmita, Bambang Sunendra; Suhanda; NurdiWijayanto, Leanddas


    Sintesis dan katerisasi nanopowder α-alumina dengan pulp merang sebagai template mengunakan proses kalsinasi perkursor telah berhasil dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi pulp merang sebagai templatedari percosor calcination process yang merupakan metoda yang jauh lebih murah dalam mensisntesis α-alumina. Perbandingan berat antara perkorsor dan pulp adalan1:2 pengaruh temperatur kalsinasi terhadap pembentukan α-alumina diperiksa dalam penelitian ini dengan temperatur ...

  11. LipidPioneer : A Comprehensive User-Generated Exact Mass Template for Lipidomics (United States)

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Ragland, Jared M.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Bowden, John A.


    Lipidomics, the comprehensive measurement of lipid species in a biological system, has promising potential in biomarker discovery and disease etiology elucidation. Advances in chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric techniques, and novel substrate applications continue to expand the number of lipid species observed. The total number and type of lipid species detected in a given sample are generally indicative of the sample matrix examined (e.g., serum, plasma, cells, bacteria, tissue, etc.). Current exact mass lipid libraries are static and represent the most commonly analyzed matrices. It is common practice for users to manually curate their own lists of lipid species and adduct masses; however, this process is time-consuming. LipidPioneer, an interactive template, can be used to generate exact masses and molecular formulas of lipid species that may be encountered in the mass spectrometric analysis of lipid profiles. Over 60 lipid classes are present in the LipidPioneer template and include several unique lipid species, such as ether-linked lipids and lipid oxidation products. In the template, users can add any fatty acyl constituents without limitation in the number of carbons or degrees of unsaturation. LipidPioneer accepts naming using the lipid class level (sum composition) and the LIPID MAPS notation for fatty acyl structure level. In addition to lipid identification, user-generated lipid m/z values can be used to develop inclusion lists for targeted fragmentation experiments. Resulting lipid names and m/z values can be imported into software such as MZmine or Compound Discoverer to automate exact mass searching and isotopic pattern matching across experimental data.

  12. Towards improved quality of GPCR models by usage of multiple templates and profile-profile comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Latek

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are targets of nearly one third of the drugs at the current pharmaceutical market. Despite their importance in many cellular processes the crystal structures are available for less than 20 unique GPCRs of the Rhodopsin-like class. Fortunately, even though involved in different signaling cascades, this large group of membrane proteins has preserved a uniform structure comprising seven transmembrane helices that allows quite reliable comparative modeling. Nevertheless, low sequence similarity between the GPCR family members is still a serious obstacle not only in template selection but also in providing theoretical models of acceptable quality. An additional level of difficulty is the prediction of kinks and bulges in transmembrane helices. Usage of multiple templates and generation of alignments based on sequence profiles may increase the rate of success in difficult cases of comparative modeling in which the sequence similarity between GPCRs is exceptionally low. Here, we present GPCRM, a novel method for fast and accurate generation of GPCR models using averaging of multiple template structures and profile-profile comparison. In particular, GPCRM is the first GPCR structure predictor incorporating two distinct loop modeling techniques: Modeller and Rosetta together with the filtering of models based on the Z-coordinate. We tested our approach on all unique GPCR structures determined to date and report its performance in comparison with other computational methods targeting the Rhodopsin-like class. We also provide a database of precomputed GPCR models of the human receptors from that class. AVAILABILITY: GPCRM SERVER AND DATABASE:

  13. Templates as a method for implementing data provenance in decision support systems. (United States)

    Curcin, Vasa; Fairweather, Elliot; Danger, Roxana; Corrigan, Derek


    Decision support systems are used as a method of promoting consistent guideline-based diagnosis supporting clinical reasoning at point of care. However, despite the availability of numerous commercial products, the wider acceptance of these systems has been hampered by concerns about diagnostic performance and a perceived lack of transparency in the process of generating clinical recommendations. This resonates with the Learning Health System paradigm that promotes data-driven medicine relying on routine data capture and transformation, which also stresses the need for trust in an evidence-based system. Data provenance is a way of automatically capturing the trace of a research task and its resulting data, thereby facilitating trust and the principles of reproducible research. While computational domains have started to embrace this technology through provenance-enabled execution middlewares, traditionally non-computational disciplines, such as medical research, that do not rely on a single software platform, are still struggling with its adoption. In order to address these issues, we introduce provenance templates - abstract provenance fragments representing meaningful domain actions. Templates can be used to generate a model-driven service interface for domain software tools to routinely capture the provenance of their data and tasks. This paper specifies the requirements for a Decision Support tool based on the Learning Health System, introduces the theoretical model for provenance templates and demonstrates the resulting architecture. Our methods were tested and validated on the provenance infrastructure for a Diagnostic Decision Support System that was developed as part of the EU FP7 TRANSFoRm project. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantum interference device made by DNA templating of superconducting nanowires. (United States)

    Hopkins, David S; Pekker, David; Goldbart, Paul M; Bezryadin, Alexey


    The application of single molecules as templates for nanodevices is a promising direction for nanotechnology. We used a pair of suspended DNA molecules as templates for superconducting two-nanowire devices. Because the resulting wires are very thin, comparable to the DNA molecules themselves, they are susceptible to thermal fluctuations typical for one-dimensional superconductors and exhibit a nonzero resistance over a broad temperature range. We observed resistance oscillations in these two-nanowire structures that are different from the usual Little-Parks oscillations. Here, we provide a quantitative explanation for the observed quantum interference phenomenon, which takes into account strong phase gradients created in the leads by the applied magnetic field.

  15. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Inglett, Todd Alan [Rochester, MN


    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  16. Interstitial irradiation of rectal carcinoma with rectal template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Tanaka, Ken; Nakanishi, Makoto; Inoue, Takehiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    Using Iridium-192 wires through a rectal template after Syed, interstitial brachytherapy was conducted in a patient with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the rectum. A 67-year-old man with constipation and change in the stool caliber underwent external radiotherapy (4,000cGy/4W) to the whole pelvis including the perineum, followed by interstitial implant using a template, at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Marked tumor regression, marked circumferential fibrosis and a remarkable decline of CEA titers (pre-RT: 35.8ng/ml, post-RT: 6.2ng/ml) were observed until 7 months post-RT. The domestic production of Iridium-192 wires has made possible the intergrated use of brachytherapy in the perineal region in Japan.

  17. Double-sided porous silicon as template for metal deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra [Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens-University Graz (Austria); Poelt, Peter; Albu, Mihaela [Institute for Electron Microscopy, University of Technology Graz (Austria)


    Mesoporous silicon, achieved by etching of a highly n-doped wafer is used as template for electrochemical metal deposition. The fabrication of porous silicon samples with a porous layer on each side is performed in a double tank electrolytic cell in applying a pulsed current with a frequency of typically 0.1 Hz. Ferromagnetic metals such as Ni and Co are deposited into the pores of the matrices, either the same metal on both sides of the sample, a different metal on each side or an alloy of both. As substrate material also ultrathin silicon wafers with an average thickness of 60 {mu}m are used to achieve a thickness as small as possible of the remaining bulk silicon in between the two porous layers. These fragile templates are also filled with transition metals and investigated magnetically. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Rapid earthquake detection through GPU-Based template matching (United States)

    Mu, Dawei; Lee, En-Jui; Chen, Po


    The template-matching algorithm (TMA) has been widely adopted for improving the reliability of earthquake detection. The TMA is based on calculating the normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) between a collection of selected template waveforms and the continuous waveform recordings of seismic instruments. In realistic applications, the computational cost of the TMA is much higher than that of traditional techniques. In this study, we provide an analysis of the TMA and show how the GPU architecture provides an almost ideal environment for accelerating the TMA and NCC-based pattern recognition algorithms in general. So far, our best-performing GPU code has achieved a speedup factor of more than 800 with respect to a common sequential CPU code. We demonstrate the performance of our GPU code using seismic waveform recordings from the ML 6.6 Meinong earthquake sequence in Taiwan.

  19. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. ZnO nanorods were synthesized at low temperature by hydrothermally heating 0⋅1 M solution of. ZnCl2 for 5, 10 and 15 h at a pH of 10. No template, seeded substrate, catalyst and autoclave were employed for the synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The effect of heating durations on the morphology and crystal ...

  20. A Framework for Analyzing Biometric Template Aging and Renewal Prediction (United States)


    biometrics that has a paucity of research is template aging and the adult age-progression, particularly facial aging. This dissertation presents a...growth. The transformation formula models a growth pattern and ratios of expansion on the craniofacial regions from adolescence to adult [RaC06a...based facial recognition technologies. Both algorithms/SDKs are camera independent, webcam capable and offer a set of programming samples and

  1. Facile template-free hydrothermal synthesis and microstrain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanorods were synthesized at low temperature by hydrothermally heating 0.1 M solution of ZnCl2 for 5, 10 and 15 h at a pH of 10. No template, seeded substrate, catalyst and autoclave were employed for the synthesis of ZnO nanorods. The effect of heating durations on the morphology and crystal orientation of the ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of diblock copolymer templated iron oxide nanoparticles (United States)

    Akcora, Pinar


    Templating ordered assemblies of magnetic oxide nanoparticles within self-assembled diblock copolymers of varying morphologies is an important problem with a wide applicability such as in electromagnetics, optical devices, metal catalysts, medicine and biology. In this thesis, the effects of different polymer structures on particle ordering and resultant magnetic properties have been investigated using various microstructure and magnetic characterization tools. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of norbornene and functionalized norbornene monomers has been used to synthesize diblock copolymers of narrow polydispersities using Grubbs' catalyst. These block copolymers can be used as templates to form inorganic nanoparticles. In this research, the structural and physical understanding of the inorganic-copolymer system was studied by small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering techniques and transmission electron microscopy. Synthesis of gamma-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has been achieved within novel block copolymers of (norbornene)-b-(deuterated norbornene dicarboxylic) acid and (norbornene methanol-(norbornene dicarboxylic acid). The polymer morphologies were controlled by varying the volume fractions of the constituent blocks. The pure norbornene based diblock copolymer morphologies were demonstrated by electron microscopy for the first tune. Spherical, cylindrical and lamellar morphologies of these novel diblock copolymers were reported. The block ratios of the synthesized polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography-light scattering, elemental analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Solution phase doping and submersion of thin films in metal salt solutions were employed as metal doping methods and the observed nanoparticle structures were compared to those of the undoped copolymer morphologies. This project reports on the types of templating structures and dispersion of the nanoparticles. The effects of particle, interactions on the microphase

  3. Template preparation for rapid PCR in Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca M. Gabriela


    Full Text Available Isolation of DNA for PCR is time-consuming and involves many reagents. The aim of this work was to optimise a rapid and easy PCR methodology without previous DNA isolation. Different strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum were used. Protoplasts were generated using lytic enzymes under high incubation temperatures using different methodologies to obtain the template. A rapid (10 minute methodology was successful for smaller amplicons (<750 bp.

  4. Shot Noise Thermometry for Thermal Characterization of Templated Carbon Nanotubes


    Sayer, Robert A; Kim, Sunkook; Franklin, Aaron D; Mohammadi, Saeed; Fisher, Timothy


    A carbon nanotube (CNT) thermometer that operates on the principles of electrical shot noise is reported. Shot noise thermometry is a self-calibrating measurement technique that relates statistical fluctuations in dc current across a device to temperature. A structure consisting of vertical, top, and bottom-contacted single-walled carbon nanotubes in a porous anodic alumina template was fabricated and used to measure shot noise. Frequencies between 60 and 100 kHz were observed to preclude sig...

  5. Standardized ultrasound templates for diagnosing appendicitis reduce annual imaging costs. (United States)

    Nordin, Andrew B; Sales, Stephen; Nielsen, Jason W; Adler, Brent; Bates, David Gregory; Kenney, Brian


    Ultrasound is preferred over computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing appendicitis in children to avoid undue radiation exposure. We previously reported our experience in instituting a standardized appendicitis ultrasound template, which decreased CT rates by 67.3%. In this analysis, we demonstrate the ongoing cost savings associated with using this template. Retrospective chart review for the time period preceding template implementation (June 2012-September 2012) was combined with prospective review through December 2015 for all patients in the emergency department receiving diagnostic imaging for appendicitis. The type of imaging was recorded, and imaging rates and ultrasound test statistics were calculated. Estimated annual imaging costs based on pretemplate ultrasound and CT utilization rates were compared with post-template annual costs to calculate annual and cumulative savings. In the pretemplate period, ultrasound and CT rates were 80.2% and 44.3%, respectively, resulting in a combined annual cost of $300,527.70. Similar calculations were performed for each succeeding year, accounting for changes in patient volume. Using pretemplate rates, our projected 2015 imaging cost was $371,402.86; however, our ultrasound rate had increased to 98.3%, whereas the CT rate declined to 9.6%, yielding an annual estimated cost of $224,853.00 and a savings of $146,549.86. Since implementation, annual savings have steadily increased for a cumulative cost savings of $336,683.83. Standardizing ultrasound reports for appendicitis not only reduces the use of CT scans and the associated radiation exposure but also decreases annual imaging costs despite increased numbers of imaging studies. Continued cost reduction may be possible by using diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SnapDock-template-based docking by Geometric Hashing. (United States)

    Estrin, Michael; Wolfson, Haim J


    A highly efficient template-based protein-protein docking algorithm, nicknamed SnapDock, is presented. It employs a Geometric Hashing-based structural alignment scheme to align the target proteins to the interfaces of non-redundant protein-protein interface libraries. Docking of a pair of proteins utilizing the 22 600 interface PIFACE library is performed in or

  7. Customized Digital Case Presentation Template in Microsoft Word 2007


    P G Makhija; Anup Belludi; Amit Bhardwaj; Virag Bhatia; Madhur Navlani; Geetika Tomar


    Introduction : In today′s era of digital orthodontics, digital communication and presentation skills require regular updating. Case presentation and patient communication require an effort to manipulate digital records to be put in the unique digital case presentation format which is custom-made to fulfill one′s own or institutional requirement. These digital templates can easily be made in Microsoft Word 2007 and then can be printed on suitable paper for permanent records. Problem: This m...

  8. Webulous and the Webulous Google Add-On--a web service and application for ontology building from templates. (United States)

    Jupp, Simon; Burdett, Tony; Welter, Danielle; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Parkinson, Helen; Malone, James


    Authoring bio-ontologies is a task that has traditionally been undertaken by skilled experts trained in understanding complex languages such as the Web Ontology Language (OWL), in tools designed for such experts. As requests for new terms are made, the need for expert ontologists represents a bottleneck in the development process. Furthermore, the ability to rigorously enforce ontology design patterns in large, collaboratively developed ontologies is difficult with existing ontology authoring software. We present Webulous, an application suite for supporting ontology creation by design patterns. Webulous provides infrastructure to specify templates for populating ontology design patterns that get transformed into OWL assertions in a target ontology. Webulous provides programmatic access to the template server and a client application has been developed for Google Sheets that allows templates to be loaded, populated and resubmitted to the Webulous server for processing. The development and delivery of ontologies to the community requires software support that goes beyond the ontology editor. Building ontologies by design patterns and providing simple mechanisms for the addition of new content helps reduce the overall cost and effort required to develop an ontology. The Webulous system provides support for this process and is used as part of the development of several ontologies at the European Bioinformatics Institute.

