WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperature points

  1. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  2. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-01

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 "Radiation Thermometry". The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  3. Change point analysis of mean annual air temperature in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, A.

    2015-06-01

    The existence of change point in the mean of air temperature is an important indicator of climate change. In this study, Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric Change Point Models (CPMs) were applied to test whether a change point has occurred in the mean of annual Air Temperature Anomalies Time Series (ATATS) of 27 synoptic stations in different regions of Iran for the period 1956-2010. The Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) was also applied to evaluate the detected change points. The ATATS of all stations except Bandar Anzali and Gorgan stations, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series as an input file for the CPMs and LRT. Both the Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs detected the change point in the ATATS of (a) Tehran Mehrabad, Abadan, Kermanshah, Khoramabad and Yazd in 1992, (b) Mashhad and Tabriz in 1993, (c) Bandar Anzali, Babolsar and Ramsar in 1994, (d) Kerman and Zahedan in 1996 at 5% significance level. The likelihood ratio test shows that the ATATS before and after detected change points in these 12 stations are normally distributed with different means. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs suggested different change points for individual stations in Bushehr, Bam, Shahroud, and Gorgan. However, the LRT confirmed the change points in these four stations as 1997, 1996, 1993, and 1996, respectively. No change points were detected in the remaining 11 stations.

  4. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Laboratory; Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Laboratory; Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Laboratory; Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Laboratory; Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Laboratory; Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Laboratory; Kumar, Akansha [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-04-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched UCO fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technological readiness level, licensing approach and costs.

  5. The Influence of Air Temperature on the Dew Point Temperature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2Department of Mathematics, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. 3Department of Physics, Federal ... research shows the influence of air temperature on the dew point temperature in Benin City, Edo. State, Nigeria. The dew point ... is a widely measured variable and is a very critical factor in determining the ...

  6. Dissemination of thermodynamic temperature above the freezing point of silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadli, M; Machin, G; Anhalt, K; Bourson, F; Briaudeau, S; del Campo, D; Diril, A; Kozlova, O; Lowe, D H; Mantilla Amor, J M; Martin, M J; McEvoy, H C; Ojanen-Saloranta, M; Pehlivan, Ö; Rougié, B; Salim, S G R

    2016-03-28

    The mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin at high temperatures will formally allow dissemination of thermodynamic temperature either directly or mediated through high-temperature fixed points (HTFPs). In this paper, these two distinct dissemination methods are evaluated, namely source-based and detector-based. This was achieved by performing two distinct dissemination trials: one based on HTFPs, the other based on absolutely calibrated radiation thermometers or filter radiometers. These trials involved six national metrology institutes in Europe in the frame of the European Metrology Research Programme joint project 'Implementing the new kelvin' (InK). The results have shown that both dissemination routes are possible, with similar standard uncertainties of 1-2 K, over the range 1273-2773 K, showing that, depending on the facilities available in the laboratory, it will soon be possible to disseminate thermodynamic temperatures above 1273 K to users by either of the two methods with uncertainties comparable to the current temperature scale. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Thermodynamic Temperature of High-Temperature Fixed Points Traceable to Blackbody Radiation and Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wähmer, M.; Anhalt, K.; Hollandt, J.; Klein, R.; Taubert, R. D.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.; Gavrilov, V.; Grigoryeva, I.; Khlevnoy, B.; Sapritsky, V.

    2017-10-01

    Absolute spectral radiometry is currently the only established primary thermometric method for the temperature range above 1300 K. Up to now, the ongoing improvements of high-temperature fixed points and their formal implementation into an improved temperature scale with the mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin, rely solely on single-wavelength absolute radiometry traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. Two alternative primary thermometric methods, yielding comparable or possibly even smaller uncertainties, have been proposed in the literature. They use ratios of irradiances to determine the thermodynamic temperature traceable to blackbody radiation and synchrotron radiation. At PTB, a project has been established in cooperation with VNIIOFI to use, for the first time, all three methods simultaneously for the determination of the phase transition temperatures of high-temperature fixed points. For this, a dedicated four-wavelengths ratio filter radiometer was developed. With all three thermometric methods performed independently and in parallel, we aim to compare the potential and practical limitations of all three methods, disclose possibly undetected systematic effects of each method and thereby confirm or improve the previous measurements traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. This will give further and independent confidence in the thermodynamic temperature determination of the high-temperature fixed point's phase transitions.

  8. The Influence of Air Temperature on the Dew Point Temperature in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in weather measurement, monitoring and prognostications are becoming more and more pertinent in this era of global warming; getting the appropriate weather predictions and taking the necessary precautions have become very paramount. This research shows the influence of air temperature on the dew point ...

  9. Nucleation and droplet growth from supersaturated vapor at temperatures below the triple point temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2016-01-01

    temperature Ttr.p. crystallizes via a liquid droplet is an example of Ostwald's step rule. The homogeneous nucleation in the supersaturated gas is not to a crystal, but to a liquid-like critical nucleus. We have for the first time performed constant energy (NVE) Molecular Dynamics (MD) of homogeneous......In 1897 Ostwald formulated his step rule for formation of the most stable crystal state for a system with crystal polymorphism. The rule describes the irreversible way a system converts to the crystal with lowest free energy. But in fact the irreversible way a supercooled gas below the triple point...... below Ttr.p., but without a crystallization of the droplet for long times. The dissipation of the latent heat into the surrounding gas is affected by a traditional MD thermostat, with the consequence that droplet growth is different for (NVE) MD and constant temperature (NVT) MD....

  10. Main limitations in infrared temperature measurement of train hot points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca Meca, Francisco J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mazo Quintas, Manuel; Jimenez Calvo, Jose A.; Lillo Rodriguez, Diego; Ramos Sainz, Pablo

    2000-06-01

    Nowadays, in order to guarantee the security in passenger and goods railway transport, fixed systems located in rails are used to measure axles, wheels and brake discs temperatures during train circulation so that abnormally high temperatures as a result of a malfunction can be detected. Measurement systems in this kind of application may be affected by different uncertainty sources, characteristic of infrared temperature measurements, which limit the accuracy of the estimated measurement. Uncertainty sources are specially important in these applications due to: (1) Extremely variable emissivity as a result of stain or different paints used on the surfaces. (2) Difficult evaluation of the environment's radiation as measurements are made outdoors. (3) Alarm temperatures are only about 40 degrees Celsius to 80 degrees Celsius above the environment temperature. The paper analyses the effects of these uncertainties. The results show that, in order to get the minimum uncertainty peaks in the estimated temperature, the proper duty waveband is 3 - 5 micrometer. They also show that, with a proper choice of the wavelength, the uncertainty due to solar radiation remains masked by the uncertainty due to the lens emissivity.

  11. Determination of cloud-point temperatures for different copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Campese

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel system which has a great potential for use for extractions in biotechnological processes as it uses only polymers and can be operated at moderate temperatures and salt concentrations. The polymers used in this work are ethylene oxide-propylene oxide 10:90 (w/w (EO10PO90 and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide 20:80 (w/w (EO20PO80. The temperature required for thermoseparation decreases with increasing PO content of the copolymer and increasing buffer concentration.

  12. High point for CERN and high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Amalia Ballarino is named the Superconductor Industry Person of the year 2006. Amalia Ballarino showing a tape of high-superconducting material used for the LHC current leads.The CERN project leader for the high-temperature superconducting current leads for the LHC, Amalia Ballarino, has received the award for "Superconductor Industry Person of the Year". This award, the most prestigious international award in the development and commercialization of superconductors, is presented by the leading industry newsletter "Superconductor Week". Amalia Ballarino was selected from dozens of nominations from around the world by a panel of recognized leading experts in superconductivity. "It is a great honour for me," says Amalia Ballarino. "It has been many years of hard work, and it’s a great satisfaction to see that the work has been completed successfully." Amalia Ballarino has been working on high-temperature superconducting materials sin...

  13. Multiple-Point Temperature Gradient Algorithm for Ring Laser Gyroscope Bias Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wei, Guo; Xie, Yuanping; Yu, Xudong; Long, Xingwu

    2015-11-30

    To further improve ring laser gyroscope (RLG) bias stability, a multiple-point temperature gradient algorithm is proposed for RLG bias compensation in this paper. Based on the multiple-point temperature measurement system, a complete thermo-image of the RLG block is developed. Combined with the multiple-point temperature gradients between different points of the RLG block, the particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to tune the support vector machine (SVM) parameters, and an optimized design for selecting the thermometer locations is also discussed. The experimental results validate the superiority of the introduced method and enhance the precision and generalizability in the RLG bias compensation model.

  14. Non-contact local temperature measurement inside an object using an infrared point detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaka, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Local temperature measurement in deep areas of objects is an important technique in biomedical measurement. We have investigated a non-contact method for measuring temperature inside an object using a point detector for infrared (IR) light. An IR point detector with a pinhole was constructed and the radiant IR light emitted from the local interior of the object is photodetected only at the position of pinhole located in imaging relation. We measured the thermal structure of the filament inside the miniature bulb using the IR point detector, and investigated the temperature dependence at approximately human body temperature using a glass plate positioned in front of the heat source.

  15. Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement to the Indium Point Based on Radiance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2017-04-01

    A multi-national project (the EMRP InK project) was completed recently, which successfully determined the thermodynamic temperatures of several of the high-temperature fixed points above the copper point. The National Metrology Institute of Japan contributed to this project with its newly established absolute spectral radiance calibration capability. In the current study, we have extended the range of thermodynamic temperature measurement to below the copper point and measured the thermodynamic temperatures of the indium point (T_{90} = 429.748 5 K), tin point (505.078 K), zinc point (692.677 K), aluminum point (933.473 K) and the silver point (1 234.93 K) by radiance comparison against the copper point, with a set of radiation thermometers having center wavelengths ranging from 0.65 μm to 1.6 μm. The copper-point temperature was measured by the absolute radiation thermometer which was calibrated by radiance method traceable to the electrical substitution cryogenic radiometer. The radiance of the fixed-point blackbodies was measured by standard radiation thermometers whose spectral responsivity and nonlinearity are precisely evaluated, and then the thermodynamic temperatures were determined from radiance ratios to the copper point. The values of T-T_{90} for the silver-, aluminum-, zinc-, tin- and indium-point cells were determined as -4 mK (U = 104 mK, k=2), -99 mK (88 mK), -76 mK (76 mK), -68 mK (163 mK) and -42 mK (279 mK), respectively.

  16. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  17. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum negative rate of change in New England based on a...

  18. New England observed and predicted median August stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median August stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  19. New England observed and predicted growing season maximum stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted growing season maximum stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  20. New England observed and predicted Julian day of maximum growing season stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted Julian day of maximum growing season stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial...

  1. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  2. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  3. New England observed and predicted median July stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median July stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  4. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  5. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bayless, Paul David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nelson, Lee Orville [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  6. Simulation study based on the single-point temperature monitoring system of LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongling; Yang, Na; Liu, Shuping; Pan, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenjiang

    2014-12-01

    This paper takes LabVIEW2012 as a development platform, creating a J-type thermocouple sensor and the NI USB-6229 data acquisition card and other hardware emulation circuitry which combined with the PC designed a single-point temperature monitoring system. Through simulation experiments, the system has a collection interval, the sampling rate per channel sampling on the temperature limit set by the user function and it also has the function of real-time display the current temperature, the temperature limit alarm, maximum temperature, minimum temperature display and a temperature history data query. This system can be used for temperature monitoring of life, research, industrial control, environmental monitoring, biomedical, tobacco processing, greenhouse cultivation, livestock breeding and other fields, which has important significance and practical value.

  7. A hybrid solar panel maximum power point search method that uses light and temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Solar cells have low efficiency and non-linear characteristics. To increase the output power solar cells are connected in more complex structures. Solar panels consist of series of connected solar cells with a few bypass diodes, to avoid negative effects of partial shading conditions. Solar panels are connected to special device named the maximum power point tracker. This device adapt output power from solar panels to load requirements and have also build in a special algorithm to track the maximum power point of solar panels. Bypass diodes may cause appearance of local maxima on power-voltage curve when the panel surface is illuminated irregularly. In this case traditional maximum power point tracking algorithms can find only a local maximum power point. In this article the hybrid maximum power point search algorithm is presented. The main goal of the proposed method is a combination of two algorithms: a method that use temperature sensors to track maximum power point in partial shading conditions and a method that use illumination sensor to track maximum power point in equal illumination conditions. In comparison to another methods, the proposed algorithm uses correlation functions to determinate the relationship between values of illumination and temperature sensors and the corresponding values of current and voltage in maximum power point. In partial shading condition the algorithm calculates local maximum power points bases on the value of temperature and the correlation function and after that measures the value of power on each of calculated point choose those with have biggest value, and on its base run the perturb and observe search algorithm. In case of equal illumination algorithm calculate the maximum power point bases on the illumination value and the correlation function and on its base run the perturb and observe algorithm. In addition, the proposed method uses a special coefficient modification of correlation functions algorithm. This sub

  8. Modeling of Aerobrake Ballute Stagnation Point Temperature and Heat Transfer to Inflation Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Parviz A.

    2012-01-01

    A trailing Ballute drag device concept for spacecraft aerocapture is considered. A thermal model for calculation of the Ballute membrane temperature and the inflation gas temperature is developed. An algorithm capturing the most salient features of the concept is implemented. In conjunction with the thermal model, trajectory calculations for two candidate missions, Titan Explorer and Neptune Orbiter missions, are used to estimate the stagnation point temperature and the inflation gas temperature. Radiation from both sides of the membrane at the stagnation point and conduction to the inflating gas is included. The results showed that the radiation from the membrane and to a much lesser extent conduction to the inflating gas, are likely to be the controlling heat transfer mechanisms and that the increase in gas temperature due to aerodynamic heating is of secondary importance.

  9. Fluctuation-induced heat release from temperature-quenched nuclear spins near a quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Kaur, N; Atkins, B M; Dalal, N S; Takano, Y

    2009-12-11

    At a quantum critical point (QCP)--a zero-temperature singularity in which a line of continuous phase transition terminates--quantum fluctuations diverge in space and time, leading to exotic phenomena that can be observed at nonzero temperatures. Using a quantum antiferromagnet, we present calorimetric evidence that nuclear spins frozen in a high-temperature nonequilibrium state by temperature quenching are annealed by quantum fluctuations near the QCP. This phenomenon, with readily detectable heat release from the nuclear spins as they are annealed, serves as an excellent marker of a quantum critical region around the QCP and provides a probe of the dynamics of the divergent quantum fluctuations.

  10. Comparison of the Argon Triple-Point Temperature in Small Cells of Different Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, B.; Kowal, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.

    2017-06-01

    The argon triple point (T_{90} = 83.8058 \\hbox {K}) is a fixed point of the International Temperature Scale of Preston-Thomas (Metrologia 27:3, 1990). Cells for realization of the fixed point have been manufactured by several European metrology institutes (Pavese in Metrologia 14:93, 1978; Pavese et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Hermier et al. in Temperature, part 1, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2003; Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research has in its disposal a few argon cells of various constructions used for calibration of capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers (CSPRT) that were produced within 40 years. These cells differ in terms of mechanical design and thermal properties, as well as source of gas filling the cell. This paper presents data on differences between temperature values obtained during the realization of the triple point of argon in these cells. For determination of the temperature, a heat-pulse method was applied (Pavese and Beciet in Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurement, Springer, New York, 2013). The comparisons were performed using three CSPRTs. The temperatures difference was determined in relation to a reference function W(T)=R(T_{90})/R(271.16\\hbox {K}) in order to avoid an impact of CSPRT resistance drift between measurements in the argon cells. Melting curves and uncertainty budgets of the measurements are given in the paper. A construction of measuring apparatus is also presented in this paper.

  11. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Oxygen at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the key parameters that affect the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures. An in depth analysis of the effect of varying temperature, pressure, and pressurization gas on bubble point is presented. Testing of a 200 x 1400 and 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenics Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 92 to 130K and 0.138 - 1.79 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of temperature with a secondary dependence on pressure. The pressure dependence is believed to be a function of the amount of evaporation and condensation occurring at the screen. Good agreement exists between data and theory for normally saturated liquid but the model generally under predicts the bubble point in subcooled liquid. Better correlation with the data is obtained by using the liquid temperature at the screen to determine surface tension of the fluid, as opposed to the bulk liquid temperature.

  12. Temperature and Species Measurements of Combustion Produced by a 9-Point Lean Direct Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of temperature and relative species concentrations in the combustion flowfield of a 9-point swirl venturi lean direct injector fueled with JP-8. The temperature and relative species concentrations of the flame produced by the injector were measured using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). Results of measurements taken at four flame conditions are presented. The species concentrations reported are measured relative to nitrogen and include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

  13. Point stresses during reproductive stage rather than warming seasonal temperature determine yield in temperate rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espe, Matthew B; Hill, Jim E; Hijmans, Robert J; McKenzie, Kent; Mutters, Randall; Espino, Luis A; Leinfelder-Miles, Michelle; van Kessel, Chris; Linquist, Bruce A

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is predicted to shift temperature regimes in most agricultural areas with temperature changes expected to impact yields of most crops, including rice. These temperature-driven effects can be classified into point stresses, where a temperature event during a sensitive stage drives a reduction in yield, or seasonal warming losses, where raised temperature is thought to increase maintenance energy demands and thereby decrease available resources for yield formation. Simultaneous estimation of the magnitude of each temperature effect on yield has not been well documented due to the inherent difficulty in separating their effects. We simultaneously quantified the magnitude of each effect for a temperate rice production system using a large data set covering multiple locations with data collected from 1995 to 2015, combined with a unique probability-based modeling approach. Point stresses, primarily cold stress during the reproductive stages (booting and flowering), were found to have the largest impact on yield (over 3 Mg/ha estimated yield losses). Contrary to previous reports, yield losses caused by increased temperatures, both seasonal and during grain-filling, were found to be small (approximately 1-2% loss per °C). Occurrences of cool temperature events during reproductive stages were found to be persistent over the study period, and within season, the likelihood of a cool temperature event increased when flowering occurred later in the season. Short and medium grain types, typically recommended for cool regions, were found to be more tolerant of cool temperatures but more sensitive to heat compared to long grain cultivars. These results suggest that for temperate rice systems, the occurrence of periodic stress events may currently overshadow the impacts of general warming temperature on crop production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories A, B, and C. 153.908 Section 153.908 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS...

  15. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for T...

  16. Measurement of Sticky Point Temperature of Coffee Powder with a Rheometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticky point temperature (Ts) measurement for hygroscopic food and biomaterial powders is traditionally performed with complex glass instruments. This property is used to characterize material stickiness, which substantially affects the flow and physical behavior of powders. In this research study w...

  17. Consistency of the national realization of dew-point temperature using NIS standard humidity generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Galil Doaa Abd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of two standard humidity generators (two-temperature (2-T and one-temperature (1-T generators that are developed by the National Institute for Standards (NIS has been performed using a transfer standard chilled-mirror hygrometer and measurement procedures to realize dew-point temperature Td in the range from −50 °C to 0 °C. The main objective of this comparison was to compare the realizations of dew-point temperature and to establish the level of consistency between the two generators. For a level of consistency between two measurements, it is expressed by the difference between the measured values, m1 − m2, and the expanded pair uncertainty of this difference Up [1]. The comparison measurements revealed dew-point temperature differences of 0.02 °C and 0.07 °C with expanded pair uncertainties of ±0.09 °C and ±0.15 °C.

  18. Analysis of Screen Channel LAD Bubble Point Tests in Liquid Methane at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason; McQuillen, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of varying the liquid temperature and pressure on the bubble point pressure for screen channel Liquid Acquisition Devices in cryogenic liquid methane using gaseous helium across a wide range of elevated pressures and temperatures. Testing of a 325 x 2300 Dutch Twill screen sample was conducted in the Cryogenic Components Lab 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Test conditions ranged from 105 to 160K and 0.0965 - 1.78 MPa. Bubble point is shown to be a strong function of the liquid temperature and a weak function of the amount of subcooling at the LAD screen. The model predicts well for saturated liquid but under predicts the subcooled data.

  19. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal temperature series in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2017-06-01

    Most of the trend analysis that has been conducted has not considered the existence of a change point in the time series analysis. If these occurred, then the trend analysis will not be able to detect an obvious increasing or decreasing trend over certain parts of the time series. Furthermore, the lack of discussion on the possible factors that influenced either the decreasing or the increasing trend in the series needs to be addressed in any trend analysis. Hence, this study proposes to investigate the trends, and change point detection of mean, maximum and minimum temperature series, both annually and seasonally in Peninsular Malaysia and determine the possible factors that could contribute to the significance trends. In this study, Pettitt and sequential Mann-Kendall (SQ-MK) tests were used to examine the occurrence of any abrupt climate changes in the independent series. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature series suggested that most of the change points in Peninsular Malaysia were detected during the years 1996, 1997 and 1998. These detection points captured by Pettitt and SQ-MK tests are possibly related to climatic factors, such as El Niño and La Niña events. The findings also showed that the majority of the significant change points that exist in the series are related to the significant trend of the stations. Significant increasing trends of annual and seasonal mean, maximum and minimum temperatures in Peninsular Malaysia were found with a range of 2-5 °C/100 years during the last 32 years. It was observed that the magnitudes of the increasing trend in minimum temperatures were larger than the maximum temperatures for most of the studied stations, particularly at the urban stations. These increases are suspected to be linked with the effect of urban heat island other than El Niño event.

  20. Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.; Dong, W. [National Institute of Metrology (NIM), Beijing (China); Liu, F. [AVIC China Precision Engineering Institute for Aircraft Industry, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-11

    The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by 'ansys workbench'. Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

  1. Optimization of the thermogauge furnace for realizing high temperature fixed points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Dong, W.; Liu, F.

    2013-09-01

    The thermogauge furnace was commonly used in many NMIs as a blackbody source for calibration of the radiation thermometer. It can also be used for realizing the high temperature fixed point(HTFP). According to our experience, when realizing HTFP we need the furnace provide relative good temperature uniformity to avoid the possible damage to the HTFP. To improve temperature uniformity in the furnace, the furnace tube was machined near the tube ends with a help of a simulation analysis by "ansys workbench". Temperature distributions before and after optimization were measured and compared at 1300 °C, 1700°C, 2500 °C, which roughly correspond to Co-C(1324 °C), Pt-C(1738 °C) and Re-C(2474 °C), respectively. The results clearly indicate that through machining the tube the temperature uniformity of the Thermogage furnace can be remarkably improved. A Pt-C high temperature fixed point was realized in the modified Thermogauge furnace subsequently, the plateaus were compared with what obtained using old heater, and the results were presented in this paper.

  2. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Search Method Using Temperature Measurements in Partial Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroczka Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic panels have a non-linear current-voltage characteristics to produce the maximum power at only one point called the maximum power point. In the case of the uniform illumination a single solar panel shows only one maximum power, which is also the global maximum power point. In the case an irregularly illuminated photovoltaic panel many local maxima on the power-voltage curve can be observed and only one of them is the global maximum. The proposed algorithm detects whether a solar panel is in the uniform insolation conditions. Then an appropriate strategy of tracking the maximum power point is taken using a decision algorithm. The proposed method is simulated in the environment created by the authors, which allows to stimulate photovoltaic panels in real conditions of lighting, temperature and shading.

  3. Liquid Oxygen Liquid Acquisition Device Bubble Point Tests with High Pressure LOX at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurns, John M.; Hartwig, Jason W.

    2011-01-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth s gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMD) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122K) as part of NASA s continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  4. Reliability of High-Temperature Fixed-Point Installations over 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C. J.; Ford, T.; Ongrai, O.; Pearce, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    At NPL, high-temperature metal-carbon eutectic fixed points have been set up for thermocouple calibration purposes since 2006, for realising reference temperatures above the highest point specified in the International Temperature Scale of 1990 for contact thermometer calibrations. Additionally, cells of the same design have been provided by NPL to other national measurement institutes (NMIs) and calibration laboratories over this period, creating traceable and ISO 17025 accredited facilities around the world for calibrating noble metal thermocouples at 1324 {°}C (Co-C) and 1492 {°}C (Pd-C). This paper shows collections of thermocouple calibration results obtained during use of the high-temperature fixed-point cells at NPL and, as further examples, the use of cells installed at CCPI Europe (UK) and NIMT (Thailand). The lifetime of the cells can now be shown to be in excess of 7 years, whether used on a weekly or monthly basis, and whether used in an NMI or industrial calibration laboratory.

  5. Tricritical point of lattice QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiang-Qian

    2004-11-01

    First principle study of QCD at finite temperature T and chemical potential μ is essential for understanding a wide range of phenomena from heavy-ion collisions to cosmology and neutron stars. However, in the presence of finite density, the critical behavior lattice gauge theory without species doubling, is unknown. At strong coupling, we examine the phase structure on the (μ,T) plane, using Hamiltonian lattice QCD with Wilson fermions. A tricritical point is found, separating the first and second order chiral phase transitions. Such a tricritical point at finite T has not been found in previous work in the Hamiltonian formalism with Kogut-Susskind fermions or naive fermions.

  6. Continuous point-like high-temperature laser discharge produced by terahertz free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kubarev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A continuous point-like laser discharge of record high temperature has been produced in argon at atmospheric pressure with focusing of the radiation of the Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser (NovoFEL. According to spectral measurements, the temperature in the center of the millimeter-sized plasma sphere was 28000 K at a plasma density of 1.5×1017 cm-3 and an average NovoFEL power of 200 W at a wavelength of 130 μm (2.3 THz.

  7. Temperature determination of the Si-SiC eutectic fixed point using thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherlan; Kim, Yong-Gyoo; Joung, Wukchul; Yang, Inseok

    2015-04-01

    The temperature of the Si-SiC eutectic fixed point for use in thermocouple thermometry has been determined. Three Si-SiC cells were fabricated from pure silicon powder within separate graphite crucibles. Each of the three cells was cycled through 17 melt-freeze cycles and subjected to temperatures above 1400 °C for a period of approximately 73 h, and none showed any sign of mechanical failure. The melting transition was measured using three types of thermocouple: one type S, one type B, and two Pt/Pd thermocouples calibrated at the fixed points of Ag, Cu, Fe-C, Co-C, and Pd (only for type B). The transition temperature, measured using the type S and two Pt/Pd thermocouples, was (1410.0 ± 0.8) °C with k = 2. However, the measurement uncertainty using the type B thermocouple was as large as 1.5 °C (k = 2) due to the inhomogeneity of the thermocouple. The repeatability of the three Si-SiC cells was calculated to be 0.3 °C, and the extremes of the temperature measurement differed by 0.8 °C.

  8. Wall sticking of high water-cut crude oil transported at temperatures below the gel point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haimin; Huang, Qiyu; Wang, Changhui

    2015-12-01

    Some high water-cut crude oils can flow in the temperature below the oil gel point, while oil particles may adhere to the pipe wall as paste; this process is known as ‘wall sticking’. This can cause partial or even total blocking of the transportation pipe. Several experiments using a laboratory flow loop were conducted to study the wall sticking characteristics of high water-cut crude oils. The experimental results indicated that the predominant influencing factors of wall sticking included shear stress, water-cut and differences between gel point and wall temperature. The wall sticking rate and occurrence temperature decrease with the increase of water-cut and shear stress. The criterion for the wall sticking occurrence temperature (WSOT), and the regression formula of the wall sticking thickness for high water-cut crude oil were then established. Typical case studies indicated that the prediction results obtained from the WSOT criterion and the wall sticking thickness regression formula were in accordance with the measured values. The wall sticking rate and WSOT vary widely under different conditions and it is necessary to consider its non-uniformity in production.

  9. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana, E-mail: claudiopeteren@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gleniogoncalves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luana-lazzari@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (DME/UFPEL), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Matematica

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  10. Estimation of the temperature dependent interaction between uncharged point defects in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja-shi, Okayama-ken 719-1197 (Japan); GlobalWafers Japan Co., Ltd., 30 Soya, Hadano, Kanagawa, 257-8566 (Japan); Vanhellemont, Jan [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, Ghent B-9000 (Belgium); Sueoka, Koji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja-shi, Okayama-ken 719-1197 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    A method is described to estimate the temperature dependent interaction between two uncharged point defects in Si based on DFT calculations. As an illustration, the formation of the uncharged di-vacancy V{sub 2} is discussed, based on the temperature dependent attractive field between both vacancies. For that purpose, all irreducible configurations of two uncharged vacancies are determined, each with their weight given by the number of equivalent configurations. Using a standard 216-atoms supercell, nineteen irreducible configurations of two vacancies are obtained. The binding energies of all these configurations are calculated. Each vacancy is surrounded by several attractive sites for another vacancy. The obtained temperature dependent of total volume of these attractive sites has a radius that is closely related with the capture radius for the formation of a di-vacancy that is used in continuum theory. The presented methodology can in principle also be applied to estimate the capture radius for pair formation of any type of point defects.

  11. Heat transfer in MHD unsteady stagnation point flow with variable wall temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Soundalgekar, V.M.; Murty, T.V.R.; Takhar, H.S.

    ) (J~+ P, [ point of a heated blunt-nosed cylinder whose wall temperature varies as Ax N is presented. Temparature profiles arc shown graphicaIIy for different values of N and the numerical values of the rate of heat transfer (- 0' (0», IJ...

  12. Vigilance system in rails for train hot point temperatures during circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca Meca, Francisco J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mazo Quintas, Manuel; Garcia Dominguez, Juan J.; Fonolla Navarro, Rafael; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Jimenez Calvo, Jose A.; Lillo Rodriguez, Diego; Garcia Garrido, Miguel A.

    2000-06-01

    Wheels, hubs and brake discs in a train during its circulation are under mechanical strains that make its temperature increase above the environment temperature. Mechanical defects in those elements produce an excessive friction and, as a consequence of it, an important increment of its temperature in relation to normal values. Detecting these anomalies is essential to avoid accidents and it is performed by fixed systems located next to rails which make infrared temperature measurements of hot points and send them to a supervisory station that takes the proper steps. The paper introduces the most important problems which must be dealt with during the designing stage of the measurement system. It also explains the solutions taken by the authors in order to assure the minimum operative aims demanded by the application. These problems includes: the choice of the detector and measurement method, communication with the supervisory station, and the environment conditions. Finally, the research lines followed by the authors in order to improve and extend the system's capabilities are explained.

  13. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Analysis of temperature data over semi-arid Botswana: trends and break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphale, Kgakgamatso; Adedoyin, Akintayo; Nkoni, Godiraone; Ramaphane, Galebonwe; Wiston, Modise; Chimidza, Oyapo

    2017-06-01

    Climate change is a global challenge which impacts negatively on sustainable rural livelihoods, public health and economic development, more especially for communities in Southern Africa. Assessment of indices that signify climate change can inform formulation of relevant adaptation strategies and policies for the communities. Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is acknowledged as an expedient measure of the scourge as it is sensitive to variations in radiative energy balance. In this study, a long-term (1961-2010) daily temperature data obtained from nine (9) synoptic stations in Botswana were analyzed for monotonic trends and epochal changes in annual maximum (T max), minimum (T min) temperatures and DTR time series. Most of the considered stations were along the Kalahari Transect, a region which is at high risk of extensive environmental change due to climate change. Mann-Kendall trend and Lepage tests were applied for trend and change point analysis, respectively. The statistical analysis shows that stations in the southern part of the country experienced significant negative trends in annual DTR at the rate of -0.09 to -0.30 °C per decade due to steeper warming rates in annual T min than annual T max trends. On the contrary, stations in the northern part of the country experienced positive trends in annual DTR brought about by either a decreasing annual T min trend which outstripped annual T max or annual T max which outpaced annual T min. The increasing trends in DTR varied from 0.25 to 0.67 °C per decade. For most of the stations, the most significant annual DTR trends change point was in 1982 which coincided with the reversal of atmospheric circulation patterns.

  15. Comparative study on skin temperature response to menstruation at acupuncture points in healthy volunteers and primary dysmenorrhea patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She Yanfen; Song Jiashan; Ma Liangxiao; Zhu Jiang; Qi Conghui; Wang Yanxia; Tang Ling; Li Chunhua; Yuan Hongwen; Liu Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To assess skin temperature response to menstruation at acupuncture points in primary dysmenorrhea (PD) patients and healthy volunteers so as to explore acupuncture point specificity in reflecting diseases in the light of skin temperature.METHODS:Fifty-two PD patients and 49 healthy volunteers were recruited.Skin temperature measurements were performed with a skin temperature assessment device at 10 points.Absolute difference between skin temperature of the same point on the left and right side is used as main outcome measure.RESULTS:On the first day of menstruation,when menstrual pain attacking in PD patients,a significant increase in skin temperature difference was detected at Taixi (KI 3) compared with the healthy group (P < 0.01).A significant reduction in skin temperature difference was detected at Taixi (KI 3) in the first day of menstruation compared with those values in the third day after menstruation (P < 0.01)in the healthy group.On the third day after menstruation,a significant reduction in skin temperature difference was found at Zhongdu (LR 6) in PD group compared with the healthy group (P < 0.05).No significant differences of skin temperature were detected at other points (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION:The skin temperature difference at menstruation-relevant points in PD patients did not all change significantly more than those in women without PD.Significant difference was only found in Taixi (KI 3),the Yuan-source point of Kidney meridian.

  16. Low-temperature hydrogen absorption in metallic nanocontacts studied by point-contact spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, H.; Islam, M. S.; Ienaga, K.; Inagaki, Y.; Hashizume, K.; Kawae, T.

    2017-09-01

    We report on hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms absorption below T = 20 K in metallic palladium (Pd) via quantum tunnelling (QT). When a small bias voltage is applied between Pd nanocontacts that are immersed in liquid H2 (D2), the differential conductance spectra measured by point-contact spectroscopy change enormously. The results indicate H (D) absorption in Pd nanocontacts at the temperature where H (D) absorption due to thermal hopping process is not expected, and can be explained by QT. The QT occurs when the energy level of the potential well trapping the H (D) atom coincides with those not trapping the H (D) atom, and is assisted by phonons induced by ballistic electrons.

