Sample records for temperature variable conductance

  1. Low conductive support for thermal insulation of a sample holder of a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope. (United States)

    Hanzelka, Pavel; Vonka, Jakub; Musilova, Vera


    We have designed a supporting system to fix a sample holder of a scanning tunneling microscope in an UHV chamber at room temperature. The microscope will operate down to a temperature of 20 K. Low thermal conductance, high mechanical stiffness, and small dimensions are the main features of the supporting system. Three sets of four glass balls placed in vertices of a tetrahedron are used for thermal insulation based on small contact areas between the glass balls. We have analyzed the thermal conductivity of the contacts between the balls mutually and between a ball and a metallic plate while the results have been applied to the entire support. The calculation based on a simple model of the setup has been verified with some experimental measurements. In comparison with other feasible supporting structures, the designed support has the lowest thermal conductance.

  2. Stomatal conductance increases with rising temperature. (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O


    Stomatal conductance directly modifies plant water relations and photosynthesis. Many environmental factors affecting the stomatal conductance have been intensively studied but temperature has been largely neglected, even though it is one of the fastest changing environmental variables and it is rising due to climate change. In this study, we describe how stomata open when the temperature increases. Stomatal conductance increased by ca 40% in a broadleaf and a coniferous species, poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) when temperature was increased by 10 °C, from 30 °C to 40 °C at a constant vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa. The mechanism of regulating stomatal conductance by temperature was, at least partly, independent of other known mechanisms linked to water status and carbon metabolism. Stomatal conductance increased with rising temperature despite the decrease in leaf water potential, increase in transpiration, increase in intercellular CO2 concentration and was decoupled from photosynthesis. Increase in xylem and mesophyll hydraulic conductance coming from lower water viscosity may to some degree explain temperature dependent opening of stomata. The direct stomatal response to temperature allows plants to benefit from increased evaporative cooling during the heat waves and from lower stomatal limitations to photosynthesis but they may be jeopardized by faster depletion of soil water.

  3. Variable Thermal Conductivity on Compressible Boundary Layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, variable thermal conductivity on heat transfer over a circular cylinder is presented. The concept of assuming constant thermal conductivity on materials is however not efficient. Hence, the governing partial differential equation is reduced using non-dimensionless variables into a system of coupled non-linear ...

  4. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high temperature variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) backup radiator, and integrate it into a Stirling radioisotope...

  5. In-Situ Spatial Variability Of Thermal Conductivity And Volumetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of spatial variability of thermal conductivity and volumetric water content of silty topsoil were conduct-ed on a 0.6 ha site at Abeokuta, South-Western Nigeria. The thermal conductivity (k) was measured at depths of up to 0.06 m along four parallel profiles of 200 m long and at an average temperature of 25 C, using ...

  6. Optoelectronic properties and interband transition of La-doped BaSnO3 transparent conducting films determined by variable temperature spectral transmittance (United States)

    Xing, S. M.; Shan, C.; Jiang, K.; Zhu, J. J.; Li, Y. W.; Hu, Z. G.; Chu, J. H.


    Perovskite-structured Ba1-xLaxSnO3 (x = 0-0.10) films have been directly grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by a sol-gel method. Optical properties and bandgap energy of the films have been investigated by transmittance spectra from 10 K to 450 K. It indicates that these films exhibit a high transmission of more than 80% in the visible region. With increasing temperature, there is a significant bandgap shrinkage of about 0.5 eV for lightly La doping (x ≤ 0.04) films. For heavily La doping concentration (x ≥ 0.06), the bandgap remains nearly stable with the temperature and La composition. This is due to the fact that the lattice expansion caused by La doping is close to the saturation for the film doped with x = 0.06. Moreover, temperature dependent conductivity behavior shows a similar pattern, which suggests that the doping concentration of La-doped BaSnO3 (BLSO) films has a saturated state. The La introduction can modify the Sn 5s-O 2p antibonding state and the nonbonding O 2p orbital, which remarkably affect the electronic bandgap of the BLSO films.

  7. Measuring nanowire thermal conductivity at high temperatures (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Juekuan; Xiong, Yucheng; Huang, Baoling; Xu, Terry T.; Li, Deyu; Xu, Dongyan


    This work extends the micro-thermal-bridge method for thermal conductivity measurements of nanowires to high temperatures. The thermal-bridge method, based on a microfabricated device with two side-by-side suspended membranes with integrated platinum resistance heaters/thermometers, has been used to determine thermal conductivity of various nanowires/nanotubes/nanoribbons at relatively low temperatures. However, to date, thermal conductivity characterization of nanowires at temperatures above 600 K has seldom been reported presumably due to several technical difficulties including the instability of the microfabricated thermometers, radiation heat loss, and the effect of the background conductance on the measurement. Here we report on our attempt to address the aforementioned challenges and demonstrate thermal conductivity measurement of boron nanoribbons up to 740 K. To eliminate high temperature resistance instability, the device is first annealed at 1023 K for 5 min in an argon atmosphere. Two radiation shields are installed in the measurement chamber to minimize radiation heat loss from the measurement device to the surroundings; and the temperature of the device at each set point is calibrated by an additional thermocouple directly mounted on the chip carrier. The effect of the background conductance is eliminated by adopting a differential measurement scheme. With all these modifications, we successfully measured the thermal conductivity of boron nanoribbons over a wide temperature range from 27 K to 740 K. The measured thermal conductivity increases monotonically with temperature and reaches a plateau of ~2.5 W m‑1 K‑1 at approximately 400 K, with no clear signature of Umklapp scattering observed in the whole measurement temperature range.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Domairry Ganji


    Full Text Available In this paper, homotopy perturbation method has been used to evaluate the temperature distribution of annular fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and to determine the temperature distribution within the fin. This method is useful and practical for solving the nonlinear heat transfer equation, which is associated with variable thermal conductivity condition. The homotopy perturbation method provides an approximate analytical solution in the form of an infinite power series. The annular fin heat transfer rate with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity has been obtained as a function of thermo-geometric fin parameter and the thermal conductivity parameter describing the variation of the thermal conductivity.

  9. Electrical Conductivity of Micas at High Temperatures (United States)

    Watanabe, T.


    Electrical conductivity, along with seismic velocity, gives us clues to infer constituent materials and temperatures in the Earth's interior. Dry rocks have been considered to be electrically insulating at crustal temperatures. Observed high conductivity has been ascribed to the existence of fluids. However, Fuji-ta et al. (2007) recently reported that a dry gneiss shows relatively high conductivity (10-4-10-3 S/m) at the temperature of 300-400°C, and that it is strongly anisotropic in conductivity. They suggested that the alignment of biotite grains governs conductivity of the gneiss sample. Electrical properties of rock forming minerals are still poorly understood. We thus have measured electrical properties of biotite single crystals up to 700°C. In order to get a good understanding of conduction mechanisms, measurements have been also made on phlogopite and muscovite, which are common micas with similar crystallographic structures. Thin plates parallel to cleavages (thickness~0.1mm) were prepared from mica single crystals. Electrical impedance was measured by 2-electrode method. The specimen was kept in nitrogen or argon atmosphere. The conductivity measured parallel to cleavages is higher than that measured perpendicular to cleavages by 3-4 orders of magnitude. However, no significant difference in the activation energy of conductivity was observed between two directions. The activation energy of conductivity is ~50 kJ/mol for biotite and ~100 kJ/mol for phlogopite and muscovite. The conductivity of biotite is higher than those of phlogopite and muscovite by several orders of magnitude at the same temperature. The conductivity of biotite parallel to cleavages is ~10-1 S/m at 400°C. The conductivity of biotite increases irreversibly by heating. The irreversible change was not significant below 450°C. Remarkable increase is observed at the temperature of 450-550°C. No significant change was observed in the second heating. Such an increase in conductivity

  10. Electrothermal efficiency, temperature and thermal conductivity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study was made to evaluate the electrothermal efficiency of a DC arc plasma torch and temperature and thermal conductivity of plasma jet in the torch. The torch was operated at power levels from 4 to 20 kW in non-transferred arc mode. The effect of nitrogen in combination with argon as plasma gas on the above ...

  11. Electrothermal efficiency, temperature and thermal conductivity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A study was made to evaluate the electrothermal efficiency of a DC arc plasma torch and temperature and thermal conductivity of plasma jet in the torch. The torch was operated at power levels from 4 to 20 kW in non-transferred arc mode. The effect of nitrogen in combination with argon as plasma gas on the above ...

  12. Forecasting neutron star temperatures: predictability and variability. (United States)

    Page, Dany; Reddy, Sanjay


    It is now possible to model thermal relaxation of neutron stars after bouts of accretion during which the star is heated out of equilibrium by nuclear reactions in its crust. Major uncertainties in these models can be encapsulated in modest variations of a handful of control parameters that change the fiducial crustal thermal conductivity, specific heat, and heating rates. Observations of thermal relaxation constrain these parameters and allow us to predict longer term variability in terms of the neutron star core temperature. We demonstrate this explicitly by modeling ongoing thermal relaxation in the neutron star XTE J1701-462. Its future cooling, over the next 5 to 30 years, is strongly constrained and depends mostly on its core temperature, uncertainties in crust physics having essentially been pinned down by fitting to the first three years of observations.

  13. Variable color temperature fluorescent lamp (United States)

    Ravi, J.; Maya, J.


    Color temperature change in a mercury-rare gas low pressure discharge has been investigated. Different pulse waveforms have been employed to increase the ratio of mercury upper level transitions with respect to the resonant 254 nm radiation. Low pressure fluorescent light sources were made with coatings consisting of a blue phosphor, sensitive to 365 nm ultraviolet radiation, blended with the standard 254 nm excited red/green phosphors. With a fast rise excitation waveform, a color temperature rise of as much as 1700 K was realized although at a cost of 26% in relative luminous efficacy. An improved scheme for greater color temperature change is proposed based on a phosphor that is excitable by the mercury 185 nm ultraviolet radiation but which does not absorb 254 nm radiation.

  14. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara


    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  15. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition (United States)

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.


    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  16. Heat pipes with variable thermal conductance property for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravets, V.; Alekseik, Ye.; Alekseik, O.; Khairnasov, S. [National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Baturkin, V.; Ho, T. [Explorationssysteme RY-ES, Bremen (Germany); Celotti, L. [Active Space Technologies GmbH, Berlin (Germany)


    The activities presented in this paper demonstrate a new approach to provide passive thermal control using heat pipes, as demonstrated on the electronic unit of DLR’s MASCOT lander, which embarked on the NEA sample return mission Hayabusa 2 (JAXA). The focus is on the development and testing of heat pipes with variable thermal conductance in a predetermined temperature range. These heat pipes act as thermal switches. Unlike standard gasloaded heat pipes and thermal-diode heat pipes construction of presented heat pipes does not include any additional elements. Copper heat pipes with metal fibrous wicks were chosen as baseline design. We obtained positive results by choosing the heat carrier and structural parameters of the wick (i.e., pore diameter, porosity, and permeability). The increase in the thermal conductivity of the heat pipes from 0.04 W/K to 2.1 W/K was observed in the temperature range between −20 °C and +55 °C. Moreover, the heat pipes transferred the predetermined power of not less than 10 W within the same temperature range. The heat pipes have been in flight since December 2014, and the supporting telemetry data were obtained in September 2015. The data showed the nominal operation of the thermal control system.

  17. Thermoelectrically-cooled variable-temperature probe (United States)

    Kelso, R. M.; Richmond, R. G.


    Variable-temperature probe for electron spectroscopy requires no cryogenic liquids or resistance heating elements. Device consists of heat sink, probe tip, and nickel-plated copper body which resists oxidation and transfers heat efficiently between tip and heat sink.

  18. Deep temperature variability in Drake Passage (United States)

    Firing, Yvonne L.; McDonagh, Elaine L.; King, Brian A.; Desbruyères, Damien G.


    Observations made on 21 occupations between 1993 and 2016 of GO-SHIP line SR1b in eastern Drake Passage show an average temperature of 0.53°C deeper than 2000 dbar, with no significant trend, but substantial year-to-year variability (standard deviation 0.08°C). Using a neutral density framework to decompose the temperature variability into isopycnal displacement (heave) and isopycnal property change components shows that approximately 95% of the year-to-year variance in deep temperature is due to heave. Changes on isopycnals make a small contribution to year-to-year variability but contribute a significant trend of -1.4 ± 0.6 m°C per year, largest for density (γn) > 28.1, south of the Polar Front (PF). The heave component is depth-coherent and results from either vertical or horizontal motions of neutral density surfaces, which trend upward and northward around the PF, downward for the densest levels in the southern section, and downward and southward in the Subantarctic Front and Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). A proxy for the locations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) fronts is constructed from the repeat hydrographic data and has a strong relationship with deep ocean heat content, explaining 76% of deep temperature variance. The same frontal position proxy based on satellite altimeter-derived surface velocities explains 73% of deep temperature variance. The position of the PF plays the strongest role in this relationship between ACC fronts and deep temperature variability in Drake Passage, although much of the temperature variability in the southern half of the section can be explained by the position of the SACCF.

  19. Interpolation of climate variables and temperature modeling (United States)

    Samanta, Sailesh; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Lohar, Debasish; Pal, Babita


    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and modeling are becoming powerful tools in agricultural research and natural resource management. This study proposes an empirical methodology for modeling and mapping of the monthly and annual air temperature using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The study area is Gangetic West Bengal and its neighborhood in the eastern India, where a number of weather systems occur throughout the year. Gangetic West Bengal is a region of strong heterogeneous surface with several weather disturbances. This paper also examines statistical approaches for interpolating climatic data over large regions, providing different interpolation techniques for climate variables' use in agricultural research. Three interpolation approaches, like inverse distance weighted averaging, thin-plate smoothing splines, and co-kriging are evaluated for 4° × 4° area, covering the eastern part of India. The land use/land cover, soil texture, and digital elevation model are used as the independent variables for temperature modeling. Multiple regression analysis with standard method is used to add dependent variables into regression equation. Prediction of mean temperature for monsoon season is better than winter season. Finally standard deviation errors are evaluated after comparing the predicted temperature and observed temperature of the area. For better improvement, distance from the coastline and seasonal wind pattern are stressed to be included as independent variables.

  20. Temperature variability over the tropical middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanakumar


    Full Text Available A study on the variability of temperature in the tropical middle atmosphere over Thumba (8 32' N, 76 52' E, located at the southern part of India, has been carried out based on rocket observations for a period of 20 years, extending from 1970 to 1990. The rocketsonde-derived mean temperatures over Thumba are corrected prior to 1978 and then compared with the middle atmospheric reference model developed from satellite observations and Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME satellite data. Temperature variability at every 1 km interval in the 25-75 km region was analysed. The tropical stratosphere is found to be highly stable, whereas considerable variability is noted in the middle mesosphere. The effect of seasonal cycle is least in the lower stratosphere. Annual and semi-annual oscillations in temperature are the primary oscillations in the tropical middle atmosphere. Annual temperature oscillations are dominant in the mesosphere and semi-annual oscillations are strong in the stratosphere. The stratopause region is noted to be the part of the middle atmosphere least sensitive to the changes in solar activity and long-term variability.

  1. Variable effects of temperature on insect herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Lemoine


    Full Text Available Rising temperatures can influence the top-down control of plant biomass by increasing herbivore metabolic demands. Unfortunately, we know relatively little about the effects of temperature on herbivory rates for most insect herbivores in a given community. Evolutionary history, adaptation to local environments, and dietary factors may lead to variable thermal response curves across different species. Here we characterized the effect of temperature on herbivory rates for 21 herbivore-plant pairs, encompassing 14 herbivore and 12 plant species. We show that overall consumption rates increase with temperature between 20 and 30 °C but do not increase further with increasing temperature. However, there is substantial variation in thermal responses among individual herbivore-plant pairs at the highest temperatures. Over one third of the herbivore-plant pairs showed declining consumption rates at high temperatures, while an approximately equal number showed increasing consumption rates. Such variation existed even within herbivore species, as some species exhibited idiosyncratic thermal response curves on different host plants. Thus, rising temperatures, particularly with respect to climate change, may have highly variable effects on plant-herbivore interactions and, ultimately, top-down control of plant biomass.

  2. Daily and Seasonal Variability of PH, Dissolved Oxygen, Temperature, and Specific Conductance in the Colorado River Between the Forebay of Glen Canyon Dam and Lees Ferry, Northeastern Arizona, 1998-99

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, M. E; Hart, R. J; Marzolf, G. R; Bowser, C. J


    .... In addition, pH, dissolved-oxygen, temperature, and specific-conductance data were collected at five sites in the Colorado River tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam to document the daily, seasonal, and longitudinal range of variation in water chemistry that could occur annually within the Glen Canyon reach.

  3. EOP Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data contain shipboard temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chloropigments data collected in the Pacific Ocean in pelagic environments. Data are...

  4. Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of vanadium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    . Cryogenic Engineering .... Thermal conductivity of vanadium substituted BPSCCO system. 441 trical resistivity as well as the small decrease ..... G, Marre D, Putti M and Siri A S 1997 Physica C273 314. Chawlek J M, Uher C, Whitaker J F and ...

  5. Heat conductivity of high-temperature thermal insulators (United States)

    Kharlamov, A. G.

    The book deals essentially with the mechanisms of heat transfer by conduction, convection, and thermal radiation in absorbing and transmitting media. Particular attention is given to materials for gas-cooled reactor systems, the temperature dependent conductivities of high-temperature insulations in vacuum, and the thermal conductivities of MgO, Al2O3, ZrO2, and other powders at temperatures up to 2000 C. The thermal conductivity of pyrolitic graphite and graphite foam are studied.

  6. Spatial variability in streambed hydraulic conductivity of contrasting stream morphologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebök, Éva; Calvache, Carlos Duque; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard


    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is one of the main factors controlling variability in surface water-groundwater interactions, but only few studies aim at quantifying its spatial and temporal variability in different stream morphologies. Streambed horizontal hydraulic conductivities (Kh) were...... therefore determined from in-stream slug tests, vertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) were calculated with in-stream permeameter tests and hydraulic heads were measured to obtain vertical head gradients at eight transects, each comprising five test locations, in a groundwater-dominated stream. Seasonal...... small-scale measurements were taken in December 2011 and August 2012, both in a straight stream channel with homogeneous elevation and downstream of a channel meander with heterogeneous elevation. All streambed attributes showed large spatial variability. Kh values were the highest at the depositional...

  7. Temperature variability during delirium in ICU patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendina W van der Kooi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Delirium is an acute disturbance of consciousness and cognition. It is a common disorder in the intensive care unit (ICU and associated with impaired long-term outcome. Despite its frequency and impact, delirium is poorly recognized by ICU-physicians and -nurses using delirium screening tools. A completely new approach to detect delirium is to use monitoring of physiological alterations. Temperature variability, a measure for temperature regulation, could be an interesting component to monitor delirium, but whether temperature regulation is different during ICU delirium has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ICU delirium is related to temperature variability. Furthermore, we investigated whether ICU delirium is related to absolute body temperature. METHODS: We included patients who experienced both delirium and delirium free days during ICU stay, based on the Confusion Assessment method for the ICU conducted by a research- physician or -nurse, in combination with inspection of medical records. We excluded patients with conditions affecting thermal regulation or therapies affecting body temperature. Daily temperature variability was determined by computing the mean absolute second derivative of the temperature signal. Temperature variability (primary outcome and absolute body temperature (secondary outcome were compared between delirium- and non-delirium days with a linear mixed model and adjusted for daily mean Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale scores and daily maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. RESULTS: Temperature variability was increased during delirium-days compared to days without delirium (β(unadjusted=0.007, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.004 to 0.011, p<0.001. Adjustment for confounders did not alter this result (β(adjusted=0.005, 95% CI=0.002 to 0.008, p<0.001. Delirium was not associated with absolute body temperature (β(unadjusted=-0.03, 95% CI=-0.17 to 0

  8. Analytical Evalution of Heat Transfer Conductivity with Variable Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Masoume; Hosseini, Mohammad Javad; Barari, Amin


    The homotopy analysis method (HAM) as a new technique which is powerful and easy-to-use, is applied to solve heat transfer problems. In this paper, we use HAM for heat transfer conductivity equation with variable properties which may contain highly nonlinear terms. The obtained results are also...

  9. Entropy generation by nanofluid with variable thermal conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entropy generation by nanofluid with variable thermal conductivity and viscosity of assisted convective flow across a riser pipe of a horizontal flat plate solar collector is investigated numerically. The water based nanofluid with copper nanoparticles is used as the working fluid inside the fluid passing riser pipe.

  10. Effects of preparation temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effect of temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole conducting polymer films prepared by an electrochemical method in an aqueous medium using camphor sulfonate as the dopant. The polymer was grown from aqueous solutions employing a range of temperatures (1-60°C).

  11. Effect of atrioventricular conduction on heart rate variability

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Talha Jamal


    This paper discusses the effect of atrioventricular conduction time (AVCT) on the short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) by computing HRV parameters using intervals between the onsets of successive P waves (PP time series) for three groups: normal, arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) patients. A very precise wavelet transform based ECG delineator was developed to detect PP, PR and RR time series. Mean PR variation in arrhythmia and SCD group was found to be significantly high as compared to the normal group. It was observed that when PR variations in arrhythmia and SCD cases crossed a certain threshold, RR variability no longer provided a very accurate estimate of HRV. In such cases, PP variability was able to provide a better assessment of HRV. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Ontogenetic thermal tolerance and performance of ectotherms at variable temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavieres, G; Bogdanovich, J. M; Bozinovic, F


    .... Additionally, in constant and variable climatic scenarios, flies shifted to the right the optimum temperature but the maximum performance decreased only in flies reared on high temperatures and high thermal variability...

  13. Development of a high capacity variable conductance heat pipe. (United States)

    Kosson, R.; Hembach, R.; Edelstein, F.; Loose, J.


    The high-capacity, pressure-primed, tunnel-artery wick concept was used in a gas-controlled variable conductance heat pipe. A variety of techniques were employed to control the size of gas/vapor bubbles trapped within the artery. Successful operation was attained with a nominal 6-foot long, 1-inch diameter cold reservoir VCHP using ammonia working fluid and nitrogen control gas. The pipe contained a heat exchanger to subcool the liquid in the artery. Maximum transport capacity with a 46-inch effective length was 1200 watts level (more than 50,000 watt-inches) and 800 watts at 0.5-inch adverse tilt.

  14. On the effect of temperature dependent thermal conductivity on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We consider the effect of temperature dependent thermal conductivity on temperature rise in biologic tissues during microwave heating. The method of asymptotic expansion is used for finding solution. An appropriate matching procedure was used in our method. Our result reveals the possibility of multiple solutions and it ...

  15. Analysis of temperature distribution in a heat conducting fiber with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature distribution in a heat conducting fiber is computed using the Galerkin Finite Element Method in the present study. The weak form of the governing differential equation is obtained and nodal temperatures for linear and quadratic interpolation functions for different mesh densities are calculated for Neumann ...

  16. Variable-range hopping conductivity in Lu-doped Bi2Te3 (United States)

    Ivanov, Oleg; Yaprintsev, Maxim


    The Seebeck coefficient enhancement due to an increase of density-of-states effective mass of electron has been found in n-type Bi1.9Lu0.1Te3. This enhancement is assumed to be related to forming the narrow and non-parabolic impurity (Lu) band with local maximum of electronic density of states lying near the Fermi level. Minimum in the specific electrical resistivity, ρ, originated from change of conductivity mechanism was observed at temperature Tm ≈ 11 K. Above Tm, the ρ change is due to decrease of electron mobility via acoustic phonon scattering. Below Tm, the variable-range hopping conductivity takes place. The electron hops between the localized states of the impurity energy band occur via tunneling process. Using the temperature and magnetic field dependences of ρ, the localization radius of electron was estimated as ≈6 nm. Two parts in the magnetic field dependence of the electrical resistivity were found at temperature of 2 K. At weak magnetic fields, the ρ change is in agreement with the variable-range hopping conductivity mechanism. At high magnetic fields, the positive and almost linear transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistances were observed at low temperatures. Both variable-range hopping conductivity and positive linear magnetoresistance are characteristics of disordered and inhomogeneous semiconductors.

  17. Homotopy analysis method for variable thermal conductivity heat flux gage with edge contact resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Abdul [Gonzaga Univ., Spokane, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Khani, Farzad [Bakhtar Institute of Higher Education, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mathematics; Darvishi, Mohammad Taghi [Razi Univ., Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mathematics


    The homotopy analysis method (HAM) has been used to develop an analytical solution for the thermal performance of a circular-thin-foil heat flux gage with temperature dependent thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance between the edge of the foil and the heat sink. Temperature distributions in the foil are presented illustrating the effect of incident heat flux, radiation emission from the foil, variable thermal conductivity, and contact resistance between the foil and the heat sink. The HAM results agree up to four places of decimal with the numerical solutions generated using the symbolic algebra package Maple. This close comparison vouches for the high accuracy and stability of the analytic solution. (orig.)

  18. Effects of preparation temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Apr 2, 2002 ... Abstract. An attempt has been made to investigate the effect of temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole conducting polymer films prepared by an electrochemical method in an aqueous medium using camphor sulfonate as the dopant. The polymer was grown from aqueous solutions employing a ...

  19. Conductance bistability of gold nanowires at room temperature


    Kiguchi, Manabu; Konishi, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Kei


    Quantized conductance behavior of gold nanowires was studied under electrochemical potential control. We fabricated 1-nm-long monoatomic wires in solution at room temperature. Electrochemical potential significantly affected the stability of the monoatomic wire and fractional conductance peak occurrence in the conductance histogram. We revealed that the hydrogen adsorption on gold monoatomic wires was a decisive factor of the fractional peak, which was originated from the dynamic structural t...

  20. Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of biological tissues. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A; Mahajan, R L


    In this paper, we present our experimental results on the determination of the thermal conductivity of biological tissues using a transient technique based on the principles of the cylindrical hot-wire method. A novel, 1.45 mm diameter, 50 mm long hot-wire probe was deployed. Initial measurements were made on sponge, gelatin and Styrofoam insulation to test the accuracy of the probe. Subsequent experiments conducted on sheep collagen in the range of 25 degrees C thermal conductivity to be a linear function of temperature. Further, these changes in the thermal conductivity were found to be reversible. However, when the tissue was heated beyond 55 degrees C, irreversible changes in thermal conductivity were observed. Similar experiments were also conducted for determining the thermal conductivity of cow liver. In this case, the irreversible effects were found to set in much later at around 90 degrees C. Below this temperature, in the range of 25 degrees C thermal conductivity, as for sheep collagen, varied linearly with temperature. In the second part of our study, in vivo measurements were taken on the different organs of a living pig. Comparison with reported values for dead tissues shows the thermal conductivities of living organs to be higher, indicating thereby the dominant role played by blood perfusion in enhancing the net heat transfer in living tissues. The degree of enhancement is different in different organs and shows a direct dependence on the blood flow rate.

  1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: temperature-dependent cysteine reactivity suggests different stable conformers of the conduction pathway. (United States)

    Liu, Xuehong; Dawson, David C


    Cysteine scanning has been widely used to identify pore-lining residues in mammalian ion channels, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). These studies, however, have been typically conducted at room temperature rather than human body temperature. Reports of substantial effects of temperature on gating and anion conduction in CFTR channels as well as an unexpected pattern of cysteine reactivity in the sixth transmembrane segment (TM6) prompted us to investigate the effect of temperature on the reactivity of cysteines engineered into TM6 of CFTR. We compared reaction rates at temperatures ranging from 22 to 37 °C for cysteines placed on either side of an apparent size-selective accessibility barrier previously defined by comparing reactivity toward channel-permeant and channel-impermeant, thiol-directed reagents. The results indicate that the reactivity of cysteines at three positions extracellular to the position of the accessibility barrier, 334, 336, and 337, is highly temperature-dependent. At 37 °C, cysteines at these positions were highly reactive toward MTSES(-), whereas at 22 °C, the reaction rates were 2-6-fold slower to undetectable. An activation energy of 157 kJ/mol for the reaction at position 337 is consistent with the hypothesis that, at physiological temperature, the extracellular portion of the CFTR pore can adopt conformations that differ significantly from those that can be accessed at room temperature. However, the position of the accessibility barrier defined empirically by applying channel-permeant and channel-impermeant reagents to the extracellular aspect of the pore is not altered. The results illuminate previous scanning results and indicate that the assay temperature is a critical variable in studies designed to use chemical modification to test structural models for the CFTR anion conduction pathway.

  2. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.


    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration (X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  3. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.


    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration ( X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  4. Numerical investigation of entropy generation in unsteady MHD generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity. (United States)

    Chinyoka, T; Makinde, O D


    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.

  5. Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variability in estuarine water temperature gradients and influence on the distribution of zooplankton: a biogeographical perspective. TH Wooldridge, SHP Deyzel. Abstract. Structure and variability of water temperature gradients and potential influence on distribution of two tropical zooplankters (the mysid Mesopodopsis ...

  6. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures (United States)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley


    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  7. Experiment of electrical conductivity at low temperature (preliminary measurement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.


    A muon collider needs very large amount of RF power, how to reduce the RF power consumption is of major concern. Thus the application of liquid nitrogen cooling has been proposed. However, it is known that the electrical conductivity depends on many factors and the data from different sources vary in a wide range, especially the data of conductivity of beryllium has no demonstration in a real application. Therefore it is important to know the conductivity of materials, which are commercially available, and at a specified frequency. Here, the results of the preliminary measurement on the electrical conductivity of copper at liquid nitrogen temperature are summarized. Addressed also are the data fitting method and the linear expansion of copper.

  8. Metal Phosphates as Intermediate Temperature Proton Conducting Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Q.F.; Pan, Chao


    A series of metal phosphates were synthesized and screened as potential proton conductor electrolytes for fuel cells and electrolysers operational at intermediate temperatures. Among the selected, niobium and bismuth phosphates exhibited a proton conductivity of 10-2 and 10-7 S cm-1, respectively......, under the anhydrous atmosphere at 250 °C, showing close correlation with the presence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphate phases. At the water partial pressure of above 0.6 atm, both phosphates possessed a proton conductivity to a level of above 3 x 10-2 S cm-1. Reasonable stability of the proton...

  9. Predation life history responses to increased temperature variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barbosa

    Full Text Available The evolution of life history traits is regulated by energy expenditure, which is, in turn, governed by temperature. The forecasted increase in temperature variability is expected to impose greater stress to organisms, in turn influencing the balance of energy expenditure and consequently life history responses. Here we examine how increased temperature variability affects life history responses to predation. Individuals reared under constant temperatures responded to different levels of predation risk as appropriate: namely, by producing greater number of neonates of smaller sizes and reducing the time to first brood. In contrast, we detected no response to predation regime when temperature was more variable. In addition, population growth rate was slowest among individuals reared under variable temperatures. Increased temperature variability also affected the development of inducible defenses. The combined effects of failing to respond to predation risk, slower growth rate and the miss-match development of morphological defenses supports suggestions that increased variability in temperature poses a greater risk for species adaptation than that posed by a mean shift in temperature.

  10. Low-temperature Conductivity Detection for Ultrasensitive Ion Chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Jiwon; Lee, Dong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The effects of conductivity detection temperature on calibration sensitivity and linearity in suppressed ion chromatography using hydronium or hydroxide eluent were investigated. Theoretical calibration curves for lithium and nitrate ions at 0-35 .deg. C were calculated and compared with experimental data. As the detection temperature was lowered, both sensitivity and linearity of calibration at low concentrations were improved due to the reduced interference by water autoionization equilibrium; 4.3- and 1.3-fold increases in linear regression slopes were observed in the 0-1 μmol/L range when the temperature was lowered from 35 to 5 .deg. C for lithium and nitrate,respectively, along with significant increases in the correlation coefficient. Any remaining water autoionization effect was near completely removed by using eluents contaminated with rubidium or bromide ion at 0.1 μmol/L.

  11. Higher temperature variability reduces temperature sensitivity of vegetation growth in Northern Hemisphere (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoyan; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Guo, Weichao; Yin, Yi; Poulter, Ben; Peng, Changhui; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Wang, Pei; Huang, Yongmei


    Interannual air temperature variability has changed over some regions in Northern Hemisphere (NH), accompanying with climate warming. However, whether and to what extent it regulates the interannual sensitivity of vegetation growth to temperature variability (i.e., interannual temperature sensitivity)—one central issue in understanding and predicting the responses of vegetation growth to changing climate—still remains poorly quantified and understood. Here we quantify the relationships between the interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season (April-October) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ecosystem model simulations of gross primary productivity (GPP), and variability in mean growing-season temperature for forest, shrub, and grass over NH. We find that higher interannual variability in mean growing-season temperature leads to consistent decrease in interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season NDVI among all vegetation types but not in model simulations of GPP. Drier condition associates with 130 ± 150% further decrease in interannual temperature sensitivity of mean growing-season NDVI by temperature variability in forest and shrub. These results illustrate that varying temperature variability can significantly regulate the interannual temperature sensitivity of vegetation growth over NH, interacted with drought variability and nonlinear responses of photosynthesis to temperature. Our findings call for an improved characterization of the nonlinear effects of temperature variability on vegetation growth within global ecosystem models.

  12. Entropy generation by nanofluid with variable thermal conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: Entropy generation, assisted convection, nanofluid, finite element method, variable ... (2011) performed numerical simulation of a solar flat plate collector using discrete transfer radiation model (DTRM)–a CFD Approach. ...... Investigation on heat transfer performances of nanofluids in solar collector, Materials Sci.

  13. A variable multi-step method for transient heat conduction (United States)

    Smolinski, Patrick


    A variable explicit time integration algorithm is developed for unsteady diffusion problems. The algorithm uses nodal partitioning and allows the nodal groups to be updated with different time steps. The stability of the algorithm is analyzed using energy methods and critical time steps are found in terms of element eigenvalues with no restrictions on element types. Several numerical examples are given to illustrate the accuracy of the method.

  14. Air temperature variability in a high-elevation Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, Martin; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Air temperature is a key control of processes affecting snow and glaciers in high-elevation catchments, including melt, snowfall and sublimation. It is therefore a key input variable to models of land-surface-atmosphere interaction. Despite this importance, its spatial variability is poorly

  15. Temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and visibility during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the connections between temperature variability, intensity of wind speed and their effect on visibility of Makurdi town during the harmattan season. Data on mean monthly temperature of harmattan months of November, December, January and February (2001 to 2011), Wind speed and visibility records ...

  16. Year long variability of ground electrical conductivity in the sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground electrical conductivity was measured continuously on a soil type in Nigeria for one year using the Model R-50 Soil Test Resistivity Meter Equipment. The Wenner arrangement of electrodes, which is one of the probe methods of ground resistivity measurement, was employed for the measurement. About 67% of all ...

  17. [Effects of variable temperature on organic carbon mineralization in typical limestone soils]. (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Ge; Gao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Chang-Huan; Ci, En; Xie, De-Ti


    Soil sampling in the field and incubation experiment in the laboratory were conducted to investigate the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization to variable temperature regimes in the topsoil of limestone soils from forest land and dry land. Two incubated limestone soils were sampled from the 0-10 cm layers of typical forest land and dry land respectively, which were distributed in Tianlong Mountain area of Puding county, Guizhou province. The soils were incubated for 56 d under two different temperature regimes including variable temperature (range: 15-25 degrees C, interval: 12 h) and constant temperature (20 degrees C), and the cumulative temperature was the same in the two temperature treatments. In the entire incubation period (56 d), the SOC cumulative mineralization (63.32 mg x kg(-1)) in the limestone soil from dry land (SH) under the variable temperature was lower than that (63.96 mg x kg(-1)) at constant 20 degrees C, and there was no significant difference in the SOC cumulative mineralization between the variable and constant temperature treatments (P variable temperature was significantly lower than that (209.52 mg x kg(-1)) at constant 20 degrees C. The results indicated that the responses of SOC mineralization to the variable temperature were obviously different between SL and SH soils. The SOC content and composition were significantly different between SL and SH soils affected by vegetation and land use type, which suggested that SOC content and composition were important factors causing the different responses of SOC mineralization to variable temperature between SL and SH soils. In addition, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of two limestone soils were highly (P variable temperature mainly influenced SOC mineralization by changing microbial community activity rather than by changing microbial quantity.

  18. Conduction cooled high temperature superconducting dipole magnet for accelerator applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, N.; Nielsen, G.; Hauge, N.


    A 3T proof-of-principle dipole magnet for accelerator applications, based on 2nd generation high temperature superconducting tape was designed, built, and tested by a consortium under the lead of Danfysik. The magnet was designed to have a straight, circular bore with a good field region of radius...... = 25 mm, and a magnetic length of 250 mm. A total length of 2.5 km YBCO-based copper stabilized conductor supplied by SuperPower Inc., NY, USA, was isolated with 0.025 mm of epoxy and subsequently wound into 14 saddle coils and 4 racetrack coils with a cosine theta like configuration. The coils were......-liquid free operation of an HTS accelerator magnet was demonstrated. The cold mass support design permits magnet orientation under arbitrary angles. Careful choice of materials in terms of magnetic, heat conducting and mechanical properties resulted in a robust and compact solution which opens up...

  19. Lunar magnetic permeability, magnetic fields, and electrical conductivity temperature (United States)

    Parkin, C. W.


    In the time period 1969-1972 a total of five magnetometers were deployed on the lunar surface during four Apollo missions. Data from these instruments, along with simultaneous measurements from other experiments on the moon and in lunar orbit, were used to study properties of the lunar interior and the lunar environment. The principal scientific results from analyses of the magnetic field data are discussed. The results are presented in the following main categories: (1) lunar electrical conductivity, temperature, and structure; (2) lunar magnetic permeability, iron abundance, and core size limits; (3) the local remnant magnetic fields, their interaction with the solar wind, and a thermoelectric generator model for their origin. Relevant publications and presented papers are listed.

  20. High-Temperature Proton-Conducting Ceramics Developed (United States)

    Sayir, Ali; Dynys, Frederick W.; Berger, M. H.


    High-temperature protonic conductors (HTPC) are needed for hydrogen separation, hydrogen sensors, fuel cells, and hydrogen production from fossil fuels. The HTPC materials for hydrogen separation at high temperatures are foreseen to be metal oxides with the perovskite structure A(sup 2+)B(sup 4+)C(sup 2-, sub 3) and with the trivalent cation (M(sup 3+)) substitution at the B(sup 4+)-site to introduce oxygen vacancies. The high affinity for hydrogen ions (H(sup +)) is advantageous for protonic transport, but it increases the reactivity toward water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which can lead to premature membrane failure. In addition, there are considerable technological challenges related to the processing of HTPC materials. The high melting point and multi-cation chemistry of HTPC materials creates difficulties in in achieving high-density, single-phase membranes by solid-state sintering. The presence of secondary phases and grain-boundary interfaces are detrimental to the protonic conduction and environmental stability of polycrystalline HTPC materials.

  1. Proton conducting ceramics for use in intermediate temperature proton conducting fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, D.; Weston, M.; Lakeman, J. B.; Jones, P. [Qinetiq Haslar Marine Technology Park, Gosport, Hampshire (United Kingdom); Cherry, M. [Cambridge Discovery Chemistry, Merrifield Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Irvine, J. T. S.; Corcoran, D. J. D. [University of St, Andrews, School of Chemistry, (United Kingdom)


    A new proton conducting perovskite material Sr{sub 3}CaZr{sub 0}.9Ta{sub 1}.1O{sub 8}.55 (SCZT) was synthesized and the mode of conduction was demonstrated through modelling. Changes in protonic conductivity under fuel cell conditions were examined using AC impedance techniques. Result showed that the material was less conducive than the standard BaCe{sub 0}.95Y{sub 0}.05O{sub 2}.975 material, although it was more stable under reformate conditions. The maximum power output generated by the SCZT85 cell was 0.2mW/sq cm at 600 degrees C. The low power densities reported in this study may be improved upon by utilizing thin film technologies, or even by simple spraying. Results obtained at low temperatures suggest the possibility of developing an intermediate fuel cell capable of bridging the gap between PEM and SOFC/MCFC systems. 8 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  2. Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of amorphous V sub x Si sub 1 minus x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian, H.H.; Howson, M.A. (Department of Physics, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom (GB))


    We present results for the temperature dependence of electrical conductivity for amorphous V{sub {ital x}}Si{sub 1{minus}{ital x}} alloys. The alloys investigated span the composition range from {ital x}=0.5 to 0.1. For the alloys with more than 20 at. % V, the temperature dependence could be successfully fitted with use of the theories of quantum interference effects, and values for the spin-orbit and inelastic scattering rates are extracted from the fits. As the concentration of V is decreased, there is evidence for a metal-insulator transition seen at around 15 to 13 at. % V. The temperature dependence of the conductivity is surprisingly similar for all the alloys on the metallic side of the transition, showing a clear {ital T}{sup 1/2} dependence at the lowest temperatures while the insulating V{sub 0.1}Si{sub 0.9} alloy shows evidence for variable-range-hopping conduction. The V{sub 0.13}Si{sub 0.87} alloy, which is right at the transition, exhibits an unusual temperature dependence. The sample is metallic and seems to follow a {ital T}{sup 1/3} dependence at low temperatures.

  3. The Temperature Condition of the Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Energy Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin


    Full Text Available The temperature state of a solid body, in addition to the conditions of its heat exchange with the environment, can greatly depend on the heat release (or heat absorption processes within the body volume. Among the possible causes of these processes should be noted such as a power release in the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions in the solid body material, which respectively involve heat release or absorbtion, heat transfer of a part of the electric power in the current-carrying conductors (so-called Joule’s heat or the energy radiation penetrating into the body of a semitransparent material, etc. The volume power release characterizes an intensity of these processes.The extensive list of references to the theory of heat conductivity of solids offers solutions to problems to determine a stationary (steady over time and non-stationary temperature state of the solids (as a rule, of the canonical form, which act as the sources of volume power release. Thus, in general case, a possibility for changing power release according to the body volume and in solving the nonstationary problems also a possible dependence of this value on the time are taken into consideration.However, in real conditions the volume power release often also depends on the local temperature, and such dependence can be nonlinear. For example, with chemical reactions the intensity of heat release or absorption is in proportion to their rate, which, in turn, is sensitive to the temperature value, and a dependence on the temperature is exponential. A further factor that in such cases makes the analysis of the solid temperature state complicated, is dependence on the temperature and the thermal conductivity of this body material, especially when temperature distribution therein  is significantly non-uniform. Taking into account the influence of these factors requires the mathematical modeling methods, which allow us to build an adequate

  4. Variability in Rainfall, Temperature and Relative Humidity at Bahir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess change in rainfall, temperature and relative humidity at Bahir Dar city in relation to global climate change. The study focused on analyzing changes in meteorological data, specifically temperature, rainfall and relative humidity. Bahir Dar city was selected due to its proximity to Lake Tana ...

  5. Spatial patterns of stream temperatures and electric conductivity in a mesoscale catchment (United States)

    Lieder, Ernestine; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa


    Stream temperature and electric conductivity (EC) are both relatively easily measured and can provide valuable information on runoff generation processes and catchment storage.This study investigates the spatial variability of stream temperature and EC in a mesoscale basin. We focus on the mesoscale (sub-catchments and reach scale), and long term (seasonal / annual) stream temperature and EC patterns. Our study basin is the Attert catchment in Luxembourg (288km2), which contains multiple sub-catchments of different geology, topography and land use patterns. We installed 90 stream temperature and EC sensors at sites across the basin in summer 2015. The collected data is complemented by land use and discharge data and an extensive climate data set. Thermal sensitivity was calculated as the slope of daily air temperature-water-temperature regression line and describes the sensitivity of stream temperature to long term environmental change. Amplitude sensitivity was calculated as slope of the daily air and water temperature amplitude regression and describes the short term warming capacity of the stream. We found that groups with similar long term thermal and EC patterns are strongly related to different geological units. The sandstone reaches show the coldest temperatures and lowest annual thermal sensitivity to air temperature. The slate reaches are characterized by comparably low EC and high daily temperature amplitudes and amplitude sensitivity. Furthermore, mean annual temperatures and thermal sensitivities increase exponentially with drainage area, which can be attributed to the accumulation of heat throughout the system. On the reach scale, daily stream temperature fluctuations or sensitivities were strongly influenced by land cover distribution, stream shading and runoff volume. Daily thermal sensitivities were low for headwater streams; peaked for intermediate reaches in the middle of the catchment and then decreased again further downstream with increasing

  6. Unsteady Flow of Reactive Viscous, Heat Generating/Absorbing Fluid with Soret and Variable Thermal Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Uwanta


    Full Text Available This study investigates the unsteady natural convection and mass transfer flow of viscous reactive, heat generating/absorbing fluid in a vertical channel formed by two infinite parallel porous plates having temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The motion of the fluid is induced due to natural convection caused by the reactive property as well as the heat generating/absorbing nature of the fluid. The solutions for unsteady state temperature, concentration, and velocity fields are obtained using semi-implicit finite difference schemes. Perturbation techniques are used to get steady state expressions of velocity, concentration, temperature, skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number. The effects of various flow parameters such as suction/injection (γ, heat source/sinks (S, Soret number (Sr, variable thermal conductivity δ, Frank-Kamenetskii parameter λ, Prandtl number (Pr, and nondimensional time t on the dynamics are analyzed. The skin friction, heat transfer coefficients, and Sherwood number are graphically presented for a range of values of the said parameters.

  7. Submesoscale Sea Surface Temperature Variability from UAV and Satellite Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Castro


    Full Text Available Earlier studies of spatial variability in sea surface temperature (SST using ship-based radiometric data suggested that variability at scales smaller than 1 km is significant and affects the perceived uncertainty of satellite-derived SSTs. Here, we compare data from the Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST thermal infrared radiometer flown over the Arctic Ocean against coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS measurements to assess the spatial variability of skin SSTs within 1-km pixels. By taking the standard deviation, σ, of the BESST measurements within individual MODIS pixels, we show that significant spatial variability of the skin temperature exists. The distribution of the surface variability measured by BESST shows a peak value of O(0.1 K, with 95% of the pixels showing σ < 0.45 K. Significantly, high-variability pixels are located at density fronts in the marginal ice zone, which are a primary source of submesoscale intermittency near the surface. SST wavenumber spectra indicate a spectral slope of −2, which is consistent with the presence of submesoscale processes at the ocean surface. Furthermore, the BESST wavenumber spectra not only match the energy distribution of MODIS SST spectra at the satellite-resolved wavelengths, they also span the spectral slope of −2 by ~3 decades, from wavelengths of 8 km to <0.08 km.

  8. Novel Dodecaarylporphyrins: Synthesis and Variable Temperature NMR Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancilla, Mark; Lebrilla, Carlito; Ma, Jian-Guo; Medforth, Craig J.; Muzzi, Cinzia M.; Shelnutt, John A.; Smith, Kevin M.; Voss, Lisa


    An investigation of the synthesis of novel dodecaarylporphyrins using the Suzuki coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with octabromotetraarylporphyrins is reported. Studies of the dynamic properties of these new porphyrins using variable temperature (VT) 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics provide interesting insights into their dynamic properties, including the first determination of {beta} aryl rotation in a porphyrin system.

  9. Stream temperature variability: why it matters to salmon (United States)

    E. Ashley Steel; Brian Beckman; Marie. Oliver


    Salmon evolved in natural river systems, where temperatures fluctuate daily, weekly, seasonally, and all along a stream’s path—from the mountains to the sea. Climate change and human activities alter this natural variability. Dams, for example, tend to reduce thermal fluctuations.Currently, scientists gauge habitat suitability for aquatic species by...

  10. Remotely sensed variability of temperature and chlorophyll in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consistent time-series of daily sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a concentration images is generated for the period July 1998–June 2003, and a quantitative analysis undertaken. The variability in SST, upwelling and phytoplankton biomass is explored for selected biogeographic regions, with particular focus ...

  11. Joint variability of global runoff and global sea surface temperatures (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.


    Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 1905-2002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly temperature and precipitation data to compute time series of annual gridded runoff for the analysis period. The annual runoff time series data are combined with gridded annual sea surface temperature data, and the combined dataset is subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA) to identify the primary modes of variability. The first three components from the PCA explain 29% of the total variability in the combined runoff/SST dataset. The first component explains 15% of the total variance and primarily represents long-term trends in the data. The long-term trends in SSTs are evident as warming in all of the oceans. The associated long-term trends in runoff suggest increasing flows for parts of North America, South America, Eurasia, and Australia; decreasing runoff is most notable in western Africa. The second principal component explains 9% of the total variance and reflects variability of the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its associated influence on global annual runoff patterns. The third component explains 5% of the total variance and indicates a response of global annual runoff to variability in North Aflantic SSTs. The association between runoff and North Atlantic SSTs may explain an apparent steplike change in runoff that occurred around 1970 for a number of continental regions.

  12. Rheological modelling of physiological variables during temperature variations at rest (United States)

    Vogelaere, P.; de Meyer, F.


    The evolution with time of cardio-respiratory variables, blood pressure and body temperature has been studied on six males, resting in semi-nude conditions during short (30 min) cold stress exposure (0°C) and during passive recovery (60 min) at 20°C. Passive cold exposure does not induce a change in HR but increases VO 2, VCO 2 Ve and core temperature T re, whereas peripheral temperature is significantly lowered. The kinetic evolution of the studied variables was investigated using a Kelvin-Voigt rheological model. The results suggest that the human body, and by extension the measured physiological variables of its functioning, does not react as a perfect viscoelastic system. Cold exposure induces a more rapid adaptation for heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures than that observed during the rewarming period (20°C), whereas respiratory adjustments show an opposite evolution. During the cooling period of the experiment the adaptative mechanisms, taking effect to preserve core homeothermy and to obtain a higher oxygen supply, increase the energy loss of the body.

  13. Expendable Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth System (XCTD) development Program (United States)


    thermistor (or RT) and conductivity cell (or Rd) resistances are calculated as RT4 and RdI, respectively. Next, the pre-launch equations are used to...conductivity of the water that flows through the conductivity cell , convert the resistance of the sensors to frequency, and drive the frequency along the ST wire...AFTERSODY AFTERSODY WIRE $POOL INSULATOR INNER ELECTROOE (2) THERMISTOR, -PACER "FLEX CIRCUOUTER ELECTRODE (2) "SEAWATER SWITCH CONDUCTIVITY CELL P2

  14. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Schwendeman, Carl; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.


    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  15. The variation of electrical conductivity with temperature for Cu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The narrowing of the band gaps facilitates the ease of electronic transition from the valence band to the conduction band thereby enhancing the conductivity of the samples. All the samples investigated are characterized by wide band gaps which make them invaluable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices that utilize ...

  16. Coral bleaching pathways under the control of regional temperature variability (United States)

    Langlais, C. E.; Lenton, A.; Heron, S. F.; Evenhuis, C.; Sen Gupta, A.; Brown, J. N.; Kuchinke, M.


    Increasing sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predicted to adversely impact coral populations worldwide through increasing thermal bleaching events. Future bleaching is unlikely to be spatially uniform. Therefore, understanding what determines regional differences will be critical for adaptation management. Here, using a cumulative heat stress metric, we show that characteristics of regional SST determine the future bleaching risk patterns. Incorporating observed information on SST variability, in assessing future bleaching risk, provides novel options for management strategies. As a consequence, the known biases in climate model variability and the uncertainties in regional warming rate across climate models are less detrimental than previously thought. We also show that the thresholds used to indicate reef viability can strongly influence a decision on what constitutes a potential refugia. Observing and understanding the drivers of regional variability, and the viability limits of coral reefs, is therefore critical for making meaningful projections of coral bleaching risk.

  17. Implementation of Temperature Sequential Controller on Variable Speed Drive (United States)

    Cheong, Z. X.; Barsoum, N. N.


    There are many pump and motor installations with quite extensive speed variation, such as Sago conveyor, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and water pumping system. A common solution for these applications is to run several fixed speed motors in parallel, with flow control accomplish by turning the motors on and off. This type of control method causes high in-rush current, and adds a risk of damage caused by pressure transients. This paper explains the design and implementation of a temperature speed control system for use in industrial and commercial sectors. Advanced temperature speed control can be achieved by using ABB ACS800 variable speed drive-direct torque sequential control macro, programmable logic controller and temperature transmitter. The principle of direct torque sequential control macro (DTC-SC) is based on the control of torque and flux utilizing the stator flux field orientation over seven preset constant speed. As a result of continuous comparison of ambient temperature to the references temperatures; electromagnetic torque response is particularly fast to the motor state and it is able maintain constant speeds. Experimental tests have been carried out by using ABB ACS800-U1-0003-2, to validate the effectiveness and dynamic respond of ABB ACS800 against temperature variation, loads, and mechanical shocks.

  18. Effects of Shear Dependent Viscosity and Variable Thermal Conductivity on the Flow and Heat Transfer in a Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Miao


    Full Text Available In this paper we study the effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity on the heat transfer in the pressure-driven fully developed flow of a slurry (suspension between two horizontal flat plates. The fluid is assumed to be described by a constitutive relation for a generalized second grade fluid where the shear viscosity is a function of the shear rate, temperature and concentration. The heat flux vector for the slurry is assumed to follow a generalized form of the Fourier’s equation where the thermal conductivity k depends on the temperature as well as the shear rate. We numerically solve the governing equations of motion in the non-dimensional form and perform a parametric study to see the effects of various dimensionless numbers on the velocity, volume fraction and temperature profiles. The different cases of shear thinning and thickening, and the effect of the exponent in the Reynolds viscosity model, for the temperature variation in viscosity, are also considered. The results indicate that the variable thermal conductivity can play an important role in controlling the temperature variation in the flow.

  19. White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variable Stars: Surface Temperatures and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Sion


    Full Text Available A summary is presented of what is currently known about the surface temperatures of accreting white dwarfs (WDs detected in non-magnetic and magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs based upon synthetic spectral analyses of far ultraviolet data. A special focus is placed on WD temperatures above and below the CV period gap as a function of the orbital period, Porb. The principal uncertainty of the temperatures for the CV WDs in the Teff - Porb distribution, besides the distance to the CV, is the mass of the WD. Only in eclipsing CV systems, an area of eclipsing binary studies, which was so central to Robert H. Koch’s career, is it possible to know CV WD masses with high precision.

  20. A temperature rise reduces trial-to-trial variability of locust auditory neuron responses. (United States)

    Eberhard, Monika J B; Schleimer, Jan-Hendrik; Schreiber, Susanne; Ronacher, Bernhard


    The neurophysiology of ectothermic animals, such as insects, is affected by environmental temperature, as their body temperature fluctuates with ambient conditions. Changes in temperature alter properties of neurons and, consequently, have an impact on the processing of information. Nevertheless, nervous system function is often maintained over a broad temperature range, exhibiting a surprising robustness to variations in temperature. A special problem arises for acoustically communicating insects, as in these animals mate recognition and mate localization typically rely on the decoding of fast amplitude modulations in calling and courtship songs. In the auditory periphery, however, temporal resolution is constrained by intrinsic neuronal noise. Such noise predominantly arises from the stochasticity of ion channel gating and potentially impairs the processing of sensory signals. On the basis of intracellular recordings of locust auditory neurons, we show that intrinsic neuronal variability on the level of spikes is reduced with increasing temperature. We use a detailed mathematical model including stochastic ion channel gating to shed light on the underlying biophysical mechanisms in auditory receptor neurons: because of a redistribution of channel-induced current noise toward higher frequencies and specifics of the temperature dependence of the membrane impedance, membrane potential noise is indeed reduced at higher temperatures. This finding holds under generic conditions and physiologically plausible assumptions on the temperature dependence of the channels' kinetics and peak conductances. We demonstrate that the identified mechanism also can explain the experimentally observed reduction of spike timing variability at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Temperature effect in the conductance of hydrogen molecule


    Crisan, M.; Grosu, I.