  9. Chitosan as template for the synthesis of ceria nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifontes, A.B., E-mail: [Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, G.; Ochoa, J.L. [Centro de Ingenieria, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Tovar, L.M.; Zoltan, T. [Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Canizales, E. [PDVSA, Intevep, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles with cubic fluorite structure were prepared using chitosan as template, cerium nitrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. Calcinated powders at 350 {sup o}C contain agglomerated particles with average particle size of {approx}4 nm, very high porosity and foam-like morphology formed by open and close pores. Highlights: {yields} Pure CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles can take place using chitosan as template. {yields} A porous material was obtained. {yields} Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra have been observed in cerium oxide nanocrystallites. -- Abstract: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}), nanoparticles were prepared using chitosan as template, cerium nitrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. The resultant ceria-chitosan spheres were calcined at 350 {sup o}C. The synthesized powders were characterized by, XRD, HRTEM, UV-vis, FTIR, and TG-DTA. The average size of the nanoparticles obtained was {approx}4 nm and BET specific surface area {approx}105 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Blueshifts in the ultraviolet absorption spectra have been observed in cerium oxide nanocrystallites. The band-gap was found to be 4.5 eV. The blueshifts are well explained for diameters down to less than a few nanometers by the change in the electronic band structure.

  10. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)


    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  11. Physical controls on directed virus assembly at nanoscale chemical templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C L; Chung, S; Chatterji, A; Lin, T; Johnson, J E; Hok, S; Perkins, J; De Yoreo, J


    Viruses are attractive building blocks for nanoscale heterostructures, but little is understood about the physical principles governing their directed assembly. In-situ force microscopy was used to investigate organization of Cowpea Mosaic Virus engineered to bind specifically and reversibly at nanoscale chemical templates with sub-30nm features. Morphological evolution and assembly kinetics were measured as virus flux and inter-viral potential were varied. The resulting morphologies were similar to those of atomic-scale epitaxial systems, but the underlying thermodynamics was analogous to that of colloidal systems in confined geometries. The 1D templates biased the location of initial cluster formation, introduced asymmetric sticking probabilities, and drove 1D and 2D condensation at subcritical volume fractions. The growth kinetics followed a t{sup 1/2} law controlled by the slow diffusion of viruses. The lateral expansion of virus clusters that initially form on the 1D templates following introduction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the solution suggests a significant role for weak interaction.

  12. Telomerase RNA is more than a DNA template. (United States)

    Webb, Christopher J; Zakian, Virginia A


    The addition of telomeric DNA to chromosome ends is an essential cellular activity that compensates for the loss of genomic DNA that is due to the inability of the conventional DNA replication apparatus to duplicate the entire chromosome. The telomerase reverse transcriptase and its associated RNA bind to the very end of the telomere via a sequence in the RNA and specific protein-protein interactions. Telomerase RNA also provides the template for addition of new telomeric repeats by the reverse-transcriptase protein subunit. In addition to the template, there are 3 other conserved regions in telomerase RNA that are essential for normal telomerase activity. Here we briefly review the conserved core regions of telomerase RNA and then focus on a recent study in fission yeast that determined the function of another conserved region in telomerase RNA called the Stem Terminus Element (STE). (1) The STE is distant from the templating core of telomerase in both the linear and RNA secondary structure, but, nonetheless, affects the fidelity of telomere sequence addition and, in turn, the ability of telomere binding proteins to bind and protect chromosome ends. We will discuss possible mechanisms of STE action and the suitability of the STE as an anti-cancer target.

  13. Space charge templates for high-current beam modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiev, Leonid G.; /Fermilab


    A computational method to evaluate space charge potential and gradients of charged particle beam in the presence of conducting boundaries, has been introduced. The three-dimensional (3D) field of the beam can be derived as a convolution of macro Green's functions (template fields), satisfying the same boundary conditions, as the original beam. Numerical experiments gave a confidence that space charge effects can be modeled by templates with enough accuracy and generality within dramatically faster computational times than standard combination: a grid density + Poisson solvers, realized in the most of Particle in Cell codes. The achieved rapidity may significantly broaden the high-current beam design space, making the optimization in automatic mode possible, which so far was only feasible for simplest self-field formulations such as rms envelope equations. The template technique may be used as a standalone program, or as an optional field solver in existing beam dynamics codes both in one-passage structures and in rings.

  14. Secure Minutiae-Based Fingerprint Templates Using Random Triangle Hashing (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Jin Teoh, Andrew Beng; Ong, Thian Song; Tee, Connie

    Due to privacy concern on the widespread use of biometric authentication systems, biometric template protection has gained great attention in the biometric research recently. It is a challenging task to design a biometric template protection scheme which is anonymous, revocable and noninvertible while maintaining acceptable performance. Many methods have been proposed to resolve this problem, and cancelable biometrics is one of them. In this paper, we propose a scheme coined as Random Triangle Hashing which follows the concept of cancelable biometrics in the fingerprint domain. In this method, re-alignment of fingerprints is not required as all the minutiae are translated into a pre-defined 2 dimensional space based on a reference minutia. After that, the proposed Random Triangle hashing method is used to enforce the one-way property (non-invertibility) of the biometric template. The proposed method is resistant to minor translation error and rotation distortion. Finally, the hash vectors are converted into bit-strings to be stored in the database. The proposed method is evaluated using the public database FVC2004 DB1. An EER of less than 1% is achieved by using the proposed method.

  15. Expected net gain data of low-template DNA analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gittelson


    Full Text Available Low-template DNA analyses are affected by stochastic effects which can produce a configuration of peaks in the electropherogram (EPG that is different from the genotype of the DNA׳s donor. A probabilistic and decision-theoretic model can quantify the expected net gain (ENG of performing a DNA analysis by the difference between the expected value of information (EVOI and the cost of performing the analysis. This article presents data on the ENG of performing DNA analyses of low-template DNA for a single amplification, two replicate amplifications, and for a second replicate amplification given the result of a first analysis. The data were obtained using amplification kits AmpFlSTR Identifiler Plus and Promega׳s PowerPlex 16 HS, an ABI 3130xl genetic sequencer, and Applied Biosystem׳s GeneMapper ID-X software. These data are supplementary to an original research article investigating whether a forensic DNA analyst should perform a single DNA analysis or two replicate analyses from a decision-theoretic point of view, entitled “Low-template DNA: a single DNA analysis or two replicates?” (Gittelson et al., 2016 [1].

  16. Faster rates with less catalyst in template-directed reactions (United States)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Baird, E. E.


    We have recently shown that the polycytidylic acid-directed polymerization of guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) is amenable to kinetic study and that rate determinations as a function of 2-MeImpG concentration can reveal much mechanistic detail (Kanavarioti et al. 1993). Here we report kinetic data which show that, once the reaction has been initiated by the formation of dimers, the elongation of dimers to form longer oligomers is accelerated by decreasing polycytidylate (poly(C)) concentration from 0.05 to 0.002 M. This result is consistent with the previously proposed mechanism. The increase in the observed pseudo-first order rate constant for formation of the trimer, k3', and the corresponding constant for formation of oligomers longer than the trimer, ki' (ki' is independent of oligomer length for i > or = 4), with decreasing template concentration for a given monomer concentration is attributed to an increase in template occupancy as template concentration is reduced.

  17. Templating for hierarchical structure control in carbon materials. (United States)

    Schrettl, Stephen; Schulte, Bjoern; Frauenrath, Holger


    Carbon-based materials show a remarkable variety of physical properties. For this reason, they have recently been explored for many advanced applications and emerging technologies. In the absence of actual "chemical" functionalities in these materials, tailoring these physical properties requires control on all levels of the structural hierarchy, from the atomic structure (carbon connectivity, defects, impurities), to the supramolecular level (domain orientations), nanoscopic length scale (domain sizes, porosity), microscopic structure (morphology), and macroscopic aspects (shape, surface chemistry). When preparing carbon materials, all these features can be tailored through the use of hard, soft, or molecular templates. Based on such templating approaches or through their combination, tremendous progress towards hierarchically structured carbon materials has recently been accomplished. Novel carbon nanomaterials such as brick-walled carbon tubes, carbon nanotube forests, coral-like carbon monoliths, or functional carbon nanosheets have become available, some of which exhibit unusual combinations of electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties. This review aims to discuss how the different templating approaches allow the control of structure formation on various length scales, how hierarchical structure formation can be realized, and which challenges remain, such as the detailed control over the carbon connectivity or the surface chemistry.

  18. Looking sharp: Becoming a search template boosts precision and stability in visual working memory. (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Ouslis, Natasha E; Wilson, Daryl E; Pratt, Jay


    Visual working memory (VWM) plays a central role in visual cognition, and current work suggests that there is a special state in VWM for items that are the goal of visual searches. However, whether the quality of memory for target templates differs from memory for other items in VWM is currently unknown. In this study, we measured the precision and stability of memory for search templates and accessory items to determine whether search templates receive representational priority in VWM. Memory for search templates exhibited increased precision and probability of recall, whereas accessory items were remembered less often. Additionally, while memory for Templates showed benefits when instances of the Template appeared in search, this benefit was not consistently observed for Accessory items when they appeared in search. Our results show that becoming a search template can substantially affect the quality of a representation in VWM.

  19. Image Processing and Features Extraction of Fingerprint Images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several fingerprint matching algorithms have been developed for minutiae or template matching of fingerprint templates. The efficiency of these fingerprint matching algorithms depends on the success of the image processing and features extraction steps employed. Fingerprint image processing and analysis is hence an ...

  20. Dopamine-Imprinted Polymers: Template-Monomer Interactions, Analysis of Template Removal and Application to Solid Phase Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Szutowski


    Full Text Available A dopamine-imprinted polymer (MIP was prepared in aqueous methanolsolution at 60oC by free-radical cross-linking polymerization of methacrylic acid in thepresence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and dopamine hydrochlorideas the template molecule. Its ability to isolate dopamine was evaluated as the basis of asolid phase extraction procedure and compared with that of a non-imprinted polymer(NIP. The binding of dopamine was 84.1% and 29.1% for MIP and NIP, respectively.Various reported post-polymerization treatments to reduce template bleeding wereexamined. In our case the lowest bleeding was achieved after applying a combinedprocedure: continuous extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus (CE, followed by microwave-assisted extraction (ME to a level of 0.061 μg/mL. A simplified model of the template-monomer complexes allowed rationalization of monomer choice based on the heats ofcomplex formation at a PM3 level of theory.

  1. CaTiO.sub.3 Interfacial template structure on semiconductor-based material and the growth of electroceramic thin-films in the perovskite class (United States)

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph


    A structure including a film of a desired perovskite oxide which overlies and is fully commensurate with the material surface of a semiconductor-based substrate and an associated process for constructing the structure involves the build up of an interfacial template film of perovskite between the material surface and the desired perovskite film. The lattice parameters of the material surface and the perovskite of the template film are taken into account so that during the growth of the perovskite template film upon the material surface, the orientation of the perovskite of the template is rotated with respect to the orientation of the underlying material surface and thereby effects a transition in the lattice structure from fcc (of the semiconductor-based material) to the simple cubic lattice structure of perovskite while the fully commensurate periodicity between the perovskite template film and the underlying material surface is maintained. The film-growth techniques of the invention can be used to fabricate solid state electrical components wherein a perovskite film is built up upon a semiconductor-based material and the perovskite film is adapted to exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic or large dielectric properties during use of the component.

  2. Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.


    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  3. Detection and Counting of Orchard Trees from Vhr Images Using a Geometrical-Optical Model and Marked Template Matching (United States)

    Maillard, Philippe; Gomes, Marília F.


    This article presents an original algorithm created to detect and count trees in orchards using very high resolution images. The algorithm is based on an adaptation of the "template matching" image processing approach, in which the template is based on a "geometricaloptical" model created from a series of parameters, such as illumination angles, maximum and ambient radiance, and tree size specifications. The algorithm is tested on four images from different regions of the world and different crop types. These images all have apple trees fell under 75%. It appears that the openness of the apple tree crown is most probably responsible for this poorer result. The algorithm is fully explained with a step-by-step description. At this stage, the algorithm still requires quite a bit of user interaction. The automatic determination of most of the required parameters is under development.

  4. A Dynamic Combinatorial Approach for Identifying Side Groups that Stabilize DNA-Templated Supramolecular Self-Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Paolantoni


    Full Text Available DNA-templated self-assembly is an emerging strategy for generating functional supramolecular systems, which requires the identification of potent multi-point binding ligands. In this line, we recently showed that bis-functionalized guanidinium compounds can interact with ssDNA and generate a supramolecular complex through the recognition of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA. In order to probe the importance of secondary interactions and to identify side groups that stabilize these DNA-templated self-assemblies, we report herein the implementation of a dynamic combinatorial approach. We used an in situ fragment assembly process based on reductive amination and tested various side groups, including amino acids. The results reveal that aromatic and cationic side groups participate in secondary supramolecular interactions that stabilize the complexes formed with ssDNA.

  5. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured porous materials using liquid crystal and colloidal templates and their magnetic and optical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ghanem, M A M


    material, and that these magnetic properties vary systematically with the diameter of the spherical pores within the films. A new oscillation effect has been observed for the coercivity of macroporous Ni sub 8 sub 0 Fe sub 2 sub 0 film with different pore layer thickness. sphere templates, the resulting films show well-formed, regular, two- and three-dimensional macroporous networks consisting of spherical pores arranged in a highly ordered face centred cubic (fee) structure. The spherical voids are interconnected by a series of smaller windows that form an open porous structure embedded in the material framework. The diameter of the spherical pores can be precisely changed over the range from 200 to 1000 nm by changing the diameter of the latex spheres used to form the templates. The resulting macroporous material structures are robust, self-supported, dense, polycrystalline, uniform and free from filling defects and contamination or problems caused by shrinkage during processing. The nanostructured macropor...