  17. The dew point temperature as a criterion for optimizing the operating conditions of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    In this article an analytical method to calculate the dew point temperatures of the anode and cathode exit gas streams of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is developed. The results of these calculations are used to create diagrams that show the dew point temperatures as function...... of the operating pressure, the stoichiometric flow ratios and the net drag coefficient of water through the membrane. Then, computational modeling results obtained with a previously published model are analyzed and compared with the dew point charts, and it is demonstrated how cell flooding or membrane dry-out can...... be predicted a priori with the aid of these diagrams. Finally, guidelines for the desired cell operating temperature based on the expected dew point temperatures are developed. In the current work these guidelines are limited to the interdigitated flow field design, and they are likely to be different...

  18. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  19. New England observed and predicted July maximum negative stream/river temperature daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum negative daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  20. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  1. Wet-bulb, dew point, and air temperature trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Soriano, B.; Centeno, A.; Spano, D.; Snyder, R. L.

    2017-10-01

    This study analyses trends of mean ( T m), maximum ( T x), minimum ( T n), dew point ( T d), and wet-bulb temperatures ( T w) on an annual, seasonal, and monthly time scale over Spain during the period 1981-2010. The main purpose was to determine how temperature and humidity changes are impacting on T w, which is probably a better measure of climate change than temperature alone. In this study, 43 weather stations were used to detect data trends using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the Sen method to estimate the slope of trends. Significant linear trends observed for T m, T x, and T n versus year were 56, 58, and 47 % of the weather stations, respectively, with temperature ranges between 0.2 and 0.4 °C per decade. The months with bigger trends were April, May, June, and July with the highest trend for T x. The spatial behaviour of T d and T w was variable, with various locations showing trends from -0.6 to +0.3 °C per decade for T d and from -0.4 to +0.5 °C per decade for T w. Both T d and T w showed negative trends for July, August, September, November, and December. Comparing the trends versus time of each variable versus each of the other variables exhibited poor relationships, which means you cannot predict the trend of one variable from the trend of another variable. The trend of T x was not related to the trend of T n. The trends of T x, T m, and T n versus time were unrelated to the trends versus time of either T d or T w. The trend of T w showed a high coefficient of determination with the trend of T d with an annual value of R 2 = 0.86. Therefore, the T w trend is more related to changes in humidity than temperature.

  2. The initial freezing point temperature of beef rises with the rise in pH: a short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Kemp, R M; Cartwright, S; North, M

    2013-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the initial freezing point temperature of meat is affected by pH. Sixty four bovine M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum were classified into two ultimate pH groups: low (6.2) and their cooling and freezing point temperatures were determined. The initial freezing temperatures for beef ranged from -0.9 to -1.5°C (∆=0.6°C) with the higher and lower temperatures associated with high and low ultimate pH respectively. There was a significant correlation (r=+0.73, Pfreezing point temperature in the present study. The outcome of this study has implications for the meat industry where evidence of freezing (ice formation) in a shipment as a result of high pH meat could result in a container load of valuable chilled product being downgraded to a lower value frozen product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic Signatures of Quantum Critical Points of the Ferrimagnetic Mixed Spin-(1/2, S) Heisenberg Chains at Finite Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strečka, Jozef; Verkholyak, Taras

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic mixed spin-(1/2, S) Heisenberg chains are examined using quantum Monte Carlo simulations for two different quantum spin numbers S=1 and 3/2. The calculated magnetization curves at finite temperatures are confronted with zero-temperature magnetization data obtained within the density matrix renormalization group method, which imply an existence of two quantum critical points determining a breakdown of the gapped Lieb-Mattis ferrimagnetic phase and Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase, respectively. While a square root behavior of the magnetization accompanying each quantum critical point is gradually smoothed upon rising temperature, the susceptibility and isothermal entropy change data at low temperatures provide a stronger evidence of the zero-temperature quantum critical points through marked local maxima and minima, respectively.

  4. Temperature and thermo-optic coefficient measurements using optical fibre long period gratings operating at phase matching turning point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korposh, S.; Wong, R.; James, S.; Tatam, R.

    2013-05-01

    The response of optical fibre long period gratings (LPGs), fabricated with precise control of the grating period to operate at or near the phase matching turning point (PMTP), to temperature was studied. The effect of the grating period on sensor performance was studied. The sensitivity of the LPG operating at the phase matching turning point to temperature was 0.99 nm/°C for 111.5 μm grating period that is ca. 7 times higher than that of an LPG operating far from turning point. The possibility of using LPG sensors to determine the thermo-optic coefficient of the surrounding material was explored.

  5. Construction and in-situ characterisation of high-temperature fixed point cells devoted to industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadli Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the activities of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP project HiTeMS one work package is devoted to the development and testing of industrial solutions for long-standing temperature measurement problems at the highest temperatures. LNE-Cnam, NPL, TUBITAK-UME have worked on the design of high temperature fixed points (HTFP suitable for in-situ temperature monitoring to be implemented in the facilities of CEA (Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives. Several high temperature fixed point cells were constructed in these three national metrology institutes (NMIs using a rugged version of cells based on the hybrid design of the laboratory HTFP developed and continuously improved at LNE-Cnam during the last years. The fixed points of interest were Co-C, Ru-C and Re-C corresponding to melting temperatures of 1324 °C, 1953 °C and 2474 °C respectively. The cells were characterised at the NMIs after their construction. Having proved robust enough, they were transported to CEA and tested in an induction furnace and cycled from room temperature to temperatures much above the melting temperatures (> +400 °C with extremely high heating and cooling rates (up to 10 000 K/h. All the cells withstood the tests and the melting plateaus could be observed in all cases.

  6. A preliminary view on adsorption of organics on ice at temperatures close to melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrui; Waldner, Astrid; Orlando, Fabrizio; Artiglia, Luca; Ammann, Markus; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    -level spectroscopies to reveal the behaviour of adsorption and dissociation on ice. Additionally, pure ice and amine doped ice will be compared for their surface structure change at different temperatures, which will indicate the differences of surface disordering caused by different factors. For instance, we will have a chance to know better if impurities will cause local disordering, i.e. forming hydration shell, which challenges the traditional picture of a homogenous disordered doped ice surface. The findings of this study could not only improve our understanding of how acidic organics adsorb to ice, and of their chemical properties on ice, but also have potentials to know better the behaviour of pure ice at temperatures approaching to the melting point.

  7. Theoretical approaches to the temperature and zero-point motion effects on the electronic band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonze, X. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1, Place Croix du Sud, 1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Boulanger, P. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1, Place Croix du Sud, 1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Cote, M. [Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    The modifications of the electronic band structure of solids due to electron-phonon interactions (temperature and zero-point motion effects) have been explored by Manuel Cardona from both the experimental and theoretical sides. In the present contribution, we focus on the theoretical approaches to such effects. Although the situation has improved since the seventies, the wish for a fully developed theory (and associated efficient implementations) is not yet fulfilled. We review noticeable semi-empirical and first-principle studies, with a special emphasis on the Allen-Heine-Cardona (AHC) approach. We then focus on the non-diagonal Debye-Waller contribution, appearing beyond the rigid-ion approximation, in a Density-Functional Theory (DFT) approach. A numerical study shows that they can be sizeable (10%-50%) for diatomic molecules. We also present the basic idea of a new formalism, based on Density-Functional Perturbation Theory, that allows one to avoid the sums over a large number of empty states, and speed up the calculation by one order of magnitude, compared to the straightforward implementation of the AHC approach within DFT. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Three-point bending behavior of a ZEK100 Mg alloy at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, I., E-mail: ia31@msstate.edu [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Li, B.; McClelland, Z.; Horstemeyer, S.J. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Ma, Q. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States); Center for Aluminum Technology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Wang, P.T.; Horstemeyer, M.F. [Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    Three-point bending and tensile tests were performed on rare earth containing ZEK100 at room temperature and various displacement rates (1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 50.0 mm/min). The bend was either parallel to the rolling direction (RD specimens) or the transverse direction (TD specimens). The TD specimens presented higher bendability than the RD specimens. For the TD specimens, fracture did not occur at low displacement rates of 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mm/min, but occurred at 20.0 and 50.0 mm/min. Fracture occurred in the RD specimens at all the displacement rates. Cracks were observed in both the compression zone and the tension zone. Tensile tests in the RD and the TD show that the ductility in the TD is about three times as much as in the RD, leading to the better bendability in the RD specimens. The initial texture was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the results show that the (0001) basal texture was weakened and spread along the TD due to the addition of the rare earth elements. In-situ electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis was performed when the specimen was being bent, and the results show that {101"¯2}〈101{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}〉 twinning was activated in both the compression zone and the tension zone, different from highly textured AZ31 sheets. Our results indicate that the ZEK100 Mg alloy still presents anisotropy in the tensile properties and in the bending behavior, despite the weakened basal texture.

  9. On the yield of cold and ultracold neutrons for liquid hydrogen at low temperatures near the melting point

    CERN Document Server

    Morishima, N

    1999-01-01

    The neutron scattering cross sections for liquid hydrogen in the temperature range from the melting point to the boiling point are calculated. It is shown that lowering the temperature results in a significant increase in the yield of cold neutrons: for instance, a 44% increase for an incident neutron energy of 19.4 meV. The major cause of this increment is the para-to-ortho transition of a hydrogen molecule though accompanied by an appreciable increase in the density. The results of the cold- and ultracold-neutron yields are discussed in connection with the experimental results of Altarev et al. at the WWR-M reactor.

  10. Cryogenic temperature monitoring in superconducting power transmission line at CERN with hybrid multi-point and distributed fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiolo, A.; Palmieri, L.; Consales, M.; Giordano, M.; Bajas, H.; Galtarossa, A.; Bajko, M.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    Distributed and multi-point fiber-optic based measurements of cryogenic temperature down to 30 K are presented. Measurements have been performed along the cryostat of a superconducting power transmission line, which is currently being tested at CERN over a length of about 20 m. Multi-point measurements were based on two kinds of FBG with different coatings (epoxy and PMMA). In addition, distributed measurements exploited optical frequency-domain reflectometry to analyze the Rayleigh scattering along two concatenated fibers with different coatings (acrylate and polyimmide). Results confirm the viability of these approaches to monitor cryogenic temperatures along a superconducting transmission line.

  11. New fixed-point mini-cell to investigate thermocouple drift in a high-temperature environment under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, M.; Vlahovic, L.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Sadli, M.; Failleau, G. [Laboratoire Commun de Metrologie, LNE-Cnam, Saint-Denis, (France); Fuetterer, M.; Lapetite, J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten, (Netherlands); Fourrez, S. [Thermocoax, 8 rue du pre neuf, F-61100 St Georges des Groseillers, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Temperature measurements in the nuclear field require a high degree of reliability and accuracy. Despite their sheathed form, thermocouples subjected to nuclear radiations undergo changes due to radiation damage and transmutation that lead to significant EMF drift during long-term fuel irradiation experiment. For the purpose of a High Temperature Reactor fuel irradiation to take place in the High Flux Reactor Petten, a dedicated fixed-point cell was jointly developed by LNE-Cnam and JRC-IET. The developed cell to be housed in the irradiation rig was tailor made to quantify the thermocouple drift during the irradiation (about two year duration) and withstand high temperature (in the range 950 deg. C - 1100 deg. C) in the presence of contaminated helium in a graphite environment. Considering the different levels of temperature achieved in the irradiation facility and the large palette of thermocouple types aimed at surveying the HTR fuel pebble during the qualification test both copper (1084.62 deg. C) and gold (1064.18 deg. C) fixed-point materials were considered. The aim of this paper is to first describe the fixed-point mini-cell designed to be embedded in the reactor rig and to discuss the preliminary results achieved during some out of pile tests as much as some robustness tests representative of the reactor scram scenarios. (authors)

  12. Investigation of the effects of pressure gradient, temperature and wall temperature ratio on the stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders and gas turbine vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Duffy, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high pressure shock tubes were designed and constructed for the purpose of obtaining heat transfer data over a temperature range of 390 to 2500 K, pressures of 0.3 to 42 atm, and Mach numbers of 0.15 to 1.5 with and without pressure gradient. A square test section with adjustable top and bottom walls was constructed to produce the favorable and adverse pressure gradient over the flat plate with heat gages. A water cooled gas turbine nozzle cascade which is attached to the high pressure shock tube was obtained to measuse the heat flux over pressure and suction surfaces. Thin-film platinum heat gages with a response time of a few microseconds were developed and used to measure the heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The laminar boundary heat flux on the shock tube wall agreed with Mirel's flat plate theory. Stagnation point heat transfer for circular cylinders at low temperature compared with the theoretical prediction, but for a gas temperature of 922 K the heat fluxes were higher than the predicted values. Preliminary flat plate heat transfer data were measured for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients for free-stream temperatures of 350 to 2575 K and flow Mach numbers of 0.11 to 1.9. The experimental heat flux data were correlated with the laminar and turbulent theories and the agreement was good at low temperatures which was not the case for higher temperatures.

  13. Direct control of the temperature rise in parallel transmission by means of temperature virtual observation points: Simulations at 10.5 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulant, Nicolas; Wu, Xiaoping; Adriany, Gregor; Schmitter, Sebastian; Uğurbil, Kamil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    A method using parallel transmission to mitigate B1+ inhomogeneity while explicitly constraining the temperature rise is reported and compared with a more traditional SAR-constrained pulse design. Finite difference time domain simulations are performed on a numerical human head model and for a 16-channel coil at 10.5 Tesla. Based on a set of presimulations, a virtual observation point compression model for the temperature rise is derived. This compact representation is then used in a nonlinear programming algorithm for pulse design under explicit temperature rise constraints. In the example of a time-of-flight sequence, radiofrequency pulse performance in some cases is increased by a factor of two compared with SAR-constrained pulses, while temperature rise is directly and efficiently controlled. Pulse performance can be gained by relaxing the SAR constraints, but at the expense of a loss of direct control on temperature. Given the importance of accurate safety control at ultrahigh field and the lack of direct correspondence between SAR and temperature, this work motivates the need for thorough thermal studies in normal in vivo conditions. The tools presented here will possibly contribute to safer and more efficient MR exams. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Influences of end-point heating temperature on the quality attributes of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, W; Chen, C F; Chen, H Y; Tan, F J

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changes in physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) pectoralis muscle heated at temperatures of 50-95°C. With increasing temperature, cooking loss, collagen solubility, shear force value and hardness, of samples increased in both chicken breeds. Rapid decreases in protein solubility were observed when the meat was heated to 50°C and gradually decreased thereafter. Meat from BRs and native chickens performed differently upon heating in certain characteristics. TNC meat had longer cooking time and lower myofibrillar fragmentation index than BR meat did. TNC meat had higher collagen content, shear force values and springiness but lower collagen solubility than BR meat did. BR meat had significantly higher onset and end transition temperatures than TNC meat did. In BR meat, a sensory analysis revealed that moisture release decreased and chicken flavour increased with increasing temperature. Protein solubility, cooking loss and the texture of heated meat were highly correlated. This study scientifically assessed the performances of the two breeds of chickens with different thermal treatments; producers could utilise the information to produce poultry products with more desirable qualities.

  15. Dependence of the Q10 values on the depth of the soil temperature measuring point

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Acosta, Manuel; Marek, Michal V.; Kutsch, W.; Janouš, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 292, - (2007), s. 171-179 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD526/03/H036; GA MŽP SM/640/18/03 Grant - others:EU(XE) GOCE-CT-2003-505572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : respiration * soil * temperature * Q10 * Norway spruce * grassland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.821, year: 2007

  16. Thermal boundary layer in stagnation-point flow past a permeable shrinking sheet with variable surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Sharif Uddin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation is made to study the heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a non-isothermal permeable shrinking sheet with suction/injection. In this study, power-law variation of sheet temperature is considered. By similarity transformation, the governing equations with the boundary conditions are transformed to self-similar nonlinear ordinary differential equations and then those are solved numerically by shooting method. In presence of variable sheet temperature, the variation of temperature is analysed. For larger shrinking rate compared to that of straining rate, dual solutions for velocity and temperature are obtained. It is found that for positive value of power-law exponent of variable sheet temperature heat transfer at the sheet as well as heat absorption at the sheet with temperature overshoot near the sheet occur and for negative value heat transfer from the sheet occurs though there is overshoot away from the sheet. With increasing positive power-law exponent heat transfer reduces for first solution and heat absorption enhances for second solution. Whereas, with increasing magnitude of negative power-law exponent heat transfer increases for second solution and for first solution the heat transfer increases for larger shrinking rate and it decreases for smaller shrinking rate. Due to suction heat transfer/absorption increases in all cases and for injection heat transfer/absorption increases for first solution and decreases for second solution. Also, interesting effects of suction/injection and Prandtl number on temperature distribution are observed when the sheet temperature varies (directly/inversely along the sheet.

  17. Stress Concentration in the Bulk Cr2O3: Effects of Temperature and Point Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazharul M. Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling the growth and failure of passive oxide films formed on stainless steels is of general interest for the use of stainless steel as structural material and of special interest in the context of life time extension of light water reactors in nuclear power plants. Using the DFT+U approach, a theoretical investigation on the resistance to failure of the chromium-rich inner oxide layer formed at the surface of chromium-containing austenitic alloys (stainless steel and nickel based alloys has been performed. The investigations were done for periodic bulk models. The data at the atomic scale were extrapolated by using the Universal Binding Energy Relationships (UBERs model in order to estimate the mechanical behavior of a 10 μm thick oxide scale. The calculated stress values are in good agreement with experiments. Tensile stress for the bulk chromia was observed. The effects of temperature and structural defects on cracking were investigated. The possibility of cracking intensifies at high temperature compared to 0 K investigations. Higher susceptibility to cracking was observed in presence of defects compared to nondefective oxide, in agreement with experimental observation.

  18. Fierz-complete NJL model study: Fixed points and phase structure at finite temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Leonhardt, Marc; Pospiech, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type models are frequently employed as low-energy models in various research fields. With respect to the theory of the strong interaction, this class of models is indeed often used to analyze the structure of the phase diagram at finite temperature and quark chemical potential. The predictions from such models for the phase structure at finite quark chemical potential are of particular interest as this regime is difficult to access with lattice Monte Carlo approaches. In this work, we consider a Fierz-complete version of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. By studying its renormalization group flow, we analyze in detail how Fierz-incomplete approximations affect the predictive power of such model studies. In particular, we investigate the curvature of the phase boundary at small chemical potential, the critical value of the chemical potential above which no spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, and the possible interpretation of the underlying dynamics in terms of difermion-type degrees of freedom. We find that the inclusion of four-fermion channels other than the conventional scalar-pseudoscalar channel is not only important at large chemical potential but also leaves a significant imprint on the dynamics at small chemical potential as measured by the curvature of the finite-temperature phase boundary.

  19. Steam generators secondary side chemical cleaning at Point Lepreau using the Siemens high temperature process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, K.; MacNeil, C. [New Brunswick Power Corp., Lepreau (Canada); Odar, S.; Kuhnke, K. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the chemical cleaning of the four steam generators at the Point Lepreau facility, which was accomplished as a part of a normal service outage. The steam generators had been in service for twelve years. Sludge samples showed the main elements were Fe, P and Na, with minor amounts of Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cl, Cu, Ni, Ti, Si, and Pb, 90% in the form of Magnetite, substantial phosphate, and trace amounts of silicates. The steam generators were experiencing partial blockage of broached holes in the TSPs, and corrosion on tube ODs in the form of pitting and wastage. In addition heat transfer was clearly deteriorating. More than 1000 kg of magnetite and 124 kg of salts were removed from the four steam generators.

  20. Peculiar temperature-dependent charge response of frustrated chain cuprates near a critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drechsler, S-L; Malek, J; Nishimoto, S; Nitzsche, U; Kuzian, R; Eschrig, H [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung (IFW) Dresden, PO Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Rosner, H, E-mail: s.l.drechsler@ifw-dresden.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stofie, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-01-01

    The optical conductivity sigma(omega) is calculated at finite temperature T for CuO{sub 2} chain clusters within a pd-Hubbard model. Data at T = 300 K for Li{sub 2}CuO{sub 2} are reanalyzed within this approach. The relative weights of Zhang-Rice singlet and triplet charge excitations near 2.5 and 4 eV, respectively, depend strongly on T, and a dramatic dependence of sigma(omega) on the ratio of the 1st to 2nd neighbor exchange integrals is predicted. Information about exchange interactions for edge-shared cuprates can be obtained from T-dependent optical spectra. A reduced intensity of the ZRS-transition with increasing T is also relevant for unfrustrated cuprates in general.

  1. Salting-out effects in aqueous ionic liquid solutions: cloud-point temperature shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Joana R; Visak, Zoran P; Blesic, Marijana; Marrucho, Isabel M; Coutinho, João A P; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luis P N

    2007-05-10

    The effects of the addition of three inorganic salts, namely, NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)PO(4), on the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram of aqueous solutions containing the model ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF(4)], were investigated. All three inorganic salts trigger salting-out effects, leading to significant upward shifts of the L-L demixing temperatures of the systems. The magnitude of the shifts depends on both the water-structuring nature of the salt and its concentration; that is, the effects are correlated with the ionic strength of the solution and the Gibbs free energy of hydration of the inorganic salt. The pH effect and the occurrence of salt precipitation in concentrated solutions are also discussed.

  2. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  3. Water heater temperature set point and water use patterns influence Legionella pneumophila and associated microorganisms at the tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, William J; Ji, Pan; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-12-01

    Lowering water heater temperature set points and using less drinking water are common approaches to conserving water and energy; yet, there are discrepancies in past literature regarding the effects of water heater temperature and water use patterns on the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens, in particular Legionella pneumophila. Our objective was to conduct a controlled, replicated pilot-scale investigation to address this knowledge gap using continuously recirculating water heaters to examine five water heater set points (39-58 °C) under three water use conditions. We hypothesized that L. pneumophila levels at the tap depend on the collective influence of water heater temperature, flow frequency, and the resident plumbing ecology. We confirmed temperature setting to be a critical factor in suppressing L. pneumophila growth both in continuously recirculating hot water lines and at distal taps. For example, at 51 °C, planktonic L. pneumophila in recirculating lines was reduced by a factor of 28.7 compared to 39 °C and was prevented from re-colonizing biofilm. However, L. pneumophila still persisted up to 58 °C, with evidence that it was growing under the conditions of this study. Further, exposure to 51 °C water in a low-use tap appeared to optimally select for L. pneumophila (e.g., 125 times greater numbers than in high-use taps). We subsequently explored relationships among L. pneumophila and other ecologically relevant microbes, noting that elevated temperature did not have a general disinfecting effect in terms of total bacterial numbers. We documented the relationship between L. pneumophila and Legionella spp., and noted several instances of correlations with Vermamoeba vermiformis, and generally found that there is a dynamic relationship with this amoeba host over the range of temperatures and water use frequencies examined. Our study provides a new window of understanding into the microbial ecology of potable hot water systems and helps to resolve

  4. Testing for the Gaussian nature of cosmological density perturbations through the three-point temperature correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1993-01-01

    One of the crucial aspects of density perturbations that are produced by the standard inflation scenario is that they are Gaussian where seeds produced by topological defects tend to be non-Gaussian. The three-point correlation function of the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) provides a sensitive test of this aspect of the primordial density field. In this paper, this function is calculated in the general context of various allowed non-Gaussian models. It is shown that the Cosmic Background Explorer and the forthcoming South Pole and balloon CBR anisotropy data may be able to provide a crucial test of the Gaussian nature of the perturbations.

  5. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  6. Temperature Modulation with Specified Detection Point on Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors for E-Nose Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief SUDARMAJI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature modulation technique, some called dynamic measurement mode, on Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS/MOX gas sensor has been widely observed and employed in many fields. We present its development, a Specified Detection Point (SDP on modulated sensing element of MOS sensor is applied which associated to its temperature modulation, temperature modulation-SDP so-named. We configured the rectangular modulation signal for MOS gas sensors (TGSs and FISs using PSOC CY8C28445-24PVXI (Programmable System on Chip which also functioned as acquisition unit and interface to a computer. Initial responses and selectivity evaluations were performed using statistical tool and Principal Component Analysis (PCA to differ sample gases (Toluene, Ethanol and Ammonia on dynamic chamber measurement under various frequencies (0.25 Hz, 1 Hz, 4 Hz and duty-cycles (25 %, 50 %, 75 %. We found that at lower frequency the response waveform of the sensors becomes more sloping and distinct, and selected modulations successfully increased the selectivity either on singular or array sensors rather than static temperature measurement.

  7. Synergistic effect of temperature and point defect on the mechanical properties of single layer and bi-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debroy, Sanghamitra; Pavan Kumar, V.; Vijaya Sekhar, K.; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh; Acharyya, Amit

    2017-10-01

    The present study reports a comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation of the effect of a) temperature (300-1073 K at intervals of every 100 K) and b) point defect on the mechanical behaviour of single (armchair and zigzag direction) and bilayer layer graphene (AA and AB stacking). Adaptive intermolecular reactive bond order (AIREBO) potential function was used to describe the many-body short-range interatomic interactions for the single layer graphene sheet. Moreover, Lennard Jones model was considered for bilayer graphene to incorporate the van der Waals interactions among the interlayers of graphene. The effect of temperature on the strain energy of single layer and bilayer graphene was studied in order to understand the difference in mechanical behaviour of the two systems. The strength of the pristine single layer graphene was found to be higher as compared to bilayer AA stacked graphene at all temperatures. It was observed at 1073 K and in the presence of vacancy defect the strength for single layer armchair sheet falls by 30% and for bilayer armchair sheet by 33% as compared to the pristine sheets at 300 K. The AB stacked graphene sheet was found to have a two-step rupture process. The strength of pristine AB sheet was found to decrease by 22% on increase of temperature from 300 K to 1073 K.

  8. A dual-unit pressure sensor for on-chip self-compensation of zero-point temperature drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiachou; Li, Xinxin

    2014-08-01

    A novel dual-unit piezoresistive pressure sensor, consisting of a sensing unit and a dummy unit, is proposed and developed for on-chip self-compensation for zero-point temperature drift. With an MIS (microholes inter-etch and sealing) process implemented only from the front side of single (1 1 1) silicon wafers, a pressure sensitive unit and another identically structured pressure insensitive dummy unit are compactly integrated on-chip to eliminate unbalance factors induced zero-point temperature-drift by mutual compensation between the two units. Besides, both units are physically suspended from silicon substrate to further suppress packaging-stress induced temperature drift. A simultaneously processes ventilation hole-channel structure is connected with the pressure reference cavity of the dummy unit to make it insensitive to detected pressure. In spite of the additional dummy unit, the sensor chip dimensions are still as small as 1.2 mm × 1.2 mm × 0.4 mm. The proposed dual-unit sensor is fabricated and tested, with the tested sensitivity being 0.104 mV kPa-1 3.3 V-1, nonlinearity of less than 0.08% · FSO and overall accuracy error of ± 0.18% · FSO. Without using any extra compensation method, the sensor features an ultra-low temperature coefficient of offset (TCO) of 0.002% °C-1 · FSO that is much better than the performance of conventional pressure sensors. The highly stable and small-sized sensors are promising for low cost production and applications.

  9. Comparison of Re-C Fixed-Point Cells and Their T90 Temperatures Between NMIJ and VNIIOFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlevnoy, B. B.; Yamada, Y.; Grigoryeva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.

    2011-08-01

    The comparison of Re-C fixed-point cells built at NMIJ and VNIIOFI was carried out. Both cells were built using 5N purity rhenium of the same supplier, and the crucibles had similar dimensions. The cells were heated in the same furnace and measured on consecutive days using a radiation thermometer. To eliminate the effect of possible instability of the thermometer, a third Re-C cell was used as a reference: it was placed in another furnace and was measured each day just after the cell to be compared. The melting-temperature difference of the NMIJ cell to the VNIIOFI cell was 0.045 °C with a standard uncertainty of 0.033 °C. In the course of this comparison, a comparison of the temperature scales between the NMIJ and the VNIIOFI at the Re-C point (2475 °C) was performed using the NMIJ Re-C cells as transfer standards. The difference between the NMIJ and the VNIIOFI scales was found to be -0.8 °C, which was within the combined uncertainty of 1.4 °C ( k = 2).

  10. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Figueiredo Magalhães

    Full Text Available Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p 0.05. In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin.

  11. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin. PMID:26070073

  12. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin.

  13. Effect of temperature of CO2 injection on the pH and freezing point of milks and creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the impact of CO2 injection temperature (0 degree C and 40 degrees C) on the pH and freezing point (FP) of (a) milks with different fat contents (i.e., 0, 15, 30%) and (b) creams with 15% fat but different fat characteristics. Skim milk and unhomogenized creams containing 15 and 30% fat were prepared from the same batch of whole milk and were carbonated at 0 and 40 degrees C in a continuous flow CO2 injection unit (230 ml/min). At 0 degree C, milk fat was mostly solid; at 40 degrees C, milk fat was liquid. At the same total CO2 concentration with CO2 injection at 0 degree C, milk with a higher fat content had a lower pH and FP, while with CO2 injection at 40 degrees C, milks with 0%, 15%, and 30% fat had the same pH. This indicated that less CO2 was dissolved in the fat portion of the milk when the CO2 was injected at 0 degree C than when it was injected at 40 degrees C. Three creams, 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% butter oil emulsion in skim milk, and 15% vegetable oil emulsion in skim milk were also carbonated and analyzed as described above. Vegetable oil was liquid at both 0 and 40 degrees C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C, the 15% vegetable oil emulsion had a slightly higher pH than the 15% butter oil emulsion and the 15% unhomogenized cream, indicating that the liquid vegetable oil dissolved more CO2 than the mostly solid milk fat and butter oil. No difference in the pH or FP of the 15% unhomogenized cream and 15% butter oil emulsion was observed when CO2 was injected at 0 degree C, suggesting that homogenization or physical dispersion of milk fat globules did not influence the amount of CO2 dissolved in milk fat at a CO2 injection temperature of 0 degree C. At a CO2 injection temperature of 40 degrees C and at the same total CO2 concentration, the 15% unhomogenized cream, 15% vegetable oil emulsion, and 15% butter oil emulsion had similar pH. At the same total concentration of CO2 in cream, injection

  14. Technology to accelerate pangenomic scanning for unknown point mutations in exonic sequences: cycling temperature capillary electrophoresis (CTCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørheim Jens

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid means to discover and enumerate unknown mutations in the exons of human genes on a pangenomic scale are needed to discover the genes carrying inherited risk for common diseases or the genes in which somatic mutations are required for clonal diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers. The method of constant denaturing capillary electrophoresis (CDCE permitted sensitive detection and enumeration of unknown point mutations but labor-intensive optimization procedures for each exonic sequence made it impractical for application at a pangenomic scale. Results A variant denaturing capillary electrophoresis protocol, cycling temperature capillary electrophoresis (CTCE, has eliminated the need for the laboratory optimization of separation conditions for each target sequence. Here are reported the separation of wild type mutant homoduplexes from wild type/mutant heteroduplexes for 27 randomly chosen target sequences without any laboratory optimization steps. Calculation of the equilibrium melting map of each target sequence attached to a high melting domain (clamp was sufficient to design the analyte sequence and predict the expected degree of resolution. Conclusion CTCE provides practical means for economical pangenomic detection and enumeration of point mutations in large-scale human case/control cohort studies. We estimate that the combined reagent, instrumentation and labor costs for scanning the ~250,000 exons and splice sites of the ~25,000 human protein-coding genes using automated CTCE instruments in 100 case cohorts of 10,000 individuals each are now less than U.S. $500 million, less than U.S. $500 per person.

  15. High temperature exposure of in-situ thermocouple fixed-point cells: stability with up to three months of continuous use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C. J.; Greenen, A.; Lowe, D.; Pearce, J. V.; Machin, G.

    2015-04-01

    To categorise thermocouples in batches, manufacturers state an expected operating tolerance for when the thermocouples are as-new. In use, thermocouple behaviour can rapidly change and the tolerance becomes invalid, especially when used at high temperatures (i.e. above 1000 °C) as the processes leading to de-calibration, such as oxidation and contamination, can be very fast and lead to erroneous readings. In-situ thermocouple self-validation provides a method to track the drift and correct the thermocouple reading in real-time, but it must be shown to be reliable. Two miniature temperature fixed-point cells designed at NPL for in-situ thermocouple self-validation, the first containing a Pt-C eutectic alloy and the second containing a Ru-C eutectic alloy, have been exposed to temperatures close to their melting point for 2200 h and 1570 h, respectively, and continuously, for up to three months. Recalibration after this long-term high-temperature exposure, where a tantalum-sheathed thermocouple was always in place, is used to show that no significant change of the temperature reference point (the melting temperature) has occurred in either the Pt-C ingot or the Ru-C ingot, over timescales far longer than previously demonstrated and approaching that required by industry for practical use of the device.

  16. Variable- and fixed-point blackbody sources developed at VNIIOFI for precision measurements in radiometry and thermometry within 100K-3500K temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapritsky, V. I.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Ogarev, S. A.; Privalsky, V. E.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sakharov, M. K.; Bourdakin, A. A.; Panfilov, A. S.

    2006-09-01

    The demands of modern radiation thermometry and radiometry are being satisfied by a large variety of high-precision unique BB sources (both fixed-point and variable temperature) designed for a wide range of temperature from 100 K to 3500 K. The paper contains a detailed review of low-, medium- and high-temperature precision blackbodies developed at VNIIOFI as the basis of the spectral radiance and irradiance calibration devices in the rank of National standards. The blackbodies include: 1) variable-temperature (100K..1000K) research-grade extended-area (up to 100 mm) models intended to perform radiometric calibrations by comparison with a primary standard source, as well as can be used as the sources for high-accuracy IR calibration of space-borne and other systems not requiring a vacuum environment; 2) low-temperature fixed-point blackbodies on the basis of phase transitions of pure metals such as In and Ga sources, and the metal-metal eutectics operating within the medium-temperature range (300K to 400K); these are used for pyrometric measurements, IR-radiometry, preflight and (future aspects) in-flight calibration of space borne IR instruments; 3) high-temperature wide aperture variable-temperature blackbodies (1800K to 3500K) such as BB3500MP, BB3500YY designed and fabricated, along with fixed-point cells working above the ITS-90 temperatures on the basis of phase transitions of metal-carbon eutectic alloys (Re-C, TiC-C, ZrC-C, HfC-C), which possess unique reproducibility of 0.1% or less.

