WorldWideScience

Sample records for temperature measurement

  1. Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an oral temperature. Other factors to take into account are: In general, rectal temperatures are considered to ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  2. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  3. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  4. Measuring body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Louise; Higgins, Dan

    Body temperature is one of the four main vital signs that must be monitored to ensure safe and effective care. Temperature measurement is recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence a part of the initial assessment in acute illness in adults (NICE, 2007) and by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines for post-operative management in adults (SIGN, 2004). Despite applying in all healthcare environments, wide variations exist on the methods and techniques used to measure body temperature. It is essential to use the most appropriate technique to ensure that temperature is measured accurately. Inaccurate results may influence diagnosis and treatment, lead to a failure to identify patient deterioration and compromise patient safety. This article explains the importance of temperature regulation and compares methods of its measurement.

  5. Temperature measurement: Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    This Data Item is available as part of the ESDU Sub-series on Heat Transfer. Background information and practical guidance on designing temperature measuring systems using thermocouples is provided. The nominal temperature range covered is -200 degrees C to 2000 degrees C but the comments apply, in general terms, to all thermocouple systems. The information is aimed at the user who wishes to design and install a practical thermocouple system using improved techniques that will allow temperatures to be measured within known tolerances. The selection, preparation, and installation of thermocouples, the use of compensating or extension cables, methods of referencing to a known temperature and measurement system are considered. The requirements for reliable systems operating to commercial tolerances are also described. Various factors that might impair the accuracy and stability of thermocouples are identified together with methods of reducing their effect. A check list for the design of a thermocouple system is given and a flow chart procedure for selecting appropriate thermocouple materials is provided as well. The employment of the techniques described will ensure that the temperature of the measuring junction is within known tolerances.

  6. Temperature Measurement and Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    feasibility based on potential usefulness in clinical medicine ’ias explored. All information herein wasn obtained from literature rrv’iew only. No...measurements, applications for temperature measuring devices, and description of several modern body temperature monitoring devices (techniques). Finally...gynecology, drug therapy, and ophthalmology. TEMPERATURE SENSING DEVICES Hippocrates is believed to be the first person Lo associate body temperature as

  7. Temperature Measurement for the LSST

    OpenAIRE

    Czekala, Ian; Paul O'Connor

    2014-01-01

    We explore the various means of temperature measurement to search for a low-cost accurate temperature measuring device.  This poster was completed as part of the Brookhaven National Laboratory High School intern program in 2005.

  8. Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Mirvette

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

  9. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  10. Measurement of Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Kurekova, E; Halaj, M

    2005-01-01

    The project COMET provides a multimedia training package for metrology and measurement. The package is developed by a consortium of 10 institutes from 7 European countries. It consists of 31 modules, each dealing with a particular aspect of metrology, and is available in English, German, French and

  11. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  12. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  13. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B W; Furukawa, G T; Kreider, K G; Meyer, C W; Ripple, D C; Strouse, G F; Tew, W L; Moldover, M R; Johnson, B C; Yoon, H W; Gibson, C E; Saunders, R D

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for "on-site" thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by calibration of

  14. Method for measuring surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  15. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min

    2017-09-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displaying Kerr nonlinearity. We obtain the analytical equations and numerically calculate the precision with parameters within the reach of current technology, proving that the precision of temperature can be greatly enhanced by using a nonlinear medium. Our results show that one can create an accurate thermometer by measuring the photons in the Michelson interferometer, with no need to directly measure the population of thermalized sample.

  16. Quantum interferometric measurements of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzyna, Marcin; Zwierz, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    We provide a detailed description of the quantum interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from the measurements of the optical phase. We rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system prepared in a single-mode Gaussian state with a heated sample modeled as a dissipative thermal reservoir. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nanokelvin regime. Furthermore, we compare the fundamental precision of quantum interferometric thermometers with the theoretical precision offered by the classical idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample. We find that the interferometric thermometer provides a superior performance in temperature sensing even when compared with this idealized pyrometer. We predict that interferometric thermometers will prove useful for ultraprecise temperature sensing and stabilization of quantum optical experiments based on the nonlinear crystals and atomic vapors.