    We present a many-body calculation for the conductance of a conducting bridge of a simple hydrogen molecule between $Pt$ electrodes.The experimental results showed that the conductance $G=dI/dV$ has the maximum value near the quantum unit $G_{0}=2e^{2}/h$. The $I-V$ dependence presents peak and dip and we consider that the electron-phonon interaction is responsible for this behavior. At T=0 there is a step in this dependence for the energy of phonons $\\omega_{0}$ which satisfies $eV=\\omega_{0...

  2. A simple method to measure the complex permittivity of materials at variable temperatures (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Yang; Liu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Di; Wu, Shiyue; Yuan, Jianping; Li, Lixin


    Measurement of the complex permittivity (CP) of a material at different temperatures in microwave heating applications is difficult and complicated. In this paper a simple and convenient method is employed to measure the CP of a material over variable temperature. In this method the temperature of a sample is increased experimentally to obtain the formula for the relationship between CP and temperature by a genetic algorithm. We chose agar solution (sample) and a Yangshao reactor (microwave heating system) to validate the reliability and feasibility of this method. The physical parameters (the heat capacity, C p , density, ρ, and thermal conductivity, k) of the sample are set as constants in the process of simulation and inversion. We analyze the influence of the variation of physical parameters with temperature on the accuracy of the inversion results. It is demonstrated that the variation of these physical parameters has little effect on the inversion results in a certain temperature range.

  3. Heat-conduction error of temperature sensors in a fluid flow with nonuniform and unsteady temperature distribution. (United States)

    Khine, Soe Minn; Houra, Tomoya; Tagawa, Masato


    In temperature measurement of non-isothermal fluid flows by a contact-type temperature sensor, heat conduction along the sensor body can cause significant measurement error which is called "heat-conduction error." The conventional formula for estimating the heat-conduction error was derived under the condition that the fluid temperature to be measured is uniform. Thus, if we apply the conventional formula to a thermal field with temperature gradient, the heat-conduction error will be underestimated. In the present study, we have newly introduced a universal physical model of a temperature-measurement system to estimate accurately the heat-conduction error even if a temperature gradient exists in non-isothermal fluid flows. Accordingly, we have been able to successfully derive a widely applicable estimation and/or evaluation formula of the heat-conduction error. Then, we have verified experimentally the effectiveness of the proposed formula using the two non-isothermal fields-a wake flow formed behind a heated cylinder and a candle flame-whose fluid-dynamical characteristics should be quite different. As a result, it is confirmed that the proposed formula can represent accurately the experimental behaviors of the heat-conduction error which cannot be explained appropriately by the existing formula. In addition, we have analyzed theoretically the effects of the heat-conduction error on the fluctuating temperature measurement of a non-isothermal unsteady fluid flow to derive the frequency response of the temperature sensor to be used. The analysis result shows that the heat-conduction error in temperature-fluctuation measurement appears only in a low-frequency range. Therefore, if the power-spectrum distribution of temperature fluctuations to be measured is sufficiently away from the low-frequency range, the heat-conduction error has virtually no effect on the temperature-fluctuation measurements even by the temperature sensor accompanying the heat-conduction error in

  4. The influence of global sea surface temperature variability on the large-scale land surface temperature (United States)

    Tyrrell, Nicholas L.; Dommenget, Dietmar; Frauen, Claudia; Wales, Scott; Rezny, Mike


    In global warming scenarios, global land surface temperatures () warm with greater amplitude than sea surface temperatures (SSTs), leading to a land/sea warming contrast even in equilibrium. Similarly, the interannual variability of is larger than the covariant interannual SST variability, leading to a land/sea contrast in natural variability. This work investigates the land/sea contrast in natural variability based on global observations, coupled general circulation model simulations and idealised atmospheric general circulation model simulations with different SST forcings. The land/sea temperature contrast in interannual variability is found to exist in observations and models to a varying extent in global, tropical and extra-tropical bands. There is agreement between models and observations in the tropics but not the extra-tropics. Causality in the land-sea relationship is explored with modelling experiments forced with prescribed SSTs, where an amplification of the imposed SST variability is seen over land. The amplification of to tropical SST anomalies is due to the enhanced upper level atmospheric warming that corresponds with tropical moist convection over oceans leading to upper level temperature variations that are larger in amplitude than the source SST anomalies. This mechanism is similar to that proposed for explaining the equilibrium global warming land/sea warming contrast. The link of the to the dominant mode of tropical and global interannual climate variability, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), is found to be an indirect and delayed connection. ENSO SST variability affects the oceans outside the tropical Pacific, which in turn leads to a further, amplified and delayed response of.

  5. Adaptation of Paramecium caudatum to variable conditions of temperature stress. (United States)

    Duncan, Alison B; Fellous, Simon; Quillery, Elsa; Kaltz, Oliver


    The environment is rarely constant and organisms are exposed to spatial and temporal variation that will impact life-histories. It is important to understand how such variation affects the adaptation of organisms to their local environment. We compare the adaptation of populations of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum exposed to constant (23 °C or 35 °C) and temporally variable temperature environments (random daily fluctuations between 23 °C or 35 °C). Consistent with theory, our experiment shows the evolution of specialists when evolution proceeds in constant environments and generalists when the environment is temporally variable. In addition, we demonstrate costs for specialists of being locally adapted through reduced fitness in novel environments. Conversely, we do not find any costs for generalists, as all populations from variable environments had equal or superior performance to specialists in their own environment. The lack of a cost for generalists is emphasised by the presence of a super generalist that has the highest performance at both assay temperatures. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Thermal conductivity of food materials at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiess, W.E.L.; Walz, E.; Nesvadba, P.; Morley, M.; Haneghem, van I.A.; Salmon, D.R.


    In order to expand the available information on thermal conductivity of foods, within the framework of COST Action 93, a collaborative study was organised. In the first step, typical food components (apple pulp, meat, olive oil, sodium caseinate, starch, tomato paste) were used as standards for

  7. Temperature response of bundle-sheath conductance in maize leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Xinyou; Putten, Van Der Peter E.L.; Struik, Paul C.; Driever, Steven M.


    A small bundle-sheath conductance (g bs) is essential for the C4 CO2-concentrating mechanism to suppress photorespiration effectively. To predict the productivity of C4 crops accurately under global warming, it is necessary to examine whether and how g

  8. The non-linear relationship between nerve conduction velocity and skin temperature.


    Todnem, K; Knudsen, G; Riise, T.; Nyland, H; Aarli, J A


    Median motor and sensory nerves were examined in 20 healthy subjects. Superficial stimulating and recording electrodes were used, and the nerves were examined at natural skin temperature, after cooling and after heating of the arm. The conduction velocity for the fastest and slow conducting sensory fibres (temperature range 17-37 degrees C), and for the fastest conducting motor fibres (temperature range 19-38 degrees C) increased non-linearly with increase in skin temperature. Similarly, dist...

  9. Variability of surface temperature in agricultural fields of central California (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Goettelman, R. C.


    In an attempt to evaluate the relationship between hand-held infrared thermometers and aircraft thermal scanners in near-level terrain and to quantify the variability of surface temperatures within individual fields, ground-based and aircraft thermal sensor measurements were made along a 50-km transect on 3 May 1979 and a 20-km transect on 7 August 1980. These comparisons were made on fields near Davis, California. Agreement was within 1 C for fields covered with vegetation and 3.6 C for bare, dry fields. The variability within fields was larger for bare, dry fields than for vegetatively covered fields. In 1980, with improvements in the collection of ground truth data, the agreement was within 1 C for a variety of fields.

  10. Boundary-layer temperatures in high accretion rate cataclysmic variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoare, M.G.; Drew, J.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics)


    We use the Zanstra method to derive limits on boundary-layer temperatures in eclipsing dwarf novae during outburst and nova-like variables, using the observed He II {lambda}1640 and {lambda}4686 recombination lines. It is assumed that all the emission is produced in the wind rather than the accretion disc. This method constrains the boundary-layer temperatures to between 50 000 and 100 000 K depending on the degree of wind bipolarity. These estimates are lower than the T>or approx200 000 K predicted theoretically. Possible explanations include rapid rotation of the white dwarf and spreading of the boundary layer over the entire white-dwarf surface. (author).

  11. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao


    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  12. Processes of India's offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurian, N.; Lengaigne, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Vialard, J.; Pous, S.; Peter, A-C.; Durand, F.; Naik, Shweta

    . LOCEAN, IRD/CNRS/UPMC/MNHN, Paris, France 3. LEGOS, IRD/CNRS/CNES/UPS, Toulouse, France Corresponding author address: Nisha Kurian Physical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula. Goa India – 403004; E...., vol.63; 2013; 329-346 Processes of India’s offshore summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability K. Nisha1, M. Lengaigne1,2, V.V. Gopalakrishna,1 J. Vialard2, S. Pous2, A.-C. Peter2, F. Durand3, S.Naik1 1. NIO, CSIR, Goa, India 2...

  13. The effect of temperature cycling on the DC conductivity of polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M.S.; Henriksen, Mogens; Henk, Peter O


    The effect of temperature cycling between 40°C and 80°C during combined temperature and electric field conditioning on the DC conductivity of LDPE (low-density polyethylene) has been studied and compared with DC conductivity results using a constant temperature of 80°C and an identical sample under...

  14. Electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1314 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=763 K), from 551 K to temperature as high as 1314 K, that is, 391 above the boiling point of the salt. The specific electrical conductance was found to reach its maximum at 1143 K, after that it decreases with the temperature rising.

  15. Mantle dynamics with pressure- and temperature-dependent thermal expansivity and conductivity (United States)

    Tosi, Nicola; Yuen, David A.; de Koker, Nico; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.


    In numerical simulations of mantle convection it is commonly assumed that the coefficients of thermal expansion α and thermal conduction k are either constant or pressure-dependent. Pressure changes are generally computed using parametrizations that rely on extrapolations of low-pressure data for a single upper-mantle phase. Here we collect data for both the pressure and temperature dependence of α from a database of first-principles calculations, and of k from recent experimental studies. We use these data-sets to construct analytical parametrizations of α and k for the major upper- and lower-mantle phases that can be easily incorporated into exisiting convection codes. We then analyze the impact of such parametrizations on Earth's mantle dynamics by employing two-dimensional numerical models of thermal convection. When α is the only variable parameter, both its temperature and pressure dependence enhance hot plumes and tend to inhibit the descent of cold downwellings. Taking into account a variable k leads to a strong increase of the bulk mantle temperature, which reduces the buoyancy available to amplify bottom boundary layer instabilities and causes mantle flow to be driven primarily by the instability of cold plates whose surface velocity also tends to rise. When both parameters are considered together, we observe an increased propensity to local layering which favors slab stagnation in the transition zone and subsequent thickening in the lower mantle. Furthermore, the values of k near the core-mantle boundary ultimately control the effect of this physical property on convection, which stresses the importance of determining the thermal conductivity of the post-perovskite phase.

  16. Internal variability in simulated and observed tropical tropospheric temperature trends (United States)

    Suárez-Gutiérrez, Laura; Li, Chao; Thorne, Peter W.; Marotzke, Jochem


    We explore the extent to which internal variability can reconcile discrepancies between observed and simulated warming in the upper tropical troposphere. We compare all extant radiosonde-based estimates for the period 1958-2014 to simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 multimodel ensemble and the 100 realization Max Planck Institute large ensemble. We consider annual mean temperatures and all available 30-and 15-year trends. Most observed trends fall within the ensemble spread for most of the record, and trends calculated over 15-year periods show better agreement than 30-year trends, with generally larger discrepancies for the older observational products. The simulated amplification of surface warming aloft in the troposphere is consistent with observations, and the linear correlation between surface and simultaneous tropospheric warming trends decreases with trend length. We conclude that trend differences between observations and simulations of tropical tropospheric temperatures are dominated by observational uncertainty and chaotic internal variability rather than by systematic errors in model performance.

  17. Emergent constraint on equilibrium climate sensitivity from global temperature variability (United States)

    Cox, Peter M.; Huntingford, Chris; Williamson, Mark S.


    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) remains one of the most important unknowns in climate change science. ECS is defined as the global mean warming that would occur if the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration were instantly doubled and the climate were then brought to equilibrium with that new level of CO2. Despite its rather idealized definition, ECS has continuing relevance for international climate change agreements, which are often framed in terms of stabilization of global warming relative to the pre-industrial climate. However, the ‘likely’ range of ECS as stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has remained at 1.5–4.5 degrees Celsius for more than 25 years. The possibility of a value of ECS towards the upper end of this range reduces the feasibility of avoiding 2 degrees Celsius of global warming, as required by the Paris Agreement. Here we present a new emergent constraint on ECS that yields a central estimate of 2.8 degrees Celsius with 66 per cent confidence limits (equivalent to the IPCC ‘likely’ range) of 2.2–3.4 degrees Celsius. Our approach is to focus on the variability of temperature about long-term historical warming, rather than on the warming trend itself. We use an ensemble of climate models to define an emergent relationship between ECS and a theoretically informed metric of global temperature variability. This metric of variability can also be calculated from observational records of global warming, which enables tighter constraints to be placed on ECS, reducing the probability of ECS being less than 1.5 degrees Celsius to less than 3 per cent, and the probability of ECS exceeding 4.5 degrees Celsius to less than 1 per cent.

  18. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Extreme Soil Temperature in Croatia (United States)

    Sviličić, Petra; Vučetić, Višnja


    In terms of taking the temperature of the Earth in Croatia, first measurements began in 1898 in Križevci, but systematic measurements of soil temperature started in 1951. Today, the measurements are performed at 55 meteorological stations. The process of setting up, calibration, measurement, input, control and data processing is done entirely within the Meteorological and Hydrological Service. Due to the lack of funds, but also as a consequence of the Homeland War, network density in some areas is very rare, leading to aggravating circumstances during analysis. Also, certain temperature series are incomplete or are interrupted and therefore the number of long-term temperature series is very small. This particularly presents problems in coastal area, which is geographically diversified and is very difficult to do a thorough analysis of the area. Using mercury angle geothermometer daily at 7, 14 and 21 h CET, thermal state of soil is measured at 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 cm depth. Thermometers are placed on the bare ground within the meteorological circle and facing north to reduce the direct impact of solar radiation. Lack of term measurements is noticed in the analysis of extreme soil temperatures, which are not real extreme values, but derived from three observational times. On the basis of fifty year series (1961-2010) at 23 stations, the analysis of trends of the surface maximal and minimal soil temperature, as well as the appearance of freezing is presented. Trends were determined by Sen's slope estimator, and statistical significance on 5% level was determined using the Mann-Kendall test. It was observed that the variability of the surface maximal soil temperature on an annual and seasonal level is much higher than those for surface minimal soil temperature. Trends in the recent period show a statistically significant increase in the maximal soil temperature in the eastern and the coastal regions, especially in the spring and summer season. Also, the

  19. Room temperature sintering of printer silver nanoparticle conductive ink (United States)

    Corsino, Dianne C.; Balela, Mary Donnabelle L.


    Future electronics devices are not only smaller and thinner, but are also flexible, bendable and even wearable. This evolution in technology requires direct printing of patterns onto any substrate using conductive inks made of a dispersion of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, Cl- ions was used to induce spontaneous sintering of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Ag NPs with an average diameter of 56 nm were synthesized by polyol method using silver nitrate (AgNO3) and ethylene glycol (EG) as precursor and solvent, respectively. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) was used as the capping agent. Water-based inks were formulated containing different Ag NP loading (10–25 wt %). Using 50 mM NaCl aqueous solution as the dispersing medium, an ink with 15 wt % Ag exhibited a sheet resistance of about 2.85 Ω/sq. This very low sheet resistance was attributed to sintering of Ag NPs, which was accompanied by an increase in average diameter of nanoparticles from 56 to 569 nm.

  20. Effects of transverse magnetic field with variable thermal conductivity on tangent hyperbolic fluid with exponentially varying viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salahuddin


    Full Text Available The purpose of present analysis is to examine the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity on MHD stagnation point flow over a stretching cylinder. The momentum and the temperature equations are modeled by using tangent hyperbolic fluid and the effect of viscous dissipation is also considered. The requisite partial differential equations are metamorphosed into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. The succeeding ordinary differential equations are solved by using shooting method. The physical behavior of non-dimensional parameters for momentum and temperature profiles is deliberated through graphs. The numerical values of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are calculated in order to recognize the behavior of fluid near the surface. The comparison with previous literature is completed in order to check the accuracy of the present work. It is found the velocity reduces with increasing power law index, Weissenberg number, Hartmann number and variable viscosity parameter. With the increasing values of curvature parameter, velocity is found to increase. Variable thermal conductivity parameter and Prandtl number shows opposite behavior for temperature profile.

  1. Effective temperature in nonequilibrium state with heat flux using discrete variable model (United States)

    Sobolev, S. L.


    The effective temperature, which acts as a criterion for thermalization in systems with heat flux, has been introduced on the bases of a relatively simple discrete variable model (DVM). The DVM is inherently nonlocal and can be used to describe multi-length and -time scale heat conduction including low-dimensional and sub-continuum regimes. Under far from equilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature and the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy go to zero, which points to a possible generalization of the third law in nonequilibrium situations.

  2. Record-high specific conductance and water temperature in San Francisco Bay during water year 2015 (United States)

    Work, Paul; Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Livsey, Daniel


    The San Francisco estuary is commonly defined to include San Francisco Bay (bay) and the adjacent Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta (delta). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a high-frequency (15-minute sampling interval) water-quality monitoring network in San Francisco Bay since the late 1980s (Buchanan and others, 2014). This network includes 19 stations at which sustained measurements have been made in the bay; currently, 8 stations are in operation (fig. 1). All eight stations are equipped with specific conductance (which can be related to salinity) and water-temperature sensors. Water quality in the bay constantly changes as ocean tides force seawater in and out of the bay, and river inflows—the most significant coming from the delta—vary on time scales ranging from those associated with storms to multiyear droughts. This monitoring network was designed to observe and characterize some of these changes in the bay across space and over time. The data demonstrate a high degree of variability in both specific conductance and temperature at time scales from tidal to annual and also reveal longer-term changes that are likely to influence overall environmental health in the bay.In water year (WY) 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), as in the preceding water year (Downing-Kunz and others, 2015), the high-frequency measurements revealed record-high values of specific conductance and water temperature at several stations during a period of reduced freshwater inflow from the delta and other tributaries because of persistent, severe drought conditions in California. This report briefly summarizes observations for WY 2015 and compares them to previous years that had different levels of freshwater inflow.

  3. Harmonisation of variables names prior to conducting statistical analyses with multiple datasets: an automated approach (United States)


    Background Data requirements by governments, donors and the international community to measure health and development achievements have increased in the last decade. Datasets produced in surveys conducted in several countries and years are often combined to analyse time trends and geographical patterns of demographic and health related indicators. However, since not all datasets have the same structure, variables definitions and codes, they have to be harmonised prior to submitting them to the statistical analyses. Manually searching, renaming and recoding variables are extremely tedious and prone to errors tasks, overall when the number of datasets and variables are large. This article presents an automated approach to harmonise variables names across several datasets, which optimises the search of variables, minimises manual inputs and reduces the risk of error. Results Three consecutive algorithms are applied iteratively to search for each variable of interest for the analyses in all datasets. The first search (A) captures particular cases that could not be solved in an automated way in the search iterations; the second search (B) is run if search A produced no hits and identifies variables the labels of which contain certain key terms defined by the user. If this search produces no hits, a third one (C) is run to retrieve variables which have been identified in other surveys, as an illustration. For each variable of interest, the outputs of these engines can be (O1) a single best matching variable is found, (O2) more than one matching variable is found or (O3) not matching variables are found. Output O2 is solved by user judgement. Examples using four variables are presented showing that the searches have a 100% sensitivity and specificity after a second iteration. Conclusion Efficient and tested automated algorithms should be used to support the harmonisation process needed to analyse multiple datasets. This is especially relevant when the numbers of datasets

  4. Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in thetropical atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.


    The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.

  5. Low Temperature Conductivity in n-Type Noncompensated Silicon below Insulator-Metal Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Danilyuk


    Full Text Available We investigate the transport properties of n-type noncompensated silicon below the insulator-metal transition by measuring the electrical and magnetoresistances as a function of temperature T for the interval 2–300 K. Experimental data are analyzed taking into account possible simple activation and hopping mechanisms of the conductivity in the presence of two impurity bands, the upper and lower Hubbard bands (UHB and LHB, resp.. We demonstrate that the charge transport develops with decreasing temperature from the band edge activation (110–300 K to the simple activation with much less energy associated with the activation motion in the UHB (28–90 K. Then, the Mott-type variable range hopping (VRH with spin dependent hops occurs (5–20 K. Finally, the VRH in the presence of the hard gap (HG between LHB and UHB (2–4 K takes place. We propose the empiric expression for the low T density of states which involves both the UHB and LHB and takes into account the crossover from the HG regime to the Mott-type VRH with increasing temperature. This allows us to fit the low T experimental data with high accuracy.

  6. Forced convection heat transfer of power law non-Newtonian fluids between two semi-infinite plates with variable thermal conductivity (United States)

    Li, Botong; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang


    This paper presents an investigation of forced convection heat transfer in power-law non-Newtonian fluids between two semi-infinite plates with variable thermal conductivity. Three cases of different thermal conductivity models are considered: (i) thermal conductivity is a constant, (ii) thermal conductivity is a linear function of temperature, (iii) thermal conductivity is a power-law function of temperature gradient (Zheng's model). Governing equations are solved using the finite element method with the ‘ghost’ time introduced to the control equations, which does not affect the results because the velocity and temperature will remain unchanged when the steady state is reached. Results for the solutions of different variable models are presented as well as the analysis of the associated heat transfer characteristics. It is shown that the heat transfer behaviours are strongly dependent on the power-law index (n) in all models. For example, when n 1.

  7. Estimation of the temperature spatial variability in confined spaces based on thermal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustyn Grzegorz


    Full Text Available In developed countries the salaries of office workers are several times higher than the total cost of maintaining and operating the building. Therefore even a small improvement in human work productivity and performance as a result of enhancing the quality of their work environment may lead to a meaningful economic benefits. The air temperature is the most commonly used indicator in assessing the indoor environment quality. What is more, it is well known that thermal comfort has the biggest impact on employees performance and their ability to work efficiently. In majority of office buildings, indoor temperature is managed by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC appliances. However the way how they are currently managed and controlled leads to the nonhomogeneous distribution of temperature in certain space. An approach to determining the spatial variability of temperature in confined spaces was introduced based on thermal imaging temperature measurements. The conducted research and obtained results enabled positive verification of the method and creation of surface plot illustrating the temperature variability.

  8. Estimation of the temperature spatial variability in confined spaces based on thermal imaging (United States)

    Augustyn, Grzegorz; Jurasz, Jakub; Jurczyk, Krzysztof; Korbiel, Tomasz; Mikulik, Jerzy; Pawlik, Marcin; Rumin, Rafał


    In developed countries the salaries of office workers are several times higher than the total cost of maintaining and operating the building. Therefore even a small improvement in human work productivity and performance as a result of enhancing the quality of their work environment may lead to a meaningful economic benefits. The air temperature is the most commonly used indicator in assessing the indoor environment quality. What is more, it is well known that thermal comfort has the biggest impact on employees performance and their ability to work efficiently. In majority of office buildings, indoor temperature is managed by heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) appliances. However the way how they are currently managed and controlled leads to the nonhomogeneous distribution of temperature in certain space. An approach to determining the spatial variability of temperature in confined spaces was introduced based on thermal imaging temperature measurements. The conducted research and obtained results enabled positive verification of the method and creation of surface plot illustrating the temperature variability.

  9. Variable temperature system using vortex tube cooling and fiber optic temperature measurement for low temperature magic angle spinning NMR (United States)

    Martin, Rachel W.; Zilm, Kurt W.


    We describe the construction and operation of a variable temperature (VT) system for a high field fast magic angle spinning (MAS) probe. The probe is used in NMR investigations of biological macromolecules, where stable setting and continuous measurement of the temperature over periods of several days are required in order to prevent sample overheating and degradation. The VT system described is used at and below room temperature. A vortex tube is used to provide cooling in the temperature range of -20 to 20 °C, while a liquid nitrogen-cooled heat exchanger is used below -20 °C. Using this arrangement, the lowest temperature that is practically achievable is -140 °C. Measurement of the air temperature near the spinning rotor is accomplished using a fiber optic thermometer that utilizes the temperature dependence of the absorption edge of GaAs. The absorption edge of GaAs also has a magnetic field dependence that we have measured and corrected for. This dependence was calibrated at several field strengths using the well-known temperature dependence of the 1H chemical shift difference of the protons in methanol.

  10. Prediction of temperature distribution in sericite mica drying with variable temperature and airflow condition (United States)

    Noh, A. Mohd; Mat, S.; Roslan, M. H.; Salleh, E.


    To develop new drying facilities, it was important to know the impact of every input parameter to the drying process. Using a real prototype to carry out the experiment required high cost and time consuming especially for large scale drying. CFD simulation approached was one of the solution. Previous study of drying simulation only focuses on the fix value of the input parameter. This paper presents the result of CFD simulation to predict the heat distribution in sericite mica drying with variable temperature and airflow condition. Variable temperature and airflow was used because the only heat source for the dryer was from the solar energy therefore it’s only available in the day time. The analysis was carried out for 24 hours of drying time. The simulation result shows that the temperature inside the sericite mica increase 8 to 10°C when the solar energy is available and it is still increasing about 4 to 7°C for 5 hours after the solar energy is absent. The result also shows that during the drying time the temperature of sericite mica that is closer to the heat source was higher compared to the one that is further away with the maximum difference of 3.8°C.

  11. An apparatus to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation panels at sub-ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Klünder, T.; Hegeman, I.; Tolboom, A.H.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.


    A single-sided guarded-plate apparatus has been developed to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation panels of sub-meter size at sub-ambient temperatures ranging from 250 to 300 K. This apparatus allows thermal conductivity measurements to be performed at large temperature differences

  12. Improved theory of time domain reflectometry with variable coaxial cable length for electrical conductivity measurements (United States)

    Although empirical models have been developed previously, a mechanistic model is needed for estimating electrical conductivity (EC) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) with variable lengths of coaxial cable. The goals of this study are to: (1) derive a mechanistic model based on multisection tra...

  13. Spontaneous temporal changes and variability of peripheral nerve conduction analyzed using a random effects model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Thomas; Gaist, David; Otto, Marit


    . Peroneal nerve distal motor latency, motor conduction velocity, and compound motor action potential amplitude; sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and sensory conduction velocity; and tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency were examined in 51 healthy subjects, aged 40 to 67 years. They were...... reexamined after 2 and 26 weeks. There was no change in the variables except for a minor decrease in sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and a minor increase in tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency. Reproducibility was best for peroneal nerve distal motor latency and motor conduction velocity...

  14. Hardware Implementation of Producing Variable Conduction Angles of a Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Memon


    Full Text Available In this paper the hardware implementation of producing the voltage pulses of variable duty cycle which are applied at the gate driver terminal of the switching devices used in the converter of a switched reluctance motor have been presented. These voltage gated pulses which corresponds to phase excitation sequence of the motor are necessary to run the motor. The proposed counter was tested in the laboratory with the 8/6 poles drive, and operation of the machine at variable conduction angles was found to be excellent. The implemented method of producing the variable conduction angles is simple, cheaper and easy to implement and does not require prior knowledge of programming.

  15. Electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1421 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg. (Russian Federation) Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=863 K) to a temperature as high as 1421 K that is 417 degrees above the boiling point of the salt. At the temperature maximum of the own vapor pressure of the salt reached several megapascals.

  16. An interaction network perspective on the relation between patterns of sea surface temperature variability and global mean surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tantet, A.J.J.; Dijkstra, H.A.


    On interannual- to multidecadal timescales variability in sea surface temperature appears to be organized in large-scale spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we investigate these patterns by studying the community structure of interaction networks constructed from sea surface temperature

  17. A Variable Thermal Conductivity Flow of A Micropolar Fluid Over A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We revisited the paper of Mahmoud et al, on the hydromagnetic boundary layer micropolar fluid flow over a stretching surface embedded in a non-Darcian porous medium with radiation.We show that even when the thermal conductivity depends linearly or quadratically on temperature the problem still has a unique solution.

  18. Spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined sandy aquifer determined by a mini slug test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Hinsby, Klaus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    The spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity in a sandy aquifer has been determined by a mini slug test method. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of the aquifer has a geometric mean of 5.05 × 10−4 m s−1, and an overall variance of 1n K equal to 0.37 which corresponds quite well to the results...... obtained by two large scale tracer experiments performed in the aquifer. A geological model of the aquifer based on 31 sediment cores, proposed three hydrogeological layers in the aquifer concurrent with the vertical variations observed with respect to hydraulic conductivity. The horizontal correlation...... length of the hydraulic conductivity has been determined for each of the three hydrogeological layers and is found to be small (1–2.5 m). The asymptotic longitudinal dispersivity of the aquifer has been estimated from the variance in hydraulic conductivity and the horizontal correlation length...

  19. Modelling highly variable daily maximum water temperatures in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hourly water temperatures were used to calculate daily maximum water temperatures for nine sites within the Sabie-Sand River system, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. A suite of statistical models for simulating daily maximum water temperatures, of differing complexity and using inputs of air temperature, flow rates, ...

  20. Temperature and field-dependent transport measurements in continuously tunable tantalum oxide memristors expose the dominant state variable (United States)

    Graves, Catherine E.; Dávila, Noraica; Merced-Grafals, Emmanuelle J.; Lam, Si-Ty; Strachan, John Paul; Williams, R. Stanley


    Applications of memristor devices are quickly moving beyond computer memory to areas of analog and neuromorphic computation. These applications require the design of devices with different characteristics from binary memory, such as a large tunable range of conductance. A complete understanding of the conduction mechanisms and their corresponding state variable(s) is crucial for optimizing performance and designs in these applications. Here we present measurements of low bias I-V characteristics of 6 states in a Ta/ tantalum-oxide (TaOx)/Pt memristor spanning over 2 orders of magnitude in conductance and temperatures from 100 K to 500 K. Our measurements show that the 300 K device conduction is dominated by a temperature-insensitive current that varies with non-volatile memristor state, with an additional leakage contribution from a thermally-activated current channel that is nearly independent of the memristor state. We interpret these results with a parallel conduction model of Mott hopping and Schottky emission channels, fitting the voltage and temperature dependent experimental data for all memristor states with only two free parameters. The memristor conductance is linearly correlated with N, the density of electrons near EF participating in the Mott hopping conduction, revealing N to be the dominant state variable for low bias conduction in this system. Finally, we show that the Mott hopping sites can be ascribed to oxygen vacancies, where the local oxygen vacancy density responsible for critical hopping pathways controls the memristor conductance.

  1. Effects of basal-plane thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance on the hot spot temperature in graphene electronic devices (United States)

    Choi, David; Poudel, Nirakar; Cronin, Stephen B.; Shi, Li


    Electrostatic force microscopy and scanning thermal microscopy are employed to investigate the electric transport and localized heating around defects introduced during transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition to an oxidized Si substrate. Numerical and analytical models are developed to explain the results based on the reported basal-plane thermal conductivity, κ, and interfacial thermal conductance, G, of graphene and to investigate their effects on the peak temperature. Irrespective of the κ values, increasing G beyond 4 × 107 W m-2 K-1 can reduce the peak temperature effectively for graphene devices made on sub-10 nm thick gate dielectric, but not for the measured device made on 300-nm-thick oxide dielectric, which yields a cross-plane thermal conductance (Gox) much smaller than the typical G of graphene. In contrast, for typical G values reported for graphene, increasing κ from 300 W m-1 K-1 toward 3000 W m-1 K-1 is effective in reducing the hot spot temperature for the 300-nm-thick oxide devices but not for the sub-10 nm gate dielectric case, because the heat spreading length (l) can be appreciably increased relative to the micron-scale localized heat generation spot size (r0) only when the oxide layer is sufficiently thick. As such, enhancement of κ increases the vertical heat transfer area above the gate dielectric only for the thick oxide case. In all cases considered, the hot spot temperature is sensitive to varying G and κ only when the G/Gox ratio and r0/l ratio are below about 5, respectively.

  2. Small Scale Spatial Variability of Apparent Electrical Conductivity within a Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aimrun


    Full Text Available Quick variability description is an important component for zone management practices. Precision farming requires topping up of only the nutrients that are lacking in the soil to attain the highest yield with the least input. The apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa sensor is a useful tool in mapping to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. In nonsaline soils, ECa is a substitute measurement for soil texture. It is directly related to both water holding capacity and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC, which are key ingredients of productivity. This sensor measures the ECa across a field quickly and gives detailed soil features (one-second interval with few operators. Hence, a dense sampling is possible and therefore a high-resolution ECa map can be produced. This study aims to characterize the variability of soil ECa within a Malaysian paddy field with respect to the spatial and seasonal variability. The study was conducted at Block C, Sawah Sempadan, Selangor, Malaysia, for three continuous seasons. Soil ECa was collected after harvesting period. The results showed that deep ECa visualized the pattern of the former river routes clearly as continuous lines (about 45 m width at the northern and central regions of the study area. This exploration has shown different maps with higher contrast as compared to the existing soil series map for the study area. Seasonal variability test showed that the ECa that was acquired during rainy season (collected after harvest in December to January has the highest value as compared to another season.

  3. Summing up dynamics: modelling biological processes in variable temperature scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Verdenius, F.


    The interest of modelling biological processes with dynamically changing external conditions (temperature, relative humidity, gas conditions) increases. Several modelling approaches are currently available. Among them are approaches like modelling under standard conditions, temperature sum models

  4. Ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive for piezoelectric composite material (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liao, Qingwei; Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Zhong, Chao; Zhang, Di


    Limited by the low thermal resistance of composite material, ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conduction treatment of piezoelectric composite material. An ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength for the applications of piezoelectric composite material was investigated. The crystal structure of cured adhesive, SEM/EDS analysis, thermal analysis, adhesive properties and conductive properties of different content of nano-silver filler or micron-silver doping samples were studied. The results show that with 60 wt.% nano-silver filler the ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive had the relatively good conductivity as volume resistivity of 2.37 × 10-4 Ω cm, and good adhesion strength of 5.13 MPa. Minor micron-doping (below 15 wt.%) could improve conductivity, but would decrease other properties. The ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive could successfully applied to piezoelectric composite material.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of High Performance Concrete in Wide Temperature and Moisture Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toman


    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of two types of high performance concrete was measured in the temperature range from 100 °C to 800 °C and in the moisture range from dry material to saturation water content. A transient measuring method based on analysis of the measured temperature fields was chosen for the high temperature measurements, and a commercial hot wire device was employed in room temperature measurements of the effect of moisture on thermal conductivity. The measured results reveal that both temperature and moisture exhibit significant effects on the values of thermal conductivity, and these effects are quite comparable from the point of view of the magnitude of the observed variations.

  6. Finite-temperature effects on conductance modulation by local doping in graphene with multiple magnetic barriers (United States)

    Myoung, Nojoon; Lidorikis, Elefterios


    The electronic and transport properties of graphene modulated by magnetic barrier arrays are derived at finite temperatures. Prominent conductance gaps, originating from quantum interference effects are found in the periodic array case. When a structural defect is inserted in the array, sharp defect modes of high conductance appear within the conductance gaps. These modes are shifted by local doping in the defect region, resulting in large contrast in the ballistic conductance of graphene sheet. In general it is found that sensitivity is strongly dependent on temperature due to smoothing out of the defect-induced peaks and transport gaps. This temperature dependence, however, offers the added capability for sub-mK temperature sensing resolution, and thus an opportunity towards ultra-sensitive combined electrochemical-calorimetric sensing.

  7. Effective thermal conductivity method for predicting spent nuclear fuel cladding temperatures in a dry fill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahney, Robert


    This paper summarizes the development of a reliable methodology for the prediction of peak spent nuclear fuel cladding temperature within the waste disposal package. The effective thermal conductivity method replaces other older methodologies.

  8. Low-Temperature Superionic Conductivity in Strained Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillassen, Michael; Eklund, Per; Pryds, Nini


    Very high lateral ionic conductivities in epitaxial cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) synthesized on single-crystal SrTiO3 and MgO substrates by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering are reported. Superionic conductivities (i.e., ionic conductivities of the order 1 -1cm-1) are observed...... at 500 °C for 58-nm-thick films on MgO. The results indicate a superposition of two parallel contributions - one due to bulk conductivity and one attributable to conduction along the film-substrate interface. Interfacial effects dominate the conductivity at low temperatures (...

  9. Electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} at temperatures as high as 1474 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry


    The electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} was measured across a wide temperature range (ΔT=628 K), from 846 K to as high as 1474 K, i.e. 241 above the normal boiling point of the salt. In previous studies, a maximum temperature of 1201 K was reached, this being 273 lower than in the present work. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  10. An ignored variable: solution preparation temperature in protein crystallization. (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Qing; Lu, Qin-Qin; Cheng, Qing-Di; Ao, Liang-Bo; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Hou, Hai; Liu, Yong-Ming; Li, Da-Wei; Yin, Da-Chuan


    Protein crystallization is affected by many parameters, among which certain parameters have not been well controlled. The temperature at which the protein and precipitant solutions are mixed (i.e., the ambient temperature during mixing) is such a parameter that is typically not well controlled and is often ignored. In this paper, we show that this temperature can influence protein crystallization. The experimental results showed that both higher and lower mixing temperatures can enhance the success of crystallization, which follows a parabolic curve with an increasing ambient temperature. This work illustrates that the crystallization solution preparation temperature is also an important parameter for protein crystallization. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled room temperature may yield poor reproducibility in protein crystallization.

  11. The Temperature Condition of the Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Energy Release


    V. S. Zarubin; A. V. Kotovich; G. N. Kuvyrkin


    The temperature state of a solid body, in addition to the conditions of its heat exchange with the environment, can greatly depend on the heat release (or heat absorption) processes within the body volume. Among the possible causes of these processes should be noted such as a power release in the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions in the solid body material, which respectively involve heat release or absorbtion, heat transfer of a part of the elect...

  12. Temperature dependence of conductivity measurement for PEDOT:PSS and corresponding solar cell performance (United States)

    Duarte, Fernanda; Myers, Brooke; Lucas, Tyler; Barnes, Brandon; Wang, Weining

    Conducting polymers have been studied and used widely; applications include light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and sensors. In our previous work, we have shown that conducting polymers can be used as the back contact of CdTe solar cells. Our results show that the efficiency of the CdTe solar cell increases as the conductivity of the polymer increases. For this reason, it is of interest to study the polymer conductivity's temperature dependence, and how it affects the solar cell. In this work, we show our studies on temperature dependence of conductivity measurement for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), and its effect on the CdTe/PEDOT:PSS solar cells. A series of PEDOT:PSS with different conductivities were studied, and a temperature-varying apparatus built in house, using a thermoelectric cooler module, was used to vary the temperature of the polymer films. The activation energy of PEDOT:PSS with different conductivity will be reported. The effect of the temperature on the short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage and efficiency of the solar cells will also be discussed. Clare Boothe Luce Foundation, Cottrell College Science Award from Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  13. Temperature dependence of universal conductance fluctuation due to development of weak localization in graphene (United States)

    Terasawa, D.; Fukuda, A.; Fujimoto, A.; Ohno, Y.; Matsumoto, K.


    The temperature effect of quantum interference on resistivity is examined in monolayer graphene, with experimental results showing that the amplitude of the conductance fluctuation increases as temperature decreases. We find that this behavior can be attributed to the decrease in the inelastic scattering (dephasing) rate, which enhances the weak localization (WL) correction to resistivity. Following a previous report that explained the relationship between the universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and WL regarding the gate voltage dependence (Terasawa et al., 2017) [19], we propose that the temperature dependence of the UCF in monolayer graphene can be interpreted by the WL theory.

  14. Sensing the water content of honey from temperature-dependent electrical conductivity (United States)

    In order to predict water content in honey, electrical conductivity was measured on blossom honey types of milk-vetch, jujube and yellow-locust with water content of 18%-37% between 5-40ºC. Regression models of electrical conductivity were developed as functions of water content and temperature. The...

  15. Using Plant Temperature to Evaluate the Response of Stomatal Conductance to Soil Moisture Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Han Yu


    Full Text Available Plant temperature is an indicator of stomatal conductance, which reflects soil moisture stresses. We explored the relationship between plant temperature and soil moisture to optimize irrigation schedules in a water-stress experiment using Firmiana platanifolia (L. f. Marsili in an incubator. Canopy temperature, leaf temperature, and stomatal conductance were measured using thermal imaging and a porometer. The results indicated that (1 stomatal conductance decreased with declines in soil moisture, and reflected average canopy temperature; (2 the variation of the leaf temperature distribution was a reliable indicator of soil moisture stress, and the temperature distribution in severely water-stressed leaves exhibited greater spatial variation than that in the presence of sufficient irrigation; (3 thermal indices (Ig and crop water stress index (CWSI were theoretically proportional to stomatal conductance (gs, Ig was certified to have linearity relationship with gs and CWSI have a logarithmic relationship with gs, and both of the two indices can be used to estimate soil moisture; and (4 thermal imaging data can reflect water status irrespective of long-term water scarcity or lack of sudden rainfall. This study applied thermal imaging methods to monitor plants and develop adaptable irrigation scheduling, which are important for the formulation of effective and economical agriculture and forestry policy.

  16. Hopping conduction in GaAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low temperatures


    Shimogishi, F.; Mukai, K; Fukushima, S; Otsuka, N.


    The electrical conductivity of GaAs layers grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at low temperatures was studied by using the van der Pauw method. The electrical conductivity of thick GaAs layers grown at temperatures above 200 °C changes with the concentration of antisite As atoms following the nearest-neighbor hopping model. From the dependence of the conductivity on the average spacing of antisite As atoms, the Bohr radius of the donor wave function in the hydrogen like model was estimated to be...

  17. Unsteady Radiative-Convective Boundary-Layer Flow of a Casson Fluid with Variable Thermal Conductivity (United States)

    Reddy, M. Gnaneswara


    The unsteady two-dimensional flow of a non-Newtonian fluid over a stretching surface with the effects of thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity is investigated. The Casson fluid model is used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. First, using a similarity transformation, the governing time-dependent partial differential equations are transformed into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Then the transformed equations are solved numerically under appropriate boundary conditions by the shooting method. An exact solution corresponding to the momentum equation for a steady case is found. The obtained numerical results are analyzed as to the effect of the pertinent parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics.

  18. Temperature variability and outbreak of meningitis and measles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of temperature on temporal variations of outbreak of meningitis and measles in Yola, Nigeria was examined. Data on monthly maximum temperature and reported cases of the two diseases for a period of 13 years were collected and analysed. The report shows that the reported cases of the two diseases are ...

  19. Temperature dependence of direct current conductivity in Ag-ED20 nanocomposite films (United States)

    Novikov, G. F.; Rabenok, E. V.; Bogdanova, L. M.; Irzhak, V. I.


    The effect of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in the concentration range of ≤0.8 wt % have on direct current conductivity σdc of Ag-ED20 nanocomposite is studied by method of broadband dielectric spectroscopy (10-2-105 Hz) method of broadband dielectric spectroscopy. It is found that temperature dependence σdc consists of two sections: above the glass transition temperature ( T g), the dependence corresponds to the empirical Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann law (Vogel temperature T 0 does not depend on the NP concentration); below T g, the dependence is Arrhenius with activation energy E a ≈ 1.2 eV. In the region where T > T g, the σdc value grows along with NP concentration. It is concluded that the observed broken form of the temperature dependence is apparently due to a change in the conduction mechanism after the freezing of ion mobility at temperatures below T g.

  20. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during the early Eocene (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.


    As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic temperature, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in temperature (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean temperature (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface temperature (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although in both of these reptiles, past temperature tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.

  1. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during early Eocene time (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Fricke, Henry C.; Humphrey, John D.; Hackett, Logan; Newbrey, Michael G.; Hutchison, J. Howard


    As a deep time analog for today's rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (52-53 Ma) rock on Ellesmere Island in Canada's High Arctic (˜ 79°N.) preserves evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions than at present, the quantification of Eocene Arctic climate has been more elusive. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we infer early Eocene Arctic temperatures, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ˜ 8 °C, mean annual range in temperature of ˜ 16.5-19 °C, warm month mean temperature of 19-20 °C, and cold month mean temperature of 0-3.5 °C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, relatively high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and SST by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and isoprenoid tetraether lipids in marine Crenarchaeota fall close to our warm month temperature, suggesting a bias towards summer values. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although for both of these reptilian groups, past temperature tolerances probably were greater than in living descendants.

  2. Thermal conductivity as influenced by the temperature and apparent viscosity of dairy products. (United States)

    Gonçalves, B J; Pereira, C G; Lago, A M T; Gonçalves, C S; Giarola, T M O; Abreu, L R; Resende, J V


    This study aimed to evaluate the rheological behavior and thermal conductivity of dairy products, composed of the same chemical components but with different formulations, as a function of temperature. Subsequently, thermal conductivity was related to the apparent viscosity of yogurt, fermented dairy beverage, and fermented milk. Thermal conductivity measures and rheological tests were performed at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C using linear probe heating and an oscillatory rheometer with concentric cylinder geometry, respectively. The results were compared with those calculated using the parallel, series, and Maxwell-Eucken models as a function of temperature, and the discrepancies in the results are discussed. Linear equations were fitted to evaluate the influence of temperature on the thermal conductivity of the dairy products. The rheological behavior, specifically apparent viscosity versus shear rate, was influenced by temperature. Herschel-Bulkley, power law, and Newton's law models were used to fit the experimental data. The Herschel-Bulkley model best described the adjustments for yogurt, the power law model did so for fermented dairy beverages, and Newton's law model did so for fermented milk and was then used to determine the rheological parameters. Fermented milk showed a Newtonian trend, whereas yogurt and fermented dairy beverage were shear thinning. Apparent viscosity was correlated with temperature by the Arrhenius equation. The formulation influenced the effective thermal conductivity. The relationship between the 2 properties was established by fixing the temperature and expressing conductivity as a function of apparent viscosity. Thermal conductivity increased with viscosity and decreased with increasing temperature. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Approach to Determine Time and Temperature Combination for Electrical Conductivity Test in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir Kaya


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine a suitable time and temperature combination for the electrical conductivity test to be used in sorghum seeds. Fifty seeds known initial seed moisture content and weight of fresh and dead seeds (105°C for 6h of seven sorghum cultivars were used as material. The electrical conductivities of soaking water were measured using an EC meter in 20, 25 and 30°C for 4, 8, 12 and 24 h using 50 mL deionized water. The experimental design was three factor factorial (7 × 3 × 4 arranged in a completely randomized design; with four replications and 50 seeds per replicate. The results showed that increased time and temperature caused a remarkable increase in EC values of all of the cultivars. Temperature significantly affected the electrical conductivity values and the best results were obtained at 25°C. The cultivars with the lower germination percentage gave the higher electrical conductivity value. Dead seeds always gave higher electrical conductivity at 25°C for all periods. It was concluded that the temperature of 25°C and 24 h was the optimum combination for the electrical conductivity test in sorghum.

  4. Modeling of filamentary resistive memory by concentric cylinders with variable conductivity (United States)

    Lohn, Andrew J.; Mickel, Patrick R.; Marinella, Matthew J.


    We demonstrate a method for modeling memristors (resistive random access memories) where the filament is composed of a set of nanoscale or sub-nanoscale concentric cylinders, each having its own conductivity. This approach allows for the inclusion of multiple state variables, which, we show experimentally, can be used to control electrical behavior. The simulations accurately reproduce the current-voltage hysteresis loop as well as these more complex experimental behaviors resulting from intricate switching histories. The simulations can be both static and dynamic, and are based upon physical design parameters, so optimized values from simulation can be easily linked to device design.

  5. Inverse heat conduction estimation of inner wall temperature fluctuations under turbulent penetration (United States)

    Guo, Zhouchao; Lu, Tao; Liu, Bo


    Turbulent penetration can occur when hot and cold fluids mix in a horizontal T-junction pipe at nuclear plants. Caused by the unstable turbulent penetration, temperature fluctuations with large amplitude and high frequency can lead to time-varying wall thermal stress and even thermal fatigue on the inner wall. Numerous cases, however, exist where inner wall temperatures cannot be measured and only outer wall temperature measurements are feasible. Therefore, it is one of the popular research areas in nuclear science and engineering to estimate temperature fluctuations on the inner wall from measurements of outer wall temperatures without damaging the structure of the pipe. In this study, both the one-dimensional (1D) and the two-dimensional (2D) inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) were solved to estimate the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall. First, numerical models of both the 1D and the 2D direct heat conduction problem (DHCP) were structured in MATLAB, based on the finite difference method with an implicit scheme. Second, both the 1D IHCP and the 2D IHCP were solved by the steepest descent method (SDM), and the DHCP results of temperatures on the outer wall were used to estimate the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall. Third, we compared the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall estimated by the 1D IHCP with those estimated by the 2D IHCP in four cases: (1) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 3°C, (2) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 30°C, (3) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 160°C, and (4) when the fluid temperatures inside the pipe were random from 50°C to 210°C.

  6. Analytical solution to convection-radiation of a continuously moving fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Amir


    Full Text Available In this article, the simultaneous convection-radiation heat transfer of a moving fin of variable thermal conductivity is studied. The differential transformation method (DTM is applied for an analytic solution for heat transfer in fin with two different profiles. Fin profiles are rectangular and exponential. The accuracy of analytic solution is validated by comparing it with the numerical solution that is obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The analytical and numerical results are shown for different values of the embedding parameters. DTM results show that series converge rapidly with high accuracy. The results indicate that the fin tip temperature increases when ambient temperature increases. Conversely, the fin tip temperature decreases with an increase in the Peclet number, convection-conduction and radiation-conduction parameters. It is shown that the fin tip temperature of the exponential profile is higher than the rectangular one. The results indicate that the numerical data and analytical method are in a good agreement with each other.

  7. Core-temperature sensor ingestion timing and measurement variability. (United States)

    Domitrovich, Joseph W; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C


    Telemetric core-temperature monitoring is becoming more widely used as a noninvasive means of monitoring core temperature during athletic events. To determine the effects of sensor ingestion timing on serial measures of core temperature during continuous exercise. Crossover study. Outdoor dirt track at an average ambient temperature of 4.4°C ± 4.1°C and relative humidity of 74.1% ± 11.0%. Seven healthy, active participants (3 men, 4 women; age  =  27.0 ± 7.5 years, height  =  172.9 ± 6.8 cm, body mass  =  67.5 ± 6.1 kg, percentage body fat  =  12.7% ± 6.9%, peak oxygen uptake [Vo(2peak)]  =  54.4 ± 6.9 mL•kg⁻¹•min⁻¹) completed the study. Participants completed a 45-minute exercise trial at approximately 70% Vo(2peak). They consumed core-temperature sensors at 24 hours (P1) and 40 minutes (P2) before exercise. Core temperature was recorded continuously (1-minute intervals) using a wireless data logger worn by the participants. All data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (trial × time), Pearson product moment correlation, and Bland-Altman plot. Fifteen comparisons were made between P1 and P2. The main effect of time indicated an increase in core temperature compared with the initial temperature. However, we did not find a main effect for trial or a trial × time interaction, indicating no differences in core temperature between the sensors (P1  =  38.3°C ± 0.2°C, P2  =  38.3°C ± 0.4°C). We found no differences in the temperature recordings between the 2 sensors. These results suggest that assumed sensor location (upper or lower gastrointestinal tract) does not appreciably alter the transmission of reliable and repeatable measures of core temperature during continuous running in the cold.

  8. Temperature dependency of the thermal conductivity of porous heat storage media (United States)

    Hailemariam, Henok; Wuttke, Frank


    Analyzing the variation of thermal conductivity with temperature is vital in the design and assessment of the efficiency of sensible heat storage systems. In this study, the temperature variation of the thermal conductivity of a commercial cement-based porous heat storage material named - Füllbinder L is analyzed in saturated condition in the temperature range between 20 to 70°C (water based storage) with a steady state thermal conductivity and diffusivity meter. A considerable decrease in the thermal conductivity of the saturated sensible heat storage material upon increase in temperature is obtained, resulting in a significant loss of system efficiency and slower loading/un-loading rates, which when unaccounted for can lead to the under-designing of such systems. Furthermore, a new empirical prediction model for the estimation of thermal conductivity of cement-based porous sensible heat storage materials and naturally occurring crystalline rock formations as a function of temperature is proposed. The results of the model prediction are compared with the experimental results with satisfactory results.

  9. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong, E-mail: [School of Physical Science and Technology, MOE Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)


    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %–50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  10. Analysis for fin efficiency with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of fractional order energy balance equation using HPST Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patra


    Full Text Available Radiating extended surfaces are usually utilized to enhance the heat transfer between primary surface and the environment. In this paper, temperature distribution, fin efficiency, efficacy of convective straight fins with constant and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are solved by implementing homotopy perturbation sumudu transform method (HPSTM. The proposed method is very useful and practical for solving the fractional order nonlinear diffusion equation, which is associated with variable thermal conductivity condition. A dimensionless analytical expression has been developed for fin effectiveness. The fin efficiency and the fin effectiveness have been attained as a function of thermo-geometric fin parameter. It can be noticed that the thermal conductivity parameter has a strong influence over the fin efficiency. The analytical solutions acquired by the present method illustrate the approach is easy to implement and computationally very interesting. The obtained results are compared with previously found classical order results using variational iteration method (VIM, Adomian decomposition method, and the results from Galerkin method in order to show the competence of this present method. HPSTM is a simple and effective method for rapid assessment of physical systems although the fractional order energy balance equations comprise with strong nonlinear terms. The subsequent correlation equations can benefit thermal design engineers for designing of innovative straight fins with both constant and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity.

  11. Ambient temperature effect on pulse rate variability as an alternative to heart rate variability in young adult. (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik


    Pulse rate variability (PRV) is a promising physiological and analytic technique used as a substitute for heart rate variability (HRV). PRV is measured by pulse wave from various devices including mobile and wearable devices but HRV is only measured by an electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this study was to evaluate PRV and HRV at various ambient temperatures and elaborate on the interchangeability of PRV and HRV. Twenty-eight healthy young subjects were enrolled in the experiment. We prepared temperature-controlled rooms and recorded the ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG) under temperature-controlled, constant humidity conditions. The rooms were kept at 17, 25, and 38 °C as low, moderate, and high ambient temperature environments, respectively. HRV and PRV were derived from the synchronized ECG and PPG measures and they were studied in time and frequency domain analysis for PRV/HRV ratio and pulse transit time (PTT). Similarity and differences between HRV and PRV were determined by a statistical analysis. PRV/HRV ratio analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between HRV and PRV for a given ambient temperature; this was with short-term variability measures such as SDNN SDSD or RMSSD, and HF-based variables including HF, LF/HF and normalized HF. In our analysis the absolute value of PTT was not significantly influenced by temperature. Standard deviation of PTT, however, showed significant difference not only between low and moderate temperatures but also between low and high temperatures. Our results suggest that ambient temperature induces a significant difference in PRV compared to HRV and that the difference becomes greater at a higher ambient temperature.

  12. Surface flux response to interannual tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability in AMIP models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeman, R.; Wang, G. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Research Centre; Jewson, S. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)


    A systematic comparison of observed and modeled atmospheric surface heat and momentum fluxes related to sea surface temperature (SST) variability on interannual time scales in the tropical Pacific is conducted. This is done to examine the ability of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) to simulate the surface fluxes important for driving the ocean on interannual time scales. In order to estimate the model and observed response to such SST variability, various regression calculations are made between a time series representing observed ENSO SST variability in the tropical Pacific and the resulting surface flux anomalies. The models exhibit a range of differences from the observations. Overall the zonal wind stress anomalies are most accurately simulated while the solar radiation anomalies are the least accurately depicted. The deficiencies in the solar radiation are closely related to errors in cloudiness. The total heat flux shows some cancellation of the errors in its components particularly in the central Pacific. The performance of the GCMs in simulating the surface flux anomalies seems to be resolution dependent and low-resolution models tend to exhibit weaker flux responses. The simulated responses in the western Pacific are more variable than those of the central and eastern Pacific but in the west the observed estimates are less robust as well. Further improvements in atmospheric GCM flux simulation through better physical parametrization is clearly required if such models are to be used to their full potential in coupled modeling and climate forecasting. (orig.)