  17. A review of the deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures less than 0.2 of the melting point /K/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The deformation behavior of tungsten at temperatures below 0.2 times the absolute melting temperature is reviewed with primary emphasis on the temperature dependence of the yield stress and the ductile-brittle transition. It is concluded that a model based on the high Peierls stress of tungsten best accounts for the observed mechanical behavior at low temperatures. Recent research suggests an important role of electron concentration and bonding on the mechanical behavior of tungsten. Future research on tungsten should include studies to define more clearly the correlation between electron concentration and mechanical behavior of alloys of tungsten and other transition metal alloys.

  18. Future PMPs Estimation in Korea under AR5 RCP 8.5 Climate Change Scenario: Focus on Dew Point Temperature Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okjeong, Lee; Sangdan, Kim

    2016-04-01

    According to future climate change scenarios, future temperature is expected to increase gradually. Therefore, it is necessary to reflect the effects of these climate changes to predict Probable Maximum Precipitations (PMPs). In this presentation, PMPs will be estimated with future dew point temperature change. After selecting 174 major storm events from 1981 to 2005, new PMPs will be proposed with respect to storm areas (25, 100, 225, 400, 900, 2,025, 4,900, 10,000 and 19,600 km2) and storm durations (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hours) using the Korea hydro-meteorological method. Also, orographic transposition factor will be applied in place of the conventional terrain impact factor which has been used in previous Korean PMPs estimation reports. After estimating dew point temperature using future temperature and representative humidity information under the Korea Meteorological Administration AR5 RCP 8.5, changes in the PMPs under dew point temperature change will be investigated by comparison with present and future PMPs. This research was supported by a grant(14AWMP-B082564-01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  19. Mesospheric Temperatures over Apache Point Observatory (32°N, 105°W) Derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gawon; Kim, Yong Ha; Lee, Young Sun

    2017-06-01

    We retrieved rotational temperatures from emission lines of the OH airglow (8-3) band in the sky spectra of the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS) for the period 2000-2014, as part of the astronomical observation project conducted at the Apache Point observatory (32°N, 105°W). The SDSS temperatures show a typical seasonal variation of mesospheric temperature: low in summer and high in winter. We find that the temperatures respond to solar activity by as much as 1.2 K ±0.8 K per 100 solar flux units, which is consistent with other studies in mid-latitude regions. After the seasonal variation and solar response were subtracted, the SDSS temperature is fairly constant over the 15 year period, unlike cooling trends suggested by some studies. This temperature analysis using SDSS spectra is a unique contribution to the global monitoring of climate change because the SDSS project was established for astronomical purposes and is independent from climate studies. The SDSS temperatures are also compared with mesospheric temperatures measured by the microwave limb sounder (MLS) instrument on board the Aura satellite and the differences are discussed.

  20. Enhancement of yield point at high pressure high temperature wells by using polymer nanocomposites based on ZnO & CaCO3 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Noah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs and modified calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared and added to polystyrene-butadiene rubber copolymer (PSBR matrix to prepare PSBR nanocomposites. The prepared nanomaterials (ZnO-NPs & nano-CaCO3 were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Furthermore, the prepared polymer nanocomposites and oil base mud were used for drilling in high pressure high temperature (HPHT wells. The consequence of using polymer nanocomposites based on different loading of ZnO-NPs and nano-CaCO3 on the rheological properties of oil base mud was evaluated and enhanced the yield point at high pressure high temperature wells (HPHT. The using of the polymer with different percentage from (0.5 in all percent the obtained results is very promising; this means that the increase of polymer is reasonable for the increase of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield point at high temperature. Correspondingly, polymer nanocomposites displayed rise of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield point, decreased in fluid loss and increased in electrical stability at high pressure high temperature wells.

  1. Modelling the association of dengue fever cases with temperature and relative humidity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia-A generalised linear model with break-point analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldy, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of environmental factors in the temporal distribution of dengue fever in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic factors such as relative humidity and temperature was investigated during 2006-2009 to determine whether there is any relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic parameters in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. A generalised linear model (GLM) with a break-point was used to determine how different levels of temperature and relative humidity affected the distribution of the number of cases of dengue fever. Break-point analysis was performed to modelled the effect before and after a break-point (change point) in the explanatory parameters under various scenarios. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and cross validation (CV) were used to assess the performance of the models. The results showed that maximum temperature and mean relative humidity are most probably the better predictors of the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. In this study three scenarios were modelled: no time lag, 1-week lag and 2-weeks lag. Among these scenarios, the 1-week lag model using mean relative humidity as an explanatory variable showed better performance. This study showed a clear relationship between the meteorological variables and the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. The results also demonstrated that meteorological variables can be successfully used to estimate the number of dengue fever cases for a given period of time. Break-point analysis provides further insight into the association between meteorological parameters and dengue fever cases by dividing the meteorological parameters into certain break-points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. STUDY ON THE DEW POINT TEMPERATURE IN AREAS WITH SUPERFICIAL LIMESTONE UNDERGROUND ENVIRONMENT (SCREE IN THE GHIMBAV AREA, LEAOTA MOUNTAINS, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalin-Leonard Dorobăţ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dew point of a mixture of a gas (air and the water vapors represents the temperature at which the cold air becomes saturated in water vapors and they condensate. Sometimes, especially in colder periods, it is more revealing regarding the water quantity in the air as vapors, than the relative humidity indicator. The field observations have shown that, always, in the surveys in the ecologic stationaries I have installed in limestone scree in Leaota Massive, condense is formed on the walls of the PVC tubes, irrespective of the season. The continuous measuring, for a period of several months, of more abiotic parameters, amongst which the temperature of the dew point was carried out with dataloggers, which were installed at different depths in limestone scree. This type of continuous monitoring of abiotic parameters at different scree depths is a premiere for Leaota and even is a first for Romania.

  3. High Temperature Fixed-Point Blackbodies Based on Metal-Carbon Eutectics for Precision Measurements in Radiometry, Photometry and Radiation Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapritsky, V. I.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Khromchenko, V. B.; Ogarev, S. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Pikalev, Yu. A.

    2003-09-01

    Re-C, TiC-C and ZrC-C metal-carbon eutectics cells were developed and investigated at VNIIOFI (Russia) for use as high-temperature fixed-point blackbodies for precise measurements in radiometry, photometry and radiation thermometry. Two types of cells containing cavities with 4 mm and 10 mm diameters were designed that allow using them in radiance and irradiance modes, respectively. The melting temperatures of Re-C, TiC-C and ZrC-C were found to be 2747.5 K, 3033.8 and 3154.1 K respectively. The reproducibility of the Re-C fixed points was found to be 0.04 to 0.09 K, depending on the cell. The reproducibility of TiC-C and ZrC-C melting temperatures was 0.05 K and 0.09 K respectively. The pyrolitic-graphite blackbody BB3200pg was used as a furnace for heating eutectics. The new TiC-C and ZrC-C fixed-point cells with 16 mm cavity diameter and a new furnace BB3500MP are under development now.

  4. Conserved and narrow temperature limits in alpine insects: Thermal tolerance and supercooling points of the ice-crawlers, Grylloblatta (Insecta: Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D; Slatyer, Rachel A; Bergdahl, James C; Valdez, Glenda A

    2015-07-01

    For many terrestrial species, habitat associations and range size are dependent on physiological limits, which in turn may influence large-scale patterns of species diversity. The temperature range experienced by individuals is considered to shape the breadth of the thermal niche, with species occupying temporally and/or geographically stable climates tolerating a narrow temperature range. High-elevation environments experience large temperature fluctuations, with frequent periods below 0 °C, but Grylloblatta (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) occupy climatically stable microhabitats within this region. Here we test critical thermal limits and supercooling points for five Grylloblatta populations from across a large geographic area, to examine whether the stable microhabitats of this group are associated with a narrow thermal niche and assess their capacity to tolerate cold conditions. Thermal limits are highly conserved in Grylloblatta, despite substantial genetic divergence among populations spanning 1500 m elevation and being separated by over 500 km. Further, Grylloblatta show exceptionally narrow thermal limits compared to other insect taxa with little capacity to improve cold tolerance via plasticity. In contrast, upper thermal limits were significantly depressed by cold acclimation. Grylloblatta maintain coordinated movement until they freeze, and they die upon freezing. Convergence of the critical thermal minima, supercooling point and lower lethal limits point to adaptation to a cold but, importantly, constant thermal environment. These physiological data provide an explanation for the high endemism and patchy distribution of Grylloblatta, which relies on subterranean retreats to accommodate narrow thermal limits. These retreats are currently buffered from temperature fluctuations by snow cover, and a declining snowpack thus places Grylloblatta at risk of exposure to temperatures beyond its tolerance capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Potential profile near singularity point in kinetic Tonks-Langmuir discharges as a function of the ion sources temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, L.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Jelić, N.

    2011-05-01

    A plasma-sheath transition analysis requires a reliable mathematical expression for the plasma potential profile Φ(x) near the sheath edge xs in the limit ɛ ≡λD/ℓ =0 (where λD is the Debye length and ℓ is a proper characteristic length of the discharge). Such expressions have been explicitly calculated for the fluid model and the singular (cold ion source) kinetic model, where exact analytic solutions for plasma equation (ɛ =0) are known, but not for the regular (warm ion source) kinetic model, where no analytic solution of the plasma equation has ever been obtained. For the latter case, Riemann [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 24, 493 (1991)] only predicted a general formula assuming relatively high ion-source temperatures, i.e., much higher than the plasma-sheath potential drop. Riemann's formula, however, according to him, never was confirmed in explicit solutions of particular models (e.g., that of Bissell and Johnson [Phys. Fluids 30, 779 (1987)] and Scheuer and Emmert [Phys. Fluids 31, 3645 (1988)]) since "the accuracy of the classical solutions is not sufficient to analyze the sheath vicinity" [Riemann, in Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference, APS Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 54 (APS, 2009)]. Therefore, for many years, there has been a need for explicit calculation that might confirm the Riemann's general formula regarding the potential profile at the sheath edge in the cases of regular very warm ion sources. Fortunately, now we are able to achieve a very high accuracy of results [see, e.g., Kos et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 093503 (2009)]. We perform this task by using both the analytic and the numerical method with explicit Maxwellian and "water-bag" ion source velocity distributions. We find the potential profile near the plasma-sheath edge in the whole range of ion source temperatures of general interest to plasma physics, from zero to "practical infinity." While within limits of "very low" and "relatively high" ion source temperatures

  6. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory ‘Hardness’ and ‘Chewiness’ Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sasaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Texture and ‘tenderness’ in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers’ satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses by a sensory panel with expertise regarding the ISO11036 scales. For the sensory analysis, standard scales of ‘chewiness’ (9-points and ‘hardness’ (7-points were presented to the sensory panel with reference materials defined in ISO11036. As a result, both ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ assessed according to the ISO11036 scales increased by increasing the cooking end-point temperature, and were different between Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles. The sensory results were in good agreement with instrumental texture measurements. However, both texture ratings in this study were in a narrower range than the full ISO scales. For beef texture, ISO11036 scales for ‘chewiness’ and ‘hardness’ are useful for basic studies, but some alterations are needed for practical evaluation of muscle foods.

  7. Unusual Reversible Oligomerization of Unfolded Dengue Envelope Protein Domain 3 at High Temperatures and Its Abolition by a Point Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saotome, Tomonori; Nakamura, Shigeyoshi; Islam, Mohammad M; Nakazawa, Akiko; Dellarole, Mariano; Arisaka, Fumio; Kidokoro, Shun-Ichi; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2016-08-16

    We report differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments between 10 and 120 °C of Dengue 4 envelope protein domain 3 (DEN4 ED3), a small 107-residue monomeric globular protein domain. The thermal unfolding of DEN4 ED3 was fully reversible and exhibited two peculiar endothermic peaks. AUC (analytical ultracentrifugation) experiments at 25 °C indicated that DEN4 ED3 was monomeric. Detailed thermodynamic analysis indicated that the two endothermic peaks separated with an increasing protein concentration, and global fitting of the DSC curves strongly suggested the presence of unfolded tetramers at temperatures around 80-90 °C, which dissociated to unfolded monomers at even higher temperatures. To further characterize this rare thermal unfolding process, we designed and constructed a DEN4 ED3 variant that would unfold according to a two-state model, typical of globular proteins. We thus substituted Val 380, the most buried residue at the dimeric interface in the protein crystal, with less hydrophobic amino acids (Ala, Ser, Thr, Asn, and Lys). All variants showed a single heat absorption peak, typical of small globular proteins. In particular, the DSC thermogram of DEN4 V380K indicated a two-state reversible thermal unfolding independent of protein concentration, indicating that the high-temperature oligomeric state was successfully abolished by a single mutation. These observations confirmed the standard view that small monomeric globular proteins undergo a two-state unfolding. However, the reversible formation of unfolded oligomers at high temperatures is a truly new phenomenon, which was fully inhibited by an accurately designed single mutation.

  8. The Effects of Thermal Radiation on an Unsteady MHD Axisymmetric Stagnation-Point Flow over a Shrinking Sheet in Presence of Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity with Navier Slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sabyasachi; Haroun, Nageeb A H; Sibanda, Precious

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of an unsteady and electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid in with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, thermal radiation and Navier slip is investigated. The flow is due to a shrinking surface that is shrunk axisymmetrically in its own plane with a linear velocity. The magnetic field is imposed normally to the sheet. The model equations that describe this fluid flow are solved by using the spectral relaxation method. Here, heat transfer processes are discussed for two different types of wall heating; (a) a prescribed surface temperature and (b) a prescribed surface heat flux. We discuss and evaluate how the various parameters affect the fluid flow, heat transfer and the temperature field with the aid of different graphical presentations and tabulated results.

  9. Correlations of velocity and temperature fluctuations in the stagnation-point flow of circular cylinder in turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    The present analyses of boundary layer flow and turbulence transport attempt to characterize the influence of freestream turbulence on the surface heat-transfer rate and stagnation point region skin friction of a circular cross-section cylinder in turbulent flow. The Reynolds stress-transport equations and k-epsilon two-equation turbulence modeling are used, yielding time-averaged turbulence double-correlations, mean-flow properties, surface heat-transfer rate, and skin-friction with freestream isotropic turbulence. A comparison of analytical results with experimental data indicates that large Reynolds normal stresses are induced at the boundary layer edge by the kinetic energy of the turbulence.

  10. Evolution kinetics of elementary point defects in ZnO implanted with low fluences of helium at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoodoo, C.; Hupfer, A.; Vines, L.; Monakhov, E. V.; Svensson, B. G.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrothermally grown n -type ZnO samples, implanted with helium (He+) at a sample temperature of ˜40 K and fluences of 5 ×109 and 5 ×1010cm-2 , have been studied in situ by capacitance voltage (CV) and junction spectroscopy measurements. The results are complemented by data from secondary ion mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared absorption measurements and first-principles calculations. Removal/passivation of an implantation-induced shallow donor center or alternatively growth of a deep acceptor defect are observed after annealing, monitored via charge carrier concentration (Nd) versus depth profiles extracted from CV data. Isothermal anneals in the temperature range of 290-325 K were performed to study the evolution in Nd, revealing a first-order kinetics with an activation energy, Ea≈0.7 eV and frequency factor, c0˜106s-1 . Two models are discussed in order to explain these annealing results. One relies on transition of oxygen interstitials (Oi) from a split configuration (neutral state) to an octahedral configuration (deep double acceptor state) as a key feature. The other one is based on the migration of Zn interstitials (double donor) and trapping by neutral Zn-vacancy-hydrogen complexes as the core ingredient. In particular, the latter model exhibits good quantitative agreement with the experimental data and gives an activation energy of ˜0.75 eV for the migration of Zn interstitials.

  11. Half-metallic compensated ferrimagnetism with a tunable compensation point over a wide temperature range in the Mn-Fe-V-Al Heusler system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Stinshoff

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cubic Heusler compound Mn1.5FeV0.5Al with the L21 Heusler structure is the first fully compensated half-metallic ferrimagnet with 24 valence electrons. The ferrimagnetic state can be tuned by changing the composition such that the compensation point appears at finite temperatures ranging from 0 K up to 226 K, while retaining half-metallicity in the system. In this paper, the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the Mn-Fe-V-Al system are discussed. Magnetic reversal and a change of sign of the anomalous Hall effect were observed at the compensation point, which gives rise to a sublattice spin-crossing. These materials present new possibilities for potential spintronic devices because of their advantageous properties such as imperceptibility to external fields, lower power consumption and ultrafast switching in the THz region.

  12. Half-metallic compensated ferrimagnetism with a tunable compensation point over a wide temperature range in the Mn-Fe-V-Al Heusler system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinshoff, Rolf; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Chadov, Stanislav; Nayak, Ajaya K.; Balke, Benjamin; Ouardi, Siham; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Felser, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    The cubic Heusler compound Mn1.5FeV0.5Al with the L21 Heusler structure is the first fully compensated half-metallic ferrimagnet with 24 valence electrons. The ferrimagnetic state can be tuned by changing the composition such that the compensation point appears at finite temperatures ranging from 0 K up to 226 K, while retaining half-metallicity in the system. In this paper, the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the Mn-Fe-V-Al system are discussed. Magnetic reversal and a change of sign of the anomalous Hall effect were observed at the compensation point, which gives rise to a sublattice spin-crossing. These materials present new possibilities for potential spintronic devices because of their advantageous properties such as imperceptibility to external fields, lower power consumption and ultrafast switching in the THz region.

  13. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudenbach, D.H.

    1979-03-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Point Beach nuclear power plant, Units 1 and 2. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Support Program being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  14. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P led to a significant increase in CL (P meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Effects of temperatures near the freezing point on N2O emissions, denitrification and on the abundance and structure of nitrifying and denitrifying soil communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Sophie; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Tatti, Enrico; Chantigny, Martin H; Filion, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming in temperate regions may lead to decreased soil temperatures over winter as a result of reduced snow cover. We examined the effects of temperatures near the freezing point on N(2)O emissions, denitrification, and on the abundance and structure of soil nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Soil microcosms supplemented with NO3 - and/or NO3 - plus red clover residues were incubated for 120 days at -4 °C, -1 °C, +2 °C or +5 °C. Among microcosms amended with residues, N(2)O emission and/or denitrification increased with increasing temperature on Days 2 and 14. Interestingly, N(2)O emission and/or denitrification after Day 14 were the greatest at -1 °C. Substantial N(2) O emissions were only observed on Day 2 at +2 °C and +5 °C, while at -1 °C, N(2)O emissions were consistently detected over the duration of the experiment. Abundances of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), Nitrospira-like bacteria and nirK denitrifiers were the lowest in soils at -4 °C, while abundances of Nitrobacter-like bacteria and nirS denitrifiers did not vary among temperatures. Community structures of nirK and nirS denitrifiers and Nitrobacter-like bacteria shifted between below-zero and above-zero temperatures. Structure of AOA and AOB communities also changed but not systematically among frozen and unfrozen temperatures. Results indicated shifts in some nitrifier and denitrifier communities with freezing and a surprising stimulation of N(2)O emissions at -1 °C when NO3 - and C are present. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface Tension and Viscosity of SCN and SCN-acetone Alloys at Melting Points and Higher Temperatures Using Surface Light Scattering Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Padetha; deGroh, Henry C., III.

    2003-01-01

    Succinonitrile has been and is being used extensively in NASA's Microgravity Materials Science and Fluid Physics programs and as well as in several ground-based and microgravity studies including the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE). Succinonitrile (SCN) is useful as a model for the study of metal solidification, although it is an organic material, it has a BCC crystal structure and solidifies dendriticly like a metal. It is also transparent and has a low melting point (58.08 C). Previous measurements of succinonitrile (SCN) and alloys of succinonitrile and acetone surface tensions are extremely limited. Using the Surface Light Scattering technique we have determined non invasively, the surface tension and viscosity of SCN and SCN-Acetone Alloys at different temperatures. This relatively new and unique technique has several advantages over the classical methods such as, it is non invasive, has good accuracy and measures the surface tension and viscosity simultaneously. The accuracy of interfacial energy values obtained from this technique is better than 2% and viscosity about 10 %. Succinonitrile and succinonitrile-acetone alloys are well-established model materials with several essential physical properties accurately known - except the liquid/vapor surface tension at different elevated temperatures. We will be presenting the experimentally determined liquid/vapor surface energy and liquid viscosity of succinonitrile and succinonitrile-acetone alloys in the temperature range from their melting point to around 100 C using this non-invasive technique. We will also discuss about the measurement technique and new developments of the Surface Light Scattering Spectrometer.

  17. Development of a multi-point two-color pyrometer for tube and wall temperature and emissivity measurement at the CFFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, R. D.; Jang, P. R.

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) has been actively engaged in developing and applying advanced optical diagnostic techniques and instrumentation systems to high temperature coal-fired gas streams for over a decade. DIAL's systems have been used primarily in support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) research program. One of the earliest diagnostic systems developed by DIAL was a two color pyrometer (TCP). The TCP is used to measure surface temperature and emissivity. This system has been used extensively to make measurements in support of the national MHD program. In this system, two commercial single-color pyrometers and a microprocessor system were used to form a TCP to make accurate measurements of surfaces of unknown emissivity and temperature. This paper describes an improvement in the DIAL TCP which provides for near simultaneous multipoint measurements, reduced dependence on electronic circuits, and a greatly improved data display system. Commercial two-color pyrometer systems are not suitable for our work because they do not provide for emissivity measurement. The emissivity measurement provides insight into changes in surface characteristics and is an important consideration in our work. A second and important reason for our development of this system is the need to make simultaneous measurements at widely separated points. Finally, the data measured by this system is stored on magnetic media and can be correlated with other measurements on the system, e.g. furnace, under study.

  18. The anatomical study of the major signal points of the court-type Thai traditional massage on legs and their effects on blood flow and skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravud, Yadaridee; Apichartvorakit, Angkana; Mutirangura, Pramook; Plakornkul, Vasana; Roongruangchai, Jantima; Vannabhum, Manmas; Laohapand, Tawee; Akarasereenont, Pravit

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between major signal points (MaSPs) of the lower extremities used in court-type Thai traditional massage (CTTM) and the corresponding underlying anatomical structures, as well as to determine the short-term changes in blood flow and skin temperature of volunteers experiencing CTTM. MaSPs were identified and marked on cadavers before acrylic color was injected. The underlying structures marked with acrylic colors were observed and the anatomical structures were determined. Then, pressure was applied to each MaSP in human volunteers (lateral side of leg and medial side of leg) and blood flow on right dorsalis pedis artery was measured using duplex ultrasound while skin temperature changes were monitored using an infrared themographic camera. Short-term changes in the blood flow parameters, volume flow and average velocity, compared to baseline (P massage can stimulate skin blood flow because results showed increased skin temperature and blood flow characteristics. While these results were statistically significant, they may not be clinically relevant, as the present study focused on the immediate physiological effect of manipulation, rather than treatment effects. Thus, this study will serve as baseline data for further clinical studies in CTTM.

  19. Hydration and Hydrogen Bond Network of Water during the Coil-to-Globule Transition in Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Aqueous Solution at Cloud Point Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Naito, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2015-04-30

    Aqueous solutions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), P-NIPAAm, exhibit a noticeable temperature responsive change in molecular conformation at a cloud point temperature (Tcp). As the temperature rises above Tcp, the extended coil-like P-NIPAAm structure changes into a swollen globule-like conformation as hydration levels decrease and hydrophobic interactions increase. Though water plays an important role in this coil-to-globule transition of P-NIPAAm, the behavior of water molecules and the associated hydrogen-bond (HB) network of the surrounding bulk water are still veiled in uncertainty. In this study, we elucidate changes in the hydration state and the dynamical structure of the water HB network of P-NIPAAm aqueous solutions during the coil-to-globule transition by analyzing the complex dielectric constant in the terahertz region (0.25-12 THz), where bulk water reorientations and intermolecular vibrations of water can be selectively probed. The structural properties of the water HB network were examined in terms of the population of the non-HB water molecules (not directly engaged in the HB network or hydrated to P-NIPAAm) and the tetrahedral coordination of the water molecules engaged in the HB network. We found the hydration number below Tcp (≈10) was decreased to approximately 6.5 as temperature increased, in line with previous studies. The HB network of bulk water becomes more structured as the coil-to-globule phase transition takes place, via decreases in non-HB water and reduction in the orderliness of the tetrahedral HB architecture. Together these results indicate that the coil-to-globule transition is associated with a shift to hydrophobic-dominated interactions that drive thermoresponsive structural changes in the surrounding water molecules.

  20. On laboratory simulation and the effect of small temperature oscillations about the freezing point and ice formation on the evaporation rate of water on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shauntae R; Sears, Derek W G

    2006-08-01

    We report measurements of the evaporation rate of water under Mars-like conditions (CO2 atmosphere at 7 mbar and approximately 0 degrees C) in which small temperature oscillations about the freezing point repeatedly formed and removed a thin layer of ice. We found that the average evaporation at 2.7 +/- 0.5 degrees C without an ice layer (corrected for the difference in gravity on Earth and on Mars) was 1.24 +/- 0.12 mm/h, while at -2.1 +/- 0.3 degrees C with an ice layer the average evaporation rate was 0.84 +/- 0.08 mm/h. These values are in good agreement with those calculated for the evaporation of liquid water and ice when it is assumed that evaporation only depends on diffusion and buoyancy. Our findings suggest that such differences in evaporation rates are entirely due to the temperature difference and that the ice layer has little effect on evaporation rate. We infer that the formation of thin layers of ice on pools of water on Mars does not significantly increase the stability of water on the surface of Mars.

  1. Universality class of replica symmetry breaking, scaling behavior, and the low-temperature fixed-point order function of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, R; Schmidt, M J

    2008-12-01

    A scaling theory of replica symmetry breaking (RSB) in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model is presented in the framework of critical phenomena for the scaling regime of large RSB orders kappa , small temperatures T , and small (homogeneous) magnetic fields H . We employ the pseudodynamical picture [R. Oppermann, M. J. Schmidt, and D. Sherrington, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 127201 (2007)], where two critical points CP1 and CP2 are associated with the order function's pseudodynamical limits lim_{a-->infinity}q(a)=1 and lim_{a-->0}q(a)=0 at (T=0 , H=0 , 1kappa=0) . CP1 - and CP2 -dominated contributions to the free energy functional F[q(a)] require an unconventional scaling hypothesis. We determine the scaling contributions in accordance with detailed numerical self-consistent solutions for up to 200 orders of RSB. Power laws, scaling functions, and crossover lines are obtained. CP1 -dominated behavior is found for the nonequilibrium susceptibility, which decays like chi_{1}=kappa;{-53}f_{1}(Tkappa;{-53}) , for the entropy, which obeys S(T=0) approximately chi_{1};{2} , and for the subclass of diverging parameters a_{i}=kappa;{53}f_{a_{i}}(Tkappa;{-53}) [describing Parisi box sizes m_{i}(T) identical witha_{i}(T)T ], with f_{1}(zeta) approximately zeta and f_{a_{i}}(zeta) approximately 1zeta for zeta-->infinity , while f(0) is finite. CP2 -dominated behavior, controlled by the magnetic field H while temperature is irrelevant, is retrieved in the plateau height (or width) of the order function q(a) according to q_{pl}(H)=kappa;{-1}f_{pl}(H;{23}kappa;{-1}) with f_{pl}mid R:(zeta)mid R:_{zeta-->infinity} approximately zeta and f_{pl}(0) finite. Divergent characteristic RSB orders kappa_{CP1}(T) approximately T;{-35} and kappa_{CP2}(H) approximately H;{-23} , respectively, describe the crossover from mean field SK- to RSB-critical behavior with rational-valued exponents extracted with high precision from our RSB data. The order function q(a) is obtained as a fixed-point

  2. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  3. Tunnel diode amplifiers and their background noise as a function of the polarization point, the temperature, and the bandwidth; Amplificateurs a diode tunnel et leur bruit de fond, en fonction du point de polarisation, de la temperature et de la bande passante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozveaminian, K. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The author presents mathematical and graphical methods for the study of the stability of tunnel diode circuits. He gives an application to the realization of three amplifiers. Then he describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of these amplifiers and of its variations with the bias, the temperature and the bandwidth. (author) [French] L'auteur presente deux methodes, l'une theorique l'autre graphique, pour l'etude de la stabilite des circuits a diode tunnel, dont il fait une application a la realisation de trois amplificateurs. Il effectue ensuite une etude theorique et experimentale du bruit de fond de ces amplificateurs, en fonction du point de polarisation, de la temperature et de la bande passante. (auteur)

  4. Poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels at temperatures below the freezing point of water-molecular interactions and states of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorczak, Marcin; Dominguez-Espinosa, Gustavo; Okrasa, Lidia; Pyda, Marek; Kozanecki, Marcin; Kadlubowski, Slawomir; Rosiak, Janusz M; Ulanski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Water interacting with a polymer reveals a number of properties very different to bulk water. These interactions lead to the redistribution of hydrogen bonds in water. It results in modification of thermodynamic properties of water and the molecular dynamics of water. That kind of water is particularly well observable at temperatures below the freezing point of water, when the bulk water crystallizes. In this work, we determine the amount of water bound to the polymer and of the so-called pre-melting water in poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels with the use of Raman spectroscopy, dielectric spectroscopy, and calorimetry. This analysis allows us to compare various physical properties of the bulk and the pre-melting water. We also postulate the molecular mechanism responsible for the pre-melting of part of water in poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels. We suggest that above -60 °C, the first segmental motions of the polymer chain are activated, which trigger the process of the pre-melting.

  5. Efeito da temperatura ambiental na densidade e ponto de congelamento do leite de cabra Effects of ambiental temperature on density and freezing point of goat's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.A. BRASIL

    1999-12-01

    14 days each one, during the which, the animals under heat stress were exposed to medium air temperature of 33,87ºC, between 8:00 and 17:00 hs including simulated solar radiation from 10:00 to 15:00 hs. On the second week of each experimental interval, individuality milk samples were collected dairy by morning and afternoon, adding preservative. In the end of the week, the samples of each milking were mixed, forming a composed samples which were effected pH, titratable acidity, density and crioscopic point. The results indicated that the obtained values for density and crioscopic point are compatible with the others authors have found it in other countries. It was verified biggers values for the density on the milk milked in the morning, in relation with the afternoon, being that the unequal interval between the milkings could influenced the results. It’s not observed significal statistic differences for this goat milk propriety in termoneutrality and heat stress conditions. To the crioscopic point it not verified statistical difference between the milk milked by morning and afternoon. There was significal statistic difference between the goat milk in termoneutrality and termic stress conditions, being the medium value bigger to the termoneutrality conditions.

  6. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ...

  7. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  8. Energy usage and lactating sow and piglet performance in farrowing compartments with a lowered set point of the room temperature; Energiegebruik en technische resultaten van zeugen en biggen bij verlagen van de instelling van de ruimtetemperatuur in kraamafdelingen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, P.J.W.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Huijben, J.J.H.; Swinkels, J.W.G.M.

    1998-05-01

    Heating costs form the main part of the total energy cost of commercial sow operations. Within a commercial sow farm, most of the energy usage occurs in the farrowing compartment, because the temperature requirement is high for the suckling piglets. It was examined whether a reduction in temperature setting of 2C in combination with an adequate micro-climate for suckling piglets can contribute both to energy savings and improvement of lactating sow performance. In total, 96 sows were used in this study. The study was conducted in four naturally ventilated farrowing compartments (six sows per compartment) with a combination of indirect and direct air-inlet during November 1996 and May 1997. In the compartment with the standard temperature setting (control), the `set point for heating` and `set point for ventilation` were set at 21C and 23C, respectively, when all sows in the compartment had produced their litter. In the experimental compartment, both set points were reduced with 2C. A hoover with local heating was installed in each pen of the experimental compartments to provided the suckling piglets with an appropriate micro-climate. In total eight batches of sows were followed in the winter period. After each batch, the control and experimental treatments were switched between compartments. In each of the eight batches, a difference in room temperature was realised between the compartment with the standard and reduced temperature settings. The room temperature was on average 1.1C lower in the compartment with the reduced temperature setting. The reduction in room temperature had no effect on lactating sow and piglet performance. In conclusion it is possible to reduce the room temperature in naturally ventilated farrowing barns, where the air-inlet is direct and the optimum micro-climate of the suckling piglets can be guaranteed using a hoover. Energy savings in the compartments with reduced temperature settings mounted to DFI 3 per sow and year, without negative

  9. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.1 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −25 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Hill, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) between December 2014 and April, 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and NRC and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and NRC. PMID:26663952

  10. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.1 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM -25 °C TO +20 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C W; Hill, K D

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the National Research Council (NRC, Canada) between December 2014 and April, 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and NRC and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and NRC.

  11. Supercooling points of Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and field mortality in the Mid-Atlantic United States following lethal low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is a serious pest of brassicaceous vegetables in southern North America. While this insect is limited in its northern range of North America, presumably by severe cold winter temperatures, specific information on its cold hardiness remains unknown. We...

  12. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  14. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  16. Impact of Gate Poly Depletion on Evaluation of Channel Temperature in Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with Four-Point Gate Resistance Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Nobuyasu; Takahashi, Tsunaki; Ohashi, Teruyuki; Uchida, Ken

    2012-02-01

    Self-heating effects (SHEs) in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is evaluated and an accurate measurement method for device temperature is developed using the four-point gate resistance measurement method. Although the method of using a polysilicon gate as a temperature sensor was proposed more than 20 years ago, the accuracy of the technique has not been checked. In this work, it is demonstrated that the channel temperature estimated by the conventional method is not accurate under some special conditions. The measurements of gate resistance under various biases revealed that the depletion of the polysilicon gate had a significant impact on gate resistance. We propose a method of accurately evaluating channel temperature, where the effect of poly depletion is successfully subtracted. At an input power of 5 mW the increase in channel temperature is approximately 30 K, corresponding to a thermal resistance of 6.0 K W-1 m-1.