  17. Midinfrared Temperature Measurement Technique Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosuosso, George R.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared thermography is the measuring of the temperature of an object by examining the spectral quantities of light emission. The microgravity combustion experiment Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low-Speeds (SIBAL) calls for full-field temperature measurements of a thin sheet of cellulosic fuel as a flame front moves across the fuel, and infrared thermography is the only technique that can accomplish this task. The thermography is accomplished by imaging the fuel with a midinfrared camera that is sensitive in the 3.0- to 5.0-microns wavelength region in conjunction with a 3.7 - to 4.1-microns bandpass filter to eliminate unwanted infrared radiation from components other than the fuel.

  18. Surface temperature measurements of diamond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available - ing session. REFERENCES 1. W. L. Heinz, Diamond drilling handbook, CHP2, 27-47. 2. Max N. Yoder, Diamond properties and applications, 1-18, Noyes publications, edited by Robert F. Davis. 3. Kogelnik and Li, Laser beams and resonators, 1966.... Stephen, Laser heating dia- mond cell system at the advanced photon source for in situ x-ray measurements at high at pressure and temperature, 2000, Vol 72, 1273- 1282. 6. D.L. Heinz, J.S. Sweeney and P. Miller, A laser heating system that stabilizes...

  19. High temperature skin friction measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  20. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  1. Temperature measurement in the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnamacharyulu, R.J.; Rao, L.V.G.

    meters with temperature sensors, moored data buoys and drifting buoys) are described in brief. Specialised equipment used for studying oceanic features like internal waves, thermal fronts and temperature microstructure (thermistor chain, isotherm follower...

  2. New algorithm for extreme temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damean, N.

    2000-01-01

    A new algorithm for measurement of extreme temperature is presented. This algorithm reduces the measurement of the unknown temperature to the solving of an optimal control problem, using a numerical computer. Based on this method, a new device for extreme temperature measurements is projected. It

  3. [Measurement and management of body temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Hironobu; Matsukawa, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Body temperature regulation is at the basis of life maintenance and for humans to maintain the central body temperature within the range of 37 +/- 0.2 degrees Celsius. In the case of anesthesia, a patient would have a high possibility of lower body temperature and also could have more complications with low body temperature. In addition, it would generate more complications and extend a period of hospitalization. For that reason, anesthetists must pay full attention to body temperature management during surgery. Measurement for central body temperature is necessary as a monitor for body temperature measurement and the measurement for nasopharyngeal temperature, tympanic temperature, and lung artery temperature is effective for this purpose. Therapeutic hypothermia for brain injury is receiving attention recently as a preventive method for brain disorder and the method is utilized in hospital facilities. In future, it is expected to attain the most suitable treatment method by clinical studies on low body temperature.

  4. Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

  5. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  6. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-01

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 "Radiation Thermometry". The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  7. Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

  8. Field of Temperature Measurement by Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor HARGAŠ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces about temperature determination for given dot of picture through image analysis. Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. Main method of measurement of temperature in image is Pattern Matching, color scale detection and model detection. We can measure temperature dependency at time for selected point of thermo vision images. This measurement gives idea about the heat transfer at time dependences.

  9. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  10. Quantitative shearography in axisymmetric gas temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerWege, Brad A.; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Hochgreb, Simone

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the use of shearing interferometry (shearography) for the quantitative measurement of gas temperatures in axisymmetric systems in which vibration and shock are substantial, and measurement time is limited. The setup and principle of operation of the interferometer are described, as well as Fourier-transform-based fringe pattern analysis, Abel transform, and sensitivity of the phase lead to temperature calculation. A helium jet and a Bunsen burner flame are shown as verification of the diagnostic. The accuracy of the measured temperature profile is shown to be limited by the Abel transform and is critically dependent on the reference temperature used.