  13. MHD Stagnation Point Flow of Williamson Fluid over a Stretching Cylinder with Variable Thermal Conductivity and Homogeneous/Heterogeneous Reaction (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Sagheer, M.; Hussain, S.; Mehmood, Y.


    The present study reveals the effect of homogeneous/hetereogeneous reaction on stagnation point flow of Williamson fluid in the presence of magnetohydrodynamics and heat generation/absorption coefficient over a stretching cylinder. Further the effects of variable thermal conductivity and thermal stratification are also considered. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformation. The system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations is then solved by shooting technique. MATLAB shooting code is validated by comparison with the previously published work in limiting case. Results are further strengthened when the present results are compared with MATLAB built-in function bvp4c. Effects of prominent parameters are deliberated graphically for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Skin-friction coefficient and Nusselt number for the different parameters are investigated with the help of tables.

  14. Entropy Generation of Desalination Powered by Variable Temperature Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Warsinger


    Full Text Available Powering desalination by waste heat is often proposed to mitigate energy consumption and environmental impact; however, thorough technology comparisons are lacking in the literature. This work numerically models the efficiency of six representative desalination technologies powered by waste heat at 50, 70, 90, and 120 °C, where applicable. Entropy generation and Second Law efficiency analysis are applied for the systems and their components. The technologies considered are thermal desalination by multistage flash (MSF, multiple effect distillation (MED, multistage vacuum membrane distillation (MSVMD, humidification-dehumidification (HDH, and organic Rankine cycles (ORCs paired with mechanical technologies of reverse osmosis (RO and mechanical vapor compression (MVC. The most efficient technology was RO, followed by MED. Performances among MSF, MSVMD, and MVC were similar but the relative performance varied with waste heat temperature or system size. Entropy generation in thermal technologies increases at lower waste heat temperatures largely in the feed or brine portions of the various heat exchangers used. This occurs largely because lower temperatures reduce recovery, increasing the relative flow rates of feed and brine. However, HDH (without extractions had the reverse trend, only being competitive at lower temperatures. For the mechanical technologies, the energy efficiency only varies with temperature because of the significant losses from the ORC.

  15. Manipulating the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of graphene phononic crystal. (United States)

    Hu, Shiqian; An, Meng; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen


    By using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, modulating the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of graphene phononic crystals (GPnCs) is investigated. It is found that the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of GPnCs follows ∼T (-α) behavior. The power exponents (α) can be efficiently tuned by changing the characteristic size of GPnCs. The phonon participation ratio spectra and dispersion relation reveal that the long-range phonon modes are more affected in GPnCs with larger holes (L 0). Our results suggest that constructing GPnCs is an effective method to manipulate the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of graphene, which would be beneficial for developing GPnC-based thermal management and signal processing devices.

  16. Temperature and frequency dependence of AC conductivity and modulus in Cr-Doped ZnO (United States)

    Junais, P. M.; Govindaraj, G.


    A nanocrystalline Cr-doped ZnO has been prepared by refluxing method. The samples were characterized using XRD and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD pattern shows the crystalline nature of the sample and well confirms the successful doping Cr into the host lattice. The conductivity of the sample measured in the temperature range 303-603K and in the frequency range 10Hz-1MHz. The temperature dependent dc conductivity and hopping frequency show Arrhenius behavior. AC conductivity data were analyzed using Jonscher's power law. Modulus data were analyzed using Bergman modified KWW function. Temperature dependent capacitance shows a sharp peak at 540K which may be due to ferroelectric nature of the material.

  17. High throughput thermal conductivity of high temperature solid phases: The case of oxide and fluoride perovskites

    CERN Document Server

    van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Mingo, Natalio


    Using finite-temperature phonon calculations and machine-learning methods, we calculate the mechanical stability of about 400 semiconducting oxides and fluorides with cubic perovskite structures at 0 K, 300 K and 1000 K. We find 92 mechanically stable compounds at high temperatures -- including 36 not mentioned in the literature so far -- for which we calculate the thermal conductivity. We demonstrate that the thermal conductivity is generally smaller in fluorides than in oxides, largely due to a lower ionic charge, and describe simple structural descriptors that are correlated with its magnitude. Furthermore, we show that the thermal conductivities of most cubic perovskites decrease more slowly than the usual $T^{-1}$ behavior. Within this set, we also screen for materials exhibiting negative thermal expansion. Finally, we describe a strategy to accelerate the discovery of mechanically stable compounds at high temperatures.

  18. Spatial and Seasonal Variability of Temperature in CO2 Emission from Mars' Mesosphere (United States)

    Livengood, Timothy A.; Kostiuk, Theodor; Hewagama, Tilak; Kolasinski, John R.; Henning, Wade; Fast, Kelly Elizabeth; Sonnabend, Guido; Sornig, Manuela


    We have observed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission of carbon dioxide that probes Mars’ mesosphere in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2012, 2014, and 2016. These measurements were conducted at 10.6 μm wavelength using the Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds and Composition (HIPWAC) from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at resolving power (1-33)×106. The Maxwellian broadening of the emission line can be measured at this resolution, providing a direct determination of temperature in the mesosphere. The nonLTE line appears as a narrow emission core within a broad absorption formed by tropospheric CO2, which provides temperature information reaching down to the martian surface, while the mesospheric line probes temperature at about 60-80 km altitude. We will report on the spatial distribution of temperature and emission line strength with local solar time on Mars, with latitude, as well as long-term variability including seasonal effects that modify the overall thermal structure of the atmosphere. These remote measurements complement results from orbital spacecraft through access to a broad range of local solar time on each occasion.This work has been supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy and Solar Systems Observations Programs

  19. Surface air temperature variability in global climate models

    CERN Document Server

    Davy, Richard


    New results from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and multiple global reanalysis datasets are used to investigate the relationship between the mean and standard deviation in the surface air temperature. A combination of a land-sea mask and orographic filter were used to investigate the geographic region with the strongest correlation and in all cases this was found to be for low-lying over-land locations. This result is consistent with the expectation that differences in the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere are an important factor in determining the surface air temperature response to forcing.

  20. Variability of air temperature over a debris-covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, J.; Pellicciotti, F.


    Estimates of melt from debris-covered glaciers require distributed estimates of meteorological variables and air temperature in particular. Meteorological data are scarce for this environment, and spatial variability of temperature over debris is poorly understood. Based on multiple measurements of

  1. Room temperature screening of thermal conductivity by means of thermal transient measurements (United States)

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Cheng, Shudan; Márquez-García, Lourdes; Prest, Martin J.; Akbari-Rahimabadi, Ahmad; Min, Gao


    A proof of concept of the possibility to estimate thermal conductivity of bulk disc samples at room temperature by means of thermal decays is demonstrated. An experimental set-up was designed and fabricated, which is able to perform thermal transient measurements by using a specially designed multifunctional probe that has the ability to measure temperature at its tip. Initially, the probe is heated by a heater coil located in its interior until the tip temperature reaches a steady state. Then, the probe is contacted with a disc sample which produces a temperature decay until a new state is reached. The difference between the initial and final states temperatures shows a correlation with the thermal conductivity of the sample. Employing a calibration equation, obtained using reference materials, the thermal conductivity can be calculated. Reasonably good random and systematic errors (<13% and ~9% respectively) are obtained. Theoretical simulations performed using COMSOL show a good qualitative agreement with experimental results. This new method involves an inexpensive and simple set-up which can be especially useful for thermal conductivity screening and high-throughput measurements.

  2. Influence of temperature on low-density polyethylene films through conduction measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudou, L.; Guastavino, J. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)


    This paper presents a physico-chemical and an electrical study of a low-density polyethylene used in cable insulation. The first part deals with the effect of temperature on morphology and the consequences on the conduction properties. Next, the influence of cross-linking by-products and antioxidant is studied. The analysis of the current measurements had led us to retain the Nath and Perlman model for the conduction mechanism in our films. The good agreement between theory and experiment in the high-field region allows us to evaluate a parameter related to the trap site separation distance whose variation with temperature and morphology is analysed. (author)

  3. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials (United States)

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.


    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO/sub 3/ + RCHO ..-->.. Ag/sup 0/ + RCOOH and R/sub 3/M ..-->.. M/sup 0/ + 3R, where M = Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high- temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R/sub 3/M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone. 3 tabs.

  4. Temperature Variation under Continuous Light Restores Tomato Leaf Photosynthesis and Maintains the Diurnal Pattern in Stomatal Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Haque


    Full Text Available The response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Aromata to continuous light (CL in relation to photosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA and reactive oxygen species (ROS was investigated to improve the understanding of the development and/or alleviation of CL-induced leaf injury in constant and diurnal temperature fluctuations with similar daily light integral and daily mean temperature. The plants were grown in three photoperiodic treatments for 15 days; One treatment with a 16/8 h light/dark period and a light/dark temperature of 27/17°C (Control, two CL treatments with 24 h photoperiods, one with a constant temperature of 24°C (CLCT and the other one with variable temperature of 27/17°C for 16/8 ho, respectively (CLVT. A diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance (gs and [ABA] was observed in the plants grown in the control and CLVT conditions, while the plants in CLCT conditions experienced a significant decrease in stomatal conductance aligned with an increase in ABA. The net photosynthesis (A was significantly reduced in CLCT, aligned with a significant decrease in the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax, the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax and mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO2 (gm in comparison to the control and CLVT. An increased production of H2O2 and O2•- linked with increased activities of antioxidative enzymes was seen in both CL treatments, but despite of this, leaf injuries were only observed in the CLCT treatment. The results suggest that the diurnal temperature fluctuations alleviated the CL injury symptoms, probably because the diurnal cycles of cellular mechanisms were maintained. The ROS were shown not to be directly involved in CL-induced leaf injury, since both ROS production and scavenging was highest in CLVT without leaf chlorotic symptoms.

  5. Effect of Temperature Cycling on Conduction Mechanisms in CdTe Thin Films (United States)

    Srivastav, V.; Pal, R.; Saini, N.; Saxena, R. S.; Bhan, R. K.; Sareen, L.; Singh, K. P.; Sharma, R. K.; Venkataraman, V.


    CdTe thin films of 500 Å thickness prepared by thermal evaporation technique were analyzed for leakage current and conduction mechanisms. Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors were fabricated using these films as a dielectric. These films have many possible applications, such as passivation for infrared diodes that operate at low temperatures (80 K). Direct-current (DC) current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements were performed on these films. Furthermore, the films were subjected to thermal cycling from 300 K to 80 K and back to 300 K. Typical minimum leakage currents near zero bias at room temperature varied between 0.9 nA and 0.1 μA, while low-temperature leakage currents were in the range of 9.5 pA to 0.5 nA, corresponding to resistivity values on the order of 108 Ω-cm and 1010 Ω-cm, respectively. Well-known conduction mechanisms from the literature were utilized for fitting of measured I- V data. Our analysis indicates that the conduction mechanism in general is Ohmic for low fields conduction mechanism for fields >6 × 104 V cm-1 is modified Poole-Frenkel (MPF) and Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling at room temperature. At 80 K, Schottky-type conduction dominates. A significant observation is that the film did not show any appreciable degradation in leakage current characteristics due to the thermal cycling.

  6. Low temperature platinum atomic layer deposition on nylon-6 for highly conductive and catalytic fiber mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundy, J. Zachary; Shafiefarhood, Arya; Li, Fanxing; Khan, Saad A.; Parsons, Gregory N., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Engineering Building I, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 (United States)


    Low temperature platinum atomic layer deposition (Pt-ALD) via (methylcyclopentadienyl)trimethyl platinum and ozone (O{sub 3}) is used to produce highly conductive nonwoven nylon-6 (polyamide-6, PA-6) fiber mats, having effective conductivities as high as ∼5500–6000 S/cm with only a 6% fractional increase in mass. The authors show that an alumina ALD nucleation layer deposited at high temperature is required to promote Pt film nucleation and growth on the polymeric substrate. Fractional mass gain scales linearly with Pt-ALD cycle number while effective conductivity exhibits a nonlinear trend with cycle number, corresponding to film coalescence. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveals island growth mode of the Pt film at low cycle number with a coalesced film observed after 200 cycles. The metallic coating also exhibits exceptional resistance to mechanical flexing, maintaining up to 93% of unstressed conductivity after bending around cylinders with radii as small as 0.3 cm. Catalytic activity of the as-deposited Pt film is demonstrated via carbon monoxide oxidation to carbon dioxide. This novel low temperature processing allows for the inclusion of highly conductive catalytic material on a number of temperature-sensitive substrates with minimal mass gain for use in such areas as smart textiles and flexible electronics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ondruska


    Full Text Available The temperature dependences of the electrical DC conductivity of calcite waste, kaolinite and illite based ceramics were measured in the temperature range of 20 - 1050oC. The ceramic mass that was used was a mixture of 60 wt. % kaolinitic-illitic clay, 20 - 40 wt. % of this clay was fired at 1000oC for 90 min and 0, 10 and 20 wt. % of calcite waste. During heating, several processes take place - the release of the physically bound water, the burning of organic impurities, the dehydroxylation of kaolinite and illite, the decomposition of calcite, and the creation of anorthite and mullite. All of these processes were checked by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and thermodilatometry (TDA. At low temperatures (20 - 200oC, due to the release and decomposition of physically bound water, H+ and OH- are dominant charge carriers. After completion of release of physically bound water, up to the start of dehydroxylation at the temperature of ~ 450oC, the DC conductivity is dominated by a transport of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ions. During dehydroxylation, H+ and OH- ions, which are released from kaolinite and illite lattices, contribute to the DC conductivity. Decomposition of calcite runs between ~ 700oC and 900oC. The glassy phase has a dominant influence on the DC conductivity in the fired ceramics. Its high conductivity is determined by the high mobility of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ions.

  8. A Study of Horizontal Sea Surface Temperature Variability. (United States)


    INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND The study of ocean characteristics has long been of interest to men of the sea. Early mariners were the first to discover that...Surface Temperature, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 864-870. Federov, K.N., 1978: The Thermohaline Finestructure of the Ocean, Pergamon Press. Fieux, M., S

  9. Lithology and temperature: How key mantle variables control rift volcanism (United States)

    Shorttle, O.; Hoggard, M.; Matthews, S.; Maclennan, J.


    Continental rifting is often associated with extensive magmatic activity, emplacing millions of cubic kilometres of basalt and triggering environmental change. The lasting geological record of this volcanic catastrophism are the large igneous provinces found at the margins of many continents and abrupt extinctions in the fossil record, most strikingly that found at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Rather than being considered purely a passive plate tectonic phenomenon, these episodes are frequently explained by the involvement of mantle plumes, upwellings of mantle rock made buoyant by their high temperatures. However, there has been debate over the relative role of the mantle's temperature and composition in generating the large volumes of magma involved in rift and intra-plate volcanism, and even when the mantle is inferred to be hot, this has been variously attributed to mantle plumes or continental insulation effects. To help resolve these uncertainties we have combined geochemical, geophysical and modelling results in a two stage approach: Firstly, we have investigated how mantle composition and temperature contribute to melting beneath Iceland, the present day manifestation of the mantle plume implicated in the 54Ma break up of the North Atlantic. By considering both the igneous crustal production on Iceland and the chemistry of its basalts we have been able to place stringent constraints on the viable temperature and lithology of the Icelandic mantle. Although a >100°C excess temperature is required to generate Iceland's thick igneous crust, geochemistry also indicates that pyroxenite comprises 10% of its source. Therefore, the dynamics of rifting on Iceland are modulated both by thermal and compositional mantle anomalies. Secondly, we have performed a global assessment of the mantle's post break-up thermal history to determine the amplitude and longevity of continental insulation in driving excess volcanism. Using seismically constrained igneous crustal

  10. Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Precipitation and Temperature Variability: Evidence from Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari


    Full Text Available Precipitation and temperature variability present significant agricultural risks worldwide. Northern Iran’s agriculture mainly depends on paddy fields, which are directly affected by precipitation and temperature variability. The main aim of this study is to explore farmers’ attitudes towards precipitation and temperature variability and their adaptation strategies in paddy fields in a typical agricultural province in northern Iran. Primary survey data were collected from a sample of 382 paddy farmers of Rasht County in Guilan Province. Data have been analyzed using both summary statistics and bivariate analysis (Pearson, Spearman, and Eta correlation coefficients. Empirical findings reveal that most paddy farmers had experienced precipitation and temperature variability and were taking measures to reduce its negative impacts on their crops. Results also indicate that farm size and household income influence farmers’ perception to precipitation and temperature variability, while availability of water resources also influence farmers’ adaptation decisions.

  11. Conductivity of SrTiO3 based oxides in the reducing atmosphere at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    The conductivities of several donor-doped SrTiO3 based oxides, which were prepared in air, were studied in a reducing atmosphere at high temperature. The conductivities of all specimens increased slowly with time at 1000 degrees C in 9% H-2/N-2, even after 100 h. Nb-doped SrTiO3 showed relatively...... at 500-800 degrees C, while that of La-doped SrTiO3 dropped immediately on exposure to air. The conduction behavior of Nb-doped SrTiO3 was explained by reduction of Ti4+ and/or Nb5+ and the relatively slow oxygen diffusibility. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......The conductivities of several donor-doped SrTiO3 based oxides, which were prepared in air, were studied in a reducing atmosphere at high temperature. The conductivities of all specimens increased slowly with time at 1000 degrees C in 9% H-2/N-2, even after 100 h. Nb-doped SrTiO3 showed relatively...... fast reduction and high conductivity compared with the other SrTiO3 based oxides. The conductivity of Nb-doped SrTiO3 was ca. 50 S cm(-1) at 500 degrees C after reduction at 1200 degrees C. After strong reduction, the conductivity of Nb-doped SrTiO3 was almost independent of the oxygen partial pressure...

  12. Conductive inks with a "built-in" mechanism that enables sintering at room temperature. (United States)

    Grouchko, Michael; Kamyshny, Alexander; Mihailescu, Cristina Florentina; Anghel, Dan Florin; Magdassi, Shlomo


    At present there is no metallic ink that enables formation of conductive patterns at room temperature by a single printing step. Printing conductive features by metallic nanoparticle-based inks must be followed by sintering while heating to elevated temperatures, thus preventing their utilization on most plastic substrates used in plastic electronics. In this report we present a new silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink, having a built-in sintering mechanism, which is triggered during drying of the printed pattern. The nanoparticles that are stabilized by a polymer undergo self-sintering spontaneously, due to the presence of a destabilizing agent, which comes into action only during drying of the printed pattern. The destabilizing agent, which contains Cl(-) ions, causes detachment of the anchoring groups of the stabilizer from the nanoparticles' surface and thus enables their coalescence and sintering. It was found that the new metallic ink leads to very high conductivities, by a single printing step: up to 41% of the conductivity of bulk silver was achieved, the highest reported conductivity of a printed pattern that is obtained from nanoparticles at room temperature.

  13. Variable-temperature NMR and conformational analysis of Oenothein B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Suzana C.; Carvalho, Ariadne G.; Fortes, Gilmara A.C.; Ferri, Pedro H.; Oliveira, Anselmo E. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica


    Oenothein B is a dimeric hydrolyzable tannin with a wide range of biological activities, such as antitumour, anti-inflammatory and antiviral. Its nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at room temperature show duplications and broadening of signals. Experiments of 1D and 2D NMR at lower temperatures were useful for the complete NMR assignments of all hydrogens and carbons. The 3D structure of the most stable conformer was determined for the first time by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiment (-20 deg C) and density functional theory (DFT)(B3LYP/6-31G)/ polarizable continuum model (PCM) quantum chemical calculations. The favoured conformation showed a highly compacted geometry and a lack of symmetry, in which the two valoneoyl groups showed distinct conformational parameters and stabilities. (author)

  14. AIRS observations of seasonal variability in meridional temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Correlation coefficient (xy) between OLR and temperature is computed latitudinally (3.5° to 20.5°N) at different longitudes and during JJAS (monsoon months), xy is negative (∼−0.73) over 60° and 70°E longitudes, but it turns positive (∼0.92) over 80° and 90°E longitudes (which is convectively active region), suggesting ...

  15. Observed trends in the magnitude and persistence of monthly temperature variability. (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M; Dakos, Vasilis; Bathiany, Sebastian; Scheffer, Marten


    Climate variability is critically important for nature and society, especially if it increases in amplitude and/or fluctuations become more persistent. However, the issues of whether climate variability is changing, and if so, whether this is due to anthropogenic forcing, are subjects of ongoing debate. Increases in the amplitude and persistence of temperature fluctuations have been detected in some regions, e.g. the North Pacific, but there is no agreed global signal. Here we systematically scan monthly surface temperature indices and spatial datasets to look for trends in variance and autocorrelation (persistence). We show that monthly temperature variability and autocorrelation increased over 1957-2002 across large parts of the North Pacific, North Atlantic, North America and the Mediterranean. Furthermore, (multi)decadal internal climate variability appears to influence trends in monthly temperature variability and autocorrelation. Historically-forced climate models do not reproduce the observed trends in temperature variance and autocorrelation, consistent with the models poorly capturing (multi)decadal internal climate variability. Based on a review of established spatial correlations and corresponding mechanistic 'teleconnections' we hypothesise that observed slowing down of sea surface temperature variability contributed to observed increases in land temperature variability and autocorrelation, which in turn contributed to persistent droughts in North America and the Mediterranean.

  16. A method for estimating spatially variable seepage and hydrualic conductivity in channels with very mild slopes (United States)

    Shanafield, Margaret; Niswonger, Richard G.; Prudic, David E.; Pohll, Greg; Susfalk, Richard; Panday, Sorab


    Infiltration along ephemeral channels plays an important role in groundwater recharge in arid regions. A model is presented for estimating spatial variability of seepage due to streambed heterogeneity along channels based on measurements of streamflow-front velocities in initially dry channels. The diffusion-wave approximation to the Saint-Venant equations, coupled with Philip's equation for infiltration, is connected to the groundwater model MODFLOW and is calibrated by adjusting the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the channel bed. The model is applied to portions of two large water delivery canals, which serve as proxies for natural ephemeral streams. Estimated seepage rates compare well with previously published values. Possible sources of error stem from uncertainty in Manning's roughness coefficients, soil hydraulic properties and channel geometry. Model performance would be most improved through more frequent longitudinal estimates of channel geometry and thalweg elevation, and with measurements of stream stage over time to constrain wave timing and shape. This model is a potentially valuable tool for estimating spatial variability in longitudinal seepage along intermittent and ephemeral channels over a wide range of bed slopes and the influence of seepage rates on groundwater levels.

  17. Upper mixed layer temperature and salinity variability in the tropical boundary of the California Current, 1997-2007 (United States)

    Gomez-Valdes, Jose; Jeronimo, Gilberto


    Spatial and temporal interannual variability of mixed layer (ML) temperature and ML salinity off Baja California are examined using empirical orthogonal functions analysis. Conductivity-temperature-depth data collected from October 1997 through January 2007 over a grid based on Mexican Research of the California Current quarterly survey cruises are analyzed. Net heat flux (NHF) and sea surface height anomaly (SSH) from satellite products are also analyzed. The first leading mode of both ML temperature and ML salinity show a single-signed loading pattern, in which the variability increases southward. Those patterns have been reported before, but they are lacking a quantitative explanation. ML temperature variability is mainly associated with NHF variability, while ML salinity variability is mainly associated with large-scale SSH variability. The principal component (PC) of ML salinity is correlated with North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and Warm Water Volume climate indices, while the PC of ML temperature is only correlated with the latter index. Those results indicate that the principal mode of ML salinity variability is a diagnostic variable of basin-scale process. An abrupt freshening (˜-0.7) and cooling (˜-4°C) event from January 1998 to January 1999 and an abrupt freshening (˜-0.5) event from January 2002 to January 2003 are conspicuous features in the mixed layer. The 1998-1999 events are associated with the major El Niño-La Niña cycle in the 10-year period. The 2002-2003 freshening is related to an enhancement of subarctic water into the equatorward flow that started during the summer of 2002 off Oregon (49°N).

  18. Sensitivity of soil respiration to variability in soil moisture and temperature in a humid tropical forest (United States)

    Tana Wood; M. Detto; W.L. Silver


    Precipitation and temperature are important drivers of soil respiration. The role of moisture and temperature are generally explored at seasonal or inter-annual timescales; however, significant variability also occurs on hourly to daily time-scales. We used small (1.54 m2), throughfall exclusion shelters to evaluate the role soil moisture and temperature as temporal...

  19. Thermal conductivity of low temperature grown vertical carbon nanotube bundles measured using the three-? method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebregt, S.; Banerjee, S.; Beenakker, K.; Ishihara, R.


    The thermal conductivity of as-grown vertical multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) bundles fabricated at low temperature (500?°C) was measured using a vertical 3?-method. For this, CNT were selectively grown inside an oxide opening and sandwiched between two metal electrodes. The validity of the

  20. Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity of High Strength Lightweight Raw Perlite Aggregate Concrete (United States)

    Tandiroglu, Ahmet


    Twenty-four types of high strength lightweight concrete have been designed with raw perlite aggregate (PA) from the Erzincan Mollaköy region as new low-temperature insulation material. The effects of the water/cement ratio, the amount of raw PA, and the temperature on high strength lightweight raw perlite aggregate concrete (HSLWPAC) have been investigated. Three empirical equations were derived to correlate the thermal conductivity of HSLWPAC as a function of PA percentage and temperature depending on the water/cement ratio. Experimentally observed thermal conductivities of concrete samples were predicted 92 % of the time for each set of concrete matrices within 97 % accuracy and over the range from 1.457 W · m-1 · K-1 to 1.777 W · m-1 · K-1. The experimental investigation revealed that the usage of raw PA from the Erzincan Mollaköy region in concrete production reduces the concrete unit mass, increases the concrete strength, and furthermore, the thermal conductivity of the concrete has been improved. The proposed empirical correlations of thermal conductivity were considered to be applicable within the range of temperatures 203.15 K ≤ T ≤ 303.15 K in the form of λ = a( PAP b ) + c( T d ).

  1. Stomatal conductance, canopy temperature, and leaf area index estimation using remote sensing and OBIA techniques (United States)

    S. Panda; D.M. Amatya; G. Hoogenboom


    Remotely sensed images including LANDSAT, SPOT, NAIP orthoimagery, and LiDAR and relevant processing tools can be used to predict plant stomatal conductance (gs), leaf area index (LAI), and canopy temperature, vegetation density, albedo, and soil moisture using vegetation indices like normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) or soil adjusted...

  2. Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.


    Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...

  3. Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.


    Specific heat, C(p), and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Results for both C(p)(T) and lambda(T) confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected...

  4. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Room temperature Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in -Ga metal are calculated in band model. For this purpose, the ... N C Mohapatra2. Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India; Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India ...

  5. A Simple Demonstration of the High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity of Glass (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris


    We usually think of glass as a good electrical insulator; this, however, is not always the case. There are several ways to show that glass becomes conducting at high temperatures, but the following approach, devised by Brown University demonstration manager Gerald Zani, may be one of the simplest to perform.

  6. Impact of short-term temperature variability on emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia stratified by season of birth (United States)

    Zhao, Desheng; Zhang, Xulai; Xu, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jian; Xie, Mingyu; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Shusi; Li, Kesheng; Yang, Huihui; Wen, Liying; Wang, Xu; Su, Hong


    Diurnal temperature range (DTR) and temperature change between neighboring days (TCN) are important meteorological indicators closely associated with global climate change. However, up to date, there have been no studies addressing the impacts of both DTR and TCN on emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia. We conducted a time-series analysis to assess the relationship between temperature variability and daily schizophrenia onset in Hefei, an inland city in southeast China. Daily meteorological data and emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia from 2005 to 2014 in Hefei were collected. After stratifying by season of birth, Poisson generalized linear regression combined with distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was used to examine the relationship between temperature variability and schizophrenia, adjusting for long-term trend and seasonality, mean temperature, and relative humidity. Our analysis revealed that extreme temperature variability may increase the risk for schizophrenia onset among patients born in spring, while no such association was found in patients born in summer and autumn. In patients born in spring, the relative risks of extremely high DTR comparing the 95th and 99th percentiles with the reference (50th, 10 °C) at 3-day lag were 1.078 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.025-1.135) and 1.159 (95 % CI 1.050-1.279), respectively. For TCN effects, only comparing 99th percentile with reference (50th, 0.7 °C) was significantly associated with emergency hospital admissions for schizophrenia (relative risk (RR) 1.111, 95 % CI 1.002-1.231). This study suggested that exposure to extreme temperature variability in short-term may trigger later days of schizophrenia onset for patients born in spring, which may have important implications for developing intervention strategies to prevent large temperature variability exposure.

  7. Effect of surrogate aggregates on the thermal conductivity of concrete at ambient and elevated temperatures. (United States)

    Yun, Tae Sup; Jeong, Yeon Jong; Youm, Kwang-Soo


    The accurate assessment of the thermal conductivity of concretes is an important part of building design in terms of thermal efficiency and thermal performance of materials at various temperatures. We present an experimental assessment of the thermal conductivity of five thermally insulated concrete specimens made using lightweight aggregates and glass bubbles in place of normal aggregates. Four different measurement methods are used to assess the reliability of the thermal data and to evaluate the effects of the various sensor types. The concrete specimens are also assessed at every 100 °C during heating to ~800 °C. Normal concrete is shown to have a thermal conductivity of ~2.25 W m(-1) K(-1). The surrogate aggregates effectively reduce the conductivity to ~1.25 W m(-1) K(-1) at room temperature. The aggregate size is shown not to affect thermal conduction: fine and coarse aggregates each lead to similar results. Surface contact methods of assessment tend to underestimate thermal conductivity, presumably owing to high thermal resistance between the transducers and the specimens. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the stages of mass loss of the cement paste correspond to the evolution of thermal conductivity upon heating.

  8. Effect of Surrogate Aggregates on the Thermal Conductivity of Concrete at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sup Yun


    Full Text Available The accurate assessment of the thermal conductivity of concretes is an important part of building design in terms of thermal efficiency and thermal performance of materials at various temperatures. We present an experimental assessment of the thermal conductivity of five thermally insulated concrete specimens made using lightweight aggregates and glass bubbles in place of normal aggregates. Four different measurement methods are used to assess the reliability of the thermal data and to evaluate the effects of the various sensor types. The concrete specimens are also assessed at every 100°C during heating to ~800°C. Normal concrete is shown to have a thermal conductivity of ~2.25 W m−1 K−1. The surrogate aggregates effectively reduce the conductivity to ~1.25 W m−1 K−1 at room temperature. The aggregate size is shown not to affect thermal conduction: fine and coarse aggregates each lead to similar results. Surface contact methods of assessment tend to underestimate thermal conductivity, presumably owing to high thermal resistance between the transducers and the specimens. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the stages of mass loss of the cement paste correspond to the evolution of thermal conductivity upon heating.

  9. Effects of temperature and thermally-induced microstructure change on hydraulic conductivity of Boom Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Z. Chen


    Full Text Available Boom Clay is one of the potential host rocks for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste in Belgium. In order to investigate the mechanism of hydraulic conductivity variation under complex thermo-mechanical coupling conditions and to better understand the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM coupling behaviour of Boom Clay, a series of permeability tests using temperature-controlled triaxial cell has been carried out on the Boom Clay samples taken from Belgian underground research laboratory (URL HADES. Due to its sedimentary nature, Boom Clay presents across-anisotropy with respect to its sub-horizontal bedding plane. Direct measurements of the vertical (Kv and horizontal (Kh hydraulic conductivities show that the hydraulic conductivity at 80 °C is about 2.4 times larger than that at room temperature (23 °C, and the hydraulic conductivity variation with temperature is basically reversible during heating–cooling cycle. The anisotropic property of Boom Clay is studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM tests, which highlight the transversely isotropic characteristics of intact Boom Clay. It is shown that the sub-horizontal bedding feature accounts for the horizontal permeability higher than the vertical one. The measured increment in hydraulic conductivity with temperature is lower than the calculated one when merely considering the changes in water kinematic viscosity and density with temperature. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR tests have also been carried out to investigate the impact of microstructure variation on the THM properties of clay. The results show that heating under unconstrained boundary condition will produce larger size of pores and weaken the microstructure. The discrepancy between the hydraulic conductivity experimentally measured and predicted (considering water viscosity and density changes with temperature can be attributed to the microstructural weakening effect on the thermal volume change

  10. How similar are annual and summer temperature variability in central Sweden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang


    Full Text Available Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions have successfully inferred the past inter-annual to millennium scales summer temperature variability. A clear relationship between annual and summer temperatures can provide insights into the variability of past annual mean temperature from the reconstructed summer temperature. However, how similar are summer and annual temperatures is to a large extent still unknown. This study aims at investigating the relationship between annual and summer temperatures at different timescales in central Sweden during the last millennium. The temperature variability in central Sweden can represent large parts of Scandinavia which has been a key region for dendroclimatological research. The observed annual and summer temperatures during 1901–2005 were firstly decomposed into different frequency bands using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD method, and then the scale-dependent relationship was quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. The relationship between the observed annual and summer temperatures determined by the instrumental data was subsequently used to evaluate 7 climate models. The model with the best performance was used to infer the relationship for the last millennium. The results show that the relationship between the observed annual and summer temperatures becomes stronger as the timescale increases, except for the 4–16 years timescales at which it does not show any relationship. The summer temperature variability at short timescales (2–4 years shows much higher variance than the annual variability, while the annual temperature variability at long timescales (>32 years has a much higher variance than the summer one. During the last millennium, the simulated summer temperature also shows higher variance at the short timescales (2–4 years and lower variance at the long timescales (>1024 years than those of the annual temperature. The relationship between the two temperatures is

  11. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of climax stock quartz monzonite at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B.; Abey, A.E.


    Measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity have been made on two samples of Climax Stock quartz monzonite at pressures between 3 and 50 MPa and temperatures between 300 and 523{sup 0}K. Following those measurements the apparatus was calibrated with respect to the thermal conductivity measurement using a reference standard of fused silica. Corrected thermal conductivity of the rock indicates a value at room temperature of 2.60 +- 0.25 W/mK at 3 MPa increasing linearly to 2.75 +- 0.25 W/mK at 50 MPa. These values are unchanged (+- 0.07 W/mK) by heating under 50-MPa pressure to as high as 473{sup 0}K. The conductivity under 50-MPa confining pressure falls smoothly from 2.75 +- 0.25 W/mK at 313{sup 0}K to 2.15 +- 0.25 W/mK at 473{sup 0}K. Thermal diffusivity at 300{sup 0}K was found to be 1.2 +- 0.4 X 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s and shows approximately the same pressure and temperature dependencies as the thermal conductivity.

  12. The design of high-temperature thermal conductivity measurements apparatus for thin sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Syamsul


    Full Text Available This study presents the designing, constructing and validating processes of thermal conductivity apparatus using steady-state heat-transfer techniques with the capability of testing a material at high temperatures. This design is an improvement from ASTM D5470 standard where meter-bars with the equal cross-sectional area were used to extrapolate surface temperature and measure heat transfer across a sample. There were two meter-bars in apparatus where each was placed three thermocouples. This Apparatus using a heater with a power of 1,000 watts, and cooling water to stable condition. The pressure applied was 3.4 MPa at the cross-sectional area of 113.09 mm2 meter-bar and thermal grease to minimized interfacial thermal contact resistance. To determine the performance, the validating process proceeded by comparing the results with thermal conductivity obtained by THB 500 made by LINSEIS. The tests showed the thermal conductivity of the stainless steel and bronze are 15.28 Wm-1K-1 and 38.01 Wm-1K-1 with a difference of test apparatus THB 500 are −2.55% and 2.49%. Furthermore, this apparatus has the capability to measure the thermal conductivity of the material to a temperature of 400°C where the results for the thermal conductivity of stainless steel is 19.21 Wm-1K-1 and the difference was 7.93%.

  13. Proton conducting, composite sulfonated polymer membrane for medium temperature and low relative humidity fuel cells (United States)

    Shin, Dong Won; Kang, Na Rae; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Cho, Doo Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Won Hyo; Lee, Young Moo


    Inorganic-organic composite membranes are fabricated using zirconium acetylacetonate nanoparticles and biphenol-based sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) as an inorganic, proton conducting nanomaterial and a polymer matrix, respectively. An amphiphilic surfactant (Pluronic®) induces distribution of the inorganic nanoparticles over the entire polymer membrane. The composite membranes are thermally stable up to 200 °C. Zirconium acetylacetonate improves inter-chain interactions and the robustness of polymer membranes resulting in excellent membrane mechanical properties. In addition, composite membranes show outstanding proton conductivity compared to that of the pristine membrane at medium temperatures (80-120 °C) and low relative humidity (<50%) conditions. This improvement is due to the presence of acetylacetonate anions, which bind water molecules and act as an additional proton conducting site and/or medium. Therefore, the composite membranes significantly outperform the pristine membrane in fuel cell performance tests at medium temperatures and low relative humidity.

  14. Variability in Glycemic Control with Temperature Transitions during Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal K. Haase


    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH and continuous insulin may be at increased risk of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, particularly during temperature transitions. This study aimed to evaluate frequency of glucose excursions during each phase of TH and to characterize glycemic control patterns in relation to survival. Methods. Patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital for circulatory arrest and treated with both therapeutic hypothermia and protocol-based continuous insulin between January 2010 and June 2013 were included. Glucose measures, insulin, and temperatures were collected through 24 hours after rewarming. Results. 24 of 26 patients experienced glycemic excursions. Hyperglycemic excursions were more frequent during initiation versus remaining phases (36.3%, 4.3%, 2.5%, and 4.0%, p=0.002. Hypoglycemia occurred most often during rewarming (0%, 7.7%, 23.1%, and 3.8%, p=0.02. Patients who experienced hypoglycemia had higher insulin doses prior to rewarming (16.2 versus 2.1 units/hr, p=0.03. Glucose variation was highest during hypothermia and trended higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (13.38 versus 9.16, p=0.09. Frequency of excursions was also higher in nonsurvivors (32.3% versus 19.8%, p=0.045. Conclusions. Glycemic excursions are common and occur more often in nonsurvivors. Excursions differ by phase but risk of hypoglycemia is increased during rewarming.

  15. Pain rather than induced emotions and ICU sound increases skin conductance variability in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Günther, A C; Schandl, A R; Berhardsson, J; Bjärtå, A; Wållgren, M; Sundin, Ö; Alvarsson, J; Bottai, M; Martling, C-R; Sackey, P V


    Assessing pain in critically ill patients is difficult. Skin conductance variability (SCV), induced by the sympathetic response to pain, has been suggested as a method to identify pain in poorly communicating patients. However, SCV, a derivate of conventional skin conductance, could potentially also be sensitive to emotional stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate if pain and emotional stress can be distinguished with SCV. In a series of twelve 1-min sessions with SCV recording, 18 healthy volunteers were exposed to standardized electric pain stimulation during blocks of positive, negative, or neutral emotion, induced with pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Additionally, authentic intensive care unit (ICU) sound was included in half of the sessions. All possible combinations of pain and sound occurred in each block of emotion, and blocks were presented in randomized order. Pain stimulation resulted in increases in the number of skin conductance fluctuations (NSCF) in all but one participant. During pain-free baseline sessions, the median NSCF was 0.068 (interquartile range 0.013-0.089) and during pain stimulation median NSCF increased to 0.225 (interquartile range 0.146-0.3175). Only small increases in NSCF were found during negative emotions. Pain, assessed with the numeric rating scale, during the sessions with pain stimulation was not altered significantly by other ongoing sensory input. In healthy volunteers, NSCF appears to reflect ongoing autonomous reactions mainly to pain and to a lesser extent, reactions to emotion induced with IAPS pictures or ICU sound. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Poole-Frenkel effect and variable-range hopping conduction in metal/YBCO resistive switching devices (United States)

    Schulman, A.; Lanosa, L. F.; Acha, C.


    Current-voltage (IV) characteristics and the temperature dependence of the contact resistance [R(T)] of Au/YBa2Cu3O7-δ (optimally doped YBCO) interfaces have been studied at different resistance states. These states were produced by resistive switching after accumulating cyclic electrical pulses of increasing number and voltage amplitude. The IV characteristics and the R(T) dependence of the different states are consistent with a Poole-Frenkel (P-F) emission mechanism with trapping-energy levels Et in the 0.06-0.11 eV range. Et remains constant up to a number-of-pulses-dependent critical voltage and increases linearly with a further increase in the voltage amplitude of the pulses. The observation of a P-F mechanism reveals the existence of an oxygen-depleted layer of YBCO near the interface. A simple electrical transport scenario is discussed, where the degree of disorder, the trap energy level, and the temperature range determine an electrical conduction dominated by non-linear effects, either in a P-F emission or in a variable-range hopping regime.

  17. Numerical analysis of unsteady 3D flow of Carreau nanofluid with variable thermal conductivity and heat source/sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irfan

    Full Text Available Inspired by modern deeds of nanotechnology and nanoscience and their abundant applications in the field of science and engineering, we establish a mathematical relation for unsteady 3D forced convective flow of Carreau nanofluid over a bidirectional stretched surface. Heat transfer phenomena of Carreau nanofluid is inspected through the variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption impact. Furthermore, this research paper presents a more convincing approach for heat and mass transfer phenomenon of nanoliquid by utilizing new mass flux condition. Practically, zero mass flux condition is more adequate because in this approach we assume nanoparticle amends itself accordingly on the boundaries. Now the features of Buongiorno’s relation for Carreau nanofluid can be applied in a more efficient way. An appropriate transformation is vacant to alter the PDEs into ODEs and then tackled numerically by employing bvp4c scheme. The numerous consequence of scheming parameters on the Carreau nanoliquid velocity components, temperature and concentration fields are portrayed graphically and deliberated in detail. The numerical outcomes for local skin friction and the wall temperature gradient for nanoliquid are intended and vacant through tables. The outcomes conveyed here manifest that impact of Brownian motion parameter Nb on the rate of heat transfer for nanoliquids becomes negligible for the recently recommended revised relation. Addationally, for authentication of the present relation, the achieved results are distinguished with earlier research works in specific cases and marvelous agreement has been noted. Keywords: Unsteady flow, Three-dimensional, New mass flux condition, Numerical solution

  18. Tack Measurements of Prepreg Tape at Variable Temperature and Humidity (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher; Palmieri, Frank L.; Forghani, Alireza; Hickmott, Curtis; Bedayat, Houman; Coxon, Brian; Poursartip, Anoush; Grimsley, Brian


    NASA’s Advanced Composites Project has established the goal of achieving a 30 percent reduction in the timeline for certification of primary composite structures for application on commercial aircraft. Prepreg tack is one of several critical parameters affecting composite manufacturing by automated fiber placement (AFP). Tack plays a central role in the prevention of wrinkles and puckers that can occur during AFP, thus knowledge of tack variation arising from a myriad of manufacturing and environmental conditions is imperative for the prediction of defects during AFP. A full design of experiments was performed to experimentally characterize tack on 0.25-inch slit-tape tow IM7/8552-1 prepreg using probe tack testing. Several process parameters (contact force, contact time, retraction speed, and probe diameter) as well as environmental parameters (temperature and humidity) were varied such that the entire parameter space could be efficiently evaluated. Mid-point experimental conditions (i.e., parameters not at either extrema) were included to enable prediction of curvature in relationships and repeat measurements were performed to characterize experimental error. Collectively, these experiments enable determination of primary dependencies as well as multi-parameter relationships. Slit-tape tow samples were mounted to the bottom plate of a rheometer parallel plate fixture using a jig to prevent modification of the active area to be interrogated with the top plate, a polished stainless steel probe, during tack testing. The probe surface was slowly brought into contact with the pre-preg surface until a pre-determined normal force was achieved (2-30 newtons). After a specified dwell time (0.02-10 seconds), during which the probe substrate interaction was maintained under displacement control, the probe was retracted from the surface (0.1-50 millimeters per second). Initial results indicated a clear dependence of tack strength on several parameters, with a particularly

  19. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Sierra


    Full Text Available Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long-term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen the release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. These effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  20. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)


    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  1. Temperature-dependent conduction mechanism of vertically aligned graphene nanoflakes incorporated with nitrogen in situ (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan


    Carbon nanostructured materials have been widely investigated and explored all over the world. However, the frontiers of applications and basic examinations related to these materials have yet to be opened in terms of their stability and robustness in the required environment. I report the temperature-dependent transport properties of vertically aligned graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) at room temperature to 800 K. Investigation of GNFs incorporated with nitrogen (N2) of varying concentration in situ and their possible conduction mechanism has been carried out over the entire range of temperatures mentioned above. N-type conductivity, carrier concentration, mobility and modulation at various temperatures are observed by means of Hall-effect measurements. The film of GNFs incorporated with nitrogen in situ persists in a linear trend, satisfying conduction behaviour expectations for all measured transport parameters with only a small discrete-point anomaly. Supporting evidence of N2 incorporation and structural modifications is studied by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The observation findings also provide the thermal stability of N2 incorporated into two-dimensional vertically standing GNFs.

  2. Thermal rectification in restructured graphene with locally modulated temperature dependence of thermal conductivity (United States)

    Arora, Anuj; Hori, Takuma; Shiga, Takuma; Shiomi, Junichiro


    We study thermal rectification (TR) in a selectively restructured graphene by performing deviational phonon Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with frequency-dependent phonon transport properties obtained from first principles. The restructuring is achieved by introducing vacancy defects in a portion of graphene. The defects significantly change phonon transport properties, resulting in a modulation of temperature dependence of thermal conductivity. With this modulated temperature dependence, we predict TR ratio through a Fourier's-law-based iterative scheme (FIS), where heat flow through the system is analyzed by solving the Fourier's law of heat conduction with spatially varying temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. To identify structure parameters for maximal TR ratio, we investigate the influence of defect size, volume percentage of defects, and system (consisting of defective and nondefective regions) length through FIS analysis. As a result, we find that the TR ratio is mainly a function of length of defective and nondefective regions and volume percentage of defect, and it is mostly independent of defect size. A longer (of the order of 10 μm) nondefective side, coupled to a shorter (of the order of 100 nm) defective side, can lead to large TR ratios. Finally, MC simulation for the restructured graphene (full system) is performed to verify the predictions from FIS analysis. The full system calculations give similar trends but with enhanced TR ratios up to 70% for the temperature range of 200-500 K.

  3. On measuring the response of mesophyll conductance to carbon dioxide with the variable J method. (United States)

    Gilbert, Matthew Edmund; Pou, Alícia; Zwieniecki, Maciej Andrzej; Holbrook, N Michele


    The response of mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)) to environmental variation is a challenging parameter to measure with current methods. The 'variable J' technique, used in the majority of studies of g(m), assumes a one-to-one relationship between photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence and photosynthesis under non-photorespiratory conditions. When calibrating this relationship for Populus trichocarpa, it was found that calibration relationships produced using variation in light and CO(2) were not equivalent, and in all cases the relationships were non-linear-something not accounted for in previous studies. Detailed analyses were performed of whether different calibration procedures affect the observed g(m) response to CO(2). Past linear and assumed calibration methods resulted in systematic biases in the fluorescence estimates of electron transport. A sensitivity analysis on modelled data (where g(m) was held constant) demonstrated that biases in the estimation of electron transport as small as 2% (∼0.5 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) resulted in apparent changes in the relationship of g(m) to CO(2) of similar shape and magnitude to those observed with past calibration techniques. This sensitivity to biases introduced during calibrations leads to results where g(m) artefactually decreases with CO(2), assuming that g(m) is constant; if g(m) responds to CO(2), then biases associated with past calibration methods would lead to overestimates of the slope of the relationship. Non-linear calibrations were evaluated; these removed the bias present in past calibrations, but the method remained sensitive to measurement errors. Thus measurement errors, calibration non-linearities leading to bias, and the sensitivity of variable J g(m) hinders its use under conditions of varying CO(2) or light.

  4. Near-field radiative heat transfer under temperature gradients and conductive transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Weiliang; Rodriguez, Alejandro W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Messina, Riccardo [CNRS-Univ. de Montpellier (France). Lab. Charles Coulomb


    We describe a recently developed formulation of coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer (RHT) between objects separated by nanometric, vacuum gaps. Our results rely on analytical formulas of RHT between planar slabs (based on the scattering-matrix method) as well as a general formulation of RHT between arbitrarily shaped bodies (based on the fluctuating-volume current method), which fully captures the existence of temperature inhomogeneities. In particular, the impact of RHT on conduction, and vice versa, is obtained via self-consistent solutions of the Fourier heat equation and Maxwell's equations. We show that in materials with low thermal conductivities (e.g. zinc oxides and glasses), the interplay of conduction and RHT can strongly modify heat exchange, exemplified for instance by the presence of large temperature gradients and saturating flux rates at short (nanometric) distances. More generally, we show that the ability to tailor the temperature distribution of an object can modify the behaviour of RHT with respect to gap separations, e.g. qualitatively changing the asymptotic scaling at short separations from quadratic to linear or logarithmic. Our results could be relevant to the interpretation of both past and future experimental measurements of RHT at nanometric distances.

  5. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Alvi, Farah; Yasir Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbotabad 22060 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Mohsin, Munazza [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Javed, Muhammad Sufyan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science/Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China)


    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O{sup −2} (oxygen ions) and H{sup +} (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  6. Influence of temperature on the electrical conductivity of leachate from municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Grellier, Solenne; Robain, Henri; Bellier, Gérard; Skhiri, Nathalie


    A bioreactor landfill is designed to manage municipal solid waste, through accelerated waste biodegradation, and stabilisation of the process by means of the controlled addition of liquid, i.e. leachate recirculation. The measurement of electrical resistivity by Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allows to monitor water content present in the bioreactors. Variations in electrical resistivity are linked to variations in moisture content and temperature. In order to overcome this ambiguity, two laboratory experiments were carried out to establish a relationship between temperature and electrical conductivity: the first set of measurements was made for leachate alone, whereas the second set was made with two different granular media saturated with leachate. Both experiments confirm a well known increase in conductivity of about 2% degrees C(-1). However, higher suspended matter concentrations lead to a lower dependence of electrical conductivity on temperature. Furthermore, for various porous media saturated with an identical leachate, the higher the specific surface of the granular matrix, the lower the effective bulk electrical conductivity. These observations show that a correct understanding of the electrical properties of liquids requires the nature and (in particular) the size of the electrical charge carriers to be taken into account.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and low temperature electrical conductivity of Polyaniline/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites (United States)

    Prasanna, G. D.; Prasad, V. B.; Jayanna, H. S.


    Conducting polymer/ferrite nanocomposites with an organized structure provide a new functional hybrid between organic and inorganic materials. The most popular among the conductive polymers is the polyaniline (PANI) due to its wide application in different fields. In the present work nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel citrate-nitrate method with an average size of 21.6nm. PANI/NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple general and inexpensive in-situ polymerization in the presence of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The effects of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on the dc-electrical properties of polyaniline were investigated. The structural components in the nanocomposites were identified from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The crystalline phase of nanocomposites was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) reveals that there was some interaction between the NiFe2O4 particles and polyaniline and the nanocomposites are composed of polycrystalline ferrite nanoparticles and PANI. The dc conductivity of polyaniline/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites have been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 80K to 300K. It is observed that the room temperature conductivity cRT decreases with increase in the relative content of NiFe2O4. The experimental data reveals that the resistivity increases for all composites with decrease of temperature exhibiting semiconductor behaviour.

  8. Study of temperature-dependent charge conduction in silicon-nanocrystal/SiO{sub 2} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavilla, Narasimha Rao; Chavan, Vinayak [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Solanki, Chetan Singh [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Vasi, Juzer [National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE), Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)


    Silicon-nanocrystals (Si-NCs) realized by SiO{sub x} {sub <} {sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer (ML) approach have shown promise for realizing tightly-controlled dimensions, thus efficiently exploiting the size-dependent quantum effects for device applications. Unfortunately, the confining insulating barriers (SiO{sub 2} sublayers), instrumental for realizing quantum size effects in Si-NC MLs, can also hinder the charge conduction which is crucial for device applications including Si-NC based tandem solar cells and multi-exciton solar cells. Owing to this, a comprehensive study of conduction mechanisms has been carried out using a thorough analysis of temperature-dependent dark I-V measurements of SiO{sub 2} thin film and Si-NC multilayer samples fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma CVD (ICPCVD). As the ML samples consisted of interleaved SiO{sub 2} sublayers, current in SiO{sub 2} thin film has initially been studied to understand the conduction properties of bulk ICPCVD SiO{sub 2}. For 21 nm thick SiO{sub 2} film, conduction is observed to be dominated by Fowler–Nordheim (FN) tunneling for higher electric fields (> 8 MV/cm; independent of temperature), while for lower electric fields (5–8 MV/cm) at higher temperatures, the trap-related Generalized Poole–Frenkel (GPF) is dominant. This signified the role of traps in modifying the conduction in bulk ICPCVD SiO{sub 2} films. We then present the conduction in ML samples. For multilayer samples with SiO{sub 2} sublayer thickness of 1.5 nm and 2.5 nm, Direct Tunneling (DT) is observed to be dominant, while for SiO{sub 2} sublayer thickness of 3.5 nm, Space Charge Limited Conduction (SCLC) with exponential trap distribution is found to be the dominant conduction mechanism. This signifies the role of traps in modifying the conduction in Si-NC multilayer samples and SiO{sub 2} sublayer thickness dependence. - Highlights: • Electrical conduction in SiO{sub 2} film & Si-nanocrystal layers (Si-NCs) is reported. • Si

  9. The role of temperature on dielectric relaxation and conductivity mechanism of dark conglomerate liquid crystal phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Alptekin [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Physics Engineering, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Yildiz Technical University, Department of Physics, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Canli, Nimet Yilmaz, E-mail: [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Physics, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Özdemir, Zeynep Güven [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Physics, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Ocak, Hale; Eran, Belkız Bilgin [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Okutan, Mustafa [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Physics, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey)


    In this study, dielectric properties and ac conductivity mechanism of the bent-core liquid crystal 3′-{4-[4-(3,7-Dimethyloctyloxy)benzoyloxy]benzoyloxy}-4-{4- [4-[6-(1,1,3,3,5,5,5-heptamethyltrisiloxan-1yl)hex-1-yloxy]benzoyloxy] benzoyloxy}biphenyl (DBB) have been analyzed by impedance spectroscopy measurements at different temperatures. According to the polarizing microscopy results, DBB liquid crystal compound exhibits a dark conglomerate mesophase (DC{sup [*]} phase) which can be identified by the occurrence of a conglomerate of domains with opposite chirality. The chiral domains of this low-birefringent mesophase become more visible by rotating the polarizer. The variation of the real (ε′) and imaginary (ε″) parts of dielectric constant with angular frequency and Cole–Cole curves of DBB have been analyzed. The fitting results for dispersion curves at different temperatures revealed that DBB system exhibits nearly Debye-type relaxation except for 125 °C. Moreover, it has been determined that while the relaxation frequencies shift to higher frequencies as the temperature increases from 25 °C to 125 °C, the peak intensities remarkably decrease with increasing temperature. According to Cole–Cole plot and phase angle versus frequency curve, it has been determined that DBB LC may have a possibility of utilizing as a super-capacitor at room temperature. Furthermore, it has been found that the conductivity mechanism of the DBB alters from Correlated Barrier Hoping (CBH) model to Quantum Tunneling Model (QMT) with in increasing temperature at high frequency region. In terms of CBH model, optical band gaps at 25 °C and 75 °C temperatures have also been calculated. Finally, activation energies for some selected angular frequencies have also been calculated.

  10. Temporal variability of extreme temperature indices in Utah during the past few decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa dos Santos


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the trends in five annual extreme indices of temperature for Utah, USA. The analyses were conducted for 28 meteorological stations, during the period from 1970 to 2006, characterized by high quality data set. The analyses of extreme temperature indices have identified an increase in the maximum and minimum air temperatures in Utah. Predominantly, the minimum air temperature is increasing in the studied region. Most of Utah has shown a decrease in the diurnal temperature range, which indicates that the minimum temperature is increasing faster than the maximum temperature.