  17. Reference intervals for biochemical blood variables, packed cell volume, and body temperature in pet rats (Rattus norvegicus) using point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtmeyers, Anneleen; Duchateau, Luc; Grünewald, Bettina; Hermans, Katleen

    2016-12-01

    Rats (Rattus norvegicus) are increasingly kept as pets, thus more and more requiring veterinary care. Important differences exist between pet and laboratory rats, but little information is available on pet rats. Diagnosis and treatment of pet rat diseases would benefit from RIs specific for this animal population. The aim was to establish RIs for biochemical blood variables, PCV, and body temperature in pet rats. Additionally, influences of sex and feed rationing method (ad libitum, restricted) on these variables were determined. American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) recommendations were followed. Biochemical variables were measured using an automated chemistry analyzer, the VetScan VS2. Nonparametric statistical methods were used to determine RIs and effects of sex and feed rationing method. Reference intervals were established using values of 123 clinically healthy pet rats (except for globulins and albumin/globulin ratio, n = 120) and were: glucose 6.6-13.7 mmol/L, total proteins 66-88 g/L, albumin ≥ 38 g/L, globulins 12-35 g/L, albumin/globulin ratio 1.0-4.7, urea nitrogen 2.5-6.6 mmol/L, creatinine ≤ 53 μmol/L, total bilirubin 4-7 μmol/L, ALP 40-442 IU/L, ALT 22-137 IU/L, amylase 502-1113 IU/L, sodium 133-144 mmol/L, potassium 3.6-5.3 mmol/L, calcium 9.5-10.9 mg/dL, phosphorus 2.3-7.0 mg/dL, PCV 40-50%, and body temperature 35.8-39.3°C. Sex significantly affected 10 variables. No significant influence was found with feed limitation CONCLUSIONS: Reference intervals reported in this study will be useful for interpretation of biochemistry analysis in pet rats and therefore improve pet rat medicine. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM -30 °C TO +20 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C W; Solano, A

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range -30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET.

  19. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −30 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Solano, A.

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range −30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET. PMID:28066029

  20. Low-temperature thermodynamics of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}(Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}){sub 2} within a topological scenario for the quantum critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodel, V A; Zverev, M V [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Clark, J W, E-mail: vak@wuphys.wustl.ed, E-mail: jwc@wuphys.wustl.ed, E-mail: zverev@mbslab.kiae.r [McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    We describe a topological scenario for the quantum critical point signaled by a divergent density of states at zero temperature, in which the Landau quasiparticle picture survives but the topology of the Fermi surface is altered. Predictions of this scenario for thermodynamic properties of the heavy-fermion metal YbRh{sub 2}(Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}){sub 2} are shown to be in agreement with available experimental data, whereas the conventional scenario based on critical fluctuations of a collective mode fails to explain these properties.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of wurtzite Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S mesoporous nanospheres: With blue–green emissions and ferromagnetic Curie point above room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Kim, D.H.; Rhee, S.J.; Jung, C.U.; Lee, B.W.; Liu, Chunli, E-mail: chunliliu@hufs.ac.kr

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Wurtzite Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S mesoporous nanospheres were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • Structural, band gap, PL and magnetization studies were carried out. • All the doped samples exhibited intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism. • The maximum PL enhancement was noticed in 2 at.% Ni doped ZnS nanospheres. • Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S nanospheres may find applications in luminescent and spintronic devices. -- Abstract: Wurtzite Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05) mesoporous nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a versatile hydrothermal method with the assistance of ethylenediamine (EN). The as synthesized nanospheres were uniform, mono-dispersed with a spherical shape. Microstructure investigations revealed that these nanospheres were mesoporous clusters of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S nanoparticles with the size around 5 nm. X-ray Diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies confirmed that the Ni ions substituted into ZnS host lattice without altering the crystal structure. The Fourier-transform infrared spectra confirmed the coupling between the EN molecules and ZnS. The absorption edge in the diffuse reflection spectra shifted towards lower wavelength with increasing Ni concentration, indicating an expansion in the band gap energy that is estimated to be in the range of 3.53–3.60 eV. The photoluminescence spectra of the doped and un-doped samples contained a broad emission band covering the range of 350–650 nm. Room temperature magnetization studies indicated that the undoped ZnS nanospheres yielded only diamagnetism, whereas the doped samples exhibited ferromagnetism that can be attributed to the Ni{sup 2+} dopants. The temperature dependence of magnetization revealed that the Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S nanospheres have Curie point above room temperature. The intrinsic ferromagnetism and ferromagnetic Curie point above room temperature

  2. Point defects in Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe): Resonant X-ray diffraction study of the low-temperature order/disorder transition: Point defects in Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelhas, L. T. [Applied Energy Programs, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park California 94025 USA; Stone, K. H. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park California 94025 USA; Harvey, S. P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Zakhidov, D. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 USA; Salleo, A. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford CA 94305 USA; Teeter, G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Repins, I. L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Toney, M. F. [Applied Energy Programs, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park California 94025 USA; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park California 94025 USA

    2017-07-25

    The interest in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTS) for photovoltaic applications is motivated by similarities to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 while being comprised of non-toxic and earth abundant elements. However, CZTS suffers from a Voc deficit, where the Voc is much lower than expected based on the band gap, which may be the result of a high concentration of point-defects in the CZTS lattice. Recently, reports have observed a low-temperature order/disorder transition by Raman and optical spectroscopies in CZTS films and is reported to describe the ordering of Cu and Zn atoms in the CZTS crystal structure. To directly determine the level of Cu/Zn ordering, we have used resonant-XRD, a site, and element specific probe of long range order. We used CZTSe films annealed just below and quenched from just above the transition temperature; based on previous work, the Cu and Zn should be ordered and highly disordered, respectively. Our data show that there is some Cu/Zn ordering near the low temperature transition but significantly less than high chemical order expected from Raman. To understand both our resonant-XRD results and the Raman results, we present a structural model that involves antiphase domain boundaries and accommodates the excess Zn within the CZTS lattice.

  3. Alleyway Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    topografier. Alleyway Points består af en række eksperimenter, som søger at udforske denne sammenvævning af disse to parallelle domæner gennem en pendulering imellem det fysiske og det digitale. En gyde danner rammen om disse forsøg, hvor den etablerede punktsky i sig selv bliver anskuet som en digital......Forskelligartede former for fotogrammetri og 3D-scanning muliggør indfangelse af den fysiske verden i det digitale domæne. Dette har vist sig instrumentelt i et utal af forskellige henseender. Når virkeligheden bliver digitaliseret, bliver den frigjort fra sine materielle forpligtigelser: der er...... dialog og pendulering mellem de to domæner, hvor grænsen mellem, hvad der kan anskues som det virkelige og repræsentionen deraf, bliver gradvis mere utydelig. Dette adskiller sig fra to dominerende diskurser inden for arbejdsgange mellem det virkelige og det digitale, der ofte er ensrettede bevægelser...

  4. Final report: Bilateral key comparison SIM.T-K6.3 on humidity standards in the dew/frost-point temperature range from -30°C to 20°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peter; Meyer, Christopher; Brionizio, Julio D.

    2015-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO, Brazil) between October 2009 and March 2010. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and INMETRO and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and INMETRO. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Lempiäinen, Terttu; Aspelund, Mikko; Hellstedt, Paavo; Ikonen, Katri; Itämies, Juhani; Vähä, Ville; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Asikainen, Juha; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Niemelä, Pekka; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-12-13

    A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb) recordings, change-point analysis (CPA), home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS), the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  6. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  7. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  8. Device and method for determining freezing points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiprakasam, Balakrishnan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A freezing point method and device (10) are disclosed. The method and device pertain to an inflection point technique for determining the freezing points of mixtures. In both the method and device (10), the mixture is cooled to a point below its anticipated freezing point and then warmed at a substantially linear rate. During the warming process, the rate of increase of temperature of the mixture is monitored by, for example, thermocouple (28) with the thermocouple output signal being amplified and differentiated by a differentiator (42). The rate of increase of temperature data are analyzed and a peak rate of increase of temperature is identified. In the preferred device (10) a computer (22) is utilized to analyze the rate of increase of temperature data following the warming process. Once the maximum rate of increase of temperature is identified, the corresponding temperature of the mixture is located and earmarked as being substantially equal to the freezing point of the mixture. In a preferred device (10), the computer (22), in addition to collecting the temperature and rate of change of temperature data, controls a programmable power supply (14) to provide a predetermined amount of cooling and warming current to thermoelectric modules (56).

  9. CTD, salinity, temperature, oxygen, and depth data for Cruise DP01 from the R/V Point Sur in the Viosca Knoll, Gulf of Mexico, 2015-05-01 to 2015-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0142203)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Deep water sampling of in situ seawater and associated fauna (cruise DP01, May 1-8, 2015) aboard the R/V Point Sur for an area encompassing roughly 28°N to 29°N...

  10. Compute dew point of acid gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Designers of duct and heat recovery systems for incinerators or heaters must know if the flue gas systems contain acid vapors and will the vapors reach their dew points and condense. It the answer is yes,' then the dew point program can help an engineer calculate the dew point temperatures for this gas mixture. The source code for the program is shown and a sample problem is illustrated.

  11. Relationship between relative humidity and the dew point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed at determining the relationship between relative humidity and the dew point temperature in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The dew point temperature was approximated from the measured air temperature and relative humidity with the aid of a currently self-designed weather monitoring system.

  12. The Points Of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Richard P.; Lillo-Martin, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Signed languages display a variety of pointing signs that serve the functions of deictic and anaphoric pronouns, possessive and reflexive pronouns, demonstratives, locatives, determiners, body part labels, and verb agreement. We consider criteria for determining the linguistic status of pointing signs. Among those criteria are conventionality, indexicality, phonological compositionality, being subject to grammatical constraints, and marking the kinds of grammatical distinctions expected of pronouns. We conclude that first-person points meet all these proposed criteria, but that nonfirst person points are in part gestural. Lastly, we review evidence for the grammaticization over time of systems of pointing signs within signed languages. PMID:28603596

  13. Geodesics on Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchuan Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel framework to compute geodesics on implicit surfaces and point clouds. Our framework consists of three parts, particle based approximate geodesics on implicit surfaces, Cartesian grid based approximate geodesics on point clouds, and geodesic correction. The first two parts can effectively generate approximate geodesics on implicit surfaces and point clouds, respectively. By introducing the geodesic curvature flow, the third part produces smooth and accurate geodesic solutions. Differing from most of the existing methods, our algorithms can converge to a given tolerance. The presented computational framework is suitable for arbitrary implicit hypersurfaces or point clouds with high genus or high curvature.

  14. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents results of trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation, and mean temperature (TM), maximum temperature (TMAX) and minimum temperature (TMIN) time series of the period 1950–2007. Investigations were carried out for 50 precipitation stations and 39 temperature ...

  15. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  16. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissi, Agnese

    gravitons and a point like graviton and its dual counterpart, namely two Schur polynomials and a single trace chiral primary. Secondly we compute the one loop correction to planar, non extremal three point functions of two heavy and one light operators, both from the gauge and string side in the Frolov...

  17. Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan; Davis, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Presents a learning activity plan for teachers or librarians that helps students comprehend the author's craft element of "point of view." Focus is on first and third person point of view. Outlines student motivation methods, the procedure, extension/application activities, and assessment. Includes an activity worksheet. (AEF)

  18. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  19. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  20. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......, journal articles, book chapters/conference papers and monographs. Journal Crown Indicator (JCI) calculations was based on WoS. Three PPIs are proposed: thePublication Point Ratio (PPR), which measures the sum of obtained publiacation points over the sum of the ideal pointws for the same set of documents...

  1. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  2. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument...

  3. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  4. Bedrock Outcrop Points Compilation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A compilation of bedrock outcrops as points and/or polygons from 1:62,500 and 1:24,000 geologic mapping by the Vermont Geological Survey, the United States...

  5. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  6. Arctic climate tipping points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  7. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  8. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present...... an indexing structure that, for any given constant >0, uses O(N/B) disk blocks and answers a query in O((N/B)1/2+ +K/B) I/Os, where B is the block size. It can also report all the points of S that lie inside R during a given time interval. A point can be inserted or deleted, or the trajectory of a point can...... be changed, in O(logB2 N) I/Os. Next, we present a general approach that improves the query time if the queries arrive in chronological order, by allowing the index to evolve over time. We obtain a tradeoff between the query time and the number of times the index needs to be updated as the points move. We...

  9. Trend analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trend analysis and change point detection in temperature and precipitation series have been investigated by many researchers throughout the world (Serra et al. 2001; Turkes and Sumer 2004;. Zer Lin et al. 2005; Partal and Kahya 2006;. Keywords. Climate change; temperature; precipitation; trend analysis; change point ...

  10. Superconductor-normal-superconductor with distributed Sharvin point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Little, William A.

    1994-01-01

    A non-linear superconducting junction device comprising a layer of high transient temperature superconducting material which is superconducting at an operating temperature, a layer of metal in contact with the layer of high temperature superconducting material and which remains non-superconducting at the operating temperature, and a metal material which is superconducting at the operating temperature and which forms distributed Sharvin point contacts with the metal layer.

  11. Characterization of MIPAS elevation pointing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiefer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient knowledge of the pointing is essential for analyses of limb emission measurements. The scientific retrieval processor for MIPAS on ENVISAT operated at IMK allows the retrieval of pointing information in terms of tangent altitudes along with temperature. The retrieved tangent altitudes are independent of systematic offsets in the engineering Line-Of-Sight (LOS information delivered with the ESA Level 1b product. The difference of pointing retrieved from the reprocessed high resolution MIPAS spectra and the engineering pointing information was examined with respect to spatial/temporal behaviour. Among others the following characteristics of MIPAS pointing could be identified: Generally the engineering tangent altitudes are too high by 0–1.8 km with conspicuous variations in this range over time. Prior to December of 2003 there was a drift of about 50–100 m/h, which was due to a slow change in the satellite attitude. A correction of this attitude is done twice a day, which leads to discontinuities in the order of 1–1.5 km in the tangent altitudes. Occasionally discontinuities up to 2.5 km are found, as already reported from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY observations. After an update of the orbit position software in December 2003 values of drift and jumps are much reduced. There is a systematic difference in the mispointing between the poles which amounts to 1.5–2 km, i.e. there is a conspicuous orbit-periodic feature. The analysis of the correlation between the instrument's viewing angle azimuth and differential mispointing supports the hypotheses that a major part of this latter phenomenon can be attributed to an error in the roll angle of the satellite/instrument system of approximately 42 mdeg. One conclusion is that ESA level 2 data should be compared to other data exclusively on tangent pressure levels. Complementary to IMK data, ESA operational LOS calibration results were used to characterize MIPAS pointing. For this purpose

  12. Development of a high temperature unicam camera and application to X-ray diffraction on powdered uranium; Mise au point d'une chambre unicam a haute temperature et application a la diffraction de rayons X sur l'uranium en poudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, J.; Blum, P.L.; Debrenne, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A high temperature commercial X-ray camera (UNICAM S150), modified in order to improve some of its performances, is adapted to the uranium powder problem. The strong uranium reactivity for oxygen and silica, the sintering and the grain growth in {beta}-phase are avoided. X-ray photographs are thus possible even in the {gamma}-phase. (authors) [French] Une chambre commerciale de diffraction de rayons X a haute temperature, UNICAM SI50, modifiee en vue d'ameliorer certaines performances, a ete adaptee au probleme de la diffraction sur l'uranium en poudre. En particulier, la reaction avec la silice et l'oxygene, le frittage et l'accroissement du grain en phase {beta} sont evites. L'examen et les mesures sont ainsi possibles jusqu'en phase {gamma}. (auteurs)

  13. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · CHANDIPURA VIRUS · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · VIRUSES · PROPERTIES OF VIRUSES · CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES · VIRUS FAMILIES · VIRUS FAMILIES – contd · General Classification · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  14. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; hide

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  15. Hillclimbing saddle point inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Kiyoharu; Sakai, Katsuta

    2018-03-01

    Recently a new inflationary scenario was proposed in [1] which can be applicable to an inflaton having multiple vacua. In this letter, we consider a more general situation where the inflaton potential has a (UV) saddle point around the Planck scale. This class of models can be regarded as a natural generalization of the hillclimbing Higgs inflation [2].

  16. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  17. New Novae snack point

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  18. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Ara

    . In the spirit of understanding this problem better, the thesis discusses the divergences appearing in the calculation of structure constants involving two giant and one point-like gravitons in the string theories on AdS_5 x S^5 and AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k backgrounds. Coherent state approach for the tree-level...

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · There are 5 Speakers- The Ultimate dream is to get the Road map for connectivity to NE · Witnessing the Revolution · Some History · Slide 5 · Itanium® Processor Family Roadmap ... Growth of Wireless & Internet- Source Motorola · Convergence · Internet Alone is Not Enough…

  20. Multi Point Velocity, Density and Temperature Measurements using LITA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a nonintrusive, transient-grating optical technique that provides simultaneous high-accuracy measurements of velocity,...

  1. AIRCRAFT BRAKE TEMPERATURE FROM A SAFETY POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján PIĽA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety is critical throughout all stages of aircraft operation, from air mission to ground operation. One of the most important airframe systems that influences the efficacy of ground safety is a wheel brake system. Aircraft ground speed deceleration requires the dissipation of kinetic energy, which depends on aircraft weight and speed. Significant levels of aircraft kinetic energy must be dissipated in the form of heat energy. The brakes of heavy aircraft are especially prone to overheating during landing and taxiing on the ground. The aim of this paper is to focus on the dangers caused by aircraft brakes when overheating and ways in which to eliminate brake overheating problems from a safety perspective.

  2. Point clouds in BIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antova, Gergana; Kunchev, Ivan; Mickrenska-Cherneva, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The representation of physical buildings in Building Information Models (BIM) has been a subject of research since four decades in the fields of Construction Informatics and GeoInformatics. The early digital representations of buildings mainly appeared as 3D drawings constructed by CAD software, and the 3D representation of the buildings was only geometric, while semantics and topology were out of modelling focus. On the other hand, less detailed building representations, with often focus on ‘outside’ representations were also found in form of 2D /2,5D GeoInformation models. Point clouds from 3D laser scanning data give a full and exact representation of the building geometry. The article presents different aspects and the benefits of using point clouds in BIM in the different stages of a lifecycle of a building.

  3. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    could be achievable depending on the observation session length, and kinematic positioning accuracy can reach cm to dm level. Furthermore, a new method for airborne lidar system misalignment calibration was described in detail. The proposed method was a so called ‘stepwise geometric misalignment......This report presents the results of investigations to determine accurate positions of aircrafts in airborne surveys (airborne gravity and airborne lidar) using precise point positioning, and also introduces a new so called “stepwise geometric misalignment determination” method to retrieve...... determination’ based on the relationship between the point clouds on regular objects (e.g. flat top buildings) and the ground truth of the objects used for calibration. In order to extract the footprints on the objects, filtering was implemented before the calibration. Three example tests have been made...

  4. Qualidade microbiológica e temperatura de dietas enterais antes e após implantação do sistema de análise de perigos e pontos críticos de controle Microbiological quality and temperatures of enteral feedings before and after implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Isabel Souza dos Santos Simon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a qualidade microbiológica e a temperatura de dietas enterais antes e após a implementação do sistema Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle na Central de Produção de Alimentação Enteral do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de setembro de 2001 a janeiro de 2002, foram coletadas 320 amostras de 4 tipos de dietas enterais produzidas na Central de Produção de Alimentação Enteral (dietas padrão I, II, III e dieta especial, as quais foram submetidas a análises microbiológicas e de temperatura. As amostras foram coletadas semanalmente em dois pontos do processo: logo após o preparo e após 16 horas de armazenamento refrigerado. Para comparação dos dados pré e pós análise dos perigos em pontos criticos e de controle, utilizou-se o teste "t" de Wilcoxon para amostras pareadas (teste não-paramétrico equivalente ao teste "t" de Student para amostras pareadas com nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Antes da análise de perigos e pontos críticos de controle, 92% das temperaturas de armazenamento estavam acima dos valores de refererência vigentes. Após a implantação da análise de perigos e pontos críticos de controle, houve reduções significantes (pOBJECTIVE: This study evaluated microbiological quality and temperature of enteral formulas before and after the implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system at the Central of Enteral Feedings of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. METHODS: During the period of September 2001 and January 2002, 320 samples of four kinds of enteral feeding identified as diets I, II, III, and Special diet were collected and submitted to temperature and microbiological analysis. Samples were collected weekly in two steps of the flow chart of production: immediately after preparation and after 16 hours of storage at refrigeration. For statistical analysis, the Wilcoxon's test was used. RESULTS: Before

  5. the Fixed Point Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penumurthy Parvateesam Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fixed point theorem is presented for single-valued map with using generalized φ-weak contractive condition involving various combinations of dx,y on a complete metric space. Our result is an extension as well as a generalization of Alber and Guerre-Delabriere (1997 in particular. It also generalizes the results of Rhoades (2001, Choudhury and Dutta, (2000, and Dutta and Choudhury, (2008.

  6. Oscillating stagnation point flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, C. E.; Salwen, H.

    1982-01-01

    A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is given for an incompressible stagnation point flow whose magnitude oscillates in time about a constant, non-zero, value (an unsteady Hiemenz flow). Analytic approximations to the solution in the low and high frequency limits are given and compared with the results of numerical integrations. The application of these results to one aspect of the boundary layer receptivity problem is also discussed.

  7. Critical point predication device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Kariyama, Koji

    1996-12-13

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator`s burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  8. Detecting change-points in extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Dupuis, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Even though most work on change-point estimation focuses on changes in the mean, changes in the variance or in the tail distribution can lead to more extreme events. In this paper, we develop a new method of detecting and estimating the change-points in the tail of multiple time series data. In addition, we adapt existing tail change-point detection methods to our specific problem and conduct a thorough comparison of different methods in terms of performance on the estimation of change-points and computational time. We also examine three locations on the U.S. northeast coast and demonstrate that the methods are useful for identifying changes in seasonally extreme warm temperatures.

  9. Cardiac arrhythmogenesis and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ujas; Bien, Harold; Entcheva, Emilia

    2006-01-01

    Fast processes in cardiac electrophysiology are often studied at temperatures lower than physiological. Extrapolation of values is based on widely accepted Q10 (Arrhenius) model of temperature dependence (ratio of kinetic properties for a 10 degrees C change in temperature). In this study, we set out to quantify the temperature dependence of essential parameters that define spatiotemporal behavior of cardiac excitation. Additionally, we examined temperature's effects on restitution dynamics. We employed fast fluorescence imaging with voltage-and calcium-sensitive dyes in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte sheets. Conduction velocity (CV), calcium transient duration (CTD), action potential duration (APD) and wavelength (W=CV*duration) change as functions of temperature were quantified. Using 24 degrees C as a reference point, we found a strong temperature-driven increase of CV (Q10=2.3) with smaller CTD and APD changes (Q10=1.33, 1.24, respectively). The spatial equivalents of voltage and calcium duration, wavelength, were slightly less sensitive to temperature with Q10=2.05 and 1.78, respectively, due to the opposing influences of decreasing duration with increased velocity. More importantly, we found that Q10 varies as a function of diastolic interval. Our results indicate the importance of examining temperature sensitivity across several frequencies. Armed with our results, experimentalists and modelers alike have a tool for reconciling different environmental conditions. In a broader sense, these data help better understand thermal influences on arrhythmia development or suppression such as during hibernation or cardiac surgery.

  10. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  11. Tipping point leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2003-04-01

    When William Bratton was appointed police commissioner of New York City in 1994, turf wars over jurisdiction and funding were rife and crime was out of control. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bratton turned New York into the safest large city in the nation. And the NYPD was only the latest of five law-enforcement agencies Bratton had turned around. In each case, he succeeded in record time despite limited resources, a demotivated staff, opposition from powerful vested interests, and an organization wedded to the status quo. Bratton's turnarounds demonstrate what the authors call tipping point leadership. The theory of tipping points hinges on the insight that in any organization, fundamental changes can occur quickly when the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people create an epidemic movement toward an idea. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block organizations from recognizing the need for change. He does this by putting managers face-to-face with operational problems. Next, he manages around limitations on funds, staff, or equipment by concentrating resources on the areas that are most in need of change and that have the biggest payoffs. He meanwhile solves the motivation problem by singling out key influencers--people with disproportionate power due to their connections or persuasive abilities. Finally, he closes off resistance from powerful opponents. Not every CEO has the personality to be a Bill Bratton, but his successes are due to much more than his personality. He relies on a remarkably consistent method that any manager looking to turn around an organization can use to overcome the forces of inertia and reach the tipping point.

  12. The Temporal Tipping Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    and analyses of their journalistic works, this paper offers a study of ethnographic journalism suggesting that slow time operates in at least three separate registers. First, in terms of regimentation, ethnographic journalism is mostly long-form pieces that demand time-consuming research and careful writing...... and editing. Second, in terms of representation, practitioners report on the quotidian rather than urgent events. Third, deceleration is an essential tool for acquiring an insider's perspective. Ethnographic journalists describe a point during reporting at which their attitudes begin to change and they start...

  13. Flash Point Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Facility (SwRI) TS1 Low flash jet fuel from CIS suppliers to DLA-Energy ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 1...flash point” is simple: At what temperature is there sufficient flammable material in the vapor phase to sustain an ignition? The problem is that...CL13-5672 ASTM NEG Diesel No. D1075 32.10 4.78 D56 D93 D3828 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 5 DRAFT 3.2 CL12-3491 RP-2 [21] is the low sulfur

  14. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  15. Reassessing Function Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Finnie

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the size and development effort for software projects requires estimation models which can be used early enough in the development life cycle to be of practical value. Function Point Analysis (FPA has become possibly the most widely used estimation technique in practice. However the technique was developed in the data processing environment of the 1970's and, despite undergoing considerable reassessment and formalisation, still attracts criticism for the weighting scoring it employs and for the way in which the function point score is adapted for specific system characteristics. This paper reviews the validity of the weighting scheme and the value of adjusting for system characteristics by studying their effect in a sample of 299 software developments. In general the value adjustment scheme does not appear to cater for differences in productivity. The weighting scheme used to adjust system components in terms of being simple, average or complex also appears suspect and should be redesigned to provide a more realistic estimate of system functionality.

  16. Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an oral temperature. Other factors to take into account are: In general, rectal temperatures are considered to ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  17. Observable consequences of zero-point energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Siddhartha; Gupta, Kumar S.

    2017-12-01

    Spectral line widths, the Lamb shift and the Casimir effect are generally accepted to be observable consequences of the zero-point electromagnetic (ZPEM) fields. A new class of observable consequences of ZPEM field at the mesoscopic scale were recently proposed and observed. Here, we extend this class of observable effects and predict that mesoscopic water layers should have a high value for its solid-liquid phase transition temperature, as illustrated by water inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT). For this case, our analysis predicts that the phase transition temperature scales inversely with the square of the effective radius available for the water flow within the CNT.

  18. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...... to continent and from country to country. This World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology position paper discusses the current status and future perspectives of PoC-US. Particular attention is given to the different uses of PoC-US and its clinical significance, including within emergency...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training....

  19. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  20. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  1. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  2. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary urban societies multiple networks and systems interact, overlap, exist in parallel, converge, conflict etc. creating unforeseen complexity and less transparency. By exploring how layered networks of physical movement, service information, goods delivery, commercial communication etc....... are connected (and disconnected) we get a much better understanding of how to design and intervene regardless if we are thinking about public spaces in the city or new systems of service design. The many networks orchestrating and facilitating contemporary everyday life are dependent on the strategic sites...... where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  3. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  4. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  5. IPC - Isoelectric Point Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lukasz P

    2016-10-21

    Accurate estimation of the isoelectric point (pI) based on the amino acid sequence is useful for many analytical biochemistry and proteomics techniques such as 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or capillary isoelectric focusing used in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry. Additionally, pI estimation can be helpful during protein crystallization trials. Here, I present the Isoelectric Point Calculator (IPC), a web service and a standalone program for the accurate estimation of protein and peptide pI using different sets of dissociation constant (pKa) values, including two new computationally optimized pKa sets. According to the presented benchmarks, the newly developed IPC pKa sets outperform previous algorithms by at least 14.9 % for proteins and 0.9 % for peptides (on average, 22.1 % and 59.6 %, respectively), which corresponds to an average error of the pI estimation equal to 0.87 and 0.25 pH units for proteins and peptides, respectively. Moreover, the prediction of pI using the IPC pKa's leads to fewer outliers, i.e., predictions affected by errors greater than a given threshold. The IPC service is freely available at http://isoelectric.ovh.org Peptide and protein datasets used in the study and the precalculated pI for the PDB and some of the most frequently used proteomes are available for large-scale analysis and future development. This article was reviewed by Frank Eisenhaber and Zoltán Gáspári.

  6. Evaluation of point mutations in dystrophin gene in Iranian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Haghshenas M., Akbari M. T., Zare Karizi S., Khordadpoor Deilamani F., Nafissi S. and Salehi Z. 2016 Evaluation of point mutations in dystrophin gene in Iranian Duchenne .... PCR product (bp). Annealing temperature. Exon 44. CTTGATCCATATGCTTTTACCTGCA. 268. 59. TCCATCACCCTTCAGAACCTGACCT. Exon 50.

  7. Point Charges and Polygonal Linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khimshiashvili, Giorgi; Panina, Gaiane; Siersma, Dirk; Zolotov, Vladimir

    We investigate the critical points of Coulomb potential of point charges placed at the vertices of a planar polygonal linkage. It is shown that, for a collection of positive charges on a pentagonal linkage, there is a unique critical point in the set of convex configurations which is the point of

  8. Anisotropic Unruh temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Raúl E.; Casini, Horacio; Huerta, Marina; Pontello, Diego

    2017-11-01

    The relative entropy between very high-energy localized excitations and the vacuum, where both states are reduced to a spatial region, gives place to a precise definition of a local temperature produced by vacuum entanglement across the boundary. This generalizes the Unruh temperature of the Rindler wedge to arbitrary regions. The local temperatures can be read off from the short distance leading have a universal geometric expression that follows by solving a particular eikonal type equation in Euclidean space. This equation generalizes to any dimension the holomorphic property that holds in two dimensions. For regions of arbitrary shapes the local temperatures at a point are direction dependent. We compute their explicit expression for the geometry of a wall or strip.

  9. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  10. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  11. ATLAS Point 1 Construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    After 3 years of work in point 1, a number of surface buildings have already been completed and handed over to CERN (the control, the gas and the cooling and ventilation buildings) and, probably more appealing to the public, 60,000 m3 of earth have already been excavated from underground. At present, the technical cavern USA15 and its access shaft are almost finished, leaving only the main cavern and the liaison galleries to be completed in the coming year and a half. The main cavern has been excavated down to the radiation limit and its walls and vault will presently be concreted (see below the picture of the section of the vault with the impressive shell of 1.2 m thickness). The excavation of the bench (27 vertical metres to go yet!) will proceed from August, when some additional civil engineering work in the LHC tunnel will be undertaken. Needless to say many different services are necessary around the detector, both for its installation and future operation for physics. To that end much of the heavy...

  12. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  13. Function Point Analysis Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  14. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  15. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  16. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  17. Biased four-point probe resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vazquez, Valentin

    2017-11-01

    The implications of switching the current polarity in a four-point probe resistance measurement are presented. We demonstrate that, during the inversion of the applied current, any change in the voltage V produced by a continuous drop of the sample temperature T will induce a bias in the temperature-dependent DC resistance. The analytical expression for the bias is deduced and written in terms of the variations of the measured voltages with respect to T and by the variations of T with respect to time t. Experimental data measured on a superconducting Nb thin film confirm that the bias of the normal-state resistance monotonically increases with the cooling rate dT/dt while keeping fixed dV/dT; on the other hand, the bias increases with dV/dT, reaching values up to 13% with respect to the unbiased resistance obtained at room temperature.

  18. Solubility determination from clear points upon solvent addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, M.A.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2015-01-01

    A method is described for determining the solubility of multicomponent crystalline compounds from clear points upon sample dilution at a constant temperature. Clear points are established by continuously adding a solvent mixture to a suspension of known composition until a clear solution appears.

  19. Digital fixed points, approximate fixed points, and universal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Boxer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A. Rosenfeld [23] introduced the notion of a digitally continuous function between digital images, and showed that although digital images need not have fixed point properties analogous to those of the Euclidean spaces modeled by the images, there often are approximate fixed point properties of such images. In the current paper, we obtain additional results concerning fixed points and approximate fixed points of digitally continuous functions. Among these are several results concerning the relationship between universal functions and the approximate fixed point property (AFPP.

  20. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  1. Single point incremental forming of shape memory polymer foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Amirahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study single point incremental forming of shape memory foam is investigated. The shape memory effect makes the foam an attractive material for the fabrication of recoverable components such as reusable dies for low pressure forming processes. The mechanical properties of the polymer have been investigated by means of tensile testing at elevated temperature. The maximum achievable formability for this material for single point incremental forming has been characterized both at room and elevated temperature. After an explorative study on simple benchmark cases, heat assisted single point incremental forming has been used to study the possibility of manufacturing a recoverable die for custom-made orthopaedic shoe insoles.

  2. Solving discrete zero point problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.; Yang, Z.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an algorithm is proposed to .nd a discrete zero point of a function on the collection of integral points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space IRn.Starting with a given integral point, the algorithm generates a .nite sequence of adjacent integral simplices of varying dimension and

  3. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...

  4. A Turning Point for Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy Work, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the publication "A Turning Point for Literacy" edited by Leon Bataille, and based on information from the International Symposium for Literacy (1975). The author notes that the document represents the complete history and background of literacy from the point of departure in 1965 to a turning point in 1975. (TA)

  5. PowerPoint 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2010-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills-with one book!. It's no longer enough to have slide after slide of text, bullets, and charts. It's not even enough to have good speaking skills if your PowerPoint slides bore your audience. Get the very most out of all that PowerPoint 2010 has to offer while also learning priceless tips and techniques for making good presentations in this new PowerPoint 2010 Bible. Well-known PowerPoint expert and author Faithe Wempen provides formatting tips; shows you how to work with drawings, tables, and SmartArt; introduces new collaboration tools; wa

  6. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  7. Effect of Impurities on the Freezing Point of Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianping; Rudtsch, Steffen; Niu, Yalu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Den, Xiaolong

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge of the liquidus slope of impurities in fixed-point metal defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 is important for the estimation of uncertainties and correction of fixed point with the sum of individual estimates method. Great attentions are paid to the effect of ultra-trace impurities on the freezing point of zinc in the National Institute of Metrology. In the present work, the liquidus slopes of Ga-Zn, Ge-Zn were measured with the slim fixed-point cell developed through the doping experiments, and the temperature characteristics of the phase diagram of Fe-Zn were furthermore investigated. A quasi-adiabatic Zn fixed-point cell was developed with the thermometer well surrounded by the crucible with the pure metal, and the temperature uniformity of less than 20 mK in the region where the metal is located was obtained. The previous doping experiment of Pb-Zn with slim fixed-point cell was checked with quasi-adiabatic Zn fixed-point cell, and the result supports the previous liquidus slope measured with the traditional fixed-point realization.

