WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperature optical characterization

  1. Microstructure, optical characterization and light induced degradation in a-Si:H deposited at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minani, E.; Sigcau, Z.; Adgebite, O.; Ramukosi, F.L.; Ntsoane, T.P.; Harindintwari, S.; Knoesen, D.; Comrie, C.M.; Britton, D.T.; Haerting, M.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of a series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers deposited on glass substrates at different temperature have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction techniques and optical spectroscopy. The radial distribution function of the as-deposited samples showed an increase in the bond angle and a decrease in the radial distance indicating a relaxation of the amorphous network with increasing the deposition temperature. Light induced degradation was studied using a simulated daylight spectrum. The changes in hydrogen bonding configuration, associated with the light soaking at different stages of illumination, was monitored via the transmission bands of the vibrational wag and stretch modes of the IR spectrum

  2. Development of optical tools for the characterization of selective solar absorber at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philemon; Braillon, Julien; Delord, Christine; Raccurt, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for characterization of this solar absorber in condition of use that is to say in air and at elevated temperature. In this paper we present two new optical test benches developed for optical characterization of solar absorbers in condition of use up to 800°C. The first equipment is an integrated sphere with heated sample holder which measures the hemispherical reflectance between 280 and 2500 nm to calculate the solar absorbance at high temperature. The second optical test bench measures the emittance of samples up to 1000°C in the range of 1.25 to 28.57 µm. Results of high temperature measurements on a series of metallic absorbers with selective coating and refractory material for high thermal receiver are presented.

  3. Temperature dependent optical characterization of Ni-TiO2 thin films as potential photocatalytic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rajnarayan; Haque, S. Maidul; Tripathi, S.; Rao, K. Divakar; Singh, Ranveer; Som, T.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2017-09-01

    Along with other transition metal doped titanium dioxide materials, Ni-TiO2 is considered to be one of the most efficient materials for catalytic applications due to its suitable energy band positions in the electronic structure. The present manuscript explores the possibility of improving the photocatalytic activity of RF magnetron sputtered Ni-TiO2 films upon heat treatment. Optical, structural and morphological and photocatalytic properties of the films have been investigated in detail for as deposited and heat treated samples. Evolution of refractive index (RI) and total film thickness as estimated from spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization are found to be in agreement with the trend in density and total film thickness estimated from grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurement. Interestingly, the evolution of these macroscopic properties were found to be correlated with the corresponding microstructural modifications realized in terms of anatase to rutile phase transformation and appearance of a secondary phase namely NiTiO3 at high temperature. Corresponding morphological properties of the films were also found to be temperature dependent which leads to modifications in the grain structure. An appreciable reduction of optical band gap from 2.9 to 2.5 eV of Ni-TiO2 thin films was also observed as a result of post deposition heat treatment. Testing of photocatalytic activity of the films performed under UV illumination demonstrates heat treatment under atmospheric ambience to be an effective means to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of transition metal doped titania samples.

  4. Tensile strain and temperature characterization of FBGs in preannealed Polymer Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Andresen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Our thermal and tensile strain experiments show that fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in preannealed polymer optical fibers (POFs) can offer more stable performance and extend the operating temperature and strain range without hysteresis.......Our thermal and tensile strain experiments show that fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in preannealed polymer optical fibers (POFs) can offer more stable performance and extend the operating temperature and strain range without hysteresis....

  5. Thermo-optical characterization of fluorescent rhodamine B based temperature-sensitive nanosensors using a CMOS MEMS micro-hotplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Veeren M; Hopper, Richard H; Ali, Syed Z; King, Emma M; Udrea, Florin; Oxley, Chris H; Aylott, Jonathan W

    2014-03-01

    A custom designed microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micro-hotplate, capable of operating at high temperatures (up to 700 °C), was used to thermo-optically characterize fluorescent temperature-sensitive nanosensors. The nanosensors, 550 nm in diameter, are composed of temperature-sensitive rhodamine B (RhB) fluorophore which was conjugated to an inert silica sol-gel matrix. Temperature-sensitive nanosensors were dispersed and dried across the surface of the MEMS micro-hotplate, which was mounted in the slide holder of a fluorescence confocal microscope. Through electrical control of the MEMS micro-hotplate, temperature induced changes in fluorescence intensity of the nanosensors was measured over a wide temperature range. The fluorescence response of all nanosensors dispersed across the surface of the MEMS device was found to decrease in an exponential manner by 94%, when the temperature was increased from 25 °C to 145 °C. The fluorescence response of all dispersed nanosensors across the whole surface of the MEMS device and individual nanosensors, using line profile analysis, were not statistically different ( p  MEMS device used for this study could prove to be a reliable, low cost, low power and high temperature micro-hotplate for the thermo-optical characterisation of sub-micron sized particles. The temperature-sensitive nanosensors could find potential application in the measurement of temperature in biological and micro-electrical systems.

  6. Low-temperature optical characterization of a near-infrared single-photon emitter in nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siyushev, P; Jacques, V; Kaiser, F; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J [3.Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Prawer, S [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VA 3010 (Australia); Mueller, T; Lombez, L; Atatuere, M [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: v.jacques@physik.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, we study the optical properties of single defects emitting in the near infrared (NIR) in nanodiamonds at liquid helium temperature. The nanodiamonds are synthesized using a microwave chemical vapor deposition method followed by nickel implantation and annealing. We show that single defects exhibit several striking features at cryogenic temperature: the photoluminescence is strongly concentrated into a sharp zero-phonon line (ZPL) in the NIR, the radiative lifetime is in the nanosecond range and the emission is linearly polarized. The spectral stability of the defects is then investigated. An optical resonance linewidth of 4 GHz is measured using resonant excitation on the ZPL. Although Fourier-transform-limited emission is not achieved, our results show that it might be possible to use consecutive photons emitted in the NIR by single defects in diamond nanocrystals to perform two photon interference experiments, which are at the heart of linear quantum computing protocols.

  7. Characterization of devices, circuits, and high-temperature superconductor transmission lines by electro-optic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a capability for testing transmission lines, devices, and circuits using the optically-based technique of electro-optics sampling was the goal of this project. Electro-optic network analysis of a high-speed device was demonstrated. The project involved research on all of the facets necessary in order to realize this result, including the discovery of the optimum electronic pulse source, development of an adequate test fixture, improvement of the electro-optic probe tip, and identification of a device which responded at high frequency but did not oscillate in the test fixture. In addition, during the process of investigating patterned high-critical-temperature superconductors, several non-contacting techniques for the determination of the transport properties of high T(sub c) films were developed and implemented. These are a transient, optical pump-probe, time-resolved reflectivity experiment, an impulsive-stimulated Raman scattering experiment, and a terahertz-beam coherent-spectroscopy experiment. The latter technique has enabled us to measure both the complex refractive index of an MgO substrate used for high-T(sub c) films and the complex conductivity of a YBa2Cu3O(7-x) sample. This information was acquired across an extremely wide frequency range: from the microwave to the submillimeter-wave regime. The experiments on the YBCO were conducted without patterning of, or contact to, the thin film. Thus, the need for the more difficult transmission-line experiments was eliminated. Progress in all of these areas was made and is documented in a number of papers. These papers may be found in the section listing the abstracts of the publications that were issued during the course of the research.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate microstructured polymer optical fibers for high-temperature-resistant fiber Bragg grating strain sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasano, Andrea; Woyessa, Getinet; Stajanca, Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the fabrication of a solid-core microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) made of polycarbonate (PC), and report the first experimental demonstration of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in a PC optical fiber. The PC used in this work has a glass transition temperature of 145°C...

  9. Characterizing submarine ground‐water discharge using fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing and marine electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rory; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Lane, John W.; Harvey, Charles F.; Liu, Lanbo

    2008-01-01

    Submarine ground‐water discharge (SGD) contributes important solute fluxes to coastal waters. Pollutants are transported to coastal ecosystems by SGD at spatially and temporally variable rates. New approaches are needed to characterize the effects of storm‐event, tidal, and seasonal forcing on SGD. Here, we evaluate the utility of two geophysical methods‐fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing (FO‐DTS) and marine electrical resistivity (MER)—for observing the spatial and temporal variations in SGD and the configuration of the freshwater/saltwater interface within submarine sediments. FO‐DTS and MER cables were permanently installed into the estuary floor on a transect extending 50 meters offshore under Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, at the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, and nearly continuous data were collected for 4 weeks in summer 2007. Initial results indicate that the methods are extremely useful for monitoring changes in the complex estuarine environment. The FO‐DTS produced time‐series data at approximately 1‐meter increments along the length of the fiber at approximately 29‐second intervals. The temperature time‐series data show that the temperature at near‐shore locations appears to be dominated by a semi‐diurnal (tidal) signal, whereas the temperature at off‐shore locations is dominated by a diurnal signal (day/night heating and cooling). Dipole‐dipole MER surveys were completed about every 50 minutes, allowing for production of high‐resolution time‐lapse tomograms, which provide insight into the variations of the subsurface freshwater/saltwater interface. Preliminary results from the MER data show a high‐resistivity zone near the shore at low tide, indicative of SGD, and consistent with the FO‐DTS results.

  10. Optical and structural characterization of pulsed laser deposited ruby thin films for temperature sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Satchi [Laser and Photonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Khare, Alika, E-mail: alika@iitg.ernet.in [Laser and Photonics Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial ruby thin film is deposited on sapphire substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL spectra for R lines show highly crystalline stress free film with FWHM of 11.4 cm{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PLD ruby thin film can be used as photonics based temperature sensor. - Abstract: The ruby thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique in an atmosphere of oxygen using ruby pellet, indigenously prepared by mixing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in appropriate proportion. The characteristics R{sub 1} and R{sub 2} lines at 694.2 nm and 692.7 nm in the photoluminescence spectra of target pellet as well as that of PLD thin films, confirmed the ruby phase in both. The XRD and Raman spectra confirmed deposition of c-axis oriented crystalline ruby thin film on sapphire substrate. Effect of deposition time, substrate and deposition temperature on PLD grown thin films of ruby are reported. The intensity of R{sub 1} and R{sub 2} lines of PLD ruby thin films increased enormously after annealing the film at 1000 Degree-Sign C for 2 h. The film deposited on sapphire substrate for 2 h was 260 nm thick and the corresponding deposition rate was 2.16 nm/min. This film was subjected to temperature dependent photoluminescence studies. The peak positions of R{sub 1} and R{sub 2} lines and corresponding line width of PLD ruby thin film were observed to be blue shifted with decrease in temperature. R{sub 1} line position sensitivity, d{nu}{sup Macron }/dT, cm{sup -1}/K in the range 138-368 K was very well fitted to linear fit and hence can be used as temperature sensor in this range.

  11. Electro-Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    In the Electro-Optical Characterization group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we use various electrical and optical experimental techniques to relate photovoltaic device performance to the methods and materials used to produce them. The types of information obtained by these techniques range from small-scale atomic-bonding information to large-scale macroscopic quantities such as optical constants and electron-transport properties. Accurate and timely measurement of the electro-optical properties as a function of device processing provides researchers and manufacturers with the knowledge needed to troubleshoot problems and develop the knowledge base necessary for reducing cost, maximizing efficiency, improving reliability, and enhancing manufacturability. We work collaboratively with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes our primary techniques and capabilities.

  12. Characterizing fractured rock aquifers using heated Distributed Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensing to determine borehole vertical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, T. O.; Bour, O.; Selker, J. S.; Le Borgne, T.; Bense, V.; Hochreutener, R.; Lavenant, N.

    2013-12-01

    In highly heterogeneous media, fracture network connectivity and hydraulic properties can be estimated using methods such as packer- or cross-borehole pumping-tests. Typically, measurements of hydraulic head or vertical flow in such tests are made either at a single location over time, or at a series of depths by installing a number of packers or raising or lowering a probe. We show how this often encountered monitoring problem, with current solutions sacrificing either one of temporal or spatial information, can be addressed using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). Here, we electrically heat the conductive cladding materials of cables deployed in boreholes to determine the vertical flow profile. We present results from heated fiber optic cables deployed in three boreholes in a fractured rock aquifer at the much studied experimental site near Ploemeur, France, allowing detailed comparisons with alternative methods (e.g. Le Borgne et al., 2007). When submerged in water and electrically heated, the cable very rapidly reaches a steady state temperature (less than 60 seconds). The steady state temperature of the heated cable, measured using the DTS method, is then a function of the velocity of the fluid in the borehole. We find that such cables are sensitive to a wide range of fluid velocities, and thus suitable for measuring both ambient and pumped flow profiles at the Ploemeur site. The cables are then used to monitor the flow profiles during all possible configurations of: ambient flow, cross-borehole- (pumping one borehole, and observing in another), and dipole-tests (pumping one borehole, re-injection in another). Such flow data acquired using DTS may then be used for tomographic flow inversions, for instance using the approach developed by Klepikova et al., (submitted). Using the heated fiber optic method, we are able to observe the flow response during such tests in high spatial detail, and are also able to capture temporal flow dynamics occurring at the

  13. Characterization of the Performance of Sapphire Optical Fiber in Intense Radiation Fields, when Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Christian M.

    The U.S. Department of Energy is interested in extending optically-based instrumentation from non-extreme environments to extremely high temperature radiation environments for the purposes of developing in-pile instrumentation. The development of in-pile instrumentation would help support the ultimate goal of understanding the behavior and predicting the performance of nuclear fuel systems at a microstructural level. Single crystal sapphire optical fibers are a promising candidate for in-pile instrumentation due to the high melting temperature and radiation hardness of sapphire. In order to extend sapphire fiber-based optical instrumentation to high temperature radiation environments, the ability of sapphire fibers to adequately transmit light in such an environment must first be demonstrated. Broadband optical transmission measurements of sapphire optical fibers were made in-situ as the sapphire fibers were heated and/or irradiated. The damage processes in sapphire fibers were also modeled from the primary knock-on event from energetic neutrons to the resulting damage cascade in order to predict the formation of stable defects that ultimately determine the resulting change in optical properties. Sapphire optical fibers were shown to withstand temperatures as high as 1300 °C with minimal increases in optical attenuation. A broad absorption band was observed to grow over time without reaching a dynamic equilibrium when the sapphire fiber was heated at temperatures of 1400 °C and above. The growth of this absorption band limits the use of sapphire optical fibers, at least in air, to temperatures of 1300 °C and below. Irradiation of sapphire fibers with gamma rays caused saturation of a defect center located below 500 nm, and extending as far as ~1000 nm, with little effect on the transmission at 1300 and 1550 nm. Increasing temperature during gamma irradiation generally reduced the added attenuation. Reactor irradiation of sapphire fibers caused an initial rapid

  14. Optical Particle Characterization in Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Particle characterization in dispersed multiphase flows is important in quantifying transport processes both in fundamental and applied research: Examples include atomization and spray processes, cavitation and bubbly flows, and solid particle transport in gas and liquid carrier phases. Optical techniques of particle characterization are preferred owing to their nonintrusiveness, and they can yield information about size, velocity, composition, and to some extent the shape of individual particles. This review focuses on recent advances for measuring size, temperature, and the composition of particles, including several planar methods, various imaging techniques, laser-induced fluorescence, and the more recent use of femtosecond pulsed light sources. It emphasizes the main sources of uncertainty, the achievable accuracy, and the outlook for improvement of specific techniques and for specific applications. Some remarks are also directed toward the computational tools used to design and investigate the performance of optical particle diagnostic instruments.

  15. Characterization of a fiber Bragg grating in pure-silica-core and Ge-doped-core optical fiber under high-temperature strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Ding, Xudong; Song, Yanming; Dong, Mingli; Zhu, Lianqing

    2018-03-01

    The characterization of a fiber Bragg grating in pure-silica-core and Ge-doped-core optical fiber is demonstrated under tensile strain at different temperatures. The peak wavelength of the fiber Bragg grating increases slowly under tensile strain of 1000 µε when the temperature exceeds a certain value. The wavelength response of the pure-silica-core fiber Bragg grating is less sensitive under the same high-temperature strain as compared with the Ge-doped-core one. The results show a little predominance for the pure-silica-core fiber Bragg grating in high-temperature strain sensing. The two kinds of fiber Bragg grating are capable of measuring temperatures of up to 800 °C, but it is recommended that strain measurements are conducted below 500 °C to ensure good stability and repeatability.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Low Temperature Sintering of Nanostructured BaWO4 for Optical and LTCC Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of nano-BaWO4 by a modified combustion technique and its suitability for various applications are reported. The structure and phase purity of the sample analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform Raman, and infrared spectroscopy show that the sample is phase pure with tetragonal structure. The particle size from the transmission electron microscopy is 22 nm. The basic optical properties and optical constants of the nano BaWO4 are studied using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy which showed that the material is a wide band gap semiconductor with band gap of 4.1 eV. The sample shows poor transmittance in ultraviolet region while maximum in visible-near infrared regions. The photoluminescence spectra show intense emission in blue region. The sample is sintered at low temperature of 810°C, without any sintering aid. Surface morphology of the sample is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The dielectric constant and loss factor measured at 5 MHz are 9 and 1.56×10-3. The temperature coefficient of dielectric constant is −22 ppm/°C. The experimental results obtained in the present work claim the potential use of nano BaWO4 as UV filters, transparent films for window layers on solar cells, antireflection coatings, scintillators, detectors, and for LTCC applications.

  17. Measurements and characterization - Electro-optical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, G.

    2000-03-16

    This brochure presents the capabilities that the Measurements and Characterization Division has in Electro-Optical Characterization, in which a variety of spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and capacitance techniques are used to probe the fundamental electrical and optical properties of solid-state materials.

  18. Structural and optical characterization of single-phase γ-In2Se3 films with room-temperature photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, D.Y.; Lin, T.Y.; Chang, T.W.; Lan, S.M.; Yang, T.N.; Chiang, C.C.; Chen, C.L.; Chiang, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    The single-phase γ-In 2 Se 3 films with red room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) have been realized by atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition at the temperature range of 350-500 o C. The crystal structure of the γ-In 2 Se 3 films was determined by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. From the temperature dependence of the free exciton line, the room-temperature energy gap of γ-In 2 Se 3 films is found to be about 1.947 eV. At 10 K, the free exciton emissions was observed and located at 2.145 eV. The temperature dependence of the near band-edge emission in the temperature region of 10-300 K has been investigated. The measured peak energy of near band-edge emission redshifts by about 200 meV with increasing temperature from 10 to 300 K, and is expressed by, E g (T) = 2.149 + ((-8.50 x 10 -4 )T 2 /(T + 75.5)) eV. This study was done to complete the reported information about γ-In 2 Se 3 thin films.

  19. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prepared host-guest composite material shows luminescence. The material has the potentiality as luminescence material. KEY WORDS: Host-guest nanocomposite material, Nanometer MCM-41 molecular sieve host, Rhodamine B guest, Characterization, Luminescence Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009, 23(1), 145-150.

  20. An optics-based variable-temperature assay system for characterizing thermodynamics of biomolecular reactions on solid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Yiyan; Landry, James P.; Zhu, X. D., E-mail: xdzhu@physics.ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Li, Yanhong; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Huang, Shengshu; Chokhawala, Harshal A.; Chen, Xi [Department of Chemistry, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A biological state is equilibrium of multiple concurrent biomolecular reactions. The relative importance of these reactions depends on physiological temperature typically between 10 °C and 50 °C. Experimentally the temperature dependence of binding reaction constants reveals thermodynamics and thus details of these biomolecular processes. We developed a variable-temperature opto-fluidic system for real-time measurement of multiple (400–10 000) biomolecular binding reactions on solid supports from 10 °C to 60 °C within ±0.1 °C. We illustrate the performance of this system with investigation of binding reactions of plant lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) with 24 synthetic glycans (i.e., carbohydrates). We found that the lectin-glycan reactions in general can be enthalpy-driven, entropy-driven, or both, and water molecules play critical roles in the thermodynamics of these reactions.

  1. Cryo-Infrared Optical Characterization at NASA GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucarut, Ray; Quijada, Manuel A.; Henry, Ross M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of large space infrared optical systems, such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), has increased requirements for measurement accuracy in the optical properties of materials. Many materials used as optical components in infrared optical systems, have strong temperature dependence in their optical properties. Unfortunately, data on the temperature dependence of most of these materials is sparse. In this paper, we provide a description of the capabilities existing in the Optics Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center that enable the characterization of the refractive index and absorption coefficient changes and other optical properties in infrared materials at cryogenic temperatures. Details of the experimental apparatus, which include continuous flow liquid helium optical cryostat, and a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are discussed.

  2. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Insert for High Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard James (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Zarnescu, Livia (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) test plug has optical fibers with FBGs embedded in the optical fiber arranged in a helix, an axial fiber, and a combination of the two. Optionally, one of the optical fibers is a sapphire FBG for measurement of the highest temperatures in the TPS plug. The test plug may include an ablating surface and a non-ablating surface, with an engagement surface with threads formed, the threads having a groove for placement of the optical fiber. The test plug may also include an optical connector positioned at the non-ablating surface for protection of the optical fiber during insertion and removal.

  3. Optical metrology for DMD™ characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Seth A.; Mezenner, Rabah; Doane, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Digital Micromirror Device™ (DMD™) developed at Texas Instruments is a spatial light modulator composed of 500,000 to 1.3 million movable micromachined aluminum mirrors. The DMD™ serves as the engine for the current generation of computer-driven slide and video projectors, and for next generation devices in digital television and movie projectors. Because of the unique architecture and applications of the device, Texas Instruments has developed a series of customized optical testers for characterizing DMD™ performance. This paper provides a general overview of the MirrorMaster, a custom optical inspection tool. Particular attention is given to Bias Adhesion Mapping (BAM) as a device performance metric. BAM is an optical test that monitors the performance of the mirrors as a function of an applied voltage. This voltage drives the mirrors to the `on' or `off' position, and as the bias is stepped down the mirrors return to their neutral orientations. Important forces involved in this process include the electrostatic field applied, the compliance of the hinge, and static friction (stiction). BAM curves can help characterize device stiction and allow us to examine the efficacy of the lubrication system over the lifetime of the device.

  4. Fibre-Optic Semiconductor Temperature Gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.

    1982-01-01

    "Safe" temperature gage for explosive liquids is based on optical transmission. Semiconductor crystal inserted between input and output optical fibers is temperature-sensing element in a new approach to measuring temperature of cryogens. Since no electrical components are immersed in liquid, new sensor minimizes danger of electrically ignited explosions in hazardous cryogens such as oxygen and hydrogen. Gage also useful for handling noncryogenic liquids in aircraft, automobiles, boats and water tanks.

  5. Optical Ring Resonator Based Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addya, Subhankar; Dey, Sabitabrata; Mandal, Sanjoy

    2017-12-01

    Temperature sensor based on optical ring resonator has been demonstrated with its constituent material as silicon (Si-fiber) and germanium (Ge-fiber) in this work. It has been done through optical delay line signal processing technique in Z-domain. The group indices of both the materials vary with the change in temperature due to the thermo-optic effect in materials. Thus temperature dependence of free spectral range forms the basis of modeling the sensors. Silicon (Si) fiber based optical sensor can sense the temperature in the range 30-500 °C and that for germanium (Ge) fiber the range is -25 to 300 °C. Obtained temperature sensitivities for Ge and Si-fibers are 5.55 and 2.97 MHz/°C respectively.

  6. Optical characterization of niobium pentoxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Nb 2 O 5 were obtained by sol-gel method using ultrasonic irradiation and deposited by dip-coating technique. After calcination at temperatures superior than 500 deg C these films (300 nm thick) were characterized by cyclic voltametry and cronoamperometry. The memory measurements, color efficiency, optical density as a function of wave number and applied potential were effectuated to determine their electrochromic properties. The study of electrochromic properties of these films shows that the insertion process of lithium is reversible and changes their coloration from transparent (T=80%) to dark blue (T=20%). (author)

  7. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  8. Growth, Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Nanotubes on Disposable-Flexible Paper Substrates by Low-Temperature Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes (NTs on paper substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The growth of ZnO NTs on the paper substrate is discussed; further, the structural and optical properties are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and cathodoluminescence (CL, and it was found that the ZnO NTs on paper substrate fulfill the structural and optical properties of ZnO NTs grown on other conventional substrates. This will be more beneficial in future usage of ZnO NTs in different fields and applications. Particularly, this approach opens the ways in research and development for high volume manufacturing of low-cost, flexible optoelectronics devices on disposable paper substrates and can be used in the future miniaturization trends.

  9. Optical characterization of antirelaxation coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, S.; Gateva, S.; Cartaleva, S.; Mariotti, E.; Nasyrov, K.

    2018-03-01

    Antirelaxation coatings (ARC) are used in optical cells containing alkali metal vapor to reduce the depolarization of alkali atoms after collisions with the cell walls. The long-lived ground state polarization is a basis for development of atomic clocks, magnetometers, quantum memory, slow light experiments, precision measurements of fundamental symmetries etc. In this work, a simple method for measuring the number of collisions of the alkali atoms with the cell walls without atomic spin randomization (Nasyrov et al., Proc. SPIE (2015)) was applied to characterize the AR properties of two PDMS coatings prepared from different solutions in ether (PDMS 2% and PDMS 5%). We observed influence of the light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) on the AR properties of coatings.

  10. OCCIMA: Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, Steve; Tsintikidis, Dimitri; deGrassie, John; Reinhardt, Colin; McBryde, Kevin; Hallenborg, Eric; Wayne, David; Gibson, Kristofor; Cauble, Galen; Ascencio, Ana; Rudiger, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    The Navy is actively developing diverse optical application areas, including high-energy laser weapons and free- space optical communications, which depend on an accurate and timely knowledge of the state of the atmospheric channel. The Optical Channel Characterization in Maritime Atmospheres (OCCIMA) project is a comprehensive program to coalesce and extend the current capability to characterize the maritime atmosphere for all optical and infrared wavelengths. The program goal is the development of a unified and validated analysis toolbox. The foundational design for this program coordinates the development of sensors, measurement protocols, analytical models, and basic physics necessary to fulfill this goal.

  11. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystals: bis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Organic compound; growth from solution; characterization; nonlinear optical materials. 1. Introduction. Organic nonlinear optical (NLO) materials have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in telecommunication, optical switching, optical frequency conversion, THz generation, electro-optical and inte-.

  12. Magnetometer probe with low temperature rotation and optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajerowski, D M; Meisel, M W [Department of Physics and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8440 (United States)], E-mail: meisel@phys.ufl.edu

    2009-02-01

    A new probe has been developed that allows for both optical irradiation and uniaxial rotation, all in the low temperature environment of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. As part of the design process, various materials were investigated and characterized for their low temperature structural and magnetic properties, including nylon, Vespel, Delrin, Spiderwire monofilament, and PowerPro braided microfilament. Using this information, a prototype was built and operated. Characteristics of the probe will be presented along with a summary of the low temperature (T {>=} 2 K) and high magnetic field (H {<=} 7 T) properties of the construction materials.

  13. Magnetometer probe with low temperature rotation and optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajerowski, D. M.; Meisel, M. W.

    2009-02-01

    A new probe has been developed that allows for both optical irradiation and uniaxial rotation, all in the low temperature environment of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. As part of the design process, various materials were investigated and characterized for their low temperature structural and magnetic properties, including nylon, Vespel, Delrin, Spiderwire monofilament, and PowerPro braided microfilament. Using this information, a prototype was built and operated. Characteristics of the probe will be presented along with a summary of the low temperature (T >= 2 K) and high magnetic field (H <= 7 T) properties of the construction materials.

  14. 1700 deg C optical temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossey, P. W.; Shaffernocker, W. M.; Mulukutla, A. R.

    1986-07-01

    A new gas temperature sensor was developed that shows promise of sufficient ruggedness to be useful as a gas turbine temperature sensor. The sensor is in the form of a single-crystal aluminum oxide ceramic, ground to a cone shape and given an emissive coating. A lens and an optical fiber conduct the thermally emitted light to a remote and near-infrared photodetector assembly. Being optically coupled and passive, the sensor is highly immune to all types of electrical interference. Candidate sensors were analyzed for optical sensor performance, heat transfer characteristics, stress from gas loading. This led to the selection of the conical shape as the most promising for the gas turbine environment. One uncoated and two coated sensing elements were prepared for testing. Testing was conducted to an indicated 1750 C in a propane-air flame. Comparison with the referee optical pyrometer shows an accuracy of + or - 25 C at 1700 C for this initial development. One hundred cycles from room temperature to 1700 C left the sapphire cone intact, but some loss of the platinum, 6% rhodium coating was observed. Several areas for improving the overall performance and durability are identified.

  15. 1700 deg C optical temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossey, P. W.; Shaffernocker, W. M.; Mulukutla, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    A new gas temperature sensor was developed that shows promise of sufficient ruggedness to be useful as a gas turbine temperature sensor. The sensor is in the form of a single-crystal aluminum oxide ceramic, ground to a cone shape and given an emissive coating. A lens and an optical fiber conduct the thermally emitted light to a remote and near-infrared photodetector assembly. Being optically coupled and passive, the sensor is highly immune to all types of electrical interference. Candidate sensors were analyzed for optical sensor performance, heat transfer characteristics, stress from gas loading. This led to the selection of the conical shape as the most promising for the gas turbine environment. One uncoated and two coated sensing elements were prepared for testing. Testing was conducted to an indicated 1750 C in a propane-air flame. Comparison with the referee optical pyrometer shows an accuracy of + or - 25 C at 1700 C for this initial development. One hundred cycles from room temperature to 1700 C left the sapphire cone intact, but some loss of the platinum, 6% rhodium coating was observed. Several areas for improving the overall performance and durability are identified.

  16. Coordinate Measuring Machine for Characterizing Conformal Optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    ... Nanotech 150AG Aspharic Grinder and the Nanotecnnologv Systems Nanotech 5OOFG Freeform Generator. The unique and complex nature of these parts prevented them from being characterized with standard optical metrology instrumentation...

  17. Micro-optics: manufacturing and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, R.; Eisner, M.; Weible, K. J.

    2005-10-01

    Wafer-based manufacturing of Micro-Optics is based on standard technologies from Semiconductor Industry, like resist coating, lithography, reactive ion etching, deposition, sputtering, and lift-off. These well-established technologies allow the manufacturing of almost any Micro-Optics' structure shape. The excellence of the Micro-Optics component depends much on the proper choice of the manufacturing equipment and the process control. As all processes are standard Semiconductor technology, the quality is merely a question of the budget and the optimization effort. For characterization and testing, the current situation is different. Neither the test equipment from Semiconductor industry nor the test equipment from classical optics manufacturing is suitable to for Micro-Optics. Most of test instruments Micro-Optics industry is using today have been developed by research institutes or by the manufacturing companies themselves. As Micro-Optics is still a niche market, all instruments are built in small series. This lack of suitable test equipment is a major problem for the Micro-Optics industry today. All process optimization in manufacturing is closely related to the capability to measure the quality of the products. We report on the state of the art in wafer-based manufacturing and summarize the standard characterization tools for Micro-Optics.

  18. Surface characterization protocol for precision aspheric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarepaka, RamaGopal V.; Sakthibalan, Siva; Doodala, Somaiah; Panwar, Rakesh S.; Kotaria, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    In Advanced Optical Instrumentation, Aspherics provide an effective performance alternative. The aspheric fabrication and surface metrology, followed by aspheric design are complementary iterative processes for Precision Aspheric development. As in fabrication, a holistic approach of aspheric surface characterization is adopted to evaluate actual surface error and to aim at the deliverance of aspheric optics with desired surface quality. Precision optical surfaces are characterized by profilometry or by interferometry. Aspheric profiles are characterized by contact profilometers, through linear surface scans to analyze their Form, Figure and Finish errors. One must ensure that, the surface characterization procedure does not add to the resident profile errors (generated during the aspheric surface fabrication). This presentation examines the errors introduced post-surface generation and during profilometry of aspheric profiles. This effort is to identify sources of errors and is to optimize the metrology process. The sources of error during profilometry may be due to: profilometer settings, work-piece placement on the profilometer stage, selection of zenith/nadir points of aspheric profiles, metrology protocols, clear aperture - diameter analysis, computational limitations of the profiler and the software issues etc. At OPTICA, a PGI 1200 FTS contact profilometer (Taylor-Hobson make) is used for this study. Precision Optics of various profiles are studied, with due attention to possible sources of errors during characterization, with multi-directional scan approach for uniformity and repeatability of error estimation. This study provides an insight of aspheric surface characterization and helps in optimal aspheric surface production methodology.

  19. A Polymer Optical Fiber Temperature Sensor Based on Material Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Arnaldo; Frizera-Netoc, Anselmo; Marques, Carlos; Pontes, Maria José

    2018-01-19

    This paper presents a polymer optical fiber (POF)-based temperature sensor. The operation principle of the sensor is the variation in the POF mechanical properties with the temperature variation. Such mechanical property variation leads to a variation in the POF output power when a constant stress is applied to the fiber due to the stress-optical effect. The fiber mechanical properties are characterized through a dynamic mechanical analysis, and the output power variation with different temperatures is measured. The stress is applied to the fiber by means of a 180° curvature, and supports are positioned on the fiber to inhibit the variation in its curvature with the temperature variation. Results show that the sensor proposed has a sensitivity of 1.04 × 10 -3 °C -1 , a linearity of 0.994, and a root mean squared error of 1.48 °C, which indicates a relative error of below 2%, which is lower than the ones obtained for intensity-variation-based temperature sensors. Furthermore, the sensor is able to operate at temperatures up to 110 °C, which is higher than the ones obtained for similar POF sensors in the literature.

  20. Computing Temperatures in Optically Thick Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuder, Lawrence F.. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We worked with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the transfer of energy through protoplanetary disks, where planet formation occurs. The code tracks photons from the star into the disk, through scattering, absorption and re-emission, until they escape to infinity. High optical depths in the disk interior dominate the computation time because it takes the photon packet many interactions to get out of the region. High optical depths also receive few photons and therefore do not have well-estimated temperatures. We applied a modified random walk (MRW) approximation for treating high optical depths and to speed up the Monte Carlo calculations. The MRW is implemented by calculating the average number of interactions the photon packet will undergo in diffusing within a single cell of the spatial grid and then updating the packet position, packet frequencies, and local radiation absorption rate appropriately. The MRW approximation was then tested for accuracy and speed compared to the original code. We determined that MRW provides accurate answers to Monte Carlo Radiative transfer simulations. The speed gained from using MRW is shown to be proportional to the disk mass.

  1. Synthesis and optical characterization of copper nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 1. Synthesis and optical characterization of copper nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation. SAMIRA MONIRI MAHMOOD GHORANNEVISS MOHAMMAD REZA HANTEHZADEH MOHSEN ASADI ASADABAD. Volume 40 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 37-43 ...

  2. Poly(ε-caprolactone) decorated with one room-temperature red-emitting ruthenium(II) complex: synthesis, characterization, thermal and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Marcus; Jäger, Michael; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2012-04-13

    The incorporation of room-temperature red-emissive [Ru(II)(dqp)(dqp-CH(2) OH)](2+) (dqp is 2,6-di(quinolin-8-yl)pyridine) in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is explored following two routes. First, the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone is investigated using the free ligand and the complex as initiators. Alternatively, the complexation strategy utilizing PCL-dqp as a macroligand is detailed. Both routes yield room-temperature emissive polymers centered at 400 nm (free ligand) and 680 nm (complex) in aerated solvent. DSC and TGA showed the typical properties of PCL, for example, the melting point (59 °C). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Production, Characterization, and Acceleration of Optical Microbunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Christopher M.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2008-06-20

    Optical microbunches with a spacing of 800 nm have been produced for laser acceleration research. The microbunches are produced using a inverse Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) followed by a dispersive chicane. The microbunched electron beam is characterized by coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) with good agreement to the analytic theory for bunch formation. In a second experiment the bunches are accelerated in a second stage to achieve for the first time direct net acceleration of electrons traveling in a vacuum with visible light. This dissertation presents the theory of microbunch formation and characterization of the microbunches. It also presents the design of the experimental hardware from magnetostatic and particle tracking simulations, to fabrication and measurement of the undulator and chicane magnets. Finally, the dissertation discusses three experiments aimed at demonstrating the IFEL interaction, microbunch production, and the net acceleration of the microbunched beam. At the close of the dissertation, a separate but related research effort on the tight focusing of electrons for coupling into optical scale, Photonic Bandgap, structures is presented. This includes the design and fabrication of a strong focusing permanent magnet quadrupole triplet and an outline of an initial experiment using the triplet to observe wakefields generated by an electron beam passing through an optical scale accelerator.

  4. Optical characterization of thin solid films

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlídal, Miloslav

    2018-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date survey of the major optical characterization techniques for thin solid films. Emphasis is placed on practicability of the various approaches. Relevant fundamentals are briefly reviewed before demonstrating the application of these techniques to practically relevant research and development topics. The book is written by international top experts, all of whom are involved in industrial research and development projects.

  5. Fiber taper characterization by optical backscattering reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Hung; Yang, Ki Youl; Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J

    2017-09-18

    Fiber tapers provide a way to rapidly measure the spectra of many types of optical microcavities. Proper fabrication of the taper ensures that its width varies sufficiently slowly (adiabatically) along the length of the taper so as to maintain single spatial mode propagation. This is usually accomplished by monitoring the spectral transmission through the taper. In addition to this characterization method it is also helpful to know the taper width versus length. By developing a model of optical backscattering within the fiber taper, it is possible to use backscatter measurements to characterize the taper width versus length. The model uses the concept of a local taper numerical aperture to accurately account for varying backscatter collection along the length of the taper. In addition to taper profile information, the backscatter reflectometry method delineates locations along the taper where fluctuations in fiber core refractive index, cladding refractive index, and taper surface roughness each provide the dominant source of backscattering. Rayleigh backscattering coefficients are also extracted by fitting the data with the model and are consistent with the fiber manufacturer's datasheet. The optical backscattering reflectometer is also used to observe defects resulting from microcracks and surface contamination. All of this information can be obtained before the taper is removed from its fabrication apparatus. The backscattering method should also be prove useful for characterization of nanofibers.

  6. Characterization of fiber optic cables under large tensile loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, J.W.; Looney, L.D.; Peterson, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic cables designed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have to withstand an unusually harsh environment. Cables have been manufactured under a 6 year old DOE specification that has been slightly modified as the cable requirements are better understood. In order to better understand the cable properties a unique capability has been established at the NTS. Instrumentation has been developed to characterize the transmission properties of 1 km of fiber optic cable placed under a controlled tensile load up to 1500 lbs. The properties measured are cable tension, cable elongation, induced attenuation, attenuation vs. location, fiber strain, bandwidth, and ambient temperature. Preforming these measurements on cables from the two qualified NTS fiber optic cable manufacturers, Siecor and Andrew Corp., led to a new set of specifications

  7. Low temperature fiber optic pyrometer for fast time resolved temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.; Gaenshirt, D.; Kaiser, J.; Villnow, M.; Banda, M.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature Pyrometry at temperatures beyond 150°C is limited in the measurement speed due to slow pyroelectric detectors. To detect the circumferential temperature distribution of fast rotating machines a novel Fiber Optical Pyrometer Type is presented here.

  8. Modulated-splitting-ratio fiber-optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn; Anthan, Donald J.; Rys, John R.; Fritsch, Klaus; Ruppe, Walter R.

    1989-06-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor is described that uses a small silicon beamsplitter whose splitting ratio varies as a function of temperature. A four-beam technique is used to measure the sensor's temperature-indicating splitting ratio. This referencing method provides a measurement that is largely independent of the transmission properties of the sensor's optical fiber link. A significant advantage of this sensor, relative to other fiber-optic sensors, is its high stability, which permits the fiber-optic components to be readily substituted, thereby simplifying the sensor's installation and maintenance.

  9. Distributed fiber?optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selker, J.S.; Thévenaz, L.; Huwald, H.; Mallet, A.; Luxemburg, W.M.J.; Van de Giesen, N.; Stejskal, M.; Zeman, J.; Westhoff, M.; Parlange, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Instruments for distributed fiber-optic measurement of temperature are now available with temperature resolution of 0.01°C and spatial resolution of 1 m with temporal resolution of fractions of a minute along standard fiber-optic cables used for communication with lengths of up to 30,000 m. We

  10. Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selker, John S.; Thévenaz, Luc; Huwald, Hendrik; Mallet, Alfred; Luxemburg, Wim; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Stejskal, Martin; Zeman, Josef; Westhoff, Martijn; Parlange, Marc B.

    2006-01-01

    Instruments for distributed fiber-optic measurement of temperature are now available with temperature resolution of 0.01°C and spatial resolution of 1 m with temporal resolution of fractions of a minute along standard fiber-optic cables used for communication with lengths of up to 30,000 m. We

  11. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  12. Optical clearing mechanisms characterization in muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical immersion clearing is a technique that has been widely studied for more than two decades and that is used to originate a temporary transparency effect in biological tissues. If applied in cooperation with clinical methods it provides optimization of diagnosis and treatment procedures. This technique turns biological tissues more transparent through two main mechanisms — tissue dehydration and refractive index (RI matching between tissue components. Such matching is obtained by partial replacement of interstitial water by a biocompatible agent that presents higher RI and it can be completely reversible by natural rehydration in vivo or by assisted rehydration in ex vivo tissues. Experimental data to characterize and discriminate between the two mechanisms and to find new ones are necessary. Using a simple method, based on collimated transmittance and thickness measurements made from muscle samples under treatment, we have estimated the diffusion properties of glucose, ethylene glycol (EG and water that were used to perform such characterization and discrimination. Comparing these properties with data from literature that characterize their diffusion in water we have observed that muscle cell membrane permeability limits agent and water diffusion in the muscle. The same experimental data has allowed to calculate the optical clearing (OC efficiency and make an interpretation of the internal changes that occurred in muscle during the treatments. The same methodology can now be used to perform similar studies with other agents and in other tissues in order to solve engineering problems at design of inexpensive and robust technologies for a considerable improvement of optical tomographic techniques with better contrast and in-depth imaging.

  13. Primary standard of optical power operating at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dönsberg Timo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Predictable Quantum Efficient Detector (PQED is evaluated as a new primary standard of optical power. Design and characterization results are presented for a new compact room temperature PQED that consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes mounted in a wedged trap configuration. The detector assembly includes a window aligned in Brewster angle in front of the photodiodes for high transmission of p polarized light. The detector can also be operated without the window, in which case a dry nitrogen flow system is utilized to prevent dust contamination of the photodiodes. Measurements of individual detectors at the wavelength of 488 nm indicate that reflectance and internal quantum efficiency are consistent within 14 ppm and 10 ppm (ppm = part per million, respectively, and agree with the predicted values. The measured photocurrent ratio of the two photodiodes confirms the predicted value for s and p polarized light, and the spatial variation in the photocurrent ratio can be used to estimate the uniformity in the thickness of the silicon dioxide layer on the surface of the photodiodes. In addition, the spatial non-uniformity of the responsivity of the PQED is an order of magnitude lower than that of single photodiodes. Such data provide evidence that the room temperature PQED may replace the cryogenic radiometer as a primary standard of optical power in the visible wavelength range.

  14. The liner brightness temperature measurement by two channel optical pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, M. I.; Dudin, S. V.; Ushnurtsev, A. E.; Mintsev, V. B.

    2018-01-01

    Measurability of liner inner surface brightness temperature by two channel optical pyrometer is shown. Liner is compressed by detonation products in large-scale experiment. Absolute radiant intensity values were obtained by measuring optical system channel calibration involving tungsten and xenon radiation sources. Three ways of surface brightness temperature measurement are presented at wavelengths of 620 and 850 nm. Using the developed procedure copper and steel liners behavior (brightness temperature, average speed) under compression by detonation products are evaluated.

  15. Apparatus and method for characterizing ultrafast polarization varying optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirl, A.; Trebino, R.P.

    1999-08-10

    Practical techniques are described for characterizing ultrafast potentially ultraweak, ultrashort optical pulses. The techniques are particularly suited to the measurement of signals from nonlinear optical materials characterization experiments, whose signals are generally too weak for full characterization using conventional techniques. 2 figs.

  16. Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the...published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors Report Title This DURIP project...Final Report for the ARO DURIP Program Electrical and Optical Characterization System for IR Photodetectors Grant No.: W911NF-14-1-0446   Period 01

  17. An inexpensive high-temperature optical fiber thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Allred, David D.

    2017-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose tip is coated with a highly conductive, opaque material. When heated, this sensing tip becomes an isothermal cavity that emits like a blackbody. This emission is used to predict the sensing tip temperature. In this work, analytical and experimental research has been conducted to further advance the development of optical fiber thermometry. An inexpensive optical fiber thermometer is developed by applying a thin coating of a high-temperature cement onto the tip of a silica optical fiber. An FTIR spectrometer is used to detect the spectral radiance exiting the fiber. A rigorous mathematical model of the irradiation incident on the detection system is developed. The optical fiber thermometer is calibrated using a blackbody radiator and inverse methods are used to predict the sensing tip temperature when exposed to various heat sources. - Highlights: • An inexpensive coating for an optical fiber thermometer sensing tip is tested. • Inverse heat transfer methods are used to estimate the sensing tip temperature. • An FTIR spectrometer is used as the detector to test the optical fiber thermometer using various heat sources.

  18. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Integrated device characterization for both in-plane and surface-normal photonic devices. This assembly and characterization system will significantly...Unlimited Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano- Photonics Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano- Photonics Research Report Title With this equipment funding support

  19. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and humidity with microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Pedersen, Jens Kristian Mølgaard; Fasano, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    A microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) Bragg grating sensor system for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and relative humidity (RH) has been developed and characterized. The sensing head is based on two in-line fiber Bragg gratings recorded in a mPOF. The sensor system has a root...

  20. Temperature dependence of the infrared optical constants of germanium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dandan, E-mail: ldd6162@163.com; Liu, Huasong; Jiang, Chenghui; Leng, Jian; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhao, Zhihong; Zhuang, Kewen; Jiang, Yugang; Ji, Yiqin

    2015-10-01

    High-temperature transmittance spectrum of germanium films was obtained by a Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy with a high-temperature accessory. The optical constants were determined by transmittance spectrum fitting with a Gaussian oscillator as the dispersion model. The analysis results showed that both the refractive index and extinction coefficient increased with the increasing temperature. The square of the refractive index increased linearly with the increasing temperature. The higher the temperature was, the faster the absorption coefficient increased. The germanium films were deposited on chemical vapor deposition ZnS substrates by ion-beam-assisted deposition. The region of temperature was between room temperature and 773 K, and the analysis spectrum was between 2000 nm and 5000 nm. - Highlights: • Temperature dependence of transmittance spectrum of Germanium films • Temperature properties of refractive index of Germanium films • Temperature properties of absorption coefficient of Germanium films.

  1. An optical fiber expendable seawater temperature/depth profile sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Chen, Shizhe; Zhang, Keke; Yan, Xingkui; Yang, Xianglong; Bai, Xuejiao; Liu, Shixuan

    2017-10-01

    Marine expendable temperature/depth profiler (XBT) is a disposable measuring instrument which can obtain temperature/depth profile data quickly in large area waters and mainly used for marine surveys, scientific research, military application. The temperature measuring device is a thermistor in the conventional XBT probe (CXBT)and the depth data is only a calculated value by speed and time depth calculation formula which is not an accurate measurement result. Firstly, an optical fiber expendable temperature/depth sensor based on the FBG-LPG cascaded structure is proposed to solve the problems of the CXBT, namely the use of LPG and FBG were used to detect the water temperature and depth, respectively. Secondly, the fiber end reflective mirror is used to simplify optical cascade structure and optimize the system performance. Finally, the optical path is designed and optimized using the reflective optical fiber end mirror. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of temperature and depth sensing based on FBG-LPG cascade structure is about 0.0030C and 0.1%F.S. respectively, which can meet the requirements of the sea water temperature/depth observation. The reflectivity of reflection mirror is in the range from 48.8% to 72.5%, the resonant peak of FBG and LPG are reasonable and the whole spectrum are suitable for demodulation. Through research on the optical fiber XBT (FXBT), the direct measurement of deep-sea temperature/depth profile data can be obtained simultaneously, quickly and accurately. The FXBT is a new all-optical seawater temperature/depth sensor, which has important academic value and broad application prospect and is expected to replace the CXBT in the future.

  2. Measurement of peak temperature along an optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A multimode silica-clad optical fiber with a liquid silicone core was used as a distributed-line peak-temperature sensor over a temperature range from ambient to 190 0 C. The maximum error was 2 0 C and was essentially independent of the length or position of the hot zone

  3. Effect of oxidation and annealing temperature on optical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Tin oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrate with 100 nm thickness of Sn, which was coated by magnetron sputtering followed by thermal oxidation at different temperatures. The effect of oxidation temperature on the optical and structural properties of SnO2 films were investigated. Higher transmittance ...

  4. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Miguel-Soto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG, and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  5. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Soto, Veronica; Leandro, Daniel; Lopez-Aldaba, Aitor; Beato-López, Juan Jesus; Pérez-Landazábal, José Ignacio; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Jamier, Raphael; Roy, Philippe; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2017-11-30

    In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  6. Fiber-Optic Pyrometer with Optically Powered Switch for Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmen; Pérez-Prieto, Sandra; López-Cardona, Juan D; Tapetado, Alberto; Blanco, Enrique; Moreno-López, Jorge; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C

    2018-02-06

    We report the experimental results on a new infrared fiber-optic pyrometer for very localized and high-speed temperature measurements ranging from 170 to 530 °C using low-noise photodetectors and high-gain transimpedance amplifiers with a single gain mode in the whole temperature range. We also report a shutter based on an optical fiber switch which is optically powered to provide a reference signal in an optical fiber pyrometer measuring from 200 to 550 °C. The tests show the potential of remotely powering via optical means a 300 mW power-hungry optical switch at a distance of 100 m, avoiding any electromagnetic interference close to the measuring point.

  7. Fiber-Optic Pyrometer with Optically Powered Switch for Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Vázquez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental results on a new infrared fiber-optic pyrometer for very localized and high-speed temperature measurements ranging from 170 to 530 °C using low-noise photodetectors and high-gain transimpedance amplifiers with a single gain mode in the whole temperature range. We also report a shutter based on an optical fiber switch which is optically powered to provide a reference signal in an optical fiber pyrometer measuring from 200 to 550 °C. The tests show the potential of remotely powering via optical means a 300 mW power-hungry optical switch at a distance of 100 m, avoiding any electromagnetic interference close to the measuring point.