  11. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé


    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  12. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  13. Assimilation of temperature and hydraulic gradients for quantifying the spatial variability of streambed hydraulics (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Andrews, Charles B.; Liu, Jie; Yao, Yingying; Liu, Chuankun; Tyler, Scott W.; Selker, John S.; Zheng, Chunmiao


    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of water flux into or out of shallow aquifers is imperative for water resources management and eco-environmental conservation. In this study, the spatial variability in the vertical specific fluxes and hydraulic conductivities in a streambed were evaluated by integrating distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data and vertical hydraulic gradients into an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) and an empirical thermal-mixing model. The formulation of the EnKF/EnKS assimilation scheme is based on a discretized 1D advection-conduction equation of heat transfer in the streambed. We first systematically tested a synthetic case and performed quantitative and statistical analyses to evaluate the performance of the assimilation schemes. Then a real-world case was evaluated to calculate assimilated specific flux. An initial estimate of the spatial distributions of the vertical hydraulic gradients was obtained from an empirical thermal-mixing model under steady-state conditions using a constant vertical hydraulic conductivity. Then, this initial estimate was updated by repeatedly dividing the assimilated specific flux by estimates of the vertical hydraulic gradients to obtain a refined spatial distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients and vertical hydraulic conductivities. Our results indicate that optimal parameters can be derived with fewer iterations but greater simulation effort using the EnKS compared with the EnKF. For the field application in a stream segment of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, the average vertical hydraulic conductivities in the streambed varied over three orders of magnitude (5 × 10-1 to 5 × 102 m/d). The specific fluxes ranged from near zero (qz fish spawning and other wildlife incubation, regional flow and hyporheic solute transport models in the Heihe River Basin, as well as in other similar hydrologic settings.

  14. Estimating the stability of electrical conductivity of filled polymers under the influence of negative temperatures (United States)

    Minakova, N. N.; Ushakov, V. Ya.


    One of the key problems in modern materials technology is synthesis of materials for electrotechnical devices capable of operating under severe conditions. Electrical and power engineering, in particular, demands for electrically conductive composite materials operating at high and low temperatures, various mechanical loads, electric fields, etc. Chaotic arrangement of electrically conductive component in the matrix and its structural and geometrical inhomogeneity can increase the local electric and thermal energy flux densities up to critical values even when their average values remain moderate. Elastomers filled with technical carbon being a promising component for electrotechnical devices was chosen as an object of study.

  15. Late Holocene temperature variability in Tasmania inferred from borehole temperature data (United States)

    Suman, Asadusjjaman; Dyer, Fiona; White, Duanne


    Thirty-six borehole temperature-depth profiles were analysed to reconstruct the ground surface temperature history (GSTH) of eastern Tasmania for the past 5 centuries. We used the singular value decomposition method to invert borehole temperatures to produce temperature histories. The quality of borehole data was classified as high or low based on model misfit. The quality of the borehole data was not dependent on topography or land use. Analysis reveals that three to five high-quality borehole temperature-depth profiles were adequate to reconstruct robust paleotemperature records from any area. Average GSTH reconstructed from Tasmanian boreholes shows temperature increases about 1.2 ± 0.2 °C during the past 5 centuries. Reconstructed temperatures were consistent with meteorological records and other proxy records from Tasmania during their period of overlap. Temperature changes were greatest around the north-east coast and decreased towards the centre of Tasmania. The extension of the East Australian Current (EAC) further south and its strengthening around the north-east coast of Tasmania over the past century was considered a prime driver of warmer temperatures observed in north-east Tasmania.

  16. Non-Darcy free convection flow over a horizontal cylinder in a saturated porous medium with variable viscosity, thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity (United States)

    Hassanien, I. A.; Rashed, Z. Z.


    In this paper, the effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity on coupled heat and mass transfer by free convection about a permeable horizontal cylinder embedded in porous media using Ergun mode are studied. The fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity and are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature while the mass diffusion is assumed to vary as linear function of concentration. The surface of the horizontal cylinder is maintained at a uniform wall temperature and a uniform wall concentration. The transformed governing equations are obtained and solved by using the implicit finite difference method. Numerical results for dimensionless temperature and concentration profiles as well as Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented for various values of parameters namely, Ergun number, transpiration parameter, Rayleigh and Lewis numbers and buoyancy ratio parameter.

  17. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures (United States)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd


    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  18. Sea surface temperature variability over North Indian Ocean - A study of two contrasting monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sathyendranath, S.; Viswambharan, N.K.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Using the satellite derived sea surface temperature (SST) data for 1979 (bad monsoon) and 1983 (good monsoon), the SST variability for two contrasting monsoon seasons is studied. The study indicates that large negative anomalies off the Somali...

  19. Recent spatiotemporal temperature and rainfall variability and trends over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mengistu, Daniel; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Lal, Rattan


    This study analyses the spatial and temporal variability and trends of rainfall, mean maximum and minimum temperatures at seasonal and annual timescales over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia...

  20. High temperature color conductivity at next-to-leading log order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Peter; Yaffe, Laurence G.


    The non-Abelian analogue of electrical conductivity at high temperature has previously been known only at leading logarithmic order -- that is, neglecting effects suppressed only by an inverse logarithm of the gauge coupling. We calculate the first sub-leading correction. This has immediate application to improving, to next-to-leading log order, both effective theories of non-perturbative color dynamics, and calculations of the hot electroweak baryon number violation rate.

  1. Mechanisms of double stratification and magnetic field in flow of third grade fluid over a slendering stretching surface with variable thermal conductivity (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sajid; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir


    This article addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow of third grade fluid towards a nonlinear stretching sheet. Energy expression is based through involvement of variable thermal conductivity. Heat and mass transfer aspects are described within the frame of double stratification effects. Boundary layer partial differential systems are deduced. Governing systems are then converted into ordinary differential systems by invoking appropriate variables. The transformed expressions are solved through homotopic technique. Impact of embedded variables on velocity, thermal and concentration fields are displayed and argued. Numerical computations are presented to obtain the results of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. It is revealed that larger values of magnetic parameter reduces the velocity field while reverse situation is noticed due to wall thickness variable. Temperature field and local Nusselt number are quite reverse for heat generation/absorption parameter. Moreover qualitative behaviors of concentration field and local Sherwood number are similar for solutal stratification parameter.

  2. Estimation of Temperature Conductivity Coefficient Impact upon Fatigue Damage of Material (United States)

    Bibik, V.; Galeeva, A.


    In the paper we consider the peculiarities of adhesive wear of cutting tools. Simulation of heat flows in the cutting zone showed that, as thermal conduction and heat conductivity of tool material grow, the heat flows from the front and back surfaces to tool holder will increase and so, the temperature of the contact areas of the tool will lower. When estimating the adhesive wear rate of cemented-carbide tool under the cutting rates corresponding to the cutting temperature of up to 900 °C, it is necessary to take the fatigue character of adhesive wear into consideration. The process of accumulation and development of fatigue damage is associated with micro- and macroplastic flowing of material, which is determined by the processes of initiation, motion, generation, and elimination of line defects - dislocations. Density of dislocations grows with increase of the loading cycles amount and increase of load amplitude. Growth of dislocations density leads to loosening of material, formation of micro- and macrocracks. The heat capacity of material grows as the loosening continues. In the given paper the authors prove theoretically that temperature conductivity coefficient which is associated with heat capacity of material, decreases as fatigue wear grows.

  3. Simple theory of low-temperature thermal conductivity in single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Chalin, D. V.; Avramenko, M. V.; Rochal, S. B.


    Low-temperature phonon thermal conductance (PTC) of any 1D system increases proportionally to the temperature. However, here we show that in single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), starting from 3-6 K, the PTC increases faster than the linear function, since the low-frequency modes of dispersion curves, which do not tend to zero together with the wave vector, are excited. To develop the PTC theory, we combine the Landauer's ballistic approach with the simple continuous model proposed for the calculation of the low-frequency phonon spectra of both free nanotubes and those interacting with an environment. The approach obtained is valid not only for commensurate double-walled CNTs, but also for incommensurate ones. The temperature-dependent relation between the PTC of double-walled CNT and those of its constituent SWNTs is obtained and discussed. The low-temperature heat transfer in bulk materials originated from CNTs is also considered and the upper limit of thermal conductivity of such materials is determined. We argue that the ideal material consisting of CNTs can challenge diamond only when the mean length of its defect-free nanotubes reaches at least one hundred of micrometers.

  4. Analysis of convective longitudinal fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Sobamowo


    Full Text Available In this study, analysis of heat transfer in a longitudinal rectangular fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation was carried out using finite difference method. The developed systems of non-linear equations that resulted from the discretization using finite difference scheme were solved with the aid of MATLAB using fsolve. The numerical solution was validated with the exact solution for the linear problem. The developed heat transfer models were used to investigate the effects of thermo-geometric parameters, coefficient of heat transfer and thermal conductivity (non-linear parameters on the temperature distribution, heat transfer and thermal performance of the longitudinal rectangular fin. From the results, it shows that the fin temperature distribution, the total heat transfer, and the fin efficiency are significantly affected by the thermo-geometric parameters of the fin. Also, for the solution to be thermally stable, the fin thermo-geometric parameter must not exceed a specific value. However, it was established that the increase in temperature-dependent properties and internal heat generation values increases the thermal stability range of the thermo-geometric parameter. The results obtained in this analysis serve as basis for comparison of any other method of analysis of the problem.

  5. The effect of ambient temperature and barometric pressure on ambulatory blood pressure variability. (United States)

    Jehn, Megan; Appel, Lawrence J; Sacks, Frank M; Miller, Edgar R


    The effect of ambient temperature on cardiovascular disease has previously been studied. Less known are the effects of climate on blood pressure (BP) regulation, specifically, the role of temperature on BP variability. We investigated the effect of temperature and barometric pressure on ambulatory BP variability in 333 men and women with above-optimal BP or stage 1 hypertension participating in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) multicenter feeding trial. Each subject consumed the same diet for 3 weeks. Daytime, nighttime, and 24-h BP were recorded by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Climatologic data were obtained from local meteorologic centers. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), age, sex, baseline clinic systolic BP, and clinical center, systolic BP variability was inversely associated with 24-h temperature (P =.005) and daytime temperature (P =.006). There was no observed association between BP variability and barometric pressure. There was a significant trend of increasing nighttime systolic BP and diastolic BP with increasing temperature, but these results did not persist after adjustment for confounding variables. During periods of cold weather, an increase in BP variability may complicate the diagnosis and management of hypertension and may contribute to the high cardiovascular mortality observed in the winter.

  6. Influence of climate on emergency department visits for syncope: role of air temperature variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syncope is a clinical event characterized by a transient loss of consciousness, estimated to affect 6.2/1000 person-years, resulting in remarkable health care and social costs. Human pathophysiology suggests that heat may promote syncope during standing. We tested the hypothesis that the increase of air temperatures from January to July would be accompanied by an increased rate of syncope resulting in a higher frequency of Emergency Department (ED visits. We also evaluated the role of maximal temperature variability in affecting ED visits for syncope. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 770 of 2775 consecutive subjects who were seen for syncope at four EDs between January and July 2004. This period was subdivided into three epochs of similar length: 23 January-31 March, 1 April-31 May and 1 June-31 July. Spectral techniques were used to analyze oscillatory components of day by day maximal temperature and syncope variability and assess their linear relationship. There was no correlation between daily maximum temperatures and number of syncope. ED visits for syncope were lower in June and July when maximal temperature variability declined although the maximal temperatures themselves were higher. Frequency analysis of day by day maximal temperature variability showed a major non-random fluctuation characterized by a ∼23-day period and two minor oscillations with ∼3- and ∼7-day periods. This latter oscillation was correlated with a similar ∼7-day fluctuation in ED visits for syncope. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that ED visits for syncope were not predicted by daily maximal temperature but were associated with increased temperature variability. A ∼7-day rhythm characterized both maximal temperatures and ED visits for syncope variability suggesting that climate changes may have a significant effect on the mode of syncope occurrence.

  7. Snow-atmosphere coupling and its impact on temperature variability and extremes over North America (United States)

    Diro, G. T.; Sushama, L.; Huziy, O.


    The impact of snow-atmosphere coupling on climate variability and extremes over North America is investigated using modeling experiments with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5). To this end, two CRCM5 simulations driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the 1981-2010 period are performed, where snow cover and depth are prescribed (uncoupled) in one simulation while they evolve interactively (coupled) during model integration in the second one. Results indicate systematic influence of snow cover and snow depth variability on the inter-annual variability of soil and air temperatures during winter and spring seasons. Inter-annual variability of air temperature is larger in the coupled simulation, with snow cover and depth variability accounting for 40-60% of winter temperature variability over the Mid-west, Northern Great Plains and over the Canadian Prairies. The contribution of snow variability reaches even more than 70% during spring and the regions of high snow-temperature coupling extend north of the boreal forests. The dominant process contributing to the snow-atmosphere coupling is the albedo effect in winter, while the hydrological effect controls the coupling in spring. Snow cover/depth variability at different locations is also found to affect extremes. For instance, variability of cold-spell characteristics is sensitive to snow cover/depth variation over the Mid-west and Northern Great Plains, whereas, warm-spell variability is sensitive to snow variation primarily in regions with climatologically extensive snow cover such as northeast Canada and the Rockies. Furthermore, snow-atmosphere interactions appear to have contributed to enhancing the number of cold spell days during the 2002 spring, which is the coldest recorded during the study period, by over 50%, over western North America. Additional results also provide useful information on the importance of the interactions of snow with large-scale mode of variability in modulating

  8. Late Holocene temperature variability in Tasmania inferred from borehole temperature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suman


    Full Text Available Thirty-six borehole temperature–depth profiles were analysed to reconstruct the ground surface temperature history (GSTH of eastern Tasmania for the past 5 centuries. We used the singular value decomposition method to invert borehole temperatures to produce temperature histories. The quality of borehole data was classified as high or low based on model misfit. The quality of the borehole data was not dependent on topography or land use. Analysis reveals that three to five high-quality borehole temperature–depth profiles were adequate to reconstruct robust paleotemperature records from any area. Average GSTH reconstructed from Tasmanian boreholes shows temperature increases about 1.2 ± 0.2 °C during the past 5 centuries. Reconstructed temperatures were consistent with meteorological records and other proxy records from Tasmania during their period of overlap. Temperature changes were greatest around the north-east coast and decreased towards the centre of Tasmania. The extension of the East Australian Current (EAC further south and its strengthening around the north-east coast of Tasmania over the past century was considered a prime driver of warmer temperatures observed in north-east Tasmania.

  9. Large Conductance Switching in a Single-Molecule Device through Room Temperature Spin-Dependent Transport. (United States)

    Aragonès, Albert C; Aravena, Daniel; Cerdá, Jorge I; Acís-Castillo, Zulema; Li, Haipeng; Real, José Antonio; Sanz, Fausto; Hihath, Josh; Ruiz, Eliseo; Díez-Pérez, Ismael


    Controlling the spin of electrons in nanoscale electronic devices is one of the most promising topics aiming at developing devices with rapid and high density information storage capabilities. The interface magnetism or spinterface resulting from the interaction between a magnetic molecule and a metal surface, or vice versa, has become a key ingredient in creating nanoscale molecular devices with novel functionalities. Here, we present a single-molecule wire that displays large (>10000%) conductance switching by controlling the spin-dependent transport under ambient conditions (room temperature in a liquid cell). The molecular wire is built by trapping individual spin crossover Fe(II) complexes between one Au electrode and one ferromagnetic Ni electrode in an organic liquid medium. Large changes in the single-molecule conductance (>100-fold) are measured when the electrons flow from the Au electrode to either an α-up or a β-down spin-polarized Ni electrode. Our calculations show that the current flowing through such an interface appears to be strongly spin-polarized, thus resulting in the observed switching of the single-molecule wire conductance. The observation of such a high spin-dependent conductance switching in a single-molecule wire opens up a new door for the design and control of spin-polarized transport in nanoscale molecular devices at room temperature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MATEI


    Full Text Available The main objective of the present paper is to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of air-temperature in Romania, by using mean air-temperature values provided by the ECA&D project ( These data sets will be filtered by means of the EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis, which describes various modes of space variability and time coefficient series (PC series. The EOF analysis will also be used to identify the main way of action of the European climate variability mechanism, by using multiple variables in grid points, provided by the National Centre of Atmospheric Research (NCAR, USA. The variables considered here are: sea level pressure (SLP, geopotential height at 500 mb (H500 and air temperature at 850 mb (T850, for the summer and winter seasons. The linear trends and shift points of considered variables are then assessed by means of the Mann-Kendall and Pettitt non-parametric tests. By interpreting the results, we can infer that there is causal relationship between the large-scale analyzed parameters and temperature variability in Romania. These results are consistent with those presented by Busuioc et al., 2010, where the main variation trends of the principal European variables are shown.

  11. Change in the magnitude and mechanisms of global temperature variability with warming (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T.; Ming, Yi; Li, Wenhong; Hill, Spencer A.


    Natural unforced variability in global mean surface air temperature (GMST) can mask or exaggerate human-caused global warming, and thus a complete understanding of this variability is highly desirable. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the magnitude and physical origins of present-day unforced GMST variability, but it has remained unclear how such variability may change as the climate warms. Here we present modelling evidence that indicates that the magnitude of low-frequency GMST variability is likely to decline in a warmer climate and that its generating mechanisms may be fundamentally altered. In particular, a warmer climate results in lower albedo at high latitudes, which yields a weaker albedo feedback on unforced GMST variability. These results imply that unforced GMST variability is dependent on the background climatological conditions, and thus climate model control simulations run under perpetual pre-industrial conditions may have only limited relevance for understanding the unforced GMST variability of the future.

  12. Thermal conductivity and internal temperature profiles of Li-ion secondary batteries (United States)

    Richter, Frank; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vie, Preben J. S.; Burheim, Odne S.


    In this paper we report the thermal conductivity for commercial battery components. Materials were obtained from several electrode- and separator manufacturers, and some were extracted from commercial batteries. We measured with and without electrolyte solvent and at different compaction pressures. The experimentally obtained values are used in a thermal model and corresponding internal temperature profiles are shown. The thermal conductivity of dry separator materials was found to range from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.02 WK-1m-1 . Dry electrode (active) materials ranged from 0.13 ± 0.02 to 0.61 ± 0.02 WK-1m-1 . Adding the electrolyte solvent increased the thermal conductivity of electrode (active) materials by at least a factor of 2.

  13. Evaluation of data worth of hydraulic head and temperature in estimating hydraulic conductivities (United States)

    Ju, L.; Zhang, J.; Zeng, L.


    Hydraulic head and temperature have been extensively used in the inverse modeling for hyporheic exchange. It is of interest to compare the data worth (DW) of these measurements in estimating hydraulic conductivity. In this study, based on the relative entropy, we conducted a fully Bayesian DW analysis for these two types of measurements. Then, sandbox experiments were implemented to validate the numerical DW analysis results. A Bayesian estimation method, i.e., the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, was employed to estimate the hydraulic conductivity field based on the single or both types of measurements. Our findings show that, with the typical in-situ observing error level, DW of the hydraulic head measurements is the lowest, while the combination of both measurements gives the highest DW value. This work is the first work of fully Bayesian DW analysis for hyporheic exchange, which has important applications in the optimal design of data-collection strategy for hyporheic studies.

  14. Enhanced high temperature thermoelectric response of sulphuric acid treated conducting polymer thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.


    We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of solution processed pristine and sulphuric acid treated poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (or PEDOT:PSS) films. The acid treatment is shown to simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the metal-like films, resulting in a five-fold increase in thermoelectric power factor (0.052 W/m. K ) at 460 K, compared to the pristine film. By using atomic force micrographs, Raman and impedance spectra and using a series heterogeneous model for electrical conductivity, we demonstrate that acid treatment results in the removal of PSS from the films, leading to the quenching of accumulated charge-induced energy barriers that prevent hopping conduction. The continuous removal of PSS with duration of acid treatment also alters the local band structure of PEDOT:PSS, resulting in simultaneous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient.

  15. Niobium phosphates as an intermediate temperature proton conducting electrolyte for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede


    A new proton conductor based on niobium phosphates was synthesized using niobium pentoxide and phosphoric acid as precursors. The existence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphates was confirmed and found to be preserved after heat treatment at 500 °C or higher, contributing to an anhydrous proton...... conductivity of 1.6 × 10−2 S cm−1 at 250 °C. The conductivity increased with water content in the atmosphere and reached 5.8 × 10−2 S cm−1 under pure water vapour at the same temperature. The conductivity showed good stability in the low water partial pressure range of up to 0.05 atm. The metal phosphates...

  16. Synergistically improved thermal conductivity of polyamide-6 with low melting temperature metal and graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Jia


    Full Text Available Low melting temperature metal (LMTM-tin (Sn was introduced into polyamide-6 (PA6 and PA6/graphite composites respectively to improve the thermal conductivity of PA6 by melt processing (extruding and injection molding. After introducing Sn, the thermal conductivity of PA6/Sn was nearly constant because of the serious agglomeration of Sn. However, when 20 wt% (5.4 vol% of Sn was added into PA6 containing 50 wt% (33.3 vol% of graphite, the thermal conductivity of the composite was dramatically increased to 5.364 versus 1.852 W·(m·K–1 for the PA6/graphite composite, which suggests that the incorporation of graphite and Sn have a significant synergistic effect on the thermal conductivity improvement of PA6. What is more, the electrical conductivity of the composite increased nearly 8 orders of magnitudes after introducing both graphite and Sn. Characterization of microstructure and energy dispersive spectrum analysis (EDS indicates that the dispersion of Sn in PA6/graphite/Sn was much more uniform than that of PA6/Sn composite. According to Differential Scanning Calorimetry measurement and EDS, the uniform dispersion of Sn in PA6/graphite/Sn and the high thermal conductivity of PA6/graphite/Sn are speculated to be related with the electron transfer between graphite and Sn, which makes Sn distribute evenly around the graphite layers.

  17. Effects of variability of meteorological measures on soil temperature in permafrost regions


    Beer, Christian; Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Brakebusch, Matthias


    To clarify effects of the variability of meteorological measures and their extreme events on topsoil and subsoil temperature in permafrost regions, an artificially manipulated climate dataset has been used for process-oriented model experiments. Climate variability mainly impacts snow depth, and the cover and thermal diffusivity of lichens and bryophytes. The latter effect is of opposite direction in summer and winter. These impacts of climate variability on insulating layers together substan...

  18. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability (United States)

    C.A. Sierra; M.E. Harmon; E.A. Thomann; S.S. Perakis; H.W. Loescher


    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic...

  19. Kiloampere, Variable-Temperature, Critical-Current Measurements of High-Field Superconductors. (United States)

    Goodrich, L F; Cheggour, N; Stauffer, T C; Filla, B J; Lu, X F


    We review variable-temperature, transport critical-current (I c) measurements made on commercial superconductors over a range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to about 1 kA. We have developed and used a number of systems to make these measurements over the last 15 years. Two exemplary variable-temperature systems with coil sample geometries will be described: a probe that is only variable-temperature and a probe that is variable-temperature and variable-strain. The most significant challenge for these measurements is temperature stability, since large amounts of heat can be generated by the flow of high current through the resistive sample fixture. Therefore, a significant portion of this review is focused on the reduction of temperature errors to less than ±0.05 K in such measurements. A key feature of our system is a pre-regulator that converts a flow of liquid helium to gas and heats the gas to a temperature close to the target sample temperature. The pre-regulator is not in close proximity to the sample and it is controlled independently of the sample temperature. This allows us to independently control the total cooling power, and thereby fine tune the sample cooling power at any sample temperature. The same general temperature-control philosophy is used in all of our variable-temperature systems, but the addition of another variable, such as strain, forces compromises in design and results in some differences in operation and protocol. These aspects are analyzed to assess the extent to which the protocols for our systems might be generalized to other systems at other laboratories. Our approach to variable-temperature measurements is also placed in the general context of measurement-system design, and the perceived advantages and disadvantages of design choices are presented. To verify the accuracy of the variable-temperature measurements, we compared critical-current values obtained on a specimen immersed in liquid helium ("liquid" or I c liq) at 5

  20. Intermediate temperature fuel cells based on proton conducting electrolytes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, S.; Holtappels, P.


    Solid oxide proton conductors can offer a new intermediate temperature fuel cell technology combining the advantages of polymeric fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cells. Among potential proton conductor materials, Y-doped barium zirconate (BZY) was found to be a promising candidate. This material was synthesised and characterised at EMPA. The synthesis study shows the possibility to use up scalable methods to produce BZY. It was demonstrated that BZY can take up protons and that the protons are the mobile charge carriers that dominate the conductivity. The conductivity of the grain interior (log {sigma} {approx} -3{sup -1} at 300 {sup o}C) competes with the conductivity of the best proton conductors. A correlation between the bulk conductivity and the cubic lattice parameter was observed. It was found that controlling the lattice parameter during the synthesis enable to tune the conductivity. The total conductivity of the test material was found to be dominated by the large resistive grain boundary contribution. Neither a clear microstructure/conductivity relationship could be identified nor could be found a blocking secondary phase. Only an exceptional thermal treatment (annealing up to 2200 {sup o}C) showed an improvement of the grain boundary conductivity. A first interpretation presumes an electronic effect arising from the shearing of crystallographic planes that depresses either the proton concentration or the proton mobility in the vicinity of the grain boundaries (i.e. in the so-called 'space charge region'). Consequences for the further development of BZY for fuel cell application are discussed. (author)

  1. High-temperature supercapacitor with a proton-conducting metal pyrophosphate electrolyte (United States)

    Hibino, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuyo; Nagao, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Shinji


    Expanding the range of supercapacitor operation to temperatures above 100°C is important because this would enable capacitors to operate under the severe conditions required for next-generation energy storage devices. In this study, we address this challenge by the fabrication of a solid-state supercapacitor with a proton-conducting Sn0.95Al0.05H0.05P2O7 (SAPO)-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite electrolyte and a highly condensed H3PO4 electrode ionomer. At a temperature of 200°C, the SAPO-PTFE electrolyte exhibits a high proton conductivity of 0.02 S cm−1 and a wide withstanding voltage range of ±2 V. The H3PO4 ionomer also has good wettability with micropore-rich activated carbon, which realizes a capacitance of 210 F g−1 at 200°C. The resulting supercapacitor exhibits an energy density of 32 Wh kg−1 at 3 A g−1 and stable cyclability after 7000 cycles from room temperature to 150°C. PMID:25600936

  2. Surface-temperature trends and variability in the low-latitude North Atlantic since 1552

    KAUST Repository

    Saenger, Casey


    Sea surface temperature variability in the North Atlantic Ocean recorded since about 1850 has been ascribed to a natural multidecadal oscillation superimposed on a background warming trend1-6. It has been suggested that the multidecadal variability may be a persistent feature6-8, raising the possibility that the associated climate impacts may be predictable7,8. owever, our understanding of the multidecadal ocean variability before the instrumental record is based on interpretations of high-latitude terrestrial proxy records. Here we present an absolutely dated and annually resolved record of sea surface temperature from the Bahamas, based on a 440-year time series of coral growth rates. The reconstruction indicates that temperatures were as warm as today from about 1552 to 1570, then cooled by about 1° C from 1650 to 1730 before warming until the present. Our estimates of background variability suggest that much of the warming since 1900 was driven by anthropogenic forcing. Interdecadal variability with a period of 15-25 years is superimposed on most of the record, but multidecadal variability becomes significant only after 1730. We conclude that the multidecadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the low-latitude western Atlantic Ocean may not be persistent, potentially making accurate decadal climate forecasts more difficult to achieve. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Complexation of Lanthanides with Nitrate at Variable Temperatures: Thermodynamics and Coordination Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin


    Complexation of neodymium(III) with nitrate was studied at variable temperatures (25, 40, 55 and 70 C) by spectrophotometry and microcalorimetry. The NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} complex is weak and becomes slightly stronger as the temperature is increased. The enthalpy of complexation at 25 C was determined by microcalorimetry to be small and positive, (1.5 {+-} 0.2) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, in good agreement with the trend of the stability constant at variable temperatures. Luminescence emission spectra and lifetime of Eu(III) in nitrate solutions suggest that inner-sphere and bidentate complexes form between trivalent lanthanides (Nd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) and nitrate in aqueous solutions. Specific Ion Interaction approach (SIT) was used to obtain the stability constants of NdNO{sub 3}{sup 2+} at infinite dilution and variable temperatures.

  4. Analysis of Radiative Radial Fin with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity Using Nonlinear Differential Transformation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Torabi


    Full Text Available Radiative radial fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is analyzed. The calculations are carried out by using differential transformation method (DTM, which is a seminumerical-analytical solution technique that can be applied to various types of differential equations, as well as the Boubaker polynomials expansion scheme (BPES. By using DTM, the nonlinear constrained governing equations are reduced to recurrence relations and related boundary conditions are transformed into a set of algebraic equations. The principle of differential transformation is briefly introduced and then applied to the aforementioned equations. Solutions are subsequently obtained by a process of inverse transformation. The current results are then compared with previously obtained results using variational iteration method (VIM, Adomian decomposition method (ADM, homotopy analysis method (HAM, and numerical solution (NS in order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The findings reveal that both BPES and DTM can achieve suitable results in predicting the solution of such problems. After these verifications, we analyze fin efficiency and the effects of some physically applicable parameters in this problem such as radiation-conduction fin parameter, radiation sink temperature, heat generation, and thermal conductivity parameters.

  5. Electrical and thermal conductivity of low temperature CVD graphene: the effect of disorder. (United States)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan; Smirnov, Sergei; Ivanov, Ilia; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Dai, Sheng; Meyer, Harry; Chi, Miaofang; Hensley, Dale; Datskos, Panos; Lavrik, Nickolay V


    In this paper we present a study of graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under different conditions with the main emphasis on correlating the thermal and electrical properties with the degree of disorder. Graphene grown by CVD on Cu and Ni catalysts demonstrates the increasing extent of disorder at low deposition temperatures as revealed by the Raman peak ratio, IG/ID. We relate this ratio to the characteristic domain size, La, and investigate the electrical and thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of La. The electrical resistivity, ρ, measured on graphene samples transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates shows linear correlation with La(-1). The thermal conductivity, K, measured on the same graphene samples suspended on silicon pillars, on the other hand, appears to have a much weaker dependence on La, close to K∼La1/3. It results in an apparent ρ∼K3 correlation between them. Despite the progressively increasing structural disorder in graphene grown at lower temperatures, it shows remarkably high thermal conductivity (10(2)-10(3) W K(-1) m(-1)) and low electrical (10(3)-3×10(5) Ω) resistivities suitable for various applications.

  6. Conductive and evaporative precooling lowers mean skin temperature and improves time trial performance in the heat. (United States)

    Faulkner, S H; Hupperets, M; Hodder, S G; Havenith, G


    Self-paced endurance performance is compromised by moderate-to-high ambient temperatures that are evident in many competitive settings. It has become common place to implement precooling prior to competition in an attempt to alleviate perceived thermal load and performance decline. The present study aimed to investigate precooling incorporating different cooling avenues via either evaporative cooling alone or in combination with conductive cooling on cycling time trial performance. Ten trained male cyclists completed a time trial on three occasions in hot (35 °C) ambient conditions with the cooling garment prepared by (a) immersion in water (COOL, evaporative); (b) immersion in water and frozen (COLD, evaporative and conductive); or (c) no precooling (CONT). COLD improved time trial performance by 5.8% and 2.6% vs CONT and COOL, respectively (both P COLD vs CONT (P COLD compared with COOL and CONT (both P COLD. The combination of evaporative and conductive cooling (COLD) had the greatest benefit to performance, which is suggested to be driven by reduced skin temperature following cooling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of temperature variability on fisheries yields. (United States)

    Dee, Laura E; Miller, Steve J; Peavey, Lindsey E; Bradley, Darcy; Gentry, Rebecca R; Startz, Richard; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E


    Temperature variation within a year can impact biological processes driving population abundances. The implications for the ecosystem services these populations provide, including food production from marine fisheries, are poorly understood. Whether and how temperature variability impacts fishery yields may depend on the number of harvested species and differences in their responses to varying temperatures. Drawing from previous theoretical and empirical studies, we predict that greater temperature variability within years will reduce yields, but harvesting a larger number of species, especially a more functionally diverse set, will decrease this impact. Using a global marine fisheries dataset, we find that within-year temperature variability reduces yields, but current levels of functional diversity (FD) of targeted species, measured using traits related to species' responses to temperature, largely offset this effect. Globally, high FD of catch could avoid annual losses in yield of 6.8% relative to projections if FD were degraded to the lowest level observed in the data. By contrast, species richness in the catch and in the ecosystem did not provide a similar mitigating effect. This work provides novel empirical evidence that short-term temperature variability can negatively impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, but that FD can buffer these negative impacts. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Issues in the reporting and conduct of instrumental variable studies: a systematic review. (United States)

    Davies, Neil M; Smith, George Davey; Windmeijer, Frank; Martin, Richard M


    Instrumental variables can be used to estimate the causal effects of exposures on outcomes in the presence of residual or uncontrolled confounding. To assess the validity of analyses using instrumental variables, specific information about whether underlying assumptions are met must be presented, in particular to demonstrate that the instrument is associated with the exposure but not with measured confounding factors. We systematically reviewed the epidemiological literature in Embase and Medline for articles containing the term "instrumental variable$" to investigate whether reporting of test statistics in studies using instrumental variables was sufficient to assess the validity of the results. We extracted the information each study reported about their instrumental variables, including specification tests used to check assumptions. The search found 756 studies of which 90 were relevant and were included. Only 25 (28%) studies reported appropriate tests of the strength of the associations between instruments and exposure. Forty-four (49%) studies reported associations between the instrumental variables and observed covariates. Studies using instrumental variables had wide confidence intervals and so effect estimates were imprecise. We propose a checklist of information and specification tests that studies using instrumental variables should report.

  9. effective hydraulic conductivity for a soil of variable pore size with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Two models were derived for the estimation of effective hydraulic conductivity (K models were derived for the estimation of effective hydraulic conductivity (Ke) of a soil layer based on exponential and inverse square variation of hydraulic conductivity with soil depth. Darcy's law was applied to a vertical soil stratum ...

  10. Mediterranean water structure in the central Atlantic: Results of remote acoustic and conductivity-temperature-depth measurements (United States)

    Berezutskii, V.; Maximov, S. E.; Rodionov, V. B.; Sklyarov, V. E.


    In March 1990, combined acoustic and conductivity-temperature-depth measurements were carried out in the central Atlantic (29°-35°N, 20°-26°W) to study volume sound backscattering (VSB) at depths of Mediterranean Intermediate Water (MIW). Spatial variability of VSB in the presence of MIW was found. The influence of the intermittent character of the MIW structure on VSB at depths of 700-1900 m was revealed and examined. The possibility of acoustic detection and monitoring of both meddies and thermohaline fine structure features directly from the sea surface was discovered. This paper presents the first acoustic imaging of the MIW structure and dynamics in the central Atlantic.

  11. Highly conductive graphene by low-temperature thermal reduction and in situ preparation of conductive polymer nanocomposites. (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Kong, Junhua; Yee, Wu Aik; Liu, Wanshuang; Phua, Si Lei; Toh, Cher Ling; Huang, Shu; Lu, Xuehong


    Polydopamine-coated graphene oxide (DGO) films exhibit electrical conductivities of 11,000 S m(-1) and 30,000 S m(-1) upon vacuum annealing at 130 °C and 180 °C, respectively. Conductive poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene and epoxy/graphene nanocomposites show low percolation thresholds due to the excellent dispersibility of the DGO sheets and their effective in situ reduction.

  12. Simulating soybean canopy temperature as affected by weather variables and soil water potential (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.


    Hourly weather data for several clear sky days during summer at Phoenix and Baltimore which covered a wide range of variables were used with a plant atmosphere model to simulate soybean (Glycine max L.) leaf water potential, stomatal resistance and canopy temperature at various soil water potentials. The air and dew point temperatures were found to be the significant weather variables affecting the canopy temperatures. Under identical weather conditions, the model gives a lower canopy temperature for a soybean crop with a higher rooting density. A knowledge of crop rooting density, in addition to air and dew point temperatures is needed in interpreting infrared radiometric observations for soil water status. The observed dependence of stomatal resistance on the vapor pressure deficit and soil water potential is fairly well represented. Analysis of the simulated leaf water potentials indicates overestimation, possibly due to differences in the cultivars.

  13. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of insulating single crystal oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Langenberg


    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of 27 different single crystal oxides is reported from ≈20 K to 350 K. These crystals have been selected among the most common substrates for growing epitaxial thin-film oxides, spanning over a range of lattice parameters from ≈3.7 Å to ≈12.5 Å. Different contributions to the phonon relaxation time are discussed on the basis of the Debye model. This work provides a database for the selection of appropriate substrates for thin-film growth according to their desired thermal properties, for applications in which heat management is important.

  14. High temperature electrical conductivity due to small polaron hopping motion in DNA molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triberis, G P [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Karavolas, V C [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Simserides, C D [University of Athens, Physics Department, Solid State Section, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Special Lab for Non-Invasing Brain Imaging, Brenneckestr. 6, D-39118 Magdeburg (Germany)


    We present a small polaron hopping model to interpret the high-temperature electrical conductivity measured along the DNA molecules. The model takes into account the one-dimensional character of the system and the presence of disorder in the DNA double helix. The experimental data for the lambda phage DNA ({lambda}-DNA) and the poly(dA)-poly(dT) DNA follow nicely the theoretically predicted behavior leading to realistic values of the maximum hopping distances supporting the idea of multiphonon-assisted hopping of small polarons between next nearest neighbors of the DNA molecular 'wire'.

  15. Consequences of Part Temperature Variability in Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V (United States)

    Fisher, Brian A.; Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Wicker, Ryan B.; Beuth, Jack


    To facilitate adoption of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts produced via additive manufacturing (AM), the ability to ensure part quality is critical. Measuring temperatures is an important component of part quality monitoring in all direct metal AM processes. In this work, surface temperatures were monitored using a custom infrared camera system attached to an Arcam electron beam melting (EBM®) machine. These temperatures were analyzed to understand their possible effect on solidification microstructure based on solidification cooling rates extracted from finite element simulations. Complicated thermal histories were seen during part builds, and temperature changes occurring during typical Ti64 builds may be large enough to affect solidification microstructure. There is, however, enough time between fusion of individual layers for spatial temperature variations (i.e., hot spots) to dissipate. This means that an effective thermal control strategy for EBM® can be based on average measured surface temperatures, ignoring temperature variability.

  16. Consequences of Part Temperature Variability in Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V (United States)

    Fisher, Brian A.; Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Wicker, Ryan B.; Beuth, Jack


    To facilitate adoption of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts produced via additive manufacturing (AM), the ability to ensure part quality is critical. Measuring temperatures is an important component of part quality monitoring in all direct metal AM processes. In this work, surface temperatures were monitored using a custom infrared camera system attached to an Arcam electron beam melting (EBM®) machine. These temperatures were analyzed to understand their possible effect on solidification microstructure based on solidification cooling rates extracted from finite element simulations. Complicated thermal histories were seen during part builds, and temperature changes occurring during typical Ti64 builds may be large enough to affect solidification microstructure. There is, however, enough time between fusion of individual layers for spatial temperature variations (i.e., hot spots) to dissipate. This means that an effective thermal control strategy for EBM® can be based on average measured surface temperatures, ignoring temperature variability.

  17. Measurement of temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity of alumina and titania thermal oil nanofluids (United States)

    Cieśliński, Janusz T.; Ronewicz, Katarzyna; Smoleń, Sławomir


    In this study the results of simultaneous measurements of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and pH of two nanofluids, i.e., thermal oil/Al2O3 and thermal oil/TiO2 are presented. Thermal oil is selected as a base liquid because of possible application in ORC systems as an intermediate heating agent. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.1%, 1%, and 5% by weight within temperature range from 20 °C to 60 °C. Measurement devices were carefully calibrated by comparison obtained results for pure base liquid (thermal oil) with manufacturer's data. The results obtained for tested nanofluids were compared with predictions made by use of existing models for liquid/solid particles mixtures.

  18. Measurement of temperature-dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity of alumina and titania thermal oil nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Janusz T.


    Full Text Available In this study the results of simultaneous measurements of dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and pH of two nanofluids, i.e., thermal oil/Al2O3 and thermal oil/TiO2 are presented. Thermal oil is selected as a base liquid because of possible application in ORC systems as an intermediate heating agent. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.1%, 1%, and 5% by weight within temperature range from 20 °C to 60 °C. Measurement devices were carefully calibrated by comparison obtained results for pure base liquid (thermal oil with manufacturer’s data. The results obtained for tested nanofluids were compared with predictions made by use of existing models for liquid/solid particles mixtures.

  19. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  20. Interactions between temperature and drought in global and regional crop yield variability during 1961-2014 (United States)

    Matiu, Michael; Ankerst, Donna P.; Menzel, Annette


    Inter-annual crop yield variation is driven in large parts by climate variability, wherein the climate components of temperature and precipitation often play the biggest role. Nonlinear effects of temperature on yield as well as interactions among the climate variables have to be considered. Links between climate and crop yield variability have been previously studied, both globally and at regional scales, but typically with additive models with no interactions, or when interactions were included, with implications not fully explained. In this study yearly country level yields of maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat of the top producing countries were combined with growing season temperature and SPEI (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index) to determine interaction and intensification effects of climate variability on crop yield variability during 1961–2014. For maize, soybeans, and wheat, heat and dryness significantly reduced yields globally, while global effects for rice were not significant. But because of interactions, heat was more damaging in dry than in normal conditions for maize and wheat, and temperature effects were not significant in wet conditions for maize, soybeans, and wheat. Country yield responses to climate variability naturally differed between the top producing countries, but an accurate description of interaction effects at the country scale required sub-national data (shown only for the USA). Climate intensification, that is consecutive dry or warm years, reduced yields additionally in some cases, however, this might be linked to spillover effects of multiple growing seasons. Consequently, the effect of temperature on yields might be underestimated in dry conditions: While there were no significant global effects of temperature for maize and soybeans yields for average SPEI, the combined effects of high temperatures and drought significantly decreased yields of maize, soybeans, and wheat by 11.6, 12.4, and 9.2%, respectively. PMID

  1. Summer temperature and drought co-variability across Europe since 850 CE (United States)

    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik; Büntgen, Ulf; Cook, Edward R.; Esper, Jan; Fleitmann, Dominik; Gagen, Mary H.; García Bustamante, Elena; Fidel González-Rouco, Jesús; Krusic, Paul J.; Luterbacher, Jürg; Andrés Melo Aguilar, Camilo; Seftigen, Kristina; Seim, Andrea; Solomina, Olga; Werner, Johannes P.; Xoplaki, Elena; Zorita, Eduardo


    Under the present global warming condition the increasing risk of droughts and floods is a major concern. Droughts have severe consequences for agricultural productivity across wide areas. However, state-of-the-art climate models are not consistent in their projections of hydroclimate changes under global warming, on regional scales, which limits attempts at defining long-term mitigation strategies. A better understanding of past summer temperature and hydroclimate co-variability will provide valuable empirical information on how increasing/decreasing temperatures will affect summer drought conditions at different time-scales over Europe. We use instrumental data, the new gridded tree-ring-derived Old World Drought Atlas by Cook et al. (2015), the gridded European summer temperature reconstruction by Luterbacher et al. (2016), as well as two high-resolution last millennium (850-2005 CE) climate simulations (CCSM4 and MPI-ESM-P), to assess the spatio-temporal co-variability of summer temperature and summer drought over Europe, at inter-annual to centennial time-scales, since 850 CE. This allows us to i) investigate potential changes in the dominating patterns of co-variability at different time scales, and ii) assess the accuracy and precision of climate models to simulate summer temperature and summer drought co-variability as found in both the 20th century instrumental data and millennium-long tree-ring based climate reconstructions. The discussion of cross-spectral analyses of temperature and drought will likely improve our understanding of the long-term co-variability of these important climate variables at continental scales in Europe. References: Cook, E.R., et al. (2015) Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era. Science Advances, 1, e1500561, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500561. Luterbacher, J., et al. (2016) European summer temperatures since Roman times. Environmental Research Letters 11, e024001, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/024001.

  2. Calibration of a modified temperature-light intensity logger for quantifying water electrical conductivity (United States)

    Gillman, M. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Lafrenière, M. J.


    The Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity (STIC) electrical conductivity (EC) logger as presented by Chapin et al. (2014) serves as an inexpensive (˜50 USD) means to assess relative EC in freshwater environments. This communication demonstrates the calibration of the STIC logger for quantifying EC, and provides examples from a month long field deployment in the High Arctic. Calibration models followed multiple nonlinear regression and produced calibration curves with high coefficient of determination values (R2 = 0.995 - 0.998; n = 5). Percent error of mean predicted specific conductance at 25°C (SpC) to known SpC ranged in magnitude from -0.6% to 13% (mean = -1.4%), and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) ranged from 2.1% to 13% (mean = 5.3%). Across all tested loggers we found good accuracy and precision, with both error metrics increasing with increasing SpC values. During 10, month-long field deployments, there were no logger failures and full data recovery was achieved. Point SpC measurements at the location of STIC loggers recorded via a more expensive commercial electrical conductivity logger followed similar trends to STIC SpC records, with 1:1.05 and 1:1.08 relationships between the STIC and commercial logger SpC values. These results demonstrate that STIC loggers calibrated to quantify EC are an economical means to increase the spatiotemporal resolution of water quality investigations.

  3. Fundamental-Solution-Based Hybrid Element Model for Nonlinear Heat Conduction Problems with Temperature-Dependent Material Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang


    Full Text Available The boundary-type hybrid finite element formulation coupling the Kirchhoff transformation is proposed for the two-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems in solids with or without circular holes, and the thermal conductivity of material is assumed to be in terms of temperature change. The Kirchhoff transformation is firstly used to convert the nonlinear partial differential governing equation into a linear one by introducing the Kirchhoff variable, and then the new linear system is solved by the present hybrid finite element model, in which the proper fundamental solutions associated with some field points are used to approximate the element interior fields and the conventional shape functions are employed to approximate the element frame fields. The weak integral functional is developed to link these two fields and establish the stiffness equation with sparse and symmetric coefficient matrix. Finally, the algorithm is verified on several examples involving various expressions of thermal conductivity and existence of circular hole, and numerical results show good accuracy and stability.

  4. Ocean surface temperature variability: Large model–data differences at decadal and longer periods (United States)

    Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter


    The variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) at multidecadal and longer timescales is poorly constrained, primarily because instrumental records are short and proxy records are noisy. Through applying a new noise filtering technique to a global network of late Holocene SST proxies, we estimate SST variability between annual and millennial timescales. Filtered estimates of SST variability obtained from coral, foraminifer, and alkenone records are shown to be consistent with one another and with instrumental records in the frequency bands at which they overlap. General circulation models, however, simulate SST variability that is systematically smaller than instrumental and proxy-based estimates. Discrepancies in variability are largest at low latitudes and increase with timescale, reaching two orders of magnitude for tropical variability at millennial timescales. This result implies major deficiencies in observational estimates or model simulations, or both, and has implications for the attribution of past variations and prediction of future change. PMID:25385623

  5. Positive dependence of thermal conductivity on temperature in GeTe/Bi2Te3 superlattices: the contribution of electronic and particle wave lattice thermal conductivity (United States)

    Tong, H.; Lan, F.; Liu, Y. J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, X. J.; He, Q.; Wang, K. Z.; Miao, X. S.


    Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of phase-change material, GeTe/Bi2Te3 superlattices, has been investigated in the temperature range of 40-300 K. We have found that thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature, which is contrary to the common results indicated by other works. In this paper, two possible mechanisms are suggested for this result. One is that the thermal conductivity is affected by the thermal boundary resistance at the interfaces between layers, and the other considers the factor of electronic thermal conductivity in the partially coherent regime which is based on the very wave-particle duality of phonons. Finally, the periodic thickness dependence of the thermal conductivity in GeTe/Bi2Te3 superlattices have been measured at room temperature, and the results indicate the main contribution of electron in the total thermal conductivity and the partially coherent regime of phonon. Thus we believe that the second explanation is more reasonable. The work here deepens the understanding of basic mechanisms of thermal transport in phase-change superlattices, and is instructive in modeling and simulation of phase change memories.

  6. Molar conductivity behavior of ionic liquid compare to inorganic salt in electrolyte solution at ambien temperature (United States)

    Hanibah, H.; Hashim, N. Z. Nor; Shamsudin, I. J.


    Molar Conductivity (Λ) behaviour of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (Bmin) acetate and Bmin chloride (Bmin Cl) ionic liquids compared to lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) has been studied in aqueous and acetonitrile (ACN) solution at ambient temperature. The limiting molar conductivity (Λ0) was obtained using the Kohlrausch's and Ostwald's equation for the investigated systems. The results show that the Λ0 value for LiClO4 in both aqueous or acetonitrile (ACN) electrolyte system with a highest value as compare to ionic liquid electrolyte systems. This might as a result of ions association of LiClO4 in aqueous medium as the concentration of the solute increases in the solvent. In addition, the partial dissociation behaviour of LiClO4 in less polar solvent such as ACN also significantly affects the Λ0 value for this electrolyte system. However, for Bmin acetate and Bmin Cl in the aqueous or ACN medium show a much lower Λ0 value as compare to LiClO4 electrolyte system, 45.64, 74.63 and 107.32 S cm2 mol-1 respectively. This as a result of the nature behaviour of ionic liquid itself that present as free moving ions at room temperature before any dissolution into the solvent. In addition, a vice versa trend of Λ0 value is noted for Bmin acetate and Bmin Cl, 21.34 and 14.56 S cm2 mol-1 respectively in ACN electrolyte system. This indicated the solvent and the size of the anion play an important role in the estimation of limiting molar conductivity values which significantly affect the present of total free moving ions in an electrolyte system.

  7. Transparent conductive zinc-oxide-based films grown at low temperature by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirahata, Takahiro [New Energy and Environmental Business Division, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Kobe International Business Center (KIBC) 509, 5-5-2 Minatojima-Minami, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 780-8502 (Japan); School of Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 780-8502 (Japan); Fujita, Shizuo, E-mail: [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Orita, Hiroyuki [New Energy and Environmental Business Division, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Kobe International Business Center (KIBC) 509, 5-5-2 Minatojima-Minami, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)


    Atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist–CVD) systems have been developed to grow zinc-oxide-based (ZnO-based) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films. Low-resistive aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) TCOs, showing resistivity of the order on 10{sup −4} Ωcm, previously were grown using a safe source material zinc acetate [Zn(ac){sub 2}], at a growth temperature as high as 500 °C. To grow superior TCOs at lower temperatures, we proposed the addition of NH{sub 3} to accelerate the reaction of acetylacetonate compounds. As the result, we could grow gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) TCOs with a resistivity of 2.7 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90% at 300 °C by using zinc acetylacetonate [Zn(acac){sub 2}] as the Zn source. To grow boron-doped ZnO (BZO) TCOs at a lower growth temperature of 200 °C, we used boron doping along with a toluene solution of diethylzinc (DEZ), that maintained high reactivity without being flammable. These BZO TCOs showed a resistivity of 1.5 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90%, despite the use of a non-vacuum-based open-air technology. - Highlights: • Introduction of Mist–CVD as a non-vacuum-based, safe, and cost-effective growth technology • Process evolution of the growth technology to lower the growth temperature. • Achievement of low resistive ZnO films at 200oC.

  8. Measurement of the Electronic Thermal Conductance Channels and Heat Capacity of Graphene at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chung Fong


    Full Text Available The ability to transport energy is a fundamental property of the two-dimensional Dirac fermions in graphene. Electronic thermal transport in this system is relatively unexplored and is expected to show unique fundamental properties and to play an important role in future applications of graphene, including optoelectronics, plasmonics, and ultrasensitive bolometry. Here, we present measurements of bipolar thermal conductances due to electron diffusion and electron-phonon coupling and infer the electronic specific heat, with a minimum value of 10k_{B} (10^{-22}  J/K per square micron. We test the validity of the Wiedemann-Franz law and find that the Lorenz number equals 1.32×(π^{2}/3(k_{B}/e^{2}. The electron-phonon thermal conductance has a temperature power law T^{2} at high doping levels, and the coupling parameter is consistent with recent theory, indicating its enhancement by impurity scattering. We demonstrate control of the thermal conductance by electrical gating and by suppressing the diffusion channel using NbTiN superconducting electrodes, which sets the stage for future graphene-based single-microwave photon detection.

  9. Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of synthesized α-alumina nanofluids (United States)

    Shah, Janki; Ranjan, Mukesh; Davariya, Vipul; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Yogesh


    In the present work, we focused on the thermal conductivity and viscosity of the synthesis as well as characterize metal oxide α-Al2O3 nanoparticles suspended in distilled water:ethylene glycol (60:40) ratio based stable colloidal nanofluid. The band gap of the α-Al2O3 with and without surfactant is 4.42 and 4.59 eV, respectively. The results show that nanoparticle with polyvinyl alcohol surfactant has smaller crystalline size ( 23 nm) than without surfactant ( 36 nm). The synthesized nanofluids have good stability after 15 days of synthesis which is characterized by zeta potential analyzer. Thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured for 0.1 and 0.5 wt% concentration of alumina for with and without surfactant. The concentration of particles and added surfactant are responsible for stable fluid, thermal conductivity enhancement, and viscosity of nanofluid with respect to temperature. Therefore, the novel combinations of characterized properties of α-Al2O3 nanofluid has proved to be the best thermally stable heat transfer fluid compared to conventional cooling fluids.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of low temperature Sn nanoparticles for the fabrication of highly conductive ink. (United States)

    Jo, Yun Hwan; Jung, Inyu; Choi, Chung Seok; Kim, Inyoung; Lee, Hyuck Mo


    To fabricate a low cost, highly conductive ink for inkjet printing, we synthesized a gram scale of uniformly sized Sn nanoparticles by using a modified polyol process and observed a significant size-dependent melting temperature depression from 234.1 °C for bulk Sn to 177.3 °C for 11.3 nm Sn nanoparticles. A 20 wt% of Sn nanoparticles was dispersed in the 50% ethylene glycol: 50% isopropyl alcohol mixed solvent for the appropriate viscosity (11.6 cP) and surface tension (32 dyn cm(-1)). To improve the electrical property, we applied the surface treatments of hydrogen reduction and plasma ashing. The two treatments had the effect of diminishing the sheet resistance from 1 kΩ/sq to 50 Ω/sq. In addition, conductive patterns (1 cm × 1 cm) were successfully drawn on the Si wafer using an inkjet printing instrument with conductive Sn ink. The maximum resistivity for an hour of sintering at 250 °C was 64.27 µΩ cm, which is six times higher than the bulk Sn resistivity (10.1 µΩ cm).

  11. The variability of California summertime marine stratus: impacts on surface air temperatures (United States)

    Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.


    This study investigates the variability of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface temperature anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air temperature at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface temperature at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous variability of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface temperature variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime temperatures and warmer nighttime temperatures. Summer daytime temperature fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-temperature associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.

  12. Long-term trends and spatial variability of shallow groundwater temperatures beneath Bratislava (United States)

    Krcmar, David; Benz, Susanne A.; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp; Stankova, Hana


    Shallow groundwater temperatures are closely linked to surface temperatures. In recent years several studies have shown that the effects from atmospheric warming can be observed in rural groundwater temperature measurements. However, urban groundwater temperatures are different. Especially shallow aquifers show temperatures that change with the evolution of a city. Temperatures are locally variable and regionally higher when compared to undisturbed rural environments. For several cities, particularly in cold and temperate climate zones, pronounced subsurface urban heat islands have been reported with groundwater temperatures that are increased by several degrees compared to their rural surrounding. Heat release from basements and other urban infrastructure has been identified as a major heat source, superposing the effects from atmospheric warming. A major challenge still is to distinguish between the anthropogenic urban effects and the influence from climate change. In our study, we focus on the conditions in the city of Bratislava in Slovakia, where productive aquifers are hosted by the sediments in the Danube river valley. At selected wells, long-term groundwater temperature measurements have been recorded since the year 2002. These temperature time series are measured in shallow depth and therefore show substantial seasonal variations. Each temperature time series is compared to satellite-derived land surface temperature trends, and a clear correlation is found that supports the strong coupling between atmospheric, land surface and groundwater temperatures. Additionally, it is now possible to analyze the main differences between these two temperature trends for all selected wells and relate them to location specific cases of urban infrastructure that influence groundwater temperatures but not land surface temperatures.