  6. Metal Nanoparticles Deposited on Porous Silicon Templates as Novel Substrates for SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Mikac


    Full Text Available In this paper, results on preparation of stable and uniform SERS solid substrates using macroporous silicon (pSi with deposited silver and gold are presented. Macroporous silicon is produced by anodisation of p-type silicon in hydrofluoric acid. The as prepared pSi is then used as a template for Ag and Au depositions. The noble metals were deposited in three different ways: by immersion in silver nitrate solution, by drop-casting silver colloidal solution and by pulsed laser ablation (PLA. Substrates obtained by different deposition processes were evaluated for SERS efficiency using methylene blue (MB and rhodamine 6G (R6G at 514.5, 633 and 785 nm. Using 514.5 nm excitation and R6G the limits of detection (LOD for macroporous Si samples with noble metal nanostructures obtained by immersion of pSi sample in silver nitrate solution and by applying silver colloidal solution to pSi template were 10–9 M and 10–8 M respectively. Using 633 nm laser and MB the most noticeable SERS activity gave pSi samples ablated with 30000 and 45000 laser pulses where the LODs of 10–10 M were obtained. The detection limit of 10–10 M was also reached for 4 mA cm–2-15 min pSi sample, silver ablated with 30000 pulses. Macroporous silicon proved to be a good base for the preparation of SERS substrates.

  7. Carboxylated-nanoncellulose as a template for the synthesis of silver nanoprism (United States)

    Chook, Soon Wei; Yau, Shun Xiang; Chia, Chin Hua; Chin, Siew Xian; Zakaria, Sarani


    The features of templates, such as physical dimensions or functional groups, often affect the in situ growth process of nanoparticles. In this study, a rapid thermal synthesis method was adopted for the synthesis of Ag nanoprisms (AgNPRs) on cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), which were obtained via defibrillations of holocellulose. In comparison, holocellulose and pure cellulose also were used for the attempted synthesis of AgNPRs. The produced nanocomposites were examined for their optical and physical properties using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrate that the reduced of the fibres into nanosize and carboxylate functional groups present on the cellulosic template affects the formation of AgNPRs, with which CNF is able to form AgNPRs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the CNF-AgNPRs composite was studied and exhibited a higher enhancement, compared to the spherical AgNPs-anchored CNF. The CNF prepared from carboxylated holocellulose not only served as nanoparticles support for the SERS application, it also facilitated the formation of AgNPRs that resulted in a better enhancement SERS signal.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of an Iron Nitride Constructed by a Novel Template of Metal Organic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Liu


    Full Text Available An iron nitride with high surface area was synthesized from an iron-based metal organic framework (Fe-MOF in this work. During the synthesis process, the Fe-MOF of MIL-53 served as a hard template, a template to impart a certain degree of morphology for iron oxide products and to form porosities for iron nitride products. Moreover, it played the roles of iron sources for the synthesis of the final iron oxides and the iron nitrides. The physicochemical properties of the materials were characterized by a series of technologies including XRD, SEM, and N2-adsorption/desorption. The results showed that the iron nitride synthesized from MIL-53 was α-Fe2-3N. And, the α-Fe2-3N showed the morphology with loosely aggregated particles which favored the formation of rich interparticle porosities. As a result, the surface area of the α-Fe2-3N was larger than those of samples using α-Fe2O3 as precursors and its value was 41 m2/g. In addition, the results agreed that both raw material properties (such as crystallinity and surface areas and nitriding approaches had significant effects on the surface areas of iron nitrides. Also the results were proved by the iron oxide synthesized with different methods. This new synthetic strategy could be a general approach for the preparation of late transition metal nitrides with peculiar properties.

  9. Fluorescent detection of copper(II) based on DNA-templated click chemistry and graphene oxide. (United States)

    Zhou, Lifen; Shen, Qinpeng; Zhao, Peng; Xiang, Bingbing; Nie, Zhou; Huang, Yan; Yao, Shouzhuo


    A novel DNA-templated click chemistry strategy for homogenous fluorescent detection of Cu(2+) has been developed based on click ligation-dependent DNA structure switch and the selective quenching ability of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet. The clickable duplex probe consists of two DNA strands with alkyne and azide group, respectively, and Cu(+)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction can chemically ligate these two strands. Toehold sequence displacement was consequently exploited to achieve DNA structure transformation bearing fluorescent tag FAM. Cu(2+)-induced chemical ligation caused the probe transfer to hybrid structure with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) tail, while only duplex structure was obtained without Cu(2+). This structural difference can be probed by GO-based fluorescence detection due to the preferential binding of GO to ssDNA. Under the optimum conditions, this sensor can sensitively and specifically detect Cu(2+) with a low detection limit of 58 nM and a linear range of 0.1-10 μM. This new strategy is highly sensitive and selective for Cu(2+) detection because of the great specificity of click chemistry and super-quenching ability of GO. Moreover, with the aid of high efficient DNA templated synthesis, the detection process requires only about half an hour which is much quicker than previous click-chemistry-based Cu(2+) sensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on monomer suitability toward the template in molecularly imprinted polymer: An ab initio approach (United States)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Rai, Garima


    Study of monomer-template interactions in molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is inevitable to comprehend best selectivity at the molecular level in pre-polymer solution. In the present work, binding energies of tryptophan, an amino acid template, complexed with different monomers were computed using second order Moller Plesset theory (MP2) at 6-311++g** level in gas phase. This helped in recommending a generic MIP, suitable for the selective and sensitive diagnosis of tryptophan, in clinical setting as disease biomarker, at primitive level. The tryptophan is an important biomarker owing to its highly regulated physiological process in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder and pellagra like diseases. Frequency calculations were performed using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at B3LYP employing 6-31+g (2d, 2p) level including thermal and entropy corrections. The monomer, p-nitrophenyl acrylate (2 mol), was adjudged having giving best binding score for the complexation at ground state with tryptophan (1 mol) for MIP development.

  11. Dextran templating for the synthesis of metallic and metal oxide sponges (United States)

    Walsh, Dominic; Arcelli, Laura; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Mann, Stephen


    Silver or gold-containing porous frameworks have been used extensively in catalysis, electrochemistry, heat dissipation and biofiltration. These materials are often prepared by thermal reduction of metal-ion-impregnated porous insoluble supports (such as alumina and pumice), and have surface areas of about 1 m2 g-1, which is typically higher than that obtained for pure metal powders or foils prepared electrolytically or by infiltration and thermal decomposition of insoluble cellulose supports. Starch gels have been used in association with zeolite nanoparticles to produce porous inorganic materials with structural hierarchy, but the use of soft sacrificial templates in the synthesis of metallic sponges has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that self-supporting macroporous frameworks of silver, gold and copper oxide, as well as composites of silver/copper oxide or silver/titania can be routinely prepared by heating metal-salt-containing pastes of the polysaccharide, dextran, to temperatures between 500 and 900 °C. Magnetic sponges were similarly prepared by replacing the metal salt precursor with preformed iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles. The use of dextran as a sacrificial template for the fabrication of metallic and metal oxide sponges should have significant benefits over existing technologies because the method is facile, inexpensive, environmentally benign, and amenable to scale-up and processing.

  12. Study of defect generated visible photoluminescence in zinc oxide nano-particles prepared using PVA templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudhia, A. [Department of Physics, Government V.Y.T. PG. Autonomous College, Durg, 491001 C.G. (India); Choudhary, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Government V.Y.T. PG. Autonomous College, Durg, 491001 C.G. (India); Sharma, S.; Aggrawal, S. [Department of Physics, Government V.Y.T. PG. Autonomous College, Durg, 491001 C.G. (India); Dhoble, S.J. [RTM University Nagpur, Maharashtra (India)


    Intrinsic defect generated photoluminescence (PL) in zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by a PVA template based wet-chemical process has been studied. A good controllability was achieved on the surface defects, structure and the morphology of ZnO NPs through the variation of solvents used in synthesis. The PL emission strongly depended on the defect structure and morphology. SEM, XRD, annealing and PL excitation studies were used to analyze the types of defects involved in the visible emission as well as the defect concentration. The mechanism for the blue, green and yellow emissions was proposed. The spectral content of the visible emission was controlled through generation/removal of defects through the shape transformation or annealing by focusing on defect origins and broad controls. - Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using poly-vinyl alcohol template in various solvents. • The structure and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles were depended on dielectric constant and boiling point of solvents. • Photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanoparticles were studied. • Maximum optical absorbance and Photoluminescence intensity were found in ethanolic preparation. • ZnO nanoparticles were annealed at different temperatures for detection of defect emission.

  13. Carbon nanotube-templated assembly of regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene) in solution (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Stevens, Eric; He, Youjun; Hong, Kunlun; Ivanov, Ilia


    Control of structural heterogeneity by rationally encoding of the molecular assemblies is a key enabling design of hierarchical, multifunctional materials of the future. Here we report the strategies to gain such control using solution- based assembly to construct a hybrid nano-assembly and a network hybrid structure of regioregular poly(3- alkylthiophene) - carbon nanotube (P3AT-CNT). The opto-electronic performance of conjugated polymer (P3AT) is defined by the structure of the aggregate in solution and in the solid film. Control of P3AT aggregation would allow formation of broad range of morphologies with very distinct electro-optical. We utilize interactive templating to confine the assembly behavior of conjugated polymers, replacing poorly controlled solution processing approach. Perfect crystalline surface of the single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT/MWCNT) acts as a template, seeding P3AT aggregation of the surface of the nanotube. The seed continues directional growth through pi-pi stacking leading to the formation of to well-defined P3AT-CNT morphologies, including comb-like nano-assemblies, super- structures and gel networks. Interconnected, highly-branched network structure of P3AT-CNT hybrids is of particular interest to enable efficient, long-range, balanced charge carrier transport. The structure and opto-electionic function of the intermediate assemblies and networks of P3AT/CNT hybrids are characterized by transmission election microscopy and UV-vis absorption.

  14. Triblock copolymer-templated synthesis of porous TiO{sub 2} and its photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwanchawalit, Cheewita [Silpakorn University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Wongnawa, Sumpun, E-mail: [Prince of Songkla University, Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Thailand)


    Mixed amorphous and anatase-type titania particles were synthesized using non-ionic triblock copolymer as surfactant template and TiOSO{sub 4} as inorganic precursor through sol-gel process. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The template material could be easily removed by extracting with dichloromethane and was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the crystalline part of as-prepared product as a framework of anatase phase. From the N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis, the as-prepared sample has a surface area of 301 m{sup 2}/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 6 nm. The photodegradation of indigo carmine including kinetics, effect of pH, and recyclability of the product were investigated. The photocatalytic results showed that the as-synthesized titania could efficiently degrade indigo carmine under ultraviolet irradiation and showed higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial Degussa P25-TiO{sub 2}.

  15. Triblock copolymer-templated synthesis of porous TiO2 and its photocatalytic activity (United States)

    Suwanchawalit, Cheewita; Wongnawa, Sumpun


    Mixed amorphous and anatase-type titania particles were synthesized using non-ionic triblock copolymer as surfactant template and TiOSO4 as inorganic precursor through sol-gel process. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The template material could be easily removed by extracting with dichloromethane and was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the crystalline part of as-prepared product as a framework of anatase phase. From the N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, the as-prepared sample has a surface area of 301 m2/g with pore size distribution narrowly centered around 6 nm. The photodegradation of indigo carmine including kinetics, effect of pH, and recyclability of the product were investigated. The photocatalytic results showed that the as-synthesized titania could efficiently degrade indigo carmine under ultraviolet irradiation and showed higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial Degussa P25-TiO2.

  16. Engineering cellulosic bioreactors by template assisted DNA shuffling and in vitro recombination (TADSir). (United States)

    Davis, Leroy K


    The current study focuses on development of a bioreactor engineering strategy based on exploitation of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Chimeric A. thaliana glycosyl hydrolase (GH) gene libraries were assembled using a novel directed evolution strategy (TADSir: template assisted DNA shuffling and in vitro recombination) that promotes DNA recombination by reassembly of DNA fragments on unique gene templates. TADSir was modeled using a set of algorithms designed to simulate DNA interactions based on nearest neighbor base stacking interactions and Gibb's free energy differences between helical coil and folded DNA states. The algorithms allow for target gene prediction and for in silica analysis of chimeric gene library composition. Further, the study investigated utilization of A. thaliana GH sequence space for bioreactor design by evolving 20 A. thaliana genes representing the GH1, GH3, GH5, GH9 and GH10 gene families. Notably, TADSir achieved streamlined engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and spinach mesophyll protoplast bioreactors capable of processing CM cellulose, Avicel and xylan. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Using trend templates in a neonatal seizure algorithm improves detection of short seizures in a foetal ovine model. (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Alex; Andriessen, Peter; Jellema, Reint K; Niemarkt, Hendrik J; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Delhaas, Tammo


    Seizures below one minute in duration are difficult to assess correctly using seizure detection algorithms. We aimed to improve neonatal detection algorithm performance for short seizures through the use of trend templates for seizure onset and end. Bipolar EEG were recorded within a transiently asphyxiated ovine model at 0.7 gestational age, a common experimental model for studying brain development in humans of 30-34 weeks of gestation. Transient asphyxia led to electrographic seizures within 6-8 h. A total of 3159 seizures, 2386 shorter than one minute, were annotated in 1976 h-long EEG recordings from 17 foetal lambs. To capture EEG characteristics, five features, sensitive to seizures, were calculated and used to derive trend information. Feature values and trend information were used as input for support vector machine classification and subsequently post-processed. Performance metrics, calculated after post-processing, were compared between analyses with and without employing trend information. Detector performance was assessed after five-fold cross-validation conducted ten times with random splits. The use of trend templates for seizure onset and end in a neonatal seizure detection algorithm significantly improves the correct detection of short seizures using two-channel EEG recordings from 54.3% (52.6-56.1) to 59.5% (58.5-59.9) at FDR 2.0 (median (range); p trend templates might therefore aid in detection of short seizures by EEG monitoring at the NICU.

  18. Spirulina-Templated Metal Microcoils with Controlled Helical Structures for THz Electromagnetic Responses (United States)

    Kamata, Kaori; Piao, Zhenzi; Suzuki, Soichiro; Fujimori, Takahiro; Tajiri, Wataru; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Yamada, Atsushi; Hayakawa, Toshiaki; Ishiwara, Mitsuteru; Horaguchi, Satoshi; Belay, Amha; Tanaka, Takuo; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori


    Microstructures in nature are ultrafine and ordered in biological roles, which have attracted material scientists. Spirulina forms three-dimensional helical microstructure, one of remarkable features in nature beyond our current processing technology such as lithography in terms of mass-productivity and structural multiplicity. Spirulina varies its diameter, helical pitch, and/or length against growing environment. This unique helix is suggestive of a tiny electromagnetic coil, if composed of electro-conductive metal, which brought us main concept of this work. Here, we describe the biotemplating process onto Spirulina surface to fabricate metal microcoils. Structural parameters of the microcoil can be controlled by the cultivation conditions of Spirulina template and also purely one-handed microcoil can be fabricated. A microcoil dispersion sheet exhibited optically active response attributed to structural resonance in terahertz-wave region.