  8. Optical characterization in annatto and commercial colorific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Vanessa M; Pilla, Viviane; Alves, Leandro P; Oliveira, Hueder P M; Munin, Egberto

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the synthetic dyes (as erythrosine, ponceau and tartrazina) and natural colourants (as annatto, paprika, curcuma and anthocyanin) are indispensable in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics applications. However, the use of natural colourant has been considered safer for human consumption then synthetic dye. For practical applications of the coloring, optical properties are important for the understanding of the characteristics of them. In this work, we presented the absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic characterizations of annatto extracts obtained from the seeds of the tropical shrub Bixa orellana L. solutions and commercial colourant. The measurements were performed in annatto extracts with acetone and chloroform in different concentrations range (3.5-52.5) μg/mL. The main carotenoids detected in annatto seeds is bixin. The numerical calculus of the absorbance spectra for cis- and trans-bixin conformation is presented. In addition, for commercial colourant, the measurements were performed for six different brands and five lots each one. Modifications in the shape of the colorific fluorescence spectra were observed and it can be an indicative of differences in the industrial methods applied for obtaining annatto pigments powders and/or the possibility of the presence of other impurities added in the commercial powders.

  9. Use of Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology to Characterize Fire Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Cram

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of a fiber optic cable connected to distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology to withstand wildland fire conditions and quantify fire behavior parameters. We used a custom-made ‘fire cable’ consisting of three optical fibers coated with three different materials—acrylate, copper and polyimide. The 150-m cable was deployed in grasslands and burned in three prescribed fires. The DTS system recorded fire cable output every three seconds and integrated temperatures every 50.6 cm. Results indicated the fire cable was physically capable of withstanding repeated rugged use. Fiber coating materials withstood temperatures up to 422 °C. Changes in fiber attenuation following fire were near zero (−0.81 to 0.12 dB/km indicating essentially no change in light gain or loss as a function of distance or fire intensity over the length of the fire cable. Results indicated fire cable and DTS technology have potential to quantify fire environment parameters such as heat duration and rate of spread but additional experimentation and analysis are required to determine efficacy and response times. This study adds understanding of DTS and fire cable technology as a potential new method for characterizing fire behavior parameters at greater temporal and spatial scales.

  10. Simple Room Temperature Method for Polymer Optical Fibre Cleaving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Rodriguez, David; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a new method to cleave polymer optical fibre. The most common way to cut a polymer optical fibre is chopping it with a razor blade; however, in this approach both the fibre and the blade must be preheated in order to turn the material ductile, and thus, prevent crazing....... In this paper, we make use of the temperature-time equivalence in polymers to replace the use of heating by an increase of the cleaving time and use a sawing motion to reduce fibre end face damage. In this way, the polymer fibre can be cleaved at room temperature in seconds with the resulting end face being...

  11. A sensitive optical pyrometer for shock-temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    A new optical system was used to determine temperatures above 2400 K in shocked materials by measuring the spectral radiance of sub-microsecond pulses of light emitted from initially transparent solid samples in the visible and near infrared (450 to 900 nm). The high sensitivity of this optical pyrometer is attributed to the small number of channels, large aperture (0.03 steradian), the large bandwidth per channel (40 nm), and large photodiode detection area (0.2 sq cm). Improved calibration techniques reduce systematic errors encountered in previous shock-temperature experiments.

  12. Progress in nano-electro optics characterization of nano-optical materials and optical near-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2005-01-01

    This volume focuses on the characterization of nano-optical materials and optical-near field interactions. It begins with the techniques for characterizing the magneto-optical Kerr effect and continues with methods to determine structural and optical properties in high-quality quantum wires with high spatial uniformity. Further topics include: near-field luminescence mapping in InGaN/GaN single quantum well structures in order to interpret the recombination mechanism in InGaN-based nano-structures; and theoretical treatment of the optical near field and optical near-field interactions, providing the basis for investigating the signal transport and associated dissipation in nano-optical devices. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  13. NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

    2004-12-01

    Accomplishments during the Phase I of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. A matrix of potential fiber optic sensor approaches was derived, and a data set of specifications for high-temperature optical fiber was produced. Several fiber optic sensor configurations, including interferometric (extrinsic and intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer), gratings (fiber Bragg gratings and long period gratings), and microbend sensors, were evaluated in the laboratory. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers. Numerical aperture measurements of both clad and unclad sapphire fibers were obtained and used to estimate the reduction in mode volume afforded by the cladding. High-temperature sensors based on sapphire fibers were also investigated. The fabrication of an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity within sapphire fibers was attempted by the bulk diffusion of magnesium oxide into short localized segments of longer sapphire fibers. Fourier analysis of the fringes that resulted when the treated fiber was interrogated by a swept laser spectrometer suggested that an intrinsic cavity had been formed in the fiber. Also

  14. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  15. Synthesis and optical characterization of copper nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hence, copper (Cu) colloidal NPs were prepared using laser ablation (Nd:YAG, ... Copper nanoparticles; optical property; LSPR, laser ablation. 1. Introduction. Among all nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) are of great interest because of their optical, structural, ... useful for applications in a wide range of fields like can-.

  16. Optical characterication of probes for photon scanning tunnelling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Brian; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    The photon scanning tunnelling microscope is a well-established member of the family of scanning near-field optical microscopes used for optical imaging at the sub-wavelength scale. The quality of the probes, typically pointed uncoated optical fibres, used is however difficult to evaluate...... in a direct manner and has most often been inferred from the apparent quality of recorded optical images. Complicated near-field optical imaging characteristics, together with the possibility of topographically induced artefacts, however, has increased demands for a more reliable probe characterization...... technique. Here we present experimental results obtained for optical characterization of two different probes by imaging of a well-specified near-field intensity distribution at various spatial frequencies. In particular, we observe that a sharply pointed dielectric probe can be highly suitable for imaging...

  17. Study on a transient optical fiber high temperature measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lulu; Liu, Yusha; Wang, Yutian

    2009-07-01

    High temperature is one of the most important parameters in the fields of scientific research and industrial production. At present, thermocouple, thermo resistive and radiance thermometer are already technologically mature which can be adopted to measure the general temperature, but when it comes to the transient high temperature that changes pretty quickly in wretched conditions, those traditional pyrometers can not meet the requirements any more. In this paper, we designed a transient optical high temperature measurement system. First, design of the temperature measurement probe. The system took blackbody cavity sensor together with optical fiber to receive the measured signal, here, the integrated emissivity model of the blackbody cavity was established and the optimum structure parameters were confirmed. Secondly, design of the entire temperature measurement system. A contact-noncontact measurement method was applied, which is to make the blackbody cavity and the measured high-temperature source contact, the fiber probe and the blackbody cavity noncontact, as a result, the error caused by contact measurement is overcame and the precision is guaranteed at the same time. In addition, a fiber grating was introduced as the wavelength filter device which can realize the dynamic filter of narrow-band signals and reduce the impact of background light. Thirdly, signal processing. In this part, we applied labVIEW software and wavelet analysis method. All of the signal acquisition and processing were realized in the labVIEW environment. Through calling matlab in labVIEW, the signals from optical fiber detector were wavelet denoised and decomposed, thus the temperature information was extracted, and the temperature value was obtained. On basis of wavelet transformation, the paper adopted the 4dB wavelet with horizontal scale of 5 to realize the feature extraction and noise removal, parts of the signals before and after the wavelet noise removal were given and analyzed

  18. Fiber-Optic Surface Temperature Sensor Based on Modal Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Musin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-integrated surface temperature sensing is highly useful when it comes to controlling processes, detecting hazardous conditions or monitoring the health and safety of equipment and people. Fiber-optic sensing based on modal interference has shown great sensitivity to temperature variation, by means of cost-effective image-processing of few-mode interference patterns. New developments in the field of sensor configuration, as described in this paper, include an innovative cooling and heating phase discrimination functionality and more precise measurements, based entirely on the image processing of interference patterns. The proposed technique was applied to the measurement of the integrated surface temperature of a hollow cylinder and compared with a conventional measurement system, consisting of an infrared camera and precision temperature probe. As a result, the optical technique is in line with the reference system. Compared with conventional surface temperature probes, the optical technique has the following advantages: low heat capacity temperature measurement errors, easier spatial deployment, and replacement of multiple angle infrared camera shooting and the continuous monitoring of surfaces that are not visually accessible.

  19. Effects of reaction temperature on size and optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Effects of reaction temperature on size and optical properties of. CdSe nanocrystals. SHUTANG CHEN, XIAOLING ZHANG*, YANBING ZHAO and QIUHUA ZHANG. Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P.R. China. MS received 15 March 2009; revised 6 July 2009.

  20. Soil temperature variability in complex terrain measured using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes but magnitude and nature of Ts variability in a landscape setting are rarely documented. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing systems (FO-DTS) potentially measure Ts at high density over a large extent. ...

  1. Interferometric characterization of joint optical tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-Garcia, S. C.; Medina-Lopez, R. J.; Anderson, S.; Carriles, R.; Ruiz-Marquez, A.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2011-08-01

    We present a straight forward and practical method for joining pneumatically floated optical tables with no previous preparation. In order to demonstrate this method we joined two optical tables in an uncentered "T-shape" using twenty four stainless steel plates (SSP), and used a Michelson interferometer to compare the stability of the entire "T"-structure versus one of its parts alone, finding that they both show similar rigidity. We also evaluated the performance of two different master-salve leg configurations by calculating the stress on the joint and confirmed the calculations by Michelson interferometry. In terms of floor vibration damping, it was observed that the performance of the system for the joined "T"-table seemed to be comparable to that of a single segment. This method can significantly reduce costs of large optical tables and will be useful to extend existing optical tables without manufacturer modification.

  2. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell

    2005-10-31

    Development of practical, high-temperature optical claddings for improved waveguiding in sapphire fibers continued during the reporting period. A set of designed experiments using the Taguchi method was undertaken to efficiently determine the optimal set of processing variables to yield clad fibers with good optical and mechanical properties. Eighteen samples of sapphire fibers were prepared with spinel claddings, each with a unique set of variables. Statistical analyses of the results were then used to predict the set of factors that would result in a spinel cladding with the optimal geometrical, mechanical, and optical properties. To confirm the predictions of the Taguchi analysis, sapphire fibers were clad with the magnesium aluminate spinel coating using the predicted optimal set of factors. In general, the clad fibers demonstrated high quality, exceeding the best results obtained during the Phase I effort. Tests of the high-temperature stability of the clad fibers were also conducted. The results indicated that the clad fibers were stable at temperatures up to 1300 C for the duration of the three day test. At the higher temperatures, some changes in the geometry of the fibers were observed. The design, fabrication, and testing of a sapphire sensor for measurement of temperature was undertaken. The specific sensor configuration uses a polished sapphire wafer as the temperature-sensitive element. The wafer is attached to a sapphire fiber (clad or unclad), and interrogated as a Fabry-Perot sensor. Methods for assembling the sensor were investigated. A prototype sensor was fabricated and tested at room temperature and elevated temperatures. Results were difficult to interpret, due to the presence of modal noise which was found to result from the use of a spectrometer that was not designed for use with multimode fibers. A spectrometer optimized for use of multimode fiber has been obtained, and further evaluation of the sapphire temperature sensor is continuing.

  3. Measuring gas temperature during spin-exchange optical pumping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, E.; Jiang, C. Y.; Brown, D. R.; Robertson, L.; Crow, L.; Tong, X.

    2016-04-01

    The gas temperature inside a Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) laser-pumping polarized 3He cell has long been a mystery. Different experimental methods were employed to measure this temperature but all were based on either modelling or indirect measurement. To date there has not been any direct experimental measurement of this quantity. Here we present the first direct measurement using neutron transmission to accurately determine the number density of 3He, the temperature is obtained using the ideal gas law. Our result showed a surprisingly high gas temperature of 380°C, compared to the 245°C of the 3He cell wall temperature and 178°C of the optical pumping oven temperature. This experiment result may be used to further investigate the unsolved puzzle of the "X-factor" in the SEOP process which places an upper bound to the 3He polarization that can be achieved. Additional spin relaxation mechanisms might exist due to the high gas temperature, which could explain the origin of the X-factor.

  4. Characterization of a cone beam optical scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, P B; Thomas, H M

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiochromic FX gel for mapping 3D dose distribution is hampered by the diffusion of gel and the slow scanning techniques. The development of fast optical cone beam scanning has improved the chances of using radiochromic gel as a feasible dosimeter for radiotherapy applications. In this work an optical cone beam scanner has been developed in-house and its performance characteristics have been studied. The reconstructed image of the optical scanner was analyzed by studying the resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). The resolution of the optical cone beam CT scanner was studied by scanning a catheter of 1 mm outer diameter and the scanner was able to detect the catheter. The geometrical accuracy of the reconstruction was studied by placing catheters in spiral geometry in the gel phantom and measuring the distances. It has been observed that the in-house Optical Cone beam scanner is suitable for scanning radiochromic gels for radiotherapy applications.

  5. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J E; Marrese-Reading, C M; Thornber, B; Dang, L; Johnson, L K; Katz, I

    2007-09-01

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  6. Experimental Characterization of Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Katie; Yang, Chuan; Liu, Zhiwen

    2009-10-01

    An optical system based on a half-wave plate-polarizer attenuator was designed to determine the transmitted light through materials that behave nonlinearly in the presence of high-energy picosecond laser pulses. The sample's nonlinear absorbance of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was measured as the energy of the incident light was regulated by the rotation of a half-wave plate. The optical system was used to measure the absorption of two linear samples as well as a nonlinear liquid crystal. Experimental results revealed that the optical material, which was composed of gold nanospheres in the nonlinear liquid L34, behaved as expected in the presence of lower input energies, but the attenuated beam did not reach a high enough energy to observe the full limiting effects of the nonlinear material.

  7. Noncontact measurement of high temperature using optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, R. O.

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of this research program was the investigation and application of noncontact temperature measurement techniques using optical techniques and optical fiber methods. In particular, a pyrometer utilizing an infrared optical light pipe and a multiwavelength filtering approach was designed, revised, and tested. This work was motivated by the need to measure the temperatures of small metallic pellets (approximately 3 mm diameter) in free fall at the Microgravity Materials Processing Drop Tube at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. In addition, research under this program investigated the adaptation of holography technology to optical fiber sensors, and also examined the use of rare-earth dopants in optical fibers for use in measuring temperature. The pyrometer development effort involved both theoretical analysis and experimental tests. For the analysis, a mathematical model based on radiative transfer principles was derived. Key parameter values representative of the drop tube system, such as particle size, tube diameter and length, and particle temperature, were used to determine an estimate of the radiant flux that will be incident on the face of an optical fiber or light pipe used to collect radiation from the incandescent falling particle. An extension of this work examined the advantage of inclining or tilting the collecting fiber to increase the time that the falling particle remains in the fiber field-of-view. Those results indicate that increases in total power collected of about 15 percent may be realized by tilting the fiber. In order to determine the suitability of alternative light pipes and optical fibers, and experimental set-up for measuring the transmittance and insertion loss of infrared fibers considered for use in the pyrometer was assembled. A zirconium fluoride optical fiber and several bundles of hollow core fiber of varying diameters were tested. A prototype two-color pyrometer was assembled and tested at Virginia Tech, and then

  8. Qualification of Fiber Optic Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Lindensmith, Christian A.; Roberts, William T.; Rainen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Means have been developed for enabling fiber optic cables of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer instrument to survive ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian conditions that include Martian summer and winter seasons. The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the rover external fiber optic cabling of ChemCam for space applications under the extreme thermal environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Flight-representative fiber optic cables were subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling of the same diurnal depth (or delta T) as expected in flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. The survivability of fiber optic cables was tested for 600 cumulative thermal cycles from -130 to +15 C to cover the winter season, and another 1,410 cumulative cycles from -105 to +40 C to cover the summer season. This test satisfies the required 3 times the design margin that is a total of 2,010 thermal cycles (670 x 3). This development test included functional optical transmission tests during the course of the test. Transmission of the fiber optic cables was performed prior to and after 1,288 thermal cycles and 2,010 thermal cycles. No significant changes in transmission were observed on either of the two representative fiber cables subject through the 3X MSL mission life that is 2,010 thermal cycles.

  9. LISA telescope assembly optical stability characterization for ESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaan, A. L.; Hogenhuis, H.; Pijnenburg, J.; Lemmen, M.; Lucarelli, S.; Scheulen, D.; Ende, David

    2017-11-01

    The LISA Optical Stability Characterization project is part of the LISA CTP activities to achieve the required Technology Readiness Level (TRL) for all of the LISA technologies used. This activity aims demonstration of the Telescope Assembly (TA), with a structure based on CFRP technology, that a CTE of 10-7 1/K can be achieved with measures to tune the CTE to this level. In addition the demonstration is required to prove that the structure exhibits highly predictable mechanical distortion characteristics when cooling down to - 90°C, during outgassing in space and when going from 1g environment to 0g. This paper describes the test facilities as well as the first test results. A dedicated test setup is designed and realized to allow monitoring dimensional variations of the TA using three interferometers, while varying the temperature in a thermal vacuum chamber. Critical parameters of the verification setup are the length metrology accuracy in thermal vacuum and the thermal vacuum flexibility and stability. The test programme includes Telescope Assembly CTE measurements and thermal gradient characterization.

  10. Recent Improvement of Medical Optical Fibre Pressure and Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Poeggel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS. The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer (EFPI with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated exclusively in glass and with a small diameter of 0.2 mm, making it suitable for volume-restricted bio-medical applications. Diaphragm shrinking techniques based on polishing, hydrofluoric (HF acid and femtosecond (FS laser micro-machining are described and analysed. The presented sensors were examined carefully and demonstrated a pressure sensitivity in the range of \\(s_p\\ = 2–10 \\(\\frac{\\text{nm}}{\\text{kPa}}\\ and a resolution of better than \\(\\Delta P\\ = 10 Pa protect (0.1 cm H\\(_2\\O. A static pressure test in 38 cmH\\(_2\\O shows no drift of the sensor in a six-day period. Additionally, a dynamic pressure analysis demonstrated that the OFPTS never exceeded a drift of more than 130 Pa (1.3 cm H\\(_2\\O in a 12-h measurement, carried out in a cardiovascular simulator. The temperature sensitivity is given by \\(k=10.7\\ \\(\\frac{\\text{pm}}{\\text{K}}\\, which results in a temperature resolution of better than \\(\\Delta T\\ = 0.1 K. Since the temperature sensing element is placed close to the pressure sensing element, the pressure sensor is insensitive to temperature changes.

  11. Recent Improvement of Medical Optical Fibre Pressure and Temperature Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeggel, Sven; Duraibabu, Dineshbabu; Kalli, Kyriacos; Leen, Gabriel; Dooly, Gerard; Lewis, Elfed; Kelly, Jimmy; Munroe, Maria

    2015-07-13

    This investigation describes a detailed analysis of the fabrication and testing of optical fibre pressure and temperature sensors (OFPTS). The optical sensor of this research is based on an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) with integrated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements. The sensor is fabricated exclusively in glass and with a small diameter of 0.2 mm, making it suitable for volume-restricted bio-medical applications. Diaphragm shrinking techniques based on polishing, hydrofluoric (HF) acid and femtosecond (FS) laser micro-machining are described and analysed. The presented sensors were examined carefully and demonstrated a pressure sensitivity in the range of sp = 2-10 nm/kPa and a resolution of better than ΔP = 10 Pa protect (0.1 cm H2O). A static pressure test in 38 cm H2O shows no drift of the sensor in a six-day period. Additionally, a dynamic pressure analysis demonstrated that the OFPTS never exceeded a drift of more than 130 Pa (1.3 cm H2O) in a 12-h measurement, carried out in a cardiovascular simulator. The temperature sensitivity is given by k = 10.7 pm/K, which results in a temperature resolution of better than ΔT = 0.1 K. Since the temperature sensing element is placed close to the pressure sensing element, the pressure sensor is insensitive to temperature changes.

  12. Performance characterization of silicon pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collon, M. J.; Kraft, S.; Günther, R.; Maddox, E.; Beijersbergen, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D.; Wallace, K.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Freyberg, M.

    2006-06-01

    The characteristics of the latest generation of assembled silicon pore X-ray optics are discussed in this paper. These very light, stiff and modular high performance pore optics (HPO) have been developed [1] for the next generation of astronomical X-ray telescopes, which require large collecting areas whilst achieving angular resolutions better than 5 arcseconds. The suitability of 12 inch silicon wafers as high quality optical mirrors and the automated assembly process are discussed elsewhere in this conference. HPOs with several tens of ribbed silicon plates are assembled by bending the plates into an accurate cylindrical shape and directly bonding them on top of each other. The achievable figure accuracy is measured during assembly and in test campaigns at X-ray testing facilities like BESSY-II and PANTER. Pencil beam measurements allow gaining information on the quality achieved by the production process with high spatial resolution. In combination with full beam illumination a complete picture of the excellent performance of these optics can be derived. Experimental results are presented and discussed in detail. The results of such campaigns are used to further improve the production process in order to match the challenging XEUS requirements [2] for imaging resolution and mass.

  13. Broadband optical characterization of material properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann

    the applicability of optical techniques for this purpose, the fermentation of milk into yogurt has been used as a model system. Studies have been conducted on commercially available products, but also of on-line measurement of the fermentation process. The second process is from the aquaculture industry...

  14. Development, characterization, sintering, dielectric and optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron microscopy results indicated that the particle sizes are 20–30 nm. Selected area electron diffraction pattern has shown that as-prepared powder is polycrystalline in nature. The optical absorption spectra analysis confirmed that the material falls to the semiconducting range with a bandgap of ∼3·69 eV and therefore ...

  15. Optical Coherence Tomography for Material Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, contactless and high resolution imaging method, which allows the reconstruction of two or three dimensional depth-resolved images in turbid media. In the past 20 years, OCT has been extensively developed in the field of biomedical diagnostics,

  16. Synthesis and optical characterization of copper nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cer treatment, photonics, information technology, materials science, etc. [4]. From a general point of view, Cu NPs are finding many usages in nanocircuits, nanoelectronics, nanodevices, plas- monic, optics, nanosensors, etc. [5,6]. In particular, copper NPs possess photo-sensitivity and electrical conductivity, which makes ...

  17. Accurate mode characterization of two-mode optical fibers by in-fiber acousto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcusa-Sáez, E; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-03-07

    Acousto-optic interaction in optical fibers is exploited for the accurate and broadband characterization of two-mode optical fibers. Coupling between LP 01 and LP 1m modes is produced in a broadband wavelength range. Difference in effective indices, group indices, and chromatic dispersions between the guided modes, are obtained from experimental measurements. Additionally, we show that the technique is suitable to investigate the fine modes structure of LP modes, and some other intriguing features related with modes' cut-off.

  18. Effect of soil temperature on optical frequency transfer through unidirectional dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber-optic links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkert, T.J.; Boll, O.; Willmann, L.; Jansen, G.S.M.; Dijck, E.A.; Groeneveld, B.G.H.M.; Smets, R.; Bosveld, F.C.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Jungmann, K.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Koelemeij, J.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Results of optical frequency transfer over a carrier-grade dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber network are presented. The relation between soil temperature changes on a buried optical fiber and frequency changes of an optical carrier through the fiber is modeled. Soil

  19. Effect of soil temperature on optical frequency transfer through unidirectional dense-wavelength-divisionmultiplexing fiber-optic links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkert, T.J.; Böll, O.; Willmann, Lorenz; Jansen, G.S.M.; Dijck, E.A.; Groeneveld, B.G.H.M.; Smets, R.; Bosveld, F.C.; Ubachs, W.; Jungmann, K.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Koelemeij, J.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Results of optical frequency transfer over a carrier-grade dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber network are presented. The relation between soil temperature changes on a buried optical fiber and frequency changes of an optical carrier through the fiber is modeled. Soil

  20. MTF measurement of IR optics in different temperature ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Alexander; Duncker, Hannes; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    Infrared (IR) optical systems are at the core of many military, civilian and manufacturing applications and perform mission critical functions. To reliably fulfill the demanding requirements imposed on today's high performance IR optics, highly accurate, reproducible and fast lens testing is of crucial importance. Testing the optical performance within different temperature ranges becomes key in many military applications. Due to highly complex IR-Applications in the fields of aerospace, military and automotive industries, MTF Measurement under realistic environmental conditions become more and more relevant. A Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) test bench with an integrated thermal chamber allows measuring several sample sizes in a temperature range from -40 °C to +120°C. To reach reliable measurement results under these difficult conditions, a specially developed temperature stable design including an insulating vacuum are used. The main function of this instrument is the measurement of the MTF both on- and off-axis at up to +/-70° field angle, as well as measurement of effective focal length, flange focal length and distortion. The vertical configuration of the system guarantees a small overall footprint. By integrating a high-resolution IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) in the detection unit, time consuming measurement procedures such as scanning slit with liquid nitrogen cooled detectors can be avoided. The specified absolute accuracy of +/- 3% MTF is validated using internationally traceable reference optics. Together with a complete and intuitive software solution, this makes the instrument a turn-key device for today's state-of- the-art optical testing.

  1. Optical Fibre Temperature Sensor Based On A Blackbody Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypszer, Ryszard; Plucinski, Jerzy; Wierzba, Henryk J.

    1990-01-01

    The principle of operation of the fibre optical temperature sensor based on a blackbody radiation and its construction model is given in the paper. A quartz rod of 0.6 mm diameter and 20 cm length with a blackbody cavity at the one end was used to construct the sensor. The cavity was made by vacuum evaporation of a chromium layer and a silicone monooxide layer was used as a protection. Infrared radiation is transmitted by the fibre optic to the detection circuit. This sensor enables temperature measurement from 400 to 1200°C. The range of measurement is determined by the detection sensitivity and by rod softening. The resolution is of the order of 10-2°C. The sensor calibration was done by using PtRh1O-Pt thermocouple.

  2. Tiny optical fiber temperature sensor based on temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qiang; Song, Zhangqi; Song, Dongyu; Zhang, Xueliang; Li, Bingsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yuzhong

    2018-03-01

    The temperature-dependent refractive index of zinc telluride film can be used to develop a tiny, low cost and film-coated optical fiber temperature sensor. Pulse reference-based compensation technique is used to largely reduce the background noise which makes it possible to detect the minor reflectivity change of the film in different temperatures. The temperature sensitivity is 0.0034dB/° and the background noise is measured to be 0.0005dB, so the resolution can achieve 0.2°.

  3. Extreme temperature sensing using brillouin scattering in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Fellay, Alexandre

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in silica-based optical fibers may be considered from two different and complementary standpoints. For a physicist, this interaction of light and pressure wave in a material, or equivalently in quantum theory terms between photons and phonons, gives some glimpses of the atomic structure of the solid and of its vibration modes. For an applied engineer, the same phenomenon may be put to good use as a sensing mechanism for distributed measurements, thanks to the dependence of the scattered light on external parameters such as the temperature, the pressure or the strain applied to the fiber. As far as temperature measurements are concerned, Brillouin-based distributed sensors have progressively gained wide recognition as efficient systems, even if their rather high cost still restricts the number of their applications. Yet they are generally used in a relatively narrow temperature range around the usual ambient temperature; in this domain, the frequency of the scattered light incre...

  4. Optical characterization of epitaxial semiconductor layers

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosive development in the growth of expitaxial layers and structures with atomic-scale dimensions. This progress has created new demands for the characterization of those stuctures. Various methods have been refined and new ones developed with the main emphasis on non-destructive in-situ characterization. Among those, methods which rely on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter are particularly valuable. In this book standard methods such as far-infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, Raman scattering, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction are presented, as well as new advanced techniques which provide the potential for better in-situ characterization of epitaxial structures (such as reflection anistropy spectroscopy, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, second-harmonic generation, and others). This volume is intended for researchers working at universities or in industry, as well as for graduate students who are interested in the characterization of ...

  5. Constitutive Behavior and Damage Characterization of High Temperature Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the constitutive behavior, physical aging, damage mechanisms and damage development in high temperature polymer matrix composites under various...

  6. Development of a 2-Channel Embedded Infrared Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using Silver Halide Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsoo Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2-channel embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor was fabricated using two identical silver halide optical fibers for accurate thermometry without complicated calibration processes. In this study, we measured the output voltages of signal and reference probes according to temperature variation over a temperature range from 25 to 225 °C. To decide the temperature of the water, the difference between the amounts of infrared radiation emitted from the two temperature sensing probes was measured. The response time and the reproducibility of the fiber-optic temperature sensor were also obtained. Thermometry with the proposed sensor is immune to changes if parameters such as offset voltage, ambient temperature, and emissivity of any warm object. In particular, the temperature sensing probe with silver halide optical fibers can withstand a high temperature/pressure and water-chemistry environment. It is expected that the proposed sensor can be further developed to accurately monitor temperature in harsh environments.

  7. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanto, D.; Ula, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor.

  8. Temperature Sensitivity of an Atomic Vapor Cell-Based Dispersion-Enhanced Optical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, K.; Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.; Luckay, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the response of an optical cavity to a change in optical path length, through the use of an intracavity fast-light medium, has previously been demonstrated experimentally and described theoretically for an atomic vapor cell as the intracavity resonant absorber. This phenomenon may be used to enhance both the scale factor and sensitivity of an optical cavity mode to the change in path length, e.g. in gyroscopic applications. We study the temperature sensitivity of the on-resonant scale factor enhancement, S(sub o), due to the thermal sensitivity of the lower-level atom density in an atomic vapor cell, specifically for the case of the Rb-87 D(sub 2) transition. A semi-empirical model of the temperature-dependence of the absorption profile, characterized by two parameters, a(sub o)(T) and gamma(sub a)(T) allows the temperature-dependence of the cavity response, S(sub o)(T) and dS(sub o)/dT to be predicted over a range of temperature. We compare the predictions to experiment. Our model will be useful in determining the useful range for S(sub o), given the practical constraints on temperature stability for an atomic vapor cell.

  9. Ultra-High Temperature Sensors Based on Optical Property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeel Riza

    2008-09-30

    In this program, Nuonics, Inc. has studied the fundamentals of a new Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials-based optical sensor technology suited for extreme environments of coal-fired engines in power production. The program explored how SiC could be used for sensing temperature, pressure, and potential gas species in a gas turbine environment. The program successfully demonstrated the optical designs, signal processing and experimental data for enabling both temperature and pressure sensing using SiC materials. The program via its sub-contractors also explored gas species sensing using SiC, in this case, no clear commercially deployable method was proven. Extensive temperature and pressure measurement data using the proposed SiC sensors was acquired to 1000 deg-C and 40 atms, respectively. Importantly, a first time packaged all-SiC probe design was successfully operated in a Siemens industrial turbine rig facility with the probe surviving the harsh chemical, pressure, and temperature environment during 28 days of test operations. The probe also survived a 1600 deg-C thermal shock test using an industrial flame.

  10. Fabrication, structural and optical characterizations of thermally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bi-layer of metallic Cu-Sn precursors was thermally evaporated sequentially on microscopic glass substrates at the controlled thickness of 100nm, 500nm and 1000nm and at different substrate temperatures of 270C, 1000C and 2000C. The bi-layer was subsequently sulphurized in a custom-built reactor for 1hour at ...

  11. Optical Metamaterials: Design, Characterization and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Artificially engineered metamaterials have emerged with properties and functionalities previously unattainable in natural materials. The scientific breakthroughs made in this new class of electromagnetic materials are closely linked with progress in developing physics-driven design, novel fabrication and characterization methods. The intricate…

  12. Optical Fiber Strain Instrumentation for High Temperature Aerospace Structural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the program is the development and laboratory demonstration of sensors based on silica optical fibers for measurement of high temperature strain for aerospace materials evaluations. A complete fiber strain sensor system based on white-light interferometry was designed and implemented. An experiment set-up was constructed to permit testing of strain measurement up to 850 C. The strain is created by bending an alumina cantilever beam to which is the fiber sensor is attached. The strain calibration is provided by the application of known beam deflections. To ensure the high temperature operation capability of the sensor, gold-coated single-mode fiber is used. Moreover, a new method of sensor surface attachment which permits accurate sensor gage length determination is also developed. Excellent results were obtained at temperatures up to 800-850 C.

  13. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, M. L., E-mail: reinkeml@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Han, M.; Liu, G. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Evenblij, R.; Haverdings, M. [Technobis, Pyrietstraat 2, 1812 SC Alkmaar (Netherlands); Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry–Pérot cavity when broadband light, λ{sub o} ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ∼150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m{sup 2} when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m{sup 2} in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m{sup 2} or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  14. Force-detected nanoscale absorption spectroscopy in water at room temperature using an optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parobek, Alexander; Black, Jacob W.; Kamenetska, Maria; Ganim, Ziad

    2018-04-01

    Measuring absorption spectra of single molecules presents a fundamental challenge for standard transmission-based instruments because of the inherently low signal relative to the large background of the excitation source. Here we demonstrate a new approach for performing absorption spectroscopy in solution using a force measurement to read out optical excitation at the nanoscale. The photoinduced force between model chromophores and an optically trapped gold nanoshell has been measured in water at room temperature. This photoinduced force is characterized as a function of wavelength to yield the force spectrum, which is shown to be correlated to the absorption spectrum for four model systems. The instrument constructed for these measurements combines an optical tweezer with frequency domain absorption spectroscopy over the 400-800 nm range. These measurements provide proof-of-principle experiments for force-detected nanoscale spectroscopies that operate under ambient chemical conditions.

  15. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  16. Synthesis and optical characterization of novel carbazole Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Baki; Çalışır, Ümit; Tavaslı, Mustafa; Tülek, Remziye; Teke, Ali

    2018-02-01

    In this study, newly substituted carbazole derivatives of S1; (Z)-4-((9-isobutyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylimino)methyl)phenol, S2; (Z)-9-butyl- N-(2,3,4-trimethoxybenzylidine)-9H-carbazol-3-amine, S3; (Z)-4-((9-octyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylimino)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol and S4; (Z)-3-((9-octyl-9H-carbazol-3-ylimino)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol compounds are synthesized by using condensation reaction between carbazole amines and aromatic aldehydes. All synthesized carbazole Schiff bases are purified by crystallizing from chloroform. The structural and optical characterizations of synthesized compounds are investigated by FT-IR (Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy), 1H NMR (Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 13C NMR (Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) and temperature dependent PL (Photoluminescence) measurements. The formations of synthesized Schiff bases were confirmed by FT-IR, NMR and microanalysis. Due to stronger π-conjugation and efficient charge transfer from host material, the broad and complex bands centered at about ∼2.16 and ∼1.76 eV are observed in PL spectra for all samples. Their relative intensities depend on functional groups associated with the carbazole. These newly synthesized Schiff bases could be considered as an active emissive layer for organic light emitting diodes.

  17. Effect of soil temperature on optical frequency transfer through unidirectional dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber-optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, T J; Böll, O; Willmann, L; Jansen, G S M; Dijck, E A; Groeneveld, B G H M; Smets, R; Bosveld, F C; Ubachs, W; Jungmann, K; Eikema, K S E; Koelemeij, J C J

    2015-02-01

    Results of optical frequency transfer over a carrier-grade dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber network are presented. The relation between soil temperature changes on a buried optical fiber and frequency changes of an optical carrier through the fiber is modeled. Soil temperatures, measured at various depths by the Royal Netherlands Meteorology Institute (KNMI) are compared with observed frequency variations through this model. A comparison of a nine-day record of optical frequency measurements through the 2×298  km fiber link with soil temperature data shows qualitative agreement. A soil temperature model is used to predict the link stability over longer periods (days-months-years). We show that optical frequency dissemination is sufficiently stable to distribute and compare, e.g., rubidium frequency standards over standard DWDM optical fiber networks using unidirectional fibers.

  18. Functional Characterization Of Positive Optical Resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Rao M.

    1986-07-01

    Photoproducts introduced for wet etching must now resolve one micron images, withstand reactive ion etching, ion milling, RF plasma and high dose ion implantation. Such resists should have necessary consistency to attain the required linewidth control for yield - productivity improvement. The performance characteristics of twelve major brands of Novolac - diazo positive photoresists were evaluated utilizing the following analytical techniques: Glass transition temperature of solids by differential scanning calorimetry yielded values in the range of 40-70°C. Thermo gravimetric analysis indi-cated solvent evaporation in these resists lie in the range of 120 - 145°C and onset of decomposition temperature of resists begin -250°C. Molecular weight distribution (or fingerprint) of these resists by Gel Permeation Chromatography in the G, H and I-line wavelength is investigated and polydispersity index which is a ratio of weight average molecular weight to number average molecular weight lie in the range of 3-4. These evaluated changes will be related to changes in processing parameters such as image stability at higher temperatures and outgassing in low pressure as a function of ther-mal history.

  19. Simultaneous interferometric measurement of linear coefficient of thermal expansion and temperature-dependent refractive index coefficient of optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, James A; Green, William E; Ellis, Jonathan D; Schmidt, Greg R; Moore, Duncan T

    2016-10-10

    Characterizing the thermal properties of optical materials is necessary for understanding how to design an optical system for changing environmental conditions. A method is presented for simultaneously measuring both the linear coefficient of thermal expansion and the temperature-dependent refractive index coefficient of a sample interferometrically in air. Both the design and fabrication of the interferometer is presented as well as a discussion of the results of measuring both a steel and a CaF2 sample.

  20. Design, tolerancing, and experimental characterization of dynamic freeform optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jason Allen

    Although freeform concepts have been considered for many decades, new fabrication capabilities have enabled new classes of optical components and sparked greatly increased interest in freeform optics. Generally defined as surfaces without rotational symmetry, freeform optics enable complex phase variations due to their asymmetry. One approach for freeform optics utilizes multiple freeform surfaces in close proximity. Light transmitted through these surfaces results in a composite wavefront, which is then dynamically changed through controlled relative motions of the freeform surfaces, thereby dynamically changing the overall optical function of the system. These 'dynamic freeform optics' offer advantages such as design miniaturization, decreased manufacturing costs, and optical design flexibility. Examples include the varifocal Alvarez lens and a variable diameter Gaussian to flat-top beam shaper. In these cases the output function is varied through relative lateral shifts. The analytical design procedures for these examples have been well documented in previous work. However, previous cases possess inherent design constraints. For example, the classic Alvarez lens has no optical power when the lateral shift is zero, and both examples are limited to rotationally symmetric output functions and lateral shifts along a single axis. A primary objective of this dissertation is to expand design procedures to overcome these constraints for creation of additional novel dynamic freeform optical systems. The optical performance of several example systems is characterized through experimental testing of diamond-machined freeform elements. Furthermore, as the advantages offered by freeform systems are realized, there remain unknowns regarding performance sensitivity to several potential errors such as opto-mechanical alignment, surface form accuracy, and surface finish quality. To this end, this dissertation also includes individual tolerance analyses on each of these error

  1. Temperature and microwave near field imaging by thermo-elastic optical indicator microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanju; Arakelyan, Shant; Friedman, Barry; Lee, Kiejin

    2016-12-01

    A high resolution imaging of the temperature and microwave near field can be a powerful tool for the non-destructive testing of materials and devices. However, it is presently a very challenging issue due to the lack of a practical measurement pathway. In this work, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a practical method resolving the issue by using a conventional CCD-based optical indicator microscope system. The present method utilizes the heat caused by an interaction between the material and an electromagnetic wave, and visualizes the heat source distribution from the measured photoelastic images. By using a slide glass coated by a metal thin film as the indicator, we obtain optically resolved temperature, electric, and magnetic microwave near field images selectively with a comparable sensitivity, response time, and bandwidth of existing methods. The present method provides a practical way to characterize the thermal and electromagnetic properties of materials and devices under various environments.

  2. "Simultaneous measurement of flame impingement and piston surface temperatures in an optically accessible spark ignition engine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Carl-Philipp; Honza, Rene; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    This paper shows the results of spatially resolved temperature measurements of the piston surface of an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine during flame impingement. High-speed thermographic phosphor thermometry (TPT), using Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce, and planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH-PLIF) were used to investigate the temperature increase and the time and position of flame impingement at the piston surface. Measurements were conducted at two operating cases and showed heating rates of up to 16,000 K/s. The OH-PLIF measurements were used to localize flame impingement and calculate conditioned statistics of the temperature profiles. The TPT coating was characterized and its influence on the temperature measurements evaluated.

  3. Temperature Measurement and Damage Detection in Concrete Beams Exposed to Fire Using PPP-BOTDA Based Fiber Optic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Hoehler, Matthew S; Smith, Christopher M; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda

    2017-10-01

    In this study, distributed fiber optic sensors based on pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA) are characterized and deployed to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete specimens exposed to fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9 %. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.

  4. Fiber-optical method of pyrometric measurement of melts temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, V. A.; Veprikova, Ya R.

    2018-01-01

    There is a scientific problem of non-contact measurement of the temperature of metal melts now. The problem is related to the need to achieve the specified measurement errors in conditions of uncertainty of the blackness coefficients of the radiating surfaces. The aim of this work is to substantiate the new method of measurement in which the influence of the blackness coefficient is eliminated. The task consisted in calculating the design and material of special crucible placed in the molten metal, which is an emitter in the form of blackbody (BB). The methods are based on the classical concepts of thermal radiation and calculations based on the Planck function. To solve the problem, the geometry of the crucible was calculated on the basis of the Goofy method which forms the emitter of a blackbody at the immersed in the melt. The paper describes the pyrometric device based on fiber optic pyrometer for temperature measurement of melts, which implements the proposed method of measurement using a special crucible. The emitter is formed by the melt in this crucible, the temperature within which is measured by means of fiber optic pyrometer. Based on the results of experimental studies, the radiation coefficient ε‧ > 0.999, which confirms the theoretical and computational justification is given in the article

  5. Production and Characterization of Polycarbonate Microstructured Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasano, Andrea; Woyessa, Getinet; Stajanca, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of a polycarbonate (PC) microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) and the writing of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in it to obtain a polymer optical FBG sen-sor. The manufacturing process of the PC mPOF consists of multiple consecutive stages...... and strain sensing. The PC optical fibers are for some applications an attractive alternative to conventional materials used in POF fabrication, such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). In general, PC can be used at temperature up to 120 °C and breaks at considerably higher strains than PMMA......., such as casting of pol-ymer granulates into a solid rod, machining and drilling of a 3-ring hexagonal lattice of holes into it, and finally drawing into fiber. We demonstrate that the obtained PC mPOF is photosensitive and FBGs can be conveniently inscribed into it, thereby enabling FBG-based temperature...

  6. Optical characterization and x-ray diffraction studies of synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lime and the resulting calcium chloride solution was reacted with dilute sulphuric acid. Calcinations were done at a constant o temperature of 120 C for a period of four hours. The choice of the production parameters was guided by the findings of previous studies. Optical absorption spectra of the samples were measured ...

  7. LISA telescope assembly optical stability characterization for ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, A.L.; Hogenhuis, H.; Pijnenburg, J.A.C.M.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Lucarelli, S.; Scheulen, D.; Ende, D.

    2012-01-01

    The LISA Optical Stability Characterization project is part of the LISA CTP activities to achieve the required Technonlogy Readiness Level (TRL) for all of the LISA technologies used. This activity aims demonstration of the Telescope Assembly (TA), with a structure based on CFRP technology, that a

  8. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  9. Porous silicon-VO{sub 2} based hybrids as possible optical temperature sensor: Wavelength-dependent optical switching from visible to near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunez, E. E.; Salazar-Kuri, U.; Estevez, J. O.; Basurto, M. A.; Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62209 (Mexico); Campos, J. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Jiménez Sandoval, S. [Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales, Centro de Investigación y estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2015-10-07

    Morphological properties of thermochromic VO{sub 2}—porous silicon based hybrids reveal the growth of well-crystalized nanometer-scale features of VO{sub 2} as compared with typical submicron granular structure obtained in thin films deposited on flat substrates. Structural characterization performed as a function of temperature via grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman demonstrate reversible semiconductor-metal transition of the hybrid, changing from a low-temperature monoclinic VO{sub 2}(M) to a high-temperature tetragonal rutile VO{sub 2}(R) crystalline structure, coupled with a decrease in phase transition temperature. Effective optical response studied in terms of red/blue shift of the reflectance spectra results in a wavelength-dependent optical switching with temperature. As compared to VO{sub 2} film over crystalline silicon substrate, the hybrid structure is found to demonstrate up to 3-fold increase in the change of reflectivity with temperature, an enlarged hysteresis loop and a wider operational window for its potential application as an optical temperature sensor. Such silicon based hybrids represent an exciting class of functional materials to display thermally triggered optical switching culminated by the characteristics of each of the constituent blocks as well as device compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology.

  10. Gas temperature measurement in CH4/CO2 dielectric-barrier discharges by optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Jorge; Kraus, Martin; Wokaun, Alexander; Haffner, Ken; Kogelschatz, Ulrich; Eliasson, Baldur

    2003-04-01

    The gas temperatures were determined by optical emission in a dielectric-barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. The feed gases were either pure CH4 to yield higher hydrocarbons or CH4/CO2 mixtures to yield synthesis gas (H2/CO). The monitored emission was from the CH radical A 2Δ-X 2Π electronic system and the gas temperature range characterized was from 300 to 600 K. The technique described in this article enables the measurement of the neutral gas temperature in the discharge that is not accessible via conventional methodology using thermocouples. A bimodal rotational population distribution in the CH A 2Δ v'=0 state was determined in the investigated gas mixtures of CO2/CH4 and in pure methane. Most of the rotational population was at temperatures from 300 to 600 K depending on experimental conditions, which are only slightly higher than the set temperature of the reactor. A small fraction of the emitting species was found to have a much higher rotational temperature of ˜4000 K for the pure methane gas and the mixture of CO2 and CH4. The low temperature rotational distribution correlated with changes in the ambient conditions and is used as a thermometer, while the high rotational temperature component and the vibrational temperature reflect the excess of energy during the CH radical formation by electron impact dissociative excitation of methane, and the extent of collisional relaxation before emission takes place.

  11. Laser remote heating in vacuum environment to study temperature dependence of optical properties for bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minissale, Marco; Bisson, Regis; Gallais, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    The knowledge of optical and thermal properties of materials at high temperatures is of crucial importance in the field of high power laser/material interactions. We report in this contribution on the development of a spectroscopic ellipsometry system dedicated to the measurement of optical properties of solid materials from the ambient to high temperatures (optic spectrometer to measure reflected light and optical pyrometers for temperature monitoring.

  12. Zeonex microstructured polymer optical fiber: fabrication friendly fibers for high temperature and humidity insensitive Bragg grating sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    In the quest of finding the ideal polymer optical fiber (POF) for Bragg grating sensing, we have fabricated and characterized an endlessly single mode microstructured POF (mPOF). This fiber is made from cyclo-olefin homopolymer Zeonex grade 480R which has a very high glass transition temperature...

  13. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  14. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charest Jr., Michael; Torres, Peter III; Silbernagel, Christopher; Kalantar, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information

  15. High temperature experimental characterization of microscale thermoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Tela

    temperature vacuum thermostats are designed and fabricated with optical imaging capability and interchangeable measurement stages for various electrical and thermoelectric characterizations. We demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of in-plane electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of thin-film or bulk thermoelectric materials. Furthermore, we utilize high-speed circuitry to implement the transient Harman technique and directly determine the cross-plane figure of merit of thin film thermoelectric materials at high temperatures. Transient measurements on thin film devices are subject to complications from the growth substrate, non-ideal contacts and other detrimental thermal and electrical effects. A strategy is presented for optimizing device geometry to mitigate the impact of these parasitics. This design enabled us to determine the cross-plane thermoelectric material properties in a single high temperature measurement of a 25mum InGaAs thin film with embedded ErAs (0.2%) nanoparticles using the bipolar transient Harman technique in conjunction with thermoreflectance thermal imaging. This approach eliminates discrepancies and potential device degradation from the multiple measurements necessary to obtain individual material parameters. Finite element method simulations are used to analyze non-uniform current and temperature distributions over the device area and determine the three dimensional current path for accurate extraction of material properties from the thermal images. Results match with independent measurements of thermoelectric material properties for the same material composition, validating this approach. We apply high magnification thermoreflectance imaging to create temperature maps of vanadium dioxide nanobeams and examine electro-thermal energy conversion along the nanobeam length. The metal to insulator transition of strongly correlated materials is subject to strong lattice coupling which brings about the unique one-dimensional alignment of

  16. Study for optimizing the design of optical temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panpan; Sun, Zhen; Shi, Ruixin; Liu, Guofeng; Fu, Zuoling; Wei, Yanling

    2017-12-01

    The correlations between temperature sensitivity (relative sensitivity Sr and absolute sensitivity Sa) and thermally coupled level gaps (ΔE) are vital but less-studied for potential applications in scientific research, industrial production, clinical medicine, and so on. We take YbPO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+) up-conversion phosphors as a case to study the relationships between temperature sensitivity (Sr, Sa) and ΔE. The results of various discussions, including the experimental data of temperature sensitivity based on YbPO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Tm3+, Ho3+, and Er3+) and theoretical derivation from original formulas, show that Sr and ΔE are linearly positive correlation, which is invalid for Sa. Noticeably, YbPO4:Tm3+ nanoparticles display intense near infrared red emission within the biological window, leading to great potential application in biological sensing and biological imaging. All the research studies would benefit the design of optical temperature sensing.

  17. Analysis and characterization of an optical fiber for Carrol-Water liquid pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basurto-Pensado, M.A.; Romero, R.J.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.J.; Dorantes-Romero, D.

    2011-01-01

    A system of energy recovery depends on the process operation conditions from which it receives the energy when a Carrol-Water pair is used. To improve the performance of the energy recovery system, the variables of temperature, pressure and concentration must be in balance. External sensors for temperature and pressure may be installed for all components. However, concentration is not determined online, and therefore an indirect method must be considered, such as optical transmittance correlation. Humidity contamination accounts for the hygroscopicity of Carrol water samples. The analysis of Carrol-Water optical characteristics is presented at multiple concentrations and temperatures, in which a transfer function involving absorbance and temperature is determined in order to define liquid pair concentration, as a function of actual temperature and signal intensity. This calculation provided the guideline to generate a control system that helps regulate thermal regimens. The characterization of this pair was made from temperature values ranging from 25 o C to 80 o C and mass concentration ranging from 51.79% to 66.2%. -- Highlights: → This paper shows a non invasive way for the Carrol-water concentration measurement. → The use of an optical technique using arbitrary units for a generalized transmittance method is proposed. → The in-line determination for concentration into an AHT (absorption heat transformer) allows to the operators lead to higher efficiencies. → Main advantage of the tested method is the simplification of the measured equipment required.