  13. Temporal Variability in Vertical Groundwater Fluxes and the Effect of Solar Radiation on Streambed Temperatures Based on Vertical High Resolution Distributed Temperature Sensing (United States)

    Sebok, E.; Karan, S.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.


    Due to its large spatial and temporal variability, groundwater discharge to streams is difficult to quantify. Methods using vertical streambed temperature profiles to estimate vertical fluxes are often of coarse vertical spatial resolution and neglect to account for the natural heterogeneity in thermal conductivity of streambed sediments. Here we report on a field investigation in a stream, where air, stream water and streambed sediment temperatures were measured by Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with high spatial resolution to; (i) detect spatial and temporal variability in groundwater discharge based on vertical streambed temperature profiles, (ii) study the thermal regime of streambed sediments exposed to different solar radiation influence, (iii) describe the effect of solar radiation on the measured streambed temperatures. The study was carried out at a field site located along Holtum stream, in Western Denmark. The 3 m wide stream has a sandy streambed with a cobbled armour layer, a mean discharge of 200 l/s and a mean depth of 0.3 m. Streambed temperatures were measured with a high-resolution DTS system (HR-DTS). By helically wrapping the fiber optic cable around two PVC pipes of 0.05 m and 0.075 m outer diameter over 1.5 m length, temperature measurements were recorded with 5.7 mm and 3.8 mm vertical spacing, respectively. The HR-DTS systems were installed 0.7 m deep in the streambed sediments, crossing both the sediment-water and the water-air interface, thus yielding high resolution water and air temperature data as well. One of the HR-DTS systems was installed in the open stream channel with only topographical shading, while the other HR-DTS system was placed 7 m upstream, under the canopy of a tree, thus representing the shaded conditions with reduced influence of solar radiation. Temperature measurements were taken with 30 min intervals between 16 April and 25 June 2013. The thermal conductivity of streambed sediments was calibrated in a 1D flow

  14. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on temperature dependent electrical conductivity of poly (n-butyl methacrylate) nanocomposites: Application of different conductivity models (United States)

    Suhailath, K.; Ramesan, M. T.


    This paper focused on the electrical properties of poly (n-butyl methacrylate) using nanostructured TiO2 as an additive material and these composites were prepared by a simple in situ polymerization of butyl methacrylate with different content of TiO2. The temperature dependent AC conductivity of the nanocomposite was investigated and conductivity increases with raise in temperatures, frequencies and the volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles. The activation energy of the nanocomposite materials were determined. The variation of DC conductivity with the addition of nanoparticles in poly (n-butyl methacrylate) was correlated with different theoretical conductivity model based on Bueche, Scarisbrick and McCullough equations.

  15. A high sensitivity ultralow temperature RF conductance and noise measurement setup (United States)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Mahé, A.; Denis, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Glattli, D. C.; Plaçais, B.; Fève, G.


    We report on the realization of a high sensitivity RF noise measurement scheme to study small current fluctuations of mesoscopic systems at milli-Kelvin temperatures. The setup relies on the combination of an interferometric amplification scheme and a quarter-wave impedance transformer, allowing the measurement of noise power spectral densities with gigahertz bandwidth up to five orders of magnitude below the amplifier noise floor. We simultaneously measure the high frequency conductance of the sample by derivating a portion of the signal to a microwave homodyne detection. We describe the principle of the setup, as well as its implementation and calibration. Finally, we show that our setup allows to fully characterize a subnanosecond on-demand single electron source. More generally, its sensitivity and bandwidth make it suitable for applications manipulating single charges at GHz frequencies.

  16. Polymer and Composite Membranes for Proton-Conducting, High-Temperature Fuel Cells: A Critical Review (United States)

    Quartarone, Eliana; Angioni, Simone; Mustarelli, Piercarlo


    Polymer fuel cells operating above 100 °C (High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells, HT-PEMFCs) have gained large interest for their application to automobiles. The HT-PEMFC devices are typically made of membranes with poly(benzimidazoles), although other polymers, such as sulphonated poly(ether ether ketones) and pyridine-based materials have been reported. In this critical review, we address the state-of-the-art of membrane fabrication and their properties. A large number of papers of uneven quality has appeared in the literature during the last few years, so this review is limited to works that are judged as significant. Emphasis is put on proton transport and the physico-chemical mechanisms of proton conductivity. PMID:28773045

  17. Variable-temperature ¹H-NMR studies on two C-glycosylflavones. (United States)

    Frank, Julia H; Powder-George, Yomica L; Ramsewak, Russel S; Reynolds, William F


    Two known C-glycosylflavones, swertisin and embinoidin, were isolated from the leaves of Anthurium aripoense, and characterized by room temperature 1D and 2D NMR experiments. At this temperature, the ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR spectra of these C-glycosylflavones revealed doubling of signals, which suggested the presence of two rotamers in solution. Variable-temperature (VT) ¹H-NMR studies supported this hypothesis. The T-ROESY data, in addition to the theoretical (MM2) calculations utilizing the Chem3D Pro software, confirmed the hypothesis that the two rotamers interchange via rotation about the C-glycosidic bond.

  18. Thermal conductance of interfaces with molecular layers - low temperature transient absorption study on gold nanorods supported on self assembled monolayers (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Jingyu; Murphy, Catherine; Cahill, David; University of Illinois At Urbana Champaign, Department of Materials Science; Engineering Team; Department Collaboration


    While heat transfer via phonons across solid-solid boundary has been a core field in condense matter physics for many years, vibrational energy transport across molecular layers has been less well elucidated. We heat rectangular-shaped gold nanocrystals (nanorods) with Ti-sapphire femtosecond pulsed laser at their longitudinal surface plasmon absorption wavelength to watch how their temperature evolves in picoseconds transient. We observed single exponential decay behavior, which suggests that the heat dissipation is only governed by a single interfacial conductance value. The ``RC'' time constant was 300ps, corresponding to a conductance value of 95MW/ m 2 K. This interfacial conductance value is also a function of ambient temperature since at temperatures as low as 80K, which are below the Debye temperature of organic layers, several phonon modes were quenched, which shut down the dominating channels that conduct heat at room temperature.

  19. Poole-Frenkel effect and Variable-Range Hopping conduction in metal / YBCO resistive switching devices


    Schulman, Alejandro; Lanosa, Leandro F.; Acha, Carlos


    Current-voltage (IV) characteristics and the temperature dependence of the contact resistance [$R(T)$] of Au / YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-\\delta}$ (optimally doped YBCO) interfaces have been studied at different resistance states. This states were produced by resistive switching after accumulating cyclic electrical pulses of increasing number and voltage amplitude. The IV characteristics and the $R(T)$ dependence of the different states are consistent with a Poole-Frenkel (P-F) emission mechanism wit...

  20. The Influence of Loading Rate and Variable Temperatures on Microbial Communities in Anaerobic Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Ciotola


    Full Text Available The relationship between seasonal temperatures, organic loading rate (OLR and the structure of archaeal communities in anaerobic digesters was investigated. Previous studies have often assessed archaeal community structure at fixed temperatures and constant OLRs, or at variable temperatures not characteristic of temperate climates. The goal of this study was to determine the maximum OLR that would maintain a balanced microbial ecosystem during operation in a variable temperature range expected in a temperate climate (27–10 °C. Four-liter laboratory digesters were operated in a semi-continuous mode using dairy cow manure as the feedstock. At OLRs of 1.8 and 0.8 kg VS/m3·day the digesters soured (pH < 6.5 as a result of a decrease in temperature. The structure of the archaeal community in the sour digesters became increasingly similar to the manure feedstock with gains in the relative abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. At an OLR of 0.3 kg VS/m3·day the digesters did not sour, but the archaeal community was primarily hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Recommendations for operating an ambient temperature digester year round in a temperate climate are to reduce the OLR to at least 0.3 kg VS/m3·day in colder temperatures to prevent a shift to the microbial community associated with the sour digesters.

  1. Characterization of polymorphic solid-state changes using variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karjalainen, Milja; Airaksinen, Sari; Rantanen, Jukka


    The aim of this study was to use variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction (VT-XRPD) to understand the solid-state changes in the pharmaceutical materials during heating. The model compounds studied were sulfathiazole, theophylline and nitrofurantoin. This study showed that the polymorph form...... of sulfathiazole SUTHAZ01 was very stable and SUTHAZ02 changed as a function of temperature to SUTHAZ01. Theophylline monohydrate changed via its metastable form to its anhydrous form during heating and nitrofurantoin monohydrate changed via amorphous form to its anhydrous form during heating. The crystallinity...... of SUTHAZ01, SUTHAZ02 and theophylline monohydrate were very high and stable. Nitrofurantoin monohydrate was also very crystalline at room temperature but during heating at lower temperatures the crystallinity decreased and started to increase strongly at the temperature where the sample had changed...

  2. Quantitative assessment of drivers of recent global temperature variability: an information theoretic approach (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta; Koganti, Triven; Gurubaran, S.


    Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent global temperature variability remains a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two variables with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4 and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance ( TSI) and cosmic ray flux ( CR); El Niño Southern Oscillation ( ENSO) and Global Mean Temperature Anomaly ( GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding signals of global temperature variability. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO2 ({˜ } 24 %), CH4 ({˜ } 19 %) and volcanic aerosols ({˜ }23 %) are the primary contributors to the observed variations in GMTA. While, UV ({˜ } 9 %) and ENSO ({˜ } 12 %) act as secondary drivers of variations in the GMTA, the remaining play a marginal role in the observed recent global temperature variability. Interestingly, ENSO and GMTA mutually drive each other at varied time lags. This study assists future modelling efforts in climate science.

  3. Endotracheal temperature and humidity measurements in laryngectomized patients: intra- and inter-patient variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Sinaasappel, M.; Zuur, J.K.; Hilgers, F.J.M.


    This study assesses intra- and inter-patient variability in endotracheal climate (temperature and humidity) and effects of heat and moister exchangers (HME) in 16 laryngectomized individuals, measured repeatedly (N = 47). Inhalation Breath Length (IBL) was 1.35 s without HME and 1.05 s with HME (P <

  4. Beyond the mean: the role of variability in predicting ecological effects of stream temperature on salmon (United States)

    E. Ashley Steel; Abby Tillotson; Donald A. Larson; Aimee H. Fullerton; Keith P. Denton; Brian R. Beckman


    Alterations in variance of riverine thermal regimes have been observed and are predicted with climate change and human development. We tested whether changes in daily or seasonal thermal variability, aside from changes in mean temperature, could have biological consequences by exposing Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) eggs to eight...

  5. Endotracheal temperature and humidity measurements in laryngectomized patients: intra- and inter-patient variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R. J.; Muller, S. H.; Vincent, A.; Sinaasappel, M.; Zuur, J. K.; Hilgers, Frans J. M.


    This study assesses intra- and inter-patient variability in endotracheal climate (temperature and humidity) and effects of heat and moister exchangers (HME) in 16 laryngectomized individuals, measured repeatedly (N = 47). Inhalation Breath Length (IBL) was 1.35 s without HME and 1.05 s with HME (P

  6. Variability and long-term change in Australian temperature and precipitation extremes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Jakob


    We conclude that in assessing the likelihood of climate hazards, one needs to consider the modulation of climate extremes due to both long-term change and climate variability. Our findings imply that when planning for adaptation, different emphasis needs to be given to changing temperature and precipitation extremes.

  7. Variable contact gap single-molecule conductance determination for a series of conjugated molecular bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiss, W.; Wang, Christian; Jitchati, R.


    It is now becoming clear that the characteristics of the whole junction are important in determining the conductance of single molecules bound between two metal contacts. This paper shows through measurements on a series of seven conjugated molecular bridges that contact separation is an importan...... that conductance increases rather dramatically at higher tilt angle away from the normal for conformationally rigid molecular wires and that this increase in conductance arises from increased electronic coupling between the molecular bridge and the gold contacts.......It is now becoming clear that the characteristics of the whole junction are important in determining the conductance of single molecules bound between two metal contacts. This paper shows through measurements on a series of seven conjugated molecular bridges that contact separation is an important......-distance curves and knowledge of the terminal to terminal length of the molecular wire. The contact gap separation dependence is interpreted as arising from tilting of these molecules in the junction and this model is underpinned by ab initio transport computations. In this respect we make the general observation...

  8. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of epoxy resin fiberglass tape at superfluid helium temperature (United States)

    Baudouy, B.; Polinski, J.


    The system of materials composed of fiberglass epoxy resin impregnated tape constitutes in many cases the electrical insulation for "dry"-type superconducting accelerator magnet such as Nb 3Sn magnets. Nb 3Sn magnet technology is still under development in a few programs to reach higher magnetic fields than what NbTi magnets can produce. The European program, Next European Dipole (NED), is one of such programs and it aims to develop and construct a 15 T class Nb 3Sn magnet mainly for upgrading the Large Hardron Collider. Superfluid helium is considered as one possible coolant and since the magnet has been designed with a "dry" insulation, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance of the electrical insulation are the key properties that must be know for the thermal design of such a magnet. Accordingly, property measurements of the epoxy resin fiberglass tape insulation system developed for the NED project was carried out in superfluid helium. Four sheets with thicknesses varying from 40 to 300 μm have been tested in a steady-state condition. The determined thermal conductivity, k, is [(25.8 ± 2.8) · T - (12.2 ± 4.9)] × 10 -3 W m -1 K -1 and the Kapitza resistance is given by R K = (1462 ± 345) · T(-1.86 ± 0.41) × 10 -6 Km 2 W -1 in the temperature range of 1.55-2.05 K.

  9. On the design and implementation of a novel impedance chamber based variable temperature regulator at liquid helium temperatures. (United States)

    Nagendran, R; Thirumurugan, N; Chinnasamy, N; Janawadkar, M P; Sundar, C S


    A novel variable temperature regulator (VTR) based on the use of a fine impedance capillary to control the flow rate of cold helium gas into the VTR chamber is described. The capillary has a diameter of just 200 microm and the flow rate of cold helium gas through the capillary can be effectively controlled to the desired value by heating the capillary to a preset temperature and by controlling the pressure in the VTR chamber to a preset pressure using automated control circuits. Excellent temperature stability (about +/-1 mK at 10 K and +/-2 mK at 100 K) has been demonstrated in this setup with uniform rates of heating or cooling by an optimal choice of parameters. Compared to the more conventional VTR designs based on the use of mechanical long stem valves in the liquid helium reservoir to control the flow rate of liquid helium into the VTR chamber, and the use of a needle valve at the top of the cryostat to control the exchange gas pressure in the thermal isolation chamber, the present design enables temperature stability at any user desired temperature to be attained with uniform rates of cooling/heating with minimum consumption of liquid helium. The VTR has been successfully incorporated in the high field superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer setup developed in-house. It can also be incorporated in any low temperature physical property measurement system in which the temperature has to be varied in a controlled manner from 4.2 to 300 K and vice versa with uniform rates of heating and cooling.

  10. Time Series Analysis: A New Methodology for Comparing the Temporal Variability of Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Post


    Full Text Available Temporal variability of three different temperature time series was compared by the use of statistical modeling of time series. The three temperature time series represent the same physical process, but are at different levels of spatial averaging: temperatures from point measurements, from regional Baltan65+, and from global ERA-40 reanalyses. The first order integrated average model IMA(0, 1, 1 is used to compare the temporal variability of the time series. The applied IMA(0, 1, 1 model is divisible into a sum of random walk and white noise component, where the variances for both white noises (one of them serving as a generator of the random walk are computable from the parameters of the fitted model. This approach enables us to compare the models fitted independently to the original and restored series using two new parameters. This operation adds a certain new method to the analysis of nonstationary series.

  11. Karakoram temperature and glacial melt driven by regional atmospheric circulation variability (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Fowler, Hayley J.; Li, Xiao-Feng; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Pritchard, David


    Identifying mechanisms driving spatially heterogeneous glacial mass-balance patterns in the Himalaya, including the `Karakoram anomaly', is crucial for understanding regional water resource trajectories. Streamflows dependent on glacial meltwater are strongly positively correlated with Karakoram summer air temperatures, which show recent anomalous cooling. We explain these temperature and streamflow anomalies through a circulation system--the Karakoram vortex--identified using a regional circulation metric that quantifies the relative position and intensity of the westerly jet. Winter temperature responses to this metric are homogeneous across South Asia, but the Karakoram summer response diverges from the rest of the Himalaya. We show that this is due to seasonal contraction of the Karakoram vortex through its interaction with the South Asian monsoon. We conclude that interannual variability in the Karakoram vortex, quantified by our circulation metric, explains the variability in energy-constrained ablation manifested in river flows across the Himalaya, with important implications for Himalayan glaciers' futures.

  12. Highly conductive Cu2-xS nanoparticle films through room-temperature processing and an order of magnitude enhancement of conductivity via electrophoretic deposition. (United States)

    Otelaja, Obafemi O; Ha, Don-Hyung; Ly, Tiffany; Zhang, Haitao; Robinson, Richard D


    A facile room-temperature method for assembling colloidal copper sulfide (Cu2-xS) nanoparticles into highly electrically conducting films is presented. Ammonium sulfide is utilized for connecting the nanoparticles via ligand removal, which transforms the as-deposited insulating films into highly conducting films. Electronic properties of the treated films are characterized with a combination of Hall effect measurements, field-effect transistor measurements, temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, and capacitance-voltage measurements, revealing their highly doped p-type semiconducting nature. The spin-cast nanoparticle films have carrier concentration of ∼ 10(19) cm(-3), Hall mobilities of ∼ 3 to 4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and electrical conductivities of ∼ 5 to 6 S · cm(-1). Our films have hole mobilities that are 1-4 orders of magnitude higher than hole mobilities previously reported for heat-treated nanoparticle films of HgTe, InSb, PbS, PbTe, and PbSe. We show that electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as a method for nanoparticle film assembly leads to an order of magnitude enhancement in film conductivity (∼ 75 S · cm(-1)) over conventional spin-casting, creating copper sulfide nanoparticle films with conductivities comparable to bulk films formed through physical deposition methods. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the Cu2-xS films, with and without ligand removal, match the Djurleite phase (Cu(1.94)S) of copper sulfide and show that the nanoparticles maintain finite size after the ammonium sulfide processing. The high conductivities reported are attributed to better interparticle coupling through the ammonium sulfide treatment. This approach presents a scalable room-temperature route for fabricating highly conducting nanoparticle assemblies for large-area electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  13. Highly Conductive Cu 2– x S Nanoparticle Films through Room-Temperature Processing and an Order of Magnitude Enhancement of Conductivity via Electrophoretic Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Otelaja, Obafemi O.


    © 2014 American Chemical Society. A facile room-temperature method for assembling colloidal copper sulfide (Cu2-xS) nanoparticles into highly electrically conducting films is presented. Ammonium sulfide is utilized for connecting the nanoparticles via ligand removal, which transforms the as-deposited insulating films into highly conducting films. Electronic properties of the treated films are characterized with a combination of Hall effect measurements, field-effect transistor measurements, temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, and capacitance-voltage measurements, revealing their highly doped p-type semiconducting nature. The spin-cast nanoparticle films have carrier concentration of ∼1019 cm-3, Hall mobilities of ∼3 to 4 cm2 V-1 s-1, and electrical conductivities of ∼5 to 6 S·cm-1. Our films have hole mobilities that are 1-4 orders of magnitude higher than hole mobilities previously reported for heat-treated nanoparticle films of HgTe, InSb, PbS, PbTe, and PbSe. We show that electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as a method for nanoparticle film assembly leads to an order of magnitude enhancement in film conductivity (∼75 S·cm-1) over conventional spin-casting, creating copper sulfide nanoparticle films with conductivities comparable to bulk films formed through physical deposition methods. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the Cu2-xS films, with and without ligand removal, match the Djurleite phase (Cu1.94S) of copper sulfide and show that the nanoparticles maintain finite size after the ammonium sulfide processing. The high conductivities reported are attributed to better interparticle coupling through the ammonium sulfide treatment. This approach presents a scalable room-temperature route for fabricating highly conducting nanoparticle assemblies for large-area electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  14. A comparison of daily temperature-averaging methods: Uncertainties, spatial variability, and societal implications (United States)

    Bernhardt, Jase

    Traditionally, daily average temperature is computed by taking the mean of two values- the maximum temperature over a 24-hour period and the minimum temperature over the same period. These data form the basis for numerous studies of long-term climatologies (e.g. 30-year normals) and recent temperature trends and changes. However, many first-order weather stations (e.g. airports) also record hourly temperature data. Using an average of the 24 hourly temperature readings to compute daily average temperature should provide a more precise and representative estimate of a given day's temperature. These two methods of daily temperature averaging ([Tmax + Tmin]/2, average of 24 hourly temperature values) were computed and mapped for all first-order weather stations across the United States for the 30-year period 1981-2010. This analysis indicates a statistically significant difference between the two methods, as well as an overestimation of temperature by the traditional method ([Tmax + Tmin]/2), particularly in southern and coastal portions of the Continental U.S. The likely explanation for the long-term difference between the two methods is the underlying assumption of the twice-daily method that the diurnal curve of temperature follows a symmetrical pattern. There is an apparent relationship of these differences to the regional synoptic climatology, along with related factors such as land use/land cover and snow cover duration, which help to explain both seasonal patterns and spatial variability. Additional analysis of station normals based on hourly data should have numerous applications and benefits to society, such as better determination of heat wave severity and energy usage needs.

  15. Influence of Siberian High on temperature variability over northern areas of South Asia (United States)

    Riaz, Syed Muhammad Fahad; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed; Baig, Mirza Jawwad


    Siberian High pressure plays a significant role in wintertime climate variability over South Asia. It brings coldest air masses in the region. The available literature has linked Siberian High with climate of East Asia, central Asia, and Eurasia. This paper examines the linkage between Siberian High pressure and inter-annual variations in temperature over the region of South Asia during winters. The methods employed in this study are that of centers of action approach, maximum covariance, and canonical correlation analyses. The wintertime temperature is not only significantly influenced by the intensity of Siberian High pressure, but it is also significantly correlated with zonal movement of Indian Ocean High. The intensity of Siberian High pressure explains more variance of the temperature during winters over the South Asian region than that of large-scale circulation phenomena, namely, Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and El-Nino-Southern Oscillation. A linear model of wintertime temperature has also been constructed using the Siberian High pressure index and the Indian Ocean High longitudinal index, which explains 28% variability of wintertime temperature for the Northern part of South Asia. We have also presented the justification that this statistical evidence is supported by the circulations and changes in the atmosphere. The modes having maximum possible covariance between the regional wintertime temperature and sea-level pressure of Siberian High have been isolated using the method of maximum covariance analysis and the modes having maximum possible correlations between the two fields have been isolated using canonical correlation analysis.

  16. Summer temperature and spatial variability of all-cause mortality in Surat city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Rathi


    Full Text Available Background: Ample information is available on extreme heat associated mortality for few Indian cities, but scant literature is available on effect of temperature on spatial variability of all-cause mortality for coastal cities. Objective: To assess the effect of daily maximum temperature, relative humidity and heat index on spatial variability of all-cause mortality for summer months (March to May from 2014 to 2015 for the urban population of Surat (coastal city. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the all-cause mortality data with temperature and humidity was performed on a total of 9,237 deaths for 184 summer days (2014-2015. Climatic and all-cause mortality data were obtained through Tutiempo website and Surat Municipal Corporation respectively. Bivariate analysis performed through SPSS. Observations: Mean daily mortality was estimated at 50.2 ± 8.5 for the study period with a rise of 20% all-cause mortality at temperature ≥ 40°C and rise of 10% deaths per day during extreme danger level (HI: > 54°C days. Spatial (Zone wise analysis revealed rise of 61% all-cause mortality for Southeast and 30% for East zones at temperature ≥ 40°C. Conclusions: All-cause mortality increased on high summer temperature days. Presence of spatial variation in all-cause mortality provided the evidence for high risk zones. Findings may be helpful in designing the interventions at micro level.

  17. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong


    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  18. What are the Historical and Future Impacts of Temperature Variability on Thermoelectric Power Plant Performance? (United States)

    Henry, C.; Pratson, L.


    Current literature hypothesize that climate change-driven temperature increases will negatively affect the power production capacity of thermoelectric power plants, which currently produce ~88% of electricity used in the United States. This impact can occur through 1) warm cooling water that reduces the quantity of heat removed from the once-through (open-loop) steam system, 2) increased air temperature and/or humidity that decrease the amount of heat absorption in cooling towers/ponds of wet-recirculating (closed-loop) plants, and 3) environmental protection regulations that impose restrictions on both cooling water withdrawal volume and temperature of discharge. However, despite the widespread consensus that temperature and power generation are negatively related, different models yield a range of results and the magnitude of effects is uncertain. In this study, we test current literature's model predictions using historical data by assembling and analyzing a database of relevant parameters from distinct sources. We examine how daily and seasonal changes in cooling water, ambient air, and wet bulb temperatures have historically impacted coal and natural gas power plants in the U.S., focusing on 39 plants over a period up to 14 years. This allows us to assess how future changes in temperatures may affect generation. Our results suggest that water and ambient air temperatures have a lower impact on thermoelectric plant performance than previously predicted. Moreover, we find that recirculating power plants are more resilient to temperature variability than are once-through plants.

  19. Variable-range electron hopping, conductivity cross-over and space-charge relaxation in C60Br6


    Manesh, Zachariah; Romanini, Michela; Zygouri, Panagiota; Gournis, Dimitrios; Tamarit Mur, José Luis; Barrio Casado, María del; Macovez, Roberto


    Dielectric spectroscopy is employed to probe the frequency-dependent conductivity and dipolar dielectric response of solid C60Br6. Below approximately 215 K, charge conduction is electronic and well described by Mott's variable-range polaron hopping model, with effective hopping activation energy Ea varying between 0.12 eV at 125 K and 0.16 eV at 220 K, and most probable hopping range varying between 100 and 125% of the decay length of the localized polaron's wavefunction. Above 215 K a new c...

  20. The mesoscopic conductance of disordered rings, its random matrix theory and the generalized variable range hopping picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotland, Alexander; Peer, Tal; Cohen, Doron [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84005 (Israel); Budoyo, Rangga; Kottos, Tsampikos [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)


    The calculation of the conductance of disordered rings requires a theory that goes beyond the Kubo-Drude formulation. Assuming 'mesoscopic' circumstances the analysis of the electro-driven transitions shows similarities with a percolation problem in energy space. We argue that the texture and the sparsity of the perturbation matrix dictate the value of the conductance, and study its dependence on the disorder strength, ranging from the ballistic to the Anderson localization regime. An improved sparse random matrix model is introduced to capture the essential ingredients of the problem, and leads to a generalized variable range hopping picture. (fast track communication)

  1. The intraseasonal variability of winter semester surface air temperature in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejiang Yu


    Full Text Available This study investigates systematically the intraseasonal variability of surface air temperature over Antarctica by applying empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, US Department of Energy, Reanalysis 2 data set for the period of 1979 through 2007. The results reveal the existence of two major intraseasonal oscillations of surface temperature with periods of 26–30 days and 14 days during the Antarctic winter season in the region south of 60°S. The first EOF mode shows a nearly uniform spatial pattern in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean associated with the Antarctic Oscillation. The mode-1 intraseasonal variability of the surface temperature leads that of upper atmosphere by one day with the largest correlation at 300-hPa level geopotential heights. The intraseasonal variability of the mode-1 EOF is closely related to the variations of surface net longwave radiation the total cloud cover over Antarctica. The other major EOF modes reveal the existence of eastward propagating phases over the Southern Ocean and marginal region in Antarctica. The leading two propagating modes respond to Pacific–South American modes. Meridional winds induced by the wave train from the tropics have a direct influence on the surface air temperature over the Southern Ocean and the marginal region of the Antarctic continent.

  2. Elucidating the impact of temperature variability and extremes on cereal croplands through remote sensing. (United States)

    Duncan, John M A; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M


    Remote sensing-derived wheat crop yield-climate models were developed to highlight the impact of temperature variation during thermo-sensitive periods (anthesis and grain-filling; TSP) of wheat crop development. Specific questions addressed are: can the impact of temperature variation occurring during the TSP on wheat crop yield be detected using remote sensing data and what is the impact? Do crop critical temperature thresholds during TSP exist in real world cropping landscapes? These questions are tested in one of the world's major wheat breadbaskets of Punjab and Haryana, north-west India. Warming average minimum temperatures during the TSP had a greater negative impact on wheat crop yield than warming maximum temperatures. Warming minimum and maximum temperatures during the TSP explain a greater amount of variation in wheat crop yield than average growing season temperature. In complex real world cereal croplands there was a variable yield response to critical temperature threshold exceedance, specifically a more pronounced negative impact on wheat yield with increased warming events above 35 °C. The negative impact of warming increases with a later start-of-season suggesting earlier sowing can reduce wheat crop exposure harmful temperatures. However, even earlier sown wheat experienced temperature-induced yield losses, which, when viewed in the context of projected warming up to 2100 indicates adaptive responses should focus on increasing wheat tolerance to heat. This study shows it is possible to capture the impacts of temperature variation during the TSP on wheat crop yield in real world cropping landscapes using remote sensing data; this has important implications for monitoring the impact of climate change, variation and heat extremes on wheat croplands. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN at elevated temperatures – theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paskov


    Full Text Available The effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thermal conductivity of samples grown by Hydride Phase Vapor Epitaxy (HVPE with Si concentration ranging from 1.6×1016 to 7×1018 cm-3 was measured at room temperature and above using the 3ω method. The room temperature thermal conductivity was found to decrease with increasing Si concentration. The highest value of 245±5 W/m.K measured for the undoped sample was consistent with the previously reported data for free-standing HVPE grown GaN. In all samples, the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature. In our previous study, we found that the slope of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity gradually decreased with increasing Si doping. Additionally, at temperatures above 350 K the thermal conductivity in the highest doped sample (7×1018 cm-3 was higher than that of lower doped samples. In this work, a modified Callaway model adopted for n-type GaN at high temperatures was developed in order to explain such unusual behavior. The experimental data was analyzed with examination of the contributions of all relevant phonon scattering processes. A reasonable match between the measured and theoretically predicted thermal conductivity was obtained. It was found that in n-type GaN with low dislocation densities the phonon-free-electron scattering becomes an important resistive process at higher temperatures. At the highest free electron concentrations, the electronic thermal conductivity was suggested to play a role in addition to the lattice thermal conductivity and compete with the effect of the phonon-point-defect and phonon-free-electron scattering.

  4. Effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN at elevated temperatures - theory and experiment (United States)

    Paskov, P. P.; Slomski, M.; Leach, J. H.; Muth, J. F.; Paskova, T.


    The effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thermal conductivity of samples grown by Hydride Phase Vapor Epitaxy (HVPE) with Si concentration ranging from 1.6×1016 to 7×1018 cm-3 was measured at room temperature and above using the 3ω method. The room temperature thermal conductivity was found to decrease with increasing Si concentration. The highest value of 245±5 W/m.K measured for the undoped sample was consistent with the previously reported data for free-standing HVPE grown GaN. In all samples, the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature. In our previous study, we found that the slope of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity gradually decreased with increasing Si doping. Additionally, at temperatures above 350 K the thermal conductivity in the highest doped sample (7×1018 cm-3) was higher than that of lower doped samples. In this work, a modified Callaway model adopted for n-type GaN at high temperatures was developed in order to explain such unusual behavior. The experimental data was analyzed with examination of the contributions of all relevant phonon scattering processes. A reasonable match between the measured and theoretically predicted thermal conductivity was obtained. It was found that in n-type GaN with low dislocation densities the phonon-free-electron scattering becomes an important resistive process at higher temperatures. At the highest free electron concentrations, the electronic thermal conductivity was suggested to play a role in addition to the lattice thermal conductivity and compete with the effect of the phonon-point-defect and phonon-free-electron scattering.

  5. Estimation of surface heat flux and surface temperature during inverse heat conduction under varying spray parameters and sample initial temperature. (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong; Zubair, Muhammad


    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m(2) was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  6. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir


    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck’s sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa.

  7. Estimation of Surface Heat Flux and Surface Temperature during Inverse Heat Conduction under Varying Spray Parameters and Sample Initial Temperature (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Aqeel-ur-Rehman; Wang, Hong


    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of inlet pressure, sample thickness, initial sample temperature, and temperature sensor location on the surface heat flux, surface temperature, and surface ultrafast cooling rate using stainless steel samples of diameter 27 mm and thickness (mm) 8.5, 13, 17.5, and 22, respectively. Inlet pressure was varied from 0.2 MPa to 1.8 MPa, while sample initial temperature varied from 600°C to 900°C. Beck's sequential function specification method was utilized to estimate surface heat flux and surface temperature. Inlet pressure has a positive effect on surface heat flux (SHF) within a critical value of pressure. Thickness of the sample affects the maximum achieved SHF negatively. Surface heat flux as high as 0.4024 MW/m2 was estimated for a thickness of 8.5 mm. Insulation effects of vapor film become apparent in the sample initial temperature range of 900°C causing reduction in surface heat flux and cooling rate of the sample. A sensor location near to quenched surface is found to be a better choice to visualize the effects of spray parameters on surface heat flux and surface temperature. Cooling rate showed a profound increase for an inlet pressure of 0.8 MPa. PMID:24977219

  8. To the description of the temperature and pressure dependences of the thermal conductivity of sandstone and ceramics (United States)

    Emirov, S. N.; Beybalaev, V. D.; Gadzhiev, G. G.; Ramazanova, A. E.; Amirova, A. A.; Aliverdiev, A. A.


    Here we present the results of an experimental study of the temperature and pressure dependences of the heat conductivity of composite compounds. The thermal conductivity of sandstone was measured by the absolute stationary method for pressures up to 400 MPa in the temperature range 273-523 K. From these experimental data we have proposed the equation describing the dependence of the thermal conductivity from the pressure and temperature. We have found that under the action of hydrostatic pressure the intensive growth of the heat-conductivity of gas-saturated sandstone is mainly up to 100 MPa, and then seamlessly switches to saturation. A comparative analysis is carried out with the experimental dependences of the thermal conductivity of ceramics (lanthanum sulfide LaS1.48).

  9. Performance of a Small-Scale, Variable Temperature Fixed Dome Digester in a Temperate Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Castano


    Full Text Available Small-scale digesters, similar to popular Chinese designs, have the potential to address the energy needs of smaller dairy farmers in temperate U.S. climates. To assess this potential, a 1.14 m3 (300 gallon modified fixed-dome digester was installed and operated, at variable temperatures (5.3 to 27.9 °C typical of the Midwestern United States, from March 2010 to March 2011 (363 days. Temperature, gas production, and other variables were recorded. The system was fed with dilute dairy manure with 6% volatile solids (VS and an organic loading rate (OLR ranging from 0.83 to 2.43 kg volatile solids (VS/m3/day. The system was loaded with no interruption and exhibited no signs of inhibition from July 2010 to mid-November 2010 (129 days. During this period the digester temperature was over 20 °C with an average daily biogas production of 842 ± 69 L/day, a methane yield of 0.168 m3/kg VS added, and a Volatile Solids reduction of 36%. After the temperature dropped below 20 °C, the digester showed signs of inhibition and soured. These findings suggest that an ambient temperature, modified fixed dome digester could operate without temperature inhibition for approximately six months (169 days a year in a temperate climate when digester temperatures exceed 20 °C. However, during colder months the digester temperature must maintained above 20 °C for viable gas production year round.

  10. Variability of isolated colonies in bean nodulating Rhizobium strains before and after exposure to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposeiras Rui


    Full Text Available Irregular response to bean plants to Rhizobium inoculation has been attributed to among other factors, low competitive ability, low N2 fixation efficiency and genetic instability of the symbiont. This genetic instability caused by high rates of genomic rearrangements and/or plasmid deletions can be accentuated by high temperatures. This fact may limit the utilization of these strains as inoculants, especially in tropical soils. In this study, the variability of isolated colonies derived from effective R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (SLP1.3 and BR 10.026 and R tropici (SLA2.2 and BR322 strains was evaluated before and after exposure to high temperatures (four consecutive thermal shocks at 45masculineC. This evaluation involved plant dry matter analysis of inoculated plants and genotypic (plasmid profile and genomic patterns via RAPD analysis of the Rhizobium strains. The results evidenced that high temperature improve the natural performance variability especially between isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains. The plasmid profile of isolated colonies from R. tropici strains were identical regardless of temperature treatment whereas isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli alterations were detected especially after the thermal treatment. The genomic patterns generated by AP-PCR showed more alterations and genetic variation in isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains indicating that R. tropici strains are more stable and lower affected by high temperature.

  11. Room temperature transparent conducting oxides based on zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clatot, J. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007, 33, rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Campet, G. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB), CNRS, 87 Avenue du Docteur A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Zeinert, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue St. Leu, 80039, Amiens (France); Labrugere, C. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB), CNRS, 87 Avenue du Docteur A. Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Rougier, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, UMR CNRS 6007, 33, rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)


    Doped zinc oxide thin films are grown on glass substrate at room temperature under oxygen atmosphere, using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). O{sub 2} pressure below 1 Pa leads to conductive films. A careful characterization of the film stoichiometry and microstructure using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) concludes on a decrease in crystallinity with Al and Ga additions ({<=}3%). The progressive loss of the (0 0 2) orientation is associated with a variation of the c parameter value as a function of the film thickness and substrate nature. ZnO:Al and ZnO:Ga thin films show a high optical transmittance (>80%) with an increase in band gap from 3.27 eV (pure ZnO) to 3.88 eV and 3.61 eV for Al and Ga doping, respectively. Optical carrier concentration, optical mobility and optical resistivity are deduced from simulation of the optical data.

  12. Non-equilibrium temperatures and heat transport in nanosystems with defects, described by a tensorial internal variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restuccia Liliana


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the meaning of non-equilibrium temperatures in nanosystems with an internal variable, describing defects inside them, and implications on heat transport. In equilibrium all definitions of temperature lead to the same value, but in nonequilibrium steady states they lead to different values, giving information on different degrees of freedom. We discuss the caloric and entropic non-equilibrium temperatures and the relations among them, in defective nanosystems (crystals with dislocations or porous channels, carbon nanotubes in a solid matrix and so on, crossed by an external energy flux. Here, we present a model for nanocrystals with dislocation defects submitted to an external energy flux. The dislocations may have a strong influence on the effective thermal conductivity, and their own dynamics may be coupled in relevant way to the heat flux dynamics. In the linear case the constitutive relations, the rate equations for the internal variable and the heat flux are worked out and a generalized telegraphic heat equation is derived in the anisotropic and isotropic case, describing the thermal disturbances with finite velocity.

  13. Study on the Conductance and Photo-Conductance of ZnO Thin Films at Different Temperatures in Air and N2-Atmosphere (United States)

    Burruel-Ibarra, S. E.; Cruz-Vázquez, C.; Bernal, R.; Aceves, R.; Orante-Barrón, V. R.; Grijalva-Monteverde, H.; Piters, T. M.; Castaño, V. M.


    We report the photoconductance of ZnO thin films obtained from thermally treated ZnS films grown by a chemical bath deposition method. The measurements of photo-conductance were performed in an atmosphere of air or nitrogen (N2) at different temperatures between 300 K and 375 K. The augmented conductance after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (330-380 nm) in air fades away slowly to its original value, whereas in a nitrogen atmosphere, a significant part of the augmented conductance remains. Measurements of electrical conductance as a function of temperature in N2 or air, in the dark or the light, seem to indicate that the donor concentration is increased during the UV irradiation, suggesting that oxygen vacancies and interstitials are created. An alternative model for the photoconduction in ZnO is proposed in which the slow increase of conduction during irradiation is explained by an increase of donors instead of photoelectrons. In this model, the photoelectrons would only play a role in the mechanism of the creation of donors.

  14. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays. (United States)

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L


    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 °C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate.

  15. Conformational Analysis of (+)-Germacrene A by Variable Temperature NMR and NOE Spectroscopy


    Faraldos, Juan A.; Wu, Shuiqin; Chappell, Joe; Coates, Robert M.


    (+)-Germacrene A, an important intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis, was isolated in pure form from a genetically engineered yeast and was characterized by chromatographic properties (TLC, GC), MS, optical rotation, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR data. Variable-temperature 500 MHz 1H NMR spectra in CDCl3 showed that this flexible cyclodecadiene ring exists as three NMR-distinguishable conformational isomers in a ratio of about 5:3:2 at or below ordinary probe temperature (25° C). The confor...

  16. Temperature and pH Responsive Microfibers for Controllable and Variable Ibuprofen Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Tran


    Full Text Available Electrospun microfibers (MFs composed of pH and temperature responsive polymers can be used for controllable and variable delivery of ibuprofen. First, electrospinning technique was employed to prepare poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid (pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs containing ibuprofen. It was found that drug release rates from PCL MFs cannot be significantly varied by either temperature (22–40°C or pH values (1.7–7.4. In contrast, the ibuprofen (IP diffusion rates from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs were very sensitive to changes in both temperature and pH. The IP release from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs was highly linear and controllable when the temperature was above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of pNIPAM-co-MAA (33°C and the pH was lower than the pKa of carboxylic acids (pH 2. At room temperature, however, the release rate was dramatically increased by nearly ten times compared to that at higher temperature and lower pH. Such a unique and controllable drug delivery system could be naturally envisioned to find many practical applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences such as programmable transdermal drug delivery.

  17. Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: the extended Svalbard Airport temperature series, 1898–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Nordli


    Full Text Available One of the few long instrumental records available for the Arctic is the Svalbard Airport composite series that hitherto began in 1911, with observations made on Spitsbergen, the largest island in the Svalbard Archipelago. This record has now been extended to 1898 with the inclusion of observations made by hunting and scientific expeditions. Temperature has been observed almost continuously in Svalbard since 1898, although at different sites. It has therefore been possible to create one composite series for Svalbard Airport covering the period 1898–2012, and this valuable new record is presented here. The series reveals large temperature variability on Spitsbergen, with the early 20th century warming as one striking feature: an abrupt change from the cold 1910s to the local maxima of the 1930s and 1950s. With the inclusion of the new data it is possible to show that the 1910s were colder than the years at the start of the series. From the 1960s, temperatures have increased, so the present temperature level is significantly higher than at any earlier period in the instrumental history. For the entire period, and for all seasons, there are positive, statistically significant trends. Regarding the annual mean, the total trend is 2.6°C/century, whereas the largest trend is in spring, at 3.9°C/century. In Europe, it is the Svalbard Archipelago that has experienced the greatest temperature increase during the latest three decades. The composite series may be downloaded from the home page of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and should be used with reference to the present article.

  18. Modeling of Circuits with Strongly Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivities for Cryogenic CMOS


    Hamlet, J.; Eng, K.; Gurrieri, T.; Levy, J; Carroll, M


    When designing and studying circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures understanding local heating within the circuits is critical due to the temperature dependence of transistor and noise behavior. We have investigated local heating effects of a CMOS ring oscillator and current comparator at T=4.2K. In two cases, the temperature near the circuit was measured with an integrated thermometer. A lumped element equivalent electrical circuit SPICE model that accounts for the strongly temperature...

  19. An analysis of surface air temperature trends and variability along the Andes (United States)

    Franquist, Eric S.

    Climate change is difficult to study in mountainous regions such as the Andes since steep changes in elevation cannot always be resolved by climate models. However, it is important to examine temperature trends in this region as rises in surface air temperature are leading to the melting of tropical glaciers. Local communities rely on the glacier-fed streamflow to get their water for drinking, irrigation, and livestock. Moreover, communities also rely on the tourism of hikers who come to the region to view the glaciers. As the temperatures increase, these glaciers are no longer in equilibrium with their current climate and are receding rapidly and decreasing the streamflow. This thesis examines surface air temperature from 858 weather stations across Ecuador, Peru, and Chile in order to analyze changes in trends and variability. Three time periods were studied: 1961--1990, 1971--2000, and 1981--2010. The greatest warming occurred during the period of 1971--2000 with 92% of the stations experiencing positive trends with a mean of 0.24°C/decade. There was a clear shift toward cooler temperatures at all latitudes and below elevations of 500 m during the most recent time period studied (1981--2010). Station temperatures were more strongly correlated with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), than the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). A principal component analysis confirmed ENSO as the main contributor of variability with the most influence in the lower latitudes. There were clear multidecadal changes in correlation strength for the PDO. The PDO contributed the most to the increases in station temperature trends during the 1961--1990 period, consistent with the PDO shift to the positive phase in the middle of this period. There were many strong positive trends at individual stations during the 1971--2000 period; however, these trends could not fully be attributed to ENSO, PDO, or SAM, indicating anthropogenic effects of

  20. Climate reconstructions of the NH mean temperature: Can underestimation of trends and variability be avoided? (United States)

    Christiansen, Bo


    Knowledge about the climate in the period before instrumental records are available is based on climate proxies obtained from tree-rings, sediments, ice-cores etc. Reconstructing the climate from such proxies is therefore necessary for studies of climate variability and for placing recent climate change into a longer term perspective. More than a decade ago pioneering attempts at using a multi-proxy dataset to reconstruct the Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature resulted in the much published "hockey-stick"; a NH mean temperature that did not vary much before the rapid increase in the last century. Subsequent reconstructions show some differences but the overall "hockey-stick" structure seems to be a persistent feature However, there has been an increasing awareness of the fact that the applied reconstruction methods underestimate the low-frequency variability and trends. The recognition of the inadequacies of the reconstruction methods has to a large degree originated from pseudo-proxy studies, i.e., from long climate model experiments where artificial proxies have been generated and reconstructions based on these have been compared to the known model climate. It has also been found that reconstructions contain a large element of stochasticity which is revealed as broad distributions of skills. This means that it is very difficult to draw conclusions from a single or a few realizations. Climate reconstruction methods are based on variants of linear regression models relating temperatures and proxies. In this contribution we review some of the theory of linear regression and error-in-variables models to identify the sources of the underestimation of variability. Based on the gained insight we formulate a reconstruction method supposed to minimize this underestimation. The method is tested by applying it to an ensemble of surrogate temperature fields based on two climate simulations covering the last 500 and 1000 years. Compared to the RegEM TTLS method and a

  1. FORTRAN 77 programs for conductive cooling of dikes with temperature-dependent thermal properties and heat of crystallization (United States)

    Delaney, P.T.


    Temperature histories obtained from transient heat-conduction theory are applicable to most dikes despite potential complicating effects related to magma flow during emplacement, groundwater circulation, and metamorphic reaction during cooling. Here. machine-independent FORTRAN 77 programs are presented to calculate temperatures in and around dikes as they cool conductively. Analytical solutions can treat thermal-property contrasts between the dike and host rocks, but cannot address the release of magmatic heat of crystallization after the early stages of cooling or the appreciable temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and diffusivity displayed by most rock types. Numerical solutions can incorporate these additional factors. The heat of crystallization can raise the initial temperature at the dike contact, ??c1, about 100??C above that which would be estimated if it were neglected, and can decrease the rate at which the front of solidified magma moves to the dike center by a factor of as much as three. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of rocks increase with decreasing temperature and, at low temperatures, these properties increase more if the rocks are saturated with water. Models that treat these temperature dependencies yield estimates of ??c1 that are as much as 75??C beneath those which would be predicted if they were neglected. ?? 1988.

  2. Holocene Southern Ocean surface temperature variability west of the Antarctic Peninsula. (United States)

    Shevenell, A E; Ingalls, A E; Domack, E W; Kelly, C


    The disintegration of ice shelves, reduced sea-ice and glacier extent, and shifting ecological zones observed around Antarctica highlight the impact of recent atmospheric and oceanic warming on the cryosphere. Observations and models suggest that oceanic and atmospheric temperature variations at Antarctica's margins affect global cryosphere stability, ocean circulation, sea levels and carbon cycling. In particular, recent climate changes on the Antarctic Peninsula have been dramatic, yet the Holocene climate variability of this region is largely unknown, limiting our ability to evaluate ongoing changes within the context of historical variability and underlying forcing mechanisms. Here we show that surface ocean temperatures at the continental margin of the western Antarctic Peninsula cooled by 3-4 °C over the past 12,000 years, tracking the Holocene decline of local (65° S) spring insolation. Our results, based on TEX(86) sea surface temperature (SST) proxy evidence from a marine sediment core, indicate the importance of regional summer duration as a driver of Antarctic seasonal sea-ice fluctuations. On millennial timescales, abrupt SST fluctuations of 2-4 °C coincide with globally recognized climate variability. Similarities between our SSTs, Southern Hemisphere westerly wind reconstructions and El Niño/Southern Oscillation variability indicate that present climate teleconnections between the tropical Pacific Ocean and the western Antarctic Peninsula strengthened late in the Holocene epoch. We conclude that during the Holocene, Southern Ocean temperatures at the western Antarctic Peninsula margin were tied to changes in the position of the westerlies, which have a critical role in global carbon cycling.

  3. Electromechanical characterization of piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouaidy, M.; Saki, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Simonet, L. [IPN, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay (France)


    A dedicated apparatus was designed and constructed for studying the electromechanical behavior of prototype piezoelectric actuators subjected to a variable pre-loading force at cryogenic temperatures. This device was successfully used for testing a piezoelectric actuator of PICMA type from PI{sup TM}, for T in the range 2 K-300 K. The dielectric properties as well as dynamic properties were measured including the actuator characteristics when used as force sensor. The corresponding data are reported and discussed. (authors)

  4. Understanding the Influence of Terrestrial Water Anomalies on Summer Surface Air Temperature Variability over North America (United States)

    Merrifield, A.; Johnson, N. C.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S. P.


    Understanding natural variability in the climate system is vital for the detection and attribution of anthropogenically induced change in General Circulation Models (GCMs). GCM predictions of winter surface air temperature (SAT) variability generally are skillful at midlatitudes due to a strong coupling with tropical variability through atmospheric teleconnections. When atmospheric circulation weakens during the summer, however, GCM predictions of SAT variability are less skillful than during the winter, particularly over North America. This study examines the extent that terrestrial water anomalies in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) equivalent water thickness product influence patterns of summer SAT variability over North America from 2002 to 2014. Analysis of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) CM2.1 10-member ensemble indicates there is a significant land surface feedback on summer SAT. The GRACE product provides a metric for evaluating spurious soil moisture signals, which likely enhance summer SAT variability in the AMIP ensemble. To further investigate spatial patterns in soil moisture, simulated (AMIP) and reanalysis (Climate Prediction Center) rainfall patterns are used to demonstrate a potential cause-effect relationship between precipitation and terrestrial water anomalies. Finally, we evaluate whether soil moisture is a useful diagnostic for enhancing predictions of anomalous summer heat waves over North America.

  5. Last nine-thousand years of temperature variability in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seppä


    Full Text Available The threat of future global warming has generated a major interest in quantifying past climate variability on centennial and millennial time-scales. However, palaeoclimatological records are often noisy and arguments about past variability are only possible if they are based on reproducible features in several reliably dated datasets. Here we focus on the last 9000 years, explore the results of 36 Holocene pollen-based July mean and annual mean temperature reconstructions from Northern Europe by stacking them to create summary curves, and compare them with a high-resolution, summary chironomid-based temperature record and other independent palaeoclimate records. The stacked records show that the "Holocene Thermal Maximum" in the region dates to 8000 to 4800 cal yr BP and that the "8.2 event" and the "Little Ice Age" at 500–100 cal yr BP are the clearest cold episodes during the Holocene. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the last 5000 years pinpoints centennial-scale climate variability with cold anomalies at 3800–3000 and 500–100 cal yr BP, a long, warmer period around 2000 cal yr BP, and a marked warming since the mid 19th century. The colder (warmer anomalies are associated with increased (decreased humidity over the northern European mainland, consistent with the modern high correlation between cold (warm and humid (dry modes of summer weather in the region. A comparison with the key proxy records reflecting the main forcing factors does not support the hypothesis that solar variability is the cause of the late-Holocene centennial-scale temperature changes. We suggest that the reconstructed anomalies are typical of Northern Europe and their occurrence may be related to the oceanic and atmospheric circulation variability in the North Atlantic – North-European region.

  6. Variability of temperature properties over Kenya based on observed and reanalyzed datasets (United States)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Gao, Chujie; Sagero, Phillip Obaigwa


    Updated information on trends of climate extremes is central in the assessment of climate change impacts. This work examines the trends in mean, diurnal temperature range (DTR), maximum and minimum temperatures, 1951-2012 and the recent (1981-2010) extreme temperature events over Kenya. The study utilized daily observed and reanalyzed monthly mean, minimum, and maximum temperature datasets. The analysis was carried out based on a set of nine indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The trend of the mean and the extreme temperature was determined using Mann-Kendall rank test, linear regression analysis, and Sen's slope estimator. December-February (DJF) season records high temperature while June-August (JJA) experiences the least temperature. The observed rate of warming is + 0.15 °C/decade. However, DTR does not show notable annual trend. Both seasons show an overall warming trend since the early 1970s with abrupt and significant changes happening around the early 1990s. The warming is more significant in the highland regions as compared to their lowland counterparts. There is increase variance in temperature. The percentage of warm days and warm nights is observed to increase, a further affirmation of warming. This work is a synoptic scale study that exemplifies how seasonal and decadal analyses, together with the annual assessments, are important in the understanding of the temperature variability which is vital in vulnerability and adaptation studies at a local/regional scale. However, following the quality of observed data used herein, there remains need for further studies on the subject using longer and more data to avoid generalizations made in this study.

  7. Analysis of Convective Straight and Radial Fins with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity Using Variational Iteration Method with Comparison with Respect to Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Bozkurt Coşkun


    Full Text Available In order to enhance heat transfer between primary surface and the environment, radiating extended surfaces are commonly utilized. Especially in the case of large temperature differences, variable thermal conductivity has a strong effect on performance of such a surface. In this paper, variational iteration method is used to analyze convective straight and radial fins with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. In order to show the efficiency of variational iteration method (VIM, the results obtained from VIM analysis are compared with previously obtained results using Adomian decomposition method (ADM and the results from finite element analysis. VIM produces analytical expressions for the solution of nonlinear differential equations. However, these expressions obtained from VIM must be tested with respect to the results obtained from a reliable numerical method or analytical solution. This work assures that VIM is a promising method for the analysis of convective straight and radial fin problems.

  8. Comparison of The Thermal Conductivity of selected Nuclear Graphite Grades for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Chi, Se-Hwan; Kim, Eung-Seon; Kim, Min-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    It is well known that the thermal conductivity of nuclear graphite is influenced by factors such as phonon boundary scattering processes, Umklapp processes, electron-phonon scattering etc, and a lot of studies have been performed to investigate the neutron-irradiation effects on the thermal conductivity of graphite. However, no studies have been reported yet for the overall differences in the thermal conductivity of the nuclear graphite grades for HTGR differing in coke source (petroleum, coal), forming method and particle size. In the present study, the thermal conductivities of seven candidate nuclear graphite grades for HTGR were determined and compared based on the microstructure of the grades. The thermal conductivity is an important material input data during the design, construction and operation of HTGR. The thermal conductivities of seven nuclear graphite grades for HTGR were determined by laser flash method from room temperature to 1,100 .deg. C and compared based on the microstructure of the grade. Conclusions obtained from the study are as follow. (1) The thermal conductivity of seven nuclear graphite grades appeared to be strongly influenced by the grain size at low temperature below about 500 .deg. C and by the phonon-phonon scattering at above 800 .deg. C. (2) All the grades show a decrease in TC of 55-60 % from their room temperature TCs with increasing temperature to 1,100 .deg. C.