  19. Mixed anionic surfactant-templated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for fluorescence detection of Fe(3.). (United States)

    Gai, Fangyuan; Zhou, Tianlei; Chu, Guang; Li, Ye; Liu, Yunling; Huo, Qisheng; Akhtar, Farid


    This work demonstrates a novel method for the synthesis of large pore mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with a pore diameter of 10.3 nm and a particle diameter of ∼50 nm based on the incorporation of mixed anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as the template in the synthesis process. The dispersity, morphology, pore structure and size of mesoporous nanoparticles were adjusted by changing the molar ratio of two anionic surfactants, the concentration of the co-structure-directing agent (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) and the reaction temperature. The results of synthesis experiments suggested that the formation of large pore MSNs involved a nucleation and growth process. MSNs were post-grafted with a Schiff base moiety for fluorescence sensing of Fe(3+) in water. The applicability of functionalized MSNs was demonstrated by selective fluorescence detection of Fe(3+) in aqueous media.

  20. Total Oxidation of Propane Using CeO2 and CuO-CeO2 Catalysts Prepared Using Templates of Different Nature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamin Solsona; Rut Sanchis; Ana M Dejoz; Tomas García; Lidia Ruiz-Rodríguez; Jose Manuel López Nieto; Juan Antonio Cecilia; Enrique Rodríguez-Castellón


    Several CeO2 and CuO-CeO2 catalysts were prepared using different methods, i.e., a homogeneous precipitation with urea, a nanocasting route using CMK-3 carbon as a hard template and a sol-gel process using Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA...

  1. The Elementary Operations of Human Vision Are Not Reducible to Template-Matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neri


    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that biological vision presents nonlinear characteristics, yet linear filtering accounts of visual processing are ubiquitous. The template-matching operation implemented by the linear-nonlinear cascade (linear filter followed by static nonlinearity is the most widely adopted computational tool in systems neuroscience. This simple model achieves remarkable explanatory power while retaining analytical tractability, potentially extending its reach to a wide range of systems and levels in sensory processing. The extent of its applicability to human behaviour, however, remains unclear. Because sensory stimuli possess multiple attributes (e.g. position, orientation, size, the issue of applicability may be asked by considering each attribute one at a time in relation to a family of linear-nonlinear models, or by considering all attributes collectively in relation to a specified implementation of the linear-nonlinear cascade. We demonstrate that human visual processing can operate under conditions that are indistinguishable from linear-nonlinear transduction with respect to substantially different stimulus attributes of a uniquely specified target signal with associated behavioural task. However, no specific implementation of a linear-nonlinear cascade is able to account for the entire collection of results across attributes; a satisfactory account at this level requires the introduction of a small gain-control circuit, resulting in a model that no longer belongs to the linear-nonlinear family. Our results inform and constrain efforts at obtaining and interpreting comprehensive characterizations of the human sensory process by demonstrating its inescapably nonlinear nature, even under conditions that have been painstakingly fine-tuned to facilitate template-matching behaviour and to produce results that, at some level of inspection, do conform to linear filtering predictions. They also suggest that compliance with linear

  2. Surface smoothing and template partitioning for cranial implant CAD (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-june; Dean, David


    Employing patient-specific prefabricated implants can be an effective treatment for large cranial defects (i.e., > 25 cm2). We have previously demonstrated the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software that starts with the patient"s 3D head CT-scan. A template is accurately matched to the pre-detected skull defect margin. For unilateral cranial defects the template is derived from a left-to-right mirrored skull image. However, two problems arise: (1) slice edge artifacts generated during isosurface polygonalization are inherited by the final implant; and (2) partitioning (i.e., cookie-cutting) the implant surface from the mirrored skull image usually results in curvature discontinuities across the interface between the patient"s defect and the implant. To solve these problems, we introduce a novel space curve-to-surface partitioning algorithm following a ray-casting surface re-sampling and smoothing procedure. Specifically, the ray-cast re-sampling is followed by bilinear interpolation and low-pass filtering. The resulting surface has a highly regular grid-like topological structure of quadrilaterally arranged triangles. Then, we replace the regions to be partitioned with predefined sets of triangular elements thereby cutting the template surface to accurately fit the defect margin at high resolution and without surface curvature discontinuities. Comparisons of the CAD implants for five patients against the manually generated implant that the patient actually received show an average implant-patient gap of 0.45mm for the former and 2.96mm for the latter. Also, average maximum normalized curvature of interfacing surfaces was found to be smoother, 0.043, for the former than the latter, 0.097. This indicates that the CAD implants would provide a significantly better fit.

  3. DNA origami as a nanoscale template for protein assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyk, Anton; Laitinen, Kimmo T [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FIN-40014 (Finland); Toermae, Paeivi [Department of Applied Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 5100, FIN-02015 (Finland)], E-mail:


    We describe two general approaches to the utilization of DNA origami structures for the assembly of materials. In one approach, DNA origami is used as a prefabricated template for subsequent assembly of materials. In the other, materials are assembled simultaneously with the DNA origami, i.e. the DNA origami technique is used to drive the assembly of materials. Fabrication of complex protein structures is demonstrated by these two approaches. The latter approach has the potential to be extended to the assembly of multiple materials with single attachment chemistry.

  4. Synthesis of Biocompatible Hydroxyapatite Using Chitosan Oligosaccharide as a Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Wang


    Full Text Available In this study, a novel biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA was synthesized by using chitosan oligosaccharide (COS as a template. These HA samples were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The biocompatibility of HA samples was evaluated via cell viability, cell morphology and alkaline phosphatase staining of MG-63 cell lines. The results show that HA synthesized in the presence of COS was favorable to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MG-63 cells. These hydroxyapatites are potentially attractive biomaterials for bone tissue engineering applications.

  5. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja


    We present here a proof of concept for a novel fabrication method of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests, utilizing black silicon nanograss (a forest of silicon nanometer-sized spikes created with reactive ion etching) coated with titanium tungsten diffusion barrier as a template. The method...... allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  6. Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bi2−xSbxTe3 Nanowires Grown in Flexible Nanoporous Polycarbonate Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Datta


    Full Text Available We report the room-temperature growth of vertically aligned ternary Bi2−xSbxTe3 nanowires of diameter ~200 nm and length ~12 µm, within flexible track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate (PC templates via a one-step electrodeposition process. Bi2−xSbxTe3 nanowires with compositions spanning the entire range from pure Bi2Te3 (x = 0 to pure Sb2Te3 (x = 2 were systematically grown within the nanoporous channels of PC templates from a tartaric–nitric acid based electrolyte, at the end of which highly crystalline nanowires of uniform composition were obtained. Compositional analysis showed that the Sb concentration could be tuned by simply varying the electrolyte composition without any need for further annealing of the samples. Thermoelectric properties of the Bi2−xSbxTe3 nanowires were measured using a standardized bespoke setup while they were still embedded within the flexible PC templates.

  7. Metal-organic framework nanocrystals as sacrificial templates for hollow and exceptionally porous titania and composite materials. (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Kruger, Paul E; Telfer, Shane G


    We report a strategy that employs metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals in two roles for the fabrication of hollow nanomaterials. In the first role the MOF crystals provide a template on which a shell of material can be deposited. Etching of the MOF produces a hollow structure with a predetermined size and morphology. In combination with this strategy, the MOF crystals, including guest molecules in their pores, can provide the components of a secondary material that is deposited inside the initially formed shell. We used this approach to develop a straightforward and reproducible method for constructing well-defined, nonspherical hollow and exceptionally porous titania and titania-based composite nanomaterials. Uniform hollow nanostructures of amorphous titania, which assume the cubic or polyhedral shape of the original template, are delivered using nano- and microsized ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 crystal templates. These materials exhibit outstanding textural properties including hierarchical pore structures and BET surface areas of up to 800 m(2)/g. As a proof of principle, we further demonstrate that metal nanoparticles such as Pt nanoparticles, can be encapsulated into the TiO2 shell during the digestion process and used for subsequent heterogeneous catalysis. In addition, we show that the core components of the ZIF nanocrystals, along with their adsorbed guests, can be used as precursors for the formation of secondary materials, following their thermal decomposition, to produce hollow and porous metal sulfide/titania or metal oxide/titania composite nanostructures.

  8. Implementation and validation of an adaptive template registration method for 18F-flutemetamol imaging data. (United States)

    Lundqvist, Roger; Lilja, Johan; Thomas, Benjamin A; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Thurfjell, Lennart


    The spatial normalization of PET amyloid imaging data is challenging because different white and gray matter patterns of negative (Aβ-) and positive (Aβ+) uptake could lead to systematic bias if a standard method is used. In this study, we propose the use of an adaptive template registration method to overcome this problem. Data from a phase II study (n = 72) were used to model amyloid deposition with the investigational PET imaging agent (18)F-flutemetamol. Linear regression of voxel intensities on the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in a neocortical composite region for all scans gave an intercept image and a slope image. We devised a method where an adaptive template image spanning the uptake range (the most Aβ- to the most Aβ+ image) can be generated through a linear combination of these 2 images and where the optimal template is selected as part of the registration process. We applied the method to the (18)F-flutemetamol phase II data using a fixed volume of interest atlas to compute SUVRs. Validation was performed in several steps. The PET-only adaptive template registration method and the MR imaging-based method used in statistical parametric mapping were applied to spatially normalize PET and MR scans, respectively. Resulting transformations were applied to coregistered gray matter probability maps, and the quality of the registrations was assessed visually and quantitatively. For comparison of quantification results with an independent patient-space method, FreeSurfer was used to segment each subject's MR scan and the parcellations were applied to the coregistered PET scans. We then correlated SUVRs for a composite neocortical region obtained with both methods. Furthermore, to investigate whether the (18)F-flutemetamol model could be generalized to (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB), we applied the method to Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) (11)C-PIB scans (n = 285) and compared the PET-only neocortical composite score

  9. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Robert Potas

    Full Text Available Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for

  10. Comparative studies on the properties of glycyrrhetinic acid-loaded PLGA microparticles prepared by emulsion and template methods. (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Guangxing; Sui, Hong; Liu, Yanhua; Park, Kinam; Wang, Wenping


    The O/W emulsion method has been widely used for the production of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles. Recently, a template method has been used to make homogeneous microparticles with predefined size and shape, and shown to be useful in encapsulating different types of active compounds. However, differences between the template method and emulsion method have not been examined. In the current study, PLGA microparticles were prepared by the two methods using glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) as a model drug. The properties of obtained microparticles were characterized and compared on drug distribution, in vitro release, and degradation. An encapsulation efficiency of over 70% and a mean particle size of about 40μm were found for both methods. DSC thermograms and XRPD diffractograms indicated that GA was highly dispersed or in the amorphous state in the matrix of microparticles. The emulsion method produced microparticles of a broad size distribution with a core-shell type structure and many drug-rich domains inside each microparticle. Its drug release and matrix degradation was slow before Day 50 and then accelerated. In contrast, the template method formed microparticles with narrow size distribution and drug distribution without apparent drug-rich domains. The template microparticles with a loading efficiency of 85% exhibited a zero-order release profile for 3 months after the initial burst release of 26.7%, and a steady surface erosion process as well. The same microparticles made by two different methods showed two distinguished drug release profiles. The two different methods can be supplementary with each other in optimization of drug formulation for achieving predetermined drug release patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Syed-Neblett interstitial template in locally advanced gynecological malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampuero, F.; Doss, L.L.; Khan, M.; Skipper, B.; Hilgers, R.D.


    Twenty-eight patients with locally advanced malignancies of the cervix and vagina were treated with a combination of external radiation therapy and after loading Syed-Neblett iridium template. There were 22 patients with squamous cell cancer and two patients with adenocarcinomas of the cervix. Four patients with squamous cell cancer of the vagina were treated with this method. Only patients with locally advanced disease (cervical lesion >4 cm in diameter) and poor vagnal anatomy were selected for this modality of therapy. In this series the incidence of distant failures of 39% seems to confirm the significance of local volume of disease as a prognostic indicator; despite a local control rate of 59%, only 33% of the patients are alive from 25-51 months. Complications occurred in 12 patients (42%). Six patients (22%) developed severe rectal stricture or rectovaginal fistula necessitating diverting sigmoid colostomy; five patients (18%) developed hemorrhagic proctitis with diarrhea and tenesmus; one patient developed vaginal vault necrosis. Complications occurred 7 to 24 months following therapy. Six of the 12 patients developing complications are dead of disease. On the basis of this study and because of the low cure rate and high incidence of complications, the value of the Syed-Neblett template in locally advanced gynecologic malignancies should be reconsidered.

  12. Fire Protection Engineering Design Brief Template. Hydrogen Refueling Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Building a hydrogen infrastructure system is critical to supporting the development of alternate- fuel vehicles. This report provides a methodology for implementing a performance-based design of an outdoor hydrogen refueling station that does not meet specific prescriptive requirements in NFPA 2, The Hydrogen Technologies Code . Performance-based designs are a code-compliant alternative to meeting prescriptive requirements. Compliance is demonstrated by comparing a prescriptive-based fueling station design with a performance-based design approach using Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) methods and hydrogen risk assessment tools. This template utilizes the Sandia-developed QRA tool, Hydrogen Risk Analysis Models (HyRAM), which combines reduced-order deterministic models that characterize hydrogen release and flame behavior with probabilistic risk models to quantify risk values. Each project is unique and this template is not intended to account for site-specific characteristics. Instead, example content and a methodology are provided for a representative hydrogen refueling site which can be built upon for new hydrogen applications.

  13. DNA template dependent accuracy variation of nucleotide selection in transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mellenius

    Full Text Available It has been commonly assumed that the effect of erroneous transcription of DNA genes into messenger RNAs on peptide sequence errors are masked by much more frequent errors of mRNA translation to protein. We present a theoretical model of transcriptional accuracy. It uses experimentally estimated standard free energies of double-stranded DNA and RNA/DNA hybrids and predicts a DNA template dependent transcriptional accuracy variation spanning several orders of magnitude. The model also identifies high-error as well a high-accuracy transcription motifs. The source of the large accuracy span is the context dependent variation of the stacking free energy of pairs of correct and incorrect base pairs in the ever moving transcription bubble. Our model predictions have direct experimental support from recent single molecule based identifications of transcriptional errors in the C. elegans transcriptome. Our conclusions challenge the general view that amino acid substitution errors in proteins are mainly caused by translational errors. It suggests instead that transcriptional error hotspots are the dominating source of peptide sequence errors in some DNA template contexts, while mRNA translation is the major cause of protein errors in other contexts.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of free-template zeolite T from kaolin (United States)

    Arshad, Sazmal E.; Yusslee, Eddy F.; Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Sarkar, Shaheen M.; Patuwan, Siti Z.