  11. Thermocouples for Interior Ballistic Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    l On the other hand, the entire junction region of a junction temperature measurement device (hereafter referred to simply as a thermocouple ) is... Thermocouples for Interior Ballistic Temperature Measurements ARL-MR-146 Stephen L. Howard Lang-Mann Chang Douglas E. Kooker APPROVED FOR PUBUC...COVERED August 1994 · Final, Oct 1991- Sept 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Thermocouples for Interior Ballistic Temperature

  12. Dual-wavelengths photoacoustic temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu; Jian, Xiaohua; Dong, Fenglin; Cui, Yaoyao

    2017-02-01

    Thermal therapy is an approach applied in cancer treatment by heating local tissue to kill the tumor cells, which requires a high sensitivity of temperature monitoring during therapy. Current clinical methods like fMRI near infrared or ultrasound for temperature measurement still have limitations on penetration depth or sensitivity. Photoacoustic temperature sensing is a newly developed temperature sensing method that has a potential to be applied in thermal therapy, which usually employs a single wavelength laser for signal generating and temperature detecting. Because of the system disturbances including laser intensity, ambient temperature and complexity of target, the accidental errors of measurement is unavoidable. For solving these problems, we proposed a new method of photoacoustic temperature sensing by using two wavelengths to reduce random error and increase the measurement accuracy in this paper. Firstly a brief theoretical analysis was deduced. Then in the experiment, a temperature measurement resolution of about 1° in the range of 23-48° in ex vivo pig blood was achieved, and an obvious decrease of absolute error was observed with averagely 1.7° in single wavelength pattern while nearly 1° in dual-wavelengths pattern. The obtained results indicates that dual-wavelengths photoacoustic sensing of temperature is able to reduce random error and improve accuracy of measuring, which could be a more efficient method for photoacoustic temperature sensing in thermal therapy of tumor.

  13. Designing an accurate system for temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochan Orest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of compensation of changes in temperature field along the legs of inhomogeneous thermocouple, which measures a temperature of an object, is considered in this paper. This compensation is achieved by stabilization of the temperature field along the thermocouple. Such stabilization does not allow the error due to acquired thermoelectric inhomogeneity to manifest itself. There is also proposed the design of the furnace to stabilize temperature field along the legs of the thermocouple which measures the temperature of an object. This furnace is not integrated with the thermocouple mentioned above, therefore it is possible to replace this thermocouple with a new one when it get its legs considerably inhomogeneous.. There is designed the two loop measuring system with the ability of error correction which can use simultaneously a usual thermocouple as well as a thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field. The latter can be used as a reference sensor for the former.

  14. Temperature measurements of high power LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalan (Draghici), Niculina; Svasta, Paul; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    Measurement of a LED junction temperature is very important in designing a LED lighting system. Depending on the junction temperature we will be able to determine the type of cooling system and the size of the lighting system. There are several indirect methods for junction temperature measurement. The method used in this paper is based on the thermal resistance model. The aim of this study is to identify the best device that would allow measuring the solder point temperature and the temperature on the lens of power LEDs. For this purpose four devices for measuring temperature on a high-power LED are presented and compared according to the acquired measurements: an infrared thermal camera from FLIR Systems, a multimeter with K type thermocouple (Velleman DVM4200), an infrared-spot based noncontact thermometer (Raynger ST) and a measurement system based on a digital temperature sensor (DS1821 type) connected to a PC. The measurements were conducted on an 18W COB (chip-on-board) LED. The measurement points are the supply terminals and the lens of the LED.

  15. [Temperature Measurement with Bluetooth under Android Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Shen, Hao; Luo, Changze

    2015-03-01

    To realize the real-time transmission of temperature data and display using the platform of intelligent mobile phone and bluetooth. Application of Arduino Uno R3 in temperature data acquisition of digital temperature sensor DS18B20 acquisition, through the HC-05 bluetooth transmits the data to the intelligent smart phone Android system, realizes transmission of temperature data. Using Java language to write applications program under Android development environment, can achieve real-time temperature data display, storage and drawing temperature fluctuations drawn graphics. Temperature sensor is experimentally tested to meet the body temperature measurement precision and accuracy. This paper can provide a reference for other smart phone mobile medical product development.