  9. Ice surface temperatures: seasonal cycle and daily variability from in-situ and satellite observations (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.


    Surface temperature is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ temperature measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface temperature may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and daily variability of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air temperature observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST variability on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical variability. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface temperatures form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface temperatures for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA GlobTemperature project which aims at applying surface temperatures in models in order to

  10. How Vial Geometry Variability Influences Heat Transfer and Product Temperature During Freeze-Drying. (United States)

    Scutellà, Bernadette; Passot, Stéphanie; Bourlés, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Tréléa, Ioan Cristian


    Vial design features can play a significant role in heat transfer between the shelf and the product and, consequently, in the final quality of the freeze-dried product. Our objective was to investigate the impact of the variability of some geometrical dimensions of a set of tubing vials commonly used for pharmaceuticals production on the distribution of the vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) and its potential consequence on product temperature. Sublimation tests were carried out using pure water and 8 combinations of chamber pressure (4-50 Pa) and shelf temperature (-40°C and 0°C) in 2 freeze-dryers. Kv values were individually determined for 100 vials located in the center of the shelf. Vial bottom curvature depth and contact area between the vial and the shelf were carefully measured for 120 vials and these data were used to calculate Kv distribution due to variability in vial geometry. At low pressures commonly used for sensitive products (below 10 Pa), the vial-shelf contact area appeared crucial for explaining Kv heterogeneity and was found to generate, in our study, a product temperature distribution of approximately 2°C during sublimation. Our approach provides quantitative guidelines for defining vial geometry tolerance specifications and product temperature safety margins. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G


    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  12. Temperature and hydrologic variability of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene (United States)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.


    Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental temperature change and hydrologic variability. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth temperature, was used to reconstruct surface water temperatures from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in temperature and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria temperatures show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated temperatures and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). Temperatures abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine

  13. Local-scale spatial modelling for interpolating climatic temperature variables to predict agricultural plant suitability (United States)

    Webb, Mathew A.; Hall, Andrew; Kidd, Darren; Minansy, Budiman


    Assessment of local spatial climatic variability is important in the planning of planting locations for horticultural crops. This study investigated three regression-based calibration methods (i.e. traditional versus two optimized methods) to relate short-term 12-month data series from 170 temperature loggers and 4 weather station sites with data series from nearby long-term Australian Bureau of Meteorology climate stations. The techniques trialled to interpolate climatic temperature variables, such as frost risk, growing degree days (GDDs) and chill hours, were regression kriging (RK), regression trees (RTs) and random forests (RFs). All three calibration methods produced accurate results, with the RK-based calibration method delivering the most accurate validation measures: coefficients of determination ( R 2) of 0.92, 0.97 and 0.95 and root-mean-square errors of 1.30, 0.80 and 1.31 °C, for daily minimum, daily maximum and hourly temperatures, respectively. Compared with the traditional method of calibration using direct linear regression between short-term and long-term stations, the RK-based calibration method improved R 2 and reduced root-mean-square error (RMSE) by at least 5 % and 0.47 °C for daily minimum temperature, 1 % and 0.23 °C for daily maximum temperature and 3 % and 0.33 °C for hourly temperature. Spatial modelling indicated insignificant differences between the interpolation methods, with the RK technique tending to be the slightly better method due to the high degree of spatial autocorrelation between logger sites.

  14. Decadal variability in Gulf of Mexico sea surface temperatures since 1734 CE (United States)

    DeLong, K. L.; Maupin, C. R.; Flannery, J. A.; Quinn, T. M.; lin, K.; Shen, C.


    The Gulf of Mexico is a major source of moisture to North America and is a source region for the Gulf Stream, which transports ocean heat northward. Sea surface temperature (SST) variations on centennial to millennial time scales have been documented for this region using paleoceanographic proxies; however, records capable of resolving decadal to subannual variability are lacking. Here we present 274 years of monthly-resolved SST variations derived from records of strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) extracted from four Siderastrea siderea cores recovered from coral colonies within the Dry Tortugas National Park (24°42‧N, 82°48‧W) in the Gulf of Mexico. We find no significant difference in mean Sr/Ca among these cores and significant correlation between cores (r ≥ 0.90, p ≤ 0.05 for monthly). The cross-dated chronology, determined by counting annual bands and correlating Sr/Ca variations, agrees with four 230Th dates within ±2σ analytical precision. Calibration and verification of our multi-core coral Sr/Ca record with local temperature records reveals high agreement (Sr/Ca = -0.042 SST + 10.074, R2 = 0.96; σregression = 0.70°C, 1σ), similar to those reported for single cores from this location. We find winter SSTs tend to be more variable than summer SSTs (0.99 and 0.81°C, 1σ; respectively) with periodic intervals of 10 to 15 years with cooler summer temperatures. The average reconstructed SST during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1734-1880 CE) is colder (-0.82°C) than that during the late twentieth century (1971-2000 CE). The amplitude of decadal-scale variability (1 to 2.5°C) in the LIA is larger compared to similar scale variability in the twentieth century. The secular trend and decadal-scale variability in our reconstruction is broadly similar to an ~ decadally-resolved (~12 years/sample) Mg/Ca record from planktic foraminifer in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Richey et al., 2007), thus further confirming the reconstructed patterns of temperature

  15. Streams in the urban heat island: spatial and temporal variability in temperature (United States)

    Somers, Kayleigh A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Grace, James B.; Hassett, Brooke A.; Sudduth, Elizabeth B.; Wang, Siyi; Urban, Dean L.


    Streams draining urban heat islands tend to be hotter than rural and forested streams at baseflow because of warmer urban air and ground temperatures, paved surfaces, and decreased riparian canopy. Urban infrastructure efficiently routes runoff over hot impervious surfaces and through storm drains directly into streams and can lead to rapid, dramatic increases in temperature. Thermal regimes affect habitat quality and biogeochemical processes, and changes can be lethal if temperatures exceed upper tolerance limits of aquatic fauna. In summer 2009, we collected continuous (10-min interval) temperature data in 60 streams spanning a range of development intensity in the Piedmont of North Carolina, USA. The 5 most urbanized streams averaged 21.1°C at baseflow, compared to 19.5°C in the 5 most forested streams. Temperatures in urban streams rose as much as 4°C during a small regional storm, whereas the same storm led to extremely small to no changes in temperature in forested streams. Over a kilometer of stream length, baseflow temperature varied by as much as 10°C in an urban stream and as little as 2°C in a forested stream. We used structural equation modeling to explore how reach- and catchment-scale attributes interact to explain maximum temperatures and magnitudes of storm-flow temperature surges. The best predictive model of baseflow temperatures (R2  =  0.461) included moderately strong pathways directly (extent of development and road density) and indirectly, as mediated by reach-scale factors (canopy closure and stream width), from catchment-scale factors. The strongest influence on storm-flow temperature surges appeared to be % development in the catchment. Reach-scale factors, such as the extent of riparian forest and stream width, had little mitigating influence (R2  =  0.448). Stream temperature is an essential, but overlooked, aspect of the urban stream syndrome and is affected by reach-scale habitat variables, catchment-scale urbanization

  16. Influence of gamma ray irradiation on thermal conductivity of bismaleimide-triazine-based insulation tape at cryogenic temperature (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Idesaki, A.; Ogitsu, T.


    Recent accelerator-based experiments for particle physics require the superconducting magnets that can be operated under high radiation environment. An electrical insulation tape, which is composed of polyimide film and a boron free glass fabric pre-impregnated with epoxy resin blended with bismaleimide-triazine resin, is developed to enhance the radiation tolerance for superconducting magnets. Since the thermal conductivity of insulation tape is one of key parameters that affects the coil temperature during the operation, the influence of gamma-ray irradiation on the thermal conductivity of the insulation tape is investigated with a maximum dose of 5 MGy. The thermal conductivity is measured at cryogenic temperature from 5 K to 20 K cooled by a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. By comparing the thermal conductivity before and after the gamma ray irradiation, no significant degradation on the thermal conductivity has been observed.

  17. Effects of temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conductivities on the heating of a one dimensional conductor (United States)

    Antoulinakis, Foivos; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Chernin, David


    Dependence of electrical conductivity on temperature gives rise to electrotheramal instability, an important instability for Z-pinches. In other areas, ohmic heating limits the operation of nanoscale circuits such as graphene electronics, carbon nanofiber based field emitters, and nanolasers. For many applications, it is important to consider the temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities when calculating the effects of ohmic heating. We examine the effects of linear temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivities on the heating of a one-dimensional conductor by solving the coupled non-linear steady state electrical and thermal conduction equations. We find that there are conditions under which no steady state solution exists. In the special case in which the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity may be neglected, we have obtained explicit expressions for these conditions. The maximum temperature and its location within the conductor are examined for various boundary conditions. We note that the absence of a steady state solution may indicate the possibility of thermal runaway. Work supported by AFOSR No. FA9550-14-1-0309, and by L-3 Communications.

  18. On multi-timescale variability of temperature in China in modulated annual cycle reference frame (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Wu, Zhaohua; Fu, Congbin; Zhou, Tianjun


    The traditional anomaly (TA) reference frame and its corresponding anomaly for a given data span changes with the extension of data length. In this study, the modulated annual cycle (MAC), instead of the widely used climatological mean annual cycle, is used as an alternative reference frame for computing climate anomalies to study the multi-timescale variability of surface air temperature (SAT) in China based on homogenized daily data from 1952 to 2004. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method is used to separate daily SAT into a high frequency component, a MAC component, an interannual component, and a decadal-to-trend component. The results show that the EEMD method can reflect historical events reasonably well, indicating its adaptive and temporally local characteristics. It is shown that MAC is a temporally local reference frame and will not be altered over a particular time span by an extension of data length, thereby making it easier for physical interpretation. In the MAC reference frame, the low frequency component is found more suitable for studying the interannual to longer timescale variability (ILV) than a 13-month window running mean, which does not exclude the annual cycle. It is also better than other traditional versions (annual or summer or winter mean) of ILV, which contains a portion of the annual cycle. The analysis reveals that the variability of the annual cycle could be as large as the magnitude of interannual variability. The possible physical causes of different timescale variability of SAT in China are further discussed.

  19. Electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity of two aqueous solutions of ionic liquids at room-temperature: Measurements and correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Peiyin [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Leron, Rhoda B. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Li Menghui, E-mail: [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)


    As part of our systematic study on physicochemical characterization of ionic liquids, in this work, we report new measurements of electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity for aqueous solutions of two 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate, at normal atmospheric condition and for temperatures up to 353.2 K. The electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity were measured by a commercial conductivity meter and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. The estimated experimental uncertainties for the electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity measurements were {+-}1% and {+-}2%, respectively. The property data are reported as functions of temperature and composition. A modified empirical equation from another researcher was used to correlate the temperature and composition dependence of the our electrolytic conductivity results. An excess molar heat capacity expression derived using a Redlich-Kister type equation was used to represent the temperature and composition dependence of the measured molar heat capacity and calculated excess molar heat capacity of the solvent systems considered. The correlations applied represent the our measurements satisfactorily as shown by an acceptable overall average deviation of 6.4% and 0.1%, respectively, for electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity.

  20. Three-dimensional flow of an oldroyd-B fluid with variable thermal conductivity and heat generation/absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Ali Shehzad

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the series solutions of three dimensional boundary layer flow. An Oldroyd-B fluid with variable thermal conductivity is considered. The flow is induced due to stretching of a surface. Analysis has been carried out in the presence of heat generation/absorption. Homotopy analysis is implemented in developing the series solutions to the governing flow and energy equations. Graphs are presented and discussed for various parameters of interest. Comparison of present study with the existing limiting solution is shown and examined.

  1. Mathematical model for thermal solar collectors by using magnetohydrodynamic Maxwell nanofluid with slip conditions, thermal radiation and variable thermal conductivity (United States)

    Mahmood, Asif; Aziz, Asim; Jamshed, Wasim; Hussain, Sajid

    Solar energy is the cleanest, renewable and most abundant source of energy available on earth. The main use of solar energy is to heat and cool buildings, heat water and to generate electricity. There are two types of solar energy collection system, the photovoltaic systems and the solar thermal collectors. The efficiency of any solar thermal system depend on the thermophysical properties of the operating fluids and the geometry/length of the system in which fluid is flowing. In the present research a simplified mathematical model for the solar thermal collectors is considered in the form of non-uniform unsteady stretching surface. The flow is induced by a non-uniform stretching of the porous sheet and the uniform magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the flow. The non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid model is utilized for the working fluid along with slip boundary conditions. Moreover the high temperature effect of thermal radiation and temperature dependent thermal conductivity are also included in the present model. The mathematical formulation is carried out through a boundary layer approach and the numerical computations are carried out for cu-water and TiO2 -water nanofluids. Results are presented for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number and the discussion is concluded on the effect of various governing parameters on the motion, temperature variation, velocity gradient and the rate of heat transfer at the boundary.

  2. Local Versus Remote Contributions of Soil Moisture to Near-Surface Temperature Variability (United States)

    Koster, R.; Schubert, S.; Wang, H.; Chang, Y.


    Soil moisture variations have a straightforward impact on overlying air temperatures, wetter soils can induce higher evaporative cooling of the soil and thus, locally, cooler temperatures overall. Not known, however, is the degree to which soil moisture variations can affect remote air temperatures through their impact on the atmospheric circulation. In this talk we describe a two-pronged analysis that addresses this question. In the first segment, an extensive ensemble of NASA/GSFC GEOS-5 atmospheric model simulations is analyzed statistically to isolate and quantify the contributions of various soil moisture states, both local and remote, to the variability of air temperature at a given local site. In the second segment, the relevance of the derived statistical relationships is evaluated by applying them to observations-based data. Results from the second segment suggest that the GEOS-5-based relationships do, at least to first order, hold in nature and thus may provide some skill to forecasts of air temperature at subseasonal time scales, at least in certain regions.

  3. Temperature variability and offset in steep alpine rock and ice faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasler


    Full Text Available The thermal condition of high-alpine mountain flanks can be an important determinant of climate change impact on slope stability and correspondingly down-slope hazard regimes. In this study we analyze time-series from 17 shallow temperature-depth profiles at two field sites in steep bedrock and ice. Extending earlier studies that revealed the topographic variations in temperatures, we demonstrate considerable differences of annual mean temperatures for variable surface characteristics and depths within the measured profiles. This implies that measurements and model related to compact and near-vertical bedrock temperatures may deviate considerably from conditions in the majority of bedrock slopes in mountain ranges that are usually non-vertical and fractured. For radiation-exposed faces mean annual temperatures at depth are up to 3 °C lower and permafrost is likely to exist at lower elevations than reflected by estimates based on near-vertical homogeneous cases. Retention of a thin snow cover and ventilation effects in open clefts are most likely responsible for this cooling. The measurements presented or similar data could be used in the future to support the development and testing of models related to the thermal effect of snow-cover and fractures in steep bedrock.

  4. Ozone Depletion at Mid-Latitudes: Coupling of Volcanic Aerosols and Temperature Variability to Anthropogenic Chlorine (United States)

    Solomon, S.; Portmann, R. W.; Garcia, R. R.; Randel, W.; Wu, F.; Nagatani, R.; Gleason, J.; Thomason, L.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.


    Satellite observations of total ozone at 40-60 deg N are presented from a variety of instruments over the time period 1979-1997. These reveal record low values in 1992-3 (after Pinatubo) followed by partial but incomplete recovery. The largest post-Pinatubo reductions and longer-term trends occur in spring, providing a critical test for chemical theories of ozone depletion. The observations are shown to be consistent with current understanding of the chemistry of ozone depletion when changes in reactive chlorine and stratospheric aerosol abundances are considered along with estimates of wave-driven fluctuations in stratospheric temperatures derived from global temperature analyses. Temperature fluctuations are shown to make significant contributions to model calculated northern mid-latitude ozone depletion due to heterogeneous chlorine activation on liquid sulfate aerosols at temperatures near 200-210 K (depending upon water vapor pressure), particularly after major volcanic eruptions. Future mid-latitude ozone recovery will hence depend not only on chlorine recovery but also on temperature trends and/or variability, volcanic activity, and any trends in stratospheric sulfate aerosol.

  5. Modelling the reduction of an iron ore-coal composite pellet with conduction and convection in an axisymmetric temperature field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.Y.; Donskoi, E.; McElwain, D.L.S.; Wibberley, L.J. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Mathematical Science


    A mathematical model of the coal-based direct reduction process of iron ore in a pellet composed of coal and iron ore mixture is investigated using a finite-control volume method. Heat transfer by conduction in the solid, convection by gaseous media inside, and radiation from the surroundings of the pellet are included in the model. The pellet is assumed to be spherical initially and the temperature around the pellet is taken to be symmetric about an axis passing through the centre. The parameters of the process, such as thermal conductivity, specific heats, and heats of the reaction, are all temperature dependent. The shrinkage/swelling of the pellet is also considered. We find that the effect of convection on the temperature and on the overall average reduction is small. However, the effect on the local concentration of the reaction components is significant. We predict that a uniform surrounding temperature field around the pellet yields a better average reduction.

  6. Summer temperature variability across four urban neighborhoods in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA (United States)

    Ellis, Kelsey N.; Hathaway, Jon M.; Mason, Lisa Reyes; Howe, David A.; Epps, Thomas H.; Brown, Vincent M.


    The urban heat island (UHI) is a well-documented effect of urbanization on local climate, identified by higher temperatures compared to surrounding areas, especially at night and during the warm season. The details of a UHI are city-specific, and microclimates may even exist within a given city. Thus, investigating the spatiotemporal variability of a city's UHI is an ongoing and critical research need. We deploy ten weather stations across Knoxville, Tennessee, to analyze the city's UHI and its differential impacts across urban neighborhoods: two each in four neighborhoods, one in more dense tree cover and one in less dense tree cover, and one each in downtown Knoxville and Ijams Nature Center that serve as control locations. Three months of temperature data (beginning 2 July 2014) are analyzed using paired-sample t tests and a three-way analysis of variance. Major findings include the following: (1) Within a given neighborhood, tree cover helps negate daytime heat (resulting in up to 1.19 ∘C lower maximum temperature), but does not have as large of an influence on minimum temperature; (2) largest temperature differences between neighborhoods occur during the day (0.38-1.16 ∘C difference), but larger differences between neighborhoods and the downtown control occur at night (1.04-1.88 ∘C difference); (3) presiding weather (i.e., air mass type) has a significant, consistent impact on the temperature in a given city, and lacks the differential impacts found at a larger-scale in previous studies; (4) distance from city center does not impact temperature as much as land use factors. This is a preliminary step towards informing local planning with a scientific understanding of how mitigation strategies may help minimize the UHI and reduce the effects of extreme weather on public health and well-being.

  7. Sensitivity of frost occurrence to temperature variability in the European Alps (United States)

    Auer, Ingeborg; Matulla, Christoph; Böhm, Reinhard; Ungersböck, Markus; Maugeri, Maurizio; Nanni, Teresa; Pastorelli, Rossella


    In this study, we set out to investigate the linkage of frost frequency to monthly mean temperature and its sensitivity to temperature changes. According to other related studies, the linkage between frost frequency and monthly mean temperature is approximated month per month via hyperbolic tangent functions. These models are validated using three validation experiments including split sample tests and temporal cross-validation. As there are quality-checked station data in Austria, whose temporal resolution and length allow for such a validation procedure, the validation experiments are conducted there.After the performance of the empirical models is evaluated and found adequate, the hyperbolic tangent approach is applied to about 500 stations within the so called Greater Alpine region (GAR), which extends from about 4 °E to 18 °E and from 44 °N to 49 °N. Using these models, it is possible to derive the sensitivity of frost frequency for any location for which the annual temperature cycle is known. This strategy is explicitly demonstrated for the Po Plain, where vertical temperature profiles on a monthly base are on hand as well as in Austria, where spatially high resolved maps of monthly mean temperature are available. Moreover, at stations for which long-term homogenised series of monthly mean temperature are available, reconstructions of frost frequency via the empirical models are done, returning to historical periods where no measurements of minimum temperature exist.On the basis of these findings, the impact of a possible future warming can be assessed, which is essential with regard to glaciers, permafrost and avalanches. Reduction in frost might bring positive economic aspects for agriculture, but negative consequences for low level skiing areas. Copyright

  8. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 from Atomistic Simulations (United States)

    Lawson, John W.; Murray, Daw S.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.


    Atomistic Green-Kubo simulations are performed to evaluate the lattice thermal conductivity for single crystals of the ultra high temperature ceramics ZrB2 and HfB2 for a range of temperatures. Recently developed interatomic potentials are used for these simulations. Heat current correlation functions show rapid oscillations which can be identified with mixed metal-Boron optical phonon modes. Agreement with available experimental data is good.

  9. The mortality burden of hourly temperature variability in five capital cities, Australia: Time-series and meta-regression analysis. (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Bambrick, Hilary; Su, Hong; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao


    Unstable weather, such as intra- and inter-day temperature variability, can impair the health and shorten the survival time of population around the world. Climate change will cause Earth's surface temperature rise, but has unclear effects on temperature variability, making it urgent to understand the characteristics of the burden of temperature variability on mortality, regionally and nationally. This paper aims to quantify the mortality risk of exposure to short-term temperature variability, estimate the resulting death toll and explore how the strength of temperature variability effects will vary as a function of city-level characteristics. Ten-year (2000-2009) time-series data on temperature and mortality were collected for five largest Australia's cities (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide), collectively registering 708,751 deaths in different climates. Short-term temperature variability was captured and represented as the hourly temperature standard deviation within two days. Three-stage analyses were used to assess the burden of temperature variability on mortality. First, we modelled temperature variability-mortality relation and estimated the relative risk of death for each city, using a time-series quasi-Poisson regression model. Second, we used meta-analysis to pool the city-specific estimates, and meta-regression to explore if some city-level factors will modify the population vulnerability to temperature variability. Finally, we calculated the city-specific deaths attributable to temperature variability, and applied such estimates to the whole of Australia as a reflection of the nation-wide death burden associated with temperature variability. We found evidence of significant associations between temperature variability and mortality in all cities assessed. Deaths associated with each 1°C rise in temperature variability elevated by 0.28% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05%, 0.52%) in Melbourne to 1.00% (95%CI: 0.52%, 1.48%) in Brisbane

  10. Contribution of PsbS Function and Stomatal Conductance to Foliar Temperature in Higher Plants. (United States)

    Kulasek, Milena; Bernacki, Maciej Jerzy; Ciszak, Kamil; Witoń, Damian; Karpiński, Stanisław


    Natural capacity has evolved in higher plants to absorb and harness excessive light energy. In basic models, the majority of absorbed photon energy is radiated back as fluorescence and heat. For years the proton sensor protein PsbS was considered to play a critical role in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of light absorbed by PSII antennae and in its dissipation as heat. However, the significance of PsbS in regulating heat emission from a whole leaf has never been verified before by direct measurement of foliar temperature under changing light intensity. To test its validity, we here investigated the foliar temperature changes on increasing and decreasing light intensity conditions (foliar temperature dynamics) using a high resolution thermal camera and a powerful adjustable light-emitting diode (LED) light source. First, we showed that light-dependent foliar temperature dynamics is correlated with Chl content in leaves of various plant species. Secondly, we compared the foliar temperature dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, the PsbS null mutant npq4-1 and a PsbS-overexpressing transgenic line under different transpiration conditions with or without a photosynthesis inhibitor. We found no direct correlations between the NPQ level and the foliar temperature dynamics. Rather, differences in foliar temperature dynamics are primarily affected by stomatal aperture, and rapid foliar temperature increase during irradiation depends on the water status of the leaf. We conclude that PsbS is not directly involved in regulation of foliar temperature dynamics during excessive light energy episodes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  11. Sensitivity of Effective Thermal Conductivity Models on Temperature Distribution of Heterogeneous media of Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Kim, S. J.; Hwang, D. H.; Lee, W. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A TRISO fuel particle consists of a spherical fuel kernel with four coating layers such as buffer, Inner PyC, SiC, Outer PyC. A FCM fuel pellet contains randomly distributed 36 in a SiC matrix. Such heterogeneous and complicated structure adds difficulty in calculating the realistic temperature distributions in the FCM fuel. General practice is to use a homogenized model using an effective thermal conductivity model. For these difficulties, a realistic temperature profile on a heterogeneous media is generally calculated on a homogenization model. In this study, we investigate the influence of effective thermal conductivity models on the temperature distribution in a heterogeneous media on FCM fuel pellet. Feasibility of Single Domain Homogenization(SDH) model has been estimated for a heterogeneous media like FCM fuel. From the study, it is found that the effective thermal conductivity is a crucial parameter in analyzing the temperature distributions in SDH approach. Sensitivity of the effective thermal conductivity models indicates that the Maxwell model or an optimized conductivity models are adequate in modeling the heterogeneous FCM fuel.

  12. Measurements of temperature characteristics and estimation of terahertz negative differential conductance in resonant-tunneling-diode oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asada


    Full Text Available The temperature dependences of output power, oscillation frequency, and current-voltage curve are measured for resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz (THz oscillators. The output power largely changes with temperature owing to the change in Ohmic loss. In contrast to the output power, the oscillation frequency and current-voltage curve are almost insensitive to temperature. The measured temperature dependence of output power is compared with the theoretical calculation including the negative differential conductance (NDC as a fitting parameter assumed to be independent of temperature. Very good agreement was obtained between the measurement and calculation, and the NDC in the THz frequency region is estimated. The results show that the absolute values of NDC in the THz region significantly decrease relative to that at DC, and increases with increasing frequency in the measured frequency range.

  13. Responses of transpiration and hydraulic conductance to root temperature in nitrogen- and phosphorus-deficient cotton seedlings. (United States)

    Radin, J W


    Suboptimal N or P availability and cool temperatures all decrease apparent hydraulic conductance (L) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots. The interaction between nutrient status and root temperature was tested in seedlings grown in nutrient solutions. The depression of L (calculated as the ratio of transpiration rate to absolute value of leaf water potential [Psi(w)]) by nutrient stress depended strongly on root temperature, and was minimized at high temperatures. In fully nourished plants, L was high at all temperatures >/=20 degrees C, but it decreased greatly as root temperature approached the chilling threshold of 15 degrees C. Decreasing temperature lowered Psi(w) first, followed by transpiration rate. In N- or P-deficient plants, L approached the value for fully nourished plants at root temperatures >/=30 degrees C, but it decreased almost linearly with temperature as roots were cooled. Nutrient effects on L were mediated only by differences in transpiration, and Psi(w) was unaffected. The responses of Psi(w) and transpiration to root cooling and nutrient stress imply that if a messenger is transmitted from cooled roots to stomata, the messenger is effective only in nutrient-stressed plants.

  14. Temperature dependent dielectric and conductivity studies of polyvinyl alcohol-ZnO nanocomposite films by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemalatha, K. S.; Damle, R.; Rukmani, K., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Sriprakash, G. [Department of Physics, Maharani' s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560001 (India); Ambika Prasad, M. V. N. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106 (India)


    Dielectric and conductivity behaviors of nano ZnO doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites for various concentrations of dopant were investigated using impedance spectroscopy for a wide range of temperatures (303 K–423 K) and frequencies (5 Hz–30 MHZ). The dielectric properties of host polymer matrix have been improved by the addition of nano ZnO and are found to be highly temperature dependent. Anomalous dielectric behavior was observed in the frequency range of 2.5 MHz–5 MHz. Increase in dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss was observed with respect to temperature. The Cole-Cole plot could be modeled by low resistance regions in a high resistance matrix and the lowest resistance was observed for the 10 mol. % films. The imaginary part of the electric modulus showed asymmetric peaks with the relaxation following Debye nature below and non-Debye nature above the peaks. The ac conductivity is found to obey Jonscher's power law, whereas the variation of dc conductivity with temperature was found to follow Arrhenius behavior. Two different activation energy values were obtained from Arrhenius plot indicating that two conduction mechanisms are involved in the composite films. Fitting the ac conductivity data to Jonscher's law indicates that large polaron assisted tunneling is the most likely conduction mechanism in the composites. Maximum conductivity is observed at 423 K for all the samples and it is optimum for 10 mol. % ZnO doped PVA composite film. Significant increase in dc and ac conductivities in these composite films makes them a potential candidate for application in electronic devices.

  15. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Studies of Aromatic Acid Adsorbate Effects on Montmorillonite Dehydration. (United States)

    Ingram, Audrey L; Nickels, Tara M; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L


    Molecular interactions between benzoic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acids and water contained within montmorillonite clay interlayer spaces are characterized by using variable temperature diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (VT-DRIFTS). By using sample perturbation and difference spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectral variations resulting from the removal of interlayer water are used to characterize aromatic acid local environment changes. Difference spectra features representing functional group perturbations are correlated with changes in IR absorptions associated with -O-H and -C = O stretching vibrations. Results suggest that adsorbate carboxylic acid functionalities participate in extensive hydrogen bonding and that the strengths of these interactions are diminished when clays are dehydrated. The nature of these interactions and their temperature-dependent properties are found to depend on adsorbate structure and concentration as well as the clay interlayer cation.

  16. Variable temperature FT-IR studies on hydrogen adsorption on the zeolite (Mg,Na)-Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero Arean, C. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]. E-mail:; Turnes Palomino, G. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Llop Carayol, M.R. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    Variable-temperature infrared spectroscopy was used for the thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of hydrogen on the zeolite (Mg,Na)-Y. Adsorption renders the H-H stretching mode infrared active, and simultaneous measurement of IR absorbance and hydrogen equilibrium pressure, over a range of temperature, allowed adsorption enthalpy and entropy to be determined. The standard adsorption enthalpy and entropy resulted to be {delta}H{sup o} -18.2({+-}0.8) kJ mol{sup -1} and {delta}S{sup o} = -136({+-}10) J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. The adsorption enthalpy is substantially higher than the hydrogen liquefaction heat, which suggests that magnesium-containing porous materials are potential candidates in the search for suitable adsorbents for reversible hydrogen storage.

  17. Conformational Analysis of (+)-Germacrene A by Variable Temperature NMR and NOE Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Faraldos, Juan A; Wu, Shuiqin; Chappell, Joe; Coates, Robert M


    (+)-Germacrene A, an important intermediate in sesquiterpene biosynthesis, was isolated in pure form from a genetically engineered yeast and was characterized by chromatographic properties (TLC, GC), MS, optical rotation, UV, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR data. Variable-temperature 500 MHz (1)H NMR spectra in CDCl(3) showed that this flexible cyclodecadiene ring exists as three NMR-distinguishable conformational isomers in a ratio of about 5:3:2 at or below ordinary probe temperature (25° C). The conformer structures were assigned by (1)H NMR data comparisons, NOE experiments, and vicinal couplings as follows: 1a (52%, UU), 1b (29% UD), and 1c (19%, DU).

  18. Measuring thermal conductivity in freezing and thawing soil using the soil temperature response to heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overduin, P.; Kane, D.L.; Loon, van W.K.P.


    The thermal conductivity of the thin seasonally freezing and thawing soil layer in permafrost landscapes exerts considerable control over the sensitivity of the permafrost to energy and mass exchanges at the surface. At the same time, the thermal conductivity is sensitive to the state of the soil,

  19. Metal Phosphates as Proton Conducting Materials for Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyser Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana

    . Conductivity results of the phosphates are presented. The rare earth metal phosphates are further explored by preparing composites with cesium dihydrogen phosphate. The properties of the composites are characterized using SEM/EDX, XRD, TGA/DTA and conductivity measurements in slightly humidified atmosphere...

  20. Global-mean surface temperature variability: space-time perspective from rotated EOFs (United States)

    Chen, Xianyao; Tung, Ka-Kit


    The observed global-mean surface temperature (GST) has been warming in the presence of increasing atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases, but its rise has not been monotonic. Attention has increasingly been focused on the prominent variations about the linear trend in GST, especially on interdecadal and multidecadal time scales. When the sea-surface temperature (SST) and the land- plus-ocean surface temperature (ST) are averaged globally to yield the global-mean SST (GSST) and the GST, respectively, spatial information is lost. Information on both space and time is needed to properly identify the modes of variability on interannual, decadal, interdecadal and multidecadal time scales contributing to the GSST and GST variability. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is usually employed to extract the space-time modes of climate variability. Here we use the method of pair-wise rotation of the principal components (PCs) to extract the modes in these time-scale bands and obtain global spatial EOFs that correspond closely with regionally defined climate modes. Global averaging these clearly identified global modes allows us to reconstruct GSST and GST, and in the process identify their components. The results are: Pacific contributes to the global mean variation mostly on the interannual time scale through El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its teleconnections, while the Atlantic contributes strongly to the global mean on the multidecadal time scale through the interhemispheric mode called the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) has twice as large a variance as the AMO, but its contribution to GST is only 1/10 that of the AMO because of its compensating patterns of cold and warm SST in northwest and northeast Pacific. Its teleconnection pattern, the Pacific/North America (PNA) pattern over land, is also found to be self-cancelling when globally averaged because of its alternating warm and cold centers. The

  1. Temperature variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.


    Full Text Available According to data of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climatic Change, the global surface air temperature increased to 0,6 ± 0,2 °C in the 20th century. Weber G. R., (1995 quotes that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the network of 20 climatic stations. In the period 1951 - 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase was less than 0,1 °C. Explorers from Bulgaria (Alexandrov V., 2000 and Hungary (Domonkos P., Zoboki J., 2000 came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade 20th century the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south eastern part of the country, and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions with maritime pluviometric regime (Radovanović M., 2001. Using Dzerdzevskis B. L., (1975 division on three main types of circulation in the north hemisphere, we found that the increase of temperatures in the last decade 20th century is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the south meridian to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades 20th century it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations in contrast with results of paleoclimatics models of possible greenhouse effect.

  2. Impact of Air Temperature and SST Variability on Cholera Incidence in Southeastern Africa, 1971-2006 (United States)

    Paz, Shlomit


    The most important climatic parameter related to cholera outbreaks is the temperature, especially of the water bodies and the aquatic environment. This factor governs the survival and growth of V. cholerae, since it has a direct influence on its abundance in the environment, or alternatively, through its indirect influence on other aquatic organisms to which the pathogen is found to attach. Thus, the potential for cholera outbreaks may rise, parallel to the increase in ocean surface temperature. Indeed, recent studies indicate that global warming might create a favorable environment for V. cholerae and increase its incidence in vulnerable areas. Africa is vulnerable to climate variability. According to the recent IPCC report on Africa, the air temperature has indicated a significant warming trend since the 1960s. In recent years, most of the research into disease vectors in Africa related to climate variability has focused on malaria. The IPCC indicated that the need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of climatic factors on cholera in Africa. In light of this, the study uses a Poisson Regression Model to analyze the possible association between the cholera rates in southeastern Africa and the annual variability of air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) at regional and hemispheric scales, for the period 1971-2006. Data description is as follows: Number of cholera cases per year in Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique. Source: WHO Global Health Atlas - cholera. Seasonal and annual temperature time series: Regional scale: a) Air temperature for southeastern Africa (30° E-36° E, 5° S-17° S), source: NOAA NCEP-NCAR; b) Sea surface temperature, for the western Indian Ocean (0-20° S, 40° E-45° E), source: NOAA, Kaplan SST dataset. Hemispheric scale (for the whole Southern Hemisphere): a) Air temperature anomaly; b) Sea surface temperature anomaly. Source: CRU, University of East Anglia. The following

  3. Analyses of Effects of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Edge Temperature Using Inverse Heat Conduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro dos Santos


    Full Text Available During machining energy is transformed into heat due to plastic deformation of the workpiece surface and friction between tool and workpiece. High temperatures are generated in the region of the cutting edge, which have a very important influence on wear rate of the cutting tool and on tool life. This work proposes the estimation of heat flux at the chip-tool interface using inverse techniques. Factors which influence the temperature distribution at the AISI M32C high speed steel tool rake face during machining of a ABNT 12L14 steel workpiece were also investigated. The temperature distribution was predicted using finite volume elements. A transient 3D numerical code using irregular and nonstaggered mesh was developed to solve the nonlinear heat diffusion equation. To validate the software, experimental tests were made. The inverse problem was solved using the function specification method. Heat fluxes at the tool-workpiece interface were estimated using inverse problems techniques and experimental temperatures. Tests were performed to study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting edge temperature. The results were compared with those of the tool-work thermocouple technique and a fair agreement was obtained.

  4. Thermal conductivity of evacuated perlite at low temperatures as a function of load and load history (United States)

    Dube, W. P.; Sparks, L. L.; Slifka, A. J.


    Perlite, a powdered insulation, is commonly used in large cryogenic storage dewars. When these dewars are thermally cycled, the perlite in the evacuated space between the inner and outer vessels of the dewar experiences a changing mechanical load due to thermal expansion and contraction of the inner vessel. Thermal conductivity data were obtained using a boil-off calorimeter. The apparent thermal conductivity of evacuated perlite increases strongly with applied load. Hysteretic behavior of the conductivity was observed when perlite was subjected to cyclic mechanical loading.

  5. Electrical conductivity of titanium pyrophosphate between 100 and 400 °C: effect of sintering temperature and phosphorus content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Alberto; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hallinder, Jonathan


    The synthesis of titanium pyrophosphate is carried out, and the material is sintered at different temperatures between 370 and 970 °C. Yttrium is added during the synthesis to act as acceptor dopant, but it is mainly present in the material in secondary phases. The conductivity is studied systema...

  6. Potential relation between equatorial sea surface temperatures and historic water level variability for Lake Turkana, Kenya (United States)

    Bloszies, Chris; Forman, Steven L.


    Water level in Lake Turkana, Kenya in the past ca. 150 years is controlled primarily from the biannual passage of the East and West African Monsoon, with rainfall volume related partially to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Western Indian and East Atlantic oceans. Empirical orthogonal function analyses show significant correlation between Eastern Atlantic or Western Indian SSTs and lake level anomalies, with the first mode accounting for 66% and 55% of the variability. The primary geographic loadings are consistent with a Gulf of Guinea moisture source and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) state. The second mode explains 10% of variability, and reflects the westward extension of an Indian Ocean cool pool, potentially indicative of a normal to a negative IOD state. There is significant spatial correlation between basin rainfall anomalies associated with Eastern Atlantic SSTs and a low in the continental divide between the Kenyan and the Ethiopian Highlands, which is a passage for moisture from the Congo Basin. Linear regression analysis with Bootstrap sampling and Monte Carlo simulations define numeric relations between Western Indian and Eastern Atlantic SSTs and lake level change for AD 1992-2013. The monthly and yearly lake level reconstructions based on this numeric analysis capture the decadal-scale variability and the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century. Meter-scale variability in lake level since ca. AD 1930 is associated with precipitation sourced from the Western Indian Ocean with IOD variability, whereas the 15 m drop in water level in the early 20th century may reflect a profound decrease in moisture from Atlantic/Congo Basin source. These numerical solutions are poised to reconstruct water level variations in the past ca. 300 years for Lake Turkana with new proxy records of SSTs from the Western Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea.

  7. Enhancement of the spring East China precipitation response to tropical sea surface temperature variability (United States)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Jianqi


    The boreal spring relationship between variabilities of East China precipitation (ECP) and tropical Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) during the period 1951-2014 is investigated in this study. The results show that the leading mode of the ECP variability exhibits an enhanced response to the anomalous El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like SST after the late 1970s, when the SST underwent a decadal change, with two positive centers over the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and tropical Indian Ocean (TIO). To further understand the relative roles of the ETP and TIO SST anomalies (SSTAs) in the variability of ECP after the late 1970s, partial regression and correlation methods are used. It is found that, without the contribution of the TIO, ETP SSTA plays a limited role in the variability of ECP after the late 1970s; comparatively, a significant correlation between TIO SST and ECP is identified during the same period, when the ETP signal is linearly removed. Physical analyses show that, after the late 1970s, the TIO SSTA affects East Asian atmospheric circulation in two ways: by exciting a zonal wave-train pattern over the mid-latitude Eurasian Continent and by inducing anomalous convection over the Maritime Continent. Via these two mechanisms, the TIO SST variability results in an anomalous East Asian trough and vertical motion over East China and consequently leads to anomalous precipitation over the region. The physical processes linking the ECP and TIO SST are confirmed by an atmospheric general circulation model experiment forced with idealized TIO warming.

  8. Trap density of states in n-channel organic transistors: variable temperature characteristics and band transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joung-min Cho


    Full Text Available We have investigated trap density of states (trap DOS in n-channel organic field-effect transistors based on N,N ’-bis(cyclohexylnaphthalene diimide (Cy-NDI and dimethyldicyanoquinonediimine (DMDCNQI. A new method is proposed to extract trap DOS from the Arrhenius plot of the temperature-dependent transconductance. Double exponential trap DOS are observed, in which Cy-NDI has considerable deep states, by contrast, DMDCNQI has substantial tail states. In addition, numerical simulation of the transistor characteristics has been conducted by assuming an exponential trap distribution and the interface approximation. Temperature dependence of transfer characteristics are well reproduced only using several parameters, and the trap DOS obtained from the simulated characteristics are in good agreement with the assumed trap DOS, indicating that our analysis is self-consistent. Although the experimentally obtained Meyer-Neldel temperature is related to the trap distribution width, the simulation satisfies the Meyer-Neldel rule only very phenomenologically. The simulation also reveals that the subthreshold swing is not always a good indicator of the total trap amount, because it also largely depends on the trap distribution width. Finally, band transport is explored from the simulation having a small number of traps. A crossing point of the transfer curves and negative activation energy above a certain gate voltage are observed in the simulated characteristics, where the critical VG above which band transport is realized is determined by the sum of the trapped and free charge states below the conduction band edge.

  9. Approximate analytic solutions of transient nonlinear heat conduction with temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity


    Mustafa, M.T.; Arif, A.F.M.; Masood, Khalid


    A new approach for generating approximate analytic solutions of transient nonlinear heat conduction problems is presented. It is based on an effective combination of Lie symmetry method, homotopy perturbation method, finite element method, and simulation based error reduction techniques. Implementation of the proposed approach is demonstrated by applying it to determine approximate analytic solutions of real life problems consisting of transient nonlinear heat conduction in semi-infinite bars...

  10. Mapping surface temperature variability on a debris-covered glacier with an unmanned aerial vehicle (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.; Litt, M.; Shea, J. M.; Treichler, D.; Koch, I.; Immerzeel, W.


    Debris-covered glacier tongues cover about 12% of the glacier surface in high mountain Asia and much of the melt water is generated from those glaciers. A thin layer of supraglacial debris enhances ice melt by lowering the albedo, while thicker debris insulates the ice and reduces melt. Data on debris thickness is therefore an important input for energy balance modelling of these glaciers. Thermal infrared remote sensing can be used to estimate the debris thickness by using an inverse relation between debris surface temperature and thickness. To date this has only been performed using coarse spaceborne thermal imagery, which cannot reveal small scale variation in debris thickness and its influence on the heterogeneous melt patterns on debris-covered glaciers. We deployed an unmanned aerial vehicle mounted with a thermal infrared sensor over the debris-covered Lirung Glacier in Nepal three times in May 2016 to reveal the spatial and temporal variability of surface temperature in high detail. The UAV survey matched a Landsat 8 overpass to be able to make a comparison with spaceborne thermal imagery. The UAV-acquired data is processed using Structure from Motion photogrammetry and georeferenced using DGPS-measured ground control points. Different surface types were distinguished by using data acquired by an additional optical UAV survey in order to correct for differences in surface emissivity. In situ temperature measurements and incoming solar radiation data are used to calibrate the temperature calculations. Debris thicknesses derived are validated by thickness measurements of a ground penetrating radar. Preliminary analysis reveals a spatially highly heterogeneous pattern of surface temperature over Lirung Glacier with a range in temperature of over 40 K. At dawn the debris is relatively cold and its temperature is influenced strongly by the ice underneath. Exposed to the high solar radiation at the high altitude the debris layer heats up very rapidly as sunrise

  11. Transparent conductive coatings by printing coffee ring arrays obtained at room temperature. (United States)

    Layani, Michael; Gruchko, Michael; Milo, Oded; Balberg, Isaac; Azulay, Doron; Magdassi, Shlomo


    We report here a concept for utilization of the "coffee ring effect" and inkjet printing to obtain transparent conductive patterns, which can replace the widely used transparent conductive oxides, such as ITO. The transparent conductive coating is achieved by forming a 2-D array of interconnected metallic rings. The rim of the individual rings is less than 10 microm in width and less than 300 nm in height, surrounding a "hole" with a diameter of about 150 microm; therefore the whole array of the interconnected rings is almost invisible to the naked eye. The rims of the rings are composed of self-assembled, closely packed silver nanoparticles, which make the individual rings and the resulting array electrically conductive. The resulting arrays of rings have a transparency of 95%; resistivity of 0.5 cm(2) was 4 +/- 0.5 Omega/, which is better than conventional ITO transparent thin films. The silver rings and arrays are fabricated by a very simple, low cost process, based on inkjet printing of a dispersion of 0.5 wt % silver nanoparticles (approximately 20 nm diameter) on plastic substrates. The performance of this transparent conductive coating was demonstrated by using it as an electrode for a plastic electroluminescent device, demonstrating the applicability of this concept in plastics electronics. It is expected that such transparent conductive coatings can be used in a wide range of applications such as displays (LCD, plasma, touch screens, e-paper), lighting devices (electroluminescence, OLED), and solar cells.

  12. Two leading modes of the interannual variability in South American surface air temperature during austral winter (United States)

    Li, Yanjie; Li, Jianping; Kucharski, Fred; Feng, Jin; Zhao, Sen; Zheng, Jiayu


    The first two empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of the surface air temperature (SAT) interannual variability in the South American (SA) continent have been revealed in several previous studies. This presentation focuses on winter season and furtherly investigates the detailed advection and cloud-radiation processes and teleconnections from tropical sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) combining statistical analysis with Rossby wave dynamics and modelling experiments. The EOF1, featured with the anomalous center in the central part, is related to the tropical eastern Pacific SSTA, which may impact on the SA SAT variability through the Walker circulation and a regional Hadley cell. The anomalous center is largely attributed to low-level advection transported by the Hadley cell. The EOF2, as a fluctuation between anomalies in the southeast Brazil and the southern tip, is related to the SSTA surrounding the Maritime Continent, which may generate a barotropic wave train propagating to the SA continent. This wave train can strengthen high latitude westerly flow transporting warm advection to the southern tip, and generate southeast anomalous flow transporting cold advection to the southeast Brazil. Meanwhile, the cloud-radiation processes are also involved to enhance the advection-induced SAT anomalies in both areas.

  13. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes (United States)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.


    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  14. Freeze-Thaw Stress: Effects of Temperature on Hydraulic Conductivity and Ultrasonic Activity in Ten Woody Angiosperms1 (United States)

    Charrier, Guillaume; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Kasuga, Jun; Cochard, Hervé; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry


    Freeze-thaw events can affect plant hydraulics by inducing embolism. This study analyzed the effect of temperature during the freezing process on hydraulic conductivity and ultrasonic emissions (UE). Stems of 10 angiosperms were dehydrated to a water potential at 12% percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and exposed to freeze-thaw cycles. The minimal temperature of the frost cycle correlated positively with induced PLC, whereby species with wider conduits (hydraulic diameter) showed higher freeze-thaw-induced PLC. Ultrasonic activity started with the onset of freezing and increased with decreasing subzero temperatures, whereas no UE were recorded during thawing. The temperature at which 50% of UE were reached varied between −9.1°C and −31.0°C across species. These findings indicate that temperatures during freezing are of relevance for bubble formation and air seeding. We suggest that species-specific cavitation thresholds are reached during freezing due to the temperature-dependent decrease of water potential in the ice, while bubble expansion and the resulting PLC occur during thawing. UE analysis can be used to monitor the cavitation process and estimate freeze-thaw-induced PLC. PMID:24344170

  15. Mechanical sensibility of nociceptive and non-nociceptive fast-conducting afferents is modulated by skin temperature. (United States)

    Boada, M Danilo; Eisenach, James C; Ririe, Douglas G


    The ability to distinguish mechanical from thermal input is a critical component of peripheral somatosensory function. Polymodal C fibers respond to both stimuli. However, mechanosensitive, modality-specific fast-conducting tactile and nociceptor afferents theoretically carry information only about mechanical forces independent of the thermal environment. We hypothesize that the thermal environment can nonetheless modulate mechanical force sensibility in fibers that do not respond directly to change in temperature. To study this, fast-conducting mechanosensitive peripheral sensory fibers in male Sprague-Dawley rats were accessed at the soma in the dorsal root ganglia from T11 or L4/L5. Neuronal identification was performed using receptive field characteristics and passive and active electrical properties. Neurons responded to mechanical stimuli but failed to generate action potentials in response to changes in temperature alone, except for the tactile mechanical and cold sensitive neurons. Heat and cold ramps were utilized to determine temperature-induced modulation of response to mechanical stimuli. Mechanically evoked electrical activity in non-nociceptive, low-threshold mechanoreceptors (tactile afferents) decreased in response to changes in temperature while mechanically induced activity was increased in nociceptive, fast-conducting, high-threshold mechanoreceptors in response to the same changes in temperature. These data suggest that mechanical activation does not occur in isolation but rather that temperature changes appear to alter mechanical afferent activity and input to the central nervous system in a dynamic fashion. Further studies to understand the psychophysiological implications of thermal modulation of fast-conducting mechanical input to the spinal cord will provide greater insight into the implications of these findings. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Apollo 15 measurement of lunar surface brightness temperatures - Thermal conductivity of the upper 1.5 meters of regolith. (United States)

    Keihm, S. J.; Peters, K.; Langseth, M. G.; Chute, J. L., Jr.


    In situ measurements of lunar surface brightness temperatures made as a part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package at the Apollo 15 Hadley Rille landing site are reported. Data derived from five thermocouples of the Heat Flow Experiment, which are lying on or just above the surface, are used to examine the thermal properties of the upper 15 cm of the lunar regolith using eclipse and nighttime cool-down temperatures. Application of finite-difference techniques in modeling the lunar soil shows that the thermocouple data are best fit by a model consisting of a low-density and low-thermal conductivity surface layer approximately 2 cm thick overlying a region increasing in conductivity and density with depth. Conductivities on the order of 0.00001 W per cm per deg K are postulated for the upper layer, with conductivity increasing to the order of 0.0001 W per cm per deg K at depths exceeding 20 cm. An increase in mean temperature with depth indicates that the ratio of radiative to conductive transfer at 350 K is 2.7 for at least the upper few centimeters of lunar soil; this value is nearly twice that measured for returned lunar fines.

  17. Dispersion and Reinforcement of Nanotubes in High Temperature Polymers for Ultrahigh Strength and Thermally Conductive Nanocomposites (United States)


    System PBO are a class of heterocyclic polymers of excellent thermal stability with the decompose temperature Td around 650C. The Young’s modulus is...substitute HBr to form vinyl polymer. From FTIR shown in Figure34, we observe that around 880~950 cm-1 there is a peak of absorption. This represents

  18. Temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance in Josephson tunnel junctions determined from plasma resonance experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper


    as the temperature is decreased from Tc. We used three different schemes for observation of the plasma oscillations: (a) second-harmonic generation (excitation at ∼ 4.5 GHz, fp∼4.5 GHz); (b) mixing (excitations at ∼ 9 and ∼ 18 GHz, fp∼9 GHz); (c) parametric half-harmonic oscillation (excitation at ∼ 18 GHz, fp∼9 GHz...

  19. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B P PANDA and N C MOHAPATRA*. Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India. £Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India. Email: MS received 18 January 2003; accepted 21 June 2003. Abstract. Room temperature Compton profiles of ...

  20. Development of a Research Plan to Minimize Thermal Conductivity in Low Temperature Thermoelectric Materials (United States)


    Mechanical refrigeration approaches such as Stirling , reverse Brayton, and Joule-Thomson cycle coolers are frequently used to attain such temperatures {3...with existing mechanical cycles . To become competitive with other cooling technologies, an increase in the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT beyond

  1. Conducting thermomechanical fatigue test in air at light water reactor relevant temperature intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Mageshwaran [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Leber, Hans J., E-mail: [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Diener, Markus; Spolenak, Ralph [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zuerich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    In Light Water Reactors (LWR), many structural components are made of austenitic stainless steels (SS). These components are subject to extreme conditions, such as large temperature gradients and pressure loads during service. Hence, the fatigue and fracture behavior of austenitic SS under these conditions has evoked consistent interest over the years. Most studies dealing with this problem in the past, investigated the isothermal fatigue (IF) condition, which is not the case in the service, and less attention has been paid to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). Moreover, the existing codes of practice and standards for TMF testing are mainly derived from the high temperature TMF tests (T{sub mean} > 400 deg. C). This work presents the development of a facility to perform TMF tests under LWR relevant temperature interval in air. The realized testing parameters and tolerances are compared with the recommendations of existing codes of practice and standards from high temperature tests. The effectiveness of the testing facility was verified with series of TMF and IF tests performed on specimens made out of a commercial austenitic SS TP347 pipe material. The results revealed that the existing tolerances in standards are quite strict for the application of lower temperature ranges TMF tests. It was found that the synchronous, in-phase (IP) TMF tested specimens possess a higher lifetime than those subjected to the asynchronous, out-of-phase (OP) TMF and IF at T{sub max} in the investigated strain range for austenitic SS. Nevertheless, the fatigue lifetime of all the test conditions was similar in the engineering scale.

  2. The signatures of large-scale patterns of atmospheric variability in Antarctic surface temperatures (United States)

    Marshall, Gareth J.; Thompson, David W. J.


    We investigate the impact that the four principal large-scale patterns of Southern Hemisphere (SH) atmospheric circulation variability have on Antarctic surface air temperature (SAT): (1) the southern baroclinic annular mode (BAM), which is associated with variations in extratropical storm amplitude; (2) the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), associated with latitudinal shifts in the midlatitude jet; and (3) the two Pacific-South American patterns (PSA1 and PSA2), which are characterized by wave trains originating in the tropical Pacific that extend across the SH extratropics. A key aspect is the use of 35 years of daily observations and reanalysis data, which affords a sufficiently large sample size to assess the signatures of the circulation patterns in both the mean and variability of daily mean SAT anomalies. The BAM exerts the weakest influence on Antarctic SAT, albeit it is still important over select regions. Consistent with previous studies, the SAM is shown to influence SAT across most of the continent throughout the year. The PSA1 also affects SAT across almost all of Antarctica. Regionally, both PSA patterns can exert a greater impact on SAT than the SAM but also have a significantly weaker influence during summer, reflecting the seasonality of the SH response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The SAM and PSA patterns have distinct signatures in daily SAT variance that are physically consistent with their signatures in extratropical dynamic variability. The broad-scale climate linkages identified here provide benchmarks for interpreting the Antarctic climate response to future changes in tropical sea surface temperatures, ozone recovery, and greenhouse gas increases.

  3. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio


    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  4. Joint spatiotemporal variability of global sea surface temperatures and global Palmer drought severity index values (United States)

    Apipattanavis, S.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Gangopadhyay, S.


    Dominant modes of individual and joint variability in global sea surface temperatures (SST) and global Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values for the twentieth century are identified through a multivariate frequency domain singular value decomposition. This analysis indicates that a secular trend and variability related to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are the dominant modes of variance shared among the global datasets. For the SST data the secular trend corresponds to a positive trend in Indian Ocean and South Atlantic SSTs, and a negative trend in North Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. The ENSO reconstruction shows a strong signal in the tropical Pacific, North Pacific, and Indian Ocean regions. For the PDSI data, the secular trend reconstruction shows high amplitudes over central Africa including the Sahel, whereas the regions with strong ENSO amplitudes in PDSI are the southwestern and northwestern United States, South Africa, northeastern Brazil, central Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Australia. An additional significant frequency, multidecadal variability, is identified for the Northern Hemisphere. This multidecadal frequency appears to be related to the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The multidecadal frequency is statistically significant in the Northern Hemisphere SST data, but is statistically nonsignificant in the PDSI data.