    Free-template zeolite T crystals were synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis by utilizing the activated kaolin as silica and alumina source, with the molar composition of 1 SiO2: 0.04 Al2O3: 0.26 Na2O: 0.09 K2O: 14 H2O. Observation of the formation of free-template zeolite crystals were done at temperature 90°C, 100 °C and 110 °C respectively. It was therefore determined that during the 120 h of the synthesis at 90 °C, zeolite T nucleated and formed a first competitive phase with zeolite L. As temperature increases to 100 °C, zeolite T presented itself as a major phase in the system at time 168 h. Subsequently, development of Zeolite T with second competitive phase of zeolite W was observed at temperature 110 °C. In this study, XRD and SEM instruments were used to monitor the behavior of zeolite T crystals with respect of temperature and time. By using natural resource of kaolin clay as a starting material, this paper hence aims to provide new findings in synthesis of zeolite T using low energy consumption and low production cost.

  15. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail:; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail:; Yar, A., E-mail: [Department of Fundamental & Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail:; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)


    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO{sub 4.}6H{sub 2}O buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidized by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (∼ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  16. Functional Nanomaterials based on Nanoporous Block Copolymer Templates (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kon


    Nanoporous templates have been widely used for the development of new functional nanostructured materials suitable for electronics, optics, magnetism, and energy storage materials. We have prepared nanoporous templates by using thin films of mixtures of polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS- b -PMMA) and PMMA homopolymers. These nanoporous films were found to be very effective for the separation of human Rhinovirus type 14, major pathogen of a common cold in humans. We found that when the pore size was effectively controlled down to 6 nm, a long-term constant in vitro release of BSA and hGH was achieved without their denaturation up to 2 months. The long-term constant delivery based on this membrane for protein drugs within the therapeutic range can be highly appreciated for the patients with hormone-deficiency. Work done in collaboration with Seung Yun Yang, Pohang University of Science and Technology. This work was supported by the National Creative Research Initiative Program supported by NRF.

  17. Memoir: template-based structure prediction for membrane proteins. (United States)

    Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Hill, Jamie R; Kelm, Sebastian; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M


    Membrane proteins are estimated to be the targets of 50% of drugs that are currently in development, yet we have few membrane protein crystal structures. As a result, for a membrane protein of interest, the much-needed structural information usually comes from a homology model. Current homology modelling software is optimized for globular proteins, and ignores the constraints that the membrane is known to place on protein structure. Our Memoir server produces homology models using alignment and coordinate generation software that has been designed specifically for transmembrane proteins. Memoir is easy to use, with the only inputs being a structural template and the sequence that is to be modelled. We provide a video tutorial and a guide to assessing model quality. Supporting data aid manual refinement of the models. These data include a set of alternative conformations for each modelled loop, and a multiple sequence alignment that incorporates the query and template. Memoir works with both α-helical and β-barrel types of membrane proteins and is freely available at

  18. Biosynthesis of amorphous mesoporous aluminophosphates using yeast cells as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifontes, Ángela B., E-mail: [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); González, Gema [Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Tovar, Leidy M.; Méndez, Franklin J. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gomes, Maria E. [Centro de Ingeniería de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Cañizales, Edgar [Área de Análisis Químico Inorgánico, PDVSA, INTEVEP, Los Teques 1070-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Villalobos, Hector [Centro de Microbiología y Biología Celular, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Brito, Joaquin L. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Amorphous aluminophosphates can take place using yeast as template. ► A mesoporous material was obtained. ► The specific surface area after calcinations ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: In this study aluminophosphates have been synthesized from aluminum isopropoxide and phosphoric acid solutions using yeast cells as template. The physicochemical characterization was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis; X-ray diffraction; Fourier transform infrared; N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy and potentiometric titration with N-butylamine for determination of: thermal stability; crystalline structure; textural properties; morphology and surface acidity, respectively. The calcined powders consisted of an intimate mixture of amorphous and crystallized AlPO particles with sizes between 23 and 30 nm. The average pore size observed is 13–16 nm and the specific surface area after calcinations (at 650 °C) ranged between 176 and 214 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}.

  19. Templated synthesis of DNA nanotubes with controlled, predetermined lengths. (United States)

    Lo, Pik Kwan; Altvater, Florian; Sleiman, Hanadi F


    We report a DNA-templated approach to construct nanotubes with controlled lengths and narrow molecular weight distribution, allowing the deliberate variation of this length. This approach relies on the facile and modular assembly of a DNA guide strand of precise length that contains single-stranded gaps repeating at every 50 nm. This is followed by positioning triangular DNA "rungs" on each of these single-stranded gaps and adding identical linking strands to the two other sides of the triangles to close the DNA nanotubes. The length of the guide strand can be deliberately changed. We show the use of this approach to produce nanotubes with lengths of 1 microm or 500 nm and narrow length distributions. This is in contrast to nontemplated approaches, which lead to long and polydisperse nanotubes. We also demonstrate the encapsulation of 20 nm gold nanoparticles within these well-defined nanotubes to form finite lines of gold nanoparticles with longitudinal plasmon coupling, with a number of potential nanophotonic applications. This guiding strand approach is a useful tool in the creation of DNA nanostructures, in this case allowing the use of a simple template generated by a minimal number of DNA strands to program the length and molecular weight distribution of assemblies, as well as to organize any number of DNA-labeled nano-objects into finite structures.

  20. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome (United States)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter


    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  1. Nitrite-Templated Synthesis of Lanthanide-Containing [2]Rotaxanes for Anion Sensing** (United States)

    Langton, Matthew J; Blackburn, Octavia A; Lang, Thomas; Faulkner, Stephen; Beer, Paul D


    The first anion-templated synthesis of a lanthanide-containing interlocked molecule is demonstrated by utilizing a nitrite anion to template initial pseudorotaxane formation. Subsequent stoppering of the interpenetrated assembly allows for the preparation of a lanthanide-functionalized [2]rotaxane in high yield. Following removal of the nitrite anion template, the europium [2]rotaxane host is demonstrated to recognize and sense fluoride selectively. PMID:24989322

  2. Computational Resources to Filter Gravitational Wave Data with P-approximant Templates


    Porter, Edward K.


    The prior knowledge of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems makes matched filtering an attractive detection strategy. This detection method involves the filtering of the detector output with a set of theoretical waveforms or templates. One of the most important factors in this strategy is knowing how many templates are needed in order to reduce the loss of possible signals. In this study we calculate the number of templates and computational power needed for a one-step searc...

  3. Rancang Bangun E-commerce Template Untuk Aplikasi Content and Management Electronic Mall (Came-mall)


    Maulana, Kamal; Sugiharto, Aris; Wibawa, Helmie Arif


    Kebanyakan e-commerce di Indonesia masih berorientasi ke pasar regional. Sehingga e-commerce tersebut masih menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Adanya e-commerce template memudahkan pembuatan sebuah e-commerce. Namun, kebanyakan e-commerce template menggunakan bahasa Inggris sebagai default. Dibutuhkan aplikasi pembuat e-commerce yang menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dan memiliki fungsi-fungsi yang hanya dibutuhkan oleh pengguna pemula. Came-mall adalah salah satu aplikasi e-commerce template yang meng...

  4. Characterizing stroke lesions using digital templates and lesion quantification tools in a web-based imaging informatics system for a large-scale stroke rehabilitation clinical trial (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Edwardson, Matthew; Dromerick, Alexander; Winstein, Carolee; Wang, Jing; Liu, Brent


    Previously, we presented an Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) imaging informatics system that supports a large-scale phase III stroke rehabilitation trial. The ePR system is capable of displaying anonymized patient imaging studies and reports, and the system is accessible to multiple clinical trial sites and users across the United States via the web. However, the prior multicenter stroke rehabilitation trials lack any significant neuroimaging analysis infrastructure. In stroke related clinical trials, identification of the stroke lesion characteristics can be meaningful as recent research shows that lesion characteristics are related to stroke scale and functional recovery after stroke. To facilitate the stroke clinical trials, we hope to gain insight into specific lesion characteristics, such as vascular territory, for patients enrolled into large stroke rehabilitation trials. To enhance the system's capability for data analysis and data reporting, we have integrated new features with the system: a digital brain template display, a lesion quantification tool and a digital case report form. The digital brain templates are compiled from published vascular territory templates at each of 5 angles of incidence. These templates were updated to include territories in the brainstem using a vascular territory atlas and the Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) tool. The digital templates are displayed for side-by-side comparisons and transparent template overlay onto patients' images in the image viewer. The lesion quantification tool quantifies planimetric lesion area from user-defined contour. The digital case report form stores user input into a database, then displays contents in the interface to allow for reviewing, editing, and new inputs. In sum, the newly integrated system features provide the user with readily-accessible web-based tools to identify the vascular territory involved, estimate lesion area

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Gd2O3 Hollow Microspheres Using a Template-Directed Method (United States)

    Jiang, Xueliang; Yu, Lu; Yao, Chu; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Chenjian


    Uniform rare-earth gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) hollow microspheres, as formed through a urea-assisted homogenous precipitation process using carbon spheres as a template and a subsequent heat treatment, were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet surface area measurement. The results indicate that the final products can be indexed to a cubic Gd2O3 phase with high purity and have a uniform morphology at 500 nm in diameter and 20 nm in shell thickness. The as-synthesized Gd2O3 hollow microspheres exhibited a superior photooxidation activity to that of Gd2O3 powder and an effect similar to P25, significantly broadening the potential of Gd2O3 hollow microspheres for many practical applications. PMID:28773446

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Gd2O3 Hollow Microspheres Using a Template-Directed Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Jiang


    Full Text Available Uniform rare-earth gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 hollow microspheres, as formed through a urea-assisted homogenous precipitation process using carbon spheres as a template and a subsequent heat treatment, were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Tellet surface area measurement. The results indicate that the final products can be indexed to a cubic Gd2O3 phase with high purity and have a uniform morphology at 500 nm in diameter and 20 nm in shell thickness. The as-synthesized Gd2O3 hollow microspheres exhibited a superior photooxidation activity to that of Gd2O3 powder and an effect similar to P25, significantly broadening the potential of Gd2O3 hollow microspheres for many practical applications.

  7. A Reliable Method for the Preparation of Multiporous Alumina Monoliths by Ice-Templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Dhainaut


    Full Text Available Alumina supports presenting a bimodal porosity are generally advantageous for the conversion of bulky molecules such as found in biomass, refining, and petrochemistry. However, shaping of such materials, while controlling pores size and orientation, proves to be hard. This problem can be tackled by using a simple method involving sol-gel chemistry, surfactant self-assembly, and ice-templating. Herein, a systematic study of the formulation and process parameters’ influence on the final material properties is presented. This protocol results in the repeatable preparation of centimeter-sized alumina monoliths presenting a uni-directional macroporosity and structured mesopores. These monoliths should be of particular interest in high flow rate catalytic applications.

  8. Template-Free Synthesis of Ruthenium Oxide Nanotubes for High-Performance Electrochemical Capacitors. (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Kwang-Heon; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Hoon; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum


    One-dimensional, hydrous ruthenium oxide nanotubes (RuO2·1.84H2O) have been successfully achieved using a template-free, microwave-hydrothermal process. These were found to be amorphous in nature and have a large specific surface area of 250 m(2)·g(-1), producing a specific and volumetric capacitance of 511 F·g(-1) and 531 F·cm(-3), respectively, at a discharging current density of 0.5 A·g(-1). When used as an electrode material in an electrochemical capacitor or ultracapacitor, they produced a significant improvement in capacitance, rate capability, and cyclability that can be attributed to the hollow nature of tubes allowing greater contact between the active surface of the electrode and the electrolyte.

  9. Application of Organosilane Monolayer Template to Quantitative Evaluation of Cancer Cell Adhesive Ability (United States)

    Tanii, Takashi; Sasaki, Kosuke; Ichisawa, Kota; Demura, Takanori; Beppu, Yuichi; Vu, Hoan Anh; Thanh Chi, Hoan; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Sato, Yuko


    The adhesive ability of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines was evaluated using organosilane monolayer templates (OMTs). Using the OMT, the spreading area of adhered cells can be limited, and this enables us to focus on the initial attachment process of adhesion. Moreover, it becomes possible to arrange the cells in an array and to quantitatively evaluate the number of attached cells. The adhesive ability of the cancer cells cultured on the OMT was controlled by adding (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which blocks a receptor that mediates cell adhesion and is overexpressed in cancer cells. Measurement of the relative ability of the cancer cells to attach to the OMT revealed that the ability for attachment decreased with increasing EGCG concentration. The results agreed well with the western blot analysis, indicating that the OMT can potentially be employed to evaluate the adhesive ability of various cancer cells.

  10. Synthesis of Hollow Silica Nanospheres by Sacrificial Polystyrene Templates for Thermal Insulation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Ingunn C. Sandberg


    Full Text Available Monodisperse polystyrene (PS spheres with controllable size have been synthesized by a straight forward and simple procedure. The as-synthesized PS spheres have a typical diameter ranging from ~180 nm to ~900 nm, where a reduced sphere size is obtained by increasing the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP/styrene weight ratio. The PS spheres function as sacrificial templates for the fabrication of hollow silica nanospheres (HSNSs for thermal insulation applications. By modifying the silica coating process, HSNSs with different surface roughness are obtained. All resulting HSNSs show typically a thermal conductivity of about 20 mW/(mK, indicating that the surface phonon scattering is probably not significant in these HSNS samples.

  11. Synthesis of Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles using Self-Assembled Block Copolymers as Template. (United States)

    Weber, Birgit


    Nowadays there is a high demand in specialized functional materials, for example, for applications as sensors in biomedicine. For the realization of such applications, nanostructures and the integration in a composite matrix are indispensable. Coordination polymers and networks, for example, with spin crossover properties, are a highly promising family of switchable materials in which the switching process can be triggered by various external stimuli. An overview over different strategies for the synthesis of nanoparticles of such systems is given. A special focus is set on the use of block copolymer micelles as templates for the synthesis of nanocomposites. The block copolymer defines the final size and shape of the nanoparticle core. Additionally it allows a further functionalization of the obtained nanoparticles by variation of the polymer blocks and an easy deposition of the composite material on surfaces. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Template-free non-aqueous electrochemical growth of CdO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez, R., E-mail: [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Grez, P.; Munoz, E. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay); Gomez, H. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)


    The direct template-free synthesis and characterization of CdO nanorods (NRs) obtained through electrochemical reduction process of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in a dimethylsulfoxide solution containing CdCl{sub 2}are reported. X-ray diffraction characterization of the NRs shows that the CdO phase was obtained without the presence of any other secondary phases. In agreement with the aspect ratio of a typical nanorod structure, CdO NRs presented average diameters of ca. 170 nm and average lengths of ca. 920 nm. Current results also demonstrate that the employed electrochemical synthesis route favors the growth of NRs with a preferred crystallographic orientation along the [200] axis direction. The synthesized CdO NRs exhibited a n-type semiconductor character with a donor carrier concentration of N{sub D} = 4.3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}.