  16. Intracellular temperature measurements with fluorescent polymeric thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Seiichi; Gota, Chie; Tsuji, Toshikazu; Inada, Noriko

    2017-10-05

    In 2003, we successfully created the first fluorescent polymeric thermometer by combining a thermo-responsive polymer and an environment-sensitive (polarity and hydrogen bonding-sensitive) fluorophore. Its high sensitivity to temperature variation and high hydrophilicity, even under conditions of high ionic strength, enabled intracellular temperature measurements. Along with the progress of our research projects, the development of new luminescent molecular thermometers and the establishment of novel methods for measuring intracellular temperature have matured in this field. In this Feature Article, we summarize the background and history of intracellular temperature measurements using fluorescent polymeric thermometers based on studies performed in our laboratory and the relationship between our methods and those of other eminent research groups. Future research directions regarding intracellular temperature measurements are also discussed.

  17. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  18. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  19. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  20. Measuring nanowire thermal conductivity at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Juekuan; Xiong, Yucheng; Huang, Baoling; Xu, Terry T.; Li, Deyu; Xu, Dongyan

    2018-02-01

    This work extends the micro-thermal-bridge method for thermal conductivity measurements of nanowires to high temperatures. The thermal-bridge method, based on a microfabricated device with two side-by-side suspended membranes with integrated platinum resistance heaters/thermometers, has been used to determine thermal conductivity of various nanowires/nanotubes/nanoribbons at relatively low temperatures. However, to date, thermal conductivity characterization of nanowires at temperatures above 600 K has seldom been reported presumably due to several technical difficulties including the instability of the microfabricated thermometers, radiation heat loss, and the effect of the background conductance on the measurement. Here we report on our attempt to address the aforementioned challenges and demonstrate thermal conductivity measurement of boron nanoribbons up to 740 K. To eliminate high temperature resistance instability, the device is first annealed at 1023 K for 5 min in an argon atmosphere. Two radiation shields are installed in the measurement chamber to minimize radiation heat loss from the measurement device to the surroundings; and the temperature of the device at each set point is calibrated by an additional thermocouple directly mounted on the chip carrier. The effect of the background conductance is eliminated by adopting a differential measurement scheme. With all these modifications, we successfully measured the thermal conductivity of boron nanoribbons over a wide temperature range from 27 K to 740 K. The measured thermal conductivity increases monotonically with temperature and reaches a plateau of ~2.5 W m‑1 K‑1 at approximately 400 K, with no clear signature of Umklapp scattering observed in the whole measurement temperature range.

  1. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43...

  2. MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

    2006-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

  3. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  4. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  5. Tokamak Plasmas: Electron temperature $(T_ {e}) $ measurements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomson scattering technique based on high power laser has already proved its superoirity in measuring the electron temperature (e) and density (e) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. The method is a direct and unambiguous one, widely used for the localised and simultaneous measurements of the above ...

  6. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  7. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  8. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  9. On quantum interferometric measurements of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jarzyna, Marcin; Zwierz, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the quantum interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from the measurements of the optical phase. For the first time, we rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system prepared in a single-mode Gaussian state with a heated sample modeled as a dissipative thermal reservoir. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperatu...

  10. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using spectra obtained from the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) spectrograph on the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), we investigate the height dependence of electron density, temperature and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere. In particular, we present ...

  11. PIV as a temperature measurement tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2015-11-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV), a camera records time-lapse snapshot images of the positions of particles embedded in a fluid, which faithfully trace the flow path. Cross correlating sequential particle image pairs results in 2D maps of the particle displacement and velocity fields. Here, the same PIV method is extended to temperature measurements in viscoelastic material. The motivation originates in a need for tissue temperature measurements in hyperthermia therapies such as laser ablation eye surgery and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor ablation. Micron sized particles are embedded in an optically clear tissue mimicking phantom, illuminated with a laser sheet, and imaged with a CCD camera. When the phantom is subjected to heating from a focused ultrasound beam, the particles remain stationary, but not their spatial distribution in the recorded images. The images manifest particle displacements commensurate with alterations in the temperature distribution from heating. The underlying principle behind the thermometric capability of PIV is discussed. Temperature changes can be detected with high sensitivity, and the method works best with spatially localized temperature distributions.