  8. High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

  9. Holographic butterfly effect at quantum critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-10-01

    When the Lyapunov exponent λL in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound λL ≤ 2π k B T , it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this paper we propose that the butterfly velocity can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with an anisotropic holographic model exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the derivatives of the butterfly velocity with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes in zero temperature limit. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).

  10. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points. S Prahlada Rao Shravan Sunkada. General Article Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 43-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion and dispersion forces, collectively called non-covalent inter- actions. They are attractive at distances of ~1 nm. These interac- tions have energy comparable to thermal energy, k n. T and hence are disrupted easily. They affect the bulk properties like melting point, boiling point, viscosity, surface tension, chromatographic.

  12. Graded sets, points and numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Herencia González, José Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The basic tool considered in this paper is the so-called "graded set", defined on the analogy of the family of α-cuts of a fuzzy set. It is also considered the corresponding extensions of the concepts of a point and of a real number (again on the analogy of the fuzzy case). These new "graded concepts" avoid the disadvantages pointed out by Gerla (for the fuzzy points) and by Kaleva and Seikkala (for the convergence of sequences of fuzzy numbers).

  13. Sensing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Piali; Garrity, Paul

    2013-04-22

    Temperature is an omnipresent physical variable reflecting the rotational, vibrational and translational motion of matter, what Richard Feynman called the "jiggling" of atoms. Temperature varies across space and time, and this variation has dramatic effects on the physiology of living cells. It changes the rate and nature of chemical reactions, and it alters the configuration of the atoms that make up nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, significantly affecting their activity. While life may have started in a "warm little pond", as Charles Darwin mused, the organisms that surround us today have only made it this far by devising sophisticated systems for sensing and responding to variations in temperature, and by using these systems in ways that allow them to persist and thrive in the face of thermal fluctuation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Critical point fluctuations in supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Simon D; Heath, George; Olmsted, Peter D; Kisil, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to observe many aspects of critical phenomena in supported lipid bilayers using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with the aid of stable and precise temperature control. The regions of criticality were determined by accurately measuring and calculating phase diagrams for the 2 phase L(d)-L(o) region, and tracking how it moves with temperature, then increasing the sampling density around the estimated critical regions. Compositional fluctuations were observed above the critical temperature (T(c)) and characterised using a spatial correlation function. From this analysis, the phase transition was found to be most closely described by the 2D Ising model, showing it is a critical transition. Below T(c) roughening of the domain boundaries occurred due to the reduction in line tension close to the critical point. Smaller scale density fluctuations were also detected just below T(c). At T(c), we believe we have observed fluctuations on length scales greater than 10 microm. The region of critically fluctuating 10-100 nm nanodomains has been found to extend a considerable distance above T(c) to temperatures within the biological range, and seem to be an ideal candidate for the actual structure of lipid rafts in cell membranes. Although evidence for this idea has recently emerged, this is the first direct evidence for nanoscale domains in the critical region.

  15. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  16. Oxides in metal fixed points of the ITS-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Martin; Rudtsch, Steffen

    2009-10-01

    In the range between 0 °C and 961 °C, the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) depends to a great extent on the freezing points of the pure metals gallium, indium, tin, zinc, aluminium and silver. An up-to-date realization of these fixed points is based on cells containing metals of ultra-high purity (6N or better) and should include a correction for the influence of relevant impurities. Still, chemical analyses of the fixed-point material can show large amounts of oxygen, which had to be neglected so far, because of the lack of detailed knowledge about it, presuming it could be removed from the cell by applying a vacuum (less than 1 Pa) for a few hours. In this paper we discuss an equilibrium of several forms of oxygen in a fixed-point cell, gaseous in the cell's atmosphere, dissolved in the fixed-point metal and as oxide in a separate (solid) phase. We will conclude that in many fixed points most of the oxygen is not dissolved in the metal, but bound in oxides of the fixed-point metal as well as oxides of some impurities. To demonstrate the impact that the precipitation of impurity oxides has on thermometry, two indium fixed-point cells were doped with magnesium and chromium, which leave the fixed-point temperature unchanged. Further evidence is drawn from earlier work. All these results support the presumed existence of (at least one) persistent separate oxide phase in the fixed points of indium, tin, zinc and aluminium, which renders them eutectic or peritectic points and is a more likely reason why the oxygen content of a cell does not influence the fixed-point temperature. To complement these studies, thermodynamic calculations show how to treat the equilibrium in the cell quantitatively. Using available chemical data, a list is provided that indicates for each fixed-point metal (including the other metal fixed points of the ITS-90: mercury, gold, copper) the impurities that probably build oxides. Due to the agreement of the calculated values

  17. Conditioning in spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This tutorial provides an introduction to conditioning in spatial point processes or so-called Palm distributions. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions...

  18. The Random Material Point Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.; Vardon, P.J.; Hicks, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The material point method is a finite element variant which allows the material, represented by a point-wise discretization, to move through the background mesh. This means that large deformations, such as those observed post slope failure, can be computed. By coupling this material level

  19. Review of NJ point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative effectiveness of point-based versus incident-based : negligent driver monitoring systems and to explore how certain changes to the existing point-based system used in : New Jersey might impr...

  20. Mathematical points as didactical ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    Mathematics teaching in Denmark was recently recommended better organized in sequences with clear mathematical pedagogical goals and a focus on mathematical points. In this paper I define a mathematical point and inform on coding of transcripts in a video based Danish research study on grade 8 te...

  1. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  2. Flat coalgebraic fixed point logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact

  3. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video. The film has original working sound.

  4. Low temperature (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; de Jong, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous silicon films have been made by HWCVD at a very low substrate temperature of ≤ 100 °C (in a dynamic substrate heating mode) without artificial substrate cooling, through a substantial increase of the filament–substrate distance ( 80 mm) and using one straight tantalum filament. The

  5. Design of an IRFPA point-by-point bias calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Lv, Jian; Zhou, Yun; Du, Yiying; Yu, Caideng; Xie, Guangzhong; Yuan, Kai

    2012-10-01

    Infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) is a key component in infrared system and thermal imaging devices, widely applied in military and civilian fields, with a huge market potential and prospects. IRFPA readout circuit technology and test technology in its research occupies an important position, related to the ability to accurately and efficiently obtain the IRFPA signal and the ability of IRFPA devices for accurate performance evaluation. This paper uses an IRFPA point-by-point bias calibration, through a series of accurate timing control signals to read and save the calibration data and external input, effectively increases the point-by-point bias control accuracy, and finally improves the quality of the output image.

  6. Geodetic Control Points - Multi-State Control Point Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — The Multi-State Control Point Database (MCPD) is a database of geodetic and mapping control covering Idaho and Montana. The control were submitted by registered land...

  7. Boiling point of volatile liquids at various pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Valencia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water, under normal conditions, tends to boil at a “normal boiling temperature” at which the atmospheric pressure fixes the average amount of kinetic energy needed to reach its boiling point. Yet, the normal boiling temperature of different substances varies depending on their nature, for which substances like alcohols, known as volatile, boil faster than water under same conditions. In response to this phenomenon, an investigation on the coexistence of both gas and liquid phases of a volatile substance in a closed system was made, establishing vapor pressure as the determining tendency of a substance to vaporize, which increases exponentially with temperature until a critical point is reached. Since atmospheric pressure is fixed, the internal pressure of the system was varied to determine its relationship with vapor pressure and thus with the boiling point of the substance, concluding that the internal pressure and boiling point of a volatile liquid in a closed system are negatively proportional.

  8. ATLAS: civil engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Unit

    2000-01-01

    The construction work at point one was a massive site including overground and underground work. Point 1 under construction is worth to see.Tools and machinery used during the construction and the multible scenes with people working in different parts of point1. Scenes from the 3D CAD office and some talking in english. Printing out drawings and later views of the empty tunnel were the LHC accelerator is installed 80m under the surface.The film gives the view to the close history in other words to the time before the installations.

  9. PowerPoint 2013 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2013-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills with one book! In today's business climate, you need to know PowerPoint inside and out, and that's not all. You also need to be able to make a presentation that makes an impact. From using sophisticated transitions and animation in your PowerPoint presentations to interfacing in person with your audience, this information-packed book helps you succeed. Start creating professional-quality slides that captivate audiences and discover essential tips and techniques for making first-rate presentations, whether you're at a podium or

  10. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1998-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment After watching this film you can get the view of the civil engineering work at POINT1 where the ATLAS will be built. 03-11-1998 The video starts with the view of the POINT1 taken from the roof of the building 33. 04-11-1998 View of the installation of the entrance of the SDX1 18/19-11-1998 Installation of the rafters to the building PX15

  11. NOTE: Do acupuncture points exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang, Yuying; He, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2009-05-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian.

  12. Fixed points of periodic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, S E; Shaneson, J L

    1980-09-01

    Let f be a periodic differentiable map from a sphere to itself. A well-known conjecture of Smith asserts that in many cases (e.g., when the fixed points are isolated) the derivatives of f at its fixed points, regarded as Jacobian matrices, are linearly similar. Here we give counterexamples to this conjecture. The results show that, in many cases, these Jacobian matrices are only nonlinearly similar. This uses our recent discovery of orthogonal matrices which are nonlinearly similar without being linearly similar. Some results on general smooth actions of finite groups on differentiable manifolds are presented; the topological equivalence of their tangential representations at the fixed points is studied.

  13. Cleaning Massive Sonar Point Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Green; Mølhave, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of automatically cleaning massive sonar data point clouds, that is, the problem of automatically removing noisy points that for example appear as a result of scans of (shoals of) fish, multiple reflections, scanner self-reflections, refraction in gas bubbles, and so on. We...... describe a new algorithm that avoids the problems of previous local-neighbourhood based algorithms. Our algorithm is theoretically I/O-efficient, that is, it is capable of efficiently processing massive sonar point clouds that do not fit in internal memory but must reside on disk. The algorithm is also...

  14. Residential Indoor Temperature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, Mike [Arrow Electronics, Centennial, CO (United States); Brown, David [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Norton, Paul [Norton Energy Research and Development, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, Chris [Ingersoll-Rand Corp., Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-04-07

    In this study, we are adding to the body of knowledge around answering the question: What are good assumptions for HVAC set points in U.S. homes? We collected and analyzed indoor temperature data from US homes using funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) program, due to the program's reliance on accurate energy simulation of homes. Simulations are used to set Building America goals, predict the impact of new building techniques and technologies, inform research objectives, evaluate home performance, optimize efficiency packages to meet savings goals, customize savings approaches to specific climate zones, and myriad other uses.

  15. Flexible Multiplexed Surface Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Johnson, Preston B.; Ash, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Unitary array of sensors measures temperatures at points distributed over designated area on surface. Useful in measuring surface temperatures of aerodynamic models and thermally controlled objects. Made of combination of integrated-circuit microchips and film circuitry. Temperature-sensing chips scanned at speeds approaching 10 kHz. Operating range minus 40 degrees C to 120 degrees C. Flexibility of array conforms to curved surfaces. Multiplexer eliminates numerous monitoring cables. Control of acquisition and recording of data effected by connecting array to microcomputers via suitable interface circuitry.

  16. H2O frost point detection on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. A.; Sharman, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Viking Mars landers contain meteorological instrumentation to measure wind, temperature, and pressure but not atmospheric water content. The landings occurred during local summer, and it was observed that the nocturnal temperature decrease at sensor height (1.6 m) did not exhibit a uniform behavior at either site. It was expected that the rate of decrease would gradually slow, leveling off near sunrise. Instead, a leveling occurred several hours earlier. Temperature subsequently began a more rapid decrease which slowed by sunrise. This suggested that the temperature sensors may be detecting the frost point of water vapor. Analysis of alternative hypotheses demonstrates that none of these are viable candidates. The frost point interpretation is consistent with other lander and orbiter observations, with terrestrial experience, and with modeling of Mars' atmospheric behavior. It thus appears that the meteorology experiment can help provide a basis toward understanding the distribution and dynamics of Martian water vapor.

  17. Single point incremental forming of shape memory polymer foam

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Amirahmad; Vanhove Hans; Attisano Mariagioia; Ambrogio Giuseppina; Duflou Joost R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study single point incremental forming of shape memory foam is investigated. The shape memory effect makes the foam an attractive material for the fabrication of recoverable components such as reusable dies for low pressure forming processes. The mechanical properties of the polymer have been investigated by means of tensile testing at elevated temperature. The maximum achievable formability for this material for single point incremental forming has been characterized both at room and...

  18. Louisiana ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  19. Control Point Generated PLS - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  20. Detecting determinism from point processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejak, Ralph G; Mormann, Florian; Kreuz, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The detection of a nonrandom structure from experimental data can be crucial for the classification, understanding, and interpretation of the generating process. We here introduce a rank-based nonlinear predictability score to detect determinism from point process data. Thanks to its modular nature, this approach can be adapted to whatever signature in the data one considers indicative of deterministic structure. After validating our approach using point process signals from deterministic and stochastic model dynamics, we show an application to neuronal spike trains recorded in the brain of an epilepsy patient. While we illustrate our approach in the context of temporal point processes, it can be readily applied to spatial point processes as well.

  1. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  2. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  3. Maryland ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for raptors in Maryland. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species-specific...

  4. Articulation points in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Bashan, Amir; Shi, Da-Ning; Liu, Yang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    An articulation point in a network is a node whose removal disconnects the network. Those nodes play key roles in ensuring connectivity of many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to protein interaction networks and terrorist communication networks. Despite their fundamental importance, a general framework of studying articulation points in complex networks is lacking. Here we develop analytical tools to study key issues pertinent to articulation points, such as the expected number of them and the network vulnerability against their removal, in an arbitrary complex network. We find that a greedy articulation point removal process provides us a different perspective on the organizational principles of complex networks. Moreover, this process results in a rich phase diagram with two fundamentally different types of percolation transitions. Our results shed light on the design of more resilient infrastructure networks and the effective destruction of terrorist communication networks.

  5. Control Point Generated PLS - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  6. Allegheny County Addressing Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the address points in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  7. Trigger points: an anatomical substratum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs...

  8. Is This The Turning Point?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Freud's psychoanalytical interview, which has also inspired subsequent interview research. Piaget's interviews of children's thought and Adorno and colleagues' interviews about the authoritarian personality illustrate this point. The. Hawthorne interviews with industrial workers and the consumer interviews by Dichter were.

  9. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  10. Virginia ESI: REPTPT (Reptile Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in Virginia. Vector points in this data set represent nesting sites. Species-specific...

  11. Developing SharePoint applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rupnik, Gašper

    2011-01-01

    The thesis includes a research on SharePoint 2010 programming capabilities and a display of products created by this knowledge. The introduction part includes background information on how the topic was chosen and how the thesis was developed. The second chapter presents the SharePoint platform, which includes a description of its structure, function and usability. The third chapter focuses solely on the programming of the platform. First, some of the most useful software tools for i...

  12. SharePoint User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Corporation, Infusion Development

    2009-01-01

    This straightforward guide shows SharePoint users how to create and use web sites for sharing and collaboration. Learn to use the document and picture libraries for adding and editing content, add discussion boards and surveys, receive alerts when documents and information have been added or changed, and enhance security. Designed to help you find answers quickly, the book shows how to make the most of SharePoint for productivity and collaboration.

  13. Hermit Points on a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  14. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    2000-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video. When passing throw the walls the succeeding can be heard and seen. The film has original working sound.

  15. Realization of Copper Melting Point for Thermocouple Calibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the temperature stability and uncertainty of the freezing plateau is better than that of the melting plateau in most of the thermometry fixed points, but realization of melting plateaus are easier than that of freezing plateaus for metal fixed points. It will be convenient if the melting points can be used instead of the freezing points in calibration of standard noble metal thermocouples because of easier realization and longer plateau duration of melting plateaus. In this work a comparison between the melting and freezing points of copper (Cu was carried out using standard noble metal thermocouples. Platinum - platinum 10 % rhodium (type S, platinum – 30 % rhodium / platinum 6 % rhodium (type B and platinum - palladium (Pt/Pd thermocouples are used in this study. Uncertainty budget analysis of the melting points and freezing points is presented. The experimental results show that it is possible to replace the freezing point with the melting point of copper cell in the calibration of standard noble metal thermocouples in secondary-level laboratories if the optimal methods of realization of melting points are used.

  16. Multi-point meteorological observation for Cross-country skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, K.; Tadashi, O.; Kawarabayashi, S.; Iwadate, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Imai, M.; Watanabe, K.; Naruse, N.; Takahashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    To select the glide wax in the cross-country skiing competition is important, because it can work as a reduction of the friction between skiing and snow surface. Inherently, we need to select the wax judged from meteorological conditions, such as temperature, humidity, snow surface temperature, and wind speed in the whole course, however, the wax has been decided on the basis of meteorological conditions in one representative place so far. This study aims to develop a meteorological multi-point observation system using wireless network to select the suitable wax for cross-country skiing on the basis of quantitative analysis. The observation points in this study are temperature and illumination sensors connected to a wireless module. These sensors was put within 0.1m apart from the snow surface. We made 40 sets of the above sensors, and set on the actual cross-country skiing course (Hokkaido) in interval of 50-100m. Observed meteorological data were recorded by PC through the sending by wireless communication (XBee pro). We have succeeded in multi-point meteorological observation for the actual of cross-country skiing course. To escape the effect of sunlight for the air temperature, we cunducted to measure in the case of cloudy. As the results, the positional dependence of the air temperature was in the range of less than 2 degrees Celcius. This value is equivalent to the standard deviation of our sensors. Moreover, we observed in the case of occationally cloudy, air temperature by each point was more than 4 degrees Celcius. This indicates that the local difference of temperature can originate from the existence of cloud from the analysis of the data of illumination sensors. In conclusion, we have observed the local difference of temperature to occur under the influence of cloud on the corse of cross-country skiing , which can affect to select the wax.

  17. WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region (WHO Standard was released in 2008. Initially, there were 92/361 controversial acupuncture points (acupoints. Through seven informal consultations and four task force team meetings, 86 points were agreed upon among the 92 controversial acupoints, leaving 6 remaining controversial acupoints, demanding active research in the future. This will enhance the reproducibility and validity of acupuncture studies. It will also lead to a better understanding of acupuncture mechanisms in order to optimize its clinical efficacy for a range of diseases and syndromes. This book has two parts: General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations and WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations. First of all, familiarity with the General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations in this book can help the reader to understand and use the contents of this book in depth. I would like to thank all of the participating experts and scholars for this great work, who have overcome the limits of previous acupuncture references. I also appreciate the dedicated effort and harmonious leadership of Dr Choi Seung-hoon, former Regional Adviser in Traditional Medicine of Western Pacific Office, WHO.

  18. Can We Avoid the Permafrost Carbon Tipping Point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, K. M.; Zhang, T.; Bruhwiler, L.; Barrett, A. P.; Li, Z.

    2011-12-01

    If we reduce fossil fuel emissions and slow the Arctic warming rate, can we delay or even avoid the permafrost carbon tipping point? Permafrost currently contains about 1466 Gt of carbon frozen during or since the last ice age. The permafrost carbon tipping point occurs when the release of carbon from thawing permafrost overpowers enhanced uptake due to warmer temperatures. The tipping point indicates when the Arctic irreversibly changes from a carbon sink to a source relative to the atmosphere and marks the start of the Permafrost Carbon Feedback. The tipping point is irreversible because once the carbon thaws and decays into the atmosphere, there is no way to put the carbon back into the permafrost. Projections based on the A1B IPCC scenario indicate that the PCF tipping point will occur between 2020 and 2030, with a total of 190±64 Gt of carbon released into the atmosphere by 2300. We ran a series of model projections out to 2300 based on the A1B scenario, but capped emissions at various levels, each representing a different overall Arctic warming. We present the area of permafrost lost, the permafrost carbon tipping point, and total permafrost carbon flux as a function of Arctic temperature increase. We show the maximum allowed Arctic temperature increase before initiating the permafrost carbon feedback.

  19. Point-by-point inscription of apodized fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Voigtländer, Christian; Marshall, Graham D; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Steel, M J; Withford, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate apodized fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed with a point-by-point (PbP) technique. We tailor the grating phase and coupling amplitude through precise control over the longitudinal and transverse positions of each laser-inscribed modification. This method of apodization is facilitated by the highly localized, high-contrast modifications generated by focused IR femtosecond laser inscription. Our technique provides a simple method for the design and implementation of PbP FBGs with complex apodization profiles. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Digital microwave communication engineering point-to-point microwave systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kizer, George

    2013-01-01

    The first book to cover all engineering aspects of microwave communication path design for the digital age Fixed point-to-point microwave systems provide moderate-capacity digital transmission between well-defined locations. Most popular in situations where fiber optics or satellite communication is impractical, it is commonly used for cellular or PCS site interconnectivity where digital connectivity is needed but not economically available from other sources, and in private networks where reliability is most important. Until now, no book has adequately treated all en

  1. Robot positioning based on point-to-point motion capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y. S.; Cho, H. S.; Koh, K. C.

    2000-03-20

    This paper presents an optimal search method for determining the base location of a robot manipulator so that the robot can have a designated point-to-point (PTP) motion capabilities. Based on the topological characterization of the manipulator workspace and the definitions of various p-connectivity, a computational method is developed for enumerating various PTP motion capabilities into quantitative cost functions. Then an unconstrained search by minimizing the cost function yields the task feasible location of the robot base. This methodology is useful for placement of mobile manipulators and robotic workcell layout design.

  2. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  3. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  4. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER and POINT SUR in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon, Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2013-08-03 to 2013-08-29 (NCEI Accession 0157622)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157622 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER and POINT SUR in the Columbia...

  6. Geometric Computations On Indecisive Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Phillips, Jeff; Loffler, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    We study computing with indecisive point sets. Such points have spatial uncertainty where the true location is one of a finite number of possible locations. This data arises from probing distributions a few times or when the location is one of a few locations from a known database. In particular,......-hard. We generalize our polynomial-time algorithm to all LP-type problems. We also utilize our indecisive framework to deterministically and approximately compute on a more general class of uncertain data where the location of each point is given by a probability distribution.......We study computing with indecisive point sets. Such points have spatial uncertainty where the true location is one of a finite number of possible locations. This data arises from probing distributions a few times or when the location is one of a few locations from a known database. In particular......, we study computing distributions of geometric functions such as the radius of the smallest enclosing ball and the diameter. Surprisingly, we can compute the distribution of the radius of the smallest enclosing ball exactly in polynomial time, but computing the same distribution for the diameter is #P...

  7. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emi Akamatsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches.

  8. Evaluation of terrestrial photogrammetric point clouds derived from thermal imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jeremy P.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    Computer vision and photogrammetric techniques have been widely applied to digital imagery producing high density 3D point clouds. Using thermal imagery as input, the same techniques can be applied to infrared data to produce point clouds in 3D space, providing surface temperature information. The work presented here is an evaluation of the accuracy of 3D reconstruction of point clouds produced using thermal imagery. An urban scene was imaged over an area at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, viewing from above as with an airborne system. Terrestrial thermal and RGB imagery were collected from a rooftop overlooking the site using a FLIR SC8200 MWIR camera and a Canon T1i DSLR. In order to spatially align each dataset, ground control points were placed throughout the study area using Trimble R10 GNSS receivers operating in RTK mode. Each image dataset is processed to produce a dense point cloud for 3D evaluation.

  9. Point and transfer mobility of point-connected ribbed plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A. R.; Gibbs, B. M.

    2011-09-01

    The work reported in this paper addresses the problem of structure-borne sound transmission between vibrating sources and ribbed-plate receiver structures. Vibrating sources, such as pumps, motors, fans, etc., transmit vibro-acoustic power, causing noise complaints by occupants in cars, trains, aircraft, buildings and/or material fatigue and damage. The transmission process is complicated in that sources transmit power through several contacts and by up to six components of excitation at each contact. The structure-borne sound power is a function of source activity, source mobility and receiver mobility, and all three quantities must be known to some degree. For non-homogeneous receiver structures, such as thin-plate cavity constructions or lightweight framed constructions, the sheathing plates are typically fastened to the framing members using bolts, screws or spot-welded joints. Hence the resulting system is a point-connected ribbed plate structure and the receiver mobility is expected to vary significantly with position. Since measured receiver data seldom is available for prediction purposes, a method of estimating the point and transfer mobility of point connected ribbed plates is required. In this paper, an approximate approach, based on substitution forces, is described. The model uses infinite beam and infinite plate behaviour as input quantities. Estimates of point and transfer mobility are compared with measured results using a timber joist floor construction as an example.

  10. High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

  11. A lower-melting-point solder alloy for surface mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M. T.; Degani, Y.; Chen, H. S.; Gesick, W. R.

    1996-05-01

    Significant manufacturing cost reductions can be realized with lower-temperature surface mount processing by increasing yields and using less expensive components and boards. A lower-melting-point solder alloy (nominal composition Sn-41.75Pb-8Bi0.5Ag) has been developed that enables significant reductions in peak reflow temperatures during surface-mount assembly. The solder alloy is compatible with standard Pb-Sn surface finishes, melts within the temperature range of ≈166-172°C,andhas promising mechanical properties.

  12. Analysis of irregularly distributed points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    The present thesis is on the analysis of irregularly distributed points. The main part of the thesis is concerned with enterpolating and restoration of irregularly distribyted points. The least squares methods of kriging and Kalman filtering and the Bayesian restoration method of iterated...... is described as a robust estimator which may be appled straightfor- wardly to a wide range of point patterns and processes when the correlation structure is known. We give a qualitative and quantitative comparison of kriging, Kalman filter and iterated conditional modes. The Kalman filter have in a case study...... on fusion of maps with different spatial resolution, shown to provide a powerful modelling of autocorrelated noise structures. The Kalman filter have shown to be superior to ordinary kriging in precision and computational speed. Simple kriging has same statistical properties as the Kalman filter...

  13. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too

  14. Managing Temperature Effects in Nanoscale Adaptive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, David

    2012-01-01

    This book discusses new techniques for detecting, controlling, and exploiting the impacts of temperature variations on nanoscale circuits and systems.  It provides a holistic discussion of temperature management, including physical phenomena (reversal of the MOSFET temperature dependence) that have recently become problematic, along with circuit techniques for detecting, controlling, and adapting to these phenomena. A detailed discussion is also included of the general aspects of thermal-aware system design and management of temperature-induced faults. A new sensor system is described that can determine the temperature dependence as well as the operating temperature to improve system reliability.  A new method is presented to control a circuit’s temperature dependence by individually tuning pull-up and pull-down networks to their temperature-insensitive operating points. This method extends the range of supply voltages that can be made temperature-insensitive, achieving insensitivity at nominal voltage fo...

  15. Fixed-point signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Padgett, Wayne T

    2009-01-01

    This book is intended to fill the gap between the ""ideal precision"" digital signal processing (DSP) that is widely taught, and the limited precision implementation skills that are commonly required in fixed-point processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These skills are often neglected at the university level, particularly for undergraduates. We have attempted to create a resource both for a DSP elective course and for the practicing engineer with a need to understand fixed-point implementation. Although we assume a background in DSP, Chapter 2 contains a review of basic theory

  16. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  17. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B W; Furukawa, G T; Kreider, K G; Meyer, C W; Ripple, D C; Strouse, G F; Tew, W L; Moldover, M R; Johnson, B C; Yoon, H W; Gibson, C E; Saunders, R D

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for "on-site" thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by calibration of

  18. Multi-point sources and imaging compound infrared target simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Xu, Rui; Wang, Hongjie; Wang, Xin; Wu, Di; Li, Zhuo

    2014-11-01

    Infrared target simulator is an important unit in guidance hardware-in-the-loop simulation systems. It is used to simulate the radiation and motion characteristics of target, decoy and background. This paper proposed a multi-channel IR target simulator. It could generate one IR point target, two pairs of IR decoys and background respectively in the same field of view of the seeker's optical system simultaneously. An IR imaging fiber bundle as the focal plane of the projection optical system was used to compound the target, decoys and background. The compound scene was projected to the seeker by the projection optical system. In IR imaging channel, IR scene was generated by an optical film chip as a visible to thermal transducer which was placed in a vacuum cell. The simulated temperature range of IR scene could be from room temperature to 430K.The thin film transducer had 512×512 pixels. Its frame rate could reach to 100Hz. Light sources with high equivalent black body temperature were adopted in IR target and decoy channels. The size and the radiation intensity of the IR point target and decoys could be controlled by pin holes and attenuators. The point target and decoys driven by high precise motors could travel through the whole instantaneous field of view of the seeker's optical system. Two pairs of decoys could move away from the center to the edge of the instantaneous field of view. The highest simulated black body temperature of the point source was 1200K.

  19. Quantized conductance in an atom-sized point contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L.; Laegsgaard, E.; Stensgaard, I.

    1994-01-01

    We present direct measurements at room temperature of the conductance of a point contact between a scanning tunneling microscope tip and Ni, Cu, and Pt surfaces. As the contact is stretched the conductance jumps in units of 2e2/h. Atomistic simulations of the stretch of the contact combined with ...

  20. Compound nucleus decay: Comparison between saddle point and scission point barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T. J.; Carlson, B. V. [Depto. de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    One of the principal characteristics of nuclear multifragmentation is the emission of complex fragments of intermediate mass. An extension of the statistical multifragmentation model has been developed, in which the process can be interpreted as the near simultaneous limit of a series of sequential binary decays. In this extension, intermediate mass fragment emissions are described by expressions almost identical to those of light particle emission. At lower temperatures, similar expressions have been shown to furnish a good description of very light intermediate mass fragment emission but not of the emission of heavier fragments, which seems to be determined by the transition density at the saddle-point rather than at the scission point. Here, we wish to compare these different formulations of intermediate fragmment emission and analyze the extent to which they remain distinguishable at high excitation energy.

  1. Star points on cubic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    A cubic surface in P 3 is given by a non-zero cubic homogeneous polynomial in 4 variables. Fixing an ordering of monomials of degree 3 in the polynomial ring k[x0; x1; x2; x3 ], each cubic surface denes a point in P 19 . The locus P 19 of singular cubic surfaces is a closed subset of

  2. Understanding the Points of Fables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Marcy H.; Brewer, William F.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a model of the reader's understanding of simple narrative texts, such as fables. Tests this model by using point generation and fable comprehension data from adult subjects. Identifies three components needed for understanding a fable's moral. Argues that data support the theory propounded. (HB)

  3. High Points of Human Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Curt

    1975-01-01

    Discusses such high points of human genetics as the study of chromosomes, somatic cell hybrids, the population formula: the Hardy-Weinberg Law, biochemical genetics, the single-active X Theory, behavioral genetics and finally how genetics can serve humanity. (BR)

  4. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1: zone of the ATLAS experiment 18-10-2000 UX 15 cavern and PX16 15-12-2000 USA 15 - UX 15 concreting the arch 14-02-2001 UX 15 - ancrages, isolation and scaffolding

  5. The Philosophy of Turning Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses the concept of turning points from the ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives, applying it to the de-internationalization phenomenon to exemplify its deployment. As a concept that adds to the variance and complexity of the international b...... of a generalizable international business and management theory....

  6. Tipping points in ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylianakis, Jason M; Coux, Camille

    2014-05-01

    Network studies have described the complex interactions among species. Concomitantly, researchers have searched for signals of ecosystem tipping points and attributes of systems that resist them. A recent study combines these areas, showing that attributes of pollination network structure delay critical transitions, and generating a wealth of new research questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Etiology of myofascial trigger points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, C.; Dommerholt, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general

  8. ELMs and strike point movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solano, E. R.; Jachmich, S.; Villone, F.; Hawkes, N.; Corre, Y.; Alper, B.; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R.A.; Guenther, K.; Korotkov, A.; Stamp, M.; Andrew, P.; Conboy, J.; Bolzonella, T.; Kempenaars, M.; Cenedese, A.; Rachlew, E.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of position changes of plasma strike points before and after edge localized modes (ELMs) in JET was carried out. A hypothesis being tested is that in an ELM previously closed edge field lines would open up, releasing plasma current and leading to the formation of a new, smaller

  9. ATLAS: civil engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Real underground video. Nice view from the surface to the cavern from the pit side - all the big machines looked very small. The film has original working sound.

  10. Determine point-to-point networking interactions using regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Deev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As Internet growth and becoming more popular, the number of concurrent data flows start to increasing, which makes sense in bandwidth requested. Providers and corporate customers need ability to identify point-to-point interactions. The best is to use special software and hardware implementations that distribute the load in the internals of the complex, using the principles and approaches, in particular, described in this paper. This paper represent the principles of building system, which searches for a regular expression match using computing on graphics adapter in server station. A significant computing power and capability to parallel execution on modern graphic processor allows inspection of large amounts of data through sets of rules. Using the specified characteristics can lead to increased computing power in 30…40 times compared to the same setups on the central processing unit. The potential increase in bandwidth capacity could be used in systems that provide packet analysis, firewalls and network anomaly detectors.

  11. Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar panels, which have become a good choice, are used to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. This generated power starts with the solar cells, which have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature, and output power. For this reason a tracking of the maximum power point is required. Traditionally, this has been made by considering just current and voltage conditions at the photovoltaic panel; however, temperature also influences the process. In this paper the voltage, current, and temperature in the PV system are considered to be a part of a sliding surface for the proposed maximum power point tracking; this means a sliding mode controller is applied. Obtained results gave a good dynamic response, as a difference from traditional schemes, which are only based on computational algorithms. A traditional algorithm based on MPPT was added in order to assure a low steady state error.

  12. Temperature Scaling Law for Quantum Annealing Optimizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay

    2017-09-15

    Physical implementations of quantum annealing unavoidably operate at finite temperatures. We point to a fundamental limitation of fixed finite temperature quantum annealers that prevents them from functioning as competitive scalable optimizers and show that to serve as optimizers annealer temperatures must be appropriately scaled down with problem size. We derive a temperature scaling law dictating that temperature must drop at the very least in a logarithmic manner but also possibly as a power law with problem size. We corroborate our results by experiment and simulations and discuss the implications of these to practical annealers.