  13. Pseudo template synthesis of poly (1-naphthylamine): effect of environment on nanostructured morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, Ufana; Ahmad, Sharif; Ashraf, S. M., E-mail: [Jamia Millia Islamia, Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry (India)


    A template free approach was adopted to explore the effect of polymerization environment on the synthesis of nanostructured poly (1-naphthylamine) (PNA) using cupric chloride as oxidant and methyl alcohol as medium. The polymerization environment was varied by carrying out the synthesis in the presence of nitrogen and oxygen. The morphology of the synthesized nanostructured PNA was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopies. PNA nanorods of sizes varying between 50-100 nm were obtained in presence of nitrogen while in presence of oxygen, it formed aggregated globular particles of sizes varying between 80-100 nm. The results provide valuable information on controlling the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructured conducting polymers that exhibit superior processibility as compared to the conventional conducting polymers.

  14. TiO{sub 2} Coated Core-Shell Nanoparticles Fabricated through Sol-Gel Reaction of Titanium Precursor on Surface of Silica Core Templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    TiO{sub 2} hollow capsules have been mainly investigated through various methods using soft and hard templates such as polymer latex and silica nanoparticles (NPs). However, fabrication of these materials inevitably involves the removal process of polymer latex and silica template used through calcination at high temperature and etching with toxic etchants, respectively. As a result, these processes result in the generation of chemical waste as well as serious environmental concerns. To overcome above mentioned problems, although studies on in situ recrystallization transformation of silica into more useful functional nanostructured silica materials such as microporous zeolites or mesoporous silicas instead of removal of the silica templates were reported in recent, the additional process, including hydrothermal reaction and calcination at high temperature in the removal of the organic templates used is required to fabricate these materials. Resulting TiO{sub 2} coated core-shell NPs showed a smooth surface and uniform TiO{sub 2} shell layer. TiO{sub 2} shell layer after the calcination processes at high temperature under air flowing exhibited the crystal structure corresponding to the anatase phase. The formation of the TiO{sub 2} shell layer on the surface of the silica core templates was investigated through the various analyses. TiO{sub 2} shell layer after the calcination treatment at high temperature exhibited the anatase phase with a crystal size of ca. 5.37 nm. Resulting TiO{sub 2} coated core-shell NPs can be utilized as a photocatalyst.

  15. Operating and Maintaining Energy Smart Schools Action Plan Template - All Action Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    EnergySmart Schools action plan templates for benchmarking, lighting, HVAC, water heating, building envelope, transformer, plug loads, kitchen equipment, swimming pool, building automation system, other.

  16. Directed self-assembly (DSA) grapho-epitaxy template generation with immersion lithography (United States)

    Ma, Yuansheng; Lei, Junjiang; Torres, J. A.; Hong, Le; Word, James; Fenger, Germain; Tritchkov, Alexander; Lippincott, George; Gupta, Rachit; Lafferty, Neal; He, Yuan; Bekaert, Joost; Vanderberghe, Geert


    In this paper, we present an optimization methodology for the template designs of sub-resolution contacts using directed self-assembly (DSA) with grapho-epitaxy and immersion lithography. We demonstrate the flow using a 60nm-pitch contact design in doublet with Monte Carlo simulations for DSA. We introduce the notion of Template Error Enhancement Factor (TEEF) to gauge the sensitivity of DSA printing infidelity to template printing infidelity, and evaluate optimized template designs with TEEF metrics. Our data shows that SMO is critical to achieve sub-80nm non- L0 pitches for DSA patterns using 193i.

  17. Aluminum Templates of Different Sizes with Micro-, Nano- and Micro/Nano-Structures for Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Liang Yen


    Full Text Available This study investigates the results of cell cultures on aluminum (Al templates with flat-structures, micro-structures, nano-structures and micro/nano-structures. An Al template with flat-structure was obtained by electrolytic polishing; an Al template with micro-structure was obtained by micro-powder blasting; an Al template with nano-structure was obtained by aluminum anodization; and an Al template with micro/nano-structure was obtained by micro-powder blasting and then anodization. Osteoblast-like cells were cultured on aluminum templates with various structures. The microculture tetrazolium test assay was utilized to assess the adhesion, elongation, and proliferation behaviors of cultured osteoblast-like cells on aluminum templates with flat-structures, micro-structures, nano-structures, and micro/nano-structures. The results showed that the surface characterization of micro/nano-structure of aluminum templates had superhydrophilic property, and these also revealed that an aluminum template with micro/nano-structure could provide the most suitable growth situation for cell culture.

  18. Organizational and Technical Considerations for the Implementation of a Digital Orthopaedic Templating System. (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Iorio, Richard; Smiaronksi, John; Wronka, Andrew; Rodriguez, George; Specht, Larry; Chang, Gregory; Egol, Kenneth A


    Digital templating systems have been promoted due to their ability to reduce costs, facilitate preoperative planning, and maintain surgical accuracy. The implementation of a templating system at a large institution is complicated and has not been fully described. We aim to explain the requisite collaboration between orthopaedic surgery, radiology, and information technology needed to implement a successful orthopaedic templating system at a large institution. A search of the PubMed database was performed to provide a comprehensive review of digital templating. Furthermore, we offer the organizational and technical details needed to implement an institutional templating system. We have provided a strategic plan to describe the collaboration between orthopaedic surgery, musculoskeletal radiology, and information technology required for a successful templating system. The transition to digital templating requires planning, training, and communication between multiple disciplines. Digital templating systems have the potential to foster preoperative planning, improve trainee education, and reduce departmental costs. Preoperative digital templating is a means to reduce the risk of intraoperative fracture, decrease overall surgical time, and plan for implant size prior to surgery.

  19. Template-directed synthesis of linear porphyrin oligomers: classical, Vernier and mutual Vernier. (United States)

    Kamonsutthipaijit, Nuntaporn; Anderson, Harry L


    Three different types of template-directed syntheses of linear porphyrin oligomers are presented. In the classical approach the product has the same number of binding sites as the template, whereas in Vernier reactions the product has the lowest common multiple of the numbers of binding sites in the template and the building block. Mutual Vernier templating is like Vernier templating except that both strands of the Vernier complex undergo coupling simultaneously, so that it becomes impossible to say which is the 'template' and which is the 'building block'. The template-directed synthesis of monodisperse linear oligomers is more difficult than that of cyclic oligomers, because the products of linear templating have reactive ends. All three types of templating are demonstrated here, and used to prepare a nickel(ii) porphyrin dodecamer with 4-pyridyl substituents on all twelve porphyrin units. The stabilities and cooperativities of the double-strand complexes involved in these reactions were investigated by UV-vis-NIR titration. The four-rung ladder duplex has a stability constant of about 2 × 1018 M-1 in dichloromethane at 298 K.

  20. Large-scale template-free synthesis of ordered mesoporous platinum nanocubes and their electrocatalytic properties (United States)

    Cao, Yanqin; Yang, Yong; Shan, Yufeng; Fu, Chaoli; Viet Long, Nguyen; Huang, Zhengren; Guo, Xiangxin; Nogami, Masayuki


    Here we report a facile, one-pot and template-free approach to synthesize mesoporous monocrystalline Pt nanocubes with uniform shapes and sizes, in which small Pt particles with a size of ~5 nm are three-dimensionally and periodically built up into cubes with a size of ~50 nm. The forming process is illustrated through a novel meso-crystal self-assembly mechanism. Very interestingly, the mesoporous structures are ordered, which are thought to be beneficial to increase their catalytic activity. Compared with nonporous Pt nanoparticles and porous Pt nanoparticles without order, the ordered mesoporous Pt nanocubes exhibit a highly improved electrocatalytic ability for methanol and formic acid oxidation, and are potentially applicable as electrocatalysts for direct methanol and formic acid fuel cells. Furthermore, this approach can be used to synthesize other Pt-series metallic mesoporous nanoparticles, such as Pd.Here we report a facile, one-pot and template-free approach to synthesize mesoporous monocrystalline Pt nanocubes with uniform shapes and sizes, in which small Pt particles with a size of ~5 nm are three-dimensionally and periodically built up into cubes with a size of ~50 nm. The forming process is illustrated through a novel meso-crystal self-assembly mechanism. Very interestingly, the mesoporous structures are ordered, which are thought to be beneficial to increase their catalytic activity. Compared with nonporous Pt nanoparticles and porous Pt nanoparticles without order, the ordered mesoporous Pt nanocubes exhibit a highly improved electrocatalytic ability for methanol and formic acid oxidation, and are potentially applicable as electrocatalysts for direct methanol and formic acid fuel cells. Furthermore, this approach can be used to synthesize other Pt-series metallic mesoporous nanoparticles, such as Pd. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05772h

  1. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kumta


    Full Text Available Introduction: Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. Discussion: This conversion of two-dimensional (2D data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. Conclusion: This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling.

  2. Role of the Template in Model Biomineralization: Synchrotron X-ray Scattering Experiments (United States)

    Uysal, Ahmet

    Synthesis of functional nanoparticles in cheap and environment friendly ways is one of the big challenges we face today. Interestingly, many biological systems are already expert at this task. Living organisms can grow nanocrystals of inorganic minerals with certain orientations and shapes and use them together with organic material to build structures with properties superior to the sum of their components. This process is called biomineralization. It has been previously shown that floating monolayers of amphiphilic molecules (Langmuir monolayers) can be used to simulate this process. This project covers the study of three different minerals, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and gold, in an attempt to understand the role of the organic template in the model biomineralization experiments. We used in situ synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques to monitor the organic-inorganic interface during nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals. We also used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the structure of mature crystals ex situ . Although kidney stones (mostly calcium oxalate) are pathological in humans and animals, their microscopic structures exhibit considerable orientation and order, probably caused by organic molecules. Our x-ray scattering experiments revealed, first time, that in the early stages of the crystallization calcium oxalate crystals adapt a structure different from their known bulk structures. In the later stages, the crystals relax back to the bulk structure while changing the organization of the organic molecules next to them. We developed a model that explains these interactions in terms of the organic-inorganic interface potential energy. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic constituent of the vertebrate bone. In spite of the vast literature about bone mineralization, there is little known about the organic-inorganic interactions at the molecular level. In this thesis, we report the first in situ x-ray scattering experiments

  3. Analytic family of post-merger template waveforms (United States)

    Del Pozzo, Walter; Nagar, Alessandro


    Building on the analytical description of the post-merger (ringdown) waveform of coalescing, nonprecessing, spinning binary black holes introduced by Damour and Nagar [Phys. Rev. D 90, 024054 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.024054], we propose an analytic, closed form, time-domain, representation of the ℓ=m =2 gravitational radiation mode emitted after merger. This expression is given as a function of the component masses and dimensionless spins (m1 ,2,χ1 ,2) of the two inspiraling objects, as well as of the mass MBH and (complex) frequency σ1 of the fundamental quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole. Our proposed template is obtained by fitting the post-merger waveform part of several publicly available numerical relativity simulations from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) catalog and then suitably interpolating over (symmetric) mass ratio and spins. We show that this analytic expression accurately reproduces (˜0.01 rad ) the phasing of the post-merger data of other data sets not used in its construction. This is notably the case of the spin-aligned run SXS:BBH:0305, whose intrinsic parameters are consistent with the 90% credible intervals reported in the parameter-estimation followup of GW150914 by B.P. Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 241102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.241102]. Using SXS waveforms as "experimental" data, we further show that our template could be used on the actual GW150914 data to perform a new measure of the complex frequency of the fundamental quasinormal mode so as to exploit the complete (high signal-to-noise-ratio) post-merger waveform. We assess the usefulness of our proposed template by analyzing, in a realistic setting, SXS full inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms and constructing posterior probability distribution functions for the central frequency damping time of the first overtone of the fundamental quasinormal mode as well as for the physical parameters of the systems. We also briefly explore the possibility

  4. Template-engaged solid-state synthesis of barium–strontium silicate hexagonal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuncai; Kim, Woo-Sik, E-mail:


    Solid materials with hollow structures are of significant interest due to their beneficial features, such as a high surface to volume ratio, high void space in the structure, and low apparent density, allowing such applications as high efficiency catalysts and drug delivery agent. This study presents a new synthetic method for generating hexagonal hollow tubes of (BaSr)SiO{sub 4} via a template-engaged solid–solid reaction. First, the composition tuneable (BaSr)CO{sub 3} hexagonal rods were prepared as the template by the co-precipitation of Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and then uniformly shelled with the silica (SiO{sub 2}) using CTAB, thereby forming (BaSr)CO{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} core–shell rods. The SiO{sub 2} shell thickness is adjustable based on the TEOS concentration in the sol–gel process. The (BaSr)CO{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} core–shell rods were converted to the (BaSr)SiO{sub 4} hexagonal hollow tubes by an interfacial solid–solid reaction between the (BaSr)CO{sub 3} core and SiO{sub 2} shell at 750 °C. During this interfacial solid–solid reaction, the (BaSr)CO{sub 3} hexagonal rods are the template for hexagonal tubes of (BaSr)SiO{sub 4}. Kirkendall effect contributes to the formation of hollow tube structure of (BaSr)SiO{sub 4}. The proposed synthetic method demonstrated a significant advantage for the preparation of (BaSr)SiO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor, where the synthetic temperature was reduced from 1200 °C to 500 °C when compared with the conventional method. The photoluminescence property of the hollow tubular (BaSr)SiO:Eu{sup 2+} showed a green emission between 480 nm and 600 nm with the maximum peak intensity at 517 nm under UV excitation. This synthetic method could also be applied to the preparation of hollow-structured multi-component metal silicates.

  5. Computational resources to filter gravitational wave data with P-approximant templates (United States)

    Porter, Edward K.


    The prior knowledge of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems makes matched filtering an attractive detection strategy. This detection method involves the filtering of the detector output with a set of theoretical waveforms or templates. One of the most important factors in this strategy is knowing how many templates are needed in order to reduce the loss of possible signals. In this study, we calculate the number of templates and computational power needed for a one-step search for gravitational waves from inspiralling binary systems. We build on previous works by first expanding the post-Newtonian waveforms to 2.5-PN order and second, for the first time, calculating the number of templates needed when using P-approximant waveforms. The analysis is carried out for the four main first-generation interferometers, LIGO, GEO600, VIRGO and TAMA. As well as template number, we also calculate the computational cost of generating banks of templates for filtering GW data. We carry out the calculations for two initial conditions. In the first case we assume a minimum individual mass of 1 Msolar and in the second, we assume a minimum individual mass of 5 Msolar. We find that, in general, we need more P-approximant templates to carry out a search than if we use standard PN templates. This increase varies according to the order of PN-approximation, but can be as high as a factor of 3 and is explained by the smaller span of the P-approximant templates as we go to higher masses. The promising outcome is that for 2-PN templates, the increase is small and is outweighed by the known robustness of the 2-PN P-approximant templates.