  12. Borehole pressure and temperature measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, K.L.

    1990-12-11

    This patent describes apparatus for continuously measuring fluctuating pressure and temperature of a downhole fluid in a borehole at a desired depth. It comprises a tube positioned within the borehole; a housing suspended in the borehole at the desired depth from the tube; a pressurized test fluid source at the surface for initially pressuring the flow path in the tube and a portion of the chamber in the housing; a valve for selectively isolating fluid communications between the tube and the pressurized test fluid source; a thermocouple line including two dissimilar metal conductors; a manifold at the surface for sealing the selected fluid within the flow path; a pressure measuring device at the surface and in fluid communication; and a temperature measuring device at the surface for receiving the thermocouple line.

  13. Plasma temperature measurements in disruption simulated experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.I. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Bakhtin, V.P. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Toporkov, D.A. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Vasenin, S.G. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Wurz, H. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INR (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Results are reported of experiments to measure the temporal and spatial distributions of a temperature and radiation of a near surface plasma cloud appearing in the disruption simulated experiments. These measurements are needed to verificate the different numerical models of vapor shielding layer which appears to arise near the divertor plates surface and prevents them from the bulk of the incoming energy. Experiments with graphite and tungsten samples were carried out at the 2MK-200 plasma facility. Long CUSP trap was used as a source of high temperature deuterium plasma with a power density W = 10 MW/cm{sup 2} and time duration t = 20 mcs. Laser scattering, space and time resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy was employed to measure the plasma cloud temperature and radiation. The different behaviour of shielding layer parameters was shown for a graphite and tungsten samples. For a tungsten the sharp boundary existed between the incoming deuterium plasma and the thin layer of ablated material plasma and the strong gradient of electron temperature took place in this zone. For a graphite this boundary was broadened at the distance and the main part of the screening layer consisted of the mixture of the incoming deuterium and ablated carbon plasma. (orig.).

  14. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradere, C., E-mail: christophe.pradere@ensam.eu; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C. [I2M (Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie de Bordeaux) UMR CNRS 5295, TREFLE Department, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S. [LOMA UMR 5798: CNRS-UB1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2014-06-15

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10{sup −3} K{sup −1} versus 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  15. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, C.; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Pernot, G.; Palomo, E.; Dilhaire, S.; Batsale, J.-C.

    2014-06-01

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10-3 K-1 versus 10-5 K-1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  16. Temperature measurements during laser skin welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Choi, Bernard; Welch, Ashley J.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    A thermal camera was used to measure surface temperatures during laser skin welding to provide feedback for optimization of the laser parameters. Two-cm-long, full- thickness incisions were made in guinea pig skin. India ink was used as an absorber. Continuous-wave, 1.06-μm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing a pulse duration of approximately 100 ms. Cooling durations between scans of 1.6, 4.0, and 8.0 s were studied with total operation times of 3, 5, and 10 min, respectively. A laser spot diameter of 5 mm was used with the power constant at 10 W. Thermal images were obtained at 30 frames per second with a thermal camera detecting 3.5 micrometers radiation. Surface temperatures were recorded at 0, 1, and 6 mm from the center line of the incision. Cooling durations between scans of 1.6 s and 4.0 s in vitro resulted in temperatures at the weld site remaining above ~65°C for prolonged periods of time. Cooling durations between scans as long as 8.0 s were sufficient both in vitro and in vivo to prevent a significant rise in baseline temperatures at the weld site over time.

  17. The display of portable infrared measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

  18. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  19. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  20. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must be...

  1. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  2. Crowdsourcing urban air temperature measurements using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery temperature sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution air temperature estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. Temperature observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have temperature sensors to avoid damage to the phone.

  3. Noninvasive Measurement of Core Temperature. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topical Testing proposes the development of a noninvasive device to monitor core temperature by sampling the maximal temperature of the respiratory...air during expiration. Phase I development used a fast rise-time thermocouple to monitor the temperature of the expired air of an anesthetized animal

  4. High-temperature archeointensity measurements from Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Le Goff, Maxime

    2006-01-01

    We present new archeointensity results obtained from 127 potsherds and baked brick fragments dated from the last four millennia BC which were collected from different Syrian archeological excavations. High temperature magnetization measurements were carried out using a laboratory-built triaxial vibrating sample magnetometer (Triaxe), and ancient field intensity determinations were derived from the experimental procedure described by Le Goff and Gallet [Le Goff and Gallet. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 229 (2004) 31-43]. As some of the studied samples were previously analyzed using the classical Thellier and Thellier [Thellier and Thellier . Ann. Geophys. 15 (1959) 285-376] method revised by Coe [Coe. J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262], a comparison of the results is made from the two methods. The differences both at the fragment and site levels are mostly within ± 5%, which strengthens the validity of the experimental procedure developed for the Triaxe. The new data help to better constrain the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Mesopotamia during archeological times, with the probable occurrence of an archeomagnetic jerk around 2800-2600 BC.