  18. Temperature measurement distributed on a building by fiber optic BOTDA sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Il Bum; Kim, Chi Yeop; Choi, Man Yong; Lee, Seung Seok

    2002-01-01

    We have focused on the development of a fiber optic BOTDA (Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis) sensor system in order to measure temperature distributed on large structures. Also, we present a feasibility study of the fiber optic sensor to monitor the distributed temperature on a building construction. A fiber optic BOTDA sensor system, which has a capability of measuring the temperature distribution, attempted over several kilometers of long fiber paths. This simple fiber optic sensor system employs a laser diode and two electro-optic modulators. The optical fiber of the length of 1400 m was installed on the surfaces of the building. The change of the distributed temperature on the building construction was well measured by this fiber optic sensor. The temperature changed normally up to 4 degrees C through one day.

  19. Effects of pH and calcination temperature on structural and optical properties of alumina nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsalari, A.; Farjami Shayesteh, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we describe the synthesis of alumina nanoparticles using a chemical wet method in at varying pH. The optimized prepared particles with pH equals to 9 were calcined at various temperatures. For characterization of structural and optical properties of nanoparticles had been used X-ray diffraction, Infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, field effect-scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results revealed that the nanoparticles calcined at 500 °C consist of an Al2O3 tetragonal structure and tetragonal distortion decreases with increasing calcination temperature up to 750 °C then increased with increasing temperature. Another phase similar to γ-Al2O3 was formed instead of δ-Al2O3 in the transition sequence from the γ to θ phase. FT-IR analysis; suggests that there are a few different types of functional groups on the surface of the alumina nanoparticles such as hydroxy groups and oxy groups. The transmittance spectra showed that the absorption bands in the UV region strongly depend on the calcination temperature. Moreover, the results showed that alumina has an optical direct band gap and that the energy gap decreases with increasing the calcination temperature and pH of the reaction. Luminescence spectra showed that some luminescent centers such as OH-related radiative centers and oxygen vacancies (F, F22+ and F2 centers) centers exist in the nanoparticles.

  20. Fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing: A new tool for assessment and monitoring of hydrologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Johnson, Carole D.; Dawson, Cian B.; Nelms, David L.; Miller, Cheryl; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Harvey, Charles F.; Karam, Hanan N.

    2008-01-01

    Fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing (FO DTS) is an emerging technology for characterizing and monitoring a wide range of important earth processes. FO DTS utilizes laser light to measure temperature along the entire length of standard telecommunications optical fibers. The technology can measure temperature every meter over FO cables up to 30 kilometers (km) long. Commercially available systems can measure fiber temperature as often as 4 times per minute, with thermal precision ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 °C depending on measurement integration time. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a project to demonstrate and evaluate DTS as a technology to support hydrologic studies. This paper demonstrates the potential of the technology to assess and monitor hydrologic processes through case‐study examples of FO DTS monitoring of stream‐aquifer interaction on the Shenandoah River near Locke's Mill, Virginia, and on Fish Creek, near Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and estuary‐aquifer interaction on Waquoit Bay, Falmouth, Massachusetts. The ability to continuously observe temperature over large spatial scales with high spatial and temporal resolution provides a new opportunity to observe and monitor a wide range of hydrologic processes with application to other disciplines including hazards, climate‐change, and ecosystem monitoring.

  1. Optical, electrical and structural characterization of novel phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herpers, Anja; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias [1. Physikalisches Institut IA, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCM) are alloys, which can be used in a variety of applications in information technology. Information is stored using the transformation of small regions of a thin film between the crystalline and amorphous state. This phase change is accompanied by a remarkable change of properties such as the electrical resistivity and the optical reflectivity. Furthermore the transition between both states is extremely fast at elevated temperatures but negligible at room temperature. This property portfolio is attractive for storage applications. The corresponding materials are already used in rewriteable optical data storage media such as DVD and Blu-Ray-Discs, and are promising candidates for novel non-volatile electronic memory devices such as Phase Change Random Access Memories. In this study the structural, optical and electrical properties of two materials, i.e. Ag{sub 4}In{sub 3}Sb{sub 67}Te{sub 26} and GeSe are investigated. X-Ray diffraction and X-Ray reflection measurements reveal changes in the crystal structure and the film density upon crystallization. DSC measurements provide the crystallization temperature. The optical properties in an energy range of 0.025-5.3 eV are determined combining ellipsometry and FTIR experiments. Sheet resistance measurements in the van-der-Pauw-geometry enable the measurement of the electrical properties between 300 and 600 K.

  2. Optical characterization and polarization calibration for rigid endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Missael; Gruev, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    Polarization measurements give orthogonal information to spectral images making them a great tool in the characterization of environmental parameters in nature. Thus, polarization imagery has proven to be remarkably useful in a vast range of biomedical applications. One such application is the early diagnosis of flat cancerous lesions in murine colorectal tumor models, where polarization data complements NIR fluorescence analysis. Advances in nanotechnology have led to compact and precise bio-inspired imaging sensors capable of accurately co-registering multidimensional spectral and polarization information. As more applications emerge for these imagers, the optics used in these instruments get very complex and can potentially compromise the original polarization state of the incident light. Here we present a complete optical and polarization characterization of three rigid endoscopes of size 1.9mm x 10cm (Karl Storz, Germany), 5mm x 30cm, and 10mm x 33cm (Olympus, Germany), used in colonoscopy for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer. Characterization results show that the telescope optics act as retarders and effectively depolarize the linear component. These incorrect readings can cause false-positives or false-negatives leading to an improper diagnosis. In this paper, we offer a polarization calibration scheme for these endoscopes based on Mueller calculus. By modeling the optical properties from training data as real-valued Mueller matrices, we are able to successfully reconstruct the initial polarization state acquired by the imaging system.

  3. X-ray pencil beam facility for optics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Müller, Peter; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ackermann, Marcelo; Collon, Maximilien J.

    2010-07-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has used synchrotron radiation for the characterization of optics and detectors for astrophysical X-ray telescopes for more than 20 years. At a dedicated beamline at BESSY II, a monochromatic pencil beam is used by ESA and cosine Research since the end of 2005 for the characterization of novel silicon pore optics, currently under development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). At this beamline, a photon energy of 2.8 keV is selected by a Si channel-cut monochromator. Two apertures at distances of 12.2 m and 30.5 m from the dipole source form a pencil beam with a typical diameter of 100 μm and a divergence below 1". The optics to be investigated is placed in a vacuum chamber on a hexapod, the angular positioning is controlled by means of autocollimators to below 1". The reflected beam is registered at 5 m distance from the optics with a CCD-based camera system. This contribution presents design and performance of the upgrade of this beamline to cope with the updated design for IXO. The distance between optics and detector can now be 20 m. For double reflection from an X-ray Optical Unit (XOU) and incidence angles up to 1.4°, this corresponds to a vertical translation of the camera by 2 m. To achieve high reflectance at this angle even with uncoated silicon, a lower photon energy of 1 keV is available from a pair of W/B4C multilayers. For coated optics, a high energy option can provide a pencil beam of 7.6 keV radiation.

  4. Characterization of nanocrystalline zirconia powders by electron optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Electron optical techniques are described for the characterization of the size distribution of agglomerates, aggregates and primary micro- and nanocrystallites of as-processed zirconia powders. These techniques allow for direct identification of individual crystallites as tetragonal or monoclinic, by optical transform of high-resolution electron micrographs. The latter also permit surface morphology to be examined with atomic resolution. Applications to a range of pure and doped zirconia powders, of recent commercial interest, are presented, which enable the results of concurrent studies by sedimentation, surface specific area measurements, porosity and sinterability to be correctly interpreted. 18 figs

  5. Comparison of optical methods for surface roughness characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We report a study of the correlation between three optical methods for characterizing surface roughness: a laboratory scatterometer measuring the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF instrument), a simple commercial scatterometer (rBRDF instrument), and a confocal optical profiler...... of the scattering angle distribution (Aq). The twenty-two investigated samples were manufactured with several methods in order to obtain a suitable diversity of roughness patterns.Our study shows a one-to-one correlation of both the Rq and the Rdq roughness values when obtained with the BRDF and the confocal...

  6. Optical characterization of poly (ethylene oxide)/alumina composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elimat, Z.M., E-mail: ziad_elimat@yahoo.co [Department of Applied Science, Ajloun University College, Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman (Jordan); Zihlif, A.M. [Physics Department, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Ragosta, G. [Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers (ICTP), CNR-Possouli, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    The optical properties in the UV-visible region of poly (ethylene oxide) polymer containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are reported. The optical results obtained were analyzed in terms of the absorption formula for non-crystalline materials. The absorption coefficient {alpha}({nu}) and the optical band energy gap (E{sub opt}) have been obtained from direct allowed transitions in k-space at room temperature. The tail widths ({Delta}E) of the tail of localized states in the band gap were evaluated using the Urbach-edges method. It was found that both (E{sub opt}) and ({Delta}E) vary with the concentration of the aluminum oxide complex dispersed in the polymer matrix, and the measured optical energy gap for the poly (ethylene oxide) is greater than the PEO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. The refractive index (n) for the composites was determined from the collected transmittance and reflectance spectra. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single oscillator model. The optical energy gaps E{sub opt}, and the optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant were estimated.

  7. Optical characterization of phase transitions in pure polymers and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannella, Gianluca A.; Brucato, Valerio; La Carrubba, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.lacarrubba@unipa.it [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace and Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    To study the optical properties of polymeric samples, an experimental apparatus was designed on purpose and set up. The sample is a thin film enclosed between two glass slides and a PTFE frame, with a very thin thermocouple placed on sample for direct temperature measurement. This sample holder was placed between two aluminum slabs, equipped with a narrow slit for optical measurements and with electrical resistances for temperature control. Sample was enlightened by a laser diode, whereas transmitted light was detected with a photodiode. Measurements were carried out on polyethylene-terephtalate (PET) and two different polyamides, tested as pure polymers and blends. The thermal history imposed to the sample consisted in a rapid heating from ambient temperature to a certain temperature below the melting point, a stabilization period, and then a heating at constant rate. After a second stabilization period, the sample was cooled. The data obtained were compared with DSC measurements performed with the same thermal history. In correspondence with transitions detected via DSC (e.g. melting, crystallization and cold crystallization), the optical signal showed a steep variation. In particular, crystallization resulted in a rapid decrease of transmitted light, whereas melting gave up an increase of light transmitted by the sample. Further variations in transmitted light were recorded for blends, after melting: those results may be related to other phase transitions, e.g. liquid-liquid phase separation. All things considered, the apparatus can be used to get reliable data on phase transitions in polymeric systems.

  8. Electrical measurement of absolute temperature and temperature transients in a buried nanostructure under ultrafast optical heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Hu, X. K.; Liebing, N.; Böhnert, T.; Costa, J. D.; Tarequzzaman, M.; Ferreira, R.; Sievers, S.; Bieler, M.; Schumacher, H. W.

    2017-06-01

    We report absolute temperature measurements in a buried nanostructure with a sub-nanosecond temporal resolution. For this purpose, we take advantage of the temperature dependence of the resistance of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) as detected by a fast sampling oscilloscope. After calibrating the measurement setup using steady-state electric heating, we are able to quantify temperature changes in the MTJ induced by femtosecond optical heating of the metal contact lying several 100 nm above the MTJ. We find that a femtosecond pulse train with an average power of 400 mW and a repetition rate of 76 MHz leads to a constant temperature increase of 80 K and a temporally varying temperature change of 2 K in the MTJ. The maximum temperature change in the MTJ occurs 4 ns after the femtosecond laser pulses hit the metal contact, which is supported by simulations. Our work provides a scheme to quantitatively study local temperatures in nanoscale structures and might be important for the testing of nanoscale thermal transport simulations.

  9. High-temperature sapphire optical sensor fiber coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desu, Seshu B.; Claus, Richard O.; Raheem, Ruby; Murphy, Kent A.

    1990-10-01

    the filter. These modes may be attributed to a number of material degradation mechanisms, such as thermal shock, oxidation corrosion of the material, mechanical loads, or phase changes in the filter material. Development of high temperature optical fiber (sapphire) sensors embedded in the CXF filters would be very valuable for both monitoring the integrity of the filter during its use and understanding the mechanisms of degradation such that durable filter development will be facilitated. Since the filter operating environment is very harsh, the high temperature sapphire optical fibers need to be protected and for some sensing techniques the fiber must also be coated with low refractive index film (cladding). The objective of the present study is to identify materials and develop process technologies for the application of claddings and protective coatings that are stable and compatible with sapphire fibers at both high temperatures and pressures.

  10. Measuring artificial recharge with fiber optic distributed temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthew W; Bauer, Brian; Hutchinson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat was used as a tracer to measure infiltration rates from a recharge basin. The propagation of diurnal oscillation of surface water temperature into the basin bed was monitored along a transect using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS). The propagation rate was related to downward specific discharge using standard theory of heat advection and dispersion in saturated porous media. An estimate of the temporal variation of heat propagation was achieved using a wavelet transform to find the phase lag between the surface temperature diurnal oscillation and the correlated oscillation at 0.33 and 0.98 m below the bed surface. The wavelet results compared well to a constant velocity model of thermal advection and dispersion during periods of relatively constant discharge rates. The apparent dispersion of heat was found to be due primarily to hydrodynamic mechanisms rather than thermal diffusion. Specific discharge estimates using the FODTS technique also compared well to water balance estimates over a four month period, although there were occasional deviations that have yet to be adequately explained. The FODTS technique is superior to water balance in that it produces estimates of infiltration rate every meter along the cable transect, every half hour. These high resolution measurements highlighted areas of low infiltration and demonstrated the degradation of basin efficiency due to source waters of high suspended solids. FODTS monitoring promises to be a useful tool for diagnosing basin performance in an era of increasing groundwater demand. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  11. Optical and micro-structural characterizations of MBE grown indium gallium nitride polar quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison between indium rich (27%) InGaN/GaN quantum dots (QDs) and their underlying wetting layer (WL) is performed by means of optical and structural characterizations. With increasing temperature, micro-photoluminescence (μPL) study reveals the superior ability of QDs to prevent carrier thermalization to nearby traps compared to the two dimensional WL. Thus, explaining the higher internal quantum efficiency of the QD nanostructure compared to the higher dimensional WL. Structural characterization (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) reveal an increase in the QD indium content over the WL indium content which is due to strain induced drifts. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Lanthanides-clay nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celedon, Salvador; Quiroz, Carolina; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.; Benavente, Eglantina

    2009-01-01

    Complexes of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) with 2,2-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline were inserted into Na-bentonite by ion exchange reactions at room temperature. The products display interlaminar distances and stoichiometries in agreement with the ion exchange capacity and the interlayer space available in the clay. The optical properties of the intercalates, being qualitatively similar to those of the free complexes, are additionally improved with respect to exchange processes with the medium, especially in a moist environment. The protection again hydrolysis, together with the intensity of the optical transition 5 D 0 - 5 F 2 observed in the nanocomposite, makes these products promising for the development of novel optical materials

  13. Characterization of polycapillary optics installed in an analytical electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Akira; Maehata, Keisuke; Iyomoto, Naoko; Hara, Toru; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    An energy-dispersive spectrometer with a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter mounted on a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is developed to enhance the accuracy of nanoscale materials analysis. TES microcalorimeters generally have sensitive surface areas of the order of 100 × 100 µm 2 . Also, the magnetic field generated by the STEM objective lens means that a TES microcalorimeter cannot be placed in a STEM column. We therefore use polycapillary optics to collect the X-rays. In this study, X-rays are collected from a STEM specimen and are then focused on a silicon drift detector; from these measurements, the optics are characterized and the experimental results are compared with the design of the optics. (author)

  14. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, Aaron D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphsik; Pold, Jan H.; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Gravitationsphysik

    2016-09-15

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  15. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno; Hannover Univ.

    2016-09-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  16. Development and Performance Verification of Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors in High Temperature Engine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Kren, Lawrence A.; Floyd, Bertram M.; Elam, Kristie A.; Martinez, Martel

    2014-01-01

    A High Temperature Fiber Optic Sensor (HTFOS) has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for aircraft engine applications. After fabrication and preliminary in-house performance evaluation, the HTFOS was tested in an engine environment at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. The engine tests enabled the performance of the HTFOS in real engine environments to be evaluated along with the ability of the sensor to respond to changes in the engine's operating condition. Data were collected prior, during, and after each test in order to observe the change in temperature from ambient to each of the various test point levels. An adequate amount of data was collected and analyzed to satisfy the research team that HTFOS operates properly while the engine was running. Temperature measurements made by HTFOS while the engine was running agreed with those anticipated.

  17. Suspension and simple optical characterization of two-dimensional membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast, David B.; Knobel, Robert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report on a method for suspending two-dimensional crystal materials in an electronic circuit using an only photoresists and solvents. Graphene and NbSe2 are suspended tens of nanometers above metal electrodes with clamping diameters of several microns. The optical cavity formed from the membrane/air/metal structures enables a quick method to measure the number of layers and the gap separation using comparisons between the expected colour and optical microscope images. This characterization technique can be used with just an illuminated microscope with a digital camera which makes it adaptable to environments where other means of characterization are not possible, such as inside nitrogen glove boxes used in handling oxygen-sensitive materials.

  18. Formation and characterization of artificial lipid bilayers on optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Pauline; Dreesen, Laurent

    Transports across cellular membranes are at the basis of a lot of biological processes such as the transmission of information in neurons. Their characterization is therefore of crucial interest. As they are equivalent to biological membranes, artificial lipid bilayers can be created to study membranes and transmembrane proteins properties or transmembrane transports. The aim of this work is to develop a new method for the fabrication of artificial membranes, based on the use of optical fibers as support for the bilayer, and for their characterization by fluorescence measurements. We use microfluidics on fibers to create two phospholipid monolayers that we approach close enough to form a bilayer. The membrane formation is checked using fluorescein or a fluorescent sodium probe, Tetra (tetramethylammonium) salt (sodium green), whose optical signal depends on sodium concentration.

  19. The Optical Design and Characterization of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, L.; Jackson, C.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wilkinson, D. T.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2003-03-01

    The primary goal of the MAP satellite, now in orbit, is to make high-fidelity polarization-sensitive maps of the full sky in five frequency bands between 20 and 100 GHz. From these maps we will characterize the properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and Galactic and extragalactic emission on angular scales ranging from the effective beam size, less than 0.23d, to the full sky. MAP is a differential microwave radiometer. Two back-to-back shaped offset Gregorian telescopes feed two mirror symmetric arrays of 10 corrugated feeds. We describe the prelaunch design and characterization of the optical system, compare the optical models to the measurements, and consider multiple possible sources of systematic error.

  20. Optical temperature mapping around plasmonic structures using directional anisotropy in fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang

    2017-08-01

    Optically measuring temperature fields around plasmonic structures is of great importance for their thermal management considering the strong energy dissipations along with the extraordinary abilities of light coupling. Among all the available methods, ratiometric studies are particularly desirable since they suppress the influence of trivial factors, such as temporal fluctuations in excitation and spatial non-uniform distributions of fluorescent species, and thus gives reliable temperature dependence. Here we report a new ratiometric thermometry that simultaneously captures the fluorescence images of different numerical apertures (NAs) to resolve the temperature-dependent orientations of emission dipoles. This thermometry measures fluorescent anisotropy based on the directionality of emission. We show that this thermometry can be used to measure temperature near metallic surfaces. We foresee it to trigger interests of a large community who desire simultaneous thermal characterization along with the optical imaging. Moreover, it brings out a general idea to simplify ratiometric setups if inequalities exist on the excitation side, which may reach for a larger number of researchers.

  1. Posterior Lattice Degeneration Characterized by Spectral Domain Optical Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath, Varsha; Taha, Mohammed; Fujimoto, James G.; Duker, Jay S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To utilize high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in the characterization of retinal and vitreal morphological changes overlying posterior lattice degeneration. METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective analysis was performed on 13 eyes of 13 nonconsecutive subjects with posterior lattice degeneration seen at the New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center between October 2009 and January 2010. SD-OCT images taken through the region of latti...

  2. Characterization and Operation of Liquid Crystal Adaptive Optics Phoropter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A; Bauman, B; Gavel, D; Olivier, S; Jones, S; Hardy, J L; Barnes, T; Werner, J S

    2003-02-05

    Adaptive optics (AO), a mature technology developed for astronomy to compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, can also be used to correct the aberrations of the eye. The classic phoropter is used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to estimate and correct the lower-order aberrations of the eye, defocus and astigmatism, in order to derive a vision correction prescription for their patients. An adaptive optics phoropter measures and corrects the aberrations in the human eye using adaptive optics techniques, which are capable of dealing with both the standard low-order aberrations and higher-order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberration. High-order aberrations have been shown to degrade visual performance for clinical subjects in initial investigations. An adaptive optics phoropter has been designed and constructed based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to compensate for them. This system should produce near diffraction-limited optical image quality at the retina, which will enable investigation of the psychophysical limits of human vision. This paper describes the characterization and operation of the AO phoropter with results from human subject testing.

  3. Characterization and operation of a liquid crystal adaptive optics phoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwal, Abdul Ahad S.; Bauman, Brian J.; Gavel, Donald T.; Olivier, Scot S.; Jones, Steve; Silva, Dennis A.; Hardy, Joseph L.; Barnes, Thomas B.; Werner, John S.

    2003-12-01

    Adaptive optics (AO), a mature technology developed for astronomy to compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, can also be used to correct the aberrations of the eye. The classic phoropter is used by ophthalmologists and optometrists to estimate and correct the lower-order aberrations of the eye, defocus and astigmatism, in order to derive a vision correction prescription for their patients. An adaptive optics phoropter measures and corrects the aberrations in the human eye using adaptive optics techniques, which are capable of dealing with both the standard low-order aberrations and higher-order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberration. High-order aberrations have been shown to degrade visual performance for clinical subjects in initial investigations. An adaptive optics phoropter has been designed and constructed based on a Shack-Hartmann sensor to measure the aberrations of the eye, and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to compensate for them. This system should produce near diffraction-limited optical image quality at the retina, which will enable investigation of the psychophysical limits of human vision. This paper describes the characterization and operation of the AO phoropter with results from human subject testing.

  4. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from bottle and CTD casts in the NE Pacific (limit-180) from the MELVILLE in support of the Marine Optical Characterization Experiment (MOCE) from 1999-10-01 to 1999-10-21 (NODC Accession 0000693)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains results from the fifth cruise of the Marine Optical Characterization Experiment. A variety of spectroradiometric observations of the upper water...

  5. Temperature measurement and damage detection in concrete beams exposed to fire using PPP-BOTDA based fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Hoehler, Matthew S.; Smith, Christopher M.; Bundy, Matthew; Chen, Genda

    2017-10-01

    In this study, Brillouin scattering-based distributed fiber optic sensor is implemented to measure temperature distributions and detect cracks in concrete structures subjected to fire for the first time. A telecommunication-grade optical fiber is characterized as a high temperature sensor with pulse pre-pump Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BODTA), and implemented to measure spatially-distributed temperatures in reinforced concrete beams in fire. Four beams were tested to failure in a natural gas fueled compartment fire, each instrumented with one fused silica, single-mode optical fiber as a distributed sensor and four thermocouples. Prior to concrete cracking, the distributed temperature was validated at locations of the thermocouples by a relative difference of less than 9%. The cracks in concrete can be identified as sharp peaks in the temperature distribution since the cracks are locally filled with hot air. Concrete cracking did not affect the sensitivity of the distributed sensor but concrete spalling broke the optical fiber loop required for PPP-BOTDA measurements.

  6. An Optically Isotropic Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystal (OI-AFLC) Display Mode Operating over a Wide Temperature Range using Ternary Bent-Core Liquid Crystal Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Leah; Zhang, Cuiyu; Ribeiro de Almeida, Roberta R; Pellegrene, Brittany; Salamonczyk, Miroslaw; Kim, Matthew; Hwang, Jung-Im; Kim, Kyeong-Jin; Lee, Joun-Ho; Jákli, Antal; Hegmann, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of bent-core liquid crystal (LC) compounds and the preparation of mixtures that provide an optically isotropic antiferroelectric (OI-AFLC) liquid crystal display mode over a very wide temperature interval and well below room temperature. From the collection of compounds synthesized during this study, we recognized that several ternary mixtures displayed a modulated SmC a P A phase down to below -40 °C and up to about 100 °C on both heating and cooling, as well as optical tilt angles in the transformed state of approximately 45° (optically isotropic state). The materials were fully characterized and their liquid crystal as well as electro-optical properties analyzed by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, dielectric spectroscopy, and electro-optical tests.

  7. Optical characteristics of a-Si:H layers deposited by PACVD at various temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglarz, Janusz; Jurzecka-Szymacha, Maria; Tkacz-Śmiech, Katarzyna; Sahraoui, Bouchta

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous a-Si:H layers fabricated by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition are studied. The layers were grown on monocrystalline silicon at various temperatures, ranging from the room temperature to 400 °C. Structure and chemical composition (hydrogen content) of the layers were characterized by use of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A main attention in the studies was focused on optical properties of the layers. The respective measurements were made by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry within 170-1900 nm spectral range, at room temperature and during post-annealing the sample up to 400 °C. The Kramers-Krönig optical model was matched to the ellipsometric angle spectra, Ψ(λ) and Δ(λ), and hence the layers' thicknesses and optical indices were calculated. The band gap of the studied materials was calculated from the Tauc expression for the extinction index near the band edge. The results show that the layers deposited at 150 °C have similar properties. Their growth rate is higher than 0.1 nm/s and hydrogen content does not exceed 10 at.%. All they have relatively high refractive index within visible light range. The highest refractive index is for the layer deposited at 400 °C and reaches almost 4.0 at 460 nm. The band gap of all layers deposited at 150 °C and above exceeds 2 eV but is not higher than 2.4 eV. The band gap of the layers deposited below 150 °C is less than 2 eV. Post-annealing of the layers for 40 min at 400 °C does not change their optical indices but clearly reduces the depolarization.

  8. Effect of temperature on optical and structural properties of indium selenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asabe, M.R.; Manikshete, A.H.; Hankare, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2 Se 3 thin film have been prepared for the first time by using a relatively simple chemical bath deposition technique at room temperature using indium chloride, tartaric acid, hydrazine hydrate and sodium selenosulphate in an aqueous alkaline medium. Various preparative conditions of thin film deposition are outlined. The films deposited at optimum preparative parameters are annealed at different temperatures. The as-deposited films those annealed at 100℃ and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-ray (EDAX), Optical absorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The as grown films were found to be transparent, uniform, well adherent and brown in color. The XRD analysis of the as-deposited and annealed films shows the presence of polycrystalline nature in tetragonal crystal structure. EDAX study reveals that as-deposited films are almost stoichiometric while optical absorption study shows the presence of band gap for direct while optical absorption study shows the presence of band gap for direct transition at 2.35 and 2.10 eV respectively, for the as-deposited and annealed films. SEM study indicated the presence of uniformly distributed grains over the surface of substrate for the as-deposited as well as annealed film. (author)

  9. Carboxymethylguargum-silver nanocomposite: green synthesis, characterization and an optical sensor for ammonia detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anek Pal; Verma, Devendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of new carboxymethyl guar gum-silver nanocomposite (CMGG/Ag NC) by green synthesis method. For this carboxymethyl guar gum was used as a reducing agent as well as stabilizer. The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The average size of the silver nanoparticles was found of ∼6 nm. Thus, the obtained CMGG/AgNPs NC was examined for optical sensing property for detection of ammonia in aqueous medium. The response time and the detection limit of ammonia in aqueous solution were detected at room temperature. It was concluded that in the future, at this room temperature optical ammonia sensor may be used for medical diagnosis and clinically for detecting low ammonia level (up to 1 ppm) in biological samples for various biomedical applications. (paper)

  10. Characterization of disposable optical sensors for heavy metal determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Jadranka; Avidad, María Ariza; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín

    2012-05-30

    This paper presents the development, characterization and quality control of analytical methods based on the use of disposable optical sensors for determination of heavy metals. Chromogenic reagents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, (2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, Zincon, Ferrozine, and Chromazurol S were used to develop optical sensors of heavy metal ions found as contaminants in pharmaceutical substances and products, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III). The chromogenic reagents were immobilized in polymeric membranes by spin-coating from cocktails containing all reagents needed. The methods were prevalidated using a comprehensive quality control strategy based on a system of mathematical/statistical testing and diagnosis of each prevalidation step. This system involved characterization of analytical groups; checking of two limiting groups; testing of data homogeneity; recognition of outliers; and determination of analytical functions, limiting values, precision and accuracy. The prevalidation strategy demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method and pointed out some limitations. Combining the optical sensors with multicomponent linear regression allowed simultaneous determination of multiple metals in synthetic mixtures with different compositions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical amounts of heavy metals in the mixtures was obtained for the majority of sensors and metals. Even better agreement was obtained between the experimental and theoretical total amounts of metals in the mixtures. The proposed analytical methods were successfully applied to the determination of zinc in pharmaceutical preparations of insulin and the determination of metal mixtures in a commercial nasal spray of isotonic seawater. The reliable and sensitive individual optical sensors developed in this study may be useful for designing a multimembrane optical tongue that with appropriate further optimization can be used for screening heavy metals in

  11. Characterization of the electro-optical transceivers in the KM3NeT optical network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulvirenti S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure hosting a network of neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. The whole data transport over an optical network is based on the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing technique with optical channels spaced 50 GHz apart and a bit rate of 1.25 Gbps. Over the telescope lifetime, precise temperature control of the laser is required to maintain stability of the central frequency, complying with the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union. We will report on the characterisation of the tuneable features of the electro-optical transceivers required to compensate for the expected wavelength drift due to aging factors. Preliminary results will be showed.

  12. Fiber optic DTS in sealed and heated boreholes for active groundwater flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Thomas; Parker, Beth; Cherry, John; Mondanos, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, advances in technology have allowed temperature profiling to evolve to offer new insight into fractured rock hydrogeology. Temperature profiles in open boreholes within fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation and/or in the borehole. An advance in temperature logging makes use of precision temperature profiles collected using wireline trolling methods in a heated borehole to identify fractures with active groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. A second development is based on collecting wireline temperature profiles within a sealed borehole to eliminate short circuiting effects caused by the open borehole conduit. The borehole is temporarily sealed with a flexible impervious fabric liner so that the water column in the borehole is static and cross-connection is eliminated. Though highly precise temperature and spatial measurements are possible using these techniques, the temporal resolution is limited by the rate at which the wireline probe can be raised and lowered in the borehole. There is a need to measure temperature profiles continuously over time to characterize transient processes. Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a technique that allows for collecting temperature profiles continuously. This tool was advanced by the oil and gas industry for collecting temperature data in multi kilometer deep boreholes over relatively coarse measurement scales. In contrast, very fine spatial and temperature resolutions are needed for freshwater contaminant fractured rock hydrogeology where the scale of interest is much more acute. Recent advances in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolution of DTS systems allow this technology to be adapted well to the shallow subsurface environment. This project demonstrates the first application of DTS used in conjunction with flexible borehole liners in a heated borehole environment. The

  13. Instantaneous Optical Wall-Temperature of Vertical Two-Phase Annular Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehring, Brian; Livingston-Jha, Simon; Morse, Roman; Chan, Jason; Doherty, James; Brueggeman, Colby; Nellis, Gregory; Dressler, Kristofer; Berson, ArganthaëL.; Multiphase Flow Visualization; Analysis Laboratory at University of Wisconsin-Madison Team

    2017-11-01

    We present a non-invasive optical technique for measuring the instantaneous temperature at the inner wall of a flow duct. The technique is used to characterize a fully-developed vertical annular flow of R245fa refrigerant. The test section includes transparent heating windows made of glass coated with fluorine-doped tin-oxide. A 15 mW helium-neon laser is directed through a prism mounted on one of the glass windows and reflected off of the interface between the 150-micron-thick liquid film and the inside wall of the testing section window. The intensity of the laser light reflected at the liquid film-window interface depends on the index of refraction of liquid R245fa, which itself depends on the temperature of the fluid. The intensity of the reflected light is measured using a photodiode and calibrated to a light reflectance model based on the Fresnel equations and Snell's law. Instantaneous temperature data is combined with optical liquid film thickness measurements to calculate the local instantaneous heat transfer coefficient at the wall.

  14. Low Loss Polycarbonate Polymer Optical Fiber for High Temperature FBG Humidity Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a polycarbonate (PC) microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) Bragg grating (FBG) humidity sensor that can operate beyond 100°C. The PC preform, from which the fiber was drawn, was produced using an improved casting approach to reduce the atte......We report the fabrication and characterization of a polycarbonate (PC) microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) Bragg grating (FBG) humidity sensor that can operate beyond 100°C. The PC preform, from which the fiber was drawn, was produced using an improved casting approach to reduce...... the attenuation of the fiber. The fiber loss was found reduced by a factor of two compared to the latest reported PC mPOF [20], holding the low loss record in PC based fibers. PC mPOFBG was characterized to humidity and temperature, and a relative humidity (RH) sensitivity of 7.31± 0.13 pm/% RH in the range 10...

  15. Development of optical spectrum acquisition with spectrophotometer for characterization of optical radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano Vargas, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    An improved process of the data acquisition system is developed with Pasco 750 interface and Pasco OS-8539 spectrophotometer. The optical spectrum and color temperature of incandescent sources available are obtained from the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada. The procedures developed in the project are recommended to collect data and analyze results. The purchase of a new Software and the interface of Pasco is recommended to have a better operation and update [es

  16. Low Temperature Characterization of Ceramic and Film Power Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad; Overton, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Among the key requirements for advanced electronic systems is the ability to withstand harsh environments while maintaining reliable and efficient operation. Exposures to low temperature as well as high temperature constitute such stresses. Applications where low temperatures are encountered include deep space missions, medical imaging equipment, and cryogenic instrumentation. Efforts were taken to design and develop power capacitors capable of wide temperature operation. In this work, ceramic and film power capacitors were developed and characterized as a function of temperature from 20 C to -185 C in terms of their dielectric properties. These properties included capacitance stability and dielectric loss in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 100 kHz. DC leakage current measurements were also performed on the capacitors. The manuscript presents the results that indicate good operational characteristic behavior and stability of the components tested at low temperatures.

  17. Dimensional characterization of biperiodic imprinted structures using optical scatterometry

    KAUST Repository

    Gereige, Issam

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the characterization of biperiodic imprinted structures using a non-destructive optical technique commonly called scatterometry. The nanostructures consist of periodic arrays of square and circular dots which were imprinted in a thermoplastic polymer by thermal nanoimprint lithography. Optical measurements were performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the spectral region of 1.5-4 eV. The geometrical profiles of the imprinted structures were reconstructed using the Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) to model the diffraction phenomena by periodic gratings. The technique was also adapted for large scale evaluation of the imprint process. Uniqueness of the solution was examined by analyzing the diffraction of the structure at different experimental conditions, for instance at various angles of incidence. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Broadband diffuse optical characterization of elastin for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Beh, Joo Sin; Farina, Andrea; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Elastin is a key structural protein of dynamic connective tissues widely found in the extracellular matrix of skin, arteries, lungs and ligaments. It is responsible for a range of diseases related to aging of biological tissues. The optical characterization of elastin can open new opportunities for its investigation in biomedical studies. In this work, we present the absorption spectra of elastin using a broadband (550-1350nm) diffuse optical spectrometer. Distortions caused by fluorescence and finite bandwidth of the laser source on estimated absorption were effectively accounted for in measurements and data analysis and compensated. A comprehensive summary and comparison between collagen and elastin is presented, highlighting distinct features for its accurate quantification in biological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes an innovative fiber optic-based, multiplexable, highly ruggedized, integrated sensor system for real-time...

  20. Optical Microfiber Technology for Current, Temperature, Acceleration, Acoustic, Humidity and Ultraviolet Light Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, David G.; Monro, Tanya M.

    2017-01-01

    Optical microfibers possess excellent optical and mechanical properties that have been exploited for sensing. We highlight the authors’ recent work in the areas of current, temperature, acceleration, acoustic, humidity and ultraviolet-light sensing based on this exquisite technology, and the advantages and challenges of using optical microfibers are discussed. PMID:29283414

  1. Optical Method for Detecting Displacements and Strains at Ultra-High Temperatures During Thermo-Mechanical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell W. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Sikora, Joseph G. (Inventor); Roth, Mark C. (Inventor); Johnston, William M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-high temperature optical method incorporates speckle optics for sensing displacement and strain measurements well above conventional measurement techniques. High temperature pattern materials are used which can endure experimental high temperature environments while simultaneously having a minimum optical aberration. A purge medium is used to reduce or eliminate optical distortions and to reduce, and/or eliminate oxidation of the target specimen.

  2. Effect of disorder and defects in ion-implanted semiconductors optical and photothermal characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Christofides, Constantinos; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Defects in ion-implanted semiconductors are important and will likely gain increased importance as annealing temperatures are reduced with successive IC generations. Novel implant approaches, such as MdV implantation, create new types of defects whose origin and annealing characteristics will need to be addressed. Publications in this field mainly focus on the effects of ion implantation on the material and the modification in the implanted layer after high temperature annealing. The editors of this volume and Volume 45 focus on the physics of the annealing kinetics of the damaged layer. An overview of characterization tehniques and a critical comparison of the information on annealing kinetics is also presented. Key Features * Provides basic knowledge of ion implantation-induced defects * Focuses on physical mechanisms of defect annealing * Utilizes electrical, physical, and optical characterization tools for processed semiconductors * Provides the basis for understanding the problems caused by the defects g...

  3. Characterization of tissue scaffolds using optics and ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, N. T.; Parker, N. G.; He, D.; Ruan, H.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Mather, M. L.; Crowe, J. A.; Rose, F. R. A. J.; Povey, M. J. W.; Morgan, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    Tissue scaffolds are an integral part of the tissue engineering process, assisting in the culturing of cells in three dimensions. It is important to understand both the properties of the scaffold and the growth of cells within the scaffold. This paper describes a system to characterise scaffolds using acoustic techniques alone and the development of an ultrasound modulated optical tomography system to study the growth of cells within the scaffolds. Our interest is in characterising the properties of gel-based and polymer foam-based scaffolds. Results from a purely acoustic system have been used to investigate the properties of foam scaffolds manufactured from synthetic polyesters poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) via a supercritical fluid process. As these are porous materials, they are particularly challenging acoustically as the pores scatter sound significantly. However, it is demonstrated that acoustic signals are detectable through a 6mm thick scaffold. Although acoustics alone can be used to characterize many properties of the scaffolds, useful information can also be obtained from optical techniques e.g. monitoring the growth of cells within the scaffold via optical absorption or fluorescence techniques. Light scattering is of course a significant problem for relatively thick engineered tissue (~5mm). The acoustic approach has been extended to include laser illumination and detection of the ultrasound modulated optical pulse. Images of optically-absorbing materials embedded in gel-based tissue phantoms will be presented demonstrating that a lateral resolution of 250μm and an axial resolution of ~90μm can be achieved in scattering samples.

  4. Optical characterization of OLED emitter properties by radiation pattern analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaemmich, Michael

    2011-09-08

    Researches in both, academia and industry are investigating optical loss channels in OLED layered systems by means of optical simulation tools in order to derive promising concepts for a further enhancement of the overall device performance. Besides other factors, the prospects of success of such optimization strategies rely severely on the credibility of the optical input data. The present thesis provides a guideline to measure the active optical properties of OLED emitter materials in situ by radiation pattern analyses. Reliable and widely applicable methods are introduced to determine the internal electroluminescence spectrum, the profile of the emission zone, the dipole emitter orientation, and the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of emissive materials from the optical far field emission of OLEDs in electrical operation. The proposed characterization procedures are applied to sets of OLEDs containing both, fluorescent polymeric materials as well as phosphorescent small-molecular emitters, respectively. On the one hand, quite expected results are obtained. On the other hand, several novel and truly surprising results are found. Most importantly, this thesis contains the first report of a non-isotropic, mainly parallel emitter orientation in a phosphorescent small-molecular guest-host system (Ir(MDQ)2(acac) in a-NPD). Due to the latter result, emitter orientation based optimization of phosphorescent OLEDs seems to be within reach. Since parallel dipoles emit preferably into air, the utilization of smart emissive materials with advantageous molecular orientation is capable to boost the efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs by 50%. Materials design, the influence of the matrix material and the substrate, as well as film deposition conditions are just a few parameters that need to be studied further in order to exploit the huge potential of the dipole emitter orientation in phosphorescent OLEDs.

  5. Characterization of PDMS samples with variation of its synthesis parameters for tunable optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Garcia, Josimar; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; González-García, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays the elastomer known as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Sylgard 184), due to its physical properties, low cost and easy handle, have become a frequently used material for the elaboration of optical components such as: variable focal length liquid lenses, optical waveguides, solid elastic lenses, etc. In recent years, we have been working in the characterization of this material for applications in visual sciences; in this work, we describe the elaboration of PDMSmade samples, also, we present physical and optical properties of the samples by varying its synthesis parameters such as base: curing agent ratio, and both, curing time and temperature. In the case of mechanical properties, tensile and compression tests were carried out through a universal testing machine to obtain the respective stress-strain curves, and to obtain information regarding its optical properties, UV-vis spectroscopy is applied to the samples to obtain transmittance and absorbance curves. Index of refraction variation was obtained through an Abbe refractometer. Results from the characterization will determine the proper synthesis parameters for the elaboration of tunable refractive surfaces for potential applications in robotics.

  6. Electrical and optical characterization of the influence of chemical bath deposition time and temperature on CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 junction properties in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Han-Kyu; Ok, Eun-A; Kim, Won-Mok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Dong Wha; Cho, Hoon Young; Jeong, Jeung-hyun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of varying the conditions for the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of cadmium sulfide (CdS) layers on CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) hetero-junctions were investigated using photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and red-light-illuminated current-voltage (I–V) measurements. We demonstrated that varying CBD-CdS conditions such as the temperature and time influenced the recombination pathways around the CdS/CIGS junction via the formation of different electronic defects, which eventually changed the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. As the CBD-CdS time and temperature were increased, the cell efficiency decreased. PL measurements revealed that this degradation of the cell efficiency was accompanied by increases in the defect-related recombination, which were attributed to the existence of donor defects around CdS/CIGS having an energy level of 0.65 eV below conduction band, as revealed by DLTS. Increasing distortions in the red-light-illuminated I–V characteristics suggested that the related defects might also have played a critical role in metastable changes around the CdS/CIGS junction. Because the CBD-CdS time and temperature were considered to influence the diffusion of impurities into the CIGS surface, the evolution of the efficiency, PL spectra, defect populations, and red-light-illuminated I–V characteristics observed in this work could be attributed to the diffusion of impurities during the CBD-CdS process. - Highlights: • CdS layers were grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). • The CBD-CdS influenced the efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) solar cell. • It could be related to slight alteration in carrier recombination around CdS/CIGS. • Photo- and electroluminescence spectra detected those alterations in recombination. • The variation of results could be related to the changes in deep-level defects

  7. Free-space optical channel characterization in a coastal environment

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2017-12-28

    Recently, FSO (Free-Space Optical Communication) has received a lot of attention thanks to its high data-rate transmission via unbounded unlicensed bandwidth. However, some weather conditions lead to significant degradation of the FSO link performance. Based on this context and in order to have a better understanding of the capabilities of FSO communication in a coastal environment, the effects of temperature and humidity on an FSO system are investigated in this study. An experiment is conducted using an open source FSO system that achieves a transmission rate of 1 Gbit/s at a distance of 70 m. Two new mathematical models are proposed to represent the effects of temperature and humidity on our developed FSO system operating at a wavelength of 1 550 nm. The first model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the air temperature in coastal regions, while the second model links the FSO attenuation coeffcient to the humidity and the dew-point temperature. The key finding of this study is that FSO links can achieve maximum availability in a coastal city with normal variations in temperature and humidity.

  8. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W., E-mail: weihexu@bnl.gov; Bouet, N.; Zhou, J.; Yan, H.; Huang, X.; Chu, Y. S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-06-27

    We have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  9. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W.; Bouet, N.; Zhou, J.; Yan, H.; Huang, X.; Chu, Y. S.

    2016-06-27

    We have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  10. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 1...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  11. Development and Performance Evaluation of Optical Sensors for High Temperature Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, G.; Varga, D.; Floyd, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses fiber optic sensors designed and constructed to withstand extreme temperatures of aircraft engine. The paper describes development and performance evaluation of fiber optic Bragg grating based sensors. It also describes the design and presents test results of packaged sensors subjected to temperatures up to 1000 C for prolonged periods of time.

  12. Thermo-optic characteristic of DNA thin solid film and its application as a biocompatible optical fiber temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Jung, Woohyun; Nazari, Tavakol; Song, Sanggwon; Kim, Taeoh; Quan, Chai; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2017-05-15

    We report unique thermo-optical characteristics of DNA-Cetyl tri-methyl ammonium (DNA-CTMA) thin solid film with a large negative thermo-optical coefficient of -3.4×10-4/°C in the temperature range from 20°C to 70°C without any observable thermal hysteresis. By combining this thermo-optic DNA film and fiber optic multimode interference (MMI) device, we experimentally demonstrated a highly sensitive compact temperature sensor with a large spectral shift of 0.15 nm/°C. The fiber optic MMI device was a concatenated structure with single-mode fiber (SMF)-coreless silica fiber (CSF)-single mode fiber (SMF) and the DNA-CTMA film was deposited on the CSF. The spectral shifts of the device in experiments were compared with the beam propagation method, which showed a good agreement.

  13. Measurement of Machining Temperature Using Infrared Radiation Pyrometer With Optical Fiber: Characteristics of Pyrometer

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 隆司; 金田, 泰幸; 佐藤, 昌彦; 杉田, 忠彰

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of a new type of infrared radiation pyrometer using an optical fiber are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The structure of this pyrometer is that the optical fiber accepts the infrared flux radiated from the object and transmits it to an infrared detector InSb cell. This I. R. P. is suitable for measuring the temperature of a very small object whose temperature changes rapidly. The flexibility of the optical fiber also makes it possible to measure...

  14. Temperature sensing based on multimodal interference in polymer optical fibers: Room-temperature sensitivity enhancement by annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Tomohito; Numata, Goki; Lee, Heeyoung; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2017-07-01

    To date, we have developed a temperature sensor based on multimodal interference in a polymer optical fiber (POF) with an extremely high sensitivity. Here, we experimentally evaluate the influence of annealing (heat treatment) of the POF on the temperature sensitivity at room temperature. We show that the temperature sensitivity is enhanced with increasing annealing temperature, and that, by annealing the POF at 90 °C, we can achieve a temperature sensitivity of +2.17 nm/°C, which is 2.9 times larger than that without annealing (+0.75 nm/°C).

  15. Implementation of Optical Characterization for Flexible Organic Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskarakis, A.; Logothetidis, S.

    One of the most rapidly evolving sectors of the modern science and technology is the flexible organic electronic devices (FEDs) that are expected to significantly improve and revolutionize our everyday life. The FED application includes the generation of electricity by renewable sources (by organic photovoltaic cells - OPVs), power storage (thin film batteries), the visualization of information (by organic displays), the working and living environment (ambient lighting, sensors), safety, market (smart labels, radio frequency identification tags - RFID), textiles (smart fabrics with embedded display and sensor capabilities), as well as healthcare (smart sensors for vital sign monitoring), etc. Although there has been important progresses in inorganic-based Si devices, there are numerous advances in the organic (semiconducting, conducting), inorganic, and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials that exhibit desirable properties and stability, and in the synthesis and preparation methods. The understanding of the organic material properties can lead to the fast progress of the functionality and performance of FEDs. The investigation of the optical properties of these materials can promote the understanding of the optical, electrical, structural properties of organic semiconductors and electrodes and can contribute to the optimization of the synthesis process and the tuning of their structure and morphology. In this chapter, we will describe briefly some of the advances toward the implementation of optical characterization methods, such as Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) from the infrared to the visible and ultraviolet spectral region for the study of materials (flexible polymer substrates, barrier layers, transparent electrodes) to be used for application in the fabrication of FEDs.

  16. Optical Characterization of Zinc Modified Bismuth Silicate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Parmar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical characterization of glass samples in the system 40SiO2 · xZnO · (60-xBi2O3 with x=0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 prepared by conventional melt-quench technique has been carried out in the light of Hydrogenic Excitonic Model (HEM. The absorption coefficient spectra show good agreement with theoretical HEM for the present glass system and the values of different parameters like Eg, R, Γ1, Γc, and Co have been estimated from fitting of this model. The values of energy band gap estimated from fitting of HEM with experimental data are in good agreement with those obtained from Tauc’s plot for direct transitions. The band gap energy is found to increase with increase of ZnO content. The decrease in values of Urbach energy with increase in ZnO content indicates a decrease in defect concentration in the glass matrix on addition of ZnO content. Optical constants n and k obey k-k consistency and the dielectric response of the studied glass system is similar to that obtained for Classical Electron Theory of Dielectric Materials. The calculated values of the metallization criterion (M show that the synthesized glasses may be good candidates for new nonlinear optical materials.

  17. Posterior lattice degeneration characterized by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Varsha; Taha, Mohammed; Fujimoto, James G; Duker, Jay S

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography in the characterization of retinal and vitreal morphological changes overlying posterior lattice degeneration. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was performed on 13 eyes of 13 nonconsecutive subjects with posterior lattice degeneration seen at the New England Eye Center, Tufts Medical Center between October 2009 and January 2010. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images taken through the region of lattice degeneration were qualitatively analyzed. Four characteristic changes of the retina and vitreous were seen in the 13 eyes with lattice degeneration: 1) anterior/posterior U-shaped vitreous traction; 2) retinal breaks; 3) focal retinal thinning; and 4) vitreous membrane formation. The morphologic appearance of vitreous traction and retinal breaks were found to be consistent with previous histologic reports. It is possible to image posterior lattice degeneration in many eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and to visualize the spectrum of retinal and vitreous changes throughout the area of lattice degeneration.