  6. Computational resources to filter gravitational wave data with P-approximant templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Edward K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3YB, UK (United Kingdom)


    The prior knowledge of the gravitational waveform from compact binary systems makes matched filtering an attractive detection strategy. This detection method involves the filtering of the detector output with a set of theoretical waveforms or templates. One of the most important factors in this strategy is knowing how many templates are needed in order to reduce the loss of possible signals. In this study, we calculate the number of templates and computational power needed for a one-step search for gravitational waves from inspiralling binary systems. We build on previous works by first expanding the post-Newtonian waveforms to 2.5-PN order and second, for the first time, calculating the number of templates needed when using P-approximant waveforms. The analysis is carried out for the four main first-generation interferometers, LIGO, GEO600, VIRGO and TAMA. As well as template number, we also calculate the computational cost of generating banks of templates for filtering GW data. We carry out the calculations for two initial conditions. In the first case we assume a minimum individual mass of 1 M{sub o-dot} and in the second, we assume a minimum individual mass of 5 M{sub o-dot}. We find that, in general, we need more P-approximant templates to carry out a search than if we use standard PN templates. This increase varies according to the order of PN-approximation, but can be as high as a factor of 3 and is explained by the smaller span of the P-approximant templates as we go to higher masses. The promising outcome is that for 2-PN templates, the increase is small and is outweighed by the known robustness of the 2-PN P-approximant templates.

  7. The Appropriateness of Language Found in Research Consent Form Templates: A Computational Linguistic Analysis. (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Kereliuk, Stephanie; Hamlin, Colin; Johnson, Andrea; Jacobsohn, Eric


    To facilitate informed consent, consent forms should use language below the grade eight level. Research Ethics Boards (REBs) provide consent form templates to facilitate this goal. Templates with inappropriate language could promote consent forms that participants find difficult to understand. However, a linguistic analysis of templates is lacking. We reviewed the websites of 124 REBs for their templates. These included English language medical school REBs in Australia/New Zealand (n = 23), Canada (n = 14), South Africa (n = 8), the United Kingdom (n = 34), and a geographically-stratified sample from the United States (n = 45). Template language was analyzed using Coh-Metrix linguistic software (v.3.0, Memphis, USA). We evaluated the proportion of REBs with five key linguistic outcomes at or below grade eight. Additionally, we compared quantitative readability to the REBs' own readability standards. To determine if the template's country of origin or the presence of a local REB readability standard influenced the linguistic variables, we used a MANOVA model. Of the REBs who provided templates, 0/94 (0%, 95% CI = 0-3.9%) provided templates with all linguistic variables at or below the grade eight level. Relaxing the standard to a grade 12 level did not increase this proportion. Further, only 2/22 (9.1%, 95% CI = 2.5-27.8) REBs met their own readability standard. The country of origin (DF = 20, 177.5, F = 1.97, p = 0.01), but not the presence of an REB-specific standard (DF = 5, 84, F = 0.73, p = 0.60), influenced the linguistic variables. Inappropriate language in templates is an international problem. Templates use words that are long, abstract, and unfamiliar. This could undermine the validity of participant informed consent. REBs should set a policy of screening templates with linguistic software.

  8. Anisotropy engineering using exchange bias on antidot templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. T. Goncalves


    Full Text Available We explore an emerging device concept based on exchange bias used in conjunction with an antidot geometry to fine tune ferromagnetic resonances. Planar cavity ferromagnetic resonance is used to study the microwave response of NiO/NiFe bilayers with antidot structuring. A large frequency asymmetry with respect to an applied magnetic field is found across a broad field range whose underlying cause is linked to the distribution of magnetic poles at the antidot surfaces. This distribution is found to be particularly sensitive to the effects of exchange bias, and robust in regards to the quality of the antidot geometry. The template based antidot geometry we study offers advantages for practical device construction, and we show that it is suitable for broadband absorption and filtering applications, allowing tunable anisotropies via interface engineering.

  9. Database extraction strategies for low-template evidence. (United States)

    Bleka, Øyvind; Dørum, Guro; Haned, Hinda; Gill, Peter


    Often in forensic cases, the profile of at least one of the contributors to a DNA evidence sample is unknown and a database search is needed to discover possible perpetrators. In this article we consider two types of search strategies to extract suspects from a database using methods based on probability arguments. The performance of the proposed match scores is demonstrated by carrying out a study of each match score relative to the level of allele drop-out in the crime sample, simulating low-template DNA. The efficiency was measured by random man simulation and we compared the performance using the SGM Plus kit and the ESX 17 kit for the Norwegian population, demonstrating that the latter has greatly enhanced power to discover perpetrators of crime in large national DNA databases. The code for the database extraction strategies will be prepared for release in the R-package forensim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Individuelle Templates für Rekonstruktionen des linken Herzventrikels (United States)

    Feder, Stefan; Falk, Volkmar; Gutberiet, Matthias; Bartz, Dirk

    Bei krankhaften Vergrößerungen des linken Herzventrikels kann eine chirurgische Ventrikelrekonstruktion zur Verbesserung der Herzleistung beitragen. Die dabei erstellte Ventrikelgeometrie ist von entscheidender Bedeutung. Diese Studie befasst sich mit der computerbasierten Planung von individuellen Schablonen (Templates) für Ventrikelrekonstruktionen. Ziel ist es aus Cardio-CT-Daten, präoperativ, patientenindividuelle 3D-Modelle für Ventrikeltemplates zu erstellen. Hierfür wird aus CT-Daten der linksventrikuläre Blutpool segmentiert und daraus das Ventrikeltemplate modelliert. Dies geschieht anhand von zwei Kriterien: dem physiologischen Ventrikelfüllungsvolumen und der hämodynamisch günstigen ellipsoiden Form. Es konnten 20 3D-Templatemodelle mit einem durchschnittlichen Volumen von 144 ml erstellt werden. Die ellipsoide Form konnte durch manuelle Modellierung erreicht werden. Der Nachweis verbesserter Operationsergebnisse muss in nachfolgenden klinischen Studien erbracht werden.

  11. Template synthesis and characterization of carbon nanomaterials from ferrocene crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherkasov, Nikolay, E-mail: [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Savilov, Serguei V.; Ivanov, Anton S.; Egorov, Alex V.; Lunin, Valery V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ibhadon, Alex O. [School of Biological, Biomedical and Environmental Sciences and Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)


    Filamentous ribbon-like structures of highly disordered carbon of thickness 10–100 nm built from merged individual carbon nanofibers were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition from saturated ferrocene–benzene solution at 950 K. The materials obtained were characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray and electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and a possible growth mechanism for their formation was proposed and discussed. The synthesis demonstrates the possibility of a template growth of carbon nanomaterials and supports the vapour–solid–solid growth model of carbon materials because the catalysing metal particles are solid under the experimental conditions. Due to the large number of structural defects, filamentous structure, submicrometer thickness and low intraparticle diffusion of the nanomaterials, they can find application in catalysis as catalyst supports and sorbents.

  12. Precise organization of metal nanoparticles on DNA origami template. (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Song, Chen; Wang, Zhen-Gang; Li, Na; Ding, Baoquan


    Nanoscale assemblies of metal nanoparticles in one dimension (1D) to three dimensions (3D) can exhibit novel phenomena that are not observed in the amorphous state. Bottom-up assembly technique is expected to overcome the resolution limit of top-down method and casts a new light on the nanofabrication field. DNA origami, which is mainly used to construct discrete and addressable nanostructures, can be utilized to assemble functional colloidal nanoparticles into delicate geometries with interesting properties. This review aims to summarize the methods that use DNA origami structures as templates to precisely organize metal nanoparticles, such as gold nanospheres (AuNSs) gold nanorods (AuNRs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The potential applications and the perspective are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David


    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the charged-interfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits short-range in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  14. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David


    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the chargedinterfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits shortrange in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  15. Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators from Anisotropic Porous Polymer Template. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Li; Yu, Meina; Zhao, Dongyu; Song, Ping; Chi, Hun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Huai


    Controlling self-assembly behaviors of liquid crystals is a fundamental issue for designing them as intelligent actuators. Here, anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is utilized as a template to induce homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals. The mechanism of liquid crystal alignment induced by anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is illustrated based on the relationship between the alignment behavior of liquid crystals and surface microstructure of anisotropic polyvinylidene fluoride film. Liquid crystal elastomer actuators with fast responsiveness, large strain change, and reversible actuation behaviors are achieved by the photopolymerization of liquid crystal monomer in liquid crystal cells coated with anisotropic porous films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Mixed Surfactant Template Method for Preparation of Nanometer Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Li


    Full Text Available Selenium nanoparticles have been synthesized in an aqueous solution by using sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyvinyl alcohol as a soft template. The factors on synthesis, such as reaction time, concentration of reactants and ultrasonic irradiation were studied. The uniform stable selenium nanospheres were obstained in the conditions of 1.0 (mass fraction sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1.0 (mass fraction polyvinyl alcohol, n(Vc:n(H2SeO3=7:1 and 7 minutes after the initiation of the reaction at room temperature. The average particle size of selenium is about 30 nm. The product was characterized by UV and TEM. Finally the applications of the red element nanometer selenium in anti-older cosmetics are presented.

  17. Electrospun human keratin matrices as templates for tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Sow, Wan Ting; Lui, Yuan Siang; Ng, Kee Woei


    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of fabricating human hair keratin matrices through electrospinning and to evaluate the potential of these matrices for tissue regeneration. Keratin was extracted from human hair using Na2S and blended with poly(ethylene oxide) in the weight ratio of 60:1 for electrospinning. Physical morphology and chemical properties of the matrices were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Cell viability and morphology of murine and human fibroblasts cultured on the matrices were evaluated through the Live/Dead(®) assay and scanning electron microscopy. Electrospun keratin matrices were successfully produced without affecting the chemical conformation of keratin. Fibroblasts cultured on keratin matrices showed healthy morphology and penetration into matrices at day 7. Electrospun human hair keratin matrices provide a bioinductive and structural environment for cell growth and are thus attractive as alternative templates for tissue regeneration.

  18. A fast template matching method for LED chip Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Fuqiang


    Full Text Available Efficiency determines the profits of the semiconductor producers. So the producers spare no effort to enhance the efficiency of every procedure. The purpose of the paper is to present a method to shorten the time to locate the LED chips on wafer. The method consists of 3 steps. Firstly, image segmentation and blob analyzation are used to predict the positions of potential chips. Then predict the orientations of potential chips based on their dominant orientations. Finally, according to the positions and orientations predicted above, locate the chips precisely based on gradient orientation features. Experiments show that the algorithm is faster than the traditional method we choose to locate the LED chips. Besides, even the orientations of the chips on wafer are of big deviation to the orientation of the template, the efficiency of this method won't be affected.

  19. Dynamic fragmentation of cellular, ice-templated alumina scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yi Ming; Cervantes, Octavio; Nam, SeanWoo; Molitoris, John D.; Hooper, Joseph P.


    We examine the dynamic failure of ice-templated freeze-cast alumina scaffolds that are being considered as biomimetic hierarchical structures. Three porosities of alumina freeze-cast structures were fabricated, and a systematic variation in microstructural properties such as lamellar width and thickness was observed with changing porosity. Dynamic impact tests were performed in a light-gas gun to examine the failure properties of these materials under high strain-rate loading. Nearly complete delamination was observed following impact, along with characteristic cracking across the lamellar width. Average fragment size decreases with increasing porosity, and a theoretical model was developed to explain this behavior based on microstructural changes. Using an energy balance between kinetic, strain, and surface energies within a single lamella, we are able to accurately predict the characteristic fragment size using only standard material properties of bulk alumina.

  20. Forest gradient response in Sierran landscapes: the physical template (United States)

    Urban, Dean L.; Miller, Carol; Halpin, Patrick N.; Stephenson, Nathan L.


    Vegetation pattern on landscapes is the manifestation of physical gradients, biotic response to these gradients, and disturbances. Here we focus on the physical template as it governs the distribution of mixed-conifer forests in California's Sierra Nevada. We extended a forest simulation model to examine montane environmental gradients, emphasizing factors affecting the water balance in these summer-dry landscapes. The model simulates the soil moisture regime in terms of the interaction of water supply and demand: supply depends on precipitation and water storage, while evapotranspirational demand varies with solar radiation and temperature. The forest cover itself can affect the water balance via canopy interception and evapotranspiration. We simulated Sierran forests as slope facets, defined as gridded stands of homogeneous topographic exposure, and verified simulated gradient response against sample quadrats distributed across Sequoia National Park. We then performed a modified sensitivity analysis of abiotic factors governing the physical gradient. Importantly, the model's sensitivity to temperature, precipitation, and soil depth varies considerably over the physical template, particularly relative to elevation. The physical drivers of the water balance have characteristic spatial scales that differ by orders of magnitude. Across large spatial extents, temperature and precipitation as defined by elevation primarily govern the location of the mixed conifer zone. If the analysis is constrained to elevations within the mixed-conifer zone, local topography comes into play as it influences drainage. Soil depth varies considerably at all measured scales, and is especially dominant at fine (within-stand) scales. Physical site variables can influence soil moisture deficit either by affecting water supply or water demand; these effects have qualitatively different implications for forest response. These results have clear implications about purely inferential approaches

  1. Topographic and hydraulic controls over alluviation on a bedrock template (United States)

    Milan, David; Heritage, George; Entwistle, Neil; Tooth, Stephen


    Bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels found in dryland rivers are characterised by an over-wide channel cut into the host rock containing a network of interconnecting bedrock sub-channels separated by bedrock influenced interfluve areas. Whilst the channels remain largely free of sediment the interfluves display varying levels of alluviation ranging from bare rock, sand sheets and silt drapes through to consolidated bedrock core bars, islands and lateral deposits. Examination of the sedimentary units associated with the bedrock anastomosed reaches of the Sabie river in the Kruger National Park, South Africa reveal a repeating sequence of coarse sand / fine gravel grading through to silt representing successive flood related depositional units. Unit development in relation to the bedrock template was investigated using pre-flood aerial imagery of bedrock core bar locations and post flood LiDAR data of bedrock anastomosed sites stripped during the 2000 and 2012 extreme flood events. This revealed a propensity for bar development associated with bedrock hollows disconnected from the principal high-energy sub-channels. 2-D morpho-dynamic modelling was used to further investigate spatial patterns of deposition over the bedrock template. Although topographic lows displayed mid-range velocities during peak flow events, these are likely to be preferential routing areas, with sediments stalling in low energy areas on the falling limb of floods. It is also likely that vegetation development plays a fundamental role in the development of alluviated zones, through increasing strength of alluvial units and capturing new sediments. With these results in mind we present a conceptual model for the development of bedrock-core bars, the fundamental unit in bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels.