  13. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2009-01-01

    Many observed spatial point patterns contain points placed roughly on line segments. Point patterns exhibiting such structures can be found for example in archaeology (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark) and geography (locations of mountain tops). We consider a particular class of point...... processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...

  14. Modelling point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    Many observed spatial point patterns contain points placed roughly on line segments. Point patterns exhibiting such structures can be found for example in archaeology (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark) and geography (locations of mountain tops). We consider a particular class of point...... processes whose realizations contain such linear structures. Such a point process is constructed sequentially by placing one point at a time. The points are placed in such a way that new points are often placed close to previously placed points, and the points form roughly line shaped structures. We...

  15. A chemical test of critical point isomorphism: reactive dissolution of ionic solids in isobutyric acid + water near the consolute point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, James K; Baker, Jonathan D; Hu, Baichuan; Lang, Joshua R; Joyce, Karen E; Sides, Alison K; Richey, Randi D

    2015-03-12

    Binary liquid mixtures having a consolute point can be used as solvents for chemical reactions. When excess cerium(IV) oxide is brought into equilibrium with a mixture of isobutyric acid + water, and the concentration of cerium in the liquid phase is plotted in van't Hoff form, a straight line results for temperatures sufficiently in excess of the critical solution temperature. Within 1 K of the critical temperature, however, the concentration becomes substantially suppressed, and the van't Hoff slope diverges toward negative infinity. According to the phase rule, one mole fraction can be fixed. Given this restriction, the temperature behavior of the data is in exact agreement with the predictions of both the principle of critical point isomorphism and the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. In addition, we have determined the concentration of lead in the liquid phase when crystalline lead(II) sulfate reacts with potassium iodide in isobutyric acid + water. When plotted in van't Hoff form, the data lie on a straight line for all temperatures including the critical region. The phase rule indicates that two mole fractions can be fixed. With this restriction, the data are in exact agreement with the principle of critical point isomorphism.

  16. Miscibility Critical Points in Plasma Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machta, Benjamin; Veatch, Sarah; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Sethna, James P.

    2009-03-01

    Lipid bilayers surround all cells and are home to a host of proteins and lipids that mediate interactions between the cell and its environment. Recent experimental work has shown that simple membranes composed of three lipid components show complex phase behavior at temperatures in the physiological range. For example, two liquid phases and a gel or solid phase are seen, and a second order phase transition with Ising critical behavior can be reached at a boundary of the liquid-liquid coexistence region [1]. Surprisingly, membrane vesicles isolated from living cells can be tuned with a single parameter (temperature) to criticality [1]. This suggests that cell membranes in vivo sit near miscibility critical points, and may help explain some of the paradoxes associated with putative lipid rafts proposed in other experiments. Here we report on work mapping phase diagrams for the simple membranes utilizing NMR and microscopy data. In addition, we use canonical models of phase transitions to understand the qualitative features of the membranes. Finally we explore ideas from information theory and self organized criticality to understand how and why real cells maintain a membrane near criticality. [1] Honerkamp-Smith, Veatch, and Keller, Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 (in press)

  17. ATLAS: civil engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1998-01-01

    Different phases of the SX 15 realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment 00:13:43 Realization of the concrete floor 19-10-1998 00:29:26 Putting up the metal rails for the roof 19-10-1998 00:33:42 Road alignment entering to POINT1 and in Bollot wood 27-10-1998 00:41:53 General sight of the buildings in construction Building SX gives the cover for the work at the experiment It is used to shelter the Pit and the work for the underground cavern as well as for covering the ground work with big cranes that allows the lowering of the components belonging to the detector. The hall is also used as a detector part storage and cover during the assembly. It shelters small workshops of mechanics and electronics necessary for the assembly and the maintenance of the ATLAS experiment.

  18. Leverage points for sustainability transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  19. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  20. Point-of-Care Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauglitz, Günter

    2014-06-01

    Point-of-care applications are gaining increasing interest in clinical diagnostics and emergency applications. Biosensors are used to monitor the biomolecular interaction process between a disease biomarker and a recognition element such as a reagent. Essential are the quality and selectivity of the recognition elements and assay types used to improve sensitivity and to avoid nonspecific interactions. In addition, quality measures are influenced by the detection principle and the evaluation strategies. For these reasons, this review provides a survey and validation of recognition elements, assays, and various types of detection methods for point-of-care testing (POCT) platforms. Common applications of clinical parameters are discussed and considered. In this ever-changing field, a snapshot of current applications is needed. We provide such a snapshot by way of a table including literature citations and also discuss these applications in more detail throughout.

  1. Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA point mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Litvinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell energy metabolic disorders, the basis for which is mitochondrial insufficiency caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA point mutations, give rise to a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations so the purpose of this review is to analyze the recent publications on the relationship of mtDNA point mutations to mitochondrial diseases, which unveil the importance of development of molecular diagnosis. The presence of A3243G, T3271C, T3291C, C3256T, A8344G, G8356A, A3260G, СЗЗОЗТ, and A4300Gmutations in mtDNA may suggest that there are multiorgan dysfunctions and multisystem disorders, the clinical signs and symptoms of which can vary with time, which emphasizes the importance of comprehensive genetic studies if the mitochondrial disease is assumed to be clinical.

  2. Field of Temperature Measurement by Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor HARGAŠ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces about temperature determination for given dot of picture through image analysis. Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. Main method of measurement of temperature in image is Pattern Matching, color scale detection and model detection. We can measure temperature dependency at time for selected point of thermo vision images. This measurement gives idea about the heat transfer at time dependences.

  3. Change point analysis and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop an analytical framework for studying processes such as continuous innovation and business development in high-tech SME clusters that transcends the traditional qualitative-quantitative divide. It integrates four existing and well-recognized approaches to stud...... to studying events, processes and change, mamely change-point analysis, event-history analysis, critical-incident technique and sequence analysis....

  4. What’s the Point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    15 different interest. Austin and Searle are much interested the category of promises, for example, because promises have remarkable ethical effect...allowing the listener to reason teleologically about the input ,2. Understanding the point provides a minimal criterion for the decision on when sufficient...more detail. Teleolory To reason about something teleologically is to consider it in terms of its ultimate purpose. Often knowing the purpose for

  5. A fixed-point farrago

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Joel H

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to some of the best-known fixed-point theorems, with an emphasis on their interactions with topics in analysis. The level of exposition increases gradually throughout the book, building from a basic requirement of undergraduate proficiency to graduate-level sophistication. Appendices provide an introduction to (or refresher on) some of the prerequisite material and exercises are integrated into the text, contributing to the volume’s ability to be used as a self-contained text. Readers will find the presentation especially useful for independent study or as a supplement to a graduate course in fixed-point theory. The material is split into four parts: the first introduces the Banach Contraction-Mapping Principle and the Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem, along with a selection of interesting applications; the second focuses on Brouwer’s theorem and its application to John Nash’s work; the third applies Brouwer’s theorem to spaces of infinite dimension; and the fourth rests ...

  6. Action description using point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenping; Jiang, Yongfeng; Wang, Haili; Zhang, Liang

    2017-06-01

    An action description method named as Motion History Point Cloud (MHPC) is proposed in this paper. MHPC compresses an action into a three-dimensional point cloud in which depth information is required. In MHPC, the spatial coordinate channels are used to record the motion foreground, and the color channels are used to record the temporal variation. Due to containing depth information, MHPC can depict an action more meticulous than Motion History Image (MHI). MHPC can serve as a pre-processed input for various classification methods, such as Bag of Words and Deep Learning. An action recognition scheme is provided as an application example of MHPC. In this scheme, Harris3D detector and Fast Point Feature Histogram (FPFH) are used to extract and describe features from MHPC. Then, Bag of Words and multiple classification Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used to do action recognition. The experiments show that rich features can be extracted from MHPC to support the subsequent action recognition even after downsampling. The feasibility and effectiveness of MHPC are also verified by comparing the above scheme with two similar methods.

  7. Design and construction of a gallium fixed-point blackbody at CENAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas G, D., E-mail: dcardena@cenam.mx [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76246 Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    For temperatures below silver fixed-point defined by the International Temperature Scale of 1990, a transfer radiation thermometer can be calibrated using either of two calibration schemes: a variable temperature blackbody with a standard platinum resistance thermometer as a reference, or with a set of fixed-point blackbodies. CENAM is presently working with the first scheme, and it is developing fixed-point blackbodies to have the capability to work with the second scheme too. For this purpose a gallium fixed-point blackbody to calibrate CENAM transfer radiation thermometer was designed and constructed. The blackbody cavity has a cylinder-cone shape with effective emissivity equal to 0.9992±0.0004 in the 8 μm to 14 μm wavelength range. The radiance temperature of the gallium fixed-point blackbody was estimated to have and expanded uncertainty of 54 m K, with a coverage factor k = 2. (Author)

  8. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory O&M operations and maintenance OA outdoor air OAT outside air temperature PSZ packaged single zone RA return air RAT return air...Barracks 29 Headquarters 17 Offices 5.7 Hospital 4.6 Retail space 1.8 Commissaries 0.9 The OATs are typically 80°–90°F during the cooling season...units were installed across five facilities at Fort Carson, including a training center (classrooms), auditorium, events center, a digester facility

  9. Why Bond Critical Points Are Not "Bond" Critical Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazian, Shant

    2017-12-28

    Equating (3,-1) critical points (CPs), derived from the topological analysis of the electron densities, to chemical bonds has triggered a lot of confusion in recent years. Part of this confusion stems from calling these CPs "bond" CPs (BCPs). While the origin of this terminology is traceable to the late seventies and beginning of eighties, when it sounded reasonable, new computational studies conducted on molecular electron densities cast serious doubt on the supposed universal equivalence between the chemical bonds and (3,-1) CPs. Herein, recent computational studies are briefly reviewed to demonstrate why (3,-1) CPs are not indicators of chemical bonds. It is discussed why this confusing terminology needs to be changed and reemphasized that (3,-1) CPs should be called "line" critical points (LCPs). The proposed terminology detaches the topological properties of molecular electron densities from any a priori chemical interpretation. Such detachment, if adopted by other authors, will hopefully prevent further misinterpretation of the data emerging from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Investigation on Minimum Film Boiling Point of Highly Heated Vertical Metal Rod in Aqueous Surfactant Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi Young; Kim, Jae Han [Pukyong Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, experiments were conducted on the MFB(minimum film boiling) point of highly heated vertical metal rod quenched in aqueous surfactant solution at various temperature conditions. The aqueous Triton X-100 solution(100 wppm) and pure water were used as the liquid pool. Their temperatures ranged from 77 °C to 100 °C. A stainless steel vertical rod of initial center temperature of 500 °C was used as a test specimen. In both liquid pools, as the liquid temperature decreased, the time to reach the MFB point decreased with a parallel increase in the temperature and heat flux of the MFB point. However, over the whole present temperature range, in the aqueous Triton X-100 solution, the time to reach the MFB point was longer, while the temperature and heat flux of the MFB point were reduced when compared with pure water. Based on the present experimental data, this study proposed the empirical correlations to predict the MFB temperature of a high temperature vertical metal rod in pure water and in aqueous Triton X-100 solution.

  11. Anbar Awakens: The Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Combined Arms Center,Army & Marine CounterInsurgency Center (COIN),Fort Leavenworth,KS,66027 8. PERFORMING ...radical change, or a “tipping point,” to occur: mavens, salespersons , and connectors. in brief, mavens have the goods, salespersons spread the word, and

  12. Growth points in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Peter Edward

    1980-01-01

    Growth Points in Nuclear Physics, Volume 2 covers the progress in the fields of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. This book is composed of three chapters. The first chapter is devoted to nuclear forces and potentials, in particular the optical model potential that enables the elastic scattering of many particles by nuclei to be calculated in a very simple manner. This chapter also deals with the three-body forces and the spin dependence of the nuclear potential. The second chapter describes higher order processes involving two or more stages, specifically their intrinsic interest and th

  13. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  14. Address Points - COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN: Address Points Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point feature class)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN is an ESRI Geodatabase point feature class that contains address points maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  15. Start and the restriction point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    Commitment to division requires that cells sense, interpret, and respond appropriately to multiple signals. In most eukaryotes, cells commit to division in G1 before DNA replication. Beyond a point, known as Start in yeast and the restriction point in mammals, cells will proceed through the cell cycle despite changes in upstream signals. In metazoans, misregulated G1 control can lead to developmental problems or disease, so it is important to understand how cells decipher the myriad external and internal signals that contribute to the fundamental all-or-none decision to divide. Extensive study of G1 control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian culture systems has revealed highly similar networks regulating commitment. However, protein sequences of functional orthologs often indicate a total lack of conservation suggesting significant evolution of G1 control. Here, we review recent studies defining the conserved and diverged features of G1 control and highlight systems-level aspects that may be common to other biological regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald

    2013-01-10

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization. Processing terrain data has not received the attention of other forms of surface reconstruction or of image processing. The goal of terrain data processing is to convert the point cloud into a succinct representation system that is amenable to the various application demands. The present paper presents a platform for terrain processing built on the following principles: (i) measuring distortion in the Hausdorff metric, which we argue is a good match for the application demands, (ii) a multiscale representation based on tree approximation using local polynomial fitting. The basic elements held in the nodes of the tree can be efficiently encoded, transmitted, visualized, and utilized for the various target applications. Several challenges emerge because of the variable resolution of the data, missing data, occlusions, and noise. Techniques for identifying and handling these challenges are developed. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  17. Identification of critical points of thermal environment in broiler production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AG Menezes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an exploratory study carried out to determine critical control points and possible risks in hatcheries and broiler farms. The study was based in the identification of the potential hazards existing in broiler production, from the hatchery to the broiler farm, identifying critical control points and defining critical limits. The following rooms were analyzed in the hatchery: egg cold storage, pre-heating, incubator, and hatcher rooms. Two broiler houses were studied in two different farms. The following data were collected in the hatchery and broiler houses: temperature (ºC and relative humidity (%, air velocity (m s-1, ammonia levels, and light intensity (lx. In the broiler house study, a questionnaire using information of the Broiler Production Good Practices (BPGP manual was applied, and workers were interviewed. Risk analysis matrices were build to determine Critical Control Points (CCP. After data collection, Statistical Process Control (SPC was applied through the analysis of the Process Capacity Index, using the software program Minitab15®. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were the critical points identified in the hatchery and in both farms. The classes determined as critical control points in the broiler houses were poultry litter, feeding, drinking water, workers' hygiene and health, management and biosecurity, norms and legislation, facilities, and activity planning. It was concluded that CCP analysis, associated with SPC control tools and guidelines of good production practices, may contribute to improve quality control in poultry production.

  18. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 168 (EPPING, NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  19. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 169 (NEWMARKET, NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  20. Investigation of Asphaltene Precipitation at Elevated Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lindeloff, Niels; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    In order to obtain quantitative data on the asphaltene precipitation induced by the addition of n-alkane (heptane) at temperatures above the normal boiling point of the precipitant, a high temperature/high pressure filtration apparatus has been constructed. Oil and alkane are mixed at the appropr......In order to obtain quantitative data on the asphaltene precipitation induced by the addition of n-alkane (heptane) at temperatures above the normal boiling point of the precipitant, a high temperature/high pressure filtration apparatus has been constructed. Oil and alkane are mixed...... in the extracted fraction, hence there is no room for stirring. The equipment as well as solutions to some of the problems are presented along with precipitation data from 40 to 200 degrees C. The asphaltenes separated are analyzed using FT-ir. The filtrate containing the maltenes was cooled to room temperature...

  1. Thermal Radiator Pointing for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Scott

    1999-01-01

    In order to provide thermal radiation environments that result in adequate beat rejection, the single-phase, liquid ammonia (NH3) heat rejection system on the International Space Station (ISS) requires that its two thermal radiator wings be dynamically rotated as the ISS travels through its orbit. This paper discusses the closed-loop, thermal radiator pointing system that is used on ISS to ensure adequate heat rejection by the radiators, while preventing freezing of the ammonia under low heat loads and cold-environmental conditions. Although initial designs used an open-loop approach for radiator pointing, concerns about performance robustness, algorithm complexity, memory requirements, and sustaining support drove the development of a more robust, simpler, closed-loop system. Hence, the challenge of the closed-loop system was to utilize existing sensors, actuators and computers to fit into the existing hardware and software architecture of the ISS. Using a proportional-integral (PI) control architecture with limited output and an anti-windup integrator, the temperature of the ammonia coming out of the radiator is measured and controlled by adjusting the radiator wing orientation. The radiator wing orientation for the local minimum environment is fed forward to the control system, and the closed-loop controller is used to generate a bias off of that local minimum environment in order to heat up the ammonia when necessary to avoid freezing. In the earth's shadow, the controller is suspended and the radiator wing is oriented to face the earth, the local maximum thermal environment which further prevents freezing of the ammonia. This control architecture is shown to provide adequate heat rejection and avoid freezing of the ammonia, even though the physical system consists of large transport delays and time-varying dynamics which change dramatically due to orbit motion and variable heat loads.

  2. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  3. Point to point multispectral light projection applied to cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, D.; Alvarez, A.; Canabal, H.; Garcia, A.; Mayorga, S.; Muro, C.; Galan, T.

    2017-09-01

    Use of new of light sources based on LED technology should allow the develop of systems that combine conservation and exhibition requirements and allow to make these art goods available to the next generations according to sustainability principles. The goal of this work is to develop light systems and sources with an optimized spectral distribution for each specific point of the art piece. This optimization process implies to maximize the color fidelity reproduction and the same time to minimize the photochemical damage. Perceived color under these sources will be similar (metameric) to technical requirements given by the restoration team uncharged of the conservation and exhibition of the goods of art. Depending of the fragility of the exposed art objects (i.e. spectral responsivity of the material) the irradiance must be kept under a critical level. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model that simulates with enough accuracy both the visual effect of the illumination and the photochemical impact of the radiation. Spectral reflectance of a reference painting The mathematical model is based on a merit function that optimized the individual intensity of the LED-light sources taking into account the damage function of the material and color space coordinates. Moreover the algorithm used weights for damage and color fidelity in order to adapt the model to a specific museal application. In this work we show a sample of this technology applied to a picture of Sorolla (1863-1923) an important Spanish painter title "woman walking at the beach".

  4. Elevated temperature and temperature programming in conventional liquid chromatography--fundamentals and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoenacker, Gerd; Sandra, Pat

    2006-08-01

    Temperature, as a powerful variable in conventional LC is discussed from a fundamental point of view and illustrated with applications from the author's laboratory. Emphasis is given to the influence of temperature on speed, selectivity, efficiency, detectability, and mobile phase composition (green chromatography). The problems accompanying the use of elevated temperature and temperature programming in LC are reviewed and solutions are described. The available stationary phases for high temperature operation are summarized and a brief overview of recent applications reported in the literature is given.

  5. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  6. Low-temperature synthesis of high-melting point metal non-oxide fine powders. Solid state reaction synthesis using active metal and similarity of crystal structure; Koyuten kinzoku hisankabutsu bifunmatsu no teion gosei. Kassei kinzoku to kessho kozo no ruijisei wo riyoshita koso hanno gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, H.; Mitamura, T. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the low-temperature synthesis of metal non-oxide fine powders as fine ceramics. Precursors of the metal non-oxide are prepared using the lower oxide synthesized in oxidation-reduction reaction between metal oxide and active metal and the similarity of crystal structure to the target. The metal non-oxide can be synthesized by extracting oxygen from the precursors using active metal. For example, in the case of synthesis of TiN powders from TiO2-Mg-N2 gaseous system by the thermit method, {alpha}-Ti is synthesized through reduction reaction of TiO2 using active metal Mg via lower oxide of Ti, TiO. Crystal structure of the intermediate TiO is cubic system which is the same as the target TiN. Complete solid solution is formed from TiO and TiN. TiO can be recognized as an active intermediate of the synthesis of TiN. The precursor is prepared by injecting nitrogen into the lattice of TiO for making solid solution. When oxygen is extracted in the form of MgO using Mg, TiN with cubic system structure can be synthesized at lower temperature than the conventional method. Synthesis by the halogenide method is also described. 50 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Two general fixed point principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapurao C. Dhage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a couple of general fixed point principles using the constructive approach and derive some interesting well-known fixed point theorems in a metric space and a partially ordered metric space as corollaries. Our general fixed point principles include more than 100 fixed point theorems in different metric spaces as special cases.

  8. Test of Taylor's Hypothesis with Distributed Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Gentine, P.; Sayde, C.; Tanner, E.; Ochsner, T. E.; Dong, J.

    2016-12-01

    Taylor's hypothesis[Taylor, 1938] assumes that mean wind speed carries the spatial pattern of turbulent motion past a fixed point in a "frozen" way, which has been widely used to relate streamwise wavenumber and angular frequency . Experiments[Fisher, 1964; Tong, 1996] have shown some deviation from Taylor's hypothesis at highly turbulent intensity flows and at high wavenumbers. However, the velocity or scalar measurements have always been fixed at a few spatial points rather than distributed in space. This experiment was designed for the first time to directly compare the time and spatial spectrum of temperature to test Taylor's hypothesis, measuring temperature with high resolution in both time and space by Distributed Temperature Sensing utilizing the attenuation difference of Raman scattering in the optic fiber at the MOISST site Oklahoma. The length of transact is 233 meters along the dominant wind direction. The temperature sampling distance is 0.127m and sampling time frequency is 1 Hz. The heights of the 4 fiber cables parallel to ground are 1m, 1.254m, 1.508m and 1.762m respectively. Also, eddy covariance instrument was set up near the Distributed Temperature Sensing as comparison for temperature data. The temperature spatial spectrum could be obtained with one fixed time point, while the temperature time spectrum could be obtained with one fixed spatial point in the middle of transact. The preliminary results would be presented in the AGU fall meeting. Reference Fisher, M. J., and Davies, P.O.A.L (1964), Correlation measurements in a non-frozen pattern of turbulence, Journal of fluid mechanics, 18(1), 97-116. Taylor, G. I. (1938), The spectrum of turbulence, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 164(919), 476-490. Tong, C. (1996), Taylor's Hypothesis and Two-point Coherence Measurements, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 81(3), 399-410.

  9. MOVING WINDOW SEGMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  10. Point defects in epitaxial silicene on Ag(111) surface

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongsheng; Feng, Haifeng; Du, Yi; Chen, Jian; Wu, Kehui; Zhao, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Silicene, a counterpart of graphene, has achieved rapid development due to its exotic electronic properties and excellent compatibility with the mature silicon-based semiconductor technology. Its low room-temperature mobility of about 100 cm2V-1s-1, however, inhibits device applications such as in field-effect transistors. Generally, defects and grain boundaries would act as scattering centers and thus reduce the carrier mobility. In this paper, the morphologies of various point defects in ep...

  11. Measurement and correlation of jet fuel viscosities at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schruben, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure jet fuel viscosity for eight current and future jet fuels at temperatures from ambient to near -60 C by shear viscometry. Viscosity data showed good reproducibility even at temperatures a few degrees below the measured freezing point. The viscosity-temperature relationship could be correlated by two linear segments when plotted as a standard log-log type representation (ASTM D 341). At high temperatures, the viscosity-temperature slope is low. At low temperatures, where wax precipitation is significant, the slope is higher. The breakpoint between temperature regions is the filter flow temperature, a fuel characteristic approximated by the freezing point. A generalization of the representation for the eight experimental fuels provided a predictive correlation for low-temperature viscosity, considered sufficiently accurate for many design or performance calculations.

  12. Coronal bright points associated with minifilament eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Li, Haidong [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan, E-mail: hjcsolar@ynao.ac.cn [Also at Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. (China)

    2014-12-01

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are small-scale, long-lived coronal brightenings that always correspond to photospheric network magnetic features of opposite polarity. In this paper, we subjectively adopt 30 CBPs in a coronal hole to study their eruptive behavior using data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. About one-quarter to one-third of the CBPs in the coronal hole go through one or more minifilament eruption(s) (MFE(s)) throughout their lifetimes. The MFEs occur in temporal association with the brightness maxima of CBPs and possibly result from the convergence and cancellation of underlying magnetic dipoles. Two examples of CBPs with MFEs are analyzed in detail, where minifilaments appear as dark features of a cool channel that divide the CBPs along the neutral lines of the dipoles beneath. The MFEs show the typical rising movements of filaments and mass ejections with brightenings at CBPs, similar to large-scale filament eruptions. Via differential emission measure analysis, it is found that CBPs are heated dramatically by their MFEs and the ejected plasmas in the MFEs have average temperatures close to the pre-eruption BP plasmas and electron densities typically near 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}. These new observational results indicate that CBPs are more complex in dynamical evolution and magnetic structure than previously thought.

  13. 49 CFR 236.327 - Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.327 Switch, movable-point frog or split-point derail. Switch, movable-point frog, or split-point derail equipped with lock rod shall be maintained so...

  14. Light Stops at Exceptional Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzak, Tamar; Mailybaev, Alexei A.; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2018-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago, light was slowed down to less than 10-7 of its vacuum speed in a cloud of ultracold atoms of sodium. Upon a sudden turn-off of the coupling laser, a slow light pulse can be imprinted on cold atoms such that it can be read out and converted into a photon again. In this process, the light is stopped by absorbing it and storing its shape within the atomic ensemble. Alternatively, the light can be stopped at the band edge in photonic-crystal waveguides, where the group speed vanishes. Here, we extend the phenomenon of stopped light to the new field of parity-time (P T ) symmetric systems. We show that zero group speed in P T symmetric optical waveguides can be achieved if the system is prepared at an exceptional point, where two optical modes coalesce. This effect can be tuned for optical pulses in a wide range of frequencies and bandwidths, as we demonstrate in a system of coupled waveguides with gain and loss.

  15. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  16. 2239 EFFECT OF INLET-AIR TEMPERATURE ON PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    took higher time to get wet at lower temperature than at higher temperature of reconstituting water. This is in agreement with the findings that the wettability of skim milk powder is poor at water temperature below the melting point of fat because the surface of the particles is always covered by fat, forming a water repellent ...

  17. A model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have presented a model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high temperature superconductors using paraconductivity approach. The theoretical analysis is based on the crossing point technique of the conductivity expressions. The pseudogap temperature T ∗ is found to depend on dimension and is ...

  18. Comment on "Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudemand, N; Romano, C; Brayard, A; Hochuli, P A; Bucher, H

    2013-03-01

    Sun et al. (Reports, 19 October 2012, p. 366) reconstructed Permian to Middle Triassic equatorial seawater temperatures. After correct temporal positioning of their data points, their presumed trends of temperature changes, and hence their assumption of a one-to-one relationship between putative "lethally hot" seawater temperatures and a disputable equatorial "eclipse" of some organisms, are no longer supported by their data.

  19. Non-thermal fixed point in a holographic superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewerz, Carlo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gasenzer, Thomas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Karl, Markus; Samberg, Andreas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung,Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-05-14

    We study the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature and chemical potential using its holographic description in terms of a gravitational system in 3+1 dimensions. Starting from various initial conditions corresponding to ensembles of vortex defects we numerically evolve the system to long times. At intermediate times the system exhibits Kolmogorov scaling the emergence of which depends on the choice of initial conditions. We further observe a universal late-time regime in which the occupation spectrum and different length scales of the superfluid exhibit scaling behaviour. We study these scaling laws in view of superfluid turbulence and interpret the universal late-time regime as a non-thermal fixed point of the dynamical evolution. In the holographic superfluid the non-thermal fixed point can be understood as a stationary point of the classical equations of motion of the dual gravitational description.

  20. Comparison of the copper blackbody fixed-point cavities between NIS and LNE-Cnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. G.; Ali, K.; Bourson, F.; Sadli, M.

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes the results of a bilateral comparison at the copper blackbody fixed point (1084.62 °C), one of the defining fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 in the high-temperature range. The ‘National Institute of Standards—Egypt (NIS)’ and the ‘Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie--France (LNE-Cnam)’ undertook such a comparison using an NIS linear pyrometer ‘LP4’ as a circulating radiation thermometer between the two laboratories. The main objective of this work was to compare the realizations of the copper blackbody fixed point for radiation thermometers and establish the level of agreement between the two laboratories in the high-temperature range. The comparison measurements revealed a slightly lower temperature of the NIS copper point than that of the LNE-Cnam copper point by about 0.08 °C. This difference is not significant with regard to the uncertainty and the stability of the pyrometer estimated as 0.15 °C. A second comparison was made a few months later by comparing simultaneously the two copper points at the LNE-Cnam premises. This comparison allowed determining a temperature difference of 0.045 ± 0.030 °C between the two cells, with the temperature of the LNE-Cnam cell being higher than that of NIS.

  1. Comparison of Dose When Prescribed to Point A and Point H for Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Ji Hyeong; Gim, Il Hwan; Hwang, Seon Boong; Kim, Woong; Im, Hyeong Seo; Gang, Jin Mook; Gim, Gi Hwan; Lee, Ah Ram [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare plans prescribed to point A with these prescribed to point H recommended by ABS (American Brachytherapy Society) in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. This study selected 103 patients who received HDR (High Dose Rate) brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids from March 2010 to January 2012. Point A, bladder point, and rectal point conform with Manchester System. Point H conforms with ABS recommendation. Also Sigmoid colon point, and vagina point were established arbitrarily. We examined distance between point A and point H. The percent dose at point A was calculated when 100% dose was prescribed to point H. Additionally, the percent dose at each reference points when dose is prescribed to point H and point A were calculated. The relative dose at point A was lower when point H was located inferior to point A. The relative doses at bladder, rectal, sigmoid colon, and vagina points were higher when point H was located superior to point A, and lower when point H was located inferior to point A. This study found out that as point H got located much superior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became higher, and as point H got located much inferior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became lower. This differences dose not seem to affect the treatment. However, we suggest this new point is worth being considered for the treatment of HDR if dose distribution and absorbed dose at normal organs have large differences between prescribed to point A and H.

  2. Liquid-Vapor Argon Isotope Fractionation from the Triple Point to the Critical Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, J. T.; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Bigeleisen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamic treatment of the equilibrium between a nonideal liquid mixture of isotopes and a vapor phase is extended to include isotope effects on the equation of state of the gas. The result is particularly simple when the isotopic partition functions in a given phase are compa......The statistical thermodynamic treatment of the equilibrium between a nonideal liquid mixture of isotopes and a vapor phase is extended to include isotope effects on the equation of state of the gas. The result is particularly simple when the isotopic partition functions in a given phase...... are compared at the same molar volume. The isotope fractionation factor α for 36Ar∕40Ar between liquid and vapor has been measured from the triple point to the critical temperature. The results are compared with previous vapor pressure data, which cover the range 84–102°K. Although the agreement is within....... The fractionation factor approaches zero at the critical temperature with a nonclassical critical index equal to 0.42±0.02.〈∇2Uc〉/ρc in liquid argon is derived from the experimental fractionation data and calculations of 〈∇2Ug〉/ρg for a number of potential functions for gaseous argon....

  3. Body temperature norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal body temperature; Temperature - normal ... Morrison SF. Regulation of body temperature. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 59. Sajadi MM, Mackowiak ...

  4. Professional SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, Tom; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul J; Hillier, Scot; Schaefer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Updated guidance on how to take advantage of the newest features of SharePoint programmability More than simply a portal, SharePoint is Microsoft's popular content management solution for building intranets and websites or hosting wikis and blogs. Offering broad coverage on all aspects of development for the SharePoint platform, this comprehensive book shows you exactly what SharePoint does, how to build solutions, and what features are accessible within SharePoint. Written by a team of SharePoint experts, this new edition offers an extensive selection of field-tested best practices that shows

  5. Professional SharePoint 2013 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Shane; Klindt, Todd

    2013-01-01

    SharePoint admin author gurus return to prepare you for working with the new features of SharePoint 2013! The new iteration of SharePoint boasts exciting new features. However, any new version also comes with its fair share of challenges and that's where this book comes in. The team of SharePoint admin gurus returns to presents a fully updated resource that prepares you for making all the new SharePoint 2013 features work right. They cover all of the administration components of SharePoint 2013 in detail, and present a clear understanding of how they affect the role of the adminis

  6. SharePoint 2010 Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Steven; Gazmuri, Pablo; Caravajal, Steve; Wheeler, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Hands-on solutions for common SharePoint 2010 challenges Aimed at the more than 100 million licensed SharePoint 2010 users, this indispensable field guide addresses an abundance of common SharePoint 2010 problems and offers proven solutions. A team of authors encourages you to customize SharePoint beyond the out-of-the-box functionality so that you can build more complex solutions to these challenges. You?ll discover intricate details and specific full-scale solutions that you can then implement to your own SharePoint 2010 solutions.Tackles a variety of SharePoint 2010 problems ranging from si

  7. SharePoint 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vanessa L

    2012-01-01

    Here's the bestselling guide on SharePoint 2010, updated to cover Office 365 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. The Office 365 version includes significantly enhanced cloud capabilities. This second edition of the bestselling guide to SharePoint covers getting a SharePoint site up and running, branded, populated with content, and more. It explains ongoing site management and offers plenty of advice for administrators who want to leverage SharePoint and Office 365 in various ways.Many businesses today rely on SharePoint Portal Ser

  8. Drinking Water Temperature Modelling in Domestic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman, A.; Blokker, M.; Vreeburg, J.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic water supply systems are the final stage of the transport process to deliver potable water to the customers’ tap. Under the influence of temperature, residence time and pipe materials the drinking water quality can change while the water passes the domestic drinking water system. According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act the drinking water temperature may not exceed the 25 °C threshold at point-of-use level. This paper provides a mathematical approach to model the heating of drinking...

  9. Low-Temperature Magnetic Anomaly in Magnetite

    OpenAIRE

    Svindrych, Zdenek; Janu, Zdenek; Kozlowski, Andrzej; Honig, Jurgen M.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied experimentally the responses of high quality single crystals of stoichiometric synthetic magnetite to applied weak dc and ac magnetic fields in the range of 6 K to 60 K, far below the Verwey transition. The results can be compared to so called Magnetic After Effects (MAE) measurements, which are the most extensive magnetic measurements of magnetite at these temperatures. We present a novel point of view on the relaxation phenomena encountered at these temperatures - the Low Te...