  18. Spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of nanostructured optically transparent carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, Tomás E; Garcia, Carlos D

    2013-07-01

    The present paper describes the results related to the optical and electrochemical characterization of thin carbon films fabricated by spin coating and pyrolysis of AZ P4330-RS photoresist. The goal of this paper is to provide comprehensive information allowing for the rational selection of the conditions to fabricate optically transparent carbon electrodes (OTCE) with specific electrooptical properties. According to our results, these electrodes could be appropriate choices as electrochemical transducers to monitor electrophoretic separations. At the core of this manuscript is the development and critical evaluation of a new optical model to calculate the thickness of the OTCE by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Such data were complemented with topography and roughness (obtained by atomic force microscopy), electrochemical properties (obtained by cyclic voltammetry), electrical properties (obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and structural composition (obtained by Raman spectroscopy). Although the described OTCE were used as substrates to investigate the effect of electrode potential on the real-time adsorption of proteins by ellipsometry, these results could enable the development of other biosensors that can be then integrated into various CE platforms. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optical distributed sensors for feedback control: Characterization of photorefractive resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indebetouw, Guy; Lindner, D. K.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the project was to explore, define, and assess the possibilities of optical distributed sensing for feedback control. This type of sensor, which may have some impacts in the dynamic control of deformable structures and the monitoring of small displacements, can be divided into data acquisition, data processing, and control design. Analogue optical techniques, because they are noninvasive and afford massive parallelism may play a significant role in the acquisition and the preprocessing of the data for such a sensor. Assessing these possibilities was the aim of the first stage of this project. The scope of the proposed research was limited to: (1) the characterization of photorefractive resonators and the assessment of their possible use as a distributed optical processing element; and (2) the design of a control system utilizing signals from distributed sensors. The results include a numerical and experimental study of the resonator below threshold, an experimental study of the effect of the resonator's transverse confinement on its dynamics above threshold, a numerical study of the resonator above threshold using a modal expansion approach, and the experimental test of this model. A detailed account of each investigation, including methodology and analysis of the results are also included along with reprints of published and submitted papers.

  20. Development and Characterization of Temperature-resistant Polymer Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Acid-doped PBI polymer electrolyte membranes have been developed and characterized for fuel cell applications at temperatures up to 200°C. Electric conductivity as high as 0.13 S/cm is obtained at 160°C at high doping levels. The water osmotic drag coefficient of the polymer electrolyte is found...

  1. Thermal characterization of submicron polyacrylonitrile fibers based on optical heating and electrical thermal sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jinbo; Wang Xinwei; Zhang Lijun

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the thermal diffusivity of single submicron (∼800 nm) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers is characterized using the recently developed optical heating and electrical thermal sensing technique. In the experiment, a thin Au film (approximately in the nanometer range) is coated on the surface of nonconductive PAN fibers. A periodically modulated laser beam is used to irradiate suspended individual fibers to achieve noncontact periodical heating. The periodical temperature response of the sample is monitored by measuring the electrical resistance variation of the thin Au coating. The experimental results for three different synthesized PAN fibers with varying Au coating thickness are presented and discussed

  2. Optical characterization of a-Si:H thin films grown by Hg-Photo-CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.; Karbal, S.; M'Gafad, N.; Benmakhlouf, A.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Aka, B.M.

    2006-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides some experimental data resulting from the optical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films grown by this deposition technique. Experiments have been performed on both as-deposited layers and thermal annealed ones. (author) [fr

  3. Characterization of Material Response During Arc-Jet Testing with Optical Methods Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of ablation and recession of heat shield materials during arc jet testing is an important step towards understanding the governing processes during these tests and therefore for a successful extrapolation of ground test data to flight. The behavior of ablative heat shield materials in a ground-based arc jet facility is usually monitored through measurement of temperature distributions (across the surface and in-depth), and through measurement of the final surface recession. These measurements are then used to calibrate/validate materials thermal response codes, which have mathematical models with reasonably good fidelity to the physics and chemistry of ablation, and codes thus calibrated are used for predicting material behavior in flight environments. However, these thermal measurements only indirectly characterize the pyrolysis processes within an ablative material pyrolysis is the main effect during ablation. Quantification of pyrolysis chemistry would therefore provide more definitive and useful data for validation of the material response codes. Information of the chemical products of ablation, to various levels of detail, can be obtained using optical methods. Suitable optical methods to measure the shape and composition of these layers (with emphasis on the blowing layer) during arc jet testing are: 1) optical emission spectroscopy (OES) 2) filtered imaging 3) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and 4) absorption spectroscopy. Several attempts have been made to optically measure the material response of ablative materials during arc-jet testing. Most recently, NH and OH have been identified in the boundary layer of a PICA ablator. These species are suitable candidates for a detection through PLIF which would enable a spatially-resolved characterization of the blowing layer in terms of both its shape and composition. The recent emission spectroscopy data will be presented and future experiments for a qualitative and quantitative

  4. Optical characterization of RTV615 silicone rubber compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Huber, G. M.

    2014-07-01

    Room Temperature Vulcanized (RTV) silicone compounds are commonly used to bond optical components. For our application, we needed to identify an adhesive with good ultraviolet transmission characteristics, to couple photomultipliers to quartz windows in a Heavy Gas Čerenkov detector that is being constructed for Experimental Hall C of Jefferson Lab to provide π/K separation up to 11 GeV/c. To this end, we present the light transmission results for Momentive RTV615 silicone rubber compound for wavelengths between 195-400 nm, obtained with an adapted reflectivity apparatus at Jefferson Lab. All samples cured at room temperature have transmissions ~ 93% for wavelengths between 360-400 nm and fall sharply below 230 nm. Wavelength dependent absorption coefficients were extracted with four samples of different thicknesses cured at normal temperature (25° C for 7 days). The absorption coefficient drops approximately two orders in magnitude from 220-400 nm, exhibiting distinct regions of flattening near 250 nm and 330 nm. We also investigated the effect of a high temperature curing method (100° C for 1 hour) and found 5-10% better transmission than with the normal method. The effect was more significant with larger sample thickness (3.35 mm) over the wavelength range of 220-280 nm.

  5. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  6. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  7. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R.; Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.; Garde, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 − σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper

  8. Optical fibre temperature sensor technology and potential application in absorbed dose calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.D.; Hargrave, N.J.

    1992-09-01

    Optical fibre based sensors are proposed as a potential alternative to the thermistors traditionally used as temperature sensors in absorbed dose calorimetry. The development of optical fibre temperature sensor technology over the last ten years is reviewed. The potential resolution of various optical techniques is assessed with particular reference to the requirements of absorbed dose calorimetry. Attention is drawn to other issues which would require investigation before the development of practical optical fibre sensors for this purpose could occur. 192 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Modal-interference-based temperature sensing using plastic optical fibers: markedly enhanced sensitivity near glass-transition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Goki; Hayashi, Neisei; Tabaru, Marie; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-07-01

    We developed strain and temperature sensors based on multimode interference in perfluorinated graded-index (GI) plastic optical fibers, and investigate their sensing performance at 1300 nm. At room temperature, we achieve ultra-high sensitivities of strain and temperature of -112 pm/μɛ and +49.8 nm/°C/m, the absolute value of which are approximately 7.2 and over 1800 times as large as those in silica GI multimode fibers, respectively. We also find that the temperature sensitivity is drastically enhanced with increasing temperature toward ~80 °C, where phase transition of core polymer partially occurs.

  10. Zeonex-PMMA microstructured polymer optical FBGs for simultaneous humidity and temperature sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Pedersen, Jens Kristian Mølgaard; Fasano, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    ) is based on two separate in-line fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) inscribed in the fabricated mPOF. A root mean square deviation of 0.8% RH and 0.6°C in the range of 10%-90% RH and 20°C-80°C was found. The developed mPOFBG sensor constitutes an efficient route toward low-cost, easy-to-fabricate and compact......In this Letter, we report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the fabrication and characterization of a Zeonex/PMMA microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) Bragg grating sensor for simultaneous monitoring of relative humidity (RH) and temperature. The sensing element (probe...

  11. Optical characterization of powders: the use of Mie theory and composite media models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garoff, S.; Hanson, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The measurement of the optical response of materials occurring as finely divided powders is difficult due to the complex interaction of the optical wave with the material. Guided by methods used to study the optical properties of composite media, we have developed experimental and theoretical techniques for characterizing the optical properties of powders. We have applied these techniques to two supported catalysts and have observed several optical effects arising from the very small particle size of these materials

  12. Wide-range temperature dependences of Brillouin scattering properties in polymer optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Kazunari; Hayashi, Neisei; Shinohara, Yuri; Tahara, Masaki; Hosoda, Hideki; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the temperature dependences of the Brillouin scattering properties in a perfluorinated graded-index (PFGI-) polymer optical fiber (POF) in a wide temperature range from -160 to 125 °C. The temperature dependences of the Brillouin frequency shift, linewidth, and Stokes power are almost linear at lower temperature down to -160 °C while they show nonlinear dependences at higher temperature. These behaviors appear to originate from the partial glass transition of the polymer material.

  13. Temperature-dependent optical potential and mean free path based on Skyrme interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lingxiao; Zhuo Yizhong; Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1986-03-01

    Optical potentials and mean free paths of nucleons at finite temperatures are studied by utilizing effective Skyrme interactions which yield 'good' optical potentials at zero temperature. The results for nuclear matter (symmetric and asymmetric) are applied within the local density approximation of finite nuclei at various temperatures. Because of the limitation due to zero-range forces used and the assumptions of temperature independent nuclear densities and effective Skyrme interactions made, the calculations are expected to be limited to nucleon energies between 10 and 50 MeV above the Fermi energy and to nuclear temperatures of less than 8 MeV. (orig.)

  14. Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystals: Temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-09-14

    Optical limiting properties of the single crystals of cadmium iodide are investigated using ns laser pulses. It is found that the transmissions in the crystals increase with increasing temperature. However, they limit the transmissions at high input powers. The limiting power is found to be higher at higher temperature. From the measured transmission data, the photon absorption coefficients are estimated. The temperature dependence of the coefficients shows a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature. This might be due to the temperature-dependent bandgap shift of the material. The results demonstrate that the cadmium iodide single crystals are promising materials for applications in optical power limiting devices.

  15. Optical power limiting and transmitting properties of cadmium iodide single crystals: Temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Optical limiting properties of the single crystals of cadmium iodide are investigated using ns laser pulses. It is found that the transmissions in the crystals increase with increasing temperature. However, they limit the transmissions at high input powers. The limiting power is found to be higher at higher temperature. From the measured transmission data, the photon absorption coefficients are estimated. The temperature dependence of the coefficients shows a decrease in magnitude with increasing temperature. This might be due to the temperature-dependent bandgap shift of the material. The results demonstrate that the cadmium iodide single crystals are promising materials for applications in optical power limiting devices.

  16. Optical characterization of wide-gap detector-grade semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshazly, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Wide bandgap semiconductors are being widely investigated because they have the potential to satisfy the stringent material requirements of high resolution, room temperature gamma-ray spectrometers. In particular, Cadmium Zinc Telluride (Cd 1-x Zn x Te, x∼0.1) and Thallium Bromide (Tl Br), due to their combination of high resistivity, high atomic number and good electron mobility, have became very promising candidates for use in X- and gamma-ray detectors operating at room temperature. In this study, carrier trapping times were measured in CZT and Tl Br as a function of temperature and material quality. Carrier lifetimes and tellurium inclusion densities were measured in detector-grade Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) crystals grown by the High Pressure Bridgman method and Modified Bridgman method. Excess carriers were produced in the material using a pulsed YAG laser with a 1064 nm wavelength and 7 ns pulse width. Infrared microscopy was used to measure the tellurium defect densities in CZT crystals. The electronic decay was optically measured at room temperature. Spatial mapping of lifetimes and defect densities in CZT was performed to determine the relationship between defect density and electronic decay. A significant and strong correlation was found between the volume fraction of tellurium inclusions and the carrier trapping time. Carrier trapping times and tellurium inclusions were measured in CZT in the temperature range from 300 K to 110 K and the results were analyzed using a theoretical trapping model. Spatial mapping of carrier trapping times and defect densities in CZT was performed to determine the relationship between defect density and electronic decay. While a strong correlation between trapping time and defect density of tellurium inclusions was observed, there was no significant change in the trap energy. Carrier trapping times were measured in detector grade thallium bromide (Tl Br) and compared with the results for cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) in

  17. Temperature Stabilized Characterization of High Voltage Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Krarup, Ole

    2017-01-01

    High precision measurements of the masses of nuclear ions in the ISOLTRAP experiment relies on an MR-ToF. A major source of noise and drift is the instability of the high voltage power supplies employed. Electrical noise and temperature changes can broaden peaks in time-of-flight spectra and shift the position of peaks between runs. In this report we investigate how the noise and drift of high-voltage power supplies can be characterized. Results indicate that analog power supplies generally have better relative stability than digitally controlled ones, and that the high temperature coefficients of all power supplies merit efforts to stabilize them.

  18. Growth and characterization of L-alanine cadmium bromide a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilayabarathi, P; Chandrasekaran, J

    2012-10-01

    A new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal, l-alanine cadmium bromide (LACB) was grown from aqueous solution by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature. As grown crystals were characterized for its spectral, thermal, linear and second order nonlinear optical properties. LACB crystallizes in orthorhombic system and unit cell parameters a=5.771(2)Å, b=6.014(4)Å, c=12.298(2)Å, α=β=γ=90° and volume=426.8(3)Å(3). The mode of vibrations of different molecular groups present in the crystal was identified by FTIR study. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. The thermal strength and the decomposition of the grown crystals were studied using TG/DTA and DSC analysis. Dielectric measurement revealed that the crystals had very low dielectric constant at higher frequency in room temperature. The mechanical behavior was studied by Vicker's microhardness tester. The grown crystal has negative photoconductivity nature. The fluorescence spectrum of the crystal was recorded and its optical band gap is about 3.356 eV. The NLO property of crystal using modified Kurtz-Perry powder technique with Nd:YAG laser light of wavelength 1064nm indicated that their second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was half that of pure KDP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis, growth, structural characterization, Hirshfeld analysis and nonlinear optical studies of a methyl substituted chalcone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Shobha R.; Jayarama, A.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Upadhyaya, V.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2017-05-01

    A new chalcone compound (2E)-3-(3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (3MPNP) with molecular formula C16H13NO3 has been synthesized and crystallized by slow solvent evaporation technique. The Fourier transform infrared, Fourier transform Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used for structural characterization. UV-visible absorption studies were carried out to study the transparency of the crystal in the visible region. Differential scanning calorimetry study shows thermal stability of crystals up to temperature 122 °C. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction techniques were used to study crystal structure and cell parameters. The Hirshfeld surface and 2-D fingerprint analysis were performed to study the nature of interactions and their quantitative contributions towards the crystal packing. The third order non-linear optical properties have been studied using single beam Z-scan technique and the results show that the material is a potential candidate for optical device applications such as optical limiters and optical switches.

  20. Synthesis and optical characterization of carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md. Mahfuzur, E-mail: mrahman@masdar.ac.ae [Institute Centre for Energy (iEnergy), Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Younes, Hammad [Institute Centre for Energy (iEnergy), Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ni, George [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zhang, TieJun [Institute Centre for Energy (iEnergy), Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Al Ghaferi, Amal, E-mail: aalghaferi@masdar.ac.ae [Institute Centre for Energy (iEnergy), Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Controlling metallicity and vertical alignment of CNT forest by changing hydrogen catalyst annealing time and growth pressure. • Verifying metallicity using Raman spectroscopy of top CNT layer. • Optical characterization of CNT forest using UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer. - Abstract: Catalyst annealing time and growth pressure play a crucial role in the chiral selective and high-efficiency growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) during low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). We achieved a high growth rates for SWCNTs and a change the chiral distribution towards metallic (n, m) increasing the catalyst annealing time in hydrogen. A strong correlation is revealed between the catalyst annealing time at lower growth pressures and the shape of the G band, which indicates the metallic or semiconducting nature of the SWCNT and predict the chirality distribution. Under a 15 min annealing time and 10 mbar of growth pressure, the bottom of the G band is broadened with a sharp G{sup −} peak, and the G-band exhibited asymmetrical Breit–Wigner–Fano (BWF) shape. In addition, the growth of SWCNTs with smaller diameters and rich in metallic character is confirmed by the shift of the G-band to a smaller Raman frequency. Homogeneity and vertical alignment of as-grown SWCNT arrays are optically studied using UV/vis/NIR Spectrophotometer. Wavelength-independent and low reflectance resulted from the growth of uniform arrays of SWCNTs. Because of their tunable electronic and optical properties, selective growth of SWCNTs promises great application potential, particularly in electronics and solar industries.

  1. Mechanical characterization of composite materials by optical techniques: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Luigi

    2018-05-01

    The present review provides an overview of work published in recent years dealing with the mechanical characterization of composite materials performed by optical techniques. The paper emphasizes the strengths derived from the employment of full-field methods when the strain field of an anisotropic material must be evaluated. This is framed in contrast to the use of conventional measurement techniques, which provide single values of the measured quantities unable to offer thorough descriptions of deformation distribution. The review outlines the intensity and articulation of work in this research field to date and its ongoing importance not only in the academy, but also in industrial sectors where composite materials represent a strategic resource for development.

  2. Optical and Structural Characterizations of GaN Nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekari, L.; Abu Hassan, H.; Thahab, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    We have grown wurtzite GaN nano wires (NWs) on polished silicon (Si) either with or without Au as catalyst, using commercial GaN powder by thermal evaporation in an atmosphere of argon (Ar) gas. Structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nano wires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN and the nano wires on Si with Au catalyst are more oriented than those without Au catalyst; and using catalyst make the NWs grow much faster and quite well-ordered. The compositional quality of the grown nano wires on the substrates are mostly same, however the nano wires on the Au coated silicon are of low density, while the nano wires on the Si are of high density. (author)

  3. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  4. Introduction to optical methods for characterizing liquid crystals at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel S; Carlton, Rebecca J; Mushenheim, Peter C; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2013-03-12

    This Instructional Review describes methods and underlying principles that can be used to characterize both the orientations assumed spontaneously by liquid crystals (LCs) at interfaces and the strength with which the LCs are held in those orientations (so-called anchoring energies). The application of these methods to several different classes of LC interfaces is described, including solid and aqueous interfaces as well as planar and nonplanar interfaces (such as those that define a LC-in-water emulsion droplet). These methods, which enable fundamental studies of the ordering of LCs at polymeric, chemically functionalized, and biomolecular interfaces, are described in this Instructional Review on a level that can be easily understood by a nonexpert reader such as an undergraduate or graduate student. We focus on optical methods because they are based on instrumentation that is found widely in research and teaching laboratories.

  5. Optical Characterization of Different Thin Film Module Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ebner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a complete quality control of different thin film module technologies (a-Si, CdTe, and CIS a combination of fast and nondestructive methods was investigated. Camera-based measurements, such as electroluminescence (EL, photoluminescence (PL, and infrared (IR technologies, offer excellent possibilities for determining production failures or defects in solar modules which cannot be detected by means of standard power measurements. These types of optical measurement provide high resolution images with a two-dimensional distribution of the characteristic features of PV modules. This paper focuses on quality control and characterization using EL, PL, and IR imaging with conventional cameras and an alternative excitation source for the PL-setup.

  6. Structural and optical characterization of the propolis films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapak, S.I. [Frantsevich Institute of Materials Science Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chernivtsi Department, 5 Iryna Vilde Str., 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine)]. E-mail: drapak@unicom.cv.ua; Bakhtinov, A.P. [Frantsevich Institute of Materials Science Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chernivtsi Department, 5 Iryna Vilde Str., 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Gavrylyuk, S.V. [Frantsevich Institute of Materials Science Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chernivtsi Department, 5 Iryna Vilde Str., 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Drapak, I.T. [Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynskii Str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Kovalyuk, Z.D. [Frantsevich Institute of Materials Science Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Chernivtsi Department, 5 Iryna Vilde Str., 58001 Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2006-10-31

    We have performed structural and optical characterizations of the propolis (an organic entity of biological nature) films grown on various non-organic substrates. The films were grown from a propolis melt or a propolis alcohol solution. The crystal structure has been observed in the films precipitated from the solution onto substrates such as an amorphous glass and sapphire or semiconductor indium monoselenide. For any growth method, the propolis film is a semiconductor with the bandgap of 3.07 eV at 300 K that is confirmed by a maximum in photoluminescence spectra at 2.86 eV. We argue that propolis films might be used in various optoelectronic device applications.

  7. Ytterbium optical lattice clock with 10-18 level characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathaniel; Sherman, Jeff; Beloy, Kyle; Hinkley, Nathan; Schioppo, Marco; Oates, Chris; Ludlow, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    A recent comparison of two ytterbium-based optical lattice clocks at NIST demonstrated record stability of 1 . 6 parts in 1018 after 25,000s averaging. We report on measurements of the two primary systematic effects that shift the ultra-narrow clock transition, towards a reduction of the clock uncertainty to the 10-18 level. Uncertainty stemming from the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift is largely due to imprecise knowledge of the thermal environment surrounding the atoms. We detail the construction and operation of an in-vacuum, thermally-regulated radiation shield, which permits laser cooling and trapping while enabling an absolute temperature measurement with mK precision. Additionally, while operation of the optical lattice at the magic wavelength (λm) cancels the scalar Stark shift (since both clock states shift equally), higher-order vector and two-photon hyperpolarizability shifts remain. To evaluate these effects, as well as the polarizability away from λm, we implement a lattice buildup cavity around the atoms. The resulting twenty-fold enhancement of the lattice intensity provides a significant lever arm for precise measurement of these effects.

  8. Characterization of Flexible Copolymer Optical Fibers for Force Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas J. Scherer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different polymer optical fibres for applications in force sensing systems in textile fabrics are reported. The proposed method is based on the deflection of the light in fibre waveguides. Applying a force on the fibre changes the geometry and affects the wave guiding properties and hence induces light loss in the optical fibre. Fibres out of three different elastic and transparent copolymer materials were successfully produced and tested. Moreover, the influence of the diameter on the sensing properties was studied. The detectable force ranges from 0.05 N to 40 N (applied on 3 cm of fibre length, which can be regulated with the material and the diameter of the fibre. The detected signal loss varied from 0.6% to 78.3%. The fibres have attenuation parameters between 0.16–0.25 dB/cm at 652 nm. We show that the cross-sensitivies to temperature, strain and bends are low. Moreover, the high yield strength (0.0039–0.0054 GPa and flexibility make these fibres very attractive candidates for integration into textiles to form wearable sensors, medical textiles or even computing systems.

  9. Optical-Based Artificial Palpation Sensors for Lesion Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jun Park

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Palpation techniques are widely used in medical procedures to detect the presence of lumps or tumors in the soft breast tissues. Since these procedures are very subjective and depend on the skills of the physician, it is imperative to perform detailed a scientific study in order to develop more efficient medical sensors to measure and generate palpation parameters. In this research, we propose an optical-based, artificial palpation sensor for lesion characterization. This has been developed using a multilayer polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide. Light was generated at the critical angle to reflect totally within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide was compressed by an external force, its contact area would deform and cause the light to scatter. The scattered light was captured by a high-resolution camera and saved as an image format. To test the performance of the proposed system, we used a realistic tissue phantom with embedded hard inclusions. The experimental results show that the proposed sensor can detect inclusions and provide the relative value of size, depth, and Young’s modulus of an inclusion.

  10. Optical and electrical characterizations of cerium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Fu-Chien; Lai, Chih-Ming, E-mail: fcchiu@mail.mcu.edu.t [Department of Electronic Engineering, Ming Chuan University, No. 5, De Ming Rd., Gui Shan District, Taoyuan County 333, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-24

    The optical dielectric function of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) was characterized by the spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique using the Kramers-Kronig relation and the Tauc-Lorentz (TL) dispersion model. Experimental results showed that the bandgap energy and refractive index at 632.8 nm of CeO{sub 2} are about 3.23 {+-} 0.05 eV and 2.33 {+-} 0.08, respectively. Based on the optical properties, the electrical conduction mechanisms in CeO{sub 2} thin films are determined to be Schottky emission in a medium electric field (0.5-1.6 MV cm{sup -1}) from 350 to 500 K and Poole-Frenkel emission in a high electric field (>2.36 MV cm{sup -1}) from 450 to 500 K. Accordingly, the conduction band offsets between Al and CeO{sub 2} and the trap energy level are about 0.62 {+-} 0.01 eV and 1.53 {+-} 0.01 eV, respectively.

  11. The fabrication and characterization of high temperature superconducting magnetic shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purpura, J.W.; Clem, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    Tubes fabricated of polycrystalline YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ are characterized and details of the fabrication procedure are discussed. The microstructure of the tubes determined by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry is described. Resistive measurements of T/sub c/ and /Delta/T/sub c/ have been made. The tubes have also been characterized by means of SQUID magnetometry. The temperature dependence of magnetic fields trapped axially in the tubes has been measured and estimates of penetration depth are given. Moreover, measurements of transverse shielding effectiveness of the tubes have been made and are compared with theoretical predictions. Studies on flux penetration into the tubes are described. Findings from the microstructure studies are correlated with the observed superconductivity properties. The results on the high temperature materials are compared to results obtained previously on tubes made from conventional superconductors.

  12. Modification of an RBF ANN-Based Temperature Compensation Model of Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianhua; Qi, Bing; Chen, Daidai; Landry, René

    2015-05-13

    This paper presents modification of Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBF ANN)-based temperature compensation models for Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscopes (IFOGs). Based on the mathematical expression of IFOG output, three temperature relevant terms are extracted, which include: (1) temperature of fiber loops; (2) temperature variation of fiber loops; (3) temperature product term of fiber loops. Then, the input-modified RBF ANN-based temperature compensation scheme is established, in which temperature relevant terms are transferred to train the RBF ANN. Experimental temperature tests are conducted and sufficient data are collected and post-processed to form the novel RBF ANN. Finally, we apply the modified RBF ANN based on temperature compensation model in two IFOGs with temperature compensation capabilities. The experimental results show the proposed temperature compensation model could efficiently reduce the influence of environment temperature on the output of IFOG, and exhibit a better temperature compensation performance than conventional scheme without proposed improvements.

  13. Optical characterization of water masses within the Columbia River plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2012-11-01

    The Columbia River plume (CRP) is a buoyant plume that influences the Oregon and Washington shelf with the delivery of freshwater, silicic acid, trace metals, and particulate and dissolved organic matter. The highly dynamic plume contains submesoscale features that have an impact on the chemistry, biology, and transport of water and material offshore. Bio-optical classification of the larger plume water mass has confirmed seasonal and annual flow patterns but has not described the internal structure of the plume in a biogeochemically relevant way, as there were no in situ data to validate classification. The objectives of this study were to define water types statistically within the CRP using in situ measurements of biogeochemically and bio-optically relevant variables, to build a training data set from these water types, and to apply this training data set to 250 m resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua imagery from an oceanographically downwelling and upwelling period to predictively discriminate water masses within the plume. This study's classification technique was effective at predicting water types in the CRP. The three-variable input matrix (temperature, salinity, and chlorophyllafluorescence) performed better than the two-variable input matrix (temperature and salinity) at distinguishing fine-scale structure within the plume at the river mouth. Retentive features such as the plume bulge and eddies were observed at the river mouth and on the Washington shelf. This classification approach was limited to the available continuous variables measured by shipboard, mooring, and satellite sensors. Two new classification methods are proposed that build on the framework of the classifier described here.

  14. Asymptotic solutions of glass temperature profiles during steady optical fibre drawing

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2013-03-12

    In this paper we derive realistic simplified models for the high-speed drawing of glass optical fibres via the downdraw method that capture the fluid dynamics and heat transport in the fibre via conduction, convection and radiative heating. We exploit the small aspect ratio of the fibre and the relative orders of magnitude of the dimensionless parameters that characterize the heat transfer to reduce the problem to one- or two-dimensional systems via asymptotic analysis. The resulting equations may be readily solved numerically and in many cases admit exact analytic solutions. The systematic asymptotic breakdown presented is used to elucidate the relative importance of furnace temperature profile, convection, surface radiation and conduction in each portion of the furnace and the role of each in controlling the glass temperature. The models derived predict many of the qualitative features observed in real industrial processes, such as the glass temperature profile within the furnace and the sharp transition in fibre thickness. The models thus offer a desirable route to quick scenario testing, providing valuable practical information about the dependencies of the solution on the parameters and the dominant heat-transport mechanism. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  15. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  16. Anomalously temperature-independent birefringence in biaxial optical crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechin, Sergei G; Dmitriev, Valentin G; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Pryalkin, Vladimir I

    2000-01-01

    Temperature-independent birefringence in a biaxial crystal was predicted theoretically and observed experimentally for the first time. The width of the plot against temperature (the range corresponding to the temperature independence of the birefringence) at a fundamental radiation wavelength of 632.8 nm in a KTP crystal 5.9 mm long was more than 160 0 C. (letters to the editor)

  17. Effects of Temperature and X-rays on Plastic Scintillating Fiber and Infrared Optical Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoo, Wook Jae

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we have studied the effects of temperature and X-ray energy variations on the light output signals from two different fiber-optic sensors, a fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) based on a BCF-12 as a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) and a fiber-optic thermometer (FOT) using a silver halide optical fiber as an infrared optical fiber (IR fiber). During X-ray beam irradiation, the scintillating light and IR signals were measured simultaneously using a dosimeter probe of the FOD and a thermometer probe of the FOT. The probes were placed in a beaker with water on the center of a hotplate, under variation of the tube potential of a digital radiography system or the temperature of the water in the beaker. From the experimental results, in the case of the PSF, the scintillator light output at the given tube potential decreased as the temperature increased in the temperature range from 25 to 60 °C. We demonstrated that commonly used BCF-12 has a significant temperature dependence of -0.263 ± 0.028%/°C in the clinical temperature range. Next, in the case of the IR fiber, the intensity of the IR signal was almost uniform at each temperature regardless of the tube potential range from 50 to 150 kVp. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the X-ray beam with an energy range used in diagnostic radiology does not affect the IR signals transmitted via a silver halide optical fiber.

  18. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystals: bis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    telecommunication, optical switching, optical frequency conversion, THz generation, electro-optical and inte- grated optics.1,2 In recent times, polar aromatic organic molecules have received great attention for NLO applica- tions. However, NLO properties of several inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3, GaP have been widely ...

  19. Nanomechanical characterization of adaptive optics components in microprojectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Manuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Compact microprojectors are being developed for information display in mobile electronic devices. A key component of the microprojector is the green laser package, which consists of an adaptive optics component with a drive mechanism. A crucial concern is the mechanical wear of key drive mechanism components, such as the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) driving rod, the Zn alloy body and the stainless steel friction plate, after prolonged operation. Since friction and wear are dependent on the mechanical properties, nanoindentation experiments were conducted on these drive mechanism components using a depth-sensing nanoindenter at room and elevated temperatures up to 100 °C. The hardness and elastic modulus of all the materials studied decrease at increasing test temperatures. From plasticity index analysis, a correlation between the tendency for plastic deformation and the mechanical properties was obtained. Nanoscratch studies were also conducted in order to simulate wear, as well as examine the scratch resistance and deformation modes of these materials, where it was found that the CFRP rod exhibited the highest scratch resistance. The CFRP rod undergoes mostly brittle deformation, while the Zn alloy body and friction plate undergo plastic deformation.

  20. Rugged Low Temperature Actuators for Tunable Fabry Perot Optical Filters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During our Phase I SBIR research, we propose to integrate a novel low-temperature large-strain actuator technology into Fabry-Perot optical filters. The resulting...

  1. Rugged Low Temperature Actuators for Tunable Fabry Perot Optical Filters, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Why are rugged, low temperature actuator materials important? By themselves, they are useless; however, when fabricated into thin films and integrated into optical...

  2. Review on an Advanced High-Temperature Measurement Technology: The Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical fiber thermometry technology for high-temperature measurement is briefly reviewed in this paper. The principles, characteristics, recent progresses and advantages of the technology are described. Examples of using the technology are introduced. Many blackbody, infrared, and fluorescence optical thermometers are developed for practical applications.

  3. Characterization of the JWST Pathfinder Mirror Dynamics Using the Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C.; Hadaway, J.; Olczak, G.; Cosentino, J.; Johnston, J.; Whitman, T.; Connolly, M.; Chaney, D.; Knight, J.; Telfer, R.

    2016-01-01

    The JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) Optical Telescope Element (OTE) consists of a 6.6 meter clear aperture, 18-segment primary mirror, all-reflective, three-mirror anastigmat operating at cryogenic temperatures. To verify performance of the primary mirror, a full aperture center of curvature optical null test is performed under cryogenic conditions in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center using an instantaneous phase measuring interferometer. After phasing the mirrors during the JWST Pathfinder testing, the interferometer is utilized to characterize the mirror relative piston and tilt dynamics under different facility configurations. The correlation between the motions seen on detectors at the focal plane and the interferometer validates the use of the interferometer for dynamic investigations. The success of planned test hardware improvements will be characterized by the multi-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) at the Center of Curvature Optical Assembly (CoCOA).

  4. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); Thornburg, Jon A. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); He, Ruiqing [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  5. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  6. Metal-Coated Optical Fibers for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Jason; Murphy, Kent; Claus, Richard; Greene, Jonathan; Tran, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    A DC magnetron sputtering system has been used to actively coat optical fibers with hermetic metal coatings during the fiber draw process. Thin films of Inconel 625 have been deposited on optical fibers and annealed in air at 2000 F. Scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron microscopy have been used to investigate the morphology and composition of the films prior to and following thermal cycling. Issues to be addressed include film adhesion, other coating materials, and a discussion of additional applications for this novel technology.

  7. Applying Fibre-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Near-surface Temperature Dynamics of Broadacre Cereals During Radiant Frost Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutsel, B.; Callow, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Radiant frost events, particularly those during the reproductive stage of winter cereal growth, cost growers millions of dollars in lost yield. Whilst synoptic drivers of frost and factors influencing temperature variation at the landscape scale are relatively well understood, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding small-scale temperature dynamics within paddocks and plot trials. Other work has also suggested a potential significant temperature gradient (several degrees) vertically from ground to canopy, but this is poorly constrained experimentally. Subtle changes in temperature are important as frost damage generally occurs in a very narrow temperature range (-2 to -5°C). Once a variety's damage threshold is reached, a 1°C difference in minimum temperature can increase damage from 10 to 90%. This study applies Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) using fibre optics to understand how minimum temperature evolves during a radiant frost. DTS assesses the difference in attenuation of Raman scattering of a light pulse travelling along a fibre optic cable to measure temperature. A bend insensitive multimode fibre was deployed in a double ended duplex configuration as a "fence" run through four times of sowing at a trial site in the Western Australian Wheatbelt. The fibre optic fence was 160m long and 800mm tall with the fibre optic cable spaced 100mm apart vertically, and calibrated in ambient water ( 10 to 15oC) and a chilled glycol ( -8 to-10 oC) baths. The temperature measurements had a spatial resolution of 0.65m and temporal resolution of 60s, providing 2,215 measurements every minute. The results of this study inform our understanding of the subtle temperature changes from the soil to canopy, providing new insight into how to place traditional temperature loggers to monitor frost damage. It also addresses questions of within-trial temperature variability, and provides an example of how novel techniques such as DTS can be used to improve the way temperature

  8. Durable fiber optic sensor for gas temperature measurement in the hot section of turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregay, George W.; Calabrese, Paul R.; Finney, Mark J.; Stukey, K. B.

    1994-10-01

    An optical sensor system extends gas temperature measurement capability in turbine engines beyond the present generation of thermocouple technology. The sensing element which consists of a thermally emissive insert embedded inside a sapphire lightguide is capable of operating above the melting point of nickel-based super alloys. The emissive insert generates an optical signal as a function of temperature. Continued development has led to an optically averaged system by combining the optical signals from four individual sensing elements at a single detector assembly. The size of the signal processor module has been reduced to overall dimensions of 2 X 4 X 0.7 inches. The durability of the optical probe design has been evaluated in an electric-utility operated gas turbine under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute. The temperature probe was installed between the first stage rotor and second stage nozzle on a General Electric MS7001B turbine. The combined length of the ceramic support tube and sensing element reached 1.5 inches into the hot gas stream. A total of over 2000 hours has been accumulated at probe operation temperatures near 1600 degree(s)F. An optically averaged sensor system was designed to replace the existing four thermocouple probes on the upper half of a GE F404 aircraft turbine engine. The system was ground tested for 250 hours as part of GE Aircraft Engines IR&D Optical Engine Program. Subsequently, two flight sensor systems were shipped for use on the FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) Program. The optical harnesses, each with four optical probes, measure the exhaust gas temperature in a GE F404 engine.

  9. GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

    2012-02-12

    Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

  10. Thermally enhanced optical nonlinearity in nematic liquid crystal close to phase transition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chia-Chi; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hung, Wen-Chi; Jiang, I.-Min; Tsai, Ming-Shan

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates the beam profile and the liquid crystal (LC) arrangement affected by an optical field on LC thin films at a temperature close to nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature ( TNI). A combined microscopic and conoscopic technique was used in experiments as a convenient way to analyze the optical nonlinearity that is associated with the molecular configuration of nematic liquid crystal (NLC). An optical field combined with thermal enhancement enhances molecular reorientation and causes additional molecular excitation along the axis of propagation of the beam. The reorientational nonlinearity yields an undulating structure with multi-foci; the length between each pair of foci increases with time, as described.

  11. Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro-optic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Maxime; Gaborit, Gwenaël; Duvillaret, Lionel; Paupert, Alain; Lasserre, Jean-Louis

    2008-05-01

    We present pigtailed electro-optic probes that allow a simultaneous measurement of high frequency electric fields and temperature using a unique laser probe beam. This has been achieved by the development of a novel probe design associated with a fully automated servo-controlled optical bench, initially developed to stabilize the electric field sensor response. The developed electro-optic probes present a stable response in outdoors conditions over a time duration exceeding 1 h, a frequency bandwidth from kHz to tens of GHz with a sensitivity of 0.7 Vm(-1)Hz(-(1/2)), and a temperature accuracy of 40 mK.

  12. High throughput integrated thermal characterization with non-contact optical calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Sichao; Huo, Ruiqing; Su, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Commonly used thermal analysis tools such as calorimeter and thermal conductivity meter are separated instruments and limited by low throughput, where only one sample is examined each time. This work reports an infrared based optical calorimetry with its theoretical foundation, which is able to provide an integrated solution to characterize thermal properties of materials with high throughput. By taking time domain temperature information of spatially distributed samples, this method allows a single device (infrared camera) to determine the thermal properties of both phase change systems (melting temperature and latent heat of fusion) and non-phase change systems (thermal conductivity and heat capacity). This method further allows these thermal properties of multiple samples to be determined rapidly, remotely, and simultaneously. In this proof-of-concept experiment, the thermal properties of a panel of 16 samples including melting temperatures, latent heats of fusion, heat capacities, and thermal conductivities have been determined in 2 min with high accuracy. Given the high thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions of the advanced infrared camera, this method has the potential to revolutionize the thermal characterization of materials by providing an integrated solution with high throughput, high sensitivity, and short analysis time.

  13. Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    OBJECTIVES We proposed to characterize the physical, biological and optical fields present during deployments of the Streak Tube Imaging Lidar ...Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics David A. Phinney Bigelow Laboratory for...email: csyentsch@aol.com Grant Number: N00014-01-1-0040 LONG-TERM GOALS We wish to observe the hydrographic factors that regulate optical

  14. Temperature dependent relativistic microscopic optical potential and mean free paths of nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Zhuo Yizhong

    1993-01-01

    The relativistic microscopic optical potential, mean free paths and Schroedinger equivalent potential of nucleons at finite temperature in nuclear matter are studied based on Walecka's model and thermo field dynamics. We let only the Hartree-Fock self-energy of nucleon represent to be the real part of the microscopic optical potential and the fourth order of meson exchange diagrams, i.e. the core polarization represent the imaginary part of microscopic optical potential in nuclear matter. The microscopic optical potential of finite nuclei is obtained with the local density approximation

  15. A furnace and temperature controller for optical absorption studies with a spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani Rogat, F.

    1975-01-01

    The design and main features of a furnace with a temperature controller and programmer are shown. This system allows to measure the optical absorption spectrum of a sample from room temperature to 400 deg C, in a double beam spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer 350. The sample temperature can be linearly increased at different heating rates between 4 and 38 deg C/min. The temperature ramp can be stopped at any desired point and the sample temperature shall be stabilized in less than one minute. This temperature shall be kept constant within 0.5 deg C for hours. The sample is heated in vacuum. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Fiber Bragg Grating and Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCary, Kelly Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Fiber optic temperature sensors were evaluated in the High Temperature Test Lab (HTTL) to determine the accuracy of the measurements at various temperatures. A distributed temperature sensor was evaluated up to 550C and a fiber Bragg grating sensor was evaluated up to 750C. HTTL measurements indicate that there is a drift in fiber Bragg sensor over time of approximately -10C with higher accuracy at temperatures above 300C. The distributed sensor produced some bad data points at and above 500C but produced measurements with less than 2% error at increasing temperatures up to 400C

  17. Temperature sensing in underground facilities by Raman optical frequency domain reflectometry using fiber-optic communication cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brüne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaining information on climatic conditions in subway tunnels is the key to predicting the propagation of smoke or toxic gases in these infrastructures in the case of a fire or a terrorist attack. As anemometer measurements are not economically suitable, the employment of alternative monitoring methods is necessary. High-resolution temperature sensing with Raman optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR using optical communication fiber cables shows great potential as it allows the surveillance of several kilometers of underground transport facilities without the need for installing sensing equipment in the tunnels. This paper presents first results of a study using this approach for monitoring subway tunnels. In the Berlin subway, temperature data gathered from newly installed as well as pre-installed communication cables were evaluated and compared to reference data from temperature loggers. Results are very promising as high correlations between all data can be achieved showing the potential of this approach.

  18. A novel interferometric characterization technique for 3D analyses at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanghias, Ali; Bardong, Jochen; Pulko, Jozef; Binder, Alfred

    2018-04-01

    Advanced optical measurement techniques are always of interest for the characterization of engineered surfaces. When pressure or temperature modules are also incorporated, these techniques will turn into robust and versatile methodologies for various applications such as performance monitoring of devices in service conditions. However, some microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and MOEMS devices require performance monitoring at their final stage, i.e. enclosed or packaged. That necessitates measurements through a protective liquid, plastic, or glass, whereas the conventional objective lenses are not designed for such media. Correspondingly, in the current study, the development and tailoring of a 3D interferometer as a means for measuring the topography of reflective surfaces under transmissive media is sought. For topography measurements through glass, water and oil, compensation glass plates were designed and incorporated into the Michelson type interferometer objectives. Moreover, a customized chamber set-up featuring an optical access for the observation of the topographical changes at increasing pressure and temperature conditions was constructed and integrated into the apparatus. Conclusively, the in situ monitoring of the elastic deformation of sensing microstructures inside MEMS packages was achieved. These measurements were performed at a defined pressure (0–100 bar) and temperature (25 °C–180 °C).

  19. Ab initio model of optical properties of two-temperature warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, B.; Recoules, V.; Mazevet, S.; Torrent, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a model to describe thermophysical and optical properties of two-temperature systems consisted of heated electrons and cold ions in a solid lattice that occur during ultrafast heating experiments. Our model is based on ab initio simulations within the framework of density functional theory. The optical properties are obtained by evaluating the Kubo-Greenwood formula. By applying the material parameters of our ab initio model to a two-temperature model we are able to describe the temperature relaxation process of femtosecond-laser-heated gold and its optical properties within the same theoretical framework. Recent time-resolved measurements of optical properties of ultrafast heated gold revealed the dynamics of the interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and solid state matter. Different scenarios obtained from simulations of our study are compared with experimental data. (authors)

  20. Fiber-optic temperature sensor using a liquid crystal film for laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong-Soo; Tack, Gye-Rae; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Yi, Jeong-Han [Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyo-Sung [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    In this paper, we describe the feasibility of developing a new fiber-optic temperature sensor using a thermo-sensitive liquid crystal (LC) film for laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). The temperature change in the tissue or the tumor causes the color of the LC film in contacted with the tissue to change, and that change alters the reflectivity of the LC film. The light with a selected wavelength that is transmitted to the LC film and the optical power of the reflected light are measured using transmitting and receiving optical fibers, respectively. Also, the relationship between the temperature and the optical power of reflected light is determined using the characteristics of the LC films.

  1. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  2. Characterization of groundwater dynamics in a karstic aquifer through active and passive Fiber Optic DTS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, O.; Le Lay, H.; Simon, N.; Bodin, J.; Lavenant, N.; Nauleau, B.; Porel, G.; Le Borgne, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heat has been proposed as an excellent tracer for monitoring groundwater flows, especially in karstic aquifers which are characterized by rapid and localized flows. Here, we present some experiments that demonstrate the interest of passive and active Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS) for characterizing heterogeneities and groundwater dynamics in a karstic aquifer. The experimental tests were achieved at the Poitiers Experimental Hydrogeological Site (SEH) where groundwater flows are mainly associated with sub-horizontal karstic structures and sub-vertical fractures. The site consists in 35 boreholes drilled within a regular 210 x 210 m grid, and having an average depth of about 125 meters. The main experiments consist in monitoring temperature changes simultaneously in 3 to 4 boreholes during a pumping test. The duration of each pumping test was about 3 to 4 h, a duration that allowed obtaining a clear hydraulic response on most boreholes. Temperature was monitored every 30 seconds with a temperature resolution around 0.05°C for a spatial resolution equal either to 29 cm or 50 centimeters depending on the DTS unit. As expected, the temperature changes are highly variable from well to well. In most boreholes, one clearly observes some changes in borehole temperature that may be used to locate precisely the main permeable levels and to estimate borehole flow rates through the borehole temperature evolution. Such data are very useful to deduce the connectivity between the different karstic levels and to estimate the hydraulic properties of the aquifer. In addition, temperature monitoring during recovery allowed us to survey groundwater dynamics with great details to analyze the interactions between the karstic structures and the numerous fractures intersecting the borehole. When no temperature changes are observed, active DTS methods may still be used to monitor groundwater flows. Active-DTS methods are considered when the cable or borehole fluid

  3. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  4. Analysis and preliminary design of optical sensors for propulsion control. [temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K. A.; Quick, W. H.; Strahan, V. H.

    1979-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor concept screening study was performed. Twenty sensor subsystems were identified and evaluated. Two concepts selected for further study were the Fabry-Perot fiber-optic temperature sensor and the pulse-width-modulated phosphorescent temperature sensor. Various designs suitable for a Fabry-Perot temperature sensor to be used as a remote fiber-optic transducer were investigated. As a result, a particular design was selected and constructed. Tests on this device show that spectral peaks are produced from visible white light, and the change in wavelength of the spectral peaks produced by a change in temperature is consistent with theory and is 36 nm/C for the first order peak. A literature search to determine a suitable phosphor for implementing the pulse-width-modulated fiber optic temperature sensor was conducted. This search indicated that such a device could be made to function for temperatures up to approximately 200 C. Materials like ZnCdS and ZnSe activated with copper will be particularly applicable to temperature sensing in the cryogenic to room temperature region. While this sensing concept is probably not applicable to jet engines, the simplicity and potential reliability make the concept highly desirable for other applications.

  5. Electro-Optical Characterization of Bistable Smectic A Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktanir, Ebru Aylin

    My dissertation focuses the characterization and optimization of the electro-optical properties of smectic A (SmA) based liquid crystal (LC) displays. I present the development of robust and flexible bistable SmA LC displays utilizing polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) technology. The SmA PDLC displays produced on plastic substrates present electrically reversible memory, high contrast ratio, paper-like sunlight readability, and wide viewing angle characteristics. In order to optimize the SmA PDLC display, I investigated polymerization conditions, such as polymer concentration effect, polymerization temperature, and UV-light intensity variations. I characterized the electro-optical responses-such as static-response, time-response, threshold characteristics, and contrast ratio values' of the optimized SmA PDLC display and compared them to those of the pure SmA LC. The best electro-optical performance of SmA PDLC formulation was obtained using the combination of low mW/cm 2 and high mW/cm2 UV-light curing intensity. The contrast ratio of the optimum SmA PDLC at a 5o collection angle was 83% of that of the pure SmA material on plastic substrates. I fabricated 2.5 x 2.5 in., 4 x 4 in., and 6 x 6 in. sized monochrome flexible SmA PDLC displays, as well as red, yellow, and fluorescent dyes colored SmA PDLC displays on plastic substrates. The electro-optic performance of the bistable SmA LC display consisting of a patterned field-induced polymer wall infrastructure was also studied and compared to those of pure SmA material. I found that the contrast ratio of the SmA LC encapsulated between polymer walls was much greater than that of the SmA PDLC system, approaching the contrast ratio value of the pure SmA material. I also improved the electro-optical characteristics of bistable SmA LC displays by adding ferroparticles into the system. Finally, I illustrated the unique capabilities of polarized confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) to resolve the orientational order of Sm

  6. Thermo-Optical Protein Characterization for Straightforward Preformulation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Randy; Breitsprecher, Dennis; Duhr, Stefan; Baaske, Philipp; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    The determination of protein unfolding and aggregation characteristics during preformulation is of major significance for the development of biopharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a new immobilization- and label-free thermo-optical approach as an orthogonal method for material and time-saving early formulation and drugability screenings. In the experimental setup used, changes in the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of the protein were measured during IR laser-induced heating of the samples. This temperature increase leads to characteristic fluorescence changes over time, which can be attributed to separable effects of protein unfolding, aggregation, and precipitation, depending on the stability of the respective formulation. The obtained signals were compared with data from forced degradation and thermal stability measurements and correlated well both with the aggregation propensity and with the reversibility of unfolding in different formulations. These results, gathered with only 4-μL sample volume and 150 s measurement time per formulation, demonstrate potential for general applicability in rapid candidate and formulation selections. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  8. Characterization of neutron optics elements using neutron multireflections experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballot, B.; Menelle, A.; Samuel, F.; Al Usta, K.; Farnoux, B.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic multilayers are more and more used in the fabrication of efficient neutron optics elements. Neutron reflectivity is the ideal tool for the characterization of these multilayer devices. However, for these developments, the most interesting part of the reflectivity curve is situated in regions where the reflectivity coefficient R is close to one. In that part of the curve, a good precision in the measurement of the reflectivity is difficult to obtain using the classical one reflection measurements since differences between the incoming and the reflected beams are weak. At the Leon Brillouin Laboratory in Saclay, we have developed a neutron multireflections experiment. Compared with one reflection measurement, it enables us to increase the accuracy on the deviation from 1 of the reflectivity by a factor up to 12. This technique has been used on classical 58 Ni neutron guide elements as well as on two multilayer systems. These new measurements have been compared with classical reflectivity experiments performed on the same elements. ((orig.))