  2. Low-Cost 3D Printing Orbital Implant Templates in Secondary Orbital Reconstructions. (United States)

    Callahan, Alison B; Campbell, Ashley A; Petris, Carisa; Kazim, Michael

    Despite its increasing use in craniofacial reconstructions, three-dimensional (3D) printing of customized orbital implants has not been widely adopted. Limitations include the cost of 3D printers able to print in a biocompatible material suitable for implantation in the orbit and the breadth of available implant materials. The authors report the technique of low-cost 3D printing of orbital implant templates used in complex, often secondary, orbital reconstructions. A retrospective case series of 5 orbital reconstructions utilizing a technique of 3D printed orbital implant templates is presented. Each patient's Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were uploaded and processed to create 3D renderings upon which a customized implant was designed and sent electronically to printers open for student use at our affiliated institutions. The mock implants were sterilized and used intraoperatively as a stencil and mold. The final implant material was chosen by the surgeons based on the requirements of the case. Five orbital reconstructions were performed with this technique: 3 tumor reconstructions and 2 orbital fractures. Four of the 5 cases were secondary reconstructions. Molded Medpor Titan (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) implants were used in 4 cases and titanium mesh in 1 case. The stenciled and molded implants were adjusted no more than 2 times before anchored in place (mean 1). No case underwent further revision. The technique and cases presented demonstrate 1) the feasibility and accessibility of low-cost, independent use of 3D printing technology to fashion patient-specific implants in orbital reconstructions, 2) the ability to apply this technology to the surgeon's preference of any routinely implantable material, and 3) the utility of this technique in complex, secondary reconstructions.

  3. Alternative nano-structured thin-film materials used as durable thermal nanoimprint lithography templates. (United States)

    Bossard, M; Boussey, J; Le Drogoff, B; Chaker, M


    Nanoimprint templates made of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous silicon carbide (SiC) thin films and fluorine-doped associated materials, i.e. F-DLC and F-SiC were investigated in the context of thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with respect to their release properties. Their performances in terms of durability and stability were evaluated and compared to those of conventional silicon or silica molds coated with antisticking molecules applied as a self-assembled monolayer. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition parameters were firstly tuned to optimize mechanical and structural properties of the DLC and SiC thin films. The impact of the amount of fluorine dopant on the deposited thin films properties was then analyzed. A comparative analysis of DLC, F-DLC as well as SiC and F-SiC molds was then carried out over multiple imprints, performed into poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thermo-plastic resist. The release properties of un-patterned films were evaluated by the measurement of demolding energies and surface energies, associated with a systematic analysis of the mold surface contamination. These analyses showed that the developed materials behave as intrinsically easy-demolding and contamination-free molds over series of up to 40 imprints. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a large number of imprints has been considered within an exhaustive comparative study of materials for NIL. Finally, the developed materials went through standard e-beam lithography and plasma etching processes to obtain nanoscale-patterned templates. The replicas of those patterned molds, imprinted into PMMA, were shown to be of high fidelity and good stability after several imprints.

  4. Hollow colloidal particles by emulsion templating, from synthesis to self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoldesi, C.I.


    This research was focused on developing a new method to prepare hollow colloidal particles in the micrometer range, based on emulsion templating, characterization of both the templates and the resulting particles from physical and chemical viewpoint, and fabrication of materials based on such

  5. Performance evaluation of fusing protected fingerprint minutiae templates on the decision level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Groot, K.T.J. de; Christoph Busch; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Xu, H.


    In a biometric authentication system using protected templates, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected template that can be directly compared. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiersresults in a decision testing whether both identifiers are derived from the same biometric

  6. Application of the Generic Modeling Template Approach to Unsaturated Fatty Acid Oxidation and Crystallization Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorova, Marina; Papadakis, Emmanouil; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup


    In this work, a couple of applications of the template-based approach for model development are presented. The computer-aided template concept has been developed based on a model decomposition technique and has been implemented as a software tool, which provides a user-friendly interface for foll...

  7. New immobilisation protocol for the template used in solid-phase synthesis of MIP nanoparticles (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Muhammad, Turghun; Yakup, Burabiye; Piletsky, Sergey A.


    As a novel imprinting method, solid-phase synthesis has proven to be a promising approach to prepare polymer nanoparticles with specific recognition sites for a template molecule. In this method, imprinted polymer nanoparticles were synthesized using template immobilized on a solid support. Herein, preparation of immobilized templates on quartz chips through homogeneous route was reported as an efficient alternative strategy to heterogeneous one. The template molecule indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to produce silylated template (IBA-APTES), and it was characterized by IR, 1H NMR and GC-MS. Then, the silylated template molecule was grafted onto the activated surfaces of quartz chip to prepare immobilized template (SiO2@IBA-APTES). The immobilization was confirmed by contact angle, XPS, UV and fluorescence measurement. Immobilization protocol has shown good reproducibility and stability of the immobilized template. MIP nanoparticles were prepared with high selectivity toward the molecule immobilized onto the solid surface. This provides a new approach for the development of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles.

  8. Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwanger, A; Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Crecenzi, C; Karlsson, L; Owens, PK; Ensing, K; Cormack, P; Sherrington, D; Sellergren, B


    Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was

  9. Pattern Registration Between Spherical Block-Copolymer Domains and Topographical Templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, J.Y.; Zhang, F.; Smith, H.I.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Ross, C.A.


    Pattern registration is achieved in thin films of self-assembling block copolymers by using a topographical template to guide the positions of the polymer domains. The placement accuracy of the polymer domains is related to the edge roughness of the topographical template, and the ultimate placement

  10. 78 FR 64925 - Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates (United States)


    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The USPTO is proposing to eliminate the Patents Search Templates from the USPTO Web site. In 2006, the...

  11. An Empirical Ultraviolet Template for Iron Emission in Quasars as Derived from I Zw 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.


    We present an empirical template spectrum suitable for fitting/subtracting and studying the FeII and FeIII line emission in the restframe UV spectra of active galatic nuclei (AGNs), the first empirical UV iron template to cover the full 1250 - 3090 A range. Iron emission is often a severe contami...

  12. Nanolithography based contacting method for electrical measurements on single template synthesized nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusil, S.; Piraux, L.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan


    A reliable method enabling electrical measurements on single nanowires prepared by electrodeposition in an alumina template is described. This technique is based on electrically controlled nanoindentation of a thin insulating resist deposited on the top face of the template filled by the nanowires...

  13. Localized Template-Driven Functionalization of Nanoparticles by Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowak, Piotr; Saggiomo, Vittorio; Salehian, Fatemeh; Colomb-Delsuc, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Otto, Sijbren


    We have developed a method for the localized functionalization of gold nanoparticles using imine-based dynamic combinatorial chemistry. By using DNA templates, amines were grafted on the aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles only if and where the nanoparticles interacted with the template molecules.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Fusing Protected Fingerprint Minutiae Templates on the Decision Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Bian; Busch, C.; Groot, K. de; Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    In a biometric authentication system using protected templates, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected template that can be directly compared. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a decision testing whether both identifiers are derived from the same biometric

  15. Synthesis mechanism and improved (100) oriented NaNbO{sub 3} templates by ultrasonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdasi, O. A.; Kolekar, Y. D.; Kambale, R. C., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune-411 007, Maharashtra (India); Kim, D. J.; Song, T. K. [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)


    The plate-like NaNbO{sub 3} (NN) templates with (100) preferential orientation was synthesized from bismuth layer structured ferroelectric Bi{sub 2.5}Na{sub 3.5}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 18} (BNN) precursor by topochemical microcrystal conversion (TMC) method. The large platelets of BNN were first obtained by molten salt synthesis at the 1125 °C with a salt-to oxide weight ratio 1.5: 1. The anisotropic NN templates were derived from BNN at the 975 °C with BNN/ Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} molar ratio of 1:1.5. The NaNbO{sub 3} templates have an average length of ~ 10-14 µm. The NN templates retains their elemental constitutes of Na, Nb and O in stoichiometric proportion. The effect of ultrasonication on the orientation factor (F{sub h00}) of NN templates was understood by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The degree of (100) orientation of as synthesized NN templates (~57%) was found to be increased (~89%) after ultrasonication. Moreover, the microstructure i.e. alignment / shape of as synthesized NN templates was changed from rectangular (110) orientation to square (100) orientation geometry after ultrasonication. Hence, ultrasonication is a cost effective approach to preparing the textured piezoelectric ceramics by the template grain growth technique using tape casting.

  16. Vernier-templated synthesis, crystal structure, and supramolecular chemistry of a 12-porphyrin nanoring. (United States)

    Kondratuk, Dmitry V; Sprafke, Johannes K; O'Sullivan, Melanie C; Perdigao, Luis M A; Saywell, Alex; Malfois, Marc; O'Shea, James N; Beton, Peter H; Thompson, Amber L; Anderson, Harry L


    Vernier templating exploits a mismatch between the number of binding sites in a template and a reactant to direct the formation of a product that is large enough to bind several template units. Here, we present a detailed study of the Vernier-templated synthesis of a 12-porphyrin nanoring. NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses show that Vernier complexes are formed as intermediates in the cyclo-oligomerization reaction. UV/Vis/NIR titrations show that the three-component assembly of the 12-porphyrin nanoring figure-of-eight template complex displays high allosteric cooperativity and chelate cooperativity. This nanoring-template 1:2 complex is among the largest synthetic molecules to have been characterized by single-crystal analysis. It crystallizes as a racemate, with an angle of 27° between the planes of the two template units. The crystal structure reveals many unexpected intramolecular C-H⋅⋅⋅N contacts involving the tert-butyl side chains. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments show that molecules of the 12-porphyrin template complex can remain intact on the gold surface, although the majority of the material unfolds into the free nanoring during electrospray deposition. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Template-based self-assembly for silicon chips and 01005 surface-mount components (United States)

    Hoo, J. H.; Park, Kwang Soon; Baskaran, Rajashree; Böhringer, Karl F.


    We present template-based microscale self-assembly as a technique that promotes the electronics industry's initiative towards functional diversification and function densification, demonstrating that our process can improve existing assembly and packaging techniques, and also enable possibilities restricted by current industry methodologies. We first present foundational work that performs part (370 × 370 × 150 µm3) delivery to receptor sites (20 × 10 array) with a stochastic batch delivery process that completes within tens of seconds. The delivery mechanism is statistically characterized and a chemical kinetics inspired model is developed. Based on this understanding, repeatable and programmable 100% yield assembly is achieved in open-loop and feedback-based configurations. The established methodology is adapted to deliver and assemble standard 01 005 format (0.016″ × 0.008″, 0.4 mm × 0.2 mm) monolithic ceramic capacitors and thin-film resistors onto silicon substrates. This process is CMOS compatible and is competitive with capacitors and resistors fabricated through standard foundry processes.

  18. Pengenalan Angka Pada Sistem Operasi Android Dengan Menggunakan Metode Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Pandu Kusuma


    Full Text Available AbstrakUsia dini merupakan usia yang efektif untuk mengembangkan berbagai potensi yang dimiliki oleh anak. Upaya pengembangan potensi dapat dilakukan melalui berbagai cara termasuk dengan cara bermain. Bermain bagi anak merupakan cara yang tepat untuk belajar. Berdasarkan fenomena tersebut, maka perlu dibuat sebuah aplikasi pengenalan angka yang interaktif dengan unsur edukasi. Aplikasi tersebut diharapkan dapat mengambil keputusan secara otomatis apa yang ditulis anak itu bernilai benar atau salah dan juga dapat membangkitkan semangat belajar anak dalam mengenal pola angka. Solusi yang sesuai agar aplikasi tersebut dapat memberikan jawaban salah atau benar digunakan satu metode yaitu template matching. Pengenalan angka dengan menggunakan metode template matching dilakukan dengan cara membandingkan citra masukan dengan citra template. Hasil template matching dihitung dari banyaknya titik pada citra masukan yang sesuai dengan citra template. Template disediakan pada database untuk memberikan contoh cara penulisan pola angka. Uji coba dilakukan pada aplikasi sebanyak 40 kali dengan pola yang berbeda. Dari hasil uji coba didapat prosentase keberhasilan aplikasi ini mencapai 75,75%.Kata kunci: Belajar, bermain, Template Matching, dan pola. AbstractEarly childhood is an effective age to develop the potential of the child. Potential development efforts can be done through various ways, including by playing. Playing for children is a great way to learn. Based on this phenomenon, it should be made an introduction to the numbers interactive application with elements of education. The application is expected to take decisions automatically what the child is written is true or false, and also can encourage a child's learning in recognizing number patterns. Appropriate solutions so that the app can give an answer right or wrong to use the methods that template matching. The introduction of the numbers by using template matching is done by comparing the

  19. Using Writing Templates as Materials to Improve Writing Skills in EFL Classes: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Selçuk AKDEMİR


    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed at revealing the findings of an experimental study in which writing templates were used as writing materials to improve writing skills in intermediate (B1 EFL classes as well as reviewing the concepts writing skills, second language writing and writing templates. The study was conducted with 50 students, aged 20-23, of a public university in Turkey. In Writing and Speaking in English II class writing templates were used as writing materials during 12 weeks. The students were asked to fulfil tasks asking them to use some basic writing types for B1 level such as formal and informal letter writing, CV writing, writing business e-mails etc. before and after the study. It was concluded that writing templates can be used as writing materials to improve intermediate (B1 EFL classes.Keywords: Writing, writing templates, L2 writing.

  20. New triblock copolymer templates, PEO-PB-PEO, for the synthesis of titania films with controlled mesopore size, wall thickness, and bimodal porosity. (United States)

    Ortel, Erik; Fischer, Anna; Chuenchom, Laemthong; Polte, Jörg; Emmerling, Franziska; Smarsly, Bernd; Kraehnert, Ralph


    The synthesis and properties of a series of new structure-directing triblock copolymers with PEO-PB-PEO structure (PEO = poly(ethylene oxide) and PB = polybutadiene) and their application as superior pore-templates for the preparation of mesoporous titania coatings are reported. Starting from either TiCl4 or from preformed TiO2 nanocrystalline building blocks, mesoporous crystalline titanium oxide films with a significant degree of mesoscopic ordered pores are derived, and the pore size can be controlled by the molecular mass of the template polymer. Moreover, the triblock copolymers form stable micelles already at very low concentration, i.e., prior to solvent evaporation during the evaporation-induced self-assembly process (EISA). Consequently, the thickness of pore walls can be controlled independently of pore size by changing the polymer-to-precursor ratio. Thus, unprecedented control of wall thickness in the structure of mesoporous oxide coatings is achieved. In addition, the micelle formation of the new template polymers is sufficiently distinct from that of typical commercial PPO-PEO-PPO polymers (Pluronics; PPO = poly(propylene oxide)), so that a combination of both polymers facilitates bimodal porosity via dual micelle templating. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.