  5. Long-term sea surface temperature variability in the Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Skliris


    Full Text Available The inter-annual/decadal scale variability of the Aegean Sea Surface Temperature (SST is investigated by means of long-term series of satellite-derived and in situ data. Monthly mean declouded SST maps are constructed over the 1985–2008 period, based on a re-analysis of AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder optimally interpolated data over the Aegean Sea. Basin-average SST time series are also constructed using the ICOADS in situ data over 1950–2006. Results indicate a small SST decreasing trend until the early nineties, and then a rapid surface warming consistent with the acceleration of the SST rise observed on the global ocean scale. Decadal-scale SST anomalies were found to be negatively correlated with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index over the last 60 years suggesting that along with global warming effects on the regional scale, a part of the long-term SST variability in the Aegean Sea is driven by large scale atmospheric natural variability patterns. In particular, the acceleration of surface warming in the Aegean Sea began nearly simultaneously with the NAO index abrupt shift in the mid-nineties from strongly positive values to weakly positive/negative values.

  6. Mira Variable Stars from LAMOST DR4 Data: Emission Features, Temperature Types, and Candidate Selection (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, Chao; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Matsunaga, Noriyuki


    Based on an extensive spectral study of a photometrically confirmed sample of Mira variables, we find a relationship between the relative Balmer emission-line strengths and spectral temperatures of O-rich Mira stars. The {F}{{H}δ }/{F}{{H}γ } flux ratio increases from less than unity to five as stars cool down from M0 to M10, which is likely driven by increasing TiO absorption above the deepest shock-emitting regions. We also discuss the relationship between the equivalent widths of the Balmer emission lines and the photometric luminosity phase of our Mira sample stars. Using our 291 Mira spectra as templates for reference, 191 Mira candidates are newly identified from the LAMOST DR4 catalog. We summarize the criteria adopted to select Mira candidates based on emission-line indices and molecular absorption bands. This enlarged spectral sample of Mira variables has the potential to contribute significantly to our knowledge of the optical properties of Mira stars and will facilitate further studies of these late-type, long-period variables.

  7. Probing the Subtle Structure Modifications of Thermoelectric Materials by Variable Temperature Total Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    The complex host-guest structure of Type-I inorganic clathrates has been studied fervently within the CMC based on their low thermal conductivity and promising thermoelectric Figure of Merit (zT). We have recently been focused on understanding unusual features in the high temperature diffraction...... data collected over a number of years on Ba8Ga16Ge30 (BGG), where numerous samples have been prepared in-house using various synthesis methods. This led to a comprehensive thermal stability study of clathrate powders, where PXRD revealed amorphous components in the samples treated at high temperature...... in air. PDF measurements were performed on data collected from ex situ annealed BGG samples. This ex situ study (to be submitted), reveals that the seemingly subtle change in the clathrate structure and the emergence of a significant amorphous phase observed from PXRD data is likely to be the result...

  8. Stress vulnerability in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: experimental study investigating heart rate variability and skin conductance responses. (United States)

    Rimes, Katharine A; Lievesley, Kate; Chalder, Trudie


    Stress vulnerability has been implicated in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but has rarely been investigated directly. This study compared psychological and physiological responses to a laboratory social performance task in adolescents with CFS with chronic illness (asthma) and healthy control groups. Adolescents with CFS (n = 60), adolescents with asthma (n = 31) and healthy adolescents (n = 78) completed questionnaires before and after a social performance task. Skin conductance responses (SCR; mean SCR and Max-Min) and heart rate variability (low frequency/high frequency; LF/HF and root mean square difference of successive RR intervals; RMSSD) was measured before, during and after the task. Baseline heart rate variability (HRV) (RMSSD) was significantly lower in the CFS and Asthma groups than the HC. During the speech, the CFS and Asthma groups had higher HRV (LF/HF) than the HC, adjusting for baseline LF/HF. Although the asthma group showed a subsequent reduction in HRV during recovery, the CFS group did not. Similarly, during recovery after the task, the CFS group showed a continued increase in skin conductance (Min-Max), unlike the Asthma and HC groups. Compared to control groups, adolescents with CFS expected to find the task more difficult, were more anxious beforehand and afterwards, rated it as more difficult, evaluated their performance more negatively and had lower observer ratings of performance. Parents of adolescents with CFS expected that their child would perform less well in the task than parents of control participants. Adolescents with CFS showed autonomic nervous system responses that are consistent with chronic stress vulnerability, difficulty coping with acute stress and slower recovery after acute stress. Self-report measures also indicated greater trait, pre- and posttask anxiety in the CFS group. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Variability in emotional/behavioral problems in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: the role of arousal. (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Van Rijn, Sophie; De Wied, Minet; Van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna


    It is often reported that children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) are under-aroused. However, the evidence is mixed, with some children with ODD/CD displaying high arousal. This has led to the hypothesis that different profiles of arousal dysfunction may exist within children with ODD/CD. This knowledge could explain variability within children with ODD/CD, both in terms of specific types of aggression as well as comorbid symptoms (e.g., other emotional/behavioral problems). We measured heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) during rest and stress, and obtained parent and teacher reports of aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits in a sample of 66 ODD/CD and 36 non-clinical boys (aged 8-12 years). The ODD/CD group scored significantly higher on aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits than the controls; boys with ODD/CD also had higher resting HRs than controls, but HR stress, HRV and SCL did not differ. Hierarchical regressions showed different physiological profiles in subgroups of boys with ODD/CD based on their type of aggression; a pattern of high baseline HR and SCL, but low stress HRV was related to reactive aggression, whereas the opposite physiological pattern (low HR, low stress SCL, high stress HRV) was related to proactive aggression. Furthermore, high stress SCL was related to anxiety symptoms, whereas low stress SCL was related to attention problems. These findings are important because they indicate heterogeneity within boys with ODD/CD and highlight the importance of using physiology to differentiate boys with different ODD/CD subtypes.

  10. First-principles calculation of thermal conductivity of silicate perovskite at high pressures and high temperatures (United States)

    Dong, Jianjun; Tang, Xiaoli; Kavner, Abby; Ntam, Moses


    The lattice thermal conductivity of silicate perovskite, the most abundant mineral in the Earth's lower mantle, is calculated by combining the first-principles electronic structure theory and Peierls-Boltzmann transport theory. The phonon scattering rate due to lattice anharmonicity and Mg/Fe mass disorder is evaluated for each mode at the extreme P-T conditions of the lower mantle. The predicted thermal conductivity of single crystal MgSiO3 perovskite at ambient condition, about 5.7 W/m/K, is in excellent agreement with experiment. Adding about 6% Fe will lower the thermal conductivity by nearly 40%. Our calculation also reveals an unique pressure dependence for the thermal conductivity of perovskite, and the calculated thermal conductivity of iron bearing perovskite is almost an order of magnitude lower than the previously estimates based on long extrapolation of single crystal data. Including a re-evaluation of radiative contribution, we discuss the implications of our results for the heat flow in deep Earth. Funded by NSF (EAR-0757847).

  11. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  12. Spatial Variability of L-Band Brightness Temperature during Freeze/Thaw Events over a Prairie Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Roy


    Full Text Available Passive microwave measurements from space are known to be sensitive to the freeze/thaw (F/T state of the land surface. These measurements are at a coarse spatial resolution (~15–50 km and the spatial variability of the microwave emissions within a pixel can have important effects on the interpretation of the signal. An L-band ground-based microwave radiometer campaign was conducted in the Canadian Prairies during winter 2014–2015 to examine the spatial variability of surface emissions during frozen and thawed periods. Seven different sites within the Kenaston soil monitoring network were sampled five times between October 2014 and April 2015 with a mobile ground-based L-band radiometer system at approximately monthly intervals. The radiometer measurements showed that in a seemingly homogenous prairie landscape, the spatial variability of brightness temperature (TB is non-negligible during both frozen and unfrozen soil conditions. Under frozen soil conditions, TB was negatively correlated with soil permittivity (εG. This correlation was related to soil moisture conditions before the main freezing event, showing that the soil ice volumetric content at least partly affects TB. However, because of the effect of snow on L-Band emission, the correlation between TB and εG decreased with snow accumulation. When compared to satellite measurements, the average TB of the seven plots were well correlated with the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS TB with a root mean square difference of 8.1 K and consistent representation of the strong F/T signal (i.e., TB increases and decreases when soil freezing and thawing, respectively. This study allows better quantitative understanding of the spatial variability in L-Band emissions related to landscape F/T, and will help the calibration and validation of satellite-based F/T retrieval algorithms.

  13. Influence of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zerong


    Full Text Available To study the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition, considering the heat transfer coefficient as the power function of temperature, mathematical thermal explosion steady state and unsteady-state model of finite cylindrical fireworks and crackers with complex shell structures are established based on two-dimensional steady state thermal explosion theory. The influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition are analyzed. When heat transfer coefficient is changing with temperature and in the condition of natural convection heat transfer, critical ambient temperature lessen, thermal explosion time to ignition shorten. If ambient temperature is close to critical ambient temperature, the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on time to ignition become large. For firework with inner barrel in example analysis, the critical ambient temperature of propellant is 463.88 K and the time to ignition is 4054.9s at 466 K, 0.26 K and 450.8s less than without considering the change of heat transfer coefficient respectively. The calculation results show that the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion time to ignition is greater in this example. Therefore, the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient should be considered into thermal safety evaluation of fireworks to reduce potential safety hazard.

  14. Versatile variable temperature and magnetic field scanning probe microscope for advanced material research (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Oh; Choi, Seokhwan; Lee, Yeonghoon; Kim, Jinwoo; Son, Donghyeon; Lee, Jhinhwan


    We have built a variable temperature scanning probe microscope (SPM) that covers 4.6 K-180 K and up to 7 T whose SPM head fits in a 52 mm bore magnet. It features a temperature-controlled sample stage thermally well isolated from the SPM body in good thermal contact with the liquid helium bath. It has a 7-sample-holder storage carousel at liquid helium temperature for systematic studies using multiple samples and field emission targets intended for spin-polarized spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study on samples with various compositions and doping conditions. The system is equipped with a UHV sample preparation chamber and mounted on a two-stage vibration isolation system made of a heavy concrete block and a granite table on pneumatic vibration isolators. A quartz resonator (qPlus)-based non-contact atomic force microscope (AFM) sensor is used for simultaneous STM/AFM operation for research on samples with highly insulating properties such as strongly underdoped cuprates and strongly correlated electron systems.

  15. Nanostructures study of CNT nanofluids transport with temperature-dependent variable viscosity in a muscular tube (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Abid, Syed Ali; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed


    The transport of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluids with temperature-dependent variable viscosity is analyzed by peristaltically driven flow. The main flow problem has been modeled using cylindrical coordinates and flow equations are simplified to ordinary differential equations using long wavelength and low Reynolds' number approximation. Analytical solutions have been obtained for axial velocity, pressure gradient and temperature. Results acquired are discussed graphically for better understanding. It is observed that with an increment in the Grashof number the velocity of the governing fluids starts to decrease significantly and the pressure gradient is higher for pure water as compared to single-walled carbon nanotubes due to low density. As the specific heat is very high for pure water as compared to the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, it raises temperature of the muscles, in the case of pure water, as compared to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, it is noticed that the trapped bolus starts decreasing in size as the buoyancy forces are dominant as compared to viscous forces. This model may be applicable in biomedical engineering and nanotechnology to design the biomedical devices.

  16. Extremophiles in Mineral Sulphide Heaps: Some Bacterial Responses to Variable Temperature, Acidity and Solution Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling


    Full Text Available In heap bioleaching, acidophilic extremophiles contribute to enhanced metal extraction from mineral sulphides through the oxidation of Fe(II and/or reduced inorganic sulphur compounds (RISC, such as elemental sulphur or mineral sulphides, or the degradation of organic compounds derived from the ore, biota or reagents used during mineral processing. The impacts of variable solution acidity and composition, as well as temperature on the three microbiological functions have been examined for up to four bacterial species found in mineral sulphide heaps. The results indicate that bacteria adapt to sufficiently high metal concentrations (Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, As to allow them to function in mineral sulphide heaps and, by engaging alternative metabolic pathways, to extend the solution pH range over which growth is sustained. Fluctuating temperatures during start up in sulphide heaps pose the greatest threat to efficient bacterial colonisation. The large masses of ores in bioleaching heaps mean that high temperatures arising from sulphide oxidation are hard to control initially, when the sulphide content of the ore is greatest. During that period, mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacteria are markedly reduced in both numbers and activity.

  17. Proton conducting membranes for high temperature fuel cells with solid state water free membranes (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)


    A water free, proton conducting membrane for use in a fuel cell is fabricated as a highly conducting sheet of converted solid state organic amine salt, such as converted acid salt of triethylenediamine with two quaternized tertiary nitrogen atoms, combined with a nanoparticulate oxide and a stable binder combined with the converted solid state organic amine salt to form a polymeric electrolyte membrane. In one embodiment the membrane is derived from triethylenediamine sulfate, hydrogen phosphate or trifiate, an oxoanion with at least one ionizable hydrogen, organic tertiary amine bisulfate, polymeric quaternized amine bisulfate or phosphate, or polymeric organic compounds with quaternizable nitrogen combined with Nafion to form an intimate network with ionic interactions.

  18. Approximate Analytic Solutions of Transient Nonlinear Heat Conduction with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Mustafa


    Full Text Available A new approach for generating approximate analytic solutions of transient nonlinear heat conduction problems is presented. It is based on an effective combination of Lie symmetry method, homotopy perturbation method, finite element method, and simulation based error reduction techniques. Implementation of the proposed approach is demonstrated by applying it to determine approximate analytic solutions of real life problems consisting of transient nonlinear heat conduction in semi-infinite bars made of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel. The results from the approximate analytical solutions and the numerical solution are compared indicating good agreement.

  19. Temperature Dependence of Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Single Silver Nanowire (United States)


    Nanowire Electrodes for Shape-Memory Polymer Light - Emitting Diodes . Adv. Mater. 23, 664 (2011). 1 1Scientific RepoRts...decreases with decreasing temperature. This phenomenon has also been observed in nickel nanowire10, gold and platinum nanofilms13,31,32 and alloys33. Here...also observed for nickel nanowire, gold , platinum and Iridium nanofilms10,13–18. This is due to the phonon-assisted electron energy transfer across

  20. Heat transfer analysis of a fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirgolbabaee


    Results are presented for the dimensionless temperature distribution and fin efficiency for different values of the problem parameters which for the purpose of comparison, obtained equation were calculated with mentioned methods. It was found the proposed solution is very accurate, efficient, and convenient for the discussed problem, furthermore convergence problems for solving nonlinear equations by using AGM appear small so the results demonstrate that the AGM could be applied through other methods in nonlinear problems with high nonlinearity.

  1. Inter-annual variability of sea surface temperature, wind speed and sea surface height anomaly over the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.

    have made an attempt to study the annual and inter-annual variability of certain prominent processes occurring over the tropical Indian Ocean. The monthly mean values of Wind Speed (FSU), Sea Surface Temperature (REYNOLDS) and Sea Surface Height Anomaly...

  2. Low substrate temperature deposition of transparent and conducting ZnO:Al thin films by RF magnetron sputtering (United States)

    Waykar, Ravindra; Amit, Pawbake; Kulkarni, Rupali; Jadhavar, Ashok; Funde, Adinath; Waman, Vaishali; Dewan, Rupesh; Pathan, Habib; Jadkar, Sandesh


    Transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films were prepared on glass substrate using the RF sputtering method at different substrate temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C. The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of these films were investigated using a variety of characterization techniques such as low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrical properties showed that films deposited at RT have the lowest resistivity and it increases with an increase in the substrate temperature whereas carrier mobility and concentration decrease with an increase in substrate temperature. Low angle XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis reavealed that films are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and a preferred orientation along the c-axis. The FE-SEM analysis showed that the surface morphology of films is strongly dependent on the substrate temperature. The band gap decreases from 3.36 to 3.29 eV as the substrate temperature is increased from RT to 200 °C. The fundamental absorption edge in the UV region shifts towards a longer wavelength with an increase in substrate temperature and be attributed to the Burstein-Moss shift. The synthesized films showed an average transmission (> 85%) in the visible region, which signifies that synthesized ZnO:Al films can be suitable for display devices and solar cells as transparent electrodes.

  3. Temperature dependence of the magnon spin diffusion length and magnon spin conductivity in the magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (United States)

    Cornelissen, L. J.; Shan, J.; van Wees, B. J.


    We present a systematic study of the temperature dependence of diffusive magnon spin transport using nonlocal devices fabricated on a 210-nm yttrium iron garnet film on a gadolinium gallium garnet substrate. In our measurements, we detect spin signals arising from electrical and thermal magnon generation, and we directly extract the magnon spin diffusion length λm for temperatures from 2 to 293 K. Values of λm obtained from electrical and thermal generation agree within the experimental error with λm=9.6 ±0.9 μ m at room temperature to a minimum of λm=5.5 ±0.7 μ m at 30 K. Using a two-dimensional finite element model to fit the data obtained for electrical magnon generation we extract the magnon spin conductivity σm as a function of temperature, which is reduced from σm=3.7 ±0.3 ×105S /m at room temperature to σm=0.9 ±0.6 ×104S /m at 5 K. Finally, we observe an enhancement of the signal originating from thermally generated magnons for low temperatures where a maximum is observed around T =7 K . An explanation for this low-temperature enhancement is however still missing and requires additional investigation.

  4. Calculation of thermal conductivity of gypsum plasterboards at ambient and elevated temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos


    Plasterboard often protects steel structures of buildings because it conducts heat slowly and absorbs the heat of the fire by its volumetric enthalpy. The most important property governing the heat transfer is the thermal diffusion. This property depends on the density, specific heat and thermal

  5. Derivation of the canopy conductance from surface temperature and spectral indices for estimating evapotranspiration in semiarid vegetation; Monitorizacion de conductancia en vegetacion semiarida a partir de indices espectrales y temperatura de supeficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillas, L.; Garcia, M.; Zarco-Tejada, P.; Ladron de Guevara, M.; Villagarcia, L.; Were, A.; Domingo, F.


    This work evaluates the possibilities for estimating stomata conductance (C) and leaf transpiration (Trf) at the ecosystem scale from radiometric indices and surface temperature. The relationships found between indices and the transpiration component of the water balance in a semiarid tussock ecosystem in SE Spain are discussed. Field data were collected from spring 2008 until winter 2009 in order to observe the annual variability of the relationships and the behaviour of spectral indices and surface temperature. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Temperature dependence of the conduction mechanisms through a Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jégou, C., E-mail: [Institut d Electronique Fondamentale, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Michalas, L. [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Maroutian, T.; Agnus, G. [Institut d Electronique Fondamentale, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Koutsoureli, M.; Papaioannou, G. [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece); Largeau, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, CNRS UPR 20, F-91460 Marcoussis (France); Troadec, D. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS UMR 8520, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Leuliet, A. [Thales Research and Technology France, F-91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Aubert, P.; Lecoeur, Ph. [Institut d Electronique Fondamentale, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8622, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    The conduction mechanisms through a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition with a La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) buffer layer on epitaxial Pt (111) were assessed in the 230–330 K temperature range. X-Ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy evidenced a columnar growth of (001)- and (011)-oriented PZT grains. The leakage current through the Pt/PZT/LSMO/Pt structure was then systematically measured. From current vs. time curves, a threshold voltage was found below which stable and reproducible current values are obtained, thus avoiding resistance degradation. The conduction mechanism changes from interface controlled at low temperatures to bulk controlled around room temperature. The hopping-type conductivity evidenced above 270 K is consistent with the extended defects and columnar microstructure of the PZT film. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} buffer layer is used in order to have a pure PbZr{sub 52}Ti {sub 0.48}O{sub 3} perovskite phase on Pt(111). • Below 270 K, leakage current is limited by charge injection through Schottky barrier. • Above 270 K, bulk conduction with hopping mechanism occurs, possibly along grain boundaries.

  7. Room-Temperature Curing and Grain Growth at High Humidity in Conductive Adhesives with Ultra-Low Silver Content (United States)

    Pettersen, Sigurd R.; Redford, Keith; Njagi, John; Kristiansen, Helge; Helland, Susanne; Kalland, Erik; Goia, Dan V.; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying


    Isotropic conductive adhesives (ICAs) are alternatives to metallic solders as interconnects in solar modules and electronic devices, but normally require silver contents >25 vol.% and elevated curing temperatures to achieve reasonable conductivity. In this work, ICAs are prepared with a silver content of 1.0 vol.% by using polymer spheres coated with nanograined silver thin films as filler particles. In contrast to conventional ICAs, there are no organic lubricants on the silver surfaces to obstruct the formation of metallic contacts, and conductivity is achieved even when the adhesive is cured at room temperature. When exposed to long-term storage at 85°C and 85% relative humidity, the silver films undergo significant grain growth, evidenced by field-emission scanning electron microscopy observation of ion-milled cross-sections and x-ray diffraction. This has a positive effect on the electrical conductivity of the ICA through the widening of metallic contacts and decreased scattering of electrons at grain boundaries, and is explained by an electrochemical Ostwald ripening process. The effects of decoupling heat and humidity is investigated by storage at either 85°C or immersion in water. It is shown that the level of grain growth during the various post-curing treatments is dependent on the initial curing temperature.

  8. Simulation of spatio-temporal variability of temperature in the Taganrog Bay with MITgcm model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporozhtsev I. F.


    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to analyze efficiency of MITgcm in simulation of temperature fields' variability in the Taganrog Bay. Authors are the first to consider hydrodynamic modeling approach based on MITgcm for this bay. In situ temperature values to be compared with the model data have been obtained during two Murmansk Marine Biological Institute Kola Scientific Center RAS and Southern Scientific Center RAS coupled expeditions in summer and autumn of 2005. The step of calculation grid is agreed with the step of direct measurements stations grid. The obtained during cruises temperature and salinity data cover the Taganrog Bay with 2' latitude and 3' longitude steps (and with 4' latitude and 6' longitude steps correspondingly for thermohaline homogeneous areas. Depth step is 0.5 m. Data for initialization and atmospheric forcing have been taken from public reanalysis databases and atlases, datasets limitations are discussed. To simplify boundary conditions simulation has been carried out for the whole Azov Sea. Numerical experiments series has been fulfilled to determine the optimal start date of simulation and initial constant temperature field. In view of significant experiment time cost optimization task has been solved for restricted parameters values set and with doubled grid steps (4' latitude and 6' longitude steps. The determined values have been used to solve original task of model data verification with the measured ones. As far as the results obtained by the authors with the particular workstation PC are concerned, the conclusion about possibility of MITgcm simulation in real areas without specialized highperformance computers has been given.

  9. Variability of Sea Surface Temperature Response to Tropical Cyclones along the NEC Bifurcation Latitude (United States)

    Fernandez, I.; Villanoy, C. L.


    The east of the Philippines serves as an entry point to an annual average of 20 tropical cyclones. The ocean is dynamic where the North Equatorial Current (NEC) bifurcates into the Kurushio Current to the north and Mindanao Current to the south. The displacement and intensity of NEC bifurcation in the region varies seasonally and interannually driven by local monsoons and ENSO. The variability of the NEC bifurcation latitude may alter the origins of the Kuroshio and modify the sea surface temperature field, which can alter the strength of the typhoons and upper ocean response. This paper aims to characterize the variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Response to Tropical Cyclones along with the NEC Bifurcation latitude using daily merged product of the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), Sea Surface Height (SSH) and SSH Anomaly (SSHA) from AVISO and background climatological D26 (depth of 26 °C) and T100 (depth integrated temperature up to 100 meters) from ARGO profiles and CTD data from WOA09 from 2003 to 2012. SSH measurements from this period were used as a proxy for determining the bifurcation latitude (YB). Characteristics of the meridional distribution from 0° to 30°N of D26 is homogenous along 10-15°N. Monthly mean D26 along 10-15°N, 125-145°E shows high correlation with YB . Variations of the D26 and T100 showed deepening and warming along with YB. Two regions were derived from meridional distribution of T100 namely BSouth (15°N), where background climatological condition is shallow (D26) and varies seasonally. These regions where used to compare variability with respect to SST recovery time and the SST maximum change (ΔSSTmax) along with other factors such as TCs translation speed (TS) and intensity based on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Results showed that in both regions SST Recovery time is described as fast (5days). Difference between both regions can be described with respect to the

  10. Effects of thermal conduction and convection on temperature profile in a water calorimeter for proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargioni, E.; Manfredotti, C. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Laitano, R.F.; Guerra, A.S. [Ist. Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA, Roma (Italy)


    In water calorimetry, in addition to the temperature increase due to beam energy deposition in water, unwanted thermal effects occur during and after calorimeter irradiation. This should be accounted for by applying proper corrections to the experimental results. In order to determine such corrections heat flow calculations were performed using the `finite element` method. This method applies even to complex 3D geometries with not necessarily symmetric conditions. Some preliminary results of these calculations are presented together with a description of the analytical method for the evaluation of the correction factors that should be applied to the experimental results to account for the above thermal effects. (orig.)

  11. Latitudinal and longitudinal variability of mesospheric winds and temperatures during stratospheric warming events (United States)

    Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.; Keuer, D.; Hocking, W. K.; Kunze, M.; Murayama, Y.


    Continuous MF and meteor radar observations allow detailed studies of winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) as well as temperatures around the mesopause. This height region is characterized by a strong variability in winter due to enhanced planetary wave activity and related stratospheric warming events, which are distinct coupling processes between lower, middle and upper atmosphere. Here the variability of mesospheric winds and temperatures is discussed in relation with major and minor stratospheric warmings as observed during winter 2005/06 in comparison with results during winter 1998/99. Our studies are based on MF radar wind measurements at Andenes (69°N, 16°E), Poker Flat (65°N, 147°W) and Juliusruh (55°N, 13°E) as well as on meteor radar observations of winds and temperatures at Resolute Bay (75°N, 95°W), Andenes (69°N, 16°E) and Kühlungsborn (54°N, 12°E). Additionally, energy dissipation rates have been estimated from spectral width measurements using a 3 MHz Doppler radar near Andenes. Particular attention is directed to the changes of winds, turbulence and the gravity wave activity in the mesosphere in relation to the planetary wave activity in the stratosphere. Observations indicate an enhancement of planetary wave 1 activity in the mesosphere at high latitudes during major stratospheric warmings. Daily mean temperatures derived from meteor decay times indicate that strong warming events are connected with a cooling of the 90 km region by about 10 20 K. The onset of these cooling processes and the reversals of the mesospheric circulation to easterly winds occur some days before the changes of the zonal circulation in the stratosphere start indicating a downward propagation of the circulation disturbances from the MLT region to the stratosphere and troposphere during the stratospheric warming events. The short-term reversal of the mesospheric winds is followed by a period of strong westerly winds connected with enhanced

  12. Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Alloys at Low Temperatures: A Review of the Literature (United States)


    I _ j TEMERUURE 7K 1404 MANGANESE Cume Simp Muro @ Remarks Reference .......................... k-0.06 at 83K for the B phse.. H. Reddemnana (1935). M...The thermal conductivity of tin, mer- er, Berlin ) 5th ed., vol. 2, 1923; 5th ed., 1st supple- cury, indium, and tantalum at liquid helium tem- ment... Berlin . (1952). BouLDER, CoLoRwO, July 23, 1954 U.4. GOVIERNMENT PRINTING OPPICE 68

  13. Variability of the Structure Parameters of Temperature and Humidity Observed in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Under Unstable Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, M.; Moene, A.F.; Beyrich, F.


    The structure parameters of temperature and humidity are important in scintillometry as they determine the structure parameter of the refractive index of air, the primary atmospheric variable obtained with scintillometers. In this study, we investigate the variability of the logarithm of the

  14. Variable interval time/temperature (VITT) defrost-control-system evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Two variable-interval-time/temperature (VITT) heat pump defrost control systems are analyzed to determine if systems manufactured by Honeywell and Ranco qualify for credit for heat pumps with demand defrost control. The operation of the systems is described. VITT controls are not demand defrost control systems but utilize demand defrost control as backup systems in most Ranco models and all Honeywell models. The evaluations and results, intended to provide DOE information in making its determinations regarding credits for the control systems are discussed. The evaluation methodology utilizes a modified version of the Heat Pump Seasonal Performance Model (HPSPM) and the important modifications are discussed in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a detailed listing and discussion of the HPSPM output. (MCW)

  15. Room temperature synthesis of a copper ink for the intense pulsed light sintering of conductive copper films. (United States)

    Dharmadasa, Ruvini; Jha, Menaka; Amos, Delaina A; Druffel, Thad


    Conducting films are becoming increasingly important for the printed electronics industry with applications in various technologies including antennas, RFID tags, photovoltaics, flexible electronics, and displays. To date, expensive noble metals have been utilized in these conductive films, which ultimately increases the cost. In the present work, more economically viable copper based conducting films have been developed for both glass and flexible PET substrates, using copper and copper oxide nanoparticles. The copper nanoparticles (with copper(I) oxide impurity) are synthesized by using a simple copper reduction method in the presence of Tergitol as a capping agent. Various factors such as solvent, pH, and reductant concentration have been explored in detail and optimized in order to produce a nanoparticle ink at room temperature. Second, the ink obtained at room temperature was used to fabricate conducting films by intense pulse light sintering of the deposited films. These conducting films had sheet resistances as low as 0.12 Ω/□ over areas up to 10 cm(2) with a thickness of 8 μm.

  16. Thermal conductivity measurements of impregnated Nb3Sn coil samples in the temperature range of 3.5 K to 100 K (United States)

    Koettig, T.; Maciocha, W.; Bermudez, S.; Rysti, J.; Tavares, S.; Cacherat, F.; Bremer, J.


    In the framework of the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, high-field magnets are under development. Magnetic flux densities of up to 13 T require the use of Nb3Sn superconducting coils. Quench protection becomes challenging due to the high stored energy density and the low stabilizer fraction. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the combination of insulating layers and Nb3Sn based cables are an important thermodynamic input parameter for quench protection systems and superfluid helium cooling studies. A two-stage cryocooler based test stand is used to measure the thermal conductance of the coil sample in two different heat flow directions with respect to the coil package geometry. Variable base temperatures of the experimental platform at the cryocooler allow for a steady-state heat flux method up to 100 K. The heat is applied at wedges style copper interfaces of the Rutherford cables. The respective temperature difference represents the absolute value of thermal conductance of the sample arrangement. We report about the measurement methodology applied to this kind of non-uniform sample composition and the evaluation of the used resin composite materials.

  17. Room temperature transparent conducting magnetic oxide (TCMO properties in heavy ion doped oxide semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwon Lee


    Full Text Available Bismuth doped ZnO (ZnBi0.03O0.97 thin films are grown using pulsed laser deposition. The existence of positively charged Bi, absence of metallic zinc and the Zn-O bond formation in Bi doped ZnO are confirmed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. Temperature dependent resistivity and UV-visible absorption spectra show lowest resistivity with 8.44 × 10-4 Ω cm at 300 K and average transmittance of 93 % in the visible region respectively. The robust ferromagnetic signature is observed at 350 K (7.156 × 10-4 emu/g. This study suggests that Bi doped ZnO films should be a potential candidate for spin based optoelectronic applications.

  18. Highly transparent conductive ITO/Ag/ITO trilayer films deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyu Ren


    Full Text Available ITO/Ag/ITO (IAI trilayer films were deposited on glass substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. A high optical transmittance over 94.25% at the wavelength of 550 nm and an average transmittance over the visual region of 88.04% were achieved. The calculated value of figure of merit (FOM reaches 80.9 10-3 Ω-1 for IAI films with 15-nm-thick Ag interlayer. From the morphology and structural characterization, IAI films could show an excellent correlated electric and optical performance if Ag grains interconnect with each other on the bottom ITO layer. These results indicate that IAI trilayer films, which also exhibit low surface roughness, will be well used in optoelectronic devices.

  19. Performances of a super conductive parabridge transducer for liquidhelium temperature applications (United States)

    Cinquegrana, C.; Majorana, E.; Pergola, N.; Puppo, P.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.

    The cryogenic subsystem (CSS) for the AXAF X-ray spectrometer (XRS) uses state-of-the-art superfluid helium Dewar technology along with Stirling cycle coolers to achieve a five year orbital lifetime with minimum system mass and size. The Dewar provides a 1.5 K temperature environment for operation of the cryogenic instrument assembly, which includes an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for cooling the detectors to 0.1 K. As a result of the AXAF programme being split into two separate missions, the XRS is the sole instrument comprising the AXAF spectrometer (AXAF-S). Launch is planned in December 1999. Substantial configuration changes have been made to the CSS to meet the new AXAF-S requirements. Changes are primarily the result of the new spacecraft configuration, increased instrument duty cycle and increased mission lifetime requirement. The programme status, the newly baselined CSS design and its predicted performance are discussed.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic dissipative flow across the slendering stretching sheet with temperature dependent variable viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayachandra Babu

    Full Text Available The boundary layer flow across a slendering stretching sheet has gotten awesome consideration due to its inexhaustible pragmatic applications in nuclear reactor technology, acoustical components, chemical and manufacturing procedures, for example, polymer extrusion, and machine design. By keeping this in view, we analyzed the two-dimensional MHD flow across a slendering stretching sheet within the sight of variable viscosity and viscous dissipation. The sheet is thought to be convectively warmed. Convective boundary conditions through heat and mass are employed. Similarity transformations used to change over the administering nonlinear partial differential equations as a group of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Runge-Kutta based shooting technique is utilized to solve the converted equations. Numerical estimations of the physical parameters involved in the problem are calculated for the friction factor, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Viscosity variation parameter and chemical reaction parameter shows the opposite impact to each other on the concentration profile. Heat and mass transfer Biot numbers are helpful to enhance the temperature and concentration respectively. Keywords: MHD, Variable viscosity, Viscous dissipation, Convective boundary conditions, Slendering stretching sheet

  1. Influence of temperature and precipitation variability on near-term snow trends (United States)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.


    Snow is a vital resource for a host of natural and human systems. Global warming is projected to drive widespread decreases in snow accumulation by the end of the century, potentially affecting water, food, and energy supplies, seasonal heat extremes, and wildfire risk. However, over the next few decades, when the planning and implementation of current adaptation responses are most relevant, the snow response is more uncertain, largely because of uncertainty in regional and local precipitation trends. We use a large (40-member) single-model ensemble climate model experiment to examine the influence of precipitation variability on the direction and magnitude of near-term Northern Hemisphere snow trends. We find that near-term uncertainty in the sign of regional precipitation change does not cascade into uncertainty in the sign of regional snow accumulation change. Rather, temperature increases drive statistically robust consistency in the sign of future near-term snow accumulation trends, with all regions exhibiting reductions in the fraction of precipitation falling as snow, along with mean decreases in late-season snow accumulation. However, internal variability does create uncertainty in the magnitude of hemispheric and regional snow changes, including uncertainty as large as 33 % of the baseline mean. In addition, within the 40-member ensemble, many mid-latitude grid points exhibit at least one realization with a statistically significant positive trend in net snow accumulation, and at least one realization with a statistically significant negative trend. These results suggest that the direction of near-term snow accumulation change is robust at the regional scale, but that internal variability can influence the magnitude and direction of snow accumulation changes at the local scale, even in areas that exhibit a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Decadal slowdown in global air temperature rise triggered by variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (United States)

    England, Matthew H.


    Various explanations have been proposed for the recent slowdown in global surface air temperature (SAT) rise, either involving enhanced ocean heat uptake or reduced radiation reaching Earth's surface. Among the mechanisms postulated involving enhanced ocean heat uptake, past work has argued for both a Pacific and Atlantic origin, with additional contributions from the Southern Ocean. Here we examine the mechanisms driving 'hiatus' periods originating out of the Atlantic Ocean. We show that while Atlantic-driven hiatuses are entirely plausible and consistent with known climate feedbacks associated with variability in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the present climate state is configured to enhance global-average SAT, not reduce it. We show that Atlantic hiatuses are instead characterised by anomalously cool fresh oceanic conditions in the North Atlantic, with the atmosphere advecting the cool temperature signature zonally. Compared to the 1980s and 1990s, however, the mean climate since 2001 has been characterised by a warm saline North Atlantic, suggesting the AMOC cannot be implicated as a direct driver of the current hiatus. We further discuss the impacts of a warm tropical Atlantic on the unprecedented trade wind acceleration in the Pacific Ocean, and propose that this is the main way that the Atlantic has contributed to the present "false pause" in global warming.

  3. Characterisation of micro and nano SQUIDs at variable temperature and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehn, Claudia; Storm, Jan-Hendrik; Bechstein, Sylke; Schurig, Thomas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)


    SQUIDs are highly suited to investigate the magnetic properties of samples with small dimensions, such as nanoparticles, or to read out nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Due to the small sample size, SQUIDs with dimensions in the μm or nm regime are desirable. These micro or nano SQUIDs should have a low noise and no hysteresis in the current-voltage-characteristic, even when operated in high magnetic fields of up to several 100 mT. To investigate such SQUID, we developed measurement setups which can simulate the measurement conditions of the intended SQUID application. The design and performance of two measurement setups will be shown and compared. One setup uses a dipstick that is immersed in liquid helium and can be evacuated to provide SQUID temperatures between 4.5 K and 10 K. The other one uses an evaporation cryostat so that the temperature can be varied from 2 K to 60 K. Both setups are equipped with coils to enable SQUID operation in variable magnetic field. To minimize noise, the output of the SQUID under test is preamplified by a SQUID series array which is operated at 4.2 K. First results of the characterisation of micro and nano SQUIDs will be presented.

  4. Interannual to decadal summer drought variability over Europe and its relationship to global sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionita, M.; Lohmann, G. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); University of Bremen, MARUM, Bremen (Germany); Rimbu, N. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Climed Norad, Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Chelcea, S. [National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management, Bucharest (Romania); Dima, M. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest (Romania)


    Interannual to decadal variability of European summer drought and its relationship with global sea surface temperature (SST) is investigated using the newly developed self calibrated Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI) and global sea surface temperature (SST) field for the period 1901-2002. A European drought severity index defined as the average of scPDSI over entire Europe shows quasiperiodic variations in the 2.5-5 year band as well as at 12-13 years suggesting a possible potential predictability of averaged drought conditions over Europe. A Canonical Correlation Analysis between summer scPDSI anomalies over Europe and global SST anomalies reveals the existence of three modes of coupled summer drought scPDSI patterns and winter global SST anomalies. The first scPDSI-SST coupled mode represents the long-term trends in the data which manifest in SST as warming over all oceans. The associated long-term trend in scPDSI suggests increasing drought conditions over the central part of Europe. The second mode is related to the inter-annual ENSO and decadal PDO influence on the European climate and the third one captures mainly the drought pattern associated to Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The lag relationships between winter SST and summer drought conditions established in this study can provide a valuable skill for the prediction of drought conditions over Europe on interannual to decadal time scales. (orig.)

  5. Interannual to decadal summer drought variability over Europe and its relationship to global sea surface temperature (United States)

    Ionita, M.; Lohmann, G.; Rimbu, N.; Chelcea, S.; Dima, M.


    Interannual to decadal variability of European summer drought and its relationship with global sea surface temperature (SST) is investigated using the newly developed self calibrated Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI) and global sea surface temperature (SST) field for the period 1901-2002. A European drought severity index defined as the average of scPDSI over entire Europe shows quasiperiodic variations in the 2.5-5 year band as well as at 12-13 years suggesting a possible potential predictability of averaged drought conditions over Europe. A Canonical Correlation Analysis between summer scPDSI anomalies over Europe and global SST anomalies reveals the existence of three modes of coupled summer drought scPDSI patterns and winter global SST anomalies. The first scPDSI-SST coupled mode represents the long-term trends in the data which manifest in SST as warming over all oceans. The associated long-term trend in scPDSI suggests increasing drought conditions over the central part of Europe. The second mode is related to the inter-annual ENSO and decadal PDO influence on the European climate and the third one captures mainly the drought pattern associated to Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The lag relationships between winter SST and summer drought conditions established in this study can provide a valuable skill for the prediction of drought conditions over Europe on interannual to decadal time scales.

  6. Variability of Surface Temperature and Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet, 2000-2011 (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino, C.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.


    Enhanced melting along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data, have been documented for the Greenland Ice Sheet. Recently we developed a climate-quality data record of ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1ST product -- Using daily and mean monthly MODIS 1ST maps from the data record we show maximum extent of melt for the ice sheet and its six major drainage basins for a 12-year period extending from March of 2000 through December of 2011. The duration of the melt season on the ice sheet varies in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The short time of the study period (approximately 12 years) precludes an evaluation of statistically-significant trends. However the dataset provides valuable information on natural variability of IST, and on the ability of the MODIS instrument to capture changes in IST and melt conditions indifferent drainage basins of the ice sheet.

  7. Hybrid Vibration Control under Broadband Excitation and Variable Temperature Using Viscoelastic Neutralizer and Adaptive Feedforward Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. O. Marra


    Full Text Available Vibratory phenomena have always surrounded human life. The need for more knowledge and domain of such phenomena increases more and more, especially in the modern society where the human-machine integration becomes closer day after day. In that context, this work deals with the development and practical implementation of a hybrid (passive-active/adaptive vibration control system over a metallic beam excited by a broadband signal and under variable temperature, between 5 and 35°C. Since temperature variations affect directly and considerably the performance of the passive control system, composed of a viscoelastic dynamic vibration neutralizer (also called a viscoelastic dynamic vibration absorber, the associative strategy of using an active-adaptive vibration control system (based on a feedforward approach with the use of the FXLMS algorithm working together with the passive one has shown to be a good option to compensate the neutralizer loss of performance and generally maintain the extended overall level of vibration control. As an additional gain, the association of both vibration control systems (passive and active-adaptive has improved the attenuation of vibration levels. Some key steps matured over years of research on this experimental setup are presented in this paper.

  8. [Further promotion effect of variable temperature drying on effective components in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba]. (United States)

    Zhou, Bing-Qian; Lv, Hai-Hua; Yang, Fan; Liu, Wei; Geng, Yan-Ling; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Tao; Qu, Zhen-Yu


    To study the effects of different variable temperature drying modes on active components of roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba, and provide basis for its industrialized drying process. In order to ensure the content of active components, variable temperature drying modes were designed: low temperature at 30 ℃ and high temperature at 60 ℃, low temperature at 30 ℃ and high temperature at 70 ℃, low temperature at 30 ℃ and high temperature at 80 ℃, low temperature at 40 ℃ and high temperature at 60 ℃, low temperature at 40 ℃ and high temperature at 70 ℃, low temperature at 40 ℃ and high temperature at 80 ℃ and air dry oven was used for variable temperature drying process. Then HPLC method was used to determine the changes of active components in roots of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba under different temperature modes; and SPSS 17.0 was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the samples, which were first dried at 40 ℃ for six hours and then dried at 80 ℃ for three hours, had the highest contents in dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone Ⅰ and tanshinone ⅡA as compared with other kinds of drying methods, and the contents were 0.35, 2.76, 0.78, 4.47 mg•g⁻¹, respectively. Additionally, as compared with samples dried in the shade, the contents of dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone Ⅰ were increased 2.9% (P>0.05), 45.3% (PVariable temperature drying can significantly affect the contents of active components in roots of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba. As compared with the traditional process of shade-drying process, low temperature drying can significantly increase the content of water-soluble active components and also with significant promotion effect on the liposoluble components such as tanshinone ⅡA, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone Ⅰ. The variable temperature drying mode, can effectively shorten the process of drying and provide theoretical basis for industrial processing of roots of S. miltiorrhiza f


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, E; Marie Kane, M


    Four formulations of EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) elastomer were exposed to tritium gas initially at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for between three and four months in closed containers. Material properties that were characterized include density, volume, mass, appearance, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical property data per ASTM standards. EPDM samples released significant amounts of gas when exposed to tritium, and the glass transition temperature increased by about 3 C. during the exposure. Effects of ultraviolet and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of polyaniline films are also documented as complementary results to planned tritium exposures. Future work will determine the effects of tritium gas exposure on the electrical conductivity of polyaniline films, to demonstrate whether such films can be used as a sensor to detect tritium. Surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma rays and ultraviolet light. The results of the gamma and UV experiments will be correlated with the tritium exposure results.

  10. Conjugated Conduction-Free Convection Heat Transfer in an Annulus Heated at Either Constant Wall Temperature or Constant Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate numerically the effect of thermal boundary conditions on conjugated conduction-free convection heat transfer in an annulus between two concentric cylinders using Fourier Spectral method. The inner wall of the annulus is heated and maintained at either CWT (Constant Wall Temperature or CHF (Constant Heat Flux, while the outer wall is maintained at constant temperature. CHF case is relatively more significant for high pressure industrial applications, but it has not received much attention. This study particularly focuses the latter case (CHF. The main influencing parameters on flow and thermal fields within the annulus are: Rayleigh number Ra; thickness of inner wall Rs; radius ratio Rr and inner wall-fluid thermal conductivity ratio Kr. The study has shown that the increase in Kr increases the heat transfer rate through the annulus for heating at CWT and decreases the inner wall dimensionless temperature for heating at CHF and vice versa. It has also been proved that as the Rs increases at fixed Ra and Rr, the heat transfer rate decreases for heating at CWT and the inner wall dimensionless temperature increases for heating at CHF at Kr 1 depends on Rr. It has been shown that for certain combinations of controlling parameters there will be a value of Rr at which heat transfer rate will be minimum in the annulus in case of heating at CWT, while

  11. Standard Practice for Internal Temperature Measurements in Low-Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers methods for instrumenting low-conductivity specimens for testing in an environment subject to rapid thermal changes such as produced by rocket motors, atmospheric re-entry, electric-arc plasma heaters, and so forth. Specifically, practices for bare-wire thermocouple instrumentation applicable to sheath-type thermocouples are discussed. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The metric equivalents of inch-pound units may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Ionic Conductivity of the Perovskites, NaMgF3MgF3 and KZnF3 at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N. H.; Kjems, Jørgen; Hayes, W.


    We have carried out a study of the ionic conductivity of NaMgF3, KMgF3 and KZnF3 up to temperatures close to the melting point. Our results, in contrast to previous reports in the literature, show no abnormal ionic conductivity at high temperatures. Care in interpretation of results is required...... because of surface electronic conduction....

  13. Wind-chill-equivalent temperatures: regarding the impact due to the variability of the environmental convective heat transfer coefficient (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham


    The wind-chill index (WCI), developed in Antarctica in the 1940s and recently updated by the weather services in the USA and Canada, expresses the enhancement of heat loss in cold climates from exposed body parts, e.g., face, due to wind. The index provides a simple and practical means for assessing the thermal effects of wind on humans outdoors. It is also used for indicating weather conditions that may pose adverse risks of freezing at subfreezing environmental temperatures. Values of the WCI depend on a number of parameters, i.e, temperatures, physical properties of the air, wind speed, etc., and on insolation and evaporation. This paper focuses on the effects of various empirical correlations used in the literature for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients between humans and their environment. Insolation and evaporation are not included in the presentation. Large differences in calculated values among these correlations are demonstrated and quantified. Steady-state wind-chill-equivalent temperatures (WCETs) are estimated by a simple, one-dimensional heat-conducting hollow-cylindrical model using these empirical correlations. Partial comparison of these values with the published “new” WCETs is presented. The variability of the estimated WCETs, due to different correlations employed to calculate them, is clearly demonstrated. The results of this study clearly suggest the need for establishing a “gold standard” for estimating convective heat exchange between exposed body elements and the cold and windy environment. This should be done prior to the introduction and adoption of further modifications to WCETs and indices. Correlations to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients between exposed body parts of humans in windy and cold environments influence the WCETs and need to be standardized.

  14. Influence of temperature and hydraulic conductivity of soil on electrokinetic decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The electrokinetic process holds great promise for the decontamination of contaminated soil because it has a high removal efficiency and is time-effective for low permeability. Electrokinetic decontamination can be used to treat soil contaminated with inorganic species and radionuclides. The main mechanisms of a contaminant's movement in an electrical field involved in electrokinetic technology are the electro-migration of the ionic species and electro-osmosis. Electro-migration probably contributes significantly to the removal of contaminants, especially at high concentrations of ionic contaminants and/or a high hydraulic permeability of soil. The cathode reaction should be depolarized to avoid the generation of hydroxides and their transport in soil. The selected liquid, also known as a purging reagent, should induce favorable pH conditions in soil, and/or interact with the incorporated heavy metals so that these heavy metals are removed from the soil. The removal efficiencies of uranium from contaminated soil in manufactured laboratory electrokinetic decontamination equipment were proportional to the elapsed time. The removal efficiencies of uranium for 2 days were 77-87%. In addition, the removal efficiencies according to the elapsed time after 2 days were reduced. When 75, 80, and 85℃ electrolyte temperatures in the cathode chamber were applied, the time required for the removal efficiency of uranium to reach 92% was 6, 5 and 4 days.

  15. Engineering method of calculation temperature fields and thermal stresses in the initial stage of radiation convection heating (cooling body with variable heat transfer coefficient, and the temperature of environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov A.D.


    Full Text Available Existing solutions of radiant and convective heating (cooling body problems at the initial stage at unsteady heat transfer coefficients and temperatures are rather cumbersome. The purpose of this work is getting simpler dependencies. Decisions are based on the analysis of relations between the cause (heat flow and the effect (surface temperature in the initial period of heating. Two simple and effective engineering methods of calculation of unsteady temperature fields, and axial thermal stresses at the initial stage of heating (cooling of body of canonical form for both convection and radiation heat transfer at variable ambient temperature and environmental factors have been developed. Some of the solutions are generic in nature, which allows significantly reducing the number of variables and thus using the graphical method of problem solving. The formulas for calculating the bulk and central temperature in the initial stage are provided; other researchers of nonlinear heat conduction problems did not usually do this. It has been found that the axial thermal stresses are determined entirely by the heat flow on the surface. The adequacy of the developed techniques is based on five cases of calculation of heating (cooling plates under various conditions of its thermal loading. It is shown that the error in determining the surface temperature does not exceed 6%, and that the developed method can be used up to Fourier numbers Fo<0.4

  16. Enhanced p-type conduction of B-doped nanocrystalline diamond films by high temperature annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, S. S.; Hu, X. J. [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)


    We report the enhanced p-type conduction with Hall mobility of 53.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} in B-doped nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films by 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing. High resolution transmission electronic microscopy, uv, and visible Raman spectroscopy measurements show that a part of amorphous carbon grain boundaries (GBs) transforms to diamond phase, which increases the opportunity of boron atoms located at the GBs to enter into the nano-diamond grains. This phase transition doping is confirmed by the secondary ion mass spectrum depth profile results that the concentration of B atoms in nano-diamond grains increases after 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing. It is also observed that 1000 Degree-Sign C annealing improves the lattice perfection, reduces the internal stress, decreases the amount of trans-polyacetylene, and increases the number or size of aromatic rings in the sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon cluster in B-doped NCD films. These give the contributions to improve the electrical properties of 1000 Degree-Sign C annealed B-doped NCD films.

  17. Transparent conductive Ga₂O₃/Cu/ITO multilayer films prepared on flexible substrates at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Huihui; Yan, Jinliang, E-mail:; Xu, Chengyang; Meng, Delan


    Transparent conductive Ga₂O₃/Cu/ITO films were prepared on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering without substrates heating. The effects of Ga₂O₃ layer thickness and Cu layer thickness on the optical and electrical properties of the Ga₂O₃/Cu/ITO films were studied. Changes in the optoelectrical properties of Ga₂O₃/Cu (4.2 nm)/ITO (30 nm) films were investigated with respect to the Ga₂O₃ layer thickness. The maximum transmission of 86%, the sheet resistance of 45 Ω/sq and the figure of merit of 8.89 × 10⁻²Ω⁻¹ were achieved for Ga₂O₃ (15 nm)/Cu (4.2 nm)/ITO (30 nm) films. The optoelectrical properties of the Ga₂O₃/Cu/ITO films were also significantly influenced by the thickness of the Cu layer. When the thickness of Cu layer was 3.7 nm, the maximum transmission of 87.6%, the sheet resistance of 50 Ω/sq and the figure of merit of 9.26 × 10⁻²Ω⁻¹ were obtained for the Ga₂O₃ (15 nm)/Cu/ITO (30 nm) films.

  18. Low temperature deposition of transparent conducting ITO/Au/ITO films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daeil, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, San 29, Mugeo Dong, Nam Gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    Transparent conducting indium tin oxide/Au/indium tin oxide (ITO) multilayered films were deposited on unheated polycarbonate substrates by magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the Au intermediated film varied from 5 to 20 nm. Changes in the microstructure, surface roughness and optoelectrical properties of the ITO/Au/ITO films were investigated with respect to the thickness of the Au intermediated layer. X-ray diffraction measurements of ITO single layer films did not show characteristic diffraction peaks, while ITO/Au/ITO films showed an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (2 2 2) characteristic diffraction peak. The optoelectrical properties of the films were also dependent on the presence and thickness of the Au thin film. The ITO 50 nm/Au 10 nm/ITO 40 nm films had a sheet resistance of 5.6 {Omega}/{open_square} and an average optical transmittance of 72% in the visible wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Consequently, the crystallinity, which affects the optoelectrical properties of ITO films, can be enhanced with Au intermediated films.

  19. Satellite Observed Variability in Antarctic and Arctic Surface Temperatures and Their Correlation to Open Water Areas (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)


    Recent studies using meterological station data have indicated that global surface air temperature has been increasing at a rate of 0.05 K/decade. Using the same set of data but for stations in the Antarctic and Arctic regions (>50 N) only, the increases in temperature were 0.08, and 0.22 K/decade, when record lengths of 100 and 50 years, respectively, were used. To gain insights into the increasing rate of warming, satellite infrared and passive microwave observations over the Arctic region during the last 20 years were processed and analyzed. The results show that during this period, the ice extent in the Antarctic has been increasing at the rate of 1.2% per decade while the surface temperature has been decreasing at about 0.08 K per decade. Conversely, in the Northern Hemisphere, the ice extent has been decreasing at a rate of 2.8% per decade, while the surface temperatures have been increasing at the rate of 0.38 K per decade. In the Antarctic, it is surprising that there is a short term trend of cooling during a global period of warming. Very large anomalies in open water areas in the Arctic were observed especially in the western region, that includes the Beaufort Sea, where the observed open water area was about 1x10(exp 6) sq km, about twice the average for the region, during the summer of 1998. In the eastern region, that includes the Laptev Sea, the area of open water was also abnormally large in the summer of 1995. Note that globally, the warmest and second warmest years in this century, were 1998 and 1995, respectively. The data, however, show large spatial variability with the open water area distribution showing a cyclic periodicity of about ten years, which is akin to the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillations. This was observed in both western and eastern regions but with the phase of one lagging the other by about two years. This makes it difficult to interpret what the trends really mean. But although the record length of satellite data is still

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0161327) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across American Samoa in 2015 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  5. Application of multi-pass high pressure homogenization under variable temperature regimes to induce autolysis of wine yeasts. (United States)

    Comuzzo, Piergiorgio; Calligaris, Sonia; Iacumin, Lucilla; Ginaldi, Federica; Voce, Sabrina; Zironi, Roberto


    The effects of the number of passes and processing temperature management (controlled vs. uncontrolled) were investigated during high pressure homogenization-induced autolysis of Saccharomyces bayanus wine yeasts, treated at 150MPa. Both variables were able to affect cell viability, and the release of soluble molecules (free amino acids, proteins and glucidic colloids), but the effect of temperature was more important. S. bayanus cells were completely inactivated in 10 passes without temperature control (corresponding to a processing temperature of 75°C). The two processing variables also affected the volatile composition of the autolysates produced: higher temperatures led to a lower concentration of volatile compounds. The management of the operating conditions may allow the compositional characteristics of the products to be modulated, making them suitable for different winemaking applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating geostatistical parameters and spatially-variable hydraulic conductivity within a catchment system using an ensemble smoother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Bailey


    Full Text Available Groundwater flow models are important tools in assessing baseline conditions and investigating management alternatives in groundwater systems. The usefulness of these models, however, is often hindered by insufficient knowledge regarding the magnitude and spatial distribution of the spatially-distributed parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity (K, that govern the response of these models. Proposed parameter estimation methods frequently are demonstrated using simplified aquifer representations, when in reality the groundwater regime in a given watershed is influenced by strongly-coupled surface-subsurface processes. Furthermore, parameter estimation methodologies that rely on a geostatistical structure of K often assume the parameter values of the geostatistical model as known or estimate these values from limited data.