  9. Optimization and characterization of dual-chirped optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-01-01

    We report optimization and characterization of a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme (2011 Opt. Express 19 7190). By increasing a pump pulse energy to 100 mJ, a total (signal + idler) output energy exceeding 30 mJ was recorded with higher than 30% conversion efficiency. The feasibility of further increasing the output energy to a higher scale using the DC-OPA scheme was confirmed by a proof-of-principle experiment, in which 30%–40% conversion efficiency was observed. The signal pulse with the center wavelength of 1.4 μm was compressed to 27 fs (FWHM), which was very close to a transform-limited pulse duration of 25 fs. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient for generating high-energy infrared (IR) pulses with excellent scaling ability, the design parameters for obtaining hundred-mJ-level and even joule-level IR pulses are discussed and presented in detail. (invited article)

  10. Modeling and optical characterization of vibrating micro- and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Astrid; Leirset, Erlend; Martinussen, Hanne; Engan, Helge E.

    2008-08-01

    The lack of commercial equipment for characterization of vibrating micro- and nanostructures has motivated the development of a heterodyne interferometer. The setup is designed to measure phase and absolute amplitude in the entire frequency range 0-1.2 GHz. Its transverse resolution is CMUTs) are being developed for diagnostic imaging of vulnerable plaques in the coronary arteries. The CMUTs have 5.7 μm radii, 100 nm membrane thickness and ~30 MHz center frequency. Arrays of ~7500 CMUTs have been fabricated. Frequency scan measurements along a row of CMUTs reveal a variation in resonance frequency. This may be due to variations of material properties, dimensions such as thickness and transverse dimensions, and other manufacturing variance. The frequency scan revealed the fundamental mode and two closely spaced higher order modes. Modeling of individual CMUT elements was performed using the commercial program COMSOL. A finite element model (FEM) based on symmetry assumptions predicted only one higher order mode. After closer analysis it was found that the symmetry assumptions were insufficient. By using a complete physical model two higher order modes were predicted in agreement with the measurements. Simulations are able to predict transducer characteristics in great detail but are dependent on accurate input parameters. The optical measurements contribute to validate or complement simulations and assumptions they rely on. The heterodyne interferometer is therefore a valuable tool for quality control in the conception, design and manufacturing of new acoustic devices.

  11. Implementation of an Optical Coherence Tomography system for painting characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Hannah U. K. S.; Mota, Claudia C. B. O.; Kyotoku, Bernardo B. C.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Santos-Filho, Plinio B.

    2009-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new but well established imaging technique for medical diagnosis, which can produce two- or three-dimensional images of bio-tissues with a few μm spatial resolution. Its potential as a non-invasive tool for art conservation of paintings and other objects has been realized recently. In this work, we report the implementation of two OCT systems applied to painting characterization. One system operates in the so-called spectral domain, with a central wavelength of 840 nm and axial resolution of 10 μm. The second system has its central wavelength at 1280 nm, with spatial resolution of 20 μm, and operates in the time domain. Both systems are independently controlled and have imaging software developed in-house using Lab View. Using both systems, a 15 years old acrylic portrait has been analyzed, where the paint layers, light and dark colors, and the cotton treads of the canvas could be identified. (Author)

  12. Tissue Damage Characterization Using Non-invasive Optical Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, David

    The ability to determine the degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is essential for proper wound assessment and a significant factor for determining patient treatment and morbidity. Accurate characterization of tissue damage is critical for a number of medical applications including surgical removal of nonviable tissue, severity assessment of subcutaneous ulcers, and depth assessment of visually open wounds. The main objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method for identifying the extent of tissue damage underneath intact skin that is not apparent upon visual examination. This work investigated the relationship between tissue optical properties, blood flow, and tissue viability by testing the hypotheses that (a) changes in tissue oxygenation and/or microcirculatory blood flow measurable by Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) differ between healthy and damaged tissue and (b) the magnitude of those changes differs for different degrees of tissue damage. This was accomplished by developing and validating a procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation dynamics at multiple depths (up to 1 centimeter) using non-invasive DCS and DNIRS technologies. Due to the lack of pressure ulcer animal models that are compatible with our optical systems, a proof of concept was conducted in a porcine burn model prior to conducting clinical trials in order to assess the efficacy of the system in-vivo. A reduction in total hemoglobin was observed for superficial (5%) and deep burns (35%) along with a statistically significant difference between the optical properties of superficial and deep burns (p injury observed in histological stains. After proof of concept in animals, a human study was conducted and optical data was collected from 20 healthy subjects and 8 patients at risk of developing pressure ulcers. Blood flow index (BFI) values from the sacral region of patients were

  13. Characterization of electrical and optical properties of silicon based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Guobin

    2009-12-04

    characteristic DRL lines D1 to D4 has been detected, indicating the dislocations in the Alile sample are relatively clean. Test p-n junction diodes with dislocation networks (DNs) produced by silicon wafer direct bonding have been investigated by EBIC technique. Charge carriers collection and electrical conduction phenomena by the DNs were observed. Inhomogeneities in the charge collection were detected in n- and p-type samples under appropriate beam energy. The diffusion lengths in the thin top layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) have been measured by EBIC with full suppression of the surface recombination at the buried oxide (BOX) layer and at surface of the top layer by biasing method. The measured diffusion length is several times larger than the layer thickness. Silicon nanostructures are another important subject of this work. Electrical and optical properties of various silicon based materials like silicon nanowires, silicon nano rods, porous silicon, and Si/SiO{sub 2} multi quantum wells (MQWs) samples were investigated in this work. Silicon sub-bandgap infrared (IR) luminescence around 1570 nm was found in silicon nanowires, nano rods and porous silicon. PL measurements with samples immersed in different liquid media, for example, in aqueous HF (50%), concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (98%) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} established that the subbandgap IR luminescence originated from the Si/SiO{sub x} interface. EL in the sub-bandgap IR range has been observed in simple devices prepared on porous silicon and MQWs at room temperature. (orig.)

  14. Growth, crystal structure and characterization of a nonlinear optical crystal: Deuterated L-arginine trifluoroacetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.H., E-mail: sgh2@mail.sdu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials and Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong, University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Zhang, G.H.; Sun, Z.H.; Wang, X.Q. [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials and Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong, University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Xu, D., E-mail: xdoffice@sdu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Crystal Materials and Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong, University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2011-05-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Bulk crystals of deuterated L-arginine trifluoroacetate (DLATF) have been grown successfully. {yields} The distances between the N-D covalent bonds in DLATF crystal is about 0.4% shorter than N-H bonds in LATF crystal, which agrees with other reports. {yields} Due to deuterating, the degree of transmission and the transparent region of the crystal have been improved observably. {yields} Furthermore, the crystal possesses relatively large specific heat and higher laser damage threshold. - Abstract: In order to reduce the absorption of L-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) in near-infrared region, deuterated LATF (DLATF) crystals have been synthesized and grown successfully. The grown crystals were characterized by the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra. DLATF belongs to monoclinic space system, space group P2{sub 1}, with unit cell parameters: a = 10.547(6), b = 5.696(3), c = 10.825(6) A, {beta} = 106.747(10){sup o}, V = 622.8(6) A{sup 3} and Z = 2. Thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies were carried out to characterize its thermal behaviors. The specific heat has been investigated in the temperature range of 293-453 K. Optical transmission spectrum and second harmonic generation were investigated to study its optical properties. The laser-induced damage threshold measurement revealed that the crystal has a higher damage threshold than that of LATF.

  15. Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and temperature sensing at extreme temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Buric, Michael P; Brown, Thomas D; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark

    2013-10-07

    Embedded sensors capable of operation in extreme environments including high temperatures, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under extreme temperature conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous temperature and gas sensing at temperatures approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high temperature conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.

  16. Real-Time Temperature Measurement in a Vacuum Degasser Using Optical Pyrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel Bonin - Process Metrix; Peter Hues - Process Metrix; William Federoff - US Steel; Todd Smith - Berry Metals

    2007-02-14

    The objective of the research was the development of a fiber-coupled, optical pyrometer for continuous temperature measurement in a vacuum degasser that reduces process time, enhances process control, and eliminates manual or robot-operated thermocouples. Through the live testing performed at US Steel's Edgar Thompson Works, the challenges associated with making optical temperature measurements in a vacuum chamber were identified. As a result of these challenges it was determined that continuous temperature monitoring in RH-type degassers was not a viable alternative to standard immersion thermocouples. The project was not successful.

  17. Design of infrared multilayer diffractive optical elements with low temperature sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfang; Xue, Changxi

    2018-01-01

    An optimal method was presented to prevent the decrease of diffraction efficiency when the infrared diffractive optical elements working in a wide temperature range. The method can lower the cost of thermal infrared diffractive lenses by decreasing the microstructure height and volume of multilayer diffractive optical elements (MLDOEs). The diffraction efficiency of the results was compared to the previous methods with wavelengths between long wave infrared and middle wave infrared. Those comparisons show the better temperature stability of MLDOEs when the elements working in a wide temperature range.

  18. Embedded infrared fiber-optic sensor for thermometry in a high temperature/pressure environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Jang, Kyoung Won; Moon, Jinsoo; Han, Ki-Tek; Jeon, Dayeong; Lee, Bongsoo; Park, Byung Gi

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we developed an embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor for thermometry in high temperature/pressure and water-chemistry environments by using two identical silver-halide optical fibers. The performance of the fabricated temperature sensor was assessed in an autoclave filled with an aqueous coolant solution containing boric acid and lithium hydroxide. We carried out real-time monitoring of the infrared radiation emitted from the signal and reference probes for various temperatures over a temperature range from 95 to 225 °C. In order to decide the temperature of the synthetic coolant solution, we measured the difference between the infrared radiation emitted from the two temperature-sensing probes. Thermometry with the proposed sensor is immune to any changes in the physical conditions and the emissivity of the heat source. From the experimental results, the embedded infrared fiber-optic temperature sensor can withstand, and normally operate in a high temperature/pressure test loop system corresponding to the coolant system used for nuclear power plant simulation. We expect that the proposed sensor can be developed to accurately monitor temperatures in harsh environments.

  19. Characterization of an atmospheric helium plasma jet by relative and absolute optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Nikiforov, Anton Yu; González, Manuel Á.; Leys, Christophe; Pei Lu, Xin

    2013-02-01

    The characteristics of plasma temperatures (gas temperature and electron excitation temperature) and electron density in a pulsed-dc excited atmospheric helium plasma jet are studied by relative and absolute optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-resolution OES is performed for the helium and hydrogen lines for the determination of electron density through the Stark broadening mechanism. A superposition fitting method composed of two component profiles corresponding to two different electron densities is developed to fit the investigated lines. Electron densities of the orders of magnitude of 1021 and 1020 m-3 are characterized for the center and edge regions in the jet discharge when the applied voltage is higher than 13.0 kV. The atomic state distribution function (ASDF) of helium demonstrates that the discharge deviates from the Boltzmann-Saha equilibrium state, especially for the helium lower levels, which are significantly overpopulated. Local electron excitation temperatures T13 and Tspec corresponding to the lower and upper parts of the helium ASDF are defined and found to range from 1.2 eV to 1.4 eV and 0.2 eV to 0.3 eV, respectively. A comparative analysis shows that the Saha balance is valid in the discharge for helium atoms at high excited states.

  20. Spin and Optical Characterization of Defects in Group IV Semiconductors for Quantum Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brendon Charles

    This thesis is focused on the characterization of highly coherent defects in both silicon and diamond, particularly in the context of quantum memory applications. The results are organized into three parts based on the spin system: phosphorus donor electron spins in silicon, negatively charged nitrogen vacancy color centers in diamond (NV-), and neutrally charged silicon vacancy color centers in diamond (SiV0). The first part on phosphorus donor electron spins presents the first realization of strong coupling with spins in silicon. To achieve this, the silicon crystal was made highly pure and highly isotopically enriched so that the ensemble dephasing time, T2*, was long (10 micros). Additionally, the use of a 3D resonator aided in realizing uniform coupling, allowing for high fidelity spin ensemble manipulation. These two properties have eluded past implementations of strongly coupled spin ensembles and have been the limiting factor in storing and retrieving quantum information. Second, we characterize the spin properties of the NV- color center in diamond in a large magnetic field. We observe that the electron spin echo envelope modulation originating from the central 14N nuclear spin is much stronger at large fields and that the optically induced spin polarization exhibits a strong orientation dependence that cannot be explained by the existing model for the NV- optical cycle, we develop a modification of the existing model that reproduces the data in a large magnetic field. In the third part we perform characterization and stabilization of a new color center in diamond, SiV0, and find that it has attractive, highly sought-after properties for use as a quantum memory in a quantum repeater scheme. We demonstrate a new approach to the rational design of new color centers by engineering the Fermi level of the host material. The spin properties were characterized in electron spin resonance, revealing long spin relaxation and spin coherence times at cryogenic

  1. Atmospheric lidar co-alignment sensor: flight model electro-optical characterization campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde Guijarro, Ángel Luis; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás.; Laguna Hernandez, Hugo; Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo

    2017-10-01

    Due to the difficulty in studying the upper layer of the troposphere by using ground-based instrumentation, the conception of a space-orbit atmospheric LIDAR (ATLID) becomes necessary. ATLID born in the ESA's EarthCare Programme framework as one of its payloads, being the first instrument of this kind that will be in the Space. ATLID will provide vertical profiles of aerosols and thin clouds, separating the relative contribution of aerosol and molecular scattering to know aerosol optical depth. It operates at a wavelength of 355 nm and has a high spectral resolution receiver and depolarization channel with a vertical resolution up to 100m from ground to an altitude of 20 km and, and up to 500m from 20km to 40km. ATLID measurements will be done from a sun-synchronous orbit at 393 km altitude, and an alignment (co-alignment) sensor (CAS) is revealed as crucial due to the way in which LIDAR analyses the troposphere. As in previous models, INTA has been in charge of part of the ATLID instrument co-alignment sensor (ATLID-CAS) electro-optical characterization campaign. CAS includes a set of optical elements to take part of the useful signal, to direct it onto the memory CCD matrix (MCCD) used for the co-alignment determination, and to focus the selected signal on the MCCD. Several tests have been carried out for a proper electro-optical characterization: CAS line of sight (LoS) determination and stability, point spread function (PSF), absolute response (AbsRes), pixel response non uniformity (PRNU), response linearity (ResLin) and spectral response. In the following lines, a resume of the flight model electrooptical characterization campaign is reported on. In fact, results concerning the protoflight model (CAS PFM) will be summarized. PFM requires flight-level characterization, so most of the previously mentioned tests must be carried out under simulated working conditions, i.e., the vacuum level (around 10-5 mbar) and temperature range (between 50°C and -30°C) that

  2. Temperature Dependence of Faraday Effect-Induced Bias Error in a Fiber Optic Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyou; Liu, Pan; Guang, Xingxing; Xu, Zhenlong; Guan, Lianwu; Li, Guangchun

    2017-09-07

    Improving the performance of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) in harsh environments, such as magnetic field and temperature field variation, is necessary for its practical applications. This paper presents an investigation of Faraday effect-induced bias error of IFOG under varying temperature. Jones matrix method is utilized to formulize the temperature dependence of Faraday effect-induced bias error. Theoretical results show that the Faraday effect-induced bias error changes with the temperature in the non-skeleton polarization maintaining (PM) fiber coil. This phenomenon is caused by the temperature dependence of linear birefringence and Verdet constant of PM fiber. Particularly, Faraday effect-induced bias errors of two polarizations always have opposite signs that can be compensated optically regardless of the changes of the temperature. Two experiments with a 1000 m non-skeleton PM fiber coil are performed, and the experimental results support these theoretical predictions. This study is promising for improving the bias stability of IFOG.

  3. Quasidistributed temperature sensor based on dense wavelength-division multiplexing optical fiber delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun; Yang, Ning; Fan, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Qi

    2017-10-01

    We report on a fiber-optic delay-based quasidistributed temperature sensor with high precision. The device works by detecting the delay induced by the temperature instead of the spectrum. To analyze the working principle of this sensor, the thermal dependence of the fiber-optic delay was theoretically investigated and the delay-temperature coefficient was measured to be 42.2 ps/km°C. In this sensor, quasidistributed measurement of temperature could be easily realized by dense wavelength-division multiplexing and wavelength addressing. We built and tested a prototype quasidistributed temperature sensor with eight testing points equally distributed along a 32.61-km-long fiber. The experimental results demonstrate an average error of economic temperature measurements.

  4. Spectral and spatial characterization of perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for the distribution of optical wireless communication cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Hani Al; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C; Vázquez, Carmen; Fracasso, Bruno

    2015-02-10

    In this paper, the characterization of a perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber (PF-GIPOF) for a high-bitrate indoor optical wireless system is reported. PF-GIPOF is used here to interconnect different optical wireless access points that distribute optical free-space high-bitrate wireless communication cells. The PF-GIPOF channel is first studied in terms of transmission attenuation and frequency response and, in a second step, the spatial power profile distribution at the fiber output is analyzed. Both characterizations are performed under varying restricted mode launch conditions, enabling us to assess the transmission channel performance subject to potential connectorization errors within an environment where the end users may intervene by themselves on the home network infrastructure.

  5. Characterization and High-Temperature Erosion Behaviour of HVOF Thermal Spray Cermet Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2016-01-01

    High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray, carbide-cermet-based coatings are usually employed in high-temperature erosive and erosive-corrosive environments. Extensive literature is available on high-temperature erosion performance of HVOF coatings under moderate to low particle flux and velocities for application in boiler tubes. This research work presents the characterization and high-temperature erosion behaviour of Cr3C2-25NiCr and WC-10Co-4Cr HVOF-sprayed coatings. Coatings were formulated on the substrate steel of type AISI 304, commonly used for the fabrication of pulverized coal burner nozzles (PCBN). Erosion testing was carried out in high-temperature air-jet erosion tester after simulating the conditions akin to that prevailing in PCBN in the boiler furnace. The coatings were tested for erosion behaviour at different angles and temperatures by freezing other test parameters. Brittle erosion behaviour was depicted in erosion testing, and the coatings couldn't restrain the erodent attacks to protect the substrate. High particle velocity and high particle flux were attributed to be the reasons of extensive erosive weight loss of the coatings. The surface morphology of the eroded specimens was analysed from back-scattered electron images to depict the probable mechanism of material removal. The coatings were characterized with optical microscopy, SEM-EDS analysis, XRD analysis, micro-hardness testing, porosity measurements, surface roughness testing and bond strength testing. The work was undertaken to investigate the performance of the selected coatings in highly erosive environment, so as to envisage their application in PCBNs for protection against material degradation. The coatings could only sustain in oblique impact erosion at room temperature and depleted fully under all other conditions.

  6. Fiber Temperature Sensor Based on Micro-mechanical Membranes and Optical Interference Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueming; Tian Weijian; Hua Jing

    2011-01-01

    A novel fiber temperature sensor is presented theoretically and experimentally in this paper. Its working principle is based on Optical Fabry-Perot interference structure that is formed between a polished optical fiber end and micro-mechanical Bi-layered membranes. When ambient temperature is varying, Bi-layered membranes will be deflected and the length of Fabry-Perot cavity will be changed correspondingly. By detecting the reflecting optical intensity from the Fabry-Perot cavity, the ambient temperature can be measured. Using finite element software ANSYS, the sensor structure was optimized based on optical Interference theory and Bi-layered membranes thermal expansion theory, and theoretical characteristics was simulated by computer software. In the end, using optical fiber 2x2 coupler and photo-electrical detector, the fabricated sample sensor was tested successfully by experiment that demonstrating above theoretical analysis and simulation results. This sensor has some favorable features, such as: micro size owing to its micro-mechanical structure, high sensitivity owing to its working Fabry-Perot interference cavity structure, and optical integration character by using optical fiber techniques.

  7. Optical Characterization and Applications of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S.

    2005-03-01

    Recent advances in the dispersion and separation of single walled carbon nanotubes have led to new methods of optical characterization and some novel applications. We find that Raman spectroscopy can be used to probe the aggregation state of single-walled carbon nanotubes in solution or as solids with a range of varying morphologies. Carbon nanotubes experience an orthogonal electronic dispersion when in electrical contact that broadens (from 40 meV to roughly 80 meV) and shifts the interband transition to lower energy (by 60 meV). We show that the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the extent of bundle organization and the inter-nanotube contact area. In the Raman spectrum, aggregation shifts the effective excitation profile and causes peaks to increase or decrease, depending on where the transition lies, relative to the excitation wavelength. The findings are particularly relevant for evaluating nanotube separation processes, where relative peak changes in the Raman spectrum can be confused for selective enrichment. We have also used gel electrophoresis and column chromatography conducted on individually dispersed, ultrasonicated single-walled carbon nanotubes to yield simultaneous separation by tube length and diameter. Electroelution after electrophoresis is shown to produce highly resolved fractions of nanotubes with average lengths between 92 and 435 nm. Separation by diameter is concomitant with length fractionation, and nanotubes that have been cut shortest also possess the greatest relative enrichments of large-diameter species. The relative quantum yield decreases nonlinearly as the nanotube length becomes shorter. These findings enable new applications of nanotubes as sensors and biomarkers. Particularly, molecular detection using near infrared (n-IR) light between 0.9 and 1.3 eV has important biomedical applications because of greater tissue penetration and reduced auto-fluorescent background in thick tissue or whole blood media. Carbon nanotubes

  8. YAG:Yb3+ crystal as a potential material for optical temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkhanyan, H. G.; Demirkhanyan, G. G.; Kostanyan, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    The possibilities are discussed of Y3Al5O12:Yb3+ crystal as a material for an optical temperature sensor (OTS) based on the temperature dependences of the more intense spectral emission lines and on the ratio of the absorption coefficients from the ground and first excited Stark sublevels. The operating temperature and average sensitivity for OTSs are determined. It is shown that the former is an effective method for an OTS in a cryogenic temperature range (40–130 K) and the latter in a high temperature range (500–1000 K).

  9. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-15

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division.

  10. Research on calibration method of downhole optical fiber temperature measurement and its application in SAGD well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Han, Li; Hu, Chengjun; Pan, Yong; Duan, Shengnan; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Shijian; Nuer, Maimaiti

    2017-10-01

    With the development of oil and gas fields, the accuracy and quantity requirements of real-time dynamic monitoring data needed for well dynamic analysis and regulation are increasing. Permanent, distributed downhole optical fiber temperature and pressure monitoring and other online real-time continuous data monitoring has become an important data acquisition and transmission technology in digital oil field and intelligent oil field construction. Considering the requirement of dynamic analysis of steam chamber developing state in SAGD horizontal wells in F oil reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, it is necessary to carry out real-time and continuous temperature monitoring in horizontal section. Based on the study of the principle of optical fiber temperature measurement, the factors that cause the deviation of optical fiber temperature sensing are analyzed, and the method of fiber temperature calibration is proposed to solve the problem of temperature deviation. Field application in three wells showed that it could attain accurate measurement of downhole temperature by temperature correction. The real-time and continuous downhole distributed fiber temperature sensing technology has higher application value in the reservoir management of SAGD horizontal wells. It also has a reference for similar dynamic monitoring in reservoir production.

  11. Effects of reaction temperature on size and optical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    solvent systems, ratio of the precursor, injection rates and concentrations of the ligands (Peng and Peng 2001; Qu et al 2001; Peng 2002; Yu and Peng 2002). However, the above studies discussed in detail the influential factors of CdSe nanocrystals synthesis except for reaction temperature. As part of the development of.

  12. Zeonex microstructured polymer optical fiber: fabrication friendly fibers for high temperature and humidity insensitive Bragg grating sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    In the quest of finding the ideal polymer optical fiber (POF) for Bragg grating sensing, we have fabricated and characterized an endlessly single mode microstructured POF (mPOF). This fiber is made from cyclo-olefin homopolymer Zeonex grade 480R which has a very high glass transition temperature of 138 °C and is humidity insensitive. It represents a significant improvement with respect to the also humidity insensitive Topas core fibers, in that Zeonex fibers are easier to manufacture, has bet...

  13. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  14. Study on the Temperature Measurement of High-Power Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Fiber Optic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofei Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure high-power PMSM normal operation and monitor its fault online, its stator and rotor temperature is need to in real time high accuracy measurement. The temperature measurement principle of fiber optic sensor has been briefly introduced. The high- power PMSM rotor’s temperature measurement adopted semiconductor absorption optical fiber sensor, and its stator temperature measurement adopted optical fiber grating temperature sensor. The temperature measurement systems were designed respectively. The characteristics of the two temperature measurement systems are summarized. When they were applied to actual industrial field, the problems that needed to resolve were pointed.

  15. Temperature-monitored optical treatment for radial tissue expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jinoh; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal stricture occurs in 7-23% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, the current treatments including stent therapy, balloon dilation, and bougienage involve limitations such as stent migration, formation of the new strictures, and snowplow effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of structural expansion in tubular tissue ex vivo during temperature-monitored photothermal treatment with a diffusing applicator for esophageal stricture. Porcine liver was used as an ex vivo tissue sample for the current study. A glass tube was used to maintain a constant distance between the diffuser and tissue surface and to evaluate any variations in the luminal area after 10-W 1470-nm laser irradiation for potential stricture treatment. The 3D goniometer measurements confirmed roughly isotropic distribution with less than 10% deviation from the average angular intensity over 2π (i.e., 0.86 ± 0.09 in arbitrary unit) from the diffusing applicator. The 30-s irradiation increased the tissue temperature up to 72.5 °C, but due to temperature feedback, the interstitial tissue temperature became saturated at 70 °C (i.e., steady-state error = ±0.4 °C). The irradiation times longer than 5 s presented area expansion index of 1.00 ± 0.04, signifying that irreversible tissue denaturation permanently deformed the lumen in a circular shape and secured the equivalent luminal area to that of the glass tube. Application of a temperature feedback controller for photothermal treatment with the diffusing applicator can regulate the degree of thermal denaturation to feasibly treat esophageal stricture in a tubular tissue.

  16. Advances in Using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing to Identify the Mixing of Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M. A.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Harvey, J. W.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Voytek, E. B.; Buckley, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) provides thermal data through space and time along linear cables. When installed along a streambed, FO-DTS can capture the influence of upwelling groundwater (GW) as thermal anomalies. The planning of labor-intensive physical measurements can make use of FO-DTS data to target areas of focused GW discharge that can disproportionately affect surface-water (SW) quality and temperature. Typical longitudinal FO-DTS spatial resolution ranges 0.25 to1.0 m, and cannot resolve small-scale water-column mixing or sub-surface diurnal fluctuations. However, configurations where the cable is wrapped around rods can improve the effective vertical resolution to sub-centimeter scales, and the pipes can be actively heated to induce a thermal tracer. Longitudinal streambed and high-resolution vertical arrays were deployed at the upper Delaware River (PA, USA) and the Quashnet River (MA, USA) for aquatic habitat studies. The resultant datasets exemplify the varied uses of FO-DTS. Cold anomalies found along the Delaware River steambed coincide with zones of known mussel populations, and high-resolution vertical array data showed relatively stable in-channel thermal refugia. Cold anomalies at the Quashnet River identified in 2013 were found to persist in 2014, and seepage measurements and water samples at these locations showed high GW flux with distinctive chemistry. Cable location is paramount to seepage identification, particularly in faster flowing deep streams such as the Quashnet and Delaware Rivers where steambed FO-DTS identified many seepage zones with no surface expression. The temporal characterization of seepage dynamics are unique to FO-DTS. However, data from Tidmarsh Farms, a cranberry bog restoration site in MA, USA indicate that in slower flowing shallow steams GW inflow affects surface temperature; therefore infrared imaging can provide seepage location information similar to FO-DTS with substantially less effort.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of nonlinear optical L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, P.; Gokul Raj, S.; Sankar, S.

    2013-04-01

    L-arginine semi-oxalate single crystals have been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyses has been made to confirm the triclinic structure with non-centrosymmetric space group P1. The presence of functional groups of L-arginine semi-oxalate crystals was identified and confirmed by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Molecular structure of the grown crystal was analyzed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR studies. Optical absorption studies carried out in wavelength range from 250 nm to 1200 nm have revealed that the material is completely transparent for the entire wavelength range studied. Thermal characterization using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the crystal is thermally stable up to 146 °C. The presence of second harmonic generation of the grown crystal was tested and its efficiency was determined by using Kurtz and Perry powder technique.

  18. The characterization of TiN thin films using optical reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glew, M R L; Vollmer, A; Schroeder, S L M; Barber, Z H

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of TiN have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputter deposition in varying partial pressures of nitrogen. Reflectivity measurements have been carried out between 1.5 and 3.5 eV and a correlation made between the film properties and optical data. Resistivity measurements carried out at room temperature are shown to exhibit the same trends as those obtained from reflectivity experiments. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements, in both electron-yield and fluorescence-yield modes, have shown the films to be identical and stoichiometric to within ±5 at.%. The use of reflectivity spectra to form the basis of a characterization tool for physical vapour deposited thin films is discussed

  19. Effects of Temperature and X-rays on Plastic Scintillating Fiber and Infrared Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsoo Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have studied the effects of temperature and X-ray energy variations on the light output signals from two different fiber-optic sensors, a fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD based on a BCF-12 as a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF and a fiber-optic thermometer (FOT using a silver halide optical fiber as an infrared optical fiber (IR fiber. During X-ray beam irradiation, the scintillating light and IR signals were measured simultaneously using a dosimeter probe of the FOD and a thermometer probe of the FOT. The probes were placed in a beaker with water on the center of a hotplate, under variation of the tube potential of a digital radiography system or the temperature of the water in the beaker. From the experimental results, in the case of the PSF, the scintillator light output at the given tube potential decreased as the temperature increased in the temperature range from 25 to 60 °C. We demonstrated that commonly used BCF-12 has a significant temperature dependence of −0.263 ± 0.028%/°C in the clinical temperature range. Next, in the case of the IR fiber, the intensity of the IR signal was almost uniform at each temperature regardless of the tube potential range from 50 to 150 kVp. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the X-ray beam with an energy range used in diagnostic radiology does not affect the IR signals transmitted via a silver halide optical fiber.

  20. Measurement of Temperature and Relative Humidity with Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors Based on the Induced Stress-Optic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Arnaldo; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Marques, Carlos; Pontes, Maria José

    2018-03-20

    This paper presents a system capable of measuring temperature and relative humidity with polymer optical fiber (POF) sensors. The sensors are based on variations of the Young's and shear moduli of the POF with variations in temperature and relative humidity. The system comprises two POFs, each with a predefined torsion stress that resulted in a variation in the fiber refractive index due to the stress-optic effect. Because there is a correlation between stress and material properties, the variation in temperature and humidity causes a variation in the fiber's stress, which leads to variations in the fiber refractive index. Only two photodiodes comprise the sensor interrogation, resulting in a simple and low-cost system capable of measuring humidity in the range of 5-97% and temperature in the range of 21-46 °C. The root mean squared errors (RMSEs) between the proposed sensors and the reference were 1.12 °C and 1.36% for the measurements of temperature and relative humidity, respectively. In addition, fiber etching resulted in a sensor with a 2 s response time for a relative humidity variation of 10%, which is one of the lowest recorded response times for intrinsic POF humidity sensors.

  1. Optical properties of thin Cu films as a function of substrate temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Savaloni, H

    2003-01-01

    Copper films (250 nm) deposited on glass substrates, at different substrate temperatures. Their optical properties were measured by ellipsometry (single wavelength of 589.3 nm) and spectrophotometry in the spectral range of 200-2600 nm. Kramers Kronig method was used for the analysis of the reflectivity curves of Cu films to obtain the optical constants of the films, while ellipsometry measurement was carried out as an independent method. The influence of substrate temperature on the microstructure of thin metallic films [Structure Zone Model ] is well established. The Effective Medium Approximation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the Structure Zone Model and Effective Medium Approximation predictions. Good agreements between Structure Zone Model as a function of substrate temperature and the values of volume fraction of voids obtained from Effective Medium Temperature analysis, are obtained; by increasing the substrate temperature the separation of the metallic grains decrease hence t...

  2. Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensor Using a Thin-Film Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor was developed that is rugged, compact, stable, and can be inexpensively fabricated. This thin-film interferometric temperature sensor was shown to be capable of providing a +/- 2 C accuracy over the range of -55 to 275 C, throughout a 5000 hr operating life. A temperature-sensitive thin-film Fabry-Perot interferometer can be deposited directly onto the end of a multimode optical fiber. This batch-fabricatable sensor can be manufactured at a much lower cost than can a presently available sensor, which requires the mechanical attachment of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to a fiber. The principal disadvantage of the thin-film sensor is its inherent instability, due to the low processing temperatures that must be used to prevent degradation of the optical fiber's buffer coating. The design of the stable thin-film temperature sensor considered the potential sources of both short and long term drifts. The temperature- sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was a silicon film with a thickness of approx. 2 microns. A laser-annealing process was developed which crystallized the silicon film without damaging the optical fiber. The silicon film was encapsulated with a thin layer of Si3N4 over coated with aluminum. Crystallization of the silicon and its encapsulation with a highly stable, impermeable thin-film structure were essential steps in producing a sensor with the required long-term stability.

  3. Synthesis and nonlinear optical characterization of new 1, 3, 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... H, N analyses. The open-aperture z-scan experiment was employed to measure the optical nonlinearity of the samples at 532 nm, using 5 ns laser pulses. The measurements indicate that compound 4a, which contains Bromine, behaves as an optical limiter at this wavelength, with potential applications in optoelectronics.

  4. Characterizing the nonclassicality of mesoscopic optical twin-beam states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allevi, A.; Lamperti, M.; Bondani, M.; Peřina ml., Jan; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.; Machulka, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2013), "063807-1"-"063807-9" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mesoscopic optical twin-beam states * photon-number domain Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  5. High-temperature optically activated GaAs power switching for aircraft digital electronic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berak, J. M.; Grantham, D. H.; Swindal, J. L.; Black, J. F.; Allen, L. B.

    1983-01-01

    Gallium arsenide high-temperature devices were fabricated and assembled into an optically activated pulse-width-modulated power control for a torque motor typical of the kinds used in jet engine actuators. A bipolar heterojunction phototransistor with gallium aluminum arsenide emitter/window, a gallium arsenide junction field-effect power transistor and a gallium arsenide transient protection diode were designed and fabricated. A high-temperature fiber optic/phototransistor coupling scheme was implemented. The devices assembled into the demonstrator were successfully tested at 250 C, proving the feasibility of actuator-located switching of control power using optical signals transmitted by fibers. Assessments of the efficiency and technical merits were made for extension of this high-temperature technology to local conversion of optical power to electrical power and its control at levels useful for driving actuators. Optical power sources included in the comparisons were an infrared light-emitting diode, an injection laser diode, tungsten-halogen lamps and arc lamps. Optical-to-electrical power conversion was limited to photovoltaics located at the actuator. Impedance matching of the photovoltaic array to the load was considered over the full temperature range, -55 C to 260 C. Loss of photovoltaic efficiency at higher temperatures was taken into account. Serious losses in efficiency are: (1) in the optical source and the cooling which they may require in the assumed 125 C ambient, (2) in the decreased conversion efficiency of the gallium arsenide photovoltaic at 260 C, and (3) in impedance matching. Practical systems require improvements in these areas.

  6. [New type distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) based on Raman scattering and its' application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Yu, Xiang-Dong; Sun, Zhong-Zhou; Jin, Shang-Zhong; Zhang, Zai-Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Basic principles, development trends and applications status of distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor (DTS) are introduced. Performance parameters of DTS system include the sensing optical fiber length, temperature measurement uncertainty, spatial resolution and measurement time. These parameters have a certain correlation and it is difficult to improve them at the same time by single technology. So a variety of key techniques such as Raman amplification, pulse coding technique, Raman related dual-wavelength self-correction technique and embedding optical switching technique are researched to improve the performance of the DTS system. A 1 467 nm continuous laser is used as pump laser and the light source of DTS system (1 550 nm pulse laser) is amplified. When the length of sensing optical fiber is 50 km the Raman gain is about 17 dB. Raman gain can partially compensate the transmission loss of optical fiber, so that the sensing length can reach 50 km. In DTS system using pulse coding technique, pulse laser is coded by 211 bits loop encoder and correlation calculation is used to demodulate temperature. The encoded laser signal is related, whereas the noise is not relevant. So that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of DTS system can be improved significantly. The experiments are carried out in DTS system with single mode optical fiber and multimode optical fiber respectively. Temperature measurement uncertainty can all reach 1 degrees C. In DTS system using Raman related dual-wavelength self-correction technique, the wavelength difference of the two light sources must be one Raman frequency shift in optical fiber. For example, wavelength of the main laser is 1 550 nm and wavelength of the second laser must be 1 450 nm. Spatial resolution of DTS system is improved to 2 m by using dual-wavelength self-correction technique. Optical switch is embedded in DTS system, so that the temperature measurement channel multiply extended and the total length of the sensing

  7. Characterization of deep wet etching of fused silica glass for single cell and optical sensor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Haixin; Holl, Mark; Ray, Tathagata; Bhushan, Shivani; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2009-01-01

    The development of a high-throughput single-cell metabolic rate monitoring system relies on the use of transparent substrate material for a single cell-trapping platform. The high optical transparency, high chemical resistance, improved surface quality and compatibility with the silicon micromachining process of fused silica make it very attractive and desirable for this application. In this paper, we report the results from the development and characterization of a hydrofluoric acid (HF) based deep wet-etch process on fused silica. The pin holes and notching defects of various single-coated masking layers during the etching are characterized and the most suitable masking materials are identified for different etch depths. The dependence of the average etch rate and surface roughness on the etch depth, impurity concentration and HF composition are also examined. The resulting undercut from the deep HF etch using various masking materials is also investigated. The developed and characterized process techniques have been successfully implemented in the fabrication of micro-well arrays for single cell trapping and sensor deposition. Up to 60 µm deep micro-wells have been etched in a fused silica substrate with over 90% process yield and repeatability. To our knowledge, such etch depth has never been achieved in a fused silica substrate by using a non-diluted HF etchant and a single-coated masking layer at room temperature

  8. Outcome of temperature variation on sol-gel prepared CuO nanostructure properties (optical and dielectric)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibi, Maryam [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Javed, Qurat-ul-Ain, E-mail: quratulain@sns.nust.edu.pk [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Hussain [Institute of Avionics & Aeronautics (IAA), Air University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Baqi, Sabah [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-05-01

    The optical and dielectric properties of Copper Oxide (CuO) have made it a fascinating material to be used in solar energy harvesting, gas sensing, optoelectronics and catalytical applications. Focusing on the cost-effectiveness of Sol-gel method, it is employed for nanostructured CuO production. Effect of changing temperature is observed on the formation mechanism of CuO and its properties. The temperature range of 300 °C–500 °C was used in annealing of samples to produce defect free CuO nanomaterial. Prepared material was investigated using phase characterization (X-ray diffraction ‘XRD’) technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy and LCR meter. A structural change in prepared CuO was observed from cluster formation to Nano-fibrils by increase in annealing temperature. 11.99 nm–29.17 nm crystallites of CuO were attained by using Debye Scherer formula. A large band gap of 3.15 eV was achieved by increasing the annealing temperature upto 400 °C. For better solar energy harvest, wide band gapped CuO structures are proved to be functional and practical materials. The fabricated CuO nanostructures were found suitable to be used in devices for stabilizing circuit designs for sensitive appliances as well as micro electromechanical systems (mems). - Highlights: • CuO was synthesized by using sol gel method post growth annealing process. • XRD and SEM characterizations confirm the successful synthesis of CuO. • Change in morphology was observed with varying annealing temperature. • Improved optical and dielectric properties were observed.

  9. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-06-06

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges.

  10. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleda, Alberto Tapetado; García, Carmen Vázquez; Zaballa, Joseba Zubia; Arrue, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF) macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of 1.92·10−3 (°C)−1. The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations. PMID:24077323

  11. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Zubia Zaballa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of . The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations.

  12. Characterization of thermochromic VO2 (prepared at 250 °C) in a wide temperature range by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houska, J.; Kolenaty, D.; Rezek, J.; Vlcek, J.

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with thermochromic VO2 prepared by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering and characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We focus on the dispersion of optical constants in a wide temperature range and on the transmittance predicted using the optical constants. While the thermochromic behavior of VO2 in itself has been reported previously (particularly above the room temperature, RT), in this paper we present (i) optical properties achieved at a low deposition temperature of 250 °C and without any substrate bias voltage (which dramatically increases the application potential of the coating) and (ii) changes of these properties not only above but also below RT (down to -30 °C). The properties include very low (for VO2) extinction coefficient at RT (0.10 at 550 nm), low transition temperature of around or even below 50 °C (compared to the frequently cited 68 °C) and high modulation of the predicted infrared transmittance (e.g. 39% at -30 °C, 30% at RT and 3.4% above the transition temperature at 2000 nm for a 100 nm thick coating on glass). The results are important for the design of thermochromic coatings, and pathways for their preparation under industry-friendly conditions, for various technological applications.

  13. Optical characterization of semiconductors infrared, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    1993-01-01

    This is the first book to explain, illustrate, and compare the most widely used methods in optics: photoluminescence, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman scattering. Written with non-experts in mind, the book develops the background needed to understand the why and how of each technique, but does not require special knowledge of semiconductors or optics. Each method is illustrated with numerous case studies. Practical information drawn from the authors experience is given to help establish optical facilities, including commercial sources for equipment, and experimental details. For industrial sci

  14. Optical characterization of directly deposited graphene on a dielectric substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplas, Tommi; Karvonen, Lasse; Ahmadi, Sepehr

    2016-01-01

    By using scanning multiphoton microscopy we compare the nonlinear optical properties of the directly deposited and transferred to the dielectric substrate graphene. The direct deposition of graphene on oxidized silicon wafer was done by utilizing sacrificial copper catalyst film. We demonstrate...... that the directly deposited graphene and bi-layered transferred graphene produce comparable third harmonic signals and have almost the same damage thresholds. Therefore, we believe directly deposited graphene is suitable for the use of e.g. nanofabricated optical setups. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  15. Optical Characterization of Porous Sputtered Silver Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Carton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of various porous silver films, grown with a commercial DC sputter coater, were investigated and compared for different plasma parameters. Effective Drude models were successfully used for those films whose spectra did not show particular resonance peaks. For the other films, neither an effective Drude model nor effective medium models (Maxwell Garnett, Bruggeman, and Looyenga can describe the optical properties. It turns out that a more general approach like the Bergman representation describes the optical data of these films accurately adopting porosity values consistent with physical measurements.

  16. Oxadiazole Based Polyether as Sensitive Films for Ratiometric Optical Temperature Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Neitzert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of polymer, based on the oxadiazole group, has been tested as indicator material for a ratiometric photoluminescence and optical reflection based temperature sensor in the temperature range between 30°C and 60°C. Thin films of the new polymer have been deposited by spin-coating on a glass substrate, excited by means of a low-cost near UV-LED. The optical spectrum, as detected by a fiber-based PC-card optical spectrometer, consisted of the reflection peak at the excitation wavelength and two distinct photoluminescence peaks at 430 nm and 480 nm, both in the blue spectral region. The peak amplitudes of all three spectral peaks depend linearly on the exciting light intensity. Changing the sample temperature, all peak amplitude values decrease monotonously with increasing temperature. By using a ratiometric approach, it has been found that the ratio between the two photoluminescence peaks was almost constant with temperature, while the ratio between the main photoluminescence peak at 430 nm and the reflection peak around 380 nm scaled nicely with the ambient temperature. Therefore, it has been proposed to use the latter criterion and a simple polynomial fit to the temperature versus peak amplitude relation.

  17. Temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate in one dimensional optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Ahmed S.; Soliman, Shemi S.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a conventional method of quantum statistical mechanics is used to study the temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate bosons in 1D optical potential. We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the temperature dependence of the in situ widths becomes perceivable. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the in situ widths is completely different from that of a rotating condensate or trapped bosons in the optical lattice separately. The z-width shows distinct behavior from x- and y-widths due to the rotation effect. The obtained results provide useful qualitative theoretical results for future Bose Einstein condensation experiments in such traps. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate boson in 1D optical potential is investigated. • We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the in situ widths become perceivable. • The above mentioned parameters exhibit a characteristic rotation rate and optical potential depth dependence. • Characteristic dependence of the effective widths on temperature is investigated. • Our results provide useful qualitatively and quantitative theoretical results for experiments in various traps.

  18. High Speed Submarine Optical Fiber Communication System:Pressure and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the performance of high speed submarine optical fiber cable systems is investigated, taking into account both the pressure and the temperature effects. Both the pressure and the temperature are depth-dependent variables, while both the spectral losses and the dispersion effects are temperature as well as wavelength dependent variables. Two important cases with real fibers are processed: a case with dispersion cancellation and a case without dispersion cancellation. It is found that the ocean pressure (due to the depth shifts the dispersion-free wavelength towards the third communication window. In general, as the depth increases the maximum transmitted bit rate increases in the range of interest. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide-range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature, and the chemical structure}. Key Words: Submarine Optical Fiber, Undersea Optical Communication, Pressure and Temperature Effects, Transoceanic Optical Communications

  19. Temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate in one dimensional optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ahmed S., E-mail: ahmedhassan117@yahoo.com; Soliman, Shemi S.M.

    2016-01-08

    In this paper, a conventional method of quantum statistical mechanics is used to study the temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate bosons in 1D optical potential. We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the temperature dependence of the in situ widths becomes perceivable. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the in situ widths is completely different from that of a rotating condensate or trapped bosons in the optical lattice separately. The z-width shows distinct behavior from x- and y-widths due to the rotation effect. The obtained results provide useful qualitative theoretical results for future Bose Einstein condensation experiments in such traps. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate boson in 1D optical potential is investigated. • We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the in situ widths become perceivable. • The above mentioned parameters exhibit a characteristic rotation rate and optical potential depth dependence. • Characteristic dependence of the effective widths on temperature is investigated. • Our results provide useful qualitatively and quantitative theoretical results for experiments in various traps.

  20. Optical characterization of synthetic faceted gem materials grown from hydrothermal solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Taijin; Shigley, James E.

    1998-10-01

    Various non-destructive optical characterization techniques have been used to characterize and identify synthetic gem materials grown from hydrothermal solutions, to include ruby, sapphire, emerald, amethyst and ametrine (amethyst-citrine), from their natural counterparts. The ability to observe internal features, such as inclusions, dislocations, twins, color bands, and growth zoning in gem materials is strongly dependent on the observation techniques and conditions, since faceted gemstones have many polished surfaces which can reflect and scatter light in various directions which can make observation difficult. However, diagnostic gemological properties of these faceted synthetic gem materials can be obtained by choosing effective optical characterization methods, and by modifying optical instruments. Examples of some of the distinctive features of synthetic amethyst, ametrine, pink quartz, ruby and emerald are presented to illustrate means of optical characterization of gemstones. The ability to observe defects by light scattering techniques is discussed.

  1. Characterization of the Marine Atmosphere for Free-Space Optical Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Linda M. Wasiczko; Moore, Christopher I; Burris, Harris R; Suite, Michele; Stell, Mena; Murphy, James; Gilbreath, G. C; Rabinovich, William; Scharpf, William

    2006-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Detachment of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL-CBD) provides an ideal environment for characterizing the effects of the marine atmosphere on free space optical communication links...

  2. Viscoelastic limit of polymer optical fibers: characterization of the dynamic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Scott Wu; Andresen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of polymer optical fibers (POFs) in terms of dynamic behavior is important for many sensors applications for which this type of fibers offers big advantages. We report measurements of the Young’s modulus on microstructured and step index polymer optical fibers and their comparison...

  3. Temperature dependence of a refractive index sensor based on a macrobending micro-plastic optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ning; Teng, Chuanxin; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zheng, Jie

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the temperature dependence of a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a macrobending micro-plastic optical fiber (m-POF) both theoretically and experimentally. The performance of the RI sensor at different temperatures (10°C-70°C) is measured and simulated over an RI range from 1.33 to 1.45. It is found that the temperature dependent bending loss and RI measurement deviation monotonically change with temperature, and the RI deviation has a higher gradient with temperature variation for a higher measured RI. Because of the linear trend of temperature dependence of the sensor, it is feasible to correct for changes in ambient temperature.

  4. Drastic sensitivity enhancement of temperature sensing based on multimodal interference in polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Goki; Hayashi, Neisei; Tabaru, Marie; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that temperature sensors based on modal interference in perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers show extremely high temperature sensitivity at room temperature. In this work, we confirm that the temperature sensitivity (absolute value) is significantly enhanced when the temperature increases toward ∼70 °C, which is close to the glass-transition temperature of the core polymer. When the core diameter is 62.5 µm, the sensitivity at 72 °C at 1300 nm is 202 nm/°C/m, which is approximately 26 times the value obtained at room temperature and >7000 times the highest value previously reported using a silica multimode fiber.

  5. Testing of Sapphire Optical Fiber and Sensors in Intense Radiation Fields When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Windl, Wolfgang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The primary objective of this project was to determine the optical attenuation and signal degradation of sapphire optical fibers & sensors (temperature & strain), in-situ, operating at temperatures up to 1500°C during reactor irradiation through experiments and modeling. The results will determine the feasibility of extending sapphire optical fiber-based instrumentation to extremely high temperature radiation environments. This research will pave the way for future testing of sapphire optical fibers and fiber-based sensors under conditions expected in advanced high temperature reactors.

  6. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystals: bis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methoxy benzoate (C4MB) single crystals were successfully grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique. The harvested crystals were subjected to single-crystal X-ray diffraction, spectral, optical, thermal and mechanical studies in ...

  7. Structural, thermal and optical characterization of an organic NLO material—Benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhakumari, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2011-02-01

    Single crystals of the organic NLO material, benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (BTSC) monohydrate, were grown by slow evaporation method. Solubility of BTSC monohydrate was determined in ethanol at different temperatures. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the cell parameters and by FT-IR technique to study the presence of the functional groups. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses reveal the thermal stability of the crystal. UV-vis-NIR spectrum shows excellent transmission in the region of 200-1100 nm. Theoretical calculations were carried out to determine the linear optical constants such as extinction coefficient and refractive index. Further the optical nonlinearities of BTSC have been investigated by Z-scan technique with He-Ne laser radiation of wavelength 632.8 nm. Mechanical properties of the grown crystal were studied using Vickers microhardness tester. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the powdered BTSC monohydrate was tested using Nd:YAG laser and it is found to be ˜5.3 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate.