  5. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C. ...

  6. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made either...

  7. A possible temperature measurement model for fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaoling; Zhang, Pu; Mao, Wenping; Liu, Wenzhong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, an improved temperature measuring model for fuel cell temperature measurement is proposed based on the existed nanothermometer model, which is regarded as traditional temperature measuring model. With more realistic cases taken into consideration, the results of the improved model are more practical and accurate compared with the traditional one. Limited by the existed experimental conditions, this paper emphases on simulating the different conditions of the temperature distribution inside SOFC. As a result, the experiments are carried out with similar temperature distribution but under relatively lower temperatures, which can come to similar conclusions as by simulation.

  8. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70° F. ...

  9. [Investigating relationships among five temperature measurement sites in newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chien; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Lin, Chia-Chi; Wu, Wei-Wen

    2013-04-01

    Environmental conditions can easily affect the body temperature of newborns because their central nervous system, which helps maintain body temperature, has not yet fully developed. Monitoring changes in newborn body temperature can help prevent harm caused by abnormally high and low body temperatures. Taking rectal temperature readings is the most reliable way to obtain core temperature. However, because inserting a thermometer into a newborn's rectum may cause discomfort and present health risks, this temperature-taking approach is no longer used in clinical settings. The axillary temperature readings now used, including ear and back temperature, have not been empirically verified to accurately reflect core body temperature. Convenient-to-use electronic thermometers have replaced traditional mercury thermometers in the clinic. However, nearly all research done until recent years has employed mercury thermometers for temperature measurement, there is a paucity of research employing electronic thermometers. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships among five temperature measurement sites (including tympanic temperature, rectal temperature, axillary temperature, and back temperature) in newborns. This study used a descriptive-correlation design, employed convenience sampling, and collected data from August 2010 to February 2011 at a registered postpartum nursing home in Taipei. Thirty-three babies aged from 1 to 28 days old were recruited. MT-200 electronic thermometers were utilized to take back, axillary, and rectal temperature readings and an IRT4520 ear thermometer was used to take ear temperature readings. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS18.0 statistical software for descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, generalized estimation equations (GEE), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We identified the least difference between right tympanic temperature and rectal temperature' a significant relationship between left tympanic

  10. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Pu

    2016-05-01

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  11. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Pu [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Wenzhong, E-mail: lwz7410@hust.edu.cn [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  12. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark...... and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good...

  13. Temperature Measurement and Numerical Prediction in Machining Inconel 718.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Álvarez, José; Tapetado, Alberto; Vázquez, Carmen; Miguélez, Henar

    2017-06-30

    Thermal issues are critical when machining Ni-based superalloy components designed for high temperature applications. The low thermal conductivity and extreme strain hardening of this family of materials results in elevated temperatures around the cutting area. This elevated temperature could lead to machining-induced damage such as phase changes and residual stresses, resulting in reduced service life of the component. Measurement of temperature during machining is crucial in order to control the cutting process, avoiding workpiece damage. On the other hand, the development of predictive tools based on numerical models helps in the definition of machining processes and the obtainment of difficult to measure parameters such as the penetration of the heated layer. However, the validation of numerical models strongly depends on the accurate measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, ensuring the calibration of the model. This paper focuses on the measurement and prediction of temperature during the machining of Ni-based superalloys. The temperature sensor was based on a fiber-optic two-color pyrometer developed for localized temperature measurements in turning of Inconel 718. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature in the range of 250 to 1200 °C. Temperature evolution is recorded in a lathe at different feed rates and cutting speeds. Measurements were used to calibrate a simplified numerical model for prediction of temperature fields during turning.