    In this study, we investigate the use of a data assimilation algorithm, the Ensemble Smoother, to provide enhanced estimates of K within a catchment system using the fully-coupled, surface-subsurface flow model CATHY. Both water table elevation and streamflow data are assimilated to condition the spatial distribution of K. An iterative procedure using the ES update routine, in which geostatistical parameter values defining the true spatial structure of K are identified, is also presented. In this procedure, parameter values are inferred from the updated ensemble of K fields and used in the subsequent iteration to generate the K ensemble, with the process proceeding until parameter values are converged upon. The parameter estimation scheme is demonstrated via a synthetic three-dimensional tilted v-shaped catchment system incorporating stream flow and variably-saturated subsurface flow, with spatio-temporal variability in forcing terms. Results indicate that the method is successful in providing improved estimates of the K field, and that the iterative scheme can

  7. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include

  8. Spatial variability of air temperature in a free-stall in the Northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira C. M. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The knowledge on the spatial variability of climatic attributes and the building of Kriging maps can assist in the design and management of confined animal facilities, by allowing a spatial visualization that is helpful for the planning and control of information from the production environment. The study aimed to characterize the spatial variability of air temperature in a free-stall barn used for dairy cattle confinement located in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, in different seasons and at different times. The variable air temperature was recorded at 136 points distributed in the areas under the shed and the shade cloth for the study of spatial variability and the construction of maps by Kriging. Air temperature data was collected in the winter and in the summer, in the months of July and August (2013 and January and February (2014, at different times (9 and 15 h. According to the results, the use of geostatistics enabled to define areas with different spatial variabilities in air temperature and specific areas in the free-stall with values higher than the recommended levels for thermal comfort. In addition, the central part of the facility is the region with the lowest values of air temperatures, due to the presence of a ridge vent.

  9. The influence of riparian woodland on the spatial and temporal variability of stream water temperatures in an upland salmon stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Malcolm


    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of stream water temperatures was investigated at six locations on the Girnock Burn (30km2 catchment, Cairngorms, Scotland over three hydrological years between 1998 and 2002. The key site-specific factors affecting the hydrology and climatology of the sampling points were investigated as a basis for physical process inference. Particular emphasis was placed on assessing the effects of riparian forest in the lower catchment versus the heather moorland riparian zones that are spatially dominant in the upper catchment. The findings were related to river heat budget studies that provided process detail. Gross changes in stream temperature were affected by the annual cycle of incoming solar radiation and seasonal changes in hydrological and climatological conditions. Inter-annual variation in these controlling variables resulted in inter-annual variability in thermal regime. However, more subtle inter-site differences reflected the impact of site-specific characteristics on various components of the river energy budget. Inter-site variability was most apparent at shorter time scales, during the summer months and for higher stream temperatures. Riparian woodland in the lower catchment had a substantial impact on thermal regime, reducing diel variability (over a period of 24 hours and temperature extremes. Observed inter-site differences are likely to have a substantial effect on freshwater ecology in general and salmonid fish in particular. Keywords: temperature, thermal regime, forest, salmon, hydrology, Girnock Burn, Cairngorm

  10. Design and construction of a new steady-state apparatus for medium thermal conductivity measurement at high temperature. (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xiao, Peng; Dai, Jingmin


    A new steady-state apparatus is designed and constructed for the measurement of thermal conductivity (up to 25 W/mK) on a square specimen (300 mm side) with a heating temperature range from 30 °C to 900 °C. A vacuum container, of which the pressure can reach to 1 Pa, is also built for materials which can be easily oxidized. The structure of the facility is different from that of traditional steady-state devices, especially for the design of heating plate and heat sink. To verify the temperature uniformity of the heating plate, a simulation analysis is carried out in this paper. Besides, the heating system, the heat sink, the measuring system, and the vacuum system are presented in detail. In addition, the thermal conductivities of a heat insulation tile, 304L stainless steel, n-docosane, and erythritol are measured by this apparatus. Finally, an uncertainty analysis is discussed depending on different temperatures and materials.

  11. Design and construction of a new steady-state apparatus for medium thermal conductivity measurement at high temperature (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Xiao, Peng; Dai, Jingmin


    A new steady-state apparatus is designed and constructed for the measurement of thermal conductivity (up to 25 W/mK) on a square specimen (300 mm side) with a heating temperature range from 30 °C to 900 °C. A vacuum container, of which the pressure can reach to 1 Pa, is also built for materials which can be easily oxidized. The structure of the facility is different from that of traditional steady-state devices, especially for the design of heating plate and heat sink. To verify the temperature uniformity of the heating plate, a simulation analysis is carried out in this paper. Besides, the heating system, the heat sink, the measuring system, and the vacuum system are presented in detail. In addition, the thermal conductivities of a heat insulation tile, 304L stainless steel, n-docosane, and erythritol are measured by this apparatus. Finally, an uncertainty analysis is discussed depending on different temperatures and materials.

  12. Structure, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity of beech wood biocarbon produced at carbonization temperatures below 1000°C (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Kartenko, N. F.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.; Vera, M. C.


    This paper reports on measurements of the thermal conductivity κ and the electrical resistivity ρ in the temperature range 5-300 K, and, at 300 K, on X-ray diffraction studies of high-porosity (with a channel pore volume fraction of ˜47 vol %) of the beech wood biocarbon prepared by pyrolysis (carbonization) of tree wood in an argon flow at the carbonization temperature T carb = 800°C. It has been shown that the biocarbon template of the samples studied represents essentially a nanocomposite made up of amorphous carbon and nanocrystallites—"graphite fragments" and graphene layers. The sizes of the nanocrystallites forming these nanocomposites have been determined. The dependences ρ( T) and κ( T) have been measured for the samples cut along and perpendicular to the tree growth direction, thus permitting determination of the magnitude of the anisotropy of these parameters. The dependences ρ( T) and κ( T), which have been obtained for beech biocarbon samples prepared at T carb = 800°C, are compared with the data amassed by us earlier for samples fabricated at T carb = 1000 and 2400°C. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the phonon thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite making up the beech biocarbon template at T carb = 800°C have been found.

  13. Temperature variability is a key component in accurately forecasting the effects of climate change on pest phenology. (United States)

    Merrill, Scott C; Peairs, Frank B


    Models describing the effects of climate change on arthropod pest ecology are needed to help mitigate and adapt to forthcoming changes. Challenges arise because climate data are at resolutions that do not readily synchronize with arthropod biology. Here we explain how multiple sources of climate and weather data can be synthesized to quantify the effects of climate change on pest phenology. Predictions of phenological events differ substantially between models that incorporate scale-appropriate temperature variability and models that do not. As an illustrative example, we predicted adult emergence of a pest of sunflower, the sunflower stem weevil Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte). Predictions of the timing of phenological events differed by an average of 11 days between models with different temperature variability inputs. Moreover, as temperature variability increases, developmental rates accelerate. Our work details a phenological modeling approach intended to help develop tools to plan for and mitigate the effects of climate change. Results show that selection of scale-appropriate temperature data is of more importance than selecting a climate change emission scenario. Predictions derived without appropriate temperature variability inputs will likely result in substantial phenological event miscalculations. Additionally, results suggest that increased temperature instability will lead to accelerated pest development. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Mixing times towards demographic equilibrium in insect populations with temperature variable age structures. (United States)

    Damos, Petros


    In this study, we use entropy related mixing rate modules to measure the effects of temperature on insect population stability and demographic breakdown. The uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn, and how it is moved after a finite act of time steps, is modeled using a stochastic transformation of the Leslie matrix. Age classes are represented as a cycle graph and its transitions towards the stable age distribution are brought forth as an exact Markov chain. The dynamics of divergence, from a non equilibrium state towards equilibrium, are evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. Moreover, Kullback-Leibler distance is applied as information-theoretic measure to estimate exact mixing times of age transitions probabilities towards equilibrium. Using empirically data, we show that on the initial conditions and simulated projection's trough time, that population entropy can effectively be applied to detect demographic variability towards equilibrium under different temperature conditions. Changes in entropy are correlated with the fluctuations of the insect population decay rates (i.e. demographic stability towards equilibrium). Moreover, shorter mixing times are directly linked to lower entropy rates and vice versa. This may be linked to the properties of the insect model system, which in contrast to warm blooded animals has the ability to greatly change its metabolic and demographic rates. Moreover, population entropy and the related distance measures that are applied, provide a means to measure these rates. The current results and model projections provide clear biological evidence why dynamic population entropy may be useful to measure population stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metal matrix-metal nanoparticle composites with tunable melting temperature and high thermal conductivity for phase-change thermal storage. (United States)

    Liu, Minglu; Ma, Yuanyu; Wu, Hsinwei; Wang, Robert Y


    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are of broad interest for thermal storage and management applications. For energy-dense storage with fast thermal charging/discharging rates, a PCM should have a suitable melting temperature, large enthalpy of fusion, and high thermal conductivity. To simultaneously accomplish these traits, we custom design nanocomposites consisting of phase-change Bi nanoparticles embedded in an Ag matrix. We precisely control nanoparticle size, shape, and volume fraction in the composite by separating the nanoparticle synthesis and nanocomposite formation steps. We demonstrate a 50-100% thermal energy density improvement relative to common organic PCMs with equivalent volume fraction. We also tune the melting temperature from 236-252 °C by varying nanoparticle diameter from 8.1-14.9 nm. Importantly, the silver matrix successfully prevents nanoparticle coalescence, and no melting changes are observed during 100 melt-freeze cycles. The nanocomposite's Ag matrix also leads to very high thermal conductivities. For example, the thermal conductivity of a composite with a 10% volume fraction of 13 nm Bi nanoparticles is 128 ± 23 W/m-K, which is several orders of magnitude higher than typical thermal storage materials. We complement these measurements with calculations using a modified effective medium approximation for nanoscale thermal transport. These calculations predict that the thermal conductivity of composites with 13 nm Bi nanoparticles varies from 142 to 47 W/m-K as the nanoparticle volume fraction changes from 10 to 35%. Larger nanoparticle diameters and/or smaller nanoparticle volume fractions lead to larger thermal conductivities.

  16. Thermal Conductivity of Magnesium Alloys in the Temperature Range from -125 °C to 400 °C (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Ham, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Su Yong; Kim, Sok Won; Suh, Chang Min


    Magnesium alloys have been widely used in recent years as lightweight structural materials in the manufacturing of automobiles, airplanes, and portable computers. Magnesium alloys have extremely low density (as low as 1738 kg · m-3) and high rigidity, which makes them suitable for such applications. In this study, the thermal conductivity of two different magnesium alloys made by twin-roll casting was investigated using the laser-flash technique and differential scanning calorimetry for thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity measurements, respectively. The thermal diffusivity of the magnesium alloys, AZ31 and AZ61, was measured over the temperature range from -125 °C to 400 °C. The alloys AZ31 and AZ61 are composed of magnesium, aluminum, and zinc. The thermal conductivity gradually increased with temperature. The densities of AZ31 and AZ61 were 1754 kg · m-3 and 1777 kg · m-3, respectively. The thermal conductivity of AZ31 was about 25 % higher than that of AZ61, and this is attributed to the amount of precipitation.

  17. Adriatic Sea surface temperature and ocean colour variability during the MFSPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Böhm


    Full Text Available Two years and six months of night-time Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sea surface temperature (SST and daytime Sea viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS data collected during the MFSPP have been used to examine spatial and temporal variability of SST and chlorophyll (Chl in the Adriatic Sea. Flows along the Albanian and the Italian coasts can be distinguished year-round in the monthly averaged Chl but only in the colder months in the monthly averaged SST’s. The Chl monthly-averaged fields supply less information on circulation features away from coastal boundaries and where conditions are generally oligotrophic, except for the early spring bloom in the Southern Adriatic Gyre. To better characterise the year-to-year and seasonal variability, exploratory data analysis techniques, particularly the plotting of multiple Chl-SST histograms, are employed to make joint quantitative use of monthly-averaged fields. Modal water mass (MW, corresponding to the Chl-SST pairs in the neighbourhood of the maximum of each monthly histogram, are chosen to represent the temporal and spatial evolution of the prevalent processes and their variability in the Adriatic Sea. Over an annual cycle, the MW followed a triangular path with the most pronounced seasonal and interannual variations in both Chl-SST properties and spatial distributions of the MW in the colder part of the year. The winter of 1999 is the colder (by at least 0.5°C and most eutrophic (by 0.2 mg/m 3. The fall of the year 2000 is characterised by the lack of cooling in the month of November that was observed in the previous year. In addition to characterising the MW, the two-dimensional histogram technique allows a distinction to be made between different months in terms of the spread of SST values at a given Chl concentration. During spring and summer, the spread is minimal indicating surface homothermal conditions. In fall and winter, on the other hand, a spread of points

  18. The Role of Auxiliary Variables in Deterministic and Deterministic-Stochastic Spatial Models of Air Temperature in Poland (United States)

    Szymanowski, Mariusz; Kryza, Maciej


    Our study examines the role of auxiliary variables in the process of spatial modelling and mapping of climatological elements, with air temperature in Poland used as an example. The multivariable algorithms are the most frequently applied for spatialization of air temperature, and their results in many studies are proved to be better in comparison to those obtained by various one-dimensional techniques. In most of the previous studies, two main strategies were used to perform multidimensional spatial interpolation of air temperature. First, it was accepted that all variables significantly correlated with air temperature should be incorporated into the model. Second, it was assumed that the more spatial variation of air temperature was deterministically explained, the better was the quality of spatial interpolation. The main goal of the paper was to examine both above-mentioned assumptions. The analysis was performed using data from 250 meteorological stations and for 69 air temperature cases aggregated on different levels: from daily means to 10-year annual mean. Two cases were considered for detailed analysis. The set of potential auxiliary variables covered 11 environmental predictors of air temperature. Another purpose of the study was to compare the results of interpolation given by various multivariable methods using the same set of explanatory variables. Two regression models: multiple linear (MLR) and geographically weighted (GWR) method, as well as their extensions to the regression-kriging form, MLRK and GWRK, respectively, were examined. Stepwise regression was used to select variables for the individual models and the cross-validation method was used to validate the results with a special attention paid to statistically significant improvement of the model using the mean absolute error (MAE) criterion. The main results of this study led to rejection of both assumptions considered. Usually, including more than two or three of the most significantly

  19. The spatial variability of air temperature and nocturnal urban heat island intensity in the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolný Petr


    Full Text Available This study seeks to quantify the effects of a number of factors on the nocturnal air temperature field in a medium-sized central European city located in complex terrain. The main data sources consist of mobile air temperature measurements and a geographical database. Temperature measurements were taken along several profiles through the city centre and were made under a clear sky with no advection. Altogether nine sets of detailed measurements, in all seasons, were assembled. Altitude, quantity of vegetation, density of buildings and the structure of the transportation (road system were considered as explanatory variables. The result is that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the density of buildings were the most important factors, each of them explaining a substantial part (more than 50% of overall air temperature variability. Mobile measurements with NDVI values as a covariate were used for interpolation of air temperature for the entire study area. The spatial variability of nocturnal air temperature and UHI intensity in Brno is the main output presented. Air temperatures interpolated from mobile measurements and NDVI values indicate that the mean urban heat island (UHI intensity in the early night in summer is at its highest (approximately 5 °C in the city centre and decreases towards the suburban areas.

  20. Laboratory and Field Test of Movable Conduction-Cooled High-Temperature SMES for Power System Stability Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Wen, J.; Wang, S.


    This paper introduces the first movable conduction-cooled high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system developed in China. The SMES is rated at 380 V / 35 kJ / 7 kW, consisting of the high temperature magnet confined in a dewar, the cryogenic unit, the converter......, the monitoring and control unit, and the container, etc. The proposed SMES can be loaded onto a truck to move to a desired location and put into operation with easy connection. Laboratory and field tests have been carried out to investigate the operational characteristics and to demonstrate the SMES......’ effectiveness on improvements of system voltage stability and on the oscillation damping. Test results indicate that the SMES system has the features of fast response and four-quadrant power operation. The accessories for the movability of the SEMS system are well designed. The system is feasible to be used...

  1. Analytical solution for peristaltic flow of conducting nanofluids in an asymmetric channel with slip effect of velocity, temperature and concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sreenadh


    Full Text Available The Peristaltic transport of conducting nanofluids under the effect of slip condition in an asymmetric channel is reported in the present work. The mathematical modelling has been carried out under long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. The analytical solutions are obtained for pressure rise, nanoparticle concentration, temperature distribution, velocity profiles and stream function. Influence of various parameters on the flow characteristics has been discussed with the help of graphs. The results showed that the pressure rise increases with increasing magnetic effect and decreases with increasing slip parameter. The effects of thermophoresis parameter and Brownian motion parameter on the nanoparticle concentration and temperature distribution are studied. It is observed that the pressure gradient increases with increasing slip parameter and magnetic effect. The trapping phenomenon for different parameters is presented.

  2. Large magneto-conductance and magneto-electroluminescence in exciplex-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature (United States)

    Ling, Yongzhou; Lei, Yanlian; Zhang, Qiaoming; Chen, Lixiang; Song, Qunliang; Xiong, Zuhong


    In this work, we report on large magneto-conductance (MC) over 60% and magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) as high as 112% at room temperature in an exciplex-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with efficient reverse intersystem crossing (ISC). The large MC and MEL are individually confirmed by the current density-voltage characteristics and the electroluminescence spectra under various magnetic fields. We proposed that this type of magnetic field effect (MFE) is governed by the field-modulated reverse ISC between the singlet and triplet exciplex. The temperature-dependent MFEs reveal that the small activation energy of reverse ISC accounts for the large MFEs in the present exciplex-based OLEDs.

  3. Entropy generation analysis in error estimation of an approximate solution: A constant surface temperature semi-infinite conductive problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahani Abolfazli Javad


    Full Text Available The integral solution of one-dimensional heat conduction in a semi-infinite wall with constant temperature at its surface has been reviewed and compared with the exact solution for three temperature profiles. Then, an entropy generation analysis has been carried out for all solutions. Introducing an average normalized entropy generation, the error of the integral solution is found to show values in the same order as the values calculated for the normalized entropy generation. Therefore, it can be concluded that when no exact solution is available for a similar problem, one can verify the error of the available approximate solutions simply by applying an entropy generation analysis on the problem.

  4. Annual and seasonal variation of sap flow and conductance of pine trees grown in elevated carbon dioxide and temperature. (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Yun; Kellomäki, Seppo; Zha, Tianshan; Peltola, Heli


    Measurements of sap flow, crown structure, and microclimate were used to estimate the transpiration of individual 30-year-old Pinus sylvestris L. trees grown in elevated temperature and CO2. The trees were enclosed in closed-top chambers and exposed either to current ambient conditions (CON), or elevated CO2 (+350 micromol mol(-1); EC), or elevated temperature (+2 to +6 degrees C; ET) or a combination of EC and ET (ECT) since 1996, and the measurements were made from 1999 to 2001. EC significantly increased annual sap flow per tree (Ft.m) by 14% in 1999, but reduced it by 13% in 2000 and 16% in 2001. The CO2-induced increase in Ft.m in 1999 was due to a large increase in foliage area of trees, which more than compensated for a small decrease in crown conductance (Gc). The CO2-induced decreases in Ft.m in 2000 and 2001 resulted from a pronounced decline in Gc, which was much greater than the increase in foliage area. The CO2-induced increase in sensitivity of Gc at high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) did not alter the general response of sap flow to CO2 enrichment, but it did affect the diurnal courses of sap flow on some days during the main growing season (days 150-240). ET increased Ft.m by 53%, 45%, and 57% in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively, attributable to the combined effects of greater foliage area and maximum crown conductance, lower stomatal sensitivity to high VPD, and higher transpiration demand relative to the control treatments. There was no significant interaction between CO2 and temperature on sap flow, because ECT entailed approximately similar patterns of sap flow to ET, suggesting that the temperature played a dominate role in the case of ECT under boreal climate conditions.

  5. Influence of sea surface temperature on the intraseasonal variability of the South China Sea summer monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxy, Mathew [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Centre for Climate Change Research, Pune (India); Hokkaido University, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science and Graduate School of Environmental Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tanimoto, Youichi [Hokkaido University, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science and Graduate School of Environmental Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); JAMSTEC, Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The objective of this study is to examine, based on recently available high resolution satellite and observational data, the evolution and role of sea surface temperature (SST) in influencing the intraseasonal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon (SM). The study focuses on the 30-60 day timescale when the northward propagating anomalies are dominant over the SCS. Composite analysis of the SST maximum events during SCS SM shows that increased SST anomalies over the SCS are significantly influenced by the downward shortwave radiation flux anomalies, with the suppressed surface latent heat flux anomalies supplementing to it. A thermal damping of the positive SST anomalies induces positive upward heat fluxes, which then destabilize the lower atmosphere between 1,000 and 700 hPa. The positive SST anomalies lead the positive precipitation anomalies over the SCS by 10 days, with a significant correlation (r = 0.44) between the SST-precipitation anomalies. The new findings here indicate an ocean-to-atmosphere effect over the SCS, where underlying SST anomalies tend to form a favorable condition for convective activity and sustain enhanced precipitation during the SCS SM. It is also argued, based on our observations, that the negative sea level pressure anomalies induced by the positive SST anomalies play a role in enhancing the northward propagation of the intraseasonal anomalies over the SCS. (orig.)

  6. Effect of extrusion variables (temperature, moisture) on the antinutrient components of cereal brans. (United States)

    Kaur, Satinder; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit; Dar, B N


    The study was carried out, to explore the potentiality of extrusion technology for elimination of antinutritional components of cereal brans. Extrusion variables were moisture content (14, 17 and 20 %) and temperatures (115 °C, 140 °C, 165 °C). Phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates, trypsin inhibitor, bulk density and color of brans after extrusion were analyzed. All four raw bran samples had high concentration of phytic acid, polyphenols, oxalates and trypsin inhibitors. Extrusion cooking was found effective in reduction of these antinutritients. Extrusion processing reduced the phytic acid by 54.51 %, polyphenol by 73.38 %, oxalates by 36.84 %, and trypsin inhibitor by 72.39 %. The heat treatment caused the highest reduction in polyphenols followed by trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and oxalates. The highest reduction in antinutrients was observed at 140 °C and 20 % moisture content. Bulk density increased significantly compared to raw brans and increase in redness and decrease in yellowness of brans was observed after extrusion treatment.

  7. [Physiological and biochemical change of Paris seed in after-ripening during variable temperature stratification]. (United States)

    Li, Zhao-ling; Tong, Kai; Yan, Shen; Yang, Hua; Wang, Qiao; Tang, Yong-bin; Deng, Meng-sheng; Tian, Meng-liang


    In order to explore the dormancy physiological and biochemical mechanism of Paris seeds, the seed embryo growth courses, and the dynamic change of 5 enzymes, include SOD, POD, CAT, MDH, G-6-PDH were measured during variable temperature stratification. The results indicated that Paris seeds embryo grew quickly after 40 d in warm-stratification (18 ± 1) °C, at the meantime the metabolic activity was significantly strengthened. These facts showed that Paris seeds turned into physiological after-ripening process. After 60-80 d, the morphological embryo after-ripping process basically completed, and the following cold-stratification (4 ± 1) °C furthered Paris seed to finish physiological after-ripening. After 40 d, the activity of MDH decreased while G-6-PDH increased significantly. This showed that the main respiratory pathway of seed changed from TCA to PPP, which benifited breaking seed dormancy. In the whole period of stratification process, the activity variation of SOD and CAT was insignificantly and the activity of POD was enhanced significantly after shifting the seed in cold stratification process. This showed that SOD, CAT had no direct effects on breaking Paris seed dormancy but keeping the seed vigor, while the POD might involve in the process of Paris seed dormancy breaking.

  8. Bonding III-V material to SOI with transparent and conductive ZnO film at low temperature. (United States)

    Huang, Xinnan; Gao, Yonghao; Xu, Xingsheng


    A procedure of bonding III-V material to SOI at low temperature using conductive and transparent adhesive ZnO as intermediate layer is demonstrated. Bonding layer thickness of less than 100 nm was achieved in our experiment that guaranteed good light coupling efficiency between III-V and silicon. This bonding method showed good bonding strength with shear stress of 80 N/cm(2). The lowest resistance of the bonded samples was 48.9 Ω and the transmittance of the spin-coated ZnO layer was above 99%. This procedure is applicable for fabricating hybrid III-V/Si lasers.

  9. Thermo-elastic plane deformations in doubly-connected domains with temperature and pressure which depend of the thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimatti


    Full Text Available We propose a new weak formulation for the plane problem of thermoelastic theory in multiply-connected domains. This permits to avoid the difficulties connected with the Cesaro-Volterra boundary conditions in the related elliptic boundary-value problem. In the second part we consider a nonlinear version of the problem assuming that the thermal conductivity depends not only on the temperature but also on the pressure. Recent studies reveals that this situation can occur in practice. A theorem of existence and uniqueness is proved for this problem.

  10. Haar Wavelet Collocation Method for Thermal Analysis of Porous Fin with Temperature-dependent Thermal Conductivity and Internal Heat Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George OGUNTALA


    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal performance analysis of porous fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation is carried out using Haar wavelet collocation method. The effects of various parameters on the thermal characteristics of the porous fin are investigated. It is found that as the porosity increases, the rate of heat transfer from the fin increases and the thermal performance of the porous fin increases. The numerical solutions by the Haar wavelet collocation method are in good agreement with the standard numerical solutions.

  11. A Variationally Formulated Problem of the Stationary Heat Conduction in a Plate with Radiation Reduction Factor Increased under Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin


    dependence of the absorption factor on the local intensity of this radiation. Furthermore, it can be a significant dependence of this factor on the local value of the material temperature, reflecting the above-mentioned relationship between the absorption of electromagnetic wave energy and the excitation of material microparticles. This process can be described by Boltzmann distribution function that comprises the energy to activate microparticles and the local value of temperature.This paper presents a variational formulation of the nonlinear problem of stationary heat conduction in a plate for the case when the radiation reduction factor in relation to the Bouguer law depends on the local temperature. This formulation includes a functional that can have several fixed points corresponding to different steady states of the plate temperature. Analysis of the properties of this functional enabled us to identify the stationary points, which correspond to the realized temperature distribution in the plate.

  12. Forsmark site investigation. Monitoring of brook water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult (Sweden)); Juston, John (Juston Konsult (Sweden))


    This document reports the monitoring of water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges at four brook discharge gauging stations, and the monitoring of water electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden in the Forsmark area. The report presents data from 1 January through 31 December 2010 and is a continuation of reporting from Johansson and Juston (2007, 2009, 2011), which covered the periods from 1 April 2004 through 31 March 2007, 1 April 2007 through 31 December 2008, and 1 January through 31 December 2009, respectively. Long-throated flumes equipped with automatically recording devices were used for the discharge measurements. Every c. 14 days the water depths at the upstream edge of the flumes were measured manually by a ruler as a check. Electrical conductivity and temperature were automatically recorded and these parameters were also measured manually every c. 14 days with the site investigation field devices. SKB's Hydro Monitoring System (HMS) was used to collect and store all data. From HMS quality assured data were transferred to SKB's primary database Sicada. Measurements of levels, electrical conductivities and temperatures were made every 10 minutes (every 30 minutes for electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden). For the calculation of discharge, quality assured water level data from the flumes were used. The calculation procedure included consolidation of the time series to hourly averages, screening of data for removal of short-term spikes, noise and other data that were judged erroneous. After the calculations were performed, the results were delivered to Sicada. The amplitudes of water level variations during this reporting period were 0.41-0.55 m and the mean electrical conductivities varied between 23 and 39 mS/m at the four discharge stations. However, due to mal-function of measuring devices for electrical conductivity, data were missing for relatively long time periods. Due

  13. JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Meteorological variables, surface reflectivity, surface and subsurface temperatures (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.; Schieldge, J.; Paley, H. N.


    Data collected at the Finney County, Kansas test site as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment (JSME) are presented here, prior to analysis, to provide all JSME investigators with an immediate source of primary information. The ground-truth measurements were taken to verify and complement soil moisture data taken by microwave and infrared sensors during aircraft overflights. Measurements were made of meteorological variables (air speed, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall), surface reflectivity, and temperatures at and below the surface.

  14. Forsmark site investigation. Monitoring of brook water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges January-December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult (Sweden)); Juston, John (Juston Konsult (Sweden))


    This document reports the monitoring of water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges at four brook discharge gauging stations, and the monitoring of water electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden in the Forsmark area. The report presents data from 1 January through 31 December 2009 and is a continuation of reporting from Johansson and Juston (2007, 2009), which covered the periods from 1 April 2004 through 31 March 2007 and 1 April 2007 through 31 December 2008, respectively. Long-throated flumes equipped with automatically recording devices were used for the discharge measurements. Every c. 14 days the water depths at the upstream edge of the flumes were measured manually by a ruler as a check. Electrical conductivity and temperature were automatically recorded and these parameters were also measured manually every c. 14 days with the site investigation field devices. SKB's Hydro Monitoring System (HMS) was used to collect and store all data. From HMS quality assured data were transferred to SKB's primary database Sicada. Measurements of levels, electrical conductivities and temperatures were made every 10 minutes (every 30 minutes for electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden). For the calculation of discharge, quality assured water level data from the flumes were used. The calculation procedure included consolidation of the time series to hourly averages, screening of data for removal of short-term spikes, noise and other data that were judged erroneous. After the calculations were performed, the results were delivered to Sicada. The amplitudes of water level variations during this reporting period were 0.26-0.33 m at the four stations. The mean electrical conductivities varied between 26 and 41 mS/m at the four discharge stations. The electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden varied between 53 and 188 mS/m during the period with the higher values at the end of the

  15. Assessment of Trends and Variability of Rainfall and Temperature for the District of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India (United States)

    Mohd Wani, John; Sarda, V. K.; Jain, Sanjay. K.


    Climate variability, particularly, that of the annual air temperature and precipitation, has received a great deal of attention worldwide. The magnitude of the variability of the factors changes according to the locations. The present study focuses on detecting the trends and variability in the annual temperature and rainfall for the district of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India. This study used annual and monsoon time series data for the time period 1981-2010 and modified the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator in analyzing the problem. The results of the analysis indicate that the annual maximum temperature (TMX) and annual minimum temperature (TMN) for the period of 30 years have shown an increasing trend, whereas the monsoon's maximum and minimum temperatures have shown a decreasing trend, although it is statistically not significant. The amount of annual rainfall does not show any significant trend, but the monsoonal rainfall has shown an increasing trend that is also statistically not significant. The resulting Mann-Kendall test statistic (Z) and Sen's slope estimate (Q) of all the parameters studied indicate that changes are occurring in the magnitude and timing of the precipitation and temperature events at the Mandi station.

  16. Highly Conductive Cu-Cu Joint Formation by Low-Temperature Sintering of Formic Acid-Treated Cu Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Liu, Jingdong; Chen, Hongtao; Ji, Hongjun; Li, Mingyu


    Highly conductive Cu-Cu interconnections of SiC die with Ti/Ni/Cu metallization and direct bonded copper substrate for high-power semiconductor devices are achieved by the low-temperature sintering of Cu nanoparticles with a formic acid treatment. The Cu-Cu joints formed via a long-range sintering process exhibited good electrical conductivity and high strength. When sintered at 260 °C, the Cu nanoparticle layer exhibited a low resistivity of 5.65 μΩ·cm and the joints displayed a high shear strength of 43.4 MPa. When sintered at 320 °C, the resistivity decreased to 3.16 μΩ·cm and the shear strength increased to 51.7 MPa. The microstructure analysis demonstrated that the formation of Cu-Cu joints was realized by metallurgical bonding at the contact interface between the Cu pad and the sintered Cu nanoparticle layer, and the densely sintered layer was composed of polycrystals with a size of hundreds of nanometers. In addition, high-density twins were found in the interior of the sintered layer, which contributed to the improvement of the performance of the Cu-Cu joints. This bonding technology is suitable for high-power devices operating under high temperatures.

  17. The circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Part I: The use of modern telemetry systems to monitor core body temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomko Joanna


    Full Text Available The best known daily rhythms in humans include: the sleep-wake rhythm, the circadian core body temperature variability, daily fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heartbeat frequency, and daily changes in hormone secretion: e.g. melatonin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin. The core body temperature in humans has a characteristic sinusoidal course, with the maximum value occurring between 3:00-5:00 pm and the minimum between 3:00-5:00 am. Analysis of literature indicates that the obtained results concerning core body temperature are to a large extent influenced by the type of method applied in the measurement. Depending on test protocols, we may apply various methodologies to measuring core body temperature. One of the newest methods of measuring internal and external body temperature consists in the utilisation of remote temperature sensors transmitting the obtained value via a radio signal. The advantages of this method includes the ability to perform: continuous core temperature measurement, observe dynamic changes in core body temperature occurring in circadian rhythm and the repeatability and credibility of the obtained results, which is presented in numerous scientific reports.

  18. Upper atmosphere wind and temperature structure at sonmiani derived from the rocket grenade experiments conducted during 1965 - 1967 (United States)

    Rahmatullah, M.


    The grenade-TMA firing conducted in 1965-1967 bring out the following important features regarding the stratospheric circulation in the subtropics: (1) The temperature pattern during the month of March/April at Sonmiani is characterized by higher temperature than the corresponding CIRA 1965 value. (2) Double maxima in temperature has often been observed during spring. (3) In March the zonal wind is predominantly westerly reaching a maximum value of about 45 m/s at 55 km. (4) The meridional component exhibits oscillatory character between 45 and 60 kms. (5) The change from winter westerlies to summer easterlies first occurred around 50 km during April and gradually affected higher levels as the month progressed. (6) The height of the principal maxima at Sonmiani is located at 105 + or - 5 km. In autumn the wind at the principal maxima is below 100 m/s and is directed to NW, in spring it is of the order of 118 m/s but directed to E or NE.

  19. Investigation on the variability of East Asia Boreal Summer Front Frequency and Linkage between Tropical Air Temperature (United States)

    Choi, Eunho; Lim, Gyu-Ho


    Summer time front is one of the most significant phenomena over East Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Many efforts have been established to understand the nature of front. However, there was no research conducting identifying East Asia summer time fronts objectively. We have established objective front recognition method. The method follows next procedures : 1) We calculate vorticity on 850-hPa surface. 2) Any grid point that have horizontal gradient of equivalent potential temperature (EPT hereafter) on 850-hPa surface less than 4 'c / 100km set to zero. 3) Next, we smooth this field using 9-point smoothing technique. 4) Finally we extract the main axis of closed contour correspond to vorticity of 1.5 10-5s-5. Voronoi diagram used to extract this axis. We define this axis as front on 850-hPa pressure surface. We have applied the method on 1981-2010 ERA-Interim dataset. From the result, front frequency maximums are in around of East China Sea (34N, 122E), north (38N, 136E) and south (34N, 140E) of main island of Japan. Below 30N and above 40N, front frequency tends to decrease maybe due to decrease in the magnitude of gradient of EPT and the frequency of cyclonic weather disturbance. Two main regions affect the variability of East Asia Front Frequency. One is equatorial positive region especially over Taiwan (25N, 120E). The other one is East Sea next to Korea (40N, 135E). Humid warm air transported from southern China (20N-30N, 100E-110E) and dry cold air transported from northern China (30N-40N, 100E-110E) compressed by clockwise high system over Taiwan and counter-clockwise low system over East Sea). This compressed precipitation-making system or front moves by extratropical westerly and transported out to north-western Pacific. It looks like geopotential over Taiwan affected by tropical activity, especially vertical integration of temperature (VIT hereafter) over tropical region (30S-30N). When VIT is higher than normal, geopotential over Taiwan also

  20. Delineation of Spatial Variability in the Temperature-Mortality Relationship on Extremely Hot Days in Greater Vancouver, Canada. (United States)

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Walker, Blake Byron; Henderson, Sarah B


    Climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of extremely hot weather. The health risks associated with extemely hot weather are not uniform across affected areas owing to variability in heat exposure and social vulnerability, but these differences are challenging to map with precision. We developed a spatially and temporally stratified case-crossover approach for delineation of areas with higher and lower risks of mortality on extremely hot days and applied this approach in greater Vancouver, Canada. Records of all deaths with an extremely hot day as a case day or a control day were extracted from an administrative vital statistics database spanning the years of 1998-2014. Three heat exposure and 11 social vulnerability variables were assigned at the residential location of each decedent. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for a 1°C increase in daily mean temperature at a fixed site with an interaction term for decedents living above and below different values of the spatial variables. The heat exposure and social vulnerability variables with the strongest spatially stratified results were the apparent temperature and the labor nonparticipation rate, respectively. Areas at higher risk had values ≥ 34.4°C for the maximum apparent temperature and ≥ 60% of the population neither employed nor looking for work. These variables were combined in a composite index to quantify their interaction and to enhance visualization of high-risk areas. Our methods provide a data-driven framework for spatial delineation of the temperature--mortality relationship by heat exposure and social vulnerability. The results can be used to map and target the most vulnerable areas for public health intervention. Citation: Ho HC, Knudby A, Walker BB, Henderson SB. 2017. Delineation of spatial variability in the temperature-mortality relationship on extremely hot days in greater Vancouver, Canada. Environ Health Perspect 125:66-75;

  1. Can oceanic reanalyses be used to assess recent anthropogenic changes and low-frequency internal variability of upper ocean temperature?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corre, L.; Terray, L.; Weaver, A. [Cerfacs-CNRS, Toulouse (France); Balmaseda, M. [E.C.M.W.F, Reading (United Kingdom); Ribes, A. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo France-CNRS, Toulouse (France)


    A multivariate analysis of the upper ocean thermal structure is used to examine the recent long-term changes and decadal variability in the upper ocean heat content as represented by model-based ocean reanalyses and a model-independent objective analysis. The three variables used are the mean temperature above the 14 C isotherm, its depth and a fixed depth mean temperature (250 m mean temperature). The mean temperature above the 14 C isotherm is a convenient, albeit simple, way to isolate thermodynamical changes by filtering out dynamical changes related to thermocline vertical displacements. The global upper ocean observations and reanalyses exhibit very similar warming trends (0.045 C per decade) over the period 1965-2005, superimposed with marked decadal variability in the 1970s and 1980s. The spatial patterns of the regression between indices (representative of anthropogenic changes and known modes of internal decadal variability), and the three variables associated with the ocean heat content are used as fingerprint to separate out the different contributions. The choice of variables provides information about the local heat absorption, vertical distribution and horizontal redistribution of heat, this latter being suggestive of changes in ocean circulation. The discrepancy between the objective analysis and the reanalyses, as well as the spread among the different reanalyses, are used as a simple estimate of ocean state uncertainties. Two robust findings result from this analysis: (1) the signature of anthropogenic changes is qualitatively different from those of the internal decadal variability associated to the Pacific Interdecadal Oscillation and the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation, and (2) the anthropogenic changes in ocean heat content do not only consist of local heat absorption, but are likely related with changes in the ocean circulation, with a clear shallowing of the tropical thermocline in the Pacific and Indian oceans. (orig.)

  2. Annual to Inter-Decadal Variability in Surface Air Temperature Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    global trends, being generally greater in minimum temperature (0.14-0.72°C) than in maximum temperature (0.07-0.13°C). Shifts in ... the rate of global warming has prompted much discussion. The increase in global mean surface ..... The same was also true for the maximum temperatures at Mtwara (Fig. 8). The changes in ...

  3. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Acetate at Variable Temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio


    Spectrophotometric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/acetate complex and determine the equilibrium constants at variable temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K) and at the ionic strength of 1.05 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. The enthalpy of complexation at corresponding temperatures was determined by microcalorimetric titrations. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with acetate is weak but strengthened as the temperature is increased. The complexation is endothermic and is entropy-driven. The enhancement of the complexation at elevated temperatures is primarily due to the increasingly larger entropy gain when the solvent molecules are released from the highly-ordered solvation spheres of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and acetate to the bulk solvent where the degree of disorder is higher at higher temperatures.

  4. Using Variable Temperature Powder X-Ray Diffraction to Determine the Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Solid MgO (United States)

    Corsepius, Nicholas C.; DeVore, Thomas C.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Warnaar, Deborah L.


    A laboratory exercise was developed by using variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine [alpha] for MgO (periclase)and was tested in the Applied Physical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Laboratories at James Madison University. The experiment which was originally designed to provide undergraduate students with a…

  5. Proton conductance at elevated temperature:Formulation and investigation of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid / 4-aminobenzylamine / phosphoric acid membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal eJalili


    Full Text Available 4-aminobenzylamine and phosphoric acid were blended in various proportions with poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid to form a new group of membranes exhibiting proton conductance under water-free conditions. The 4-aminobenzylamine molecule, possessing an aniline-like and benzylamine-like functional group, can interact both with the phosphoric acid and the poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid via nucleophilic interaction, thereby allowing proton jumping in the structure. Physico-chemical and thermal characteristics of the prepared solid membranes were investigated by IR spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to investigate their proton-conductance properties. Transparent composite membranes were prepared. However, the membranes are opaque for relatively high content of phosphoric acid. These membranes are thermally stable up to 300°C. The proton conductivity increases with temperature and also with content of phosphoric acid. Values as high as 1.8×10–3 S cm–1 were measured at 190°C in fully anhydrous condition.

  6. Do walleye pollock exhibit flexibility in where or when they spawn based on variability in water temperature? (United States)

    Bacheler, Nathan M.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Bailey, Kevin M.; Bartolino, Valerio


    Environmental variability is increasingly recognized as a primary determinant of year-class strength of marine fishes by directly or indirectly influencing egg and larval development, growth, and survival. Here we examined the role of annual water temperature variability in determining when and where walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) spawn in the eastern Bering Sea. Walleye pollock spawning was examined using both long-term ichthyoplankton data (N=19 years), as well as with historical spatially explicit, foreign-reported, commercial catch data occurring during the primary walleye pollock spawning season (February-May) each year (N=22 years in total). We constructed variable-coefficient generalized additive models (GAMs) to relate the spatially explicit egg or adult catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) to predictor variables including spawning stock biomass, season, position, and water temperature. The adjusted R2 value was 63.1% for the egg CPUE model and 35.5% for the adult CPUE model. Both egg and adult GAMs suggest that spawning progresses seasonally from Bogoslof Island in February and March to Outer Domain waters between the Pribilof and Unimak Islands by May. Most importantly, walleye pollock egg and adult CPUE was predicted to generally increase throughout the study area as mean annual water temperature increased. These results suggest low interannual variability in the spatial and temporal dynamics of walleye pollock spawning regardless of changes in environmental conditions, at least at the spatial scale examined in this study and within the time frame of decades.

  7. Seasonal Canopy Temperatures for Normal and Okra Leaf Cotton under Variable Irrigation in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan


    Full Text Available Temperature affects a number of physiological factors in plants and is related to water use, yield and quality in many crop species. Seasonal canopy temperature, measured with infrared thermometers, is often used in conjunction with environmental factors (e.g., air temperature, humidity, solar radiation to assess crop stress and management actions in cotton. Normal and okra leaf shapes in cotton have been associated with differences in water use and canopy temperature. The okra leaf shape in cotton is generally expected to result in lower water use and lower canopy temperatures, relative to normal leaf, under water deficits. In this study canopy temperatures were monitored in okra and normal leaf varieties for a growing season at four irrigation levels. Differences in canopy temperature (<2 °C were measured between the two leaf shapes. As irrigation levels increased, canopy temperature differences between the leaf shapes declined. At the lowest irrigation level, when differences in sensible energy exchanges due to the okra leaf shape would be enhanced, the canopy temperature of the okra leaf was warmer than the normal leaf. This suggests that varietal differences that are not related to leaf shape may have more than compensated for leaf shape differences in the canopy temperature.

  8. Interannual to multidecadal Euro-Atlantic blocking variability during winter and its relationship with extreme low temperatures in Europe (United States)

    Rimbu, Norel; Lohmann, Gerrit; Ionita, Monica


    The dominant modes of blocking frequency variability in the Atlantic-European region are evaluated for the 1871-2010 period. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of a two-dimensional blocking indicator field reveals three dominant EOFs, describing about 35% of interannual to multidecadal blocking variability. The first EOF captures an out-of-phase blocking frequency anomaly over Greenland and Western Europe regions. The corresponding principal component time series is strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation index but shows also significant correlations with indices of the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, and East Atlantic-Western Russia patterns. The second EOF shows a dominant center over the North Sea region as well as a less pronounced center with anomalies of the same sign over southeastern Greenland. The multidecadal variations of this mode of blocking variability are related with a basin wide North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomaly which projects partly on the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The third mode is an east-west dipole of blocking frequency anomalies from Scandinavian and southern Greenland regions and shows enhanced variability at 20 year time scales. The coherent variations of the time coefficients of this pattern with open solar flux suggest a possible solar influence on blocking variability at these time scales. Furthermore, the dominant patterns of blocking variability are related with distinct anomaly patterns in the occurrence of extreme low temperature events over Europe at interannual to multidecadal time scales. AMO as well as the solar signals was detected also in the corresponding extreme low temperature blocking patterns. We argue that multivariate analysis of blocking indicators gives additional information about blocking and related extreme climate phenomena variability and predictability comparative with classical sectorial approach.

  9. Measurements of the conduction of heat in water vapor, nitrogen and mixtures of these gases in an extended temperature range (United States)

    Frohn, A.; Westerdorf, M.

    Experimental and analytical results are presented from trials with heat conduction in water vapor, nitrogen, and mixtures of the two in a cylindrical heat transfer cell. The pressures examined ranged from 100-0.01 mbar, corresponding to Knudsen numbers of 0.01-100. Formulations are defined for the continuum conditions, the free molecule conditions, the transition region, and the momentum equation solution. Experimentation with an instrumented configuration of an inner and outer cylinder over the temperature range 300-725 K is described, noting the use of a vacuum around the inner, gas-filled container in order to measure the radiative heat losses. The results are useful for predicting heat transfer in high altitude flight or among small droplets in natural fogs, cooling towers, and combustion chambers.

  10. The Influence of Recurrent Modes of Climate Variability on the Occurrence of Monthly Temperature Extremes Over South America (United States)

    Loikith, Paul C.; Detzer, Judah; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Lee, Huikyo; Barkhordarian, Armineh


    The associations between extreme temperature months and four prominent modes of recurrent climate variability are examined over South America. Associations are computed as the percent of extreme temperature months concurrent with the upper and lower quartiles of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Niño, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index distributions, stratified by season. The relationship is strongest for ENSO, with nearly every extreme temperature month concurrent with the upper or lower quartiles of its distribution in portions of northwestern South America during some seasons. The likelihood of extreme warm temperatures is enhanced over parts of northern South America when the Atlantic Niño index is in the upper quartile, while cold extremes are often association with the lowest quartile. Concurrent precipitation anomalies may contribute to these relations. The PDO shows weak associations during December, January, and February, while in June, July, and August its relationship with extreme warm temperatures closely matches that of ENSO. This may be due to the positive relationship between the PDO and ENSO, rather than the PDO acting as an independent physical mechanism. Over Patagonia, the SAM is highly influential during spring and fall, with warm and cold extremes being associated with positive and negative phases of the SAM, respectively. Composites of sea level pressure anomalies for extreme temperature months over Patagonia suggest an important role of local synoptic scale weather variability in addition to a favorable SAM for the occurrence of these extremes.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic thin film and heat transfer of power law fluids over an unsteady stretching sheet with variable thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yanhai


    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the MHD thin film flow and heat transfer of a power law fluid over an unsteady stretching sheet. The effects of power law viscosity on a temperature field are taken into account with a modified Fourier’s law Proposed by Zheng by assuming that the temperature field is similar to the velocity field. The governing equations are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The numerical solutions are obtained by using the shooting method coupled with the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of the Hartmann number, the power law exponent, the unsteadiness parameter, the thickness parameter and the generalized Prandtl number on the velocity and temperature fields are presented graphically and analyzed. Moreover, the critical formula for parameters are derived which indicated that the magnetic field has no effect on the critical value.

  12. Fabrication of Conductive Copper Films on Flexible Polymer Substrates by Low-Temperature Sintering of Composite Cu Ink in Air. (United States)

    Kanzaki, Mai; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Kawasaki, Hideya


    The development of a thermal sintering method for Cu-based inks under an air atmosphere could greatly expand their application for printed electronics. However, it is well-known that Cu-based inks cannot produce conductive Cu films when sintered at low temperatures in air because Cu readily oxidizes under such conditions. In this study, we have successfully demonstrated air atmosphere sintering at low temperatures (less than 150 °C) via a simple hot plate heat treatment for producing conductive Cu films on flexible polymer substrates, using a novel Cu-based composite ink with sub-10 nm Cu nanoparticles protected with 1-amino-2-propanol with micrometer-sized Cu particles and submicrometer-sized Cu particles; oxalic acid was also added to prevent the oxidation of the Cu during sintering. The Cu films showed a minimum resistivity of 5.5 × 10-5 Ω·cm when sintered in air at 150 °C for a very short period of 10 s. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of sintering of Cu-based inks in air at less than 150 °C. Another novel property of the present Cu-based composite ink is the lowest reported resistivity at 80 °C under N2 flow (5.3 × 10-5 Ω·cm at 80 °C and 8.4 × 10-6 Ω·cm at 120 °C). This fast, efficient, and inexpensive technology for thermal sintering in ambient air using composite inks could be a commercially viable method for fabricating printed electronics on flexible substrates.

  13. Temperature and food-mediated variability of European Atlantic sardine recruitment (United States)

    Garrido, Susana; Silva, Alexandra; Marques, Vitor; Figueiredo, Ivone; Bryère, Philippe; Mangin, Antoine; Santos, A. Miguel P.


    The influence of the environmental conditions during larval development on the resulting recruitment strength was investigated for European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) at Atlanto-Iberian waters. Satellite-derived Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) data from the previous spawning seasons (January to March/April and October to December of the previous year) were related to recruitment success data in the main recruitment hotspots. Recruitment data was taken from yearly acoustic scientific cruises and from the ICES recruitment index estimated by an age-structured model for the entire stock. A linear discriminant analysis model using SST, Chla, and the abundance of spawners during the spawning season identified years of high and low recruitment for all the recruitment hotspots with an accuracy of ≥79%. In general, high recruitment years were associated with high Chla and low SST, although the most important variables to discriminate between the groups were area-specific. High recruitment years were mostly related to high food availability (Chla), particularly during the last quarter of the previous year. In Western Iberia and in the Gulf of Cadiz, high recruitment years were also associated to lower SST, whereas in the Bay of Biscay, where SST during the winter was generally below the optimal range ≈11-12 °C for sardine larval development, higher recruitment was associated with high SST. For ICES data of the southern European sardine stock, lower SST and higher Chla during the last quarter of the previous year were associated with high recruitment years and SST alone was able to discriminate between the two recruitment groups with 73% accuracy. Although the time-series of available data are still small, these significant relationships are consistent with field and laboratory studies relating larval growth and mortality with main environmental drivers. These relationships should be further investigated in the following years to

  14. Influence of Tree-Scale Environmental Variability on Tree-Ring Reconstructions of Temperature at Sonora Pass, CA (United States)

    Ma, L.; Stine, A.


    Tree-ring width from treeline environments tend to covary with local interannual temperature variabilities. However, other environmental factors such as moisture and light availability may further modulate tree growth in cold climates. We investigate the influence of various environmental factors on a tree-ring record from a research plot near Sonora Pass, CA (38.32N, 119.64W; elev. 3130 m). This treeline ecotone is dominated by whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) growing as individuals and as stands, and at the transition between tree form and krummholtz. We surveyed all trees in the 160m x 90m site, mapping and coring all trees with a diameter at breast height greater than 10 cm. We use survey data to test for an influence of inter-tree competition on growth. We also test for modulation of growth by variation in distance from surface water, aspect and slope, and soil types. Initial result shows a relationship between tree ring width and local May-July temperature (R = 0.33, p effect of spatial variability on mean growth rate and on reconstructed temperatures. Trees that have larger or closer neighboring trees experience greater competition, and we hypothesize that competition will be inversely related to average growth rate. Further, we test the sensitivity of ring-width interannual variability to other non-temperature environmental drivers such as moisture availability, light competition, and spatial relations in the microenvironment. We hypothesize that trees that have ready access to light and water will likely produce ring records more closely correlated with the temperature record, and thus will produce a temperature reconstruction with a higher signal-to-noise ratio; whereas trees that experience more microenvironment limitations or competition will produce ring records resembling temperature and additional environmental factors or will contain more noise.

  15. Room temperature p-type conductivity and coexistence of ferroelectric order in ferromagnetic Li doped ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Saif Ullah


    Memory and switching devices acquired new materials which exhibit ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order simultaneously. We reported multiferroic behavior in Zn1-yLiyO(0.00≤y≤0.10) nanoparticles. The analysis of transmission electron micrographs confirmed the hexagonal morphology and wurtzite crystalline structure. We investigated p-type conductivity in doped samples and measured hole carriers in range 2.4×1017/cc to 7.3×1017/cc for different Li contents. We found that hole carriers are responsible for long range order ferromagnetic coupling in Li doped samples. Room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in 8% and 10% Li doped samples. We demonstrated ferroelectric coercivity (remnant polarization) 2.5kV/cm (0.11 μC/cm2) and 2.8kV/cm (0.15 μC/cm2) for y=0.08 and y=0.10 samples. We propose that the mechanism of Li induced ferroelectricity in ZnO is due to indirect dipole interaction via hole carriers. We investigated that if the sample has hole carriers ≥5.3×1017/cc, they can mediate the ferroelectricity. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic measurements showed that higher electric polarization and larger magnetic moment is attained when the hole concentration is larger and vice versa. Our results confirmed the hole dependent coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature, which provide potential applications for switchable and memory devices.

  16. Low-Temperature Fusible Silver Micro/Nanodendrites-Based Electrically Conductive Composites for Next-Generation Printed Fuse-Links. (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Yang; Wu, Dang; Deng, Yubin; Luo, Yingying; Cui, Xiaoya; Wang, Xuanyu; Shu, Zhixue; Yang, Cheng


    We systematically investigate the long-neglected low-temperature fusing behavior of silver micro/nanodendrites and demonstrate the feasibility of employing this intriguing property for the printed electronics application, i.e., printed fuse-links. Fuse-links have experienced insignificant changes since they were invented in the 1890s. By introducing silver micro/nanodendrites-based electrically conductive composites (ECCs) as a printed fusible element, coupled with the state-of-the-art printed electronics technology, key performance characteristics of a fuse-link are dramatically improved as compared with the commercially available counterparts, including an expedient fabrication process, lower available rated current (40% of the minimum value of Littelfuse 467 series fuses), shorter response time (only 3.35% of the Littelfuse 2920L030 at 1.5 times of the rated current), milder surface temperature rise (16.89 °C lower than FGMB) and voltage drop (only 24.26% of FGMB) in normal operations, easier to mass produce, and more flexible in product design. This technology may inspire the development of future printed electronic components.

  17. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  18. Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos


    Full Text Available An impedimetric NOx dosimeter based on the NOx sorption material KMnO4 is proposed. In addition to its application as a low level NOx dosimeter, KMnO4 shows potential as a precious metal free lean NOx trap material (LNT for NOx storage catalysts (NSC enabling electrical in-situ diagnostics. With this dosimeter, low levels of NO and NO2 exposure can be detected electrically as instantaneous values at 380 °C by progressive NOx accumulation in the KMnO4 based sensitive layer. The linear NOx sensing characteristics are recovered periodically by heating to 650 °C or switching to rich atmospheres. Further insight into the NOx sorption-dependent conductivity of the KMnO4-based material is obtained by the novel eTPD method that combines electrical characterization with