  10. On the fractional derivatives at extrema points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Refai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We correct a recent result concerning the fractional derivative at extrema points. We then establish new results for the Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives at extrema points.

  11. The Zero Point of Historical Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R.S. Khakimov

    2013-01-01

    ...– the zero point of the coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one...

  12. Inhomogeneous Markov point processes by transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Nielsen, Linda Stougaard

    2000-01-01

    We construct parametrized models for point processes, allowing for both inhomogeneity and interaction. The inhomogeneity is obtained by applying parametrized transformations to homogeneous Markov point processes. An interesting model class, which can be constructed by this transformation approach...

  13. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...

  14. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  15. State Wildlife Management Area Public Facilities - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This point theme contains facilities and features for WMAs that are best represented as points. WMAs are part of the Minnesota state recreation system created to...

  16. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  17. Accuracy limit of rigid 3-point water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Classical 3-point rigid water models are most widely used due to their computational efficiency. Recently, we introduced a new approach to constructing classical rigid water models [S. Izadi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3863 (2014)], which permits a virtually exhaustive search for globally optimal model parameters in the sub-space that is most relevant to the electrostatic properties of the water molecule in liquid phase. Here we apply the approach to develop a 3-point Optimal Point Charge (OPC3) water model. OPC3 is significantly more accurate than the commonly used water models of same class (TIP3P and SPCE) in reproducing a comprehensive set of liquid bulk properties, over a wide range of temperatures. Beyond bulk properties, we show that OPC3 predicts the intrinsic charge hydration asymmetry (CHA) of water — a characteristic dependence of hydration free energy on the sign of the solute charge — in very close agreement with experiment. Two other recent 3-point rigid water models, TIP3PFB and H2ODC, each developed by its own, completely different optimization method, approach the global accuracy optimum represented by OPC3 in both the parameter space and accuracy of bulk properties. Thus, we argue that an accuracy limit of practical 3-point rigid non-polarizable models has effectively been reached; remaining accuracy issues are discussed. PMID:27544113

  18. Electrical measurements in GaN: Point defects and dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Look, D.C.; Fang, Z.; Polenta, L.

    2000-07-01

    Defects can be conveniently categorized into three types: point, line, and areal. In GaN, the important point defects are vacancies and interstitials; the line defects are threading dislocations; and the areal defects are stacking faults. The authors have used electron irradiation to produce point defects, and temperature-dependent Hall-effect (TDH) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements to study them. The TDH investigation has identified two point defects, an 0.06-eV donor and a deep acceptor, thought to be the N vacancy and interstitial, respectively. The DLTS study has found two point-defect electron traps, at 0.06 eV and 0.09 eV, respectively; the 0.06-eV trap actually has two components, with different capture kinetics. With respect to line defects, the DLTS spectrum is as-grown GaN includes an 0.45-eV electron trap, which has the characteristics of a dislocation, and the TDH measurements show that threading-edge dislocations are acceptor-like in n-type GaN. Finally, in samples grown by the hydride vapor phase technique, TDH measurements indicate a strongly n-type region at the GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, which may be associated with stacking faults. All of the defects discussed above can have an influence on the dc and/or ac conductivity of GaN.

  19. The effect factors of the pour point of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Shuichang; Zhu, Guangyou; Su, Jin; Cui, Jie [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina (China)], email: zhangjun506@163.com

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil does not freeze, but a freezing point is often used to describe the fluidness of crude oil, which is the highest temperature at which oil will stop flowing under specific test conditions. The freezing point of numerous samples of crude oil from the Tarim and the Junggar basins in China was measured. The freezing point is positively related to wax content for the Tarim basin samples, but negatively related to the content of resin and asphaltene. However, there are no obvious relationships between freezing point and wax, resin and asphaltene content for the Junggar samples. The results suggest that the freezing point of crude oil is mainly controlled by wax content if the wax content is not too low. Flow improvers affect the growth, modify the structure, and prevent the interlocking of wax crystals, thus enhancing the flow properties of crude oil. But when wax content is low, other factors will influence fluidness, such as the quantity and types of aromatics and heterocyclic compounds.

  20. Fundamentals of fiber bonding in thermally point-bonded nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Aparna

    Thermal point bonding (TPB) uses heat and pressure to bond a web of fibers at discrete points imparting strength to the manufactured fabric. This process significantly reduces the strength and elongation of the bridging fibers between bond points while strengthening the web. Single fiber experiments were performed with four structurally different polypropylene fibers to analyze the inter-relationships between fiber structure, fiber properties and bonding process. Two fiber types had a low birefringence sheath or surface layer while the remaining had uniform birefringence profiles through their thickness. Bonds were formed between isolated pairs of fibers by subjecting the fibers to a calendering process and simulating TPB process conditions. The dependence of bond strength on bonding temperature and on the type of fiber used was evaluated. Fiber strengths before and after bonding were measured and compared to understand the effect of bonding on fiber strength. Additionally, bonded fiber strength was compared to the strength of single fibers which had experienced the same process conditions as the bonded pairs. This comparison estimated the effect of mechanical damage from pressing fibers together with steel rolls while creating bonds in TPB. Interfiber bond strength increased with bonding temperature for all fiber types. Fiber strength decreased with increasing bonding temperature for all fiber types except for one type of low birefringent sheath fibers. Fiber strength degradation was unavoidable at temperatures required for successful bonding. Mechanical damage from compression of fibers between rolls was an insignificant factor in this strength loss. Thermal damage during bonding was the sole significant contributor to fiber strength degradation. Fibers with low birefringence skins formed strong bonds with minimal fiber strength loss and were superior to fibers without such surface layers in TPB performance. A simple model to predict the behavior of a two

  1. Peculiar points in the phase diagram of the water-alcohol solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. Chechko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the investigation of nontrivial behavior of dilute water-alcohol solutions. The temperature and concentration dependencies of the contraction for aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol are analyzed. The existence of a specific point, the so-called peculiar point, was established. It is shown that water-alcohol solutions of different types obey the principle of corresponding states if temperature and volume fraction are used as principal coordinates. In this case, the concentration of the peculiar point for different solutions is close to xν=0.28. Several predictions are made.

  2. Contractive definitions and discontinuity at fixed point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra K Bisht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate some contractive definitions which are strong enough to generate a fixed point that do not force the mapping to be continuous at the fixed point. Finally, we obtain a fixed point theorem for generalized nonexpansive mappings in metric spaces by employing Meir-Keeler type conditions.

  3. Hardware Accelerated Point Rendering of Isosurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    and that the advantage of rendering points as opposed to triangles increases with the size and complexity of the volumes. To gauge the visual quality of future hardware accelerated point rendering schemes, we have implemented a software based point rendering method and compare the quality to both MC and our OpenGL based...

  4. Moving window segmentation framework for point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sithole, G.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first

  5. Weibull strength variations between room temperature and high temperature Ni-3YSZ half-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curran, Declan; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2013-01-01

    efficiency, increased degradation and/or the complete termination of a functioning stack. This paper investigates the effects of temperature on the mechanical strength of 3% yttria-stabilised zirconia half-cells. Strength was measured using a four-point bend method at room temperature and at 600°C, 700°C...... and 800°C in a reducing atmosphere. The strength of an as sintered half-cell was also measured at room temperature for comparison. Weibull analysis was performed on large sample sets of 30 for statistical viability. The Weibull strength and elastic modulus of the room temperature tested reduced samples...... show a decrease of approximately 33% and 51% respectively, when compared to the oxidized samples tested at room temperature. When tested at elevated temperatures both Weibull strength and elastic modulus decrease further when compared to the room temperature reduced samples. However these further...

  6. Capacitance and conductance of mesoscopic systems connected by quantum point contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten

    1993-01-01

    We study the transport properties of quantum dots and quantum point contacts in the Coulomb blockade regime and in the limit where the quantum point contact has nearly fully transmitting channels. Using a transformation to a multichannel Tomonaga-Luttinger-type model, we find the scaling behavior...... of the junction close to pinchoff. It is shown that the junction scales to an insulating junction. We find a crossover between a low-temperature regime with Coulomb blockade to a high-temperature regime where the quantum charge fluctuations are dominant. The crossover temperature between these regimes is given...

  7. Thermal Analysis of a Cracked Half-plane under Moving Point Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Kuanfang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The heat conduction in half-plane with an insulated crack subjected to moving point heat source is investigated. The analytical solution and the numerical means are combined to analyze the transient temperature distribution of a cracked half-plane under moving point heat source. The transient temperature distribution of the half plane structure under moving point heat source is obtained by the moving coordinate method firstly, then the heat conduction equation with thermal boundary of an insulated crack face is changed to singular integral equation by applying Fourier transforms and solved by the numerical method. The numerical examples of the temperature distribution on the cracked half-plane structure under moving point heat source are presented and discussed in detail.

  8. Pro SharePoint 2013 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2013 Administration is a practical guide to SharePoint 2013 for intermediate to advanced SharePoint administrators and power users, covering the out-of-the-box feature set and capabilities of Microsoft's collaboration and business productivity platform. SharePoint 2013 is an incredibly complex product, with many moving parts, new features, best practices, and 'gotchas.' Author Rob Garrett distills SharePoint's portfolio of features, capabilities, and utilities into an in-depth professional guide-with no fluff and copious advice-that is designed from scratch to be the manual Micr

  9. SharePoint 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide on running SharePoint, now updated to cover all the new features of SharePoint 2013 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. Building on the success of previous versions of SharePoint For Dummies, this new edition covers all the latest features of SharePoint 2013 and provides you with an easy-to-understand resource for making the most of all that this version has to offer. You'll learn how to get a site up and running, branded, and populated with content, workflow, and management. In addition, t

  10. Beginning SharePoint Designer 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Windischman, Woodrow W; Rehmani, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Web designers, developers, and IT professionals how to use the new version of SharePoint Designer. Covering both the design and business applications of SharePoint Designer, this complete Wrox guide brings readers thoroughly up to speed on how to use SharePoint Designer in an enterprise. You'll learn to create and modify web pages, use CSS editing tools to modify themes, use Data View to create interactivity with SharePoint and other data, and much more. Coverage includes integration points with Visual Studio, Visio, and InfoPath.: Shows web designers, developers, and IT professionals

  11. Pro SharePoint 2010 Search

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, J; Bakman-Mikalski, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2010 Search gives you expert advice on planning, deploying and customizing searches in SharePoint 2010. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience of working with real-world SharePoint deployments, this book teaches everything you'll need to know to create well-designed SharePoint solutions that always keep the end-user's experience in mind. Increase your search efficiency with SharePoint 2010's search functionality: extend the search user interface using third-party tools, and utilize analytics to improve relevancy. This practical hands-on book is a must-have resource for any

  12. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...... electrolysis using SOECs is competitive to H-2 production from fossil fuels at electricity prices below 0.02-0.03 is an element of per kWh. Though promising SOEC results on H-2 production have been reported a substantial R&D is still required to obtain inexpensive, high performing and long-term stable...

  13. Is oral temperature an accurate measurement of deep body temperature? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Ganio, Matthew S; Casa, Douglas J; Vingren, Jakob; Klau, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Oral temperature might not be a valid method to assess core body temperature. However, many clinicians, including athletic trainers, use it rather than criterion standard methods, such as rectal thermometry. To critically evaluate original research addressing the validity of using oral temperature as a measurement of core body temperature during periods of rest and changing core temperature. In July 2010, we searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, and the Cochrane Library for the following concepts: core body temperature, oral, and thermometers. Controlled vocabulary was used, when available, as well as key words and variations of those key words. The search was limited to articles focusing on temperature readings and studies involving human participants. Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and subsequently were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. All 16 were included in the review because they met the minimal PEDro score of 4 points (of 10 possible points), with all but 2 scoring 5 points. A critical review of these studies indicated a disparity between oral and criterion standard temperature methods (eg, rectal and esophageal) specifically as the temperature increased. The difference was -0.50°C ± 0.31°C at rest and -0.58°C ± 0.75°C during a nonsteady state. Evidence suggests that, regardless of whether the assessment is recorded at rest or during periods of changing core temperature, oral temperature is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for determining body temperature because many measures demonstrated differences greater than the predetermined validity threshold of 0.27°C (0.5°F). In addition, the differences were greatest at the highest rectal temperatures. Oral temperature cannot accurately reflect core body temperature, probably because it is

  14. The Melting Point of Palladium Using Miniature Fixed Points of Different Ceramic Materials: Part II—Analysis of Melting Curves and Long-Term Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.; Huang, K.

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen miniature fixed-point cells made of three different ceramic crucible materials (Al2O3, ZrO2, and Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %)) were filled with pure palladium and used to calibrate type B thermocouples (Pt30 %Rh/Pt6 %Rh). A critical point by using miniature fixed points with small amounts of fixed-point material is the analysis of the melting curves, which are characterized by significant slopes during the melting process compared to flat melting plateaus obtainable using conventional fixed-point cells. The method of the extrapolated starting point temperature using straight line approximation of the melting plateau was applied to analyze the melting curves. This method allowed an unambiguous determination of an electromotive force (emf) assignable as melting temperature. The strict consideration of two constraints resulted in a unique, repeatable and objective method to determine the emf at the melting temperature within an uncertainty of about 0.1 μ V. The lifetime and long-term stability of the miniature fixed points was investigated by performing more than 100 melt/freeze cycles for each crucible of the different ceramic materials. No failure of the crucibles occurred indicating an excellent mechanical stability of the investigated miniature cells. The consequent limitation of heating rates to values below {± }3.5 K min^{-1} above 1100° C and the carefully and completely filled crucibles (the liquid palladium occupies the whole volume of the crucible) are the reasons for successfully preventing the crucibles from breaking. The thermal stability of the melting temperature of palladium was excellent when using the crucibles made of Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %) and ZrO2. Emf drifts over the total duration of the long-term investigation were below a temperature equivalent of about 0.1 K-0.2 K.

  15. High temperature two component explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  16. Warm Pressurant Gas Effects on the Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests using warm pressurant gases conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to determine the effect of elevating the temperature of the pressurant gas on the performance of a liquid acquisition device. Three fine mesh screen samples (325 x 2300, 450 x 2750, 510 x 3600) were tested in liquid hydrogen using cold and warm noncondensible (gaseous helium) and condensable (gaseous hydrogen) pressurization schemes. Gases were conditioned from 0 to 90 K above the liquid temperature. Results clearly indicate a degradation in bubble point pressure using warm gas, with a greater reduction in performance using condensable over noncondensible pressurization. Degradation in the bubble point pressure is inversely proportional to screen porosity, as the coarsest mesh demonstrated the highest degradation. Results here have implication on both pressurization and LAD system design for all future cryogenic propulsion systems. A detailed review of historical heated gas tests is also presented for comparison to current results.

  17. Electric Propulsion Pointing Mechanism for BepiColombo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janu, Paul; Neugebauer, Christian; Schermann, Rudolf; Supper, Ludwig

    2013-09-01

    solar radiation.A staged temperature zone concept was selected, separating different temperature zones, and keeping the thermally sensitive elements in their operating temperature ranges.This paper outlines the design solution for these design driving requirements, presents the test results, and compares the results of the predictions with the tested values of the qualification tests. It also points out the lessons learnt during this development process.

  18. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-10-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2-0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  19. The Whole-Hand Point: The Structure and Function of Pointing From a Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, David A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2007-01-01

    Pointing by monkeys, apes, and human infants is reviewed and compared. Pointing with the index finger is a species-typical human gesture, although human infants exhibit more whole-hand pointing than is commonly appreciated. Captive monkeys and feral apes have been reported to only rarely “spontaneously” point, although apes in captivity frequently acquire pointing, both with the index finger and with the whole hand, without explicit training. Captive apes exhibit relatively more gaze alternation while pointing than do human infants about 1 year old. Human infants are relatively more vocal while pointing than are captive apes, consistent with paralinguistic use of pointing. PMID:10608565

  20. Temperature measurements of high power LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalan (Draghici), Niculina; Svasta, Paul; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of a LED junction temperature is very important in designing a LED lighting system. Depending on the junction temperature we will be able to determine the type of cooling system and the size of the lighting system. There are several indirect methods for junction temperature measurement. The method used in this paper is based on the thermal resistance model. The aim of this study is to identify the best device that would allow measuring the solder point temperature and the temperature on the lens of power LEDs. For this purpose four devices for measuring temperature on a high-power LED are presented and compared according to the acquired measurements: an infrared thermal camera from FLIR Systems, a multimeter with K type thermocouple (Velleman DVM4200), an infrared-spot based noncontact thermometer (Raynger ST) and a measurement system based on a digital temperature sensor (DS1821 type) connected to a PC. The measurements were conducted on an 18W COB (chip-on-board) LED. The measurement points are the supply terminals and the lens of the LED.

  1. Film temperatures in the presence of cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Harold G.; Vijayaraghavan, D.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical algorithms are developed and implemented for the treatment of laminar lubricating-film temperatures associated with cavitated regions. The reformation front, with its film-content discontinuity and flow reversal, is given special attention. Computational economy is achieved through the use of Lobatto-point locations for flow-property determinations.

  2. Calculation of Temperature Rise in Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Witt, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Gives a simple but fuller account of the basis for accurately calculating temperature rise in calorimetry. Points out some misconceptions regarding these calculations. Describes two basic methods, the extrapolation to zero time and the equal area method. Discusses the theoretical basis of each and their underlying assumptions. (CW)

  3. Magnetic topological analysis of coronal bright points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Huang, Z.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2017-10-01

    Context. We report on the first of a series of studies on coronal bright points which investigate the physical mechanism that generates these phenomena. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand the magnetic-field structure that hosts the bright points. Methods: We use longitudinal magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope with the Narrowband Filter Imager. For a single case, magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were added to the analysis. The longitudinal magnetic field component is used to derive the potential magnetic fields of the large regions around the bright points. A magneto-static field extrapolation method is tested to verify the accuracy of the potential field modelling. The three dimensional magnetic fields are investigated for the presence of magnetic null points and their influence on the local magnetic domain. Results: In nine out of ten cases the bright point resides in areas where the coronal magnetic field contains an opposite polarity intrusion defining a magnetic null point above it. We find that X-ray bright points reside, in these nine cases, in a limited part of the projected fan-dome area, either fully inside the dome or expanding over a limited area below which typically a dominant flux concentration resides. The tenth bright point is located in a bipolar loop system without an overlying null point. Conclusions: All bright points in coronal holes and two out of three bright points in quiet Sun regions are seen to reside in regions containing a magnetic null point. An as yet unidentified process(es) generates the brigh points in specific regions of the fan-dome structure. The movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  4. High temperature deformation of silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.rodriguez@ctm.com.es [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Cataluna (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain); Houbaert, Yvan, E-mail: Yvan.Houbaert@UGent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Petrov, Roumen, E-mail: Roumen.Petrov@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Kestens, Leo, E-mail: Leo.kestens@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The microstructure and texture development during high temperature plane strain compression of 2% in weight silicon steel was studied. The tests were carried out at a constant strain rate of 5 s{sup -1} with reductions of 25, 35 and 75% at temperatures varying from 800 to 1100 Degree-Sign C. The changes in microstructure and texture were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction. The microstructure close to the surface of the samples was equiaxed, which is attributed to the shear caused by friction, whereas that at the centre of the specimens was made of a mixture of elongated and fine equiaxed grains, the last ones attributed to the action of dynamic recovery followed by recrystallization. It was found that the volume fraction of these equiaxed grains augmented as reduction and temperature increased; a 0.7 volume fraction was accomplished with a 75% reduction at 1100 Degree-Sign C. The texture of the equiaxed and elongated grains was found to vary with the increase of deformation and temperature, as the {gamma}-fibre tends to disappear and the {alpha}-fibre to increase towards the higher temperature range. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic deformation of a silicon containing steel is studied by plane strain compression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equiaxed and elongated grains develop in different regions of the sample due to recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Texture, by EBSD, is revealed to be similar in either type of grains.

  5. SharePoint 2007 Collaboration For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Greg

    2009-01-01

    If you're looking for a way to help your teams access what they need to know, work together, and get the job done, SharePoint can do just that. SharePoint 2007 Collaboration For Dummies shows you the easiest way to set up and customize SharePoint, manage your data, interact using SharePoint blogs and wikis, integrate Office programs, and make your office more productive. You'll learn what SharePoint can do and how to make it work for your business, understand the technical terms, and enable your people to collaborate on documents and spreadsheets. You'll even discover how to get SharePoint hel

  6. Kantian Turning Point in Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bosáková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is treating the theme of a Kantian turning-point in the philosophical hermeneutics of H.- G. Gadamer based on of the harmonic relationship between metaphysics and science in Kantian philosophy from the point of view of the philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer. The philosophical work of Kant had such an influence on Gadamer that without exaggerating we can talk about the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics. Grondin, a former student of Gadamer, is talking about Kantian turning-point on the field of aesthetics, but in reality Kantian turning-point means much more than a mere change in the reception of the concept of judgement. It is a discovery of harmonical relationship between the beauty and the moral, between the reason and the sensitivity, between the modern sciences and the metaphysical tradition in the Kantian philosophy, made by Gadamer. This is what we call the Kantian turning-point in Gadamerian hermeneutics.

  7. Motion Estimation System Utilizing Point Cloud Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system and method of estimation motion of a machine is disclosed. The method may include determining a first point cloud and a second point cloud corresponding to an environment in a vicinity of the machine. The method may further include generating a first extended gaussian image (EGI) for the first point cloud and a second EGI for the second point cloud. The method may further include determining a first EGI segment based on the first EGI and a second EGI segment based on the second EGI. The method may further include determining a first two dimensional distribution for points in the first EGI segment and a second two dimensional distribution for points in the second EGI segment. The method may further include estimating motion of the machine based on the first and second two dimensional distributions.

  8. Statistical distribution of thermal vacancies close to the melting point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    José Pozo, María, E-mail: mariaj.pozom@gmail.com [Grupo de Nanomateriales, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Davis, Sergio, E-mail: sdavis@gnm.cl [Grupo de Nanomateriales, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Peralta, Joaquín, E-mail: joaquin.peralta@unab.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-01-15

    A detailed description of the statistical distribution of thermal vacancies in an homogeneous crystal near its melting point is presented, using the embedded atom model for copper as an example. As the temperature increase, the average number of thermal vacancies generated by atoms migrating to neighboring sites increases according to Arrhenius’ law. We present for the first time a model for the statistical distribution of thermal vacancies, which according to our atomistic computer simulations follow a Gamma distribution. All the simulations are carried out by classical molecular dynamics and the recognition of vacancies is achieved via a recently developed algorithm. Our results could be useful in the further development of a theory explaining the mechanism of homogeneous melting, which seems to be mediated by the accumulation of thermal vacancies near the melting point.

  9. An Improved Nonlinear Five-Point Model for Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaros Bogning Dongue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved nonlinear five-point model capable of analytically describing the electrical behaviors of a photovoltaic module for each generic operating condition of temperature and solar irradiance. The models used to replicate the electrical behaviors of operating PV modules are usually based on some simplified assumptions which provide convenient mathematical model which can be used in conventional simulation tools. Unfortunately, these assumptions cause some inaccuracies, and hence unrealistic economic returns are predicted. As an alternative, we used the advantages of a nonlinear analytical five-point model to take into account the nonideal diode effects and nonlinear effects generally ignored, which PV modules operation depends on. To verify the capability of our method to fit PV panel characteristics, the procedure was tested on three different panels. Results were compared with the data issued by manufacturers and with the results obtained using the five-parameter model proposed by other authors.

  10. Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Somaratne, Nara

    2014-01-01

    Karstic groundwater basins are characterized by both point and diffuse recharge. This paper describes the hydrologic characteristics of point recharge and their influence on recharge estimation for four groundwater basins. Point recharge is highly transient and may occur in relatively short-time periods, yet is capable of recharging a large volume of water, even from a single extreme rainfall event. Preferential groundwater flows are observed in karst aquifers with local fresher water pockets...

  11. Addressing Tipping Points for a Precarious Future

    OpenAIRE

    O'Riordan, Timothy; Lenton, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This book places tipping points in their scientific, economic, governmental, creative, and spiritual contexts. It seeks to offer a comprehensive set of interpretations on the meaning and application of tipping points. Its contribution focuses on the various characterisations and metaphors of tipping points, on the scope for anticipating their onset, the capacity for societal resilience in the face of their impending arrival, and for better ways of communicating and preparing societies, econom...

  12. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Poux, Florent; Neuville, Romain; Hallot, Pierre; Billen, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmenta...

  13. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    In 1976, Jungck [4] proved a common fixed point theorem for commuting maps generalizing the Banach's fixed point theorem, which states that, 'let (X, d) be a complete metric space. If T satisfies d(Tx,Ty) ≤ kd(x,y) for each x,y ∈ X where 0 ≤ k < 1, then T has a unique fixed point in X'. This theorem has many applications, ...

  14. GPM GMI Level 1B Brightness Temperatures VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1BGMI algorithm uses a non-linear three-point in-flight calibration to derive antenna temperature (Ta) and convert Ta to Tb using GMI antenna pattern...

  15. GPM GMI Level 1B Brightness Temperatures V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 1BGMI algorithm uses a non-linear three-point in-flight calibration to derive antenna temperature (Ta) and convert Ta to Tb using GMI antenna pattern...

  16. Evaluation of the wheel-point and step-point methods of veld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The step-point method yielded results on percentage veld composition and on veld composition score which did not differ in precision or in absolute amount from those obtained using the wheel-point apparatus. Adoption of the step point method in preference to the wheel-point method saves in equipment and manpower, ...

  17. Professional SharePoint 2013 development

    CERN Document Server

    Alirezaei, Reza; Ranlett, Matt; Hillier, Scot; Wilson, Brian; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thorough coverage of development in SharePoint 2013 A team of well-known Microsoft MVPs joins forces in this fully updated resource, providing you with in-depth coverage of development tools in the latest iteration of the immensely popular SharePoint. From building solutions to building custom workflow and content management applications, this book shares field-tested best practices on all aspect of SharePoint 2013 development. Offers a thorough look at Windows Azure and SharePoint 2013Includes new chapters on Application Life Cycle Management, developing apps in ShareP

  18. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents point equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas in EPA New England. This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally...

  19. Sieving for rational points on hyperelliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Siksek, Samir

    2001-01-01

    We give a new and efficient method of sieving for rational points\\ud on hyperelliptic curves. This method is often successful in proving that a\\ud given hyperelliptic curve, suspected to have no rational points, does in fact\\ud have no rational points; we have often found this to be the case even when our\\ud curve has points over all localizations Qp. We illustrate the practicality of the\\ud method with some examples of hyperelliptic curves of genus 1.

  20. The improbability of Harris interest points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2010-01-01

    An elementary characterization of the map underlying Harris corners, also known as Harris interest points or key points, is provided. Two principal and basic assumptions made are: 1) Local image structure is captured in an uncommitted way, simply using weighted raw image values around every image...... location to describe the local image information, and 2) the lower the probability of observing the image structure present in a particular point, the more salient, or interesting, this position is, i.e., saliency is related to how uncommon it is to see a certain image structure, how surprising it is......, the characterization provides a compelling case in favor of Harris interest points over other approaches....

  1. Fixed point theorem utilizing operators and functionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Anderson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fixed point theorem utilizing operators and functionals in the spirit of the original Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem which is void of any invariance-like conditions. The underlying sets in the Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem that were defined using the total order of the real numbers are replaced by sets that are defined using an ordering generated by a border-symmetric set, that is, the sets that were defined using functionals in the original Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem are replaced by sets that are defined using operators.

  2. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Discover how to take advantage of the many new features in SharePoint 2010. SharePoint provides content management (enterprise content management, Web content management, records management, and more), workflow, and social media features, and the new version boasts enhanced capabilities. This introductory-level book walks you through the process of learning, developing, and deploying SharePoint 2010 solutions. You'll leverage your existing skills and tools to grasp the fundamental programming concepts and practices of SharePoint 2010. The author clearly explains how to develop your first appli

  3. Teach yourself visually PowerPoint 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, William

    2013-01-01

    A straightforward, visual approach to learning the new PowerPoint 2013! PowerPoint 2013 boasts updated features and new possibilities; this highly visual tutorial provides step-by-step instructions to help you learn all the capabilities of PowerPoint 2013. It covers the basics, as well as all the exciting new changes and additions in a series of easy-to-follow, full-color, two-page tutorials. Learn how to create slides, dress them up using templates and graphics, add sound and animation, and more. This book is the ideal ""show me, don't tell me"" guide to PowerPoint 2013.De

  4. PowerPoint 2007 for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2007-01-01

    New and inexperienced PowerPoint users will discover how to use the latest enhancements to PowerPoint 2007 quickly and efficiently so that they can produce unique and informative presentations PowerPoint continues to be the world's most popular presentation software This updated For Dummies guide shows users different ways to create powerful and effective slideshow presentations that incorporate data from other applications in the form of charts, clip art, sound, and video Shares the key features of PowerPoint 2007 including creating and editing slides, working with hyperlinks and action butt

  5. Blossom Point Satellite Tracking and Command Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Blossom Point Satellite Command and Tracking Facility (BP) provides engineering and operational support to several complex space systems for the Navy...

  6. On magnetic properties of superparamagnets in the Curie point region

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, V I; Eng-Chan, K

    2000-01-01

    The features of the paraprocess in superparamagnetic particles in the Curie point region are discussed. To describe the dependencies of the magnetic properties of superparamagnetic particles on temperature and field, the molecular field theory supplemented with the Langevin model is applied. It is shown that, as in the case of ordinary ferromagnetic particles, the paraprocess in superparamagnetic particles in the region of small fields is determined by the dominant influence of the exchange field inside the particle. The role of the external field is, mainly, to change (or even to give rise to) the exchange field. However, the quantitative characteristics describing the paraprocess in a superparamagnet are completely different. The magnetic susceptibility of the paraprocess chi sub M (M being the specific magnetization of the particle corresponding to its 'relaxation' magnetic moment mu in the field H) at the Curie temperature is independent of the field strength. Under the same conditions, the 'experimentall...

  7. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Robert W [Livermore, CA; Brosseau, Douglas A [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  8. Thermal enhancement of interference effects in quantum point contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbout, Adel; Lemarié, Gabriel; Pichard, Jean-Louis

    2011-04-15

    We study an electron interferometer formed with a quantum point contact and a scanning probe tip in a two-dimensional electron gas. The images giving the conductance as a function of the tip position exhibit fringes spaced by half the Fermi wavelength. For a contact opened at the edges of a quantized conductance plateau, the fringes are enhanced as the temperature T increases and can persist beyond the thermal length l(T). This unusual effect is explained by assuming a simplified model: The fringes are mainly given by a contribution which vanishes when T→0 and has a decay characterized by a T-independent scale.

  9. Thermal Enhancement of Interference Effects in Quantum Point Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Abbout, Adel; Lemarié, Gabriel; Pichard, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    We study an electron interferometer formed with a quantum point contact and a scanning probe tip in a two-dimensional electron gas. The images giving the conductance as a function of the tip position exhibit fringes spaced by half the Fermi wavelength. For a contact opened at the edges of a quantized conductance plateau, the fringes are enhanced as the temperature T increases and can persist beyond the thermal length l_T. This unusual effect is explained assuming a simplified model: The fring...

  10. A sequential point process model and Bayesian inference for spatial point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a flexible spatial point process model for spatial point patterns exhibiting linear structures, without incorporating a latent line process. The model is given by an underlying sequential point process model. Under this model, the points can be of one of three types: a ‘background...... for producing point patterns with linear structures and propose to use the model as the likelihood in a Bayesian setting when analysing a spatial point pattern exhibiting linear structures. We illustrate this methodology by analysing two spatial point pattern datasets (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark...

  11. Maine River Temperature Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We collect seasonal and annual temperature measurements on an hourly or quarter hourly basis to monitor habitat suitability for ATS and other species. Temperature...

  12. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  13. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GISTEMP dataset is a global 2x2 gridded temperature anomaly dataset. Temperature data is updated around the middle of every month using current data files from...

  14. Automated measurement of cattle surface temperature and its correlation with rectal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, HongXiang; Zhao, YiQiang; Ren, Kang; Chen, XiaoLi; Lu, YongQiang; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    The body temperature of cattle varies regularly with both the reproductive cycle and disease status. Establishing an automatic method for monitoring body temperature may facilitate better management of reproduction and disease control in cattle. Here, we developed an Automatic Measurement System for Cattle's Surface Temperature (AMSCST) to measure the temperature of metatarsus by attaching a special shell designed to fit the anatomy of cattle's hind leg. Using AMSCST, the surface temperature (ST) on the metatarsus of the hind leg was successively measured during 24 hours a day with an interval of one hour in three tested seasons. Based on ST and rectal temperature (RT) detected by AMSCST and mercury thermometer, respectively, a linear mixed model was established, regarding both the time point and seasonal factors as the fixed effects. Unary linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis results indicated that the temperatures measured by AMSCST were closely correlated to those measured by mercury thermometer (R2 = 0.998), suggesting that the AMSCST is an accurate and reliable way to detect cattle's body temperature. Statistical analysis showed that the differences of STs among the three seasons, or among the different time points were significant (P<0.05), and the differences of RTs among the different time points were similarly significant (P<0.05). The prediction accuracy of the mixed model was verified by 10-fold cross validation. The average difference between measured RT and predicted RT was about 0.10 ± 0.10°C with the association coefficient of 0.644, indicating the feasibility of this model in measuring cattle body temperature. Therefore, an automated technology for accurately measuring cattle body temperature was accomplished by inventing an optimal device and establishing the AMSCST system.