  8. Electrical and optical characterization of an atmospheric pressure, uniform, large-area processing, dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeniou, A; Dimitrakellis, P; Gogolides, E; Puač, N; Škoro, N; Selaković, N; Petrović, Z Lj

    2017-01-01

    A printed-circuit-board (PCB) based atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) capable of uniform processing over a large area was constructed consisting of two parallel plates. The first perforated plate is comprised of four layers: a RF powered metal layer, a polymeric dielectric layer, a floating metal grid and another dielectric layer. The second, grounded, plate was fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate with surface of 100  ×  100 mm 2 and thickness of 2 mm. The PCB based atmospheric pressure DBD was characterized by (a) measuring electrical characteristics of the device using derivative I – V probes, (b) ICCD imaging and (c) optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Optical and electrical characteristics, as well as plasma uniformity were measured by changing He flow rate and input power, while keeping the gap between the PCB and the FTO glass plate ground electrode constant at 2 mm. The plasma uniformity strongly depends on the applied power and on the flow rate of the buffer gas. When increasing the flow rate, the intensity of the nitrogen-dominated emission drops, while emission of helium and oxygen lines increases. The source allows low temperature, uniform plasma operation over a wide area of 100  ×  100 mm 2 , which could be essential for numerous applications. Examples of etching rate and hydrophilization are demonstrated. (paper)

  9. Electrical and optical characterization of an atmospheric pressure, uniform, large-area processing, dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniou, A.; Puač, N.; Škoro, N.; Selaković, N.; Dimitrakellis, P.; Gogolides, E.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2017-04-01

    A printed-circuit-board (PCB) based atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) capable of uniform processing over a large area was constructed consisting of two parallel plates. The first perforated plate is comprised of four layers: a RF powered metal layer, a polymeric dielectric layer, a floating metal grid and another dielectric layer. The second, grounded, plate was fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate with surface of 100  ×  100 mm2 and thickness of 2 mm. The PCB based atmospheric pressure DBD was characterized by (a) measuring electrical characteristics of the device using derivative I-V probes, (b) ICCD imaging and (c) optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Optical and electrical characteristics, as well as plasma uniformity were measured by changing He flow rate and input power, while keeping the gap between the PCB and the FTO glass plate ground electrode constant at 2 mm. The plasma uniformity strongly depends on the applied power and on the flow rate of the buffer gas. When increasing the flow rate, the intensity of the nitrogen-dominated emission drops, while emission of helium and oxygen lines increases. The source allows low temperature, uniform plasma operation over a wide area of 100  ×  100 mm2, which could be essential for numerous applications. Examples of etching rate and hydrophilization are demonstrated.

  10. Characterization and optical properties of Pr2O3-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... yMoO3–xPr2O3 (where x = 0.5 and 1.0 mol% and y = 0 and 5 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. Thermal, optical and structural analyses are carried out using DSC, UV and FTIR spectra. The physical parame- ters, like glass transition (Tg), stability factor (T), optical energy ...

  11. Influence of Temperature Variation on Optical Receiver Sensitivity and its Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prokes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the influence of temperature variation on the sensitivity of an avalanche-photodiode-based optical receiver applied in the free space optical communication link is discussed. Communication systems of this type are exposed to a wide range of operating temperatures, which markedly affect many photodiode and preamplifier parameters. The paper presents a receiver sensitivity calculation, taking into consideration the temperature dependence of avalanche photodiode gain, excess noise factor, dark current and thermal noise of preamplifier resistances, and describes the compensation of temperature effects on photodiode gain based on a corresponding change in the reverse voltage applied to the diode. The calculations are demonstrated on the connection of a small-area silicon APD operating in the wavelength range from 820 to 1150 nm with a transimpedance preamplifier using a bipolar junction transistor.

  12. Optical Characterization of Doped Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymer-Optical-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ayesta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The emission properties of a graded-index thermoplastic polymer optical fiber and a step-index thermosetting one, both doped with rhodamine 6G, have been studied. The work includes a detailed analysis of the amplified spontaneous emission together with a study of the optical gains and losses of the fibers. The photostability of the emission of both types of fibers has also been investigated. Comparisons between the results of both doped polymer optical fibers are presented and discussed.

  13. Characterization of ion-assisted induced absorption in A-Si thin-films used for multivariate optical computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Aditya B.; Price, James M.; Dai, Bin; Perkins, David; Chen, Ding Ding; Jones, Christopher M.

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate optical computing (MOC), an optical sensing technique for analog calculation, allows direct and robust measurement of chemical and physical properties of complex fluid samples in high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) downhole environments. The core of this MOC technology is the integrated computational element (ICE), an optical element with a wavelength-dependent transmission spectrum designed to allow the detector to respond sensitively and specifically to the analytes of interest. A key differentiator of this technology is it uses all of the information present in the broadband optical spectrum to determine the proportion of the analyte present in a complex fluid mixture. The detection methodology is photometric in nature; therefore, this technology does not require a spectrometer to measure and record a spectrum or a computer to perform calculations on the recorded optical spectrum. The integrated computational element is a thin-film optical element with a specific optical response function designed for each analyte. The optical response function is achieved by fabricating alternating layers of high-index (a-Si) and low-index (SiO2) thin films onto a transparent substrate (BK7 glass) using traditional thin-film manufacturing processes (e.g., ion-assisted e-beam vacuum deposition). A proprietary software and process are used to control the thickness and material properties, including the optical constants of the materials during deposition to achieve the desired optical response function. The ion-assisted deposition is useful for controlling the densification of the film, stoichiometry, and material optical constants as well as to achieve high deposition growth rates and moisture-stable films. However, the ion-source can induce undesirable absorption in the film; and subsequently, modify the optical constants of the material during the ramp-up and stabilization period of the e-gun and ion-source, respectively. This paper characterizes the unwanted

  14. Optical and Micro-Structural Characterization of MBE Grown Indium Gallium Nitride Polar Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    El Afandy, Rami

    2011-07-07

    Gallium nitride and related materials have ushered in scientific and technological breakthrough for lighting, mass data storage and high power electronic applications. These III-nitride materials have found their niche in blue light emitting diodes and blue laser diodes. Despite the current development, there are still technological problems that still impede the performance of such devices. Three-dimensional nanostructures are proposed to improve the electrical and thermal properties of III-nitride optical devices. This thesis consolidates the characterization results and unveils the unique physical properties of polar indium gallium nitride quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique. In this thesis, a theoretical overview of the physical, structural and optical properties of polar III-nitrides quantum dots will be presented. Particular emphasis will be given to properties that distinguish truncated-pyramidal III-nitride quantum dots from other III-V semiconductor based quantum dots. The optical properties of indium gallium nitride quantum dots are mainly dominated by large polarization fields, as well as quantum confinement effects. Hence, the experimental investigations for such quantum dots require performing bandgap calculations taking into account the internal strain fields, polarization fields and confinement effects. The experiments conducted in this investigation involved the transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. The analysis of the temperature dependence and excitation power dependence of the PL spectra sheds light on the carrier dynamics within the quantum dots, and its underlying wetting layer. A further analysis shows that indium gallium nitride quantum dots through three-dimensional confinements are able to prevent the electronic carriers from getting thermalized into defects which grants III-nitrides quantum dot based light emitting diodes superior thermally induced optical

  15. Effect of sintering temperature on optical properties and microstructure of translucent zirconia prepared by high-pressure spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhang, Byung-Nam Kim, Koji Morita, Hidehiro Yoshida Keijiro Hiraga and Yoshio Sakka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to characterize the effect of sintering temperature on transparency of zirconia, we have evaluated the optical properties and microstructure of translucent cubic zirconia prepared by high-pressure spark plasma sintering (SPS at 1000–1200 circleC. Color centers (oxygen vacancies with trapped electrons and residual pores were primary defects in the samples. In SPS samples, the total forward transmittance and in-line transmittance are mainly affected by color centers with a limited contribution from residual pores; in contrast, the changes in reflectance are only related to the porosity. The amounts of color centers and residual pores increase with sintering temperature that reduces the total forward and in-line transmittance of the as-sintered zirconia. Annealing in oxidizing atmosphere improves the total forward and in-line transmittance. During the annealing, the concentration of color centers decreases but the porosity increases.

  16. A micro S-shaped optical fiber temperature sensor based on dislocation fiber splice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haitao; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Haojie; Shen, Xiaoyue; Wang, Yongzhen

    2017-12-01

    We fabricated a simple, compact, and stable temperature sensor based on an S-shaped dislocated optical fiber. The dislocation optical fiber has two splice points, and we obtained the optimal parameters based on the theory and our experiment, such as the dislocation amount and length of the dislocation optical fiber. According to the relationship between the temperature and the peak wavelength shift, the temperature of the environment can be obtained. Then, we made this fiber a micro bending as S-shape between the two dislocation points, and the S-shaped micro bending part could release stress with the change in temperature and reduce the effect of stress on the temperature measurement. This structure could solve the problem of sensor distortion caused by the cross response of temperature and stress. We measured the S-shaped dislocation fiber sensor and the dislocation fiber without S-shape under the same environment and conditions, and the S-shaped dislocation fiber had the advantages of the stable reliability and good linearity.

  17. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  18. Large-strain optical fiber sensing and real-time FEM updating of steel structures under the high temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ying; Fang, Xia; Xiao, Hai; Bevans, Wesley James; Chen, Genda; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Steel buildings are subjected to fire hazards during or immediately after a major earthquake. Under combined gravity and thermal loads, they have non-uniformly distributed stiffness and strength, and thus collapse progressively with large deformation. In this study, large-strain optical fiber sensors for high temperature applications and a temperature-dependent finite element model updating method are proposed for accurate prediction of structural behavior in real time. The optical fiber sensors can measure strains up to 10% at approximately 700 °C. Their measurements are in good agreement with those from strain gauges up to 0.5%. In comparison with the experimental results, the proposed model updating method can reduce the predicted strain errors from over 75% to below 20% at 800 °C. The minimum number of sensors in a fire zone that can properly characterize the vertical temperature distribution of heated air due to the gravity effect should be included in the proposed model updating scheme to achieve a predetermined simulation accuracy. (paper)

  19. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, M C; Boni, R; Sorce, A; Kendrick, J; McCoy, C A; Polsin, D N; Boehly, T R; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; Fratanduono, D E; Eggert, J H; Millot, M

    2016-11-01

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40-nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP's ∼250-nm operating range is then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. Error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.

  20. Absolute calibration of the OMEGA streaked optical pyrometer for temperature measurements of compressed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, M. C.; Boni, R.; Sorce, A.; Kendrick, J.; McCoy, C. A.; Polsin, D. N.; Boehly, T. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Millot, M.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments in high-energy-density physics often use optical pyrometry to determine temperatures of dynamically compressed materials. In combination with simultaneous shock-velocity and optical-reflectivity measurements using velocity interferometry, these experiments provide accurate equation-of-state data at extreme pressures (P > 1 Mbar) and temperatures (T > 0.5 eV). This paper reports on the absolute calibration of the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) at the Omega Laser Facility. The wavelength-dependent system response was determined by measuring the optical emission from a National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable tungsten-filament lamp through various narrowband (40-nm-wide) filters. The integrated signal over the SOP's ˜250-nm operating range is then related to that of a blackbody radiator using the calibrated response. We present a simple closed-form equation for the brightness temperature as a function of streak-camera signal derived from this calibration. Error estimates indicate that brightness temperature can be inferred to a precision of <5%.

  1. Characterization of highly crystalline lead iodide nanosheets prepared by room-temperature solution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisenda, Riccardo; Island, Joshua O.; Lado, Jose L.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Gant, Patricia; Nagler, Philipp; Bange, Sebastian; Lupton, John M.; Schüller, Christian; Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Korn, Tobias; Niño, Miguel Angel; Perez de Lara, David; Pérez, Emilio M.; Fernandéz-Rossier, Joaquín; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting materials are particularly appealing for many applications. Although theory predicts a large number of 2D materials, experimentally only a few of these materials have been identified and characterized comprehensively in the ultrathin limit. Lead iodide, which belongs to the transition metal halides family and has a direct bandgap in the visible spectrum, has been known for a long time and has been well characterized in its bulk form. Nevertheless, studies of this material in the nanometer thickness regime are rather scarce. In this article we demonstrate an easy way to synthesize ultrathin, highly crystalline flakes of PbI2 by precipitation from a solution in water. We thoroughly characterize the produced thin flakes with different techniques ranging from optical and Raman spectroscopy to temperature-dependent photoluminescence and electron microscopy. We compare the results to ab initio calculations of the band structure of the material. Finally, we fabricate photodetectors based on PbI2 and study their optoelectronic properties.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and study of photoinduced optical anisotropy in polyimides containing side azobenzene units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa; Siwy, Mariola; Kawalec, Michal; Sobolewska, Anna; Chamera, Agata; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2009-07-30

    In this paper, novel processable aromatic polymers with imide rings and attached as side-chain azobenzene units are presented. Polymers differ in the chemical structures of chromophores and polymer backbones. Azopolymers were obtained by a two-step synthetic approach. This includes the preparation of a precursor poly(esterimide) and poly(etherimide) with pendant phenolic hydroxyl groups, followed by the covalent bonding of NLO chromophores onto the polyimide backbone by the Mitsunobu reaction. The degree of functionalization of polymers was estimated by UV-vis spectroscopy. Polymers were characterized and evaluated by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, X-ray, UV-vis, DSC, and TGA methods. The synthesized polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures in the range of 167-228 degrees C, thermal stability with decomposition temperatures in the range of 275-446 degrees C, and excellent solubilities in common organic solvents. The light-induced optical anisotropy was studied in obtained azopolymers with the help of a holographic grating recording technique. Two polarization geometries were applied for the grating inscription s-s and p-p. The influence of the polarization geometry on the diffraction efficiency dynamics and on the depth of the surface modulation was not observed, which is different from results reported in the literature. Surface relief gratings, which appeared after the light exposure, were observed by atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the optical anisotropy in poly(esterimide)s was investigated by photoinduced birefringence measurements. For the first time, in polyimide with covalently bonded azobenzene derivatives, the high photoinduced birefringence (Delta n = 0.01) was measured.

  3. Pure and Au nanoparticles doped higher alkanes for an optical fiber temperature threshold sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybysz, Natalia; Marć, Paweł; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Grobelny, Jarosław; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2017-05-01

    Development of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) technology has created new research fields for optical sensors and telecommunication. The cross section geometry modifications of this type of fibers allow to influence their optical parameters. These modifications are not limited to change sizes and arrangements of an air holes' lattice, but also replacing air with another material. In the paper we have shown how to change thermo-optical properties of a large mode area commercially available LMA-10 PCF by filling it with different chemical substances. Our previous research has led us to develop a class of optical fiber temperature threshold sensor transducers based on a partially filled PCF with higher alkanes. The principle of work of such a sensor transducer is to use a temperature bi-stability of a filling material because when the higher alkane is in the solid state light cannot pass through the transducer, and when it is in the liquid state light can be transmitted. One of the most important advantages of higher alkanes we used in the experiments are their different melting points, but the most important disadvantage is discrepancy between melting and crystallization temperatures and the sensor switches on and off for different temperatures. This effect called supercoiling appears due to the lack of nucleation centers. To reduce this effect the gold nanoparticels (NPs) in hexane colloid were used. We have prepared samples with three higher alkanes doped with 1% of Au NPs and we have shown their temperature and time responses. The proper selection of melting points of higher alkanes allows to design the multilevel temperature threshold sensor which can cover the temperature range from -20°C up to 70°C, and can be applied in chemical, oil, gas and energy industry.

  4. Characterization of the dental pulp using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C. M. F.; Carvalho, M. T.; Araujo, R. E.; Freitas, A. Z.; Zezell, D. M.; Gomes, A. S. L.

    2006-02-01

    The inner structure of teeth, i.e. the root canal anatomy, is very complex. However a good knowledge of endodontic architecture is the first step towards successful endodontic treatment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful technique to generate images of hard and soft tissue. Its images show dependency on the optical properties of the tissue under analysis. Changes in the scattering and absorption of tissues can be observed through the OCT images. In this work, we used optical coherence tomography to perform in vitro studies of the inner structure of the first molar of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Focusing on the pulp chamber and in the root canal, we compare the images generated with the OCT technique to the histology. We are analyzing the feasibility of OCT to help on the diagnostic of endodontic diseases.

  5. Growth and characterization of organic nonlinear optical material: Benzilic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniraj, T.; Philominathan, P.

    2009-07-01

    The organic nonlinear optical crystals of benzilic acid were grown by the slow evaporation method using ethanol as a solvent. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), powder XRD studies and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis were carried out to confirm the benzilic acid crystal. The optical transparency was studied by ultra violet (UV)-visible spectral analysis. Thermal properties of the grown crystals were studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The melting point of the grown crystal was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was found to be 2 times that of KDP.

  6. Characterization of the optical properties of silver nanoparticle films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung-hee; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Jin, Sunmi; Chun, Sangki; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2007-01-01

    To understand the collective properties of nanoparticles, it is necessary to control the particle size, spacing and ordering. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of well-controlled silver nanoparticles, the wet coat preparation and the optical properties of its film. The light incidence angle and polarization dependency of the resonant spectra show distinctive surface plasmon resonance extinction peaks for isolated particles and the coupled modes of neighbouring particles. Furthermore, we discuss the thermal treatment and dielectric surrounding effects on the optical properties of silver nanoparticle film

  7. Characterization and Optical and Dielectric Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica Nanocomposites Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abdel-Baset

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method and mixed with different amounts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC to get nanocomposite films. The samples were characterized by XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, and FTIR. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM proved that the average particle size of the nanosilica is 15 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that the nanosilica was well dispersed on the surface of the PVC films. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectra for nanocomposite films intimate a significant change in the intensity of the characteristic peaks of the functional group with addition of nanosilica. The optical band gap was found to decrease with the addition of nanosilica while the refractive index increased. The dielectric constant ε′, the dielectric loss modulus M′′, and AC conductivity (σAC were also studied. It was found that ε′ increases with temperature for all samples, clear dielectric α-relaxation observed from dielectric loss M′′ around the glass temperature (Tg, and this could be related to micro-Brownian motion of the main PVC chain. The activation energy was calculated, and the AC conductivity could be a hopping one. The results of this work are discussed and compared with previously obtained data.

  8. Optical properties and extinction spectroscopy to characterize the synthesis of amine capped silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan, Maria Virginia [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos, FCEIyA, IFIR, UNR, Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail: vroldan@fceia.unr.edu.ar; Scaffardi, Lucia B. [CIOp - CONICET, CIC, c.c. 124, 1900 La Plata (Argentina) and Area Departamental de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Sanctis, Oscar de [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos, FCEIyA, IFIR, UNR, Rosario (Argentina); Pellegri, Nora [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos, FCEIyA, IFIR, UNR, Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail: pellegri@fceia.unr.edu.ar

    2008-12-20

    The present work describes a method for preparation of Ag nanoparticles from chemical reduction of AgNO{sub 3} in ethanol with ATS [N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] diethylenetriamine] as surface modifier. We study the influence of different parameters such as concentration, time, temperature and reductor agents on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. We present the morphologic and structural characterization of samples by UV-vis extinction spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particularly, using optical extinction spectroscopy, the present work shows the analysis of size evolution in the fabrication process of spherical silver nanoparticles. This evolution is studied as a function of the time elapsed between the beginning of the reaction and the extraction of the sample (temporal delayed synthesis), and as a function of the temperature during the chemical reaction. In both the cases, we propose the study of the plasmon width as a useful, simple and inexpensive method for analysis of the mean radius, specially, for values below 6 nm.

  9. Compact MEMS/NEMS characterization platform using a DVD optical pick-up unit with optical imaging function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present a compact, simple and efficient platform for Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)/Nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) characterization. In this platform, a CCD camera is combined with a DVD optical pick-up unit (OPU). The CCD camera captures optical image of MEMS...... of 560 run (full width at half maximum, FWHM), which is capable of measuring cantilevers and strings with sub-micron width. A homemade nano-scale resolution X-Y-Z positioner with working distances of 12, 12, 5 mm is responsible for laser-sample alignment. Both thermal and excited resonant frequencies...

  10. High-temperature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wenhui; Jiang, Yi; Gao, Ran; Liu, Yuewu

    2015-01-01

    A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based high-temperature fiber-optic sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor head is a Fabry-Perot cavity manufactured with a short section of endless single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM PCF). The interferometric spectrum of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is collected by a charge coupled device linear array based micro spectrometer. A high-resolution demodulation algorithm is used to interrogate the peak wavelengths. Experimental results show that the temperature range of 1200 °C and the temperature resolution of 1 °C are achieved

  11. Sub-Doppler magneto-optical trap temperatures measured using Rydberg tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallant, J.; Overstreet, K. R.; Schwettmann, A.; Shaffer, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements of polarization-gradient cooling in a Cs magneto-optic trap (MOT). The temperature in the MOT is found to vary linearly with the light shift. The slope gives a value of C σ =0.25±0.05 while the minimum temperature T 0 =3.8±3.3 μK, in agreement with measurements done in the absence of a magnetic field. The temperature is determined by using a nondestructive method which uses Rydberg time-of-flight velocity distributions of trapped atoms

  12. Structural and Optical Properties of White Light Emitting ZnS:Mn(2+) Nanoparticles at Different Synthesis Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, K R; Anila, E I

    2015-07-01

    We report of the synthesis and characterisation of white emitting ZnS:Mn(2+) nanoparticles. The spectroscopic properties and the crystal structure of Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles are studied here to provide a better understanding on how the luminescence emission and the crystalline composition are influenced by the synthesis temperature. The synthesis of the samples were carried out by the simple wet chemical precipitation method. The influence of synthesis temperature on structure and optical properties were studied at constant Mn concentration. The nanoparticles were structurally characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The XRD studies show the phase singularity of Mn doped ZnS particles having zinc-blende (cubic) structure at all temperatures. The band gap of the doped samples are red shifted with temperature. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectra exhibited resonance signals, characteristic of Mn(2+). Incorporation of Mn in the ZnS nanoparticles was confirmed by Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopic studies (ICP-AES). The samples show an efficient emission of yellow-orange light centred at 590 nm which is characteristic of Mn(2+) along with a blue emission at 435 nm due to sulfur vacancy. The overall emission is white at all temperatures with CIE co-ordinates in close agreement with achromatic white.

  13. A Cost-Effective Optical Device for the Characterization of Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millier, Brian; Aleman Milán, Gianna

    2014-01-01

    The design and construction of an apparatus to measure the optical birefringence of a liquid crystal is described. The instrument also includes temperature control and monitoring circuitry to allow for the measurement of the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition temperature. An important feature of this design is that the students are able to…

  14. Optical fiber temperature sensor based on a microcavity with polymer overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romano, Iván; Cruz-Garcia, Miguel A; Moreno-Hernández, Carlos; Monzón-Hernández, David; López-Figueroa, Efraín O; Paredes-Gallardo, Omar E; Torres-Cisneros, Miguel; Villatoro, Joel

    2016-03-07

    An ultracompact, cost-effective, and highly accurate fiber optic temperature sensor is proposed and demonstrated. The sensing head consists of Fabry-Perot microcavity formed by an internal mirror made of a thin titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) film and a microscopic segment of single-mode fiber covered with Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Due to the high thermo-optic coefficient of PDMS the reflectance of the fiber-PDMS interface varies strongly with temperature which in turn modifies the amplitude of the interference pattern. To quantify the changes of the latter we monitored the visibility of the interference pattern and analyzed it by means of the fast Fourier transform. Our sensor exhibits linear response, high sensitivity, and response time of 14 seconds. We believe that the microscopic dimensions along with the performance of the sensor here presented makes it appealing for sensing temperature in PDMS microfluidic circuits or in biological applications.

  15. Optical characterization of HfO(2) thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, D.; Ohlídal, I.; Nečas, D.; Vižďa, F.; Caha, O.; Hasoň, M.; Pokorný, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 519, č. 18 (2011), s. 6085-6091 ISSN 0040-6090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optical properties * ellipsometry * spectrophotometry * hafnium oxide * transition-metal oxide * Urbach tail Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2011

  16. Characterization of Scintillating X-ray Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Mihai, Laura; Vâţă, Ion; McCarthy, Denis; O'Keeffe, Sinead; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a set of tests carried out in order to evaluate the design characteristics and the operating performance of a set of six X-ray extrinsic optical fiber sensors. The extrinsic sensor we developed is intended to be used as a low energy X-ray detector for monitoring radiation levels in radiotherapy, industrial applications and for personnel dosimetry. The reproducibility of the manufacturing process and the characteristics of the sensors were assessed. The sensors dynamic range, linearity, sensitivity, and reproducibility are evaluated through radioluminescence measurements, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray imaging investigations. Their response to the operating conditions of the excitation source was estimated. The effect of the sensors design and implementation, on the collecting efficiency of the radioluminescence signal was measured. The study indicated that the sensors are efficient only in the first 5 mm of the tip, and that a reflective coating can improve their response. Additional tests were done to investigate the concentricity of the sensors tip against the core of the optical fiber guiding the optical signal. The influence of the active material concentration on the sensor response to X-ray was studied. The tests were carried out by measuring the radioluminescence signal with an optical fiber spectrometer and with a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter. PMID:24556676

  17. CALIBRATION OF THE MICRON OPTICS TEMPERATURE SENSORS FOR FIBER OPTIC THEMO-HYGROMETERS FOR CMS TRACKER

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Siew Yan

    2013-01-01

    The nature of my project at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is proposed and discussed. The experiments at LHC (Large Hadron Collider) are conducted in high precision with state of the art in order to get a glimpse of the fundamental particle behaves in a re-created early universe environment by colliding particle with high energy. Trillion of data collected from the LHC has been studied by top scientists from all around the world to produce readable information and analyze the result. Optimization, data sorting, reconstruction, calibration, and fine tuning are constantly carry out at CERN in order to maintain the quality of each measurement. Therefore, tracker is primarily important and it is needed to be serviced frequently to maintain its efficiency in detecting the particle. Being a summer intern student at CERN, I was assigned to the project concerning Fiber Optic Thermo-Hygrometers which is currently deploying in CMS (Compact Muon Soleniod) detector in the upgrading period. The interns...

  18. Digital holography applications in ophthalmology, biometry, and optical trapping characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potcoava, Mariana Camelia

    This dissertation combines various holographic techniques with application on the two- and three-dimensional imaging of ophthalmic tissue, fingerprints, and microsphere samples with micrometer resolution. Digital interference holography (DIH) uses scanned wavelengths to synthesize short-coherence interference tomographic images. We used DIH for in vitro imaging of human optic nerve head and retina. Tomographic images were produced by superposition of holograms. Holograms were obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 50 dB. Optic nerve head characteristics (shape, diameter, cup depth, and cup width) were quantified with a few micron resolution (4.06--4.8mum). Multiple layers were distinguishable in cross-sectional images of the macula. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DIH use to image human macular and optic nerve tissue. Holographic phase microscopy is used to produce images of thin film patterns left by latent fingerprints. Two or more holographic phase images with different wavelengths are combined for optical phase unwrapping of images of patent prints. We demonstrated digital interference holography images of a plastic print, and latent prints. These demonstrations point to significant contributions to biometry by using digital interference holography to identify and quantify Level 1 (pattern), Level 2 (minutia points), and Level 3 (pores and ridge contours). Quantitative studies of physical and biological processes and precise non-contact manipulation of nanometer/micrometer trapped objects can be effectuated with nanometer accuracy due to the development of optical tweezers. A three-dimensional gradient trap is produced at the focus position of a high NA microscope objective. Particles are trapped axially and laterally due to the gradient force. The particle is confined in a potential well and the trap acts as a harmonic spring. The elastic constant or the stiffness along any axis is determined from the particle displacements in

  19. Synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of undoped, V and Sc doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amezaga-Madrid, P.; Antunez-Flores, W.; Ledezma-Sillas, J.E.; Murillo-Ramirez, J.G.; Solis-Canto, O.; Vega-Becerra, O.E.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undoped, V and Sc doped ZnO thin films by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition. → Optimum substrate temperatures of 673 K and 623 K for Sc and V doped films. → Around one third of the dopants in solution were deposited into the films. → Crystallite and grain size decreased with the increase of dopant concentration. → Optical band gap increased from 3.29 to 3.32 eV for undoped to 7 Sc/Zn at. %. - Abstract: Many semiconductor oxides (ZnO, TiO 2 , SnO 2 ) when doped with a low percentage of non-magnetic (V, Sc) or magnetic 3d (Co, Mn, Ni, Fe) cation behave ferromagnetically. They have attracted a great deal of interest due to the integration of semiconducting and magnetic properties in a material. ZnO is one of the most promising materials to carry out these tasks in view of the fact that it is optically transparent and has n or p type conductivity. Here, we report the synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of undoped, V and Sc doped zinc oxide thin films. ZnO based thin films with additions of V and Sc were deposited by the Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition method. V and Sc were incorporated separately in the precursor solution. The films were uniform, transparent and non-light scattering. The microstructure of the films was characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Scanning Probe Microscopy. Average grain size and surface rms roughness were estimated by the measurement of Atomic Force Microscopy. The microstructure of doped ZnO thin films depended on the type and amount of dopant material incorporated. The optical properties were determined from specular reflectance and transmittance spectra. Results were analyzed to determine the optical constant and band gap of the films. An increase in the optical band gap with the content of Sc dopant was obtained.

  20. Optical characterization of high speed microscanners based on static slit profiling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaa Elhady, A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-01-01

    Optical characterization of high-speed microscanners is a challenging task that usually requires special high speed, extremely expensive camera systems. This paper presents a novel simple method to characterize the scanned beam spot profile and size in high-speed optical scanners under operation. It allows measuring the beam profile and the spot sizes at different scanning angles. The method is analyzed theoretically and applied experimentally on the characterization of a Micro Electro Mechanical MEMS scanner operating at 2.6 kHz. The variation of the spot size versus the scanning angle, up to ±15°, is extracted and the dynamic bending curvature effect of the micromirror is predicted.

  1. Photocatalytic reduction of NO pollutant using an optical-fibre photoreactor at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Hui; Su, I-Hsuan; Wu, Jeffrey C S

    2010-12-01

    Photo-assisted catalytic reduction of nitric oxide (NO) was studied over different metal-loaded TiO2 catalysts at room temperature. The activities of metal-loaded (Pt, Ag, Cu) TiO2 photocatalysts, prepared by the sol-gel method, were compared in a batch system using CH4 as the reducing agent. The Pt/TiO2 catalyst showed the highest activity for NO reduction. Thus, Pt/TiO2 was coated on optical fibres and used in a continuous-flow optical-fibre photoreactor. The optical-fibre photoreactor provides light irradiation on the photocatalyst through the optical fibre, thus improving the efficiency ofphotoreactions. Ten per cent conversion of NO was found using CH4 as the reducing agent. The NO conversions increased to 90% in the presence of water vapour and oxygen. However, most NO was oxidized to NO2. Hydrogen had superior reducing capabilities over CH4 on Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst, and the conversion of NO reached 85%. But the conversion of NO was substantially decreased to less than 10% in the presence of water vapour and oxygen. Our research proposed an alternative way to reduce NO pollutant to N2 at room temperature using an optical-fibre photoreactor, which could possibly utilize sunlight in the future.

  2. Improvement of skin optical clearing efficacy by topical treatment of glycerol at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Zijian; Liu Caihua; Tao Wei; Zhu Dan, E-mail: dawnzh@mail.hust.edu.cn [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, laser has been widely used in clinical diagnosis and cosmetic therapy. However, there is limitation for further usage in deeper tissue for high scattering property. Skin optical clearing technique, by introducing optical clearing agents (OCAs) into tissue, will have a potential impact on optical diagnosis and therapy. In this work, anhydrous glycerol at different temperatures of 4, 25, 32 and 45 deg. C were applied respectively to in vitro porcine skin, and reflectance and transmittance spectra were then measured dynamically using a spectrometry combined with integrating sphere system. Further, reduced scattering coefficient and penetration depth were obtained. Results showed that, glycerol at different temperatures could induce the reduced scattering coefficient of in vitro skin to decrease and the penetration depth to increase. 4 and 25 deg. C glycerol had similar effect, decreasing the scattering by 48.2% and 49.7%, and increasing penetration depth by 37.9% and 39.5%, respectively. However, 32 and 45 deg. C glycerol treatment could decrease scattering by 61.6% and 76.6%, and increase penetration depth by 53.3% and 84.1%, respectively. In conclusion, glycerol at higher temperature can induce greater and faster skin optical clearing efficacy.

  3. The effect of annealing temperature on the optical properties of a ruthenium complex thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim, E-mail: kasim.ocakoglu@mersin.edu.tr [Advanced Technology Research & Application Center, Mersin University, TR-33343, Yenisehir, Mersin (Turkey); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mersin University, TR-33480 Mersin (Turkey); Okur, Salih, E-mail: salih.okur@ikc.edu.tr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Izmir (Turkey); Aydin, Hasan [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Gulbahce Campus, 35430, Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Emen, Fatih Mehmet [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, TR-15030 Burdur (Turkey)

    2016-08-01

    The stability of the optical parameters of a ruthenium polypyridyl complex (Ru-PC K314) film under varying annealing temperatures between 278 K and 673 K was investigated. The ruthenium polypyridyl complex thin film was prepared on a quartz substrate by drop casting technique. The transmission of the film was recorded by using Ultraviolet/Visible/Near Infrared spectrophotometer and the optical band gap energy of the as-deposited film was determined around 2.20 eV. The optical parameters such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dielectric constant of the film were determined and the annealing effect on these parameters was investigated. The results show that Ru PC K314 film is quite stable up to 595 K, and the rate of the optical band gap energy change was found to be 5.23 × 10{sup −5} eV/K. Furthermore, the thermal analysis studies were carried out in the range 298–673 K. The Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermal Gravimmetry/Differantial Thermal Gravimmetry curves show that the decomposition is incomplete in the temperature range 298–673 K. Ru-PC K314 is thermally stable up to 387 K. The decomposition starts at 387 K with elimination of functional groups such as CO{sub 2}, CO molecules and SO{sub 3}H group was eliminated between 614 K and 666 K. - Highlights: • Optical parameters of a ruthenium polypyridyl complex film under varying annealing temperatures • The film is quite stable up to 573 K. • The rate of change of optical energy gap was obtained as 5.23 × 10{sup −5} eV/K.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and optical property of shrimps-like nanostructures of MnO2 by hydrothermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufiq, Arbab Mohammad; Wang, Fengping; Javed, Qurat-ul-ain

    2013-04-01

    Hexagonal MnO2 shrimps like nanostructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route at a temperature of 175 degrees C. The synthesized MnO2 nanostructures were characterized by the X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Selected Area Electron Diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. UV-vis spectrophotometer was used to determine the absorption behaviour of shrimps like nanostructures. Direct optical band gap of 1.65 eV was acquired by using Davis-Mott model. The UV-visible spectrum exhibited the prominent absorption in visible region.

  5. Deep-tissue temperature mapping by multi-illumination photoacoustic tomography aided by a diffusion optical model: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Tang, Eric; Luo, Jianwen; Yao, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    Temperature mapping during thermotherapy can help precisely control the heating process, both temporally and spatially, to efficiently kill the tumor cells and prevent the healthy tissues from heating damage. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has been used for noninvasive temperature mapping with high sensitivity, based on the linear correlation between the tissue's Grüneisen parameter and temperature. However, limited by the tissue's unknown optical properties and thus the optical fluence at depths beyond the optical diffusion limit, the reported PAT thermometry usually takes a ratiometric measurement at different temperatures and thus cannot provide absolute measurements. Moreover, ratiometric measurement over time at different temperatures has to assume that the tissue's optical properties do not change with temperatures, which is usually not valid due to the temperature-induced hemodynamic changes. We propose an optical-diffusion-model-enhanced PAT temperature mapping that can obtain the absolute temperature distribution in deep tissue, without the need of multiple measurements at different temperatures. Based on the initial acoustic pressure reconstructed from multi-illumination photoacoustic signals, both the local optical fluence and the optical parameters including absorption and scattering coefficients are first estimated by the optical-diffusion model, then the temperature distribution is obtained from the reconstructed Grüneisen parameters. We have developed a mathematic model for the multi-illumination PAT of absolute temperatures, and our two-dimensional numerical simulations have shown the feasibility of this new method. The proposed absolute temperature mapping method may set the technical foundation for better temperature control in deep tissue in thermotherapy.

  6. Drastic sensitivity enhancement of temperature sensing based on modal interference in plastic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, G.; Hayashi, N.; Tabaru, M.; Mizuno, Y.; Nakamura, K.

    2015-09-01

    It has been reported that temperature sensors based on modal interference in perfluorinated graded-index (GI) plastic optical fibers (POFs) show the world's highest temperature sensitivity of +49.8 nm/°C/m at 1300 nm at room temperature, which is over 1800 times the value in silica multimode fibers (MMFs). In this work, we newly find that the temperature sensitivity (absolute value) is significantly enhanced with increasing temperature toward ~70°C, which is close to the glass-transition temperature of the core polymer. When the core diameter is 62.5 μm, the sensitivity at 72 °C at 1300 nm is +202 nm/°C/m, which is approximately 26 times the value obtained at room temperature and even over 7000 times the highest value previously reported using a silica MMF. As the glass-transition temperature of polymers can be generally set to an arbitrary value, this characteristic could be used to develop POF-based temperature sensors with ultra-high sensitivity not only at ~70°C but at arbitrary temperature in future.

  7. Miniature optical fiber temperature sensor based on FMF-SCF structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanbiao; Ning, Tigang; Zheng, Jingjing; Gao, Xuekai; Lin, Heng; Li, Jing; Pei, Li; Wen, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a miniature optical fiber temperature sensor consisting of a seven core fiber (SCF) and a few mode fiber (FMF). The device is fabricated by splicing a section of FMF with a segment of SCF to form a FMF-SCF based sensing structure, and during the FMF region, few modes can be excited and will propagate within the SCF. In experiment, the proposed device has good quality interferometric spectra, and the highest extinction ratio of 27 dB was achieved. When the temperature increases from room temperature to 110 °C, the temperature response properties of the sensor have been investigated, the wavelength sensitivity of about 91.8 pm/°C and the amplitude sensitivity of about 1.57 × 10-2 a.u./°C are obtained, respectively. Due to its easy and controllable fabrication, the sensor can be a suitable candidate in temperature sensing applications.

  8. Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency in InAs/InP quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier operating at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karni, Ouri; Capua, Amir; Eisenstein, Gadi; Sichkovskyi, Vitalii; Ivanov, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2013-11-04

    We report direct observations of Rabi oscillations and self-induced transparency in a quantum dot optical amplifier operating at room temperature. The experiments make use of pulses whose durations are shorter than the coherence time which are characterized using Cross-Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating. A numerical model which solves the Maxwell and Schrödinger equations and accounts for the inhomogeneously broadened nature of the quantum dot gain medium confirms the experimental results. The model is also used to explain the relationship between the observability of Rabi oscillations, the pulse duration and the homogeneous and inhomogeneous spectral widths of the semiconductor.

  9. Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensors Based on Fiber-Optic PWM and Capacitance Variation Using Thermochromic Sensing Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-07-09

    In this paper, we propose a temperature/thermal sensor that contains a Rhodamine-B sensing membrane. We applied two different sensing methods, namely, fiber-optic pulse width modulation (PWM) and an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based temperature sensor to measure the temperature from 5 °C to 100 °C. To the best of our knowledge, the fiber-optic PWM-based temperature sensor is reported for the first time in this study. The proposed fiber-optic PWM temperature sensor has good sensing ability; its sensitivity is ~3.733 mV/°C. The designed temperature-sensing system offers stable sensing responses over a wide dynamic range, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of ~0.021, and the capacity for a linear sensing response with a correlation coefficient of R² ≈ 0.992 over a wide sensing range. In our study, we also developed an IDC temperature sensor that is based on the capacitance variation principle as the IDC sensing element is heated. We compared the performance of the proposed temperature-sensing systems with different fiber-optic temperature sensors (which are based on the fiber-optic wavelength shift method, the long grating fiber-optic Sagnac loop, and probe type fiber-optics) in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing performance than the above-mentioned sensing system.

  10. Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensors Based on Fiber-Optic PWM and Capacitance Variation Using Thermochromic Sensing Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a temperature/thermal sensor that contains a Rhodamine-B sensing membrane. We applied two different sensing methods, namely, fiber-optic pulse width modulation (PWM) and an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based temperature sensor to measure the temperature from 5 °C to 100 °C. To the best of our knowledge, the fiber-optic PWM-based temperature sensor is reported for the first time in this study. The proposed fiber-optic PWM temperature sensor has good sensing ability; its sensitivity is ~3.733 mV/°C. The designed temperature-sensing system offers stable sensing responses over a wide dynamic range, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of ~0.021, and the capacity for a linear sensing response with a correlation coefficient of R2 ≈ 0.992 over a wide sensing range. In our study, we also developed an IDC temperature sensor that is based on the capacitance variation principle as the IDC sensing element is heated. We compared the performance of the proposed temperature-sensing systems with different fiber-optic temperature sensors (which are based on the fiber-optic wavelength shift method, the long grating fiber-optic Sagnac loop, and probe type fiber-optics) in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing performance than the above-mentioned sensing system. PMID:27409620

  11. Study of temperature increase and optic depth penetration in photo irradiated human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolik, Suren; Delgado, Jose A.; Perez, Arllene M.; Anasagasti, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Optical radiation is widely applied in the treatment and diagnosis of different pathologies. If the power density of the incident light is sufficiently high to induce a significant temperature rise in the irradiated tissue, then it is also needed the knowledge of the thermal properties of the tissue for a complete understanding of the therapeutic effects. The thermal penetration depth of several human tissues has been measured applying the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation for the distribution of optical radiation. The method, the experimental setup and the results are presented and discussed. (Author)

  12. An all optical system for studying temperature induced changes in diamond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available process © CSIR 2010 Slide 3 We can raise the temperature of the diamond sample by laser heating it © CSIR 2010 Slide 4 Laser heating of diamond by optical absorption CO2 laser ZnSe Beam Combiner R = , Cu Mirror R = , Au Coated Mirror ZnSe Beam... splitter, Reflection 84%ZnSe lens, f = 250 mm Sample HeNe laser R = 6 m, Moly Mirror Diffractive optic element Infrared camera © CSIR 2010 Slide 5 We can engineer two boundary conditions in our experiment Insulator Water-cooled © CSIR 2010 Slide 6...

  13. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors in TPS: Arc Jet Model Design & Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard; Feldman, Jay; Ellerby, Donald; Monk, Joshua; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Switzer, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Techniques for using fiber optics with Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) have been developed by IFOS Corp. for use in thermal protection systems (TPS) on spacecraft heat shield materials through NASA Phase 1 and 2 SBIR efforts and have been further improved in a recent collaboration between IFOS and NASA that will be described here. Fiber optic temperature sensors offer several potential advantages over traditional thermocouple sensors including a) multiplexing many sensors in a single fiber to increase sensor density in a given array or to provide spatial resolution, b) improved thermal property match between sensor and TPS to reduce heat flow disruption, c) lack of electrical conductivity.

  14. Optical characterization of isotropic and anisotropic layered media

    CERN Document Server

    Jakopic, G

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the UV/IR region with layered media and the inversion of photometric and ellipsometric spectra. A method is presented how to calculate the dielectric function of an ensemble of different anisotropic oscillators. A way is proposed how to extract both components of the dielectric tensor of uniaxial oligomers out of spectroscopic measurements at normal incidence, if it is possible to make two different structural modifications of the oligomer. Then, effective medium theories with an expansion on anisotropic media are treated and the result is used to model the optical properties of the rough surface of an organic thin film. Further, a new unified analytical inversion of reflectometric and ellipsometric data of strongly absorbing media is presented. A method is shown how to calculate simultaneously the thickness and the optical constants of weakly absorbing films out of one spectroscopic reflection or transmission measurement. The last topic are...

  15. Frontiers in optical methods nano-characterization and coherent control

    CERN Document Server

    Katayama, Ikufumui; Ohno, Shin-Ya

    2014-01-01

    This collection of reviews by leading Japanese researchers covers topics like ultrafast optical responses, terahertz and phonon studies, super-sensitive surface and high-pressure spectroscopy, combination of visible and x-ray photonics. Several related areas at the cutting edge of measurement technology and materials science are included. This book is partly based on well-cited review articles in the Japanese language in special volumes of the Journal of the Vacuum Society of Japan.

  16. Characterizing and Understanding Aerosol Optical Properties: CARES - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, Christopher D [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Atkinson, Dean B [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-12-17

    The scientific focus of this study was to use ambient measurements to develop new insights into the understanding of the direct radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosol particles. The study used data collected by the PI’s and others as part of both the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), which took place in and around Sacramento, CA, and the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) study. We focus on measurements that were made of aerosol particle optical properties, namely the wavelength-dependent light absorption, scattering and extinction. Interpretation of these optical property measurements is facilitated through consideration of complementary measurements of the aerosol particle chemical composition and size distributions. With these measurements, we addressed the following general scientific questions: 1. How does light scattering and extinction by atmospheric aerosol particles depend on particle composition, water uptake, and size? 2. To what extent is light absorption by aerosol particles enhanced through the mixing of black carbon with other particulate components? 3. What relationships exist between intensive aerosol particle optical properties, and how do these depend on particle source and photochemical aging? 4. How well do spectral deconvolution methods, which are commonly used in remote sensing, retrieve information about particle size distributions?

  17. Hyperspectral characterization of fluorescent organic contaminants on optical payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, Frédéric; Pansu, Robert; Faye, Delphine; Le Nouy, Patrice; Spezzigu, Piero

    2017-11-01

    The increase of performance of new optical instruments for science and Earth observation always leads to higher requirements in terms of contamination due to particle sedimentation in cleanrooms and deposition of chemical species in vacuum environment. Specific cleanliness control procedures are implemented in order to mitigate the risks of contamination on optical sensors and sensitive diopters, especially when used for UV applications. Such procedures are commonly carried out in cleanrooms and are described in both European ECSS-Q-ST-70-50C and NASA SN-C-0005D standards. UV light at 365 nm is often used for the inspection of optical sensitive surfaces to localize and to evaluate the amount of fluorescent particles, essentially coming from textile fibers. But other groups of compounds can be observed with a different spectral response and distribution, like adhesives and resins or even organic residues. Therefore, we could take advantage of this spectral information closely linked to specific molecules for partial identification of these materials before further investigation involving wipe on flight model and measurement in a laboratory.

  18. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  19. Real time monitoring of water level and temperature in storage fuel pools through optical fibre sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, S; Périsse, J; Boukenter, A; Ouerdane, Y; Marin, E; Macé, J-R; Cannas, M; Girard, S

    2017-08-18

    We present an innovative architecture of a Rayleigh-based optical fibre sensor for the monitoring of water level and temperature inside storage nuclear fuel pools. This sensor, able to withstand the harsh constraints encountered under accidental conditions such as those pointed-out during the Fukushima-Daiichi event (temperature up to 100 °C and radiation dose level up to ~20 kGy), exploits the Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry technique to remotely monitor a radiation resistant silica-based optical fibre i.e. its sensing probe. We validate the efficiency and the robustness of water level measurements, which are extrapolated from the temperature profile along the fibre length, in a dedicated test bench allowing the simulation of the environmental operating and accidental conditions. The conceived prototype ensures an easy, practical and no invasive integration into existing nuclear facilities. The obtained results represent a significant breakthrough and comfort the ability of the developed system to overcome both operating and accidental constraints providing the distributed profiles of the water level (0-to-5 m) and temperature (20-to-100 °C) with a resolution that in accidental condition is better than 3 cm and of ~0.5 °C respectively. These new sensors will be able, as safeguards, to contribute and reinforce the safety in existing and future nuclear power plants.

  20. Optical properties in the far infrared and at low temperatures of fifteen ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudel, Jacques

    1969-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author first briefly presents the problem of interactions between electromagnetic waves and thermal agitation waves in crystal. Then, he reports an analysis of reflection spectra in the far infrared and at low temperatures for fourteen ionic crystals in order to determine their optical properties. The author presents the methods used to calculate optical and dielectric constants. Results obtained for each compound are presented and discussed. In the next part, the author reports the study of transmission spectra of two ionic compounds (caesium iodide and copper oxide) at ambient temperature and at liquid helium temperature. He reports the determination of phonon addition and difference processes which occur during caesium iodide absorption, and the search for a second active infrared frequency for the copper oxide. The author briefly describes a high resolution spectrometer, and presents in a more detailed way the use of a new antimony-based sensor which allows studies to be performed at lower temperatures. Finally, various issues are discussed: Havelock relationship, determination of the optical longitudinal mode, and Szigeti equations of compressibility

  1. Controlling the optical properties of monocrystalline 3C-SiC heteroepitaxially grown on silicon at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Gerard; Myronov, Maksym

    2017-11-01

    Cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) offers an alternative wide bandgap semiconductor to conventional materials such as hexagonal silicon carbide (4H-SiC) or gallium nitride (GaN) for the detection of UV light and can offer a closely lattice matched virtual substrate for subsequent GaN heteroepitaxy. As 3C-SiC can be heteroepitaxially grown on silicon (Si) substrates its optical properties can be manipulated by controlling the thickness and doping concentrations. The optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers have been characterized by measuring the transmission of light through suspended membranes. Decreasing the thickness of the 3C-SiC epilayers is shown to shift the absorbance edge to lower wavelengths, a result of the indirect bandgap nature of silicon carbide. This property, among others, can be exploited to fabricate very low-cost, tuneable 3C-SiC based UV photodetectors. This study investigates the effect of thickness and doping concentration on the optical properties of 3C-SiC epilayers grown at low temperatures by a standard Si based growth process. The results demonstrate the potential photonic applications of 3C-SiC and its heterogeneous integration into the Si industry.

  2. Dynamic characterization of silicon nanowires using a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer-based pump-probe scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Hua; Cleary, C. S.; Dailey, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic phase and amplitude all-optical responses of silicon nanowires are characterized using a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based pump-probe scheme. Ultra-fast recovery is observed for moderate pump powers....

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of hydrothermal assisted zinc oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Guru Nisha; Sankar Ganesh, R.; Karthigeyan, A., E-mail: karthigeyan.a@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanorods were grown employing a low cost hydrothermal method on microslide glass substrates pre-coated with ZnO seed layer. The as grown nanorods were annealed in air at 350 °C, 450 °C and 550 °C. The effect of annealing at different temperatures on morphology, structural, optical and electrical properties was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopic, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectral, photoluminescence and electrical studies. The X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples showed wurtzite structure preferentially oriented along the c-axis (0 0 2) direction. It was found that diameter of the nanorods increased with increasing of annealing temperature. The UV–vis absorption spectra showed a red shift from which it was inferred that the optical bandgap of the material decreases from 3.33 eV to 3.28 eV with increase in annealing temperature. Photoluminescence measurements showed increase in the UV emission intensity with respect to annealing temperature and also produced additional peaks attributed to defects and impurities. Annealing the ZnO nanorod structures at various temperatures evidently showed that the sample annealed at 550 °C acquired the lowest resistivity about 1.62 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method on microslide glass substrates. • Pre-deposited ZnO seeds were used. • Structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorods were studied. • Crystalline structure of ZnO nanorods was improved with increase in annealing temperature. • Resistivity decrease was observed with increase in the annealing temperature.