  14. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the...

  15. Radiation Thermometry—Sources of Uncertainty During Contactless Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Denise; Schumann, T.; Skorupa, W.; Lerch, W.; Gelpey, J.

    Short Time Annealing on a microsecond to nanosecond scale presents new challenges to temperature measurement. Pyrometers are widely used owing to their commercial availability, short response time, easy handling and contactless operation. However, they hold a source for considerable measurement errors. False readings are easily gained producing large errors during temperature measurement.

  16. Cryogenic temperature measurement for large applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylöstalo, J; Kyynäräinen, J; Niinikoski, T O; Voutilainen, R

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a resistance thermometry system for the acquisition, control and monitoring of temperature in large-scale cryogenic applications. The resistance of the sensor is converted to a voltage using a self-balancing AC bridge circuit featuring square-wave excitation currents down to 1 nA. The system is easily scalable and includes intelligent features to treat special situations such as magnet quenches differently from normal operation.

  17. Temperature measurements via narrow line laser absorption of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, M.S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Theoretical development for temperature measurements via narrow line, infrared absorption of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is presented. The proposed technique is based on rapid-scanning of two adjacent absorption line shapes. Spectroscopic considerations for sensitivity to temperature measurements are discussed. Several line pairs are evaluated, and the R(58) and R(60) transitions of the (00{sup 0}1){l_arrow}(00{sup 0}0) band are suggested for use in high temperature measurements for combustion systems.

  18. [Welding arc temperature field measurements based on Boltzmann spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Hong; Hua, Xue-Ming; Zhang, Wang; Li, Fang; Xiao, Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Arc plasma, as non-uniform plasma, has complicated energy and mass transport processes in its internal, so plasma temperature measurement is of great significance. Compared with absolute spectral line intensity method and standard temperature method, Boltzmann plot measuring is more accurate and convenient. Based on the Boltzmann theory, the present paper calculates the temperature distribution of the plasma and analyzes the principle of lines selection by real time scanning the space of the TIG are measurements.

  19. Temperature Measurement of a Glass Material Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Temperature measurement of a substance that is transparent using the traditional 1-color, 2-color and other pyrometers has been difficult. The radiation detected by pyrometers do not come from a well defined location in the transparent body. The multiwavelength pyrometer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center can measure the surface temperature of many materials. We show in this paper that it also measures the surface and a bulk subsurface temperature of transparent materials like glass.

  20. Measurement and correlation of jet fuel viscosities at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schruben, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and procedures were developed to measure jet fuel viscosity for eight current and future jet fuels at temperatures from ambient to near -60 C by shear viscometry. Viscosity data showed good reproducibility even at temperatures a few degrees below the measured freezing point. The viscosity-temperature relationship could be correlated by two linear segments when plotted as a standard log-log type representation (ASTM D 341). At high temperatures, the viscosity-temperature slope is low. At low temperatures, where wax precipitation is significant, the slope is higher. The breakpoint between temperature regions is the filter flow temperature, a fuel characteristic approximated by the freezing point. A generalization of the representation for the eight experimental fuels provided a predictive correlation for low-temperature viscosity, considered sufficiently accurate for many design or performance calculations.

  1. A method for accurate temperature measurement using infrared thermal camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Narushima, Takashi; Yonezawa, Tetsu; Sudo, Takayuki; Okubo, Shuichi; Komatsubara, Shigeyuki; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2012-08-01

    The temperature distribution on a centre-holed thin foil of molybdenum, used as a sample and heated using a sample-heating holder for electron microscopy, was measured using an infrared thermal camera. The temperature on the heated foil area located near the heating stage of the heating holder is almost equal to the temperature on the heating stage. However, during the measurement of the temperature at the edge of the hole of the foil located farthest from the heating stage, a drop in temperature should be taken into consideration; however, so far, no method has been developed to locally measure the temperature distribution on the heated sample. In this study, a method for the accurate measurement of temperature distribution on heated samples for electron microscopy is discussed.

  2. High Precision Infrared Temperature Measurement System Based on Distance Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the need of real-time remote monitoring of human body surface temperature for optical rehabilitation therapy, a non-contact high-precision real-time temperature measurement method based on