  15. On impulsively started convection: The case of stagnation point flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mu' tah University, P. O. Box 7, Karak 61710 (Jordan); Al-Nimr, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2011-12-15

    Transient convection in incompressible planar and axisymmetric point flow is analyzed numerically in this work, and the thermal boundary layer response to surface sudden heating and cooling in the two settings is presented and compared over a range of Prandtl number between 0.5 and 100. A comparison between surface sudden cooling and heating is performed and different criteria are established as to when surface sudden heating and cooling are equivalent in terms of the transition time. With no initial thermal boundary layer (surface and fluid are at the same temperature), the transition time from the initial steady state to the final steady state upon surface sudden cooling or heating is found to be a constant regardless of the surface heating or cooling extent above or below the initial surface temperature, and is dependent only on the Prandtl number. With the existence of an initial thermal boundary layer, the transition time is dependent upon the heating or cooling extent, the initial surface temperature, the Prandtl number and whether heating/cooling is towards building-up or demolishing the thermal boundary later. It takes longer time when surface sudden heating or cooling is towards demolishing the thermal boundary layer than building it up. With symmetric surface sudden cooling or heating above or below the far-field fluid temperature, the transition time is independent on the surface cooling or heating extent and is a function of only the Prandtl number. A considerable difference in the thermal boundary layer response in the two settings is found. The transition time from the initial to the final steady state in axisymmetric stagnation point flow is less than that in plane stagnation flow under the same conditions. (authors)

  16. Wireless Patient Monitoring System Using Point to Multi Point Zigbee Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Soe Phyo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A ZigBee sensor network for data acquisition and monitoring is presented in this paper. A ZigBee module is connected via a USB interface to a Microsoft Windows PC which works as a base station in the network. Data collected by sensor devices are sent to the base station PC which is set as Wireless sensorNetwork WSN. ZigBee is low power consumption built-in security method and ratified specifications make it very suitable to be used with medical sensor devices.This application of Zigbee based network consists of two transmitter sections and a receiver section.Each transmitter section consists of heartbeat sensor body temperature sensor microcontroller Zigbee and LCD module.In the proposed system the patients health is continuously monitored and theacquired data is analyzed at a personal computer using Graphical User InterfaceGUI. If a particular patients health parameter is higher or lower the threshold values an alarm system is used to alert the doctor. The aim of this system is to know the condition of patients health by the doctor immediately and to reduce the load of the staff taking care of the patient in the hospitals. In this paper wireless point to multipoint system is used between doctor and patient.

  17. Rescaling Temperature and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, John, III

    2010-01-01

    Temperature and entropy traditionally are expressed in units of kelvin and joule/kelvin. These units obscure some important aspects of the natures of these thermodynamic quantities. Defining a rescaled temperature using the Boltzmann constant, T' = k[subscript B]T, expresses temperature in energy units, thereby emphasizing the close relationship…

  18. MEMS temperature scanner: principles, advances, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Thomas; Saupe, Ray; Stock, Volker; Gessner, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Contactless measurement of temperatures has gained enormous significance in many application fields, ranging from climate protection over quality control to object recognition in public places or military objects. Thereby measurement of linear or spatially temperature distribution is often necessary. For this purposes mostly thermographic cameras or motor driven temperature scanners are used today. Both are relatively expensive and the motor drive devices are limited regarding to the scanning rate additionally. An economic alternative are temperature scanner devices based on micro mirrors. The micro mirror, attached in a simple optical setup, reflects the emitted radiation from the observed heat onto an adapted detector. A line scan of the target object is obtained by periodic deflection of the micro scanner. Planar temperature distribution will be achieved by perpendicularly moving the target object or the scanner device. Using Planck radiation law the temperature of the object is calculated. The device can be adapted to different temperature ranges and resolution by using different detectors - cooled or uncooled - and parameterized scanner parameters. With the basic configuration 40 spatially distributed measuring points can be determined with temperatures in a range from 350°C - 1000°C. The achieved miniaturization of such scanners permits the employment in complex plants with high building density or in direct proximity to the measuring point. The price advantage enables a lot of applications, especially new application in the low-price market segment This paper shows principle, setup and application of a temperature measurement system based on micro scanners working in the near infrared range. Packaging issues and measurement results will be discussed as well.

  19. Developing a Teachable Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kim

    2007-01-01

    As professors of management and organizational behavior mature in their teaching, they should begin to develop a teachable point of view. In this article, the author describes several attributes of a teachable point of view. Based on his own teaching experience, the author outlines five criteria for the content of the material taught--the what of…

  20. Approximate Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mazaheri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We find a common element of the set of fixed points of a map and the set of solutions of an approximate equilibrium problem in a Hilbert space. Then, we show that one of the sequences weakly converges. Also we obtain some theorems about equilibrium problems and fixed points.

  1. Properties of residuals for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Møller, Jesper; Pakes, A.G.

    For any point process in $R^d$ that has a Papangelou conditional intensity $lambda$, we define a random measure of ‘innovations’ which has mean zero. When the point process model parameters are estimated from data, there is an analogous random measure of ‘residuals’. We analyse properties...

  2. Scattering properties of point dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Alexander; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Iermakova, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    The scattering properties of a three-parameter family of point dipole-like interactions constructed from a sequence of barrier-well rectangles are studied in the zero-range limit. Besides the real (unrenormalized) delta'-interaction, the derivative of Dirac's delta function, a whole family of point...

  3. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.504 - Demarcation point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The National Electrical Code ® and NEC ® are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection... § 1755.504 Demarcation point. (a) The demarcation point (DP) provides the physical and electrical... Agriculture, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., STOP 1598, Washington, DC 20250-1598, or at the National Archives...

  5. Infra-red fixed points in supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    malization group (RG) running of the parameters is dominated by infra-red stable fixed points. Typically, these fixed points are for ratios like Yukawa couplings to the gauge cou- pling, or in the context of supersymmetric models, the supersymmetry breaking trilinear. A-parameter to the gaugino mass, etc. These ratios do not ...

  6. Fixed points in a group of isometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Bruhat-Tits xed point theorem states that a group of isometries on a complete metric space with negative curvature possesses a xed point if it has a bounded orbit. This theorem is extended by a relaxation of the negative curvature condition in terms of the w-distance functions introduced by Kada

  7. The Tipping Point in School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jeff; Hill, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Once changes or innovations reach the tipping point, they spread throughout an organization and become entrenched as part of the culture, becoming "just the way we do things around here." These authors see the tipping point at play with systemic improvement in two urban school districts with which they have worked. Here, they describe…

  8. State estimation for temporal point processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Maria Nicolette Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with combined inference for point processes on the real line observed in a broken interval. For such processes, the classic history-based approach cannot be used. Instead, we adapt tools from sequential spatial point processes. For a range of models, the marginal and

  9. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

  10. Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelling...

  11. Flexible point handles metaphor for character deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    Skinning using point handles has experimentally shown its effectiveness for stretching, twisting, and supple deformations [Jacobson et al. 2011] which are difficult to achieve using rigid bones. However, point handles are much less effective for limbs bending since their influence weights vary over

  12. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  13. Fixed Point Theorems for Asymptotically Contractive Multimappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Djedidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present fixed point theorems for a nonexpansive set-valued mapping from a closed convex subset of a reflexive Banach space into itself under some asymptotic contraction assumptions. Some existence results of coincidence points and eigenvalues for multimappings are given.

  14. Very smooth points of spaces of operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    or Y has the compact metric approximation property (CMAP), then it is easy to see that K (X, Y ) ⊂ L(X, Y ) satisfies the above condition (see [R6]). Thus for a compact operator that is a very smooth point, directional derivatives exist in the direction of all bounded operators. Smooth points of operator spaces has been ...

  15. Much Ado About a Point of View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashdown, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    What did Wittgenstein mean when he remarked, "I am not a religious man but I cannot help but see every problem from a religious point of view"? Malcolm's thesis is that it points to analogies between Wittgenstein's philosophical outlook and a religious view of life. In opposition, Peter Winch argues

  16. Properties of residuals for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Møller, Jesper; Pakes, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    For any point process in Rd that has a Papangelou conditional intensity λ, we define a random measure of ‘innovations' which has mean zero. When the point process model parameters are estimated from data, there is an analogous random measure of ‘residuals'. We analyse properties of the innovation...

  17. On determining if a specular point exists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusch, W; Sørensen, O

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the existence of a specular point on a convex surface of revolution can be determined without actually finding it. Only the evaluation of two simple algebraic expressions is involved. Should a specular point be found not to exist, a search procedure has been thereby...

  18. Monitoring the Freezing Point of Buffalo Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Antonella; Salzano, Caterina; De Felice, Anna; Garofalo, Francesca; Liguori, Salvatore; De Santo, Annunziata; Palermo, Pierpaolo; Guarino, Achille

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic freezing point of buffalo milk. Bulk milk samples were collected from buffalo and cattle farms in Caserta area from 2008 to 2014. The analysis involved a total of 1886 buffalo milk samples and 1711 bovine milk samples. These were also tested for fat, protein and lactose contents by means of infrared spectrometry. The freezing point was determined by means of a thermistor cryoscope. Data underwent statistical analysis. Our research showed an average freezing point of -0.528°C for buffalo milk and -0.522°C for bovine milk. Given the lack of data on the freezing point of buffalo milk, our study provides the first indication of a basic freezing point of the milk of this species in Italy.

  19. MODEL FOR SEMANTICALLY RICH POINT CLOUD DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  20. Acceleration feature points of unsteady shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kasten, Jens; Hotz, Ingrid; Hege, Hans-Christian; Noack, Bernd R; Daviller, Guillaume; Morzynski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework to extract features such as vortex cores and saddle points in two-dimensional unsteady flows. This feature extraction strategy generalizes critical points of snapshot topology in a Galilean-invariant manner, allows to prioritize features according to their strength and longevity, enables to track the temporal evolution of features, is robust against noise and has no subjective parameters. These characteristics are realized via several constitutive elements. First, acceleration is employed as a feature identifier following Goto and Vassilicos (2006), thus ensuring Galilean invariance. Second, the acceleration magnitude is used as basis for a mathematically well-developed scalar field topology. The minima of this field are called acceleration feature points, a superset of the acceleration zeros. These points are discriminated into vortices and saddle points depending the spectral properties of the velocity Jacobian. Third, all operations are based on discrete topology...

  1. Model for Semantically Rich Point Cloud Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes an interoperable model for managing high dimensional point clouds while integrating semantics. Point clouds from sensors are a direct source of information physically describing a 3D state of the recorded environment. As such, they are an exhaustive representation of the real world at every scale: 3D reality-based spatial data. Their generation is increasingly fast but processing routines and data models lack of knowledge to reason from information extraction rather than interpretation. The enhanced smart point cloud developed model allows to bring intelligence to point clouds via 3 connected meta-models while linking available knowledge and classification procedures that permits semantic injection. Interoperability drives the model adaptation to potentially many applications through specialized domain ontologies. A first prototype is implemented in Python and PostgreSQL database and allows to combine semantic and spatial concepts for basic hybrid queries on different point clouds.

  2. Relating vanishing points to catadioptric camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenting; Zhang, Hui; Allinson, Nigel M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and derivation of the geometric relation between vanishing points and camera parameters of central catadioptric camera systems. These vanishing points correspond to the three mutually orthogonal directions of 3D real world coordinate system (i.e. X, Y and Z axes). Compared to vanishing points (VPs) in the perspective projection, the advantages of VPs under central catadioptric projection are that there are normally two vanishing points for each set of parallel lines, since lines are projected to conics in the catadioptric image plane. Also, their vanishing points are usually located inside the image frame. We show that knowledge of the VPs corresponding to XYZ axes from a single image can lead to simple derivation of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the central catadioptric system. This derived novel theory is demonstrated and tested on both synthetic and real data with respect to noise sensitivity.

  3. Infrared image mosaic using point feature operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Hou, Junjie; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study infrared image mosaic around a single point of rotation, aiming at expanding the narrow view range of infrared images. We propose an infrared image mosaic method using point feature operators including image registration and image synthesis. Traditional mosaic algorithms usually use global image registration methods to extract the feature points in the global image, which cost too much time as well as considerable matching errors. To address this issue, we first roughly calculate the image shift amount using phase correlation and determine the overlap region between images, and then extract image features in overlap region, which shortens the registration time and increases the quality of feature points. We improve the traditional algorithm through increasing constraints of point matching based on prior knowledge of image shift amount based on which the weighted map is computed using fade in-out method. The experimental results verify that the proposed method has better real time performance and robustness.

  4. Evolution of disturbances in stagnation point flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criminale, William O.; Jackson, Thomas L.; Lasseigne, D. Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of three-dimensional disturbances in an incompressible three-dimensional stagnation-point flow in an inviscid fluid is investigated. Since it is not possible to apply classical normal mode analysis to the disturbance equations for the fully three-dimensional stagnation-point flow to obtain solutions, an initial-value problem is solved instead. The evolution of the disturbances provide the necessary information to determine stability and indeed the complete transient as well. It is found that when considering the disturbance energy, the planar stagnation-point flow, which is independent of one of the transverse coordinates, represents a neutrally stable flow whereas the fully three-dimensional flow is either stable or unstable, depending on whether the flow is away from or towards the stagnation point in the transverse direction that is neglected in the planar stagnation point.

  5. SharePoint 2010 Development For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A much-needed guide that shows you how to leverage SharePoint tools without writing a line of code!. The great news about SharePoint is…you don't need to be a seasoned .NET developer to develop custom functions for it. This book shows you how to use SharePoint Designer, Report Builder, Dashboard Designer, InfoPath, Excel, Word, Visio, and the SharePoint web-based UI to design and develop—without ever writing a line of code! Learn how to customize your site, build SharePoint apps, start social networking, or add Web parts.  This straightforward guide makes everything easier.: Introduces you to

  6. Point-of-care biosensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Arvind Sai Sarathi; Mahadeo, Dinesh Michael; Doraiswami, Ravi; Huang, Yunhan; Pecht, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Point-of-care biosensor systems can potentially improve patient care through real-time and remote health monitoring. Over the past few decades, research has been conducted in the field of biosensors to detect patterns of biomarkers and provide information on their concentration in biological samples for robust diagnosis. In future point-of-care applications, requirements such as rapid label-free detection, miniaturized sensor size, and portability will limit the types of biosensors that can be used. This paper reviews label-free detection techniques using Biological MicroElectroMechanical Systems as a potential candidate for point-of-care biosensing applications. Furthermore, detailed surveys have been carried out on wireless networking schemes applicable for a point-of-care environment and on prognostic techniques that will enable decision-support services. This paper concludes by providing a list of challenges that must be resolved before realizing biosensor systems for next-generation point-of-care applications.

  7. Influence of spatial temperature estimation method in ecohydrologic modeling in the western Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Garcia; C.L. Tague; J. Choate

    2013-01-01

    Most spatially explicit hydrologic models require estimates of air temperature patterns. For these models, empirical relationships between elevation and air temperature are frequently used to upscale point measurements or downscale regional and global climate model estimates of air temperature. Mountainous environments are particularly sensitive to air temperature...

  8. A temperature analysis in magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Stancu, Alexandru

    2017-12-01

    In the Magnetic Hyperthermia - the control of the temperature field within the malignant tissues is an important task which receives a considerable attention in the all experimental and theoretical researches. A temperature analysis focus the main parameters which influences strongly this therapy. The spatial distribution of the particles influences significantly the temperature field developed within a malignant tissue, when an external time - dependent magnetic field is applied. This paper analyses the temperature field induced by the particulate systems (magnetite and maghemite) with an exponential spatial distribution within a concentric tissues configuration (malignant and healthy tissues). The temperature field developed by these magnetic systems was computed using an analytical model which predicts the temperature at every point. This model was developed in order to compute the isothermal surfaces in the range of the therapeutic temperature range: 42÷46°C. The parameters involved in the burning process of the malignant tissues are optimized to get the uniform hyperthermic temperatures within malignant tissues for a corresponding clinically particle dosage.

  9. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  10. Influence of pouring temperature on a thermal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis there are presented results of computer simulation of casting solidification process, characteristics of solidification rate in several points as well as course of gradient change between these points. Based on the obtained results, an influence of initial conditions on temperature gradient during the solidification process was determined.

  11. Point defects and magnetic properties of neutron irradiated MgO single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mengxiong; Ma, Yaru; Wang, Xingyu; Ma, Chunlin; Zhou, Weiping; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Tan, Weishi; Du, Jun

    2017-05-01

    (100)-oriented MgO single crystals were irradiated to introduce point defects with different neutron doses ranging from 1.0×1016 to 1.0×1020 cm-2. The point defect configurations were studied with X-ray diffuse scattering and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The isointensity profiles of X-ray diffuse scattering caused by the cubic and double-force point defects in MgO were theoretically calculated based on the Huang scattering theory. The magnetic properties at different temperature were measured with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The reciprocal space mappings (RSMs) of irradiated MgO revealed notable diffuse scattering. The UV-Vis spectra indicated the presence of O Frenkel defects in irradiated MgO. Neutron-irradiated MgO was diamagnetic at room temperature and became ferromagnetic at low temperature due to O Frenkel defects induced by neutron-irradiation.

  12. Point defects and magnetic properties of neutron irradiated MgO single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxiong Cao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available (100-oriented MgO single crystals were irradiated to introduce point defects with different neutron doses ranging from 1.0×1016 to 1.0×1020 cm-2. The point defect configurations were studied with X-ray diffuse scattering and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The isointensity profiles of X-ray diffuse scattering caused by the cubic and double-force point defects in MgO were theoretically calculated based on the Huang scattering theory. The magnetic properties at different temperature were measured with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID. The reciprocal space mappings (RSMs of irradiated MgO revealed notable diffuse scattering. The UV-Vis spectra indicated the presence of O Frenkel defects in irradiated MgO. Neutron-irradiated MgO was diamagnetic at room temperature and became ferromagnetic at low temperature due to O Frenkel defects induced by neutron-irradiation.

  13. Melting points of gallium and of binary eutectics with gallium realized in small cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdakin, A.; Khlevnoy, B.; Samoylov, M.; Sapritsky, V.; Ogarev, S.; Panfilov, A.; Bingham, G.; Privalsky, V.; Tansock, J.; Humpherys, T.

    2008-02-01

    Melting/freezing curves are studied for the single-component Ga and bimetallic eutectic alloys Ga-In, Ga-Sn, Ga-Zn and Ga-Al in small-size cells. These phase-transition studies were conducted at VNIIOFI and SDL in order to design small-size fixed-point devices for metrological monitoring of temperature sensors on autonomous platforms. Our prime objective is to develop technology to improve the long-term performance of in-flight blackbody calibration sources of space-borne radiometers. The repeatability of the melting temperature of Ga and the eutectic melting temperatures of Ga-In, Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn fixed points were studied. Our results show that small cells containing Ga and some Ga-based eutectic alloys can be used as melting fixed-point standards.

  14. Determination of the gel point of a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin and characterization of its curing rheokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the gel point of a resin is a key in order to design and optimize the manufacturing process of composite materials. In this work, the gel point of a biobased polyfurfuryl alcohol (FA) resin has been determined by rheological isothermal tests at different curing temperatures....... The obtained gel times using three different amounts of catalyst (2, 4 and 6 % wt.) were correlated to temperature by the Macosko model; to predict the gel time at any temperature within the studied range. Furthermore, the evolution of the complex viscosity of the FA resin after its gel point has been studied...... of the resin system. The evolution of the viscosity has been modeled using widely used rheokinetic models. Finally, since rheological properties such as viscosity and complex modulus (G*) are highly sensitive to the molecular weight of a polymeric system, and they can be used as indicators of the degree...

  15. A sequential point process model and Bayesian inference for spatial point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    We introduce a flexible spatial point process model for spatial point patterns exhibiting linear structures, without incorporating a latent line process. The model is given by an underlying sequential point process model, i.e. each new point is generated given the previous points. Under this model...... pattern exhibiting linear structures but where the exact mechanism responsible for the formations of lines is unknown. We illustrate this methodology by analyzing two spatial point pattern data sets (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark and locations of mountain tops in Spain) without knowing which...

  16. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Building Business Solutions with SharePoint

    CERN Document Server

    Perran, Amanda; Mason, Jennifer; Rogers, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Two SharePoint MVPs provide the ultimate introduction to SharePoint 2010Beginning SharePoint 2010: Building Team Solutions with SharePoint provides information workers and site managers with extensive knowledge and expert advice, empowering them to become SharePoint champions within their organizations.Provides expansive coverage of SharePoint topics, as well as specialty areas such as forms, excel services, records management, and web content managementDetails realistic usage scenarios, and includes practice examples that highlight best practices for configuration and customizationIncludes de

  17. Wrox SharePoint 2010 SharePoint911 three-pack

    CERN Document Server

    Klindt, Todd; Mason, Jennifer; Rogers, Laura; Drisgill, Randy; Ross, John; Riemann, Larry; Perran, Amanda; Perran, Shane; Sanford, Jacob J; Stubbs, Paul; Caravajal, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Wrox SharePoint 2010 SharePoint911 Three-Pack combines the contents of three full e-books written by the experts from SharePoint911.  That's over 1800 pages of hands-on advice from Todd Klindt, Shane Young, Laura Rogers, Randy Drisgill, Jennifer Mason, John Ross, and Larry Riemann, among others. In Beginning SharePoint 2010: Building Business Solutions with SharePoint (ISBN 978-0-470-61789-2) by Amanda Perran, Shane Perran, Jennifer Mason, and Laura Rogers, readers learn the core concepts, terminology, and features of SharePoint 2010. In Professiona

  18. Long-term storage of low-invertase Katahdin at different temperature set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful storage of processing potatoes balances the risk of crop loss caused by pathogen-dependent spoilage with the need to maintain the low tuber reducing sugar contents that are required to produce light-colored fried products. Potato varieties with very low expression of the vacuolar acid inv...

  19. Effects of monoacylglycerols on low-temperature viscosity and cold filter plugging point of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is composed of mono-alkyl fatty acid esters made from the transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat with methanol or ethanol. Biodiesel must meet rigorous standard fuel specifications (ASTM D 6751; CEN EN 14214) to be classified as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, biodiesel that...

  20. The Effects Of Internal End-Point Temperatures On Meat Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tree squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), ground squirrel (Citellus tridecemlineatus), African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus) and grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus), the common rodents consumed as bush meat in West Africa. The meat types were cooked in a commerical gas convention oven pre-heated to a constant ...

  1. Relationship between outdoor temperature and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Zanobetti, Antonella; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel S; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-04-01

    Cardiovascular mortality has been linked to changes in outdoor temperature. However, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well established. We aimed to study the effect of outdoor temperature on blood pressure, as increased blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The study population consisted of men aged 53-100 years living in the Boston area. We used a mixed effects model to estimate the effect of three temperature variables: ambient, apparent and dew point temperature (DPT), on repeated measures (every 3-5 years) of diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Random intercepts for subjects and several possible confounders were used in the models, including black carbon and barometric pressure. We found modest associations between DBP and ambient and apparent temperature. In the basic models, DBP in association with a 5 °C decrease in 7-day moving averages of temperatures increased by 1.01% (95% CI -0.06% to 2.09%) and 1.55% (95% CI 0.61% to 2.49%) for ambient and apparent temperature, respectively. Excluding extreme temperatures strengthened these associations (2.13%, 95% CI 0.66% to 3.63%, and 1.65%, 95% CI 0.41% to 2.90%, for ambient and apparent temperature, respectively). Effect estimates for DPT were close to null. The effect of apparent temperature on SBP was similar (1.30% increase (95% CI 0.32% to 2.29%) for a 5 °C decrease in 7-day moving average). Cumulative exposure to decreasing ambient and apparent temperature may increase blood pressure. These findings suggest that an increase in blood pressure could be a mechanism behind cold-related, but not heat-related, cardiovascular mortality.

  2. Thermocouple design for measuring temperatures of small insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.A. Hanson; R.C. Venette

    2013-01-01

    Contact thermocouples often are used to measure surface body temperature changes of insects during cold exposure. However, small temperature changes of minute insects can be difficult to detect, particularly during the measurement of supercooling points. We developed two thermocouple designs, which use 0.51 mm diameter or 0.127 mm diameter copper-constantan wires, to...

  3. Design for an improved temperature intregration concept in greenhouse cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of crops to tolerate temperature deviations from the average set point could play an important role in energy saving greenhouse climate regimes. This principle is used in the so called temperature integration procedure, which is based on empirical knowledge and uses fixed maximum and

  4. A model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI: 10.1007/s12043-015-1088-3; ePublication: 30 September 2015. Abstract. We have presented a model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high- temperature superconductors using paraconductivity approach. The theoretical analysis is based on the crossing point technique of the conductivity expressions.

  5. Temperature integration and process-based humidity control in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körner, O.; Challa, H.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations in the authors’ previous studies have shown that a modified temperature integration regime with a 6-day averaging period and increased set-point flexibility was able to reduce annual energy consumption by up to 9% as compared to a regular temperature integration regime. The commonly

  6. Salt deposition at particle contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaodong; Evitts, Richard W.; Besant, Robert W.; Kennell, Glyn F.

    2015-09-01

    Caking may occur when granular potash fertilizer with a moisture content greater than 0.25 % (w/w) undergoes drying. Since cake strength is proportional to the mass of crystal deposited per unit volume near contact points (and other factors) the modelling of mass deposition near contact points is important. The Young-Laplace equation for the air-salt-solution interface is used to determine the geometry of a 2-D planar saline film between two cubic potash particles. A 2-D theoretical model is developed and applied for ion diffusion and deposition near the contact point during drying. The numerical predictions of ion diffusion in an initially saturated salt illustrate the transient spatial distribution of new KCl deposits along the solid surfaces near the contact line. These results indicate the average salt deposition commences at the air-liquid-solid intersection, where the liquid film is thinnest, and moves toward the particle contact point with increasing area averaged KCl deposits, causing the formation of crystal deposits and bridges near contact points. It is concluded that the average salt deposit height increases inversely with distance from the contact point and decreases with initial contact angle of the contact region, but the deposition is nearly independent of the evaporation or drying rate near each contact region. Caking strength depends on, among other parameters, the amount of salt deposition near contact points.

  7. Effects of Temperature on Hybrid Lens Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Steve; Victoria, Marta; Herrero, Rebeca; Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2011-12-01

    In hybrid Silicone-on-glass Fresnel lenses, an optical silicone is molded onto a glass substrate and forms the Fresnel structure. These lenses offer a cost effective solution as a primary optical element in point-focus concentrator photovoltaic modules, as well as performance advantages. However, these lenses have a high performance variation with temperature due both to the change in index of refraction of silicone as well as to deformations in the facets caused by coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch. In this study we perform measurements of the light flux at the focal plane of a family of SOG lenses, varying temperature and lens-to-receiver distances. The effect of varying silicone cure temperature and the depth of the silicone between the lens and the glass substrate on temperature dependence was investigated. A preliminary computer model of this behavior is presented.

  8. Hagedorn temperature and physics of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov V.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mini-review devoted to some implications of the Hagedorn temperature for black hole physics. The existence of a limiting temperature is a generic feature of string models. The Hagedorn temperature was introduced first in the context of hadronic physics. Nowadays, the emphasis is shifted to fundamental strings which might be a necessary ingredient to obtain a consistent theory of black holes. The point is that, in field theory, the local temperature close to the horizon could be arbitrarily high, and this observation is difficult to reconcile with the finiteness of the entropy of black holes. After preliminary remarks, we review our recent attempt to evaluate the entropy of large black holes in terms of fundamental strings. We also speculate on implications for dynamics of large-Nc gauge theories arising within holographic models.

  9. High-temperature heat-pump fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinat, M. P.

    1988-05-01

    Heat pumps could be immensely useful in many industrial processes, but standard working fluids are unsuitable for the high temperatures involved. The ideal high-temperature heat-pump fluid should have a high (but not too high) critical temperature, a moderate critical pressure ( approximately=5.0 MPa) and a low (but not too low) boiling point. There are many organic fluids that do meet the above thermodynamic criteria The author's list of 250 contained dozens of them including many of the common laboratory solvents such as ethanol, ether and especially acetone. Unfortunately most of them are highly flammable. The ideal work fluid for high-temperature heat pumps will probably always remain elusive and water, despite its drawbacks will continue to be the best choice in most applications

  10. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-07

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions.

  11. Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Karstic groundwater basins are characterized by both point and diffuse recharge. This paper describes the hydrologic characteristics of point recharge and their influence on recharge estimation for four groundwater basins. Point recharge is highly transient and may occur in relatively short-time periods, yet is capable of recharging a large volume of water, even from a single extreme rainfall event. Preferential groundwater flows are observed in karst aquifers with local fresher water pockets of low salinity that develop around point recharge sources. Measurable fresh water plumes develop only when a large quantity of surface water enters the aquifer as a point recharge. In fresh water plumes, the difference in chloride concentrations in diffuse and point recharge zones decreases as the plumes become enriched through mixing. The relative contributions to total recharge from point sources using the measured gap between groundwater and rainwater chloride in the chloride vs. δ18O plot is not necessarily indicative of sinkholes not directly recharging the aquifer. In karst aquifers, recharge estimation methods based on groundwater age distribution; average annual rainfall and basin average chloride in the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB method are questionable due to theoretical limitations and key assumptions of these methods not being met. In point recharge dominant groundwater basins, application of: watertable fluctuation, numerical groundwater modelling, Darcy flow calculation or water budget methods are more suitable for recharge estimation as they are independent of the particular mode of recharge. The duality of the recharge mechanism in karst aquifers suggests that modification to the CMB method may be required to include both point and diffuse recharge components.

  12. Fixed-point adiabatic quantum search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Alexander M.; Yoder, Theodore J.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2017-01-01

    Fixed-point quantum search algorithms succeed at finding one of M target items among N total items even when the run time of the algorithm is longer than necessary. While the famous Grover's algorithm can search quadratically faster than a classical computer, it lacks the fixed-point property—the fraction of target items must be known precisely to know when to terminate the algorithm. Recently, Yoder, Low, and Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 210501 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.210501] gave an optimal gate-model search algorithm with the fixed-point property. Previously, it had been discovered by Roland and Cerf [Phys. Rev. A 65, 042308 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevA.65.042308] that an adiabatic quantum algorithm, operating by continuously varying a Hamiltonian, can reproduce the quadratic speedup of gate-model Grover search. We ask, can an adiabatic algorithm also reproduce the fixed-point property? We show that the answer depends on what interpolation schedule is used, so as in the gate model, there are both fixed-point and non-fixed-point versions of adiabatic search, only some of which attain the quadratic quantum speedup. Guided by geometric intuition on the Bloch sphere, we rigorously justify our claims with an explicit upper bound on the error in the adiabatic approximation. We also show that the fixed-point adiabatic search algorithm can be simulated in the gate model with neither loss of the quadratic Grover speedup nor of the fixed-point property. Finally, we discuss natural uses of fixed-point algorithms such as preparation of a relatively prime state and oblivious amplitude amplification.

  13. Superposition and alignment of labeled point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fober, Thomas; Glinca, Serghei; Klebe, Gerhard; Hüllermeier, Eyke

    2011-01-01

    Geometric objects are often represented approximately in terms of a finite set of points in three-dimensional euclidean space. In this paper, we extend this representation to what we call labeled point clouds. A labeled point cloud is a finite set of points, where each point is not only associated with a position in three-dimensional space, but also with a discrete class label that represents a specific property. This type of model is especially suitable for modeling biomolecules such as proteins and protein binding sites, where a label may represent an atom type or a physico-chemical property. Proceeding from this representation, we address the question of how to compare two labeled points clouds in terms of their similarity. Using fuzzy modeling techniques, we develop a suitable similarity measure as well as an efficient evolutionary algorithm to compute it. Moreover, we consider the problem of establishing an alignment of the structures in the sense of a one-to-one correspondence between their basic constituents. From a biological point of view, alignments of this kind are of great interest, since mutually corresponding molecular constituents offer important information about evolution and heredity, and can also serve as a means to explain a degree of similarity. In this paper, we therefore develop a method for computing pairwise or multiple alignments of labeled point clouds. To this end, we proceed from an optimal superposition of the corresponding point clouds and construct an alignment which is as much as possible in agreement with the neighborhood structure established by this superposition. We apply our methods to the structural analysis of protein binding sites.

  14. About Applications of the Fixed Point Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fixed point theory is essential to various theoretical and applied fields, such as variational and linear inequalities, the approximation theory, nonlinear analysis, integral and differential equations and inclusions, the dynamic systems theory, mathematics of fractals, mathematical economics (game theory, equilibrium problems, and optimisation problems and mathematical modelling. This paper presents a few benchmarks regarding the applications of the fixed point theory. This paper also debates if the results of the fixed point theory can be applied to the mathematical modelling of quality.

  15. RHIC OPTICS MEASUREMENTS AT DIFFERENT WORKING POINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALAGA,R.; BAI,M.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.

    2004-07-05

    Working point scans at RHIC were performed during 2004 to determine the effect on lifetime and luminosity. Linear optics were measured for different working point tunes by exciting coherent oscillations with the aid of RHIC AC dipoles. Two methods are currently used to measure the beta functions and phases advances: a conventional fitting technique, and an alternate method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). This paper focuses on the effect of working point on the measurement of linear optics using a SVD based technique. The use of a 3-bump beta wave algorithm to identify quadrupole error sources is also presented.

  16. Lévy based Cox point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar; Prokesová, Michaela; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LCPs) as Cox point processes with driving intensity function Λ defined by a kernel smoothing of a Lévy basis (an independently scattered, infinitely divisible random measure). We also consider log Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LLCPs......) with Λ equal to the exponential of such a kernel smoothing. Special cases are shot noise Cox processes, log Gaussian Cox processes, and log shot noise Cox processes. We study the theoretical properties of Lévy-based Cox processes, including moment properties described by nth-order product densities......, mixing properties, specification of inhomogeneity, and spatio-temporal extensions...

  17. A performance evaluation of point pair features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Drost, Bertram; Tombari, Federico

    2017-01-01

    of relations between two points). Our comparison is made on 7 publicly available datasets, showing variations on a number of parameters, e.g. acquisition technique, the number of objects/scenes and the amount of occlusion and clutter. We evaluate feature performance both at a point-wise object...... datasets. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive evaluation of these features has been made. In this work, we evaluate PPFs on a large set of 3D scenes. We not only compare PPFs to local point cloud descriptors, but also investigate the internal variations of PPFs (different types...

  18. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  19. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Point Information Gain and Multidimensional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rychtáriková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the point information gain (PIG and derived quantities, i.e., point information gain entropy (PIE and point information gain entropy density (PIED, for the case of the Rényi entropy and simulate the behavior of PIG for typical distributions. We also use these methods for the analysis of multidimensional datasets. We demonstrate the main properties of PIE/PIED spectra for the real data with the examples of several images and discuss further possible utilizations in other fields of data processing.