  4. Quantifying temperature changes in tissue-mimicking fluid phantoms using optical coherence tomography and envelope statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevaratnam, Subaagari; Bains, Amitpal; Farid, Mashal; Farhat, Golnaz; Kolios, Michael; Standish, Beau A.

    2014-02-01

    Several therapies make use of a hypo or hyperthermia tissue environment to induce cell death in both benign and malignant tumors. Current progression in optical technologies, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) sensors, could potentially provide viable information to explore the response of tissue when these temperature induced treatments are implemented. Studies were conducted with tissue-mimicking phantoms fabricated with polystyrene microspheres and glycerin to observe any relationship between the pixel intensities of the OCT images and their concurring envelope statistics. OCT images of the monitored region of interest were taken at 5°C intervals from 25°C to 60°C. Four probability distribution functions (PDF), Rician, Rayleigh, Normal and Generalized Gamma were used to investigate OCT envelope statistics as the temperature was altered. Using the Kolmogrov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, it was determined that the Generalized Gamma was the best fit. The scaling and shape parameters associated with the Generalized Gamma PDF were used to quantify the OCT envelope data to identify temperature changes within the tissue mimicking media. The Generalized Gamma PDF was verified as the best fit based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test correlation factor being less than 0.05 (p = 0.0158). In addition to the PDFs, the OCT speckle decorrelation at varying temperature were also measured and quantified to detect the microspheres response to temperature changes. Initial results are very promising with future research focused on extending this methodology to monitor relative temperature changes in tissue during therapy. Clinical utility can be achieved if these optical techniques are used to evaluate the temperature-derived biological response of tissue and provide a feedback mechanism to improve procedural efficiency.

  5. Effect of environmental temperature on diffraction efficiency for multilayer diffractive optical elements in Mid-wave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Mingxu; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Bo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of environmental temperature change on multilayer diffractive optical elements (MLDOEs) is evaluated from the viewpoint of the diffraction efficiency and the polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency (PIDE). As environmental temperature changes, the microstructure heights of MLDOEs expand or contract, and refractive indices of substrate materials also change. Based on the changes in microstructure height and substrate material index with environmental temperature, the theoretical relation between diffraction efficiency of MLDOEs and environmental temperature is deduced. A practical 3-5μm Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) optical system designed with a MLDOE, which made of ZNSE and GE, is discussed to illustrate the influence of environmental temperature change. The result shows that diffraction efficiency reduction is no more than 85% and PIDE reduction is less than 50% when environmental temperature ranges from -20°C to 60°C. According to the calculated diffraction efficiency in different environmental temperatures, the MTF of hybrid optical system is modified and the modified MTF curve is compared with the original MTF curve. Although the hybrid optical system achieved passive athermalization in above environmental temperature range, the modified MTF curve also remarkably decline in environmental temperature extremes after the consideration of diffraction efficiency change of MLDOE. It is indicated that the image quality of hybrid optical system with ZNSE-GE MLDOE is significantly sensitive to environmental temperature change. The analysis result can be used for optical engineering design with MLDOEs in MWIR.

  6. Characterization of dynamic physiology of the bladder by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhijia; Keng, Kerri; Pan, Rubin; Ren, Hugang; Du, Congwu; Kim, Jason; Pan, Yingtian

    2012-03-01

    Because of its high spatial resolution and noninvasive imaging capabilities, optical coherence tomography has been used to characterize the morphological details of various biological tissues including urinary bladder and to diagnose their alternations (e.g., cancers). In addition to static morphology, the dynamic features of tissue morphology can provide important information that can be used to diagnose the physiological and functional characteristics of biological tissues. Here, we present the imaging studies based on optical coherence tomography to characterize motion related physiology and functions of rat bladder detrusor muscles and compared the results with traditional biomechanical measurements. Our results suggest that optical coherence tomography is capable of providing quantitative evaluation of contractile functions of intact bladder (without removing bladder epithelium and connective tissue), which is potentially of more clinical relevance for future clinical diagnosis - if incorporated with cystoscopic optical coherence tomography.

  7. Optical readout of coupling between a nanomembrane and an LC circuit at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagci, T.; Simonsen, A.; Zeuthen, E.

    2013-01-01

    to the one described in [4] (cf. Fig 1a): The displacement of the high Q membrane is capacitively coupled to a plate capacitor that is connected in parallel to a ferrite inductor. A change in capacitance alters the LC resonance frequency, thereby creating coupling between the membrane and the LC circuit...... via a mechanical interface is of potential interest, as it would allow for low noise optical detection and laser cooling of weak electrical excitations. In a recent paper [4], a scheme was proposed for room temperature applications where a membrane converts rf electrical excitations in an LC circuit...... to optical excitations in a high finesse cavity.In this work, we have experimentally realized both optical and electrical detection of coupling in a roomtemperature electromechanical system composed of an LC circuit and a 100-nm thick SiN nanomembrane coated by 50 nm Aluminum. We follow an approach similar...

  8. Monitoring Excitations of the N =1 Landau Level by Optical Emission at mK Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonio; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Fields, Dov; Pinczuk, Aron; Watson, John; Mondal, Sumit; Manfra, Michael J.; West, Ken W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

    2013-03-01

    Optical emission experiments have proven to be powerful contactless probe of collective states of electrons in the second (N =1) Landau Level (LL). We report the emission spectrum from optical recombination in the N =0 and N =1 LL's the second LL. The 2DEG is confined in ultra-high-mobility GaAs quantum well structures. Optical emission red-shifted from the main luminescence of the N =0 and N =1 LL are interpreted as shakeup processes of quasiparticles in the N =1 LL. Results of two samples with different carrier densities measured in the temperature range of 42mK mK will be compared. The experimental observations will be discussed taking into account the striking quantum phases dominating the second LL. Supported by NSF and AvH

  9. A Review on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition and Low Temperature Combustion by Optical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical diagnostics is an effective method to understand the physical and chemical reaction processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI and low temperature combustion (LTC modes. Based on optical diagnostics, the true process on mixing, combustion, and emissions can be seen directly. In this paper, the mixing process by port-injection and direct-injection are reviewed firstly. Then, the combustion chemical reaction mechanism is reviewed based on chemiluminescence, natural-luminosity, and laser diagnostics. After, the evolution of pollutant emissions measured by different laser diagnostic methods is reviewed and the measured species including NO, soot, UHC, and CO. Finally, a summary and the future directions on HCCI and LTC used optical diagnostics are presented.

  10. Effect of temperature on the performance of a bipolar transistor carrier-injected optical waveguide modulator/switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Y

    1991-05-15

    The effect of ambient temperature on the performance of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor waveguide structure carrier-injected optical intensity modulator/switch is discussed. An increase in the temperature increases the achievable optical modulation ratio at the expense of increased absorption loss, and vice versa. Analysis also shows that for practical use a tolerable temperature change should be no more than approximately 10 degrees C.

  11. Optical Characterization of Oligonucleotide DNA Influenced by Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Maryam Banihashemian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available UV-VIS spectroscopic analysis of oligonucleotide DNA exposed to different magnetic fields was performed in order to investigate the relationship between DNA extinction coefficients and optical parameters according to magnetic-field strength. The results with the oligonucleotides adenine-thymine 100 mer (AT-100 DNA and cytosine-guanine 100 mer (CG-100 DNA indicate that the magnetic field influences DNA molar extinction coefficients and refractive indexes. The imaginary parts of the refractive index and molar extinction coefficients of the AT-100 and CG-100 DNA decreased after exposure to a magnetic field of 750 mT due to cleavage of the DNA oligonucleotides into smaller segments.

  12. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaw, W.L.; Mamat, C.R.; Triwahyono, S.; Jalil, A.A.; Bidin, N.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen.

  13. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaw, W.L. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Mamat, C.R., E-mail: che@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Triwahyono, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Jalil, A.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Univerisiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bidin, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen.

  14. Simultaneous and quasi-independent strain and temperature sensor based on microstructured optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Aldaba, A.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Roy, P.; Lopez-Amo, M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for simultaneous and quasi-independent strain and temperature measurements is presented. The interrogation of the sensing head has been carried out by monitoring the FFT phase variations of two of the microstructured optical fiber (MOF) cavity interference frequencies. This method is independent of the signal amplitude and also avoids the need to track the wavelength evolution in the spectrum, which can be a handicap when there are multiple interference frequency components with different sensitivities. The sensor is operated within a range of temperature of 30°C-75°C, and 380μɛ of maximum strain were applied; being the sensitivities achieved of 127.5pm/°C and -19.1pm/μɛ respectively. Because the system uses an optical interrogator as unique active element, the system presents a cost-effective feature.

  15. Temperature-Insensitive Fibre-Optic Acceleration Sensor Based on Intensity-Referenced Fibre Bragg Gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Qun, Sun; Bo, Dong; Yong-Xin, Wang; LALLY, Evan; An-Bo, Wang

    2008-01-01

    A temperature-insensitive acceleration sensor using two fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs), based on reflection spectrum intensity modulation and optical power detection, is proposed and demonstrated. A cantilever beam is used to generate acceleration-induced axial strain along two sensing gratings, which are glued on the two opposite surfaces of the beam. Because the two gratings operate within the linear spectral range of a light source, formed by a thermally-tunable extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical filter, the intensity difference of the two reflections from the gratings is proportional to the acceleration applied. This eliminates the need for sophisticated wavelength interrogation of the gratings, and it also endows the sensor with immunity to temperature variation. Compared with a commercial micromachined accelerometer, the sensor is proven to be capable of accurately detecting acceleration

  16. Research and development for the high-temperature helium-leak detection system (Joint research). Part 2. Development of temperature sensors using optical fibre for the HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Urakami, Masao; Saisyu, Sadanori [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the second stage of the research and development for a high-temperature helium-leak detection system, the temperature sensor using optical fibres was studied. The sensor detects the helium leakage by the temperature increase surrounded optical fibre with or without heat insulator. Moreover, the applicability of high temperature equipments as the HTTR system was studied. With the sensor we detected 5.0-20.0 cm{sup 3}/s helium leakages within 60 minutes. Also it was possible to detect earlier when the leakage level is at 20.0 cm {sup 3}/s. (author)

  17. Underwater Depth and Temperature Sensing Based on Fiber Optic Technology for Marine and Fresh Water Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraibabu, Dinesh Babu; Leen, Gabriel; Toal, Daniel; Newe, Thomas; Lewis, Elfed; Dooly, Gerard

    2017-05-27

    Oceanic conditions play an important role in determining the effects of climate change and these effects can be monitored through the changes in the physical properties of sea water. In fact, Oceanographers use various probes for measuring the properties within the water column. CTDs (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth) provide profiles of physical and chemical parameters of the water column. A CTD device consists of Conductivity (C), Temperature (T) and Depth (D) probes to monitor the water column changes with respect to relative depth. An optical fibre-based point sensor used as a combined pressure (depth) and temperature sensor and the sensor system are described. Measurements accruing from underwater trials of a miniature sensor for pressure (depth) and temperature in the ocean and in fresh water are reported. The sensor exhibits excellent stability and its performance is shown to be comparable with the Sea-Bird Scientific commercial sensor: SBE9Plus.

  18. Underwater Depth and Temperature Sensing Based on Fiber Optic Technology for Marine and Fresh Water Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Duraibabu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic conditions play an important role in determining the effects of climate change and these effects can be monitored through the changes in the physical properties of sea water. In fact, Oceanographers use various probes for measuring the properties within the water column. CTDs (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth provide profiles of physical and chemical parameters of the water column. A CTD device consists of Conductivity (C, Temperature (T and Depth (D probes to monitor the water column changes with respect to relative depth. An optical fibre-based point sensor used as a combined pressure (depth and temperature sensor and the sensor system are described. Measurements accruing from underwater trials of a miniature sensor for pressure (depth and temperature in the ocean and in fresh water are reported. The sensor exhibits excellent stability and its performance is shown to be comparable with the Sea-Bird Scientific commercial sensor: SBE9Plus.

  19. Optical spectroscopic characterization of human meniscus biomechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Myllymäki, Juho; Danso, Elvis K.; Honkanen, Juuso T. J.; Korhonen, Rami K.; Töyräs, Juha; Afara, Isaac O.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the capacity of optical spectroscopy in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral ranges for estimating the biomechanical properties of human meniscus. Seventy-two samples obtained from the anterior, central, and posterior locations of the medial and lateral menisci of 12 human cadaver joints were used. The samples were subjected to mechanical indentation, then traditional biomechanical parameters (equilibrium and dynamic moduli) were calculated. In addition, strain-dependent fibril network modulus and permeability strain-dependency coefficient were determined via finite-element modeling. Subsequently, absorption spectra were acquired from each location in the VIS (400 to 750 nm) and NIR (750 to 1100 nm) spectral ranges. Partial least squares regression, combined with spectral preprocessing and transformation, was then used to investigate the relationship between the biomechanical properties and spectral response. The NIR spectral region was observed to be optimal for model development (83.0%≤R2≤90.8%). The percentage error of the models are: Eeq (7.1%), Edyn (9.6%), Eɛ (8.4%), and Mk (8.9%). Thus, we conclude that optical spectroscopy in the NIR range is a potential method for rapid and nondestructive evaluation of human meniscus functional integrity and health in real time during arthroscopic surgery.

  20. Simple statistical channel model for weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2017-06-16

    In this Letter, we use laser beam intensity fluctuation measurements to model and describe the statistical properties of weak temperature-induced turbulence in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) channels. UWOC channels with temperature gradients are modeled by the generalized gamma distribution (GGD) with an excellent goodness of fit to the measured data under all channel conditions. Meanwhile, thermally uniform channels are perfectly described by the simple gamma distribution which is a special case of GGD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model that comprehensively describes both thermally uniform and gradient-based UWOC channels.

  1. Design Strategies for Optically-Accessible, High-Temperature, High-Pressure Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. F. Rice; R. R. Steeper; C. A. LaJeunesse; R. G. Hanush; J. D. Aiken

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed two optical cell designs for high-pressure and high-temperature fluid research: one for flow systems, and the other for larger batch systems. The flow system design uses spring washers to balance the unequal thermal expansions of the reactor and the window materials. A typical design calculation is presented showing the relationship between system pressure, operating temperature, and torque applied to the window-retaining nut. The second design employs a different strategy more appropriate for larger windows. This design uses two seals: one for the window that benefits from system pressure, and a second one that relies on knife-edge, metal-to-metal contact.

  2. Experimental study of low-cost fiber optic distributed temperature sensor system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashkov, Michael V.; Zharkov, Alexander D.

    2016-03-01

    The distributed control of temperature is an actual task for various application such as oil & gas fields, high-voltage power lines, fire alarm systems etc. The most perspective are optical fiber distributed temperature sensors (DTS). They have advantages on accuracy, resolution and range, but have a high cost. Nevertheless, for some application the accuracy of measurement and localization aren't so important as cost. The results of an experimental study of low-cost Raman based DTS based on standard OTDR are represented.

  3. Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300 — 1500 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoretskii, D A; Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Zlenko, Alexander S; Khopin, V F; Semjonov, S L; Guryanov, Aleksei N; Denisov, L K; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-01-01

    The visible and near-IR absorption and luminescence bands of bismuth-doped silica and germanosilicate fibres have been measured for the first time as a function of temperature. The temperature-dependent IR luminescence lifetime of a bismuth-related active centre associated with silicon in the germanosilicate fibre has been determined. The Bi 3+ profile across the silica fibre preform is shown to differ markedly from the distribution of IR-emitting bismuth centres associated with silicon. The present results strongly suggest that the IR-emitting bismuth centre comprises a lowvalence bismuth ion and an oxygen-deficient glass network defect. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  4. Effect of temperature on the active properties of erbium-doped optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, L V [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ignat' ev, A D [FORC - Photonics group, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bubnov, M M; Likhachev, M E [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the effect of heating on the performance of erbium-doped fibre based devices and determined temperaturedependent absorption and emission cross sections of the erbium ion in silica glass. The results demonstrate that heating of fibres in claddingpumped high-power (∼100 W) erbium-doped fibre lasers causes no significant decrease in their efficiency. In contrast, superluminescent sources operating in the long-wavelength region (1565 – 1610 nm) are extremely sensitive to temperature changes. (fiber optics)

  5. Quantitative cognitive-test characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, I V; Ivashkina, O I; Pochechuev, M S; Roshchina, M A; Toropova, K A; Fedotov, A B; Anokhin, K V; Zheltikov, A M

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive tests on representative groups of freely behaving transgenic mice are shown to enable a quantitative characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation. A systematic analysis of such tests provides a robust quantitative measure for the cognitive effects induced by fiber-optic neurostimulation, validating the performance of fiber-optic neurointerfaces for long-term optogenetic brain stimulations and showing no statistically significant artifacts in the behavior of transgenic mice due to interface implantation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Irrigation scheduling of green areas based on soil moisture estimation by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sobrino, Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation programing determines when and how much water apply to fulfill the plant water requirements depending of its phenology stage and location, and soil water content. Thus, the amount of water, the irrigation time and the irrigation frequency are variables that must be estimated. Likewise, irrigation programing has been based in approaches such as: the determination of plant evapotranspiration and the maintenance of soil water status between a given interval or soil matrix potential. Most of these approaches are based on the measurements of soil water sensors (or tensiometers) located at specific points within the study area which lack of the spatial information of the monitor variable. The information provided in such as few points might not be adequate to characterize the soil water distribution in irrigation systems with poor water application uniformity and thus, it would lead to wrong decisions in irrigation scheduling. Nevertheless, it can be overcome if the active heating pulses distributed fiber optic temperature measurement (AHFO) is used. This estimates the temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic and then, it is correlated with the soil water content. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m (with 2 % accuracy) , every second. This study presents the results obtained in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistesmas in Madrid. The area is irrigated by an sprinkler irrigation system which applies water with low uniformity. Also, it has deployed and installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) with spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 1 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2

  7. Crack Risk Evaluation of Early Age Concrete Based on the Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks often appear in concrete arch dams, due to the thermal stress and low tensile strength of early age concrete. There are three commonly used temperature controlling measures: controlling the casting temperature, burying cooling pipe, and protecting the surface. However, because of the difficulty to obtain accurate temperature and thermal stress field of the concrete, the rationality and economy of these measures are not assessed validly before and after construction. In this paper, a crack risk evaluation system for early age concrete is established, including distributed optical fiber temperature sensing (DTS, prediction of temperature and stress fields, and crack risk evaluation. Based on the DTS temperature data, the back-analysis method is applied to retrieve the thermal parameters of concrete. Then, the temperature and thermal stress of early age concrete are predicted using the reversed thermal parameters, as well as the laboratory test parameters. Finally, under the proposed cracking risk evaluation principle, the cracking risk level of each concrete block is given; the preliminary and later temperature controlling measures were recommended, respectively. The application of the proposed system in Xiluodu super high arch dam shows that this system works effectively for preventing cracks of early age concrete.

  8. Extreme temperature robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel Agha [Oviedo, FL; Perez, Frank [Tujunga, CA

    2012-01-17

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for extreme temperature and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high temperature only use or exposed for both temperature and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant extreme temperature sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine temperature measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine temperature measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the temperature measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce temperature.

  9. Accurate temperature model for absorptance determination of optical components with laser calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Bincheng

    2011-03-20

    In the international standard (International Organization for Standardization 11551) for measuring the absorptance of optical components (i.e., laser calorimetry), the absorptance is obtained by fitting the temporal behavior of laser irradiation-induced temperature rise to a homogeneous temperature model in which the infinite thermal conductivity of the sample is assumed. In this paper, an accurate temperature model, in which both the finite thermal conductivity and size of the sample are taken into account, is developed to fit the experimental temperature data for a more precise determination of the absorptance. The difference and repeatability of the results fitted with the two theoretical models for the same experimental data are compared. The optimum detection position when the homogeneous model is employed in the data-fitting procedure is also analyzed with the accurate temperature model. The results show that the optimum detection location optimized for a wide thermal conductivity range of 0.2-50W/m·K moves toward the center of the sample as the sample thickness increases and deviates from the center as the radius and irradiation time increase. However, if the detection position is optimized for an individual sample with known sample size and thermal conductivity by applying the accurate temperature model, the influence of the finite thermal conductivity and sample size on the absorptance determination can be fully compensated for by fitting the temperature data recorded at the optimum detection position to the homogeneous temperature model.

  10. Do it yourself: optical spectrometer for physics undergraduate instruction in nanomaterial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryantini, Ade Yeti; Mahen, Ea Cahya Septia; Sawitri, Asti; Nuryadin, Bebeh Wahid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a homemade optical spectrometer using diffraction grating and image processing techniques. This device was designed to produce spectral images that could then be processed by measuring signal strength (pixel intensity) to obtain the light source, transmittance, and absorbance spectra of the liquid sample. The homemade optical spectrometer consisted of: (i) a white LED as a light source, (ii) a cuvette or sample holder, (iii) a slit, (iv) a diffraction grating, and (v) a CMOS camera (webcam). In this study, various concentrations of a carbon nanoparticle (CNP) colloid were used in the particle size sample test. Additionally, a commercial optical spectrometer and tunneling electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the optical properties and morphology of the CNPs, respectively. The data obtained using the homemade optical spectrometer, commercial optical spectrometer, and TEM showed similar results and trends. Lastly, the calculation and measurement of CNP size were performed using the effective mass approximation (EMA) and TEM. These data showed that the average nanoparticle sizes were approximately 2.4 nm and 2.5 ± 0.3 nm, respectively. This research provides new insights into the development of a portable, simple, and low-cost optical spectrometer that can be used in nanomaterial characterization for physics undergraduate instruction. (paper)

  11. High-speed color imaging and ratio temperature radiometer by multispectral optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Ohno, Yoshio; Mitsui, Kenji

    2003-07-01

    In order to analyze mechanism of melting and deformation of metal while it is being rapidly heating, or a combusion process, it is important not only to measure the time displacement of a sample and its acceleration, but to measure the change in the temperature distribution of the sample over time. For this purpose, we have developed a new Multi-Spectral Optics. By mounting combining a high-speed camera with our Multi-Spectral Optics system, we have successfully acquired a temperature distribution map and its color image simultaneously. In our system, a color image is composed with three spectrum images from wavelengths, 450 nm, 550 nm and 750 nm. A temperature distribution map can be created from two images in the near infra-red wavelengths, 750 nm and 850 nm, which were obtained by applying the ratio temperature pyrometry method. However, in order to observe and analyze rapid deformation of a sample, it is important to capture vivid images in color. This task requires additional external light. Since a high intensity of emitted light will cause an error in temperature, it is very difficult correctly to measure temperature and deformation of the sample at the same time. Temperature measured with near infra-red lights is not be influenced by the external surrounding light. In particular, for taking photos of welding phenomena, it is possible to capture clear images with excessive lighting without affecting temperature measurement. Moreover, in combustion phenomenon, it is possible to avoid the influence of chemiluminescence caused by radicals such as C2 in flame.

  12. Synthesis, surface characterization and optical properties of 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8400S spectrophotometer. UV-VIS spectra was recorded on a Systronic UV spectrophotometer 119. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were recorded on a FEI Quanta 200 microscope equipped with an EDX unit. The PL of the as prepared nanoparticles was recorded at room temperature using ...

  13. Synthesis, surface characterization and optical properties of 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3-Thiopropionic acid (TPA) capped ZnS:Cu nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized by simple aqueous method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the particle size to be 4.2 nm. Surface characterization of the nanocrystals by FTIR spectroscopy has been done and the structure for surface bound TPA ...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of new optically active poly(amide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resulting polymers were fully characterized by means of FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analyses, inherent viscosity, and solubility tests. Thermal properties of these polymers were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal gravimetric (DTG). All of the polymers were readily soluble in a ...

  15. Synthesis, surface characterization and optical properties of 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3-Thiopropionic acid (TPA) capped ZnS:Cu nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized by simple aqueous method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the particle size to be 4.2 nm. Surface characterization of the nanocrystals by FTIR spectroscopy has been done and the structure for surface bound TPA ...

  16. Optical characterization of individual liposome-loaded microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, T.; Skachkov, I.; Gelderblom, E.C.; Geers, B.; Lentacker, I.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, N.

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed liposome-loaded (LPS) microbubbles are characterized by comparing their oscillating response with standard phospholipid-coated (bare) microbubbles using the ultra-high speed imaging (Brandaris 128) camera. A study of the shell properties indicate nearly the same shell elasticity and

  17. Synthesis, characterization and third-order nonlinear optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... 20 min in an ultrasonic bath and then exposed to UV radiation for 15 min. Upon UV radiation, monomer nanoassemblies got polymerized to yield a deep blue solution containing PDA nanocrystals. The two PDA nanostructures were characterized by. UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron.

  18. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  19. Structural and optical characterization of thick and thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The grown polycrystalline films were characterized by micro-Raman, transmission electron microscope (TEM), spectrophotometer and atomic force microscope (AFM). The results were compared with that of a thicker diamond film grown elsewhere in a same make MWPACVD system at relatively higher power densities.

  20. Review of the emerging role of optical polarimetry in characterization of pathological myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2017-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI), a cause of significant morbidity and mortality, is typically followed by microstructural alterations where the necrotic myocardium is steadily replaced with a collagen scar. Engineered remodeling of the fibrotic scar via stem cell regeneration has been shown to improve/restore the myocardium function after MI. Nevertheless, the heterogeneous nature of the scar patch may impair the myocardial electrical integrity, leading to the formation of arrhythmogenesis. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) offers an effective treatment for focal arrhythmias where local heating generated via electric current at specific spots in the myocardium ablate the arrhythmogenic foci. Characterization of these myocardial pathologies (i.e., infarcted, stem cell regenerated, and RFA-ablated myocardial tissues) is of potential clinical importance. Optical polarimetry, the use of light to map and characterize the polarization signatures of a sample, has emerged as a powerful imaging tool for structural characterization of myocardial tissues, exploiting the underlying highly fibrous tissue nature. This study aims to review the recent progress in optical polarimetry pertaining to the characterization of myocardial pathologies while describing the underlying biological rationales that give rise to the optical imaging contrast in various pathologies of the myocardium. Future possibilities of and challenges to optical polarimetry in cardiac imaging clinics are also discussed. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  1. Development of GUI Temperature Monitoring System based on Thin-Film Optical Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Adnan Fadhil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic sensors have progressed rapidly in recent year as because it has many advantages over other types of sensors in terms of freedom from electromagnetic radiation, wide bandwidth, economy, can withstand high temperature and under harsh environment. Due to those reason a thermo sensor based on fiber optic which utilizes a thin-film optical band-pass filter has been developed. However, the proposed system has advantages over the fiber Bragg grating sensor which can observe the temperature in small area and low transmission loss. The simulation software is used to design a Graphical User Interface (GUI. The GUI system allows the user to monitor the condition and the status of the current temperature. The monitoring system presented in this paper is divided into three basic sub-systems which are retrieve the real-time data system, displaying out the data system, and warning system. This GUI system used to collect the data and process the data for displaying the current data and further checking as a history data has been keep. The values obtained of thermo sensor are measured as 30°C till 330°C and the wavelength values are between 1552.93nm till 1557.25nm

  2. Temperature dependence of terahertz optical properties of LBO and perspectives of applications in down-converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, N. A.; Andreev, Yu. M.; Kononova, N. G.; Lanskii, G. V.; Mamrashev, A. A.; Antsygin, V. D.; Kokh, K. A.; Kokh, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    Lithium triborate LiB3O5 (LBO) crystals are widely used for frequency conversion of the near-IR lasers within main transparency windows. Their optical properties at these wavelengths are well studied. However, very little work has been published on the properties in the terahertz (THz) range. There was a lack of data on the refractive indices, the absorption coefficients spectra and their temperature dispersions. There are no reports of THz applications. Present work reveals all these topics including the prospects for use LBO crystals as down-converters of the near-IR lasers radiation. Optically finished samples of flux-grown LBO crystals were studied by THz-TDS. The refractive index dispersions were recorded and then approximated in the form of Sellmeier equations for the temperatures of 300 and 81 K. The phase-matching curves for the IR-THz and THz-THz frequency conversions were calculated. It was found that the absorption coefficients of LBO decrease significantly with cooling to cryogenic temperatures, but the overall character of optical properties changes is intricated. Experimental results are discussed in detail considering potential characteristics of THz down-converters.

  3. Optical Microscopy Characterization for Borehole U-15n#12 in Support of NCNS Source Physics Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jennifer E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sussman, Aviva Joy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Optical microscopy characterization of thin sections from corehole U-15n#12 is part of a larger material characterization effort for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE program was conducted in Nevada with a series of explosive tests designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves inside Stock quartz monzonite. Optical microscopy analysis includes the following: 1) imaging of full thin sections (scans and mosaic maps); 2) high magnification imaging of petrographic texture (grain size, foliations, fractures, etc.); and 3) measurement of microfracture density.

  4. Effect of annealing temperature on the optical loss and the optical constants of RF-magnetron sputtered carbon - nickel composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalouji, V. [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Elahi, S. M. [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the optical properties of carbon - nickel films annealed at different temperatures (300 - 1000 deg C) were investigated. The films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature with a deposition time of 600 second. The optical transmittance spectra in the wavelength range 300 - 1000 nm were used to compute the refractive index by using the Swanepoel's method. The films annealed at 500 deg C showed considerable optical loss due to optical absorption by nickel atoms and to scattering caused by surface roughness. However, the film annealed at 800 deg C had a very small optical loss in spite of the high surface roughness. The dispersion curves of the refractive indices of the films had anomalous dispersion in the absorption region and normal dispersion in the transparent region. The dissipation rate of the electromagnetic wave at 500 deg C was shown to have maximum value.

  5. Development of a scanning nearfield optical microscope for low-temperature investigations of semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodeck, Kai Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    In the present work the electronic structure of MOCVD-grown InGaAs/GaAs and InAs/GaAs quantum dots which are characterized by a particularly low ground state transition energy, was investigated using Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy (SNOM). The pivotal question of the presented investigations is, which influence the interaction of the confined carriers has on the energy states of the biexcitons and the multiexcitons in a quantum dot. Therefore, photoluminescence spectra of single quantum dots were investigated under varying excitation intensity at different temperatures between 5 K and 300 K. The construction of a novel scanning nearfield microscope especially for low temperatures allowed the investigation of single quantum dots. Due to significant improvements of the positioning technology and the shear-force distance control between the sample and the nearfield probe a stable scanning of the quantum dot samples at 5 K could be demonstrated, showing a lateral optical resolution of 200 nm. This way, in the photoluminescence spectroscopy of single quantum dots the thermal linewidth broadening of the detected light was reduced down to a value of less than 1 meV, which allowed the identification of the transitions of biexcitons and multiexcitons. On the basis of the performed measurements, for the InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots a biexciton state was identified, with variable binding energies of 2-7 meV. Furthermore, a positively charged trion state with a binding energy of 11 meV was observed, showing high emission intensity, which can be assigned to the sample doping. Accordingly, for the positively charged biexciton state a binding energy of 11 meV can be announced. For the investigated InAs/GaAs quantum dots a biexciton state with binding energies of 3-4 meV was found. Some of the investigated InAs/GaAs quantum dots showed the formation of positively charged states, in particular of a trion state with a binding energy of 3 meV, and of the positively charged

  6. Development of a scanning nearfield optical microscope for low-temperature investigations of semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodeck, Kai Friedrich

    2009-02-19

    In the present work the electronic structure of MOCVD-grown InGaAs/GaAs and InAs/GaAs quantum dots which are characterized by a particularly low ground state transition energy, was investigated using Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy (SNOM). The pivotal question of the presented investigations is, which influence the interaction of the confined carriers has on the energy states of the biexcitons and the multiexcitons in a quantum dot. Therefore, photoluminescence spectra of single quantum dots were investigated under varying excitation intensity at different temperatures between 5 K and 300 K. The construction of a novel scanning nearfield microscope especially for low temperatures allowed the investigation of single quantum dots. Due to significant improvements of the positioning technology and the shear-force distance control between the sample and the nearfield probe a stable scanning of the quantum dot samples at 5 K could be demonstrated, showing a lateral optical resolution of 200 nm. This way, in the photoluminescence spectroscopy of single quantum dots the thermal linewidth broadening of the detected light was reduced down to a value of less than 1 meV, which allowed the identification of the transitions of biexcitons and multiexcitons. On the basis of the performed measurements, for the InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots a biexciton state was identified, with variable binding energies of 2-7 meV. Furthermore, a positively charged trion state with a binding energy of 11 meV was observed, showing high emission intensity, which can be assigned to the sample doping. Accordingly, for the positively charged biexciton state a binding energy of 11 meV can be announced. For the investigated InAs/GaAs quantum dots a biexciton state with binding energies of 3-4 meV was found. Some of the investigated InAs/GaAs quantum dots showed the formation of positively charged states, in particular of a trion state with a binding energy of 3 meV, and of the positively charged

  7. Initial Photophysical Characterization of the Proteorhodopsin Optical Proton Sensor (PROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eNadeau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence is not frequently used as a tool for investigating the photocycles of rhodopsins, largely because of the low quantum yield of the retinal chromophore. However, a new class of genetically encoded voltage sensors is based upon rhodopsins and their fluorescence. The first such sensor reported in the literature was the proteorhodopsin optical proton sensor (PROPS, which is capable of indicating membrane voltage changes in bacteria by means of changes in fluorescence. However, the properties of this fluorescence, such as its lifetime decay components and its origin in the protein photocycle, remain unknown. This paper reports steady-state and nanoscale time-resolved emission of this protein expressed in two strains of Escherichia coli, before and after membrane depolarization. The voltage-dependence of a particularly long lifetime component is established. Additional work to improve quantum yields and improve the general utility of PROPS is suggested.

  8. A characterization of Arctic aerosols on the basis of aerosol optical depth and black carbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Stone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aerosols, transported from distant source regions, influence the Arctic surface radiation budget. When deposited on snow and ice, carbonaceous particles can reduce the surface albedo, which accelerates melting, leading to a temperature-albedo feedback that amplifies Arctic warming. Black carbon (BC, in particular, has been implicated as a major warming agent at high latitudes. BC and co-emitted aerosols in the atmosphere, however, attenuate sunlight and radiatively cool the surface. Warming by soot deposition and cooling by atmospheric aerosols are referred to as “darkening” and “dimming” effects, respectively. In this study, climatologies of spectral aerosol optical depth AOD (2001–2011 and Equivalent BC (EBC (1989–2011 from three Arctic observatories and from a number of aircraft campaigns are used to characterize Arctic aerosols. Since the 1980s, concentrations of BC in the Arctic have decreased by more than 50% at ground stations where in situ observations are made. AOD has increased slightly during the past decade, with variations attributed to changing emission inventories and source strengths of natural aerosols, including biomass smoke and volcanic aerosol, further influenced by deposition rates and airflow patterns.

  9. Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared via a Simple Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hedayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc oxide (ZnO nano-crystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel method using zinc acetate. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using XRD pattern. The crystallite size of ZnO nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the SEM. The grain size of zinc oxide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by XRD results. The optical properties of particles were studied with UV-Vis an FTIR absorption spectrum. The Raman spectrum measurements were carried out using a micro-laser Raman spectrometer forms the ZnO nanoparticles. At the end studied the effect of calcined temperature on the photoluminescence (PL emission of ZnO nanoparticles.

  10. Growth, Characterization, and Optical Spectroscopy of Copper Cloride Quantum Well Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuh, David Kelly

    1990-01-01

    The first CuCl quantum well structures of the type CaF_2/CuCl/CaF_2 , in which the thicknesses of the confined CuCl layers are varied from bulk-like to 12A, have been grown on Si and Al_2O_3 (1102) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The quantum well structures were characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction techniques. The optical properties of the CuCl films have been characterized by low-temperature absorption, excitation, and excitation-density dependent photoluminescence. Striking differences in the excitonic emission spectra are observed between the quantum well structures and a bulk single crystal sample of CuCl. Excitons were also formed by irradiation of these structures with UV frequencies above the CuCl bandgap, and the spectral and temporal dependences of the recombination radiation were compared to those of a bulk CuCl single crystal. The photoluminescence lineshapes of the free excitons in the thin films were characteristic of a much hotter exciton temperature and of much shorter lifetimes (A simple kinetic model is proposed to rationalize the exciton dynamics in the quantum well structures. Stimulated emission is observed from a 30A CuCl quantum well structure created by a two-photon resonant Raman dye laser excitation and attributed to the radiative recombination of the excitonic molecule to yield two photons. Photoluminescence measurements from a 12A CuCl quantum well structure, excited by a continuous wave Ar-ion laser, show a marked increase in emission from the region characteristic of excitonic molecule recombination compared to previous investigations. A Stokes shift of the free exciton photoluminescence is observed from the sample which arises from non-uniformities at the interfaces between the potential barriers and the semiconductor. Thin films of CuCl were deposited by molecular beam epitaxy directly onto a room

  11. Optical properties and surface characterization of pulsed laser-deposited Cu2ZnSnS4 by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt

    2015-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures are characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The focus is on confirming results from direct measurement techniques, by finding appropriate models of the surface overlayer for data fitting, and extracting the dielect......Cu2ZnSnS4 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures are characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The focus is on confirming results from direct measurement techniques, by finding appropriate models of the surface overlayer for data fitting, and extracting...... the dielectric function of the films. It is found that the surface overlayer changes with film thickness and deposition temperature. Adopting different ellipsometry measurements and modeling strategies for each film, dielectric functions are extracted and compared. As the deposition temperature is increased......, the dielectric functions exhibit additional critical points related to optical transitions in the material other than absorption across the fundamental band gap. In the case of a thin film surface features observed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are accurately...

  12. Monitoring thermal processes in low-permeability fractured media using fibre-optics distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixel, Bernard; Klepikova, Maria; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Loew, Simon; Amann, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Fibre-optics distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) systems constitute arguably one of the main significant advances in the development of modern monitoring techniques in field hydrogeology, both for shallow (e.g. quantification of surface water-groundwater interactions) and deeper applications (borehole temperature monitoring). Deployment of FO-DTS monitoring systems in boreholes has notably allowed further promoting the use of temperature as a tracer to improve the characterization of heterogeneous media, with a strong focus on permeable environments such as shallow unconsolidated aquifers and/or highly-fractured rocks, generally found close to ground surface. However, applying this technology to low-permeability media, as in the case of intact rock mass intersected by isolated, discrete fractures still remains a challenge, perhaps explaining the limited number of field results reported in the scientific literature to date. Yet, understanding the transport, storage and exchange of heat in deep, low-permeability crystalline rocks is critical to many scientific and engineering research topics and applications, including for example deep geothermal energy (DGE). In the present contribution, we describe the use and application of FO-DTS monitoring to a broad range of processes, varying from the propagation and persistence of thermal anomalies (both natural and induced) to the monitoring of the curing of epoxy resin and cement grouts along the annular space of boreholes designed for monitoring discrete, packed-off zones. All data provided herein has been collected as part of a multi-disciplinary research program on hydraulic stimulation and deep geothermal energy carried out at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), an underground rock laboratory located in the Aar massif, in the Swiss Alps. Through these examples, we illustrate the importance of understanding the spatial and temporal variations of local thermal regimes when planning to monitoring boreholes temperatures

  13. Novel High Temperature and Radiation Resistant Infrared Glasses and Optical Fibers for Sensing in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballato, John [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2018-01-22

    One binary and three series of ternary non-oxide pure sulfide glasses compositions were investigated with the goal of synthesizing new glasses that exhibit high glass transition (Tg) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures, infrared transparency, and reliable glass formability. The binary glass series consisted of Ges2 and La2S3 and the three glass series in the x(nBaS + mLa2S3) + (1-2x)GeS2 ternary system have BaS:La2S3 modifier ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 with . With these glasses, new insights were realized as to how ionic glasses form and how glass modifiers affect both structure and glass formability. All synthesized compositions were characterized by Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies and differential thermal analysis (DTA) to better understand the fundamental structure, optical, and thermal characteristics of the glasses. After a range of these glasses were synthesized, optimal compositions were formed into glass disks and subjected to gamma irradiation. Glass disks were characterized both before and after irradiation by microscope imaging, measuring the refractive index, density, and UV-VIS-IR transmission spectra. The final total dose the samples were subjected to was ~2.5 MGy. Ternary samples showed a less than 0.4% change in density and refractive index and minimal change in transmission window. The glasses also resisted cracking as seen in microscope images. Overall, many glass compositions were developed that possess operating temperatures above 500 °C, where conventional chalcogenide glasses such as As2S3 and have Tgs from ~200-300 °C, and these glasses have a greater than Tc – Tg values larger than 100 °C and this shows that these glasses have good thermal stability of Tg such that they can be fabricated into optical fibers and as such can be considered candidates for high temperature infrared fiber optics. Initial fiber fabrication efforts showed that selected glasses could be drawn but larger

  14. Ecotoxicological characterization of biochars: role of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, X; Enders, A; Hanley, K; Lehmann, J

    2015-04-15

    Seven contrasting feedstocks were subjected to slow pyrolysis at low (300 or 350°C) and high temperature (550 or 600°C), and both biochars and the corresponding feedstocks tested for short-term ecotoxicity using basal soil respiration and collembolan reproduction tests. After a 28-d incubation, soil basal respiration was not inhibited but stimulated by additions of feedstocks and biochars. However, variation in soil respiration was dependent on both feedstock and pyrolysis temperature. In the last case, respiration decreased with pyrolysis temperature (r=-0.78; pcharacterization schemes or in management recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial Characterization of Optical Communications with Disruption-Tolerant Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolcraft, Joshua; Wilson, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs) are groups of network assets connected with a suite of communication protocol technologies designed to mitigate the effects of link delay and disruption. Application of DTN protocols to diverse groups of network resources in multiple sub-networks results in an overlay network-of-networks with autonomous data routing capability. In space environments where delay or disruption is expected, performance of this type of architecture (such as an interplanetary internet) can increase with the inclusion of new communications mediums and techniques. Space-based optical communication links are therefore an excellent building block of space DTN architectures. When compared to traditional radio frequency (RF) communications, optical systems can provide extremely power-efficient and high bandwidth links bridging sub-networks. Because optical links are more susceptible to link disruption and experience the same light-speed delays as RF, optical-enabled DTN architectures can lessen potential drawbacks and maintain the benefits of autonomous optical communications over deep space distances. These environment-driven expectations - link delay and interruption, along with asymmetric data rates - are the purpose of the proof-of-concept experiment outlined herein. In recognizing the potential of these two technologies, we report an initial experiment and characterization of the performance of a DTN-enabled space optical link. The experiment design employs a point-to-point free-space optical link configured to have asymmetric bandwidth. This link connects two networked systems running a DTN protocol implementation designed and written at JPL for use on spacecraft, and further configured for higher bandwidth performance. Comparing baseline data transmission metrics with and without periodic optical link interruptions, the experiment confirmed the DTN protocols' ability to handle real-world unexpected link outages while maintaining capability of

  16. Optical characterization of luminescent silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debieu, Olivier

    2008-12-16

    Interstellar dust in nebulae and in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium (DISM) of galaxies contains a component which exhibits efficient visible-near infrared luminescence ranging from 500 to 1000 nm, known as Extended Red Emission (ERE). Silicon nanocrystals (nc-Si) are discussed as possible carriers of the ERE. We employed the accelerator facilities of the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Jena to implant Si ions into fused silica windows. An excess concentration of silicon atoms is thus produced in the host SiO{sub 2} matrix which, by applying an annealing at 1100 C, condensates to silicon nanoparticles and crystallizes. Although the condensation and crystallization occur after an annealing of one minute,10, 15 the samples were annealed during one hour in order to well-passivate the nc-Si, that means, to reduce effectively the number of Si-dangling bonds at the nc-Si surface that are efficient non-radiative recombination centers. 10, 16 Upon excitation with UV light, most of our nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} samples revealed strong PL. We implanted into our luminescent nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} systems other atomic elements, as for instance magnesium and calcium, which form silicates if their oxide is combined with SiO{sub 2}. The purpose is to simulate the conditions for silicates containing nc-Si. In order to understand the effect of the incorporation of foreign atoms on the PL properties of our nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} systems, we proceeded to similar experiments with Er and Ge. As has been demonstrated by several authors, 17, 18 the presence of nc-Si in a glass matrix enhances considerably the emission of Er{sup 3+} ions at 1.536{mu}m. At the same time, the PL of nc-Si is considerably quenched. Since the solubility of Er in crystalline silicon is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than in SiO{sub 2}, the optically active Er{sup 3+} ions are believed to be localized outside the nc-Si core, demonstrating that ions present in the host SiO{sub 2} matrix influence the PL

  17. Polymer optical fiber bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Scott Wu; Andresen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-optical accelerometers based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings are reported. We have written fiber Bragg gratings for 1550 nm and 850 nm operations, characterized their temperature and strain response, and tested their performance in a prototype accelerometer....

  18. MEMS fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. C.; Jia, P. G.; Cao, Q.; Xiong, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We design and demonstrate a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor (FOFPPS) for high-temperature sensing by employing micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The FOFPPS is fabricated by anodically bonding the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass together and fixing the facet of the optical fiber in parallel with the silicon surface by glass frit and organic adhesive. The silicon wafer can be reduced through dry etching technology to construct the sensitive diaphragm. The length of the cavity changes with the deformation of the diaphragm due to the loaded pressure, which leads to a wavelength shift of the interference spectrum. The pressure can be gauged by measuring the wavelength shift. The pressure experimental results show that the sensor has linear pressure sensitivities ranging from 0 kPa to 600 kPa at temperature range between 20°C to 300°C. The pressure sensitivity at 300°C is approximately 27.63 pm/kPa. The pressure sensitivities gradually decrease with increasing the temperature. The sensor also has a linear thermal drift when temperature changes from 20°C - 300°C.

  19. An IFPI Temperature Sensor Fabricated in an Unstriped Optical Fiber with Self-Strain-Compensation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (IFPI temperature sensor with self-strain-compensation function. The sensor was fabricated on a buffer-intact optical fiber using a femtosecond (fs laser system. The use of fs laser allows the sensor to be fabricated in an optical fiber without the necessity of removing the polymer buffer coating, thus not compromising its mechanical property. The sensor is composed of two cascaded IFPIs in different cavity length of 100 μm and 500 μm, respectively. The shorter IFPI serves as the temperature sensor, while the second IFPI serves as a compensation sensor, which is used to decouple the strain from the raw signal collected by the shorter FPI. The reflection spectrum of sensor, containing both sensory information and compensation information, is collected in wavelength domain and demultiplexed in the Fourier domain of reflection spectrum. An algorithm was developed and successfully implemented to compensate the strain influence on the proposed temperature sensor. The results showed that the proposed sensor structure holds a constant temperature sensitivity of 11.33 pm/°C when strained differently.

  20. Industrial Qualification Process for Optical Fibers Distributed Strain and Temperature Sensing in Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Delepine-Lesoille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and strain monitoring will be implemented in the envisioned French geological repository for high- and intermediate-level long-lived nuclear wastes. Raman and Brillouin scatterings in optical fibers are efficient industrial methods to provide distributed temperature and strain measurements. Gamma radiation and hydrogen release from nuclear wastes can however affect the measurements. An industrial qualification process is successfully proposed and implemented. Induced measurement uncertainties and their physical origins are quantified. The optical fiber composition influence is assessed. Based on radiation-hard fibers and carbon-primary coatings, we showed that the proposed system can provide accurate temperature and strain measurements up to 0.5 MGy and 100% hydrogen concentration in the atmosphere, over 200 m distance range. The selected system was successfully implemented in the Andra underground laboratory, in one-to-one scale mockup of future cells, into concrete liners. We demonstrated the efficiency of simultaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering measurements to provide both strain and temperature distributed measurements. We showed that 1.3 μm working wavelength is in favor of hazardous environment monitoring.

  1. Preparation of InSe Thin Films by Thermal Evaporation Method and Their Characterization: Structural, Optical, and Thermoelectrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Boolchandani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The indium selenium (InSe bilayer thin films of various thickness ratios, InxSe(1-x (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, were deposited on a glass substrate keeping overall the same thickness of 2500 Ǻ using thermal evaporation method under high vacuum atmosphere. Electrical, optical, and structural properties of these bilayer thin films have been compared before and after thermal annealing at different temperatures. The structural and morphological characterization was done using XRD and SEM, respectively. The optical bandgap of these thin films has been calculated by Tauc’s relation that varies within the range of 1.99 to 2.05 eV. A simple low-cost thermoelectrical power measurement setup is designed which can measure the Seebeck coefficient “S” in the vacuum with temperature variation. The setup temperature variation is up to 70°C. This setup contains a Peltier device TEC1-12715 which is kept between two copper plates that act as a reference metal. Also, in the present work, the thermoelectric power of indium selenide (InSe and aluminum selenide (AlSe bilayer thin films prepared and annealed in the same way is calculated. The thermoelectric power has been measured by estimating the Seebeck coefficient for InSe and AlSe bilayer thin films. It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient is negative for InSe and AlSe thin films.

  2. Mechanisms behind low-cloud optical depth response to temperature in ARM site observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Christopher; Zhang, Yunyan; Klein, Stephen; Zelinka, Mark

    2017-04-01

    transition of cloud properties from ice-dominated to liquid-dominated clouds can be understood as a shift of populations between two sets of different clouds. Finally, because we find that boundary layer heights and stability change substantially with warming and vary between sites, we explore the environmental variables beyond cloud temperatures that control cloud optical depths. The findings of this study provide the basis for diagnostics which can be used to test whether climate models capture the cloud processes necessary to predict future changes in cloud optical depths. This work was conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. IM release: LLNL-ABS-716781.

  3. Peltier cells as temperature control elements: Experimental characterization and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    The use of Peltier cells to realize compact and precise temperature controlled devices is under continuous extension in recent years. In order to support the design of temperature control systems, a simplified modeling of heat transfer dynamics for thermoelectric devices is presented. By following a macroscopic approach, the heat flux removed at the cold side of Peltier cell can be expressed as Q . c =γ(T c −T c eq ), where γ is a coefficient dependent on the electric current, T c and T c eq are the actual and steady state cold side temperature, respectively. On the other hand, a microscopic modeling approach was pursued via finite element analysis software packages. To validate the models, an experimental apparatus was designed and build-up, consisting in a sample vial with the surfaces in direct contact with Peltier cells. Both modeling approaches led to reliable prediction of transient and steady state sample temperature. -- Highlights: • Simplified modeling of heat transfer dynamics in Peltier cells. • Coupled macroscopic and microscopic approach. • Experimental apparatus: temperature control of a sample vial. • Both modeling approaches predict accurately the transient and steady state sample temperature

  4. Characterization of Chromatic Dispersion and Refractive Index of Polymer Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ayesta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The chromatic dispersion and the refractive index of poly(methyl methacrylate polymer optical fibers (POFs have been characterized in this work by using a tunable femtosecond laser and a Streak Camera. The characterization technique is based on the measurement of the time delays of light pulses propagating along POFs at different wavelengths. Polymer fibers of three different lengths made by two manufacturers have been employed for that purpose, and discrepancies lower than 3% have been obtained in all cases.

  5. Characterization of Beryllium Windows for Coherent X-ray Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shunji; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium foils fabricated by several processes were characterized using spatially coherent x rays at 1-km beamline of SPring-8. By thickness dependence of bright x-ray spot density due to Fresnel diffraction from several-micron deficiencies, we found that speckles (bright x-ray spots) were due to voids with densities 103-104 mm-3 in powder foils and ingot foils. Compared with powder and ingot foils, a polished physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) beryllium foil gave highly uniform beams with no speckles. The PVD process eliminates the internal voids in principle and the PVD foil is the best for coherent x-ray applications

  6. Advances in Fiber Optic Sensors Technology Development for temperature and strain measurements in Superconducting magnets and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuchiolo, A.; Bajko, M.; Bottura, L.; Consales, M.; Cusano, A.; Giordano, M.; Perez, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires the development of a new generation of superconducting magnets based on Nb3Sn technology. In order to monitor the magnet thermo-mechanical behaviour during its service life, from the coil fabrication to the magnet operation, reliable sensing systems need to be implemented. In the framework of the FP7 European project EUCARD, Nb3Sn racetrack coils are developed as test beds for the fabrication validation, the cable characterization and the instrumentation development. Fiber optic sensors (FOS) based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology have been embedded in the coils of the Short Model Coil (SMC) magnet. The FBG sensitivity to both temperature and strain required the development of a solution able to separate the mechanical and temperature effects. This work presents the feasibility study of the implementation of embedded FBG sensors for the temperature and strain monitoring of the 11 T type conductor. We aim to monitor and register these...

  7. Nanofluid optical property characterization: towards efficient direct absorption solar collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otanicar Todd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suspensions of nanoparticles (i.e., particles with diameters < 100 nm in liquids, termed nanofluids, show remarkable thermal and optical property changes from the base liquid at low particle loadings. Recent studies also indicate that selected nanofluids may improve the efficiency of direct absorption solar thermal collectors. To determine the effectiveness of nanofluids in solar applications, their ability to convert light energy to thermal energy must be known. That is, their absorption of the solar spectrum must be established. Accordingly, this study compares model predictions to spectroscopic measurements of extinction coefficients over wavelengths that are important for solar energy (0.25 to 2.5 μm. A simple addition of the base fluid and nanoparticle extinction coefficients is applied as an approximation of the effective nanofluid extinction coefficient. Comparisons with measured extinction coefficients reveal that the approximation works well with water-based nanofluids containing graphite nanoparticles but less well with metallic nanoparticles and/or oil-based fluids. For the materials used in this study, over 95% of incoming sunlight can be absorbed (in a nanofluid thickness ≥10 cm with extremely low nanoparticle volume fractions - less than 1 × 10-5, or 10 parts per million. Thus, nanofluids could be used to absorb sunlight with a negligible amount of viscosity and/or density (read: pumping power increase.

  8. Characterization of Exoplanet Atmospheres with the Optical Coronagraph on WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brianna; Burrows, Adam

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST-CGI will obtain images and low resolution spectra of a handful to a dozen extrasolar planets and proto-planetary disks. It's unprecedented contrast levels in the optical will provide astromoners' first direct look at mature, super-earth to Jupiter sized planets, at moderate separations. This work addresses the question: what science can be done with such data? A parameterized noise model, informed by the latest engineering developments, is used to compute maximum achievable signal-to-noise ratios and scientifically-viable integration times for various star-planet scenarios and to simulate observations using two models for planetary geometric albedos. The first planet model is a hybrid Jupiter-Neptune model, which separately treats the short and long wavelengths where chromophores and methane dominate absorption respectively. The second planet model fixes cloud and haze properties in CoolTlusty to match Jupiter's albedo spectrum at roughly three times solar metallicity, then perturbs the metallicity between 1 and 30 times solar. MCMC retrievals performed on simulated observations are then used to assess the precision with which planet model parameters can be measured subject to different signal-to-noise ratios or exposure times.

  9. Optical characterization of composite layers prepared by plasma polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeva, E; Hikov, T; Mitev, D; Pramatarova, L; Stroescu, H; Nicolescu, M; Gartner, M; Presker, R

    2016-01-01

    Thin composite layers from polymer/nanoparticles (Ag-nanoparticles and detonation nanodiamonds) were prepared by plasma polymerization process on the base of hexamethyldisiloxane. The variation of the layer composition was achieved by changing the type of nanoparticles. The optical measurement techniques used were UV-VIS-NIR ellipsometry (SE), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The values of the refractive index determined are in the range 1.30 to 1.42. All samples are transparent with transmission between 85-95% and very smooth. The change in Raman and FTIR spectra of the composites verify the expected bonding between polymer and diamond nanoparticles due to the penetration of the fillers in the polymer matrix. The comparison of the spectra of the corresponding NH3 plasma treated composites revealed that the composite surface becomes more hydrophilic. The obtained results indicate that preparation of layers with desired compositions is possible at a precise control of the detonation nanodiamond materials. (paper)

  10. 3D reconstruction and characterization of laser induced craters by in situ optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, A.; Cerrato, R.; Mateo, M.P.; Nicolas, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evolution of the laser induced crater and ablation features by in situ homemade optical microscope. • Performance comparison between confocal microscope for material characterization and homemade optical microscope. • Coupled system of laser ablation setup with a low cost optical microscope. - Abstract: A low-cost optical microscope was developed and coupled to an irradiation system in order to study the induced effects on material during a multipulse regime by an in situ visual inspection of the surface, in particular of the spot generated at different pulses. In the case of laser ablation, a reconstruction of the crater in 3D was made from the images of the sample surface taken during the irradiation process, and the subsequent profiles of ablated material were extracted. The implementation of this homemade optical device gives an added value to the irradiation system, providing information about morphology evolution of irradiated area when successive pulses are applied. In particular, the determination of ablation rates in real time can be especially useful for a better understanding and controlling of the ablation process in applications where removal of material is involved, such as laser cleaning and in-depth characterization of multilayered samples and diffusion processes. The validation of the developed microscope was made by a comparison with a commercial confocal microscope configured for the characterization of materials where similar results of crater depth and diameter were obtained for both systems.

  11. Optical characterization of a miniaturized large field of view motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Els; Ottevaere, Heidi; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the geometrical and optical characterization of a miniaturized very wide field-of-view (FOV) motion sensor inspired by the working principle of insect facet eyes. The goal of the sensor is to detect movement in the environment and to specify where in the surroundings these changes took place. Based on the measurements of the sensor, certain actions can be taken such as sounding an alarm in security applications or turning on the light in domotic applications. The advantage of miniaturizing these sensors is that they are low-cost, compact and more esthetical compared to current motion detectors. The sensor was designed to have a very large FOV of 125° and an angular resolution of 1° or better. The micro-optics is built up of two stacked polymer plates consisting each out of a five by five lens array. In between there is a plate of absorbing material with a five by five array of baffles to create 25 optically isolated channels that each image part of the total FOV of 125° onto the detector. To geometrically characterize the lens arrays and verify the designed specifications, we made use of a coordinate measuring machine. The optical performance of the designed micro-optical system was analyzed by sending white light beams with different angles of incidence with respect to the sample through the sensor, comparing the position of the light spots visible on the detector and determining optical quality parameters such as MTF and distortion.

  12. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C...... and therefore at low humidity. We demonstrate that annealing at high humidity and high temperature improves the performances of mPOFBGs in terms of stability and sensitivity to humidity. PMMA POFBGs that are not annealed or annealed at low humidity level will have a low and highly temperature dependent...... sensitivity and a high hysteresis in the humidity response, in particular when operated at high temperature. PMMA mPOFBGs annealed at high humidity show higher and more linear humidity sensitivity with negligible hysteresis. We also report how annealing at high humidity can blue-shift the FBG wavelength more...

  13. Hybrid optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruohui; Qiao, Xueguang

    2014-11-10

    We present a hybrid miniature optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of gas refractive index and temperature. The interferometer is fabricated by cascading two short sections of capillary tubes with different inner diameters. One extrinsic interferometer is based on the air gap cavity formed by the capillary tube with large diameter. Another section of capillary tube with small inner diameter performs as an intrinsic interferometer and also provides a channel enabling gas to enter and leave the extrinsic cavity freely. The experiment shows that the different dips or peaks in fringe exhibit different responses to the changes in gas refractive index and temperature. Owing to this feature, simultaneous measurement of the gas refractive index and temperature can be realized.

  14. Derivation of temperature dependent mechanical properties of polymer foam core materials using optical extensometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruehmann R.K.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determining the temperature dependence of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of polymer foams core materials is presented. The design of the test specimen is described in detail, covering the parasitic effects resulting from departures from the uniform strain condition. The measurement approach is based on a non-contact technique so that the behaviour of the complaint foam is not modified by the attachment of strain gauges or extensometers. Firstly experiments are conducted at room temperature and then at elevated temperatures in a thermal chamber. Readings are taken through an optical window using a standard digital camera. Digital image correlation is used to obtain the strains.

  15. Studies on the conformational transformations of L-arginine molecule in aqueous solution with temperature changing by circular dichroism spectroscopy and optical rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luning; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xinqiang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xitao; Jin, Lutong; Xu, Dong

    2012-10-01

    Experimental measurements, including circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and optical rotations have been employed to characterize the changing tendency of molecular conformations of the full protonated L-arginine (LA2+) in aqueous solution with the rising of temperature. Calculating methods, including conformational search, molecular structural optimization, CD responses as well as specific rotation calculations have been performed to interpret experimental results. Calculated results, no matter in CD spectra or specific rotations, are consistent with experiments, which strongly certify the transformation of molecular conformations. This successful reproduction of experimental results with molecular simulations in both areas of CD responses and optical rotations is of great significance. More detailed analysis about the relationship between LA2+ molecular structure and the optical activity has been conducted.

  16. Temperature-sensitive photoluminescent CdSe-ZnS polymer composite film for lock-in photothermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwang; Zhong, Kuo; Meng, Lei; Van Hemelrijck, Danny; Wang, Ling; Glorieux, Christ

    2016-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum of CdSe-ZnS core-shell quantum dots embedded in a polystyrene matrix is characterized between 30 °C and 60 °C. The spectrally integrated photoluminescence intensity is found to linearly decrease with -1.3%/ °C. This feature is exploited in a dual coating-substrate-configuration, consisting of a layer of this nanocomposite material, acting as a temperature sensor with optical readout, on top of an optically absorbing and opaque layer, acting as a photothermal excitation source, and covering a substrate material or structure of interest. From the frequency dependence of the optically detected photothermal signal in the frequency range between 5 Hz and 150 Hz, different thermal parameters of the constituent layers are determined. The fitted values of thermal properties of the different layers, determined in different scenarios in terms of the used a priori information about the layers, are found to be internally consistent, and consistent with literature values.

  17. Temperature-sensitive photoluminescent CdSe-ZnS polymer composite film for lock-in photothermal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liwang, E-mail: liwang.liu@hotmail.com; Meng, Lei; Wang, Ling; Glorieux, Christ [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laboratory for Soft Matter and Biophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Zhong, Kuo [Department of Chemistry, Molecular Imaging and Photonics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 F- box 2404, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van Hemelrijck, Danny [Department of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-14

    The temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectrum of CdSe−ZnS core–shell quantum dots embedded in a polystyrene matrix is characterized between 30 °C and 60 °C. The spectrally integrated photoluminescence intensity is found to linearly decrease with −1.3%/ °C. This feature is exploited in a dual coating-substrate-configuration, consisting of a layer of this nanocomposite material, acting as a temperature sensor with optical readout, on top of an optically absorbing and opaque layer, acting as a photothermal excitation source, and covering a substrate material or structure of interest. From the frequency dependence of the optically detected photothermal signal in the frequency range between 5 Hz and 150 Hz, different thermal parameters of the constituent layers are determined. The fitted values of thermal properties of the different layers, determined in different scenarios in terms of the used a priori information about the layers, are found to be internally consistent, and consistent with literature values.

  18. Optical solar energy adaptations and radiative temperature control of green leaves and tree barks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrion, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut [Department of Si-Photovoltaik and Solare Energetik, Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Trees have adapted to keep leaves and barks cool in sunshine and can serve as interesting bionic model systems for radiative cooling. Silicon solar cells, on the other hand, loose up to one third of their energy efficiency due to heating in intensive sunshine. It is shown that green leaves minimize absorption of useful radiation and allow efficient infrared thermal emission. Since elevated temperatures are detrimental for tensile water flow in the Xylem tissue below barks, the optical properties of barks should also have evolved so as to avoid excessive heating. This was tested by performing optical studies with tree bark samples from representative trees. It was found that tree barks have optimized their reflection of incoming sunlight between 0.7 and 2 {mu}m. This is approximately the optical window in which solar light is transmitted and reflected by green vegetation. Simultaneously, the tree bark is highly absorbing and thus radiation emitting between 6 and 10 {mu}m. These two properties, mainly provided by tannins, create optimal conditions for radiative temperature control. In addition, tannins seem to have adopted a function as mediators for excitation energy towards photo-antioxidative activity for control of radiation damage. The results obtained are used to discuss challenges for future solar cell optimization. (author)

  19. Fast-response fiber-optic anemometer with temperature self-compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guigen; Hou, Weilin; Qiao, Wei; Han, Ming

    2015-05-18

    We report a novel fiber-optic anemometer with self-temperature compensation capability based on a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) formed by a thin silicon film attached to the end face of a single-mode fiber. Guided in the fiber are a visible laser beam from a 635 nm diode laser used to heat the FPI and a white-light in the infrared wavelength range as the signal light to interrogate the optical length of the FPI. Cooling effects on the heated sensor head by wind is converted to a wavelength blueshift of the reflection spectral fringes of the FPI. Self-temperature-compensated measurement of wind speed is achieved by recording the difference in fringe wavelengths when the heating laser is turned on and then off. Large thermal-optic coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon render a high sensitivity that can also be easily tuned by altering the heating laser power. Furthermore, the large thermal diffusivity and the small mass of the thin silicon film endow a fast sensor response.

  20. Optical characterization of deposited ITO thin films on glass and PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmas, Saliha; Korkmaz, Şadan; Pat, Suat

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on fabrication, characterization and understanding some physical properties of transparent and conductive ITO thin films. ITO thin films were deposited onto glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique. TVA is a different technology for thin film deposition. Thicknesses and refractive indices of the ITO thin films have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique using Cauchy model for fitting. SE is a novel, nondestructive and powerful technique to investigate the optical characteristics of materials. Especially thickness and optical constants are measuring this device. Transmittances, reflectance of ITO coated samples were measured by UV–vis spectrophotometer and interferometer, respectively. The optical method was used to determine the band gaps of ITO thin films. Surface morphologies of produced films were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface topography and roughness of ITO thin films. Resistivity measurements show that produced films show semiconductor properties.

  1. Optical characterization of deposited ITO thin films on glass and PET substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmas, Saliha; Korkmaz, Şadan, E-mail: skorkmaz@ogu.edu.tr; Pat, Suat

    2013-07-01

    This work focuses on fabrication, characterization and understanding some physical properties of transparent and conductive ITO thin films. ITO thin films were deposited onto glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique. TVA is a different technology for thin film deposition. Thicknesses and refractive indices of the ITO thin films have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique using Cauchy model for fitting. SE is a novel, nondestructive and powerful technique to investigate the optical characteristics of materials. Especially thickness and optical constants are measuring this device. Transmittances, reflectance of ITO coated samples were measured by UV–vis spectrophotometer and interferometer, respectively. The optical method was used to determine the band gaps of ITO thin films. Surface morphologies of produced films were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface topography and roughness of ITO thin films. Resistivity measurements show that produced films show semiconductor properties.

  2. Optical characterization of deposited ITO thin films on glass and PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Saliha; Korkmaz, Şadan; Pat, Suat

    2013-07-01

    This work focuses on fabrication, characterization and understanding some physical properties of transparent and conductive ITO thin films. ITO thin films were deposited onto glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique. TVA is a different technology for thin film deposition. Thicknesses and refractive indices of the ITO thin films have been determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technique using Cauchy model for fitting. SE is a novel, nondestructive and powerful technique to investigate the optical characteristics of materials. Especially thickness and optical constants are measuring this device. Transmittances, reflectance of ITO coated samples were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer and interferometer, respectively. The optical method was used to determine the band gaps of ITO thin films. Surface morphologies of produced films were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface topography and roughness of ITO thin films. Resistivity measurements show that produced films show semiconductor properties.

  3. Optical and electrical characterization at the nanoscale with a transparent probe of a scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychugov, Ilya; Omi, Hiroo; Murashita, Tooru; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    A new type of scanning probe microscope, combining features of the scanning tunnelling microscope, the scanning tunnelling luminescence microscope with a transparent probe and the aperture scanning near-field optical microscope, is described. Proof-of-concept experiments were performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at varying temperature on GaAs/AlAs heterostructures.

  4. Distributed Optical Fiber Radiation and Temperature Sensing at High Energy Accelerators and Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090137; Brugger, Markus

    The aim of this Thesis is to investigate the feasibility of a distributed optical fiber radiation sensing system to be used at high energy physics accelerators and experiments where complex mixed-field environments are present. In particular, after having characterized the response of a selection of radiation sensitive optical fibers to ionizing radiation coming from a 60Co source, the results of distributed optical fiber radiation measurements in a mixed-field environment are presented along with the method to actually estimate the dose variation. This study demonstrates that distributed optical fiber dosimetry in the above mentioned mixed-field radiation environment is feasible, allowing to detect dose variations of about 10-15 Gy with a 1 m spatial resolution. The proof of principle has fully succeeded and we can now tackle the challenge of an industrial installation taking into account that some optimizations need to be done both on the control unit of the system as well as on the choice of the sensing f...

  5. Mueller-matrix modeling and characterization of a dual-crystal electro-optic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-L, Joel; Serrano-Garcia, David I; Otani, Yukitoshi; Cense, Barry

    2016-10-17

    A general mathematical model based on Mueller-matrix calculation is presented to describe the optical behavior of a dual-crystal electro-optic modulator. The two crystals inside the modulator are oriented at ± 45° with respect to the horizontal, thereby cancelling natural birefringence and temperature-induced birefringence. We describe the behavior of the modulator as a function of the ellipticity of the crystals, the rotation angles of the crystals and the applied voltage. By fitting the measured data with a Mueller-matrix model that uses values for the ellipticity and orientation angles of the crystals, the simulated data and the experimental measurements could be matched. This Mueller-matrix includes physical properties of the thermally compensated electro optic modulator, and the matrix can be used in simulations where these device-specific properties are important, for instance in the modeling of a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system.

  6. [Study on plasma temperature of a large area surface discharge by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Tong, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Bin

    2014-04-01

    A large area surface discharge was realized in air/argon gas mixture by designing a discharge device with water electrodes. By using optical emission spectrum, the variations of the molecular vibrational temperature, the mean energy of electron, and the electronic excitation temperature as a function of the gas pressure were studied. The nitrogen molecular vibrational temperature was calculated according to the emission line of the second positive band system of the nitrogen molecule (C3 pi(u) --> B 3 pi(g)). The electronic excitation temperature was obtained by using the intensity ratio of Ar I 763.51 nm (2P(6) --> 1S(5)) to Ar I 772.42 nm (2P(2) --> 1S(3)). The changes in the mean energy of electron were studied by the relative intensity ratio of the nitrogen molecular ion 391.4 nm to nitrogen 337.1 nm. It was found that the intensity of emission spectral line increases with the increase in the gas pressure, meanwhile, the outline and the ratios of different spectral lines intensity also change. The molecular vibrational temperature, the mean energy of electron, and the electronic excitation temperature decrease as the gas pressure increases from 0.75 x 10(5) Pa to 1 x 10(5) Pa.

  7. Broadband spectroscopy for characterization of tissue-like phantom optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Ali; Bachir, Wesam

    2017-12-01

    Optical phantoms are widely used for evaluating the performance of biomedical optical modalities, and hence, absorbing and scattering materials are required for the construction of optical phantoms. Towards that aim, new readily available and inexpensive black Ink (Parker) as a simulating absorber as well as Intralipid 20% as a simulating scatterer are thoroughly investigated. Broadband Transmittance and Diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements were performed in the visible range 400 - 700 nm. Optical properties of the phantom materials are determined. Analytical expressions for absorption and scattering coefficient related to the concentrations and wavelength of the Parker ink and Intralipid are also presented and discussed. The results show nonlinear trend in the absorption coefficient of Parker ink over the examined visible spectral range. Furthermore, Intralipid scattering coefficient variation across the mentioned spectral range shows a tissue-like scattering trend. The findings demonstrate the capability of the broadband transmission and diffuse reflectance for characterizing tissue-like phantom materials in the examined spectral range.

  8. Development of an ultrasound microscope combined with optical microscope for multiparametric characterization of a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Shikama, Joe; Yoshida, Koki; Nagaoka, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-09-01

    Biomechanics of the cell has been gathering much attention because it affects the pathological status in atherosclerosis and cancer. In the present study, an ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope for characterization of a single cell with multiple ultrasound parameters was developed. The central frequency of the transducer was 375 MHz and the scan area was 80 × 80 μm with up to 200 × 200 sampling points. An inverted optical microscope was incorporated in the design of the system, allowing for simultaneous optical observations of cultured cells. Two-dimensional mapping of multiple ultrasound parameters, such as sound speed, attenuation, and acoustic impedance, as well as the thickness, density, and bulk modulus of specimen/cell under investigation, etc., was realized by the system. Sound speed and thickness of a 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell were successfully obtained by the system. The ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope further enhances our understanding of cellular biomechanics.

  9. Characterization of Temperature Profiles in Skin and Transdermal Delivery System When Exposed to Temperature Gradients In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Murawsky, Michael; LaCount, Terri; Hao, Jinsong; Kasting, Gerald B; Newman, Bryan; Ghosh, Priyanka; Raney, Sam G; Li, S Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Performance of a transdermal delivery system (TDS) can be affected by exposure to elevated temperature, which can lead to unintended safety issues. This study investigated TDS and skin temperatures and their relationship in vivo, characterized the effective thermal resistance of skin, and identified the in vitro diffusion cell conditions that would correlate with in vivo observations. Experiments were performed in humans and in Franz diffusion cells with human cadaver skin to record skin and TDS temperatures at room temperature and with exposure to a heat flux. Skin temperatures were regulated with two methods: a heating lamp in vivo and in vitro, or thermostatic control of the receiver chamber in vitro. In vivo basal skin temperatures beneath TDS at different anatomical sites were not statistically different. The maximum tolerable skin surface temperature was approximately 42-43°C in vivo. The temperature difference between skin surface and TDS surface increased with increasing temperature, or with increasing TDS thermal resistance in vivo and in vitro. Based on the effective thermal resistance of skin in vivo and in vitro, the heating lamp method is an adequate in vitro method. However, the in vitro-in vivo correlation of temperature could be affected by the thermal boundary layer in the receiver chamber.

  10. ZnS-Graphene nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shugang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2012-07-01

    A ZnS-Graphene nanocomposite was prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method using zinc nitrate hexahydrate, ethylenediamine and carbon disulfide as precursors, graphene oxide as a template. The composite was characterized by X-ray power diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectra and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that graphene oxide was reduced to graphene in the hydrothermal reaction process. Simultaneously, the graphene sheets in the composite are exfoliated and decorated with ZnS nanoparticles. Furthermore, Raman and fluorescence properties of the composite were observed. ZnS-Graphene nanocomposite displays surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity for graphene oxide, and fluorescence enhancement property compared with pure ZnS sample.

  11. Low-temperature dependence of midinfrared optical constants of lead-germanium-telluride thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jiang, Jinchun; Zhang, Su-ying; Zhang, Feng-shan

    2002-03-01

    The design and manufacture of diode lasers for gas analysis or multilayer thin-film optical devices used at low-temperature require the refractive index and the temperature coefficient of IV-VI compound over a significant temperature range. In this article, the refractive index and the absorption coefficient of Pb0.94Ge0.06Te thin film have been determined from transmission spectra measured at temperature between 80 and 300 K in the spectral range of 2.5-8.5 μm by fitting based on a Lorentz-oscillator model. It is found that the maximum refractive index occurs at 150 K, which corresponds to the structural phase transition from rocksalt to rhombohedrally distorted structure and reflects an increase of lattice polarizability. The value of the index of refraction is 5.350-6.000 in the spectral range of 4.0-8.5 μm for all measured temperatures, which reveals that Pb1-xGexTe is a highly refractive infrared material. The temperature coefficient of refractive index, dn/dT, is found to be -0.006-0.002 K-1 in the spectral range of 3.0-8.5 μm for all measured temperature. An empirical formula that fits the temperature coefficient in the spectral range of 4.0-8.5 μm is presented. The dependence of the transmission and absorption spectra on decreasing temperature can be explained by the modification of the energy-band structure due to rhombohedral distortions. The conclusion can be drawn that anomalies corresponding to the ferroelectric phase transition occur in both refractive index and absorption coefficient of Pb1-xGexTe alloy.

  12. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.J.; Rezaei, G.; Nazari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs

  13. An all optical system for studying temperature induced changes in polycrystalline diamond deposited on a tungsten carbide substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this poster the authors discussed the ability to heat an industrial diamond sample by means of optical absorption of a CO2 laser beam, and then measure the resulting temperature on the surface of the diamond optically by means of radiometry...

  14. Impedance Characterization and Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Considering the Internal Temperature Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery impedance is essential to the management of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles (EVs, and impedance characterization can help to monitor and predict the battery states. Many studies have been undertaken to investigate impedance characterization and the factors that influence impedance. However, few studies regarding the influence of the internal temperature gradient, which is caused by heat generation during operation, have been presented. We have comprehensively studied the influence of the internal temperature gradient on impedance characterization and the modeling of battery impedance, and have proposed a discretization model to capture battery impedance characterization considering the temperature gradient. Several experiments, including experiments with artificial temperature gradients, are designed and implemented to study the influence of the internal temperature gradient on battery impedance. Based on the experimental results, the parameters of the non-linear impedance model are obtained, and the relationship between the parameters and temperature is further established. The experimental results show that the temperature gradient will influence battery impedance and the temperature distribution can be considered to be approximately linear. The verification results indicate that the proposed discretization model has a good performance and can be used to describe the actual characterization of the battery with an internal temperature gradient.

  15. Using a Fiber Loop and Fiber Bragg Grating as a Fiber Optic Sensor to Simultaneously Measure Temperature and Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Chih Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study integrated a fiber loop manufactured by using commercial fiber (SMF-28, Corning and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG to form a fiber optic sensor that could simultaneously measure displacement and temperature. The fiber loop was placed in a thermoelectric cooling module with FBG affixed to the module, and, consequently, the center wavelength displacement of FBG was limited by only the effects of temperature change. Displacement and temperature were determined by measuring changes in the transmission of optical power and shifts in Bragg wavelength. This study provides a simple and economical method to measure displacement and temperature simultaneously.

  16. Pulsed laser heating of silicon-nitride capped GaAs: Optical properties at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A.; Yao, H. D.; Compaan, A.; Horak, A.; Rys, A.

    1988-09-01

    The optical properties of silicon nitride and gallium arsenide were studied at temperatures up to and beyond the melting point of GaAs by means of laser heating. XeCl excimer and pulsed dye laser pulses, ˜10 ns in duration, were used to heat the semiconductor under nitride capping layers of varying thickness. The transient reflectivity response at 514.5 nm was used together with a multilayer interference analysis to obtain the optical constants of solid and molten GaAs and of solid Si3N4 near the 1513-K melting point of GaAs. In addition, we report the melt duration as a function of laser pulse energy for GaAs with and without capping layers.

  17. Correlating optical damage threshold with intrinsic defect populations in fused silica as a function of heat treatment temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthews, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Elhadj, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, P. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-04-03

    Here, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used for the production of fused silica optics in high-power laser applications. However, relatively little is known about the ultraviolet laser damage threshold of CVD films and how they relate to intrinsic defects produced during deposition. We present here a study relating structural and electronic defects in CVD films to 355 nm pulsed-laser damage threshold as a function of post-deposition annealing temperature (THT). Plasma-enhanced CVD based on SiH4/N2O under oxygen-rich conditions was used to deposit 1.5, 3.1 and 6.4 µm thick films on etched SiO2 substrates. Rapid annealing was performed using a scanned CO2 laser beam up to THT ~ 2100 K. The films were then characterized using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A gradual transition in the damage threshold of annealed films was observed for THT values up to 1600 K, correlating with a decrease in non-bridging silanol and oxygen deficient centres. An additional sharp transition in damage threshold also occurs at ~1850 K indicating substrate annealing. Based on our results, a mechanism for damage-related defect annealing is proposed, and the potential of using high-THT CVD SiO2 to mitigate optical damage is also discussed.

  18. Effect of Stress and Temperature on the Optical Properties of Silicon Nitride Membranes at 1,550 nm

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Fletcher; Simon Tait; Jessica Steinlechner; Jessica Steinlechner; Iain W. Martin; Angus S. Bell; James Hough; Sheila Rowan; Roman Schnabel

    2018-01-01

    Future gravitational-wave detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures are expected to be limited by thermal noise of the highly reflective mirror coatings. Silicon nitride is an interesting material for such coatings as it shows very low mechanical loss, a property related to low thermal noise, which is known to further decrease under stress. Low optical absorption is also required to maintain the low mirror temperature. Here, we investigate the effect of stress on the optical properties at ...

  19. 3D Human cartilage surface characterization by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Nicolai; Riedel, Jörn; Schmitt, Robert; Tingart, Markus; Truhn, Daniel; Pufe, Thomas; Jahr, Holger; Nebelung, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cartilage degeneration is of high clinical interest. Loss of surface integrity is considered one of the earliest and most reliable signs of degeneration, but cannot currently be evaluated objectively. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an arthroscopically available light-based non-destructive real-time imaging technology that allows imaging at micrometre resolutions to millimetre depths. As OCT-based surface evaluation standards remain to be defined, the present study investigated the diagnostic potential of 3D surface profile parameters in the comprehensive evaluation of cartilage degeneration. To this end, 45 cartilage samples of different degenerative grades were obtained from total knee replacements (2 males, 10 females; mean age 63.8 years), cut to standard size and imaged using a spectral-domain OCT device (Thorlabs, Germany). 3D OCT datasets of 8  ×  8, 4  ×  4 and 1  ×  1 mm (width  ×  length) were obtained and pre-processed (image adjustments, morphological filtering). Subsequent automated surface identification algorithms were used to obtain the 3D primary profiles, which were then filtered and processed using established algorithms employing ISO standards. The 3D surface profile thus obtained was used to calculate a set of 21 3D surface profile parameters, i.e. height (e.g. Sa), functional (e.g. Sk), hybrid (e.g. Sdq) and segmentation-related parameters (e.g. Spd). Samples underwent reference histological assessment according to the Degenerative Joint Disease classification. Statistical analyses included calculation of Spearman’s rho and assessment of inter-group differences using the Kruskal Wallis test. Overall, the majority of 3D surface profile parameters revealed significant degeneration-dependent differences and correlations with the exception of severe end-stage degeneration and were of distinct diagnostic value in the assessment of surface integrity. None of the 3D

  20. Low Temperature Solid-State Synthesis and Characterization of LaBO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun KIPÇAK

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth (lanthanide series borates, possess high vacuum ultraviolet (VUV transparency, large electronic band gaps, chemical and environmental stability and exceptionally large optical damage thresholds and used in the development of plasma display panels (PDPs. In this study the synthesis of lanthanum borates via solid-state method is studied. For this purpose, lanthanum oxide (La2O3 and boric acid (H3BO3 are used for as lanthanum and boron sources, respectively. Different elemental molar ratios of La to B (between 3:1 to 1:6 as La2O3:H3BO3 were reacted by solid-state method at the reaction temperatures between 500°C - 700°C with the constant reaction time of 4 h. Following the synthesis, characterizations of the synthesized products are conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. From the results of the experiments, three types of lanthanum borates of; La3BO6, LaBO3 and La(BO23 were observed at different reaction parameters. Among these three types of lanthanum borates LaBO3 phase were obtained as a major phase.

  1. Microstructural Characterization of Low Temperature Gas Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents microstructural investigations of the surface zone of low temperature gas nitrided precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel AISI 630. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate the present phases after successive removal of very thin sections...

  2. Characterization of genetic diversity of high temperature tolerance in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    As global warming becomes inevitable, the sustainability of agricultural production in US and worldwide faces serious threat from extreme weather conditions, such as drought and elevated extreme temperatures (heat waves). Among cereal crops, sorghum is considered a versatile crop for semiarid area a...

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Optical Constants of Silicon Oxycarbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memon Faisal Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High refractive index glasses are preferred in integrated photonics applications to realize higher integration scale of passive devices. With a refractive index that can be tuned between SiO2 (1.45 and a-SiC (3.2, silicon oxycarbide SiOC offers this flexibility. In the present work, silicon oxycarbide thin films from 0.1 – 2.0 μm thickness are synthesized by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering a silicon carbide SiC target in a controlled argon and oxygen environment. The refractive index n and material extinction coefficient k of the silicon oxycarbide films are acquired with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry over the UV-Vis-NIR wavelength range. Keeping argon and oxygen gases in the constant ratio, the refractive index n is found in the range from 1.41 to 1.93 at 600 nm which is almost linearly dependent on RF power of sputtering. The material extinction coefficient k has been estimated to be less than 10-4 for the deposited silicon oxycarbide films in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Morphological and structural characterizations with SEM and XRD confirms the amorphous phase of the SiOC films.

  4. Fabrication of n-ZnO-NPs/p Si Heterojunction and Its Electro-optical Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhmmad Kashif; Syed Mohd Usman Ali; Uda Hashim

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, n-ZnO-NPs nano structure was fabricated on p-type silicon substrate using aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. We have demonstrated the electro-optical performances of ZnO nano porous based hetero-junction diode using p-silicon. The current to voltage measurements (I-V) of ZnO-NPS/ p-Si hetero-junction were investigated in the temperature range 323 to 423 K. the ideality factor of the diode decrease from 10 to 3 as the temperature increasing from 323 to 423 K. Barrier height values of the structure vary between 0.5 and 0.7 eV as the temperature increases. The structural and optical properties of the ZnO-NPS nano structure was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and Raman spectra. (author)

  5. Fabrication of n-ZnO-NPs/p Si Heterojunction and Its Electro-optical Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, M.; Syed Mohd Usman Ali; Uda Hashim; Wilander, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, n-ZnO-NPs nano structure was fabricated on p-type silicon substrate using aqueous chemical growth (Actg) method. We have demonstrated the electro-optical performances of ZnO nano porous based hetero-junction diode using p-silicon. The current to voltage measurements (I-V) of ZnO-NPS/p-Si hetero-junction were investigated in the temperature range 323 to 423 K. the ideality factor of the diode decrease from 10 to 3 as the temperature increasing from 323 to 423 K. Barrier height values of the structure vary between 0.5 and 0.7 eV as the temperature increases. The structural and optical properties of the ZnO-NPS nano structure was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and Raman Spectra. (author)

  6. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  7. Synthesis, linear optical, non-linear optical, thermal and mechanical characterizations of dye-doped semi-organic NLO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesha Bamini, N; Choedak, Tenzin; Muthukrishnan, P; Ancy, C J; Vidyalakshmy, Y; Kejalakshmy, N

    2015-01-01

    Organic laser dyes Coumarin 485, Coumarin 540 and Rhodamine 590 Chloride were used to dope potassium acid phthalate crystals (KAP). Dye-doped KAP crystals with different dye concentrations such as 0.01 mM, 0.03 mM, 0.05 mM, 0.07 mM and 0.09 mM (in the KAP growth solution) were grown. The linear optical, non-linear optical, mechanical and thermal characterizations of dye-doped KAP crystals were studied and compared to understand the effect of dye and dye concentration on the KAP crystal. Absorption and emission studies of KAP and dye-doped KAP single crystals indicated the inclusion of the dye into the KAP crystal lattice. The effect of dye and its concentration on the SHG efficiency of the KAP crystal was studied using the Kurtz and Perry powder technique. It was observed that the absorption maximum wavelength and concentration of the dye used for doping the KAP single crystal decided the SHG efficiency of the dye-doped KAP single crystals. The mechanical hardness of the dye-doped and undoped (pure) KAP single crystals were studied using the Vickner’s microhardness test. It was observed that doping the KAP crystals with the laser dyes changed them from softer material to harder material. Etching studies showed an improvement in the optical quality of the KAP crystal after doping with laser dyes. (paper)

  8. Nano-Fabrication Methods for Micro-Miniature Optical Thermometers Suited to High Temperatures and Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePew, K. A.; Ma, C.; Schiffbauer, J. D.; Wang, J.; Dong, B.; Lally, E.; Wang, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Center for Photonics Technology (CPT) at Virginia Tech is engaged in cutting edge research of fiber optic sensing technologies. One current research area is the design of fiber optic temperature sensors for harsh environments. Fiber optic temperature sensing offers significant advantages over electronic sensing in terms of size and insensitivity to harsh environmental conditions and electromagnetic interference. In the field, fiber optic thermometers have been used in recent snow cover studies as well as fluvial temperature profiling projects. The extended capabilities of CPT optical sensors open further possibilities for application in additional geologic realms requiring high temperature sensing in corrosive environments. Significant strides have been made in developing single-crystal sapphire based fiber optic sensing elements for high temperature environments which are otherwise difficult to instrument. Utilization of strain insensitive designs and optical sapphire materials allow for thermometers capable of operation above 1500°C with reduced sensitivity to chemical corrosion and mechanical interference. Current efforts in fabrication techniques are reducing the footprint of temperature sensors below the millimeter scale while maintaining high resolution and operating range. The FEI Helios 600 NanoLab workstation at the Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technologies and Applied Science has been employed, providing the capabilities necessary to reduce the footprint of sensing elements to the dimensions of standard optical communication fiber using a Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB). The capability of semi-distributed multi-point sensing can also be accomplished at this scale using similar FIB milling techniques. The fiber optic thermometer designs resulting from these methods are compact, lightweight, and able to provide remote sensing without need for electrical power at the measurement point. These traits make them an ideal sensing platform for laboratory

  9. PDSM characterization for fabrication of free-space OXC optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueta, Victor; Fitzpatrick, Brianna

    2017-11-01

    In 2007 Dr Khine et al published a paper where they presented a technique using thermoplastics and PDMS to create microfluidic patterns1. Their technique involves printing a pattern in a polystyrene sheet using a laser printer. Once the pattern is transfer the polystyrene sheets they are heated to reduce their size. By printing the same pattern of the plastic sheets before heating, it is possible to control the height up to 80 μm and the width as thin as 65 μm1, 2. This technique is attractive to be used in optical fabrication due to its versatility, low cost and fast prototyping. However, in order to fabricate optical systems, we will need to control the refractive index of PDMS to allow design of basic optical components like waveguides, beam splitter, or diffuse reflectors; or more complex structures like interferometers, optical microfluidic lab-on-chip, micro-lens arrays. Several techniques exist to control the refractive index for PDMS either by controlling the curing temperature, the ratio between the base and curing agent, or by curing using UV light3-5. In this paper, we present the changes on refractive index by changing the curing temperature for different base/reaction agent ratios. We then apply these results to fabricate an optical component for a free-space optical cross-connect (OXC). Optical cross-connects are an important network element for constructing the next generation of optical networks, where provisioning (reconfiguration), scalability, and fast restoration will be needed6-8. The main attraction of all-optical switching is that it enables routing of optical data signals without the need for conversion to electrical signals, and therefore, is independent of data rate and data protocols. We have proposed previously9, 11 a new approach for an OXC. Our architecture is a free-space 3-D while still using digital MEMS. Our system is based on the optical White cell12, which consists of three spherical mirrors among which light can circulate. In

  10. Selection of fiber-optical components for temperature measurement for satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, P.; Kuhenuri Chami, N.; Koch, A. W.; Hurni, A.; Roner, M.; Obermaier, J.; Lemke, N. M. K.

    2017-11-01

    The Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) is a modular system for housekeeping measurements for space applications. The focus here is the fiber-optical module and the used fiber-Bragg gratings (FBGs) for temperature measurements at up to 100 measuring points. The fiber-optial module uses a tunable diode laser to scan through the wavelength spectrum and a passive optical network for reading back the reflections from the FBG sensors. The sensors are based on FBGs which show a temperature dependent shift in wavelength, allowing a high accuracy of measurement. The temperature at each sensor is derivated from the sensors Bragg wavelength shift by evaluating the measured spectrum with an FBG peak detection algorithm and by computing the corresponding temperature difference with regard to the calibration value. It is crucial to eliminate unwanted influence on the measurement accuracy through FBG wavelength shifts caused by other reasons than the temperature change. The paper presents gamma radiation test results up to 25 Mrad for standard UV-written FBGs in a bare fiber and in a mechanically housed version. This high total ionizing dose (TID) load comes from a possible location of the fiber outside the satellite's housing, like e.g. on the panels or directly embedded into the satellites structure. Due to the high shift in wavelength of the standard written gratings also the femto-second infrared (fs- IR) writing technique is investigated in more detail. Special focus is given to the deployed fibers for the external sensor network. These fibers have to be mechanically robust and the radiation induced attenuation must be low in order not to influence the system's performance. For this reason different fiber types have been considered and tested to high dose gamma radiation. Dedicated tests proved the absence of enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS). Once the fiber has been finally selected, the fs-IR grating will be written to these fibers and the FBGs will be tested in order to

  11. Thermal analysis of optical reference cavities for low sensitivity to environmental temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Yanyi; Hang, Chao; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng

    2015-02-23

    The temperature stability of optical reference cavities is significant in state-of-the-art ultra-stable narrow-linewidth laser systems. In this paper, the thermal time constant and thermal sensitivity of reference cavities are analyzed when reference cavities respond to environmental perturbations via heat transfer of thermal conduction and thermal radiation separately. The analysis as well as simulation results indicate that a reference cavity enclosed in multiple layers of thermal shields with larger mass, higher thermal capacity and lower emissivity is found to have a larger thermal time constant and thus a smaller sensitivity to environmental temperature perturbations. The design of thermal shields for reference cavities may vary according to experimentally achievable temperature stability and the coefficient of thermal expansion of reference cavities. A temperature fluctuation-induced length instability of reference cavities as low as 6 × 10(-16) on a day timescale can be achieved if a two-layer thermal shield is inserted between a cavity with the coefficient of thermal expansion of 1 × 10(-10) /K and an outer vacuum chamber with temperature fluctuation amplitude of 1 mK and period of 24 hours.

  12. Effect of temperature on the optical properties of ex vivo human dermis and subdermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Simpson, Rebecca; Kohl, Matthias; Cope, Mark; Essenpreis, M.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the optical properties of human dermis and subdermis as a function of near-infrared wavelength has been studied between 25 deg. C and 40 deg. C. Measurements were performed ex vivo on a total of nine skin samples taken from the abdomen of three individuals. The results show a reproducible effect of temperature on the transport scattering coefficient of dermis and subdermis. The relative change of the transport scattering coefficient showed an increase for dermis ((4.7±0.5)x10 -3 deg. C -1 ) and a decrease for subdermis ((-1.4±0.28)x10 -3 deg. C -1 ). Note that the magnitude of the temperature coefficient of scattering was greater for dermis than subdermis. A reproducible effect of temperature on the absorption coefficient could not be found within experimental errors. System reproducibility in transport scattering coefficient with repeated removal and repositioning of the same tissue sample at the same temperature was excellent at ±0.35% for all measurements. This reproducibility enabled such small changes in scattering coefficient to be detected. (author)

  13. Material Science for High-Efficiency Photovoltaics: From Advanced Optical Coatings to Cell Design for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Emmett Edward

    a top junction. These designs maximize reflection of high-energy light for an InGaN top junction while minimizing reflection of low-energy light that would be absorbed by the lower four junctions. Increasing the reflectivity of high-energy photons enables a second pass of light through the InGaN cell, leading to increased absorption and a higher photocurrent. These optical designs enhanced the efficiency of a 2.65eV InGaN solar cell to a value of 3.3% under the AM0 spectrum, the highest reported efficiency for a standalone InGaN solar cell. The second half of the dissertation describes the development of III-V solar cells for high-temperature applications. As the operating temperature of a solar cell is increased, the ideal bandgap of the top junction increases. AlGaInP solar cells with bandgaps ranging from 1.9eV to 2.2eV are developed. A 2.03eV AlGaInP solar cell is demonstrated with a bandgap-voltage offset of 440mV, the lowest of any AlGaInP solar cell reported to date. Single-junction AlGaInP, GaInP, and GaAs solar cells designed for high-temperature operation are characterized up to a temperature of 400°C. The cell properties are compared to an analytical drift-diffusion model, and we find that a fundamental increase in the intrinsic carrier concentration, ni, dominates the temperature dependence of the dark currents, open-circuit voltage, and cell efficiency. These findings provide a valuable guide to the design of any system that requires high-temperature solar cell operation.

  14. Optical fiber sensors for process refractometry and temperature measuring based on curved fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willsch, R.; Schwotzer, G.; Haubenreisser, W.; Jahn, J.U.

    1986-01-01

    Based on U-shape curved multimode fibers with defined bending radii intensity-modulated optical sensors for the determination of refractive index changes in liquids and related measurands (solution concentration, mixing ratio and others) in process-refractometry and for temperature measuring under special environmental conditions have been developed. The optoelectronic transmitting and receiving units are performed in modular technique and can be used in multi-purpose applications. The principles, performance and characteristical properties of these sensors are described and their possibilities of application in process measuring and automation are discussed by some selected examples. (orig.) [de

  15. A confocal optical microscope for detection of single impurities in a bulk crystal at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    A compact sample-scanning confocal optical microscope for detection of single impurities below the surface of a bulk crystal at cryogenic temperatures is described. The sample, lens, and scanners are mounted inside a helium bath cryostat and have a footprint of only 19 × 19 mm. Wide field imaging and confocal imaging using a Blu-ray lens immersed in liquid helium are demonstrated with excitation at 370 nm. A spatial resolution of 300 nm and a detection efficiency of 1.6% were achieved.

  16. Optical waveguiding and temperature dependent photoluminescence of nanotubulars grown from molecular building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibohm, Christian; Rastedt, Maren; Kutscher, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Optical waveguiding of blue light after UV-excitation is demonstrated in bundles of organic nanotubulars obtained via template assisted aggregation of the small p-conjugated non planar molecules 17H-Tetrabenzo[ a,c,g,i]fluorene (17H-Tbf) and 17-Trimethylsilyltetrabenzo[a,c,g,i]fluorene (TMS......-Tbf). The propagating blue light is strongly attenuated due to self-absorption. Vibronic spectra for both nanotubulars and macroscopic crystallites for temperatures between 5 and 300 K show a behavior of TMS-Tbf that resembles that of long chained molecules while 17H-TbF resembles that of small organic molecules...

  17. Heat capacity characterization at phase transition temperature of Agl superionic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowati, Arie

    2000-01-01

    The phase transition of Agl superionic conductor was investigated by calorometric. A single phase transition was found at (153±5) o C which corresponds to the α - β transition. Calorimetric measurement showed an anomalously high heat capacity with a large discontinues change in the Arrhenius plot, was found above the transition temperature of β - α phase. The maximum heat capacity was found to be ±19.7 cal/gmol. Key words : superionic conductor, thermal capacity

  18. Characterization of the National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerchner, H.R.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Klabunde, C.E.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    The National Low-Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) is now operating at the Bulk Shielding Reactor at ORNL. The facility provides high radiation intensities and special environmental and testing conditions for qualified experiments at no cost to users. A general description and major specifications of the NLTNIF are presented along with the results of performance tests. In addition, the hardware and other considerations required to perform experiments in the NLTNIF are described.

  19. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical band gap of lead selenide thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hone, Fekadu Gashaw, E-mail: fekeye@gmail.com [Hawassa University, Department of Physics, Hawassa (Ethiopia); Ampong, Francis Kofi [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2016-11-01

    Lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystalline thin films have been deposited on silica glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique. The samples were deposited at the bath temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 °C respectively and characterized by a variety of techniques. The XRD results revealed that the PbSe thin film deposited at 60 °C was amorphous in nature. Films deposited at higher temperatures exhibited sharp and intense diffraction peaks, indicating an improvement in crystallinety. The deposition temperature also had a strong influence on the preferred orientation of the crystallites as well as other structural parameters such as microstrain and dislocation density. From the SEM study it was observed that film deposited at 90 °C had well defined crystallites, uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the substrate. The EDAX study confirmed that the samples deposited at the higher temperature had a better stoichiometric ratio. The optical band gap varied from 2.26 eV to 1.13 eV with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • The crystallinety of the films improved as the deposition temperature increased. • The deposition temperature strongly influenced the preferred orientations. • Microstrain and dislocation density are decreased linearly with deposition temperature. • Band gap decreased from 2.26 eV to 1.13 eV as the deposition temperature increased.

  20. Reorientational optical nonlinearity of nematic liquid-crystal cells near the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shan; Jiang, I-Min; Huang, Chi-Yen; Shih, Chia-Chi

    2003-12-01

    We address the reorientational optical nonlinearity of homogeneously aligned neamtic liquid-crystal (NLC) cells. The propagation of light in NLC cells depend strongly on temperature. At a temperature approaching the clearing point, an undulating beam and multifocal points are observed in the NLC cell by use of a polarizing optical microscope. Using a conoscopic technique, we observed novel consecutive concentric and parabolic patterns projected onto a screen. Optical energy is considered to compete with thermal energy to affect NLC's orientation and to generate singularities in the steady state. A model of the configuration of the liquid crystal's orientation is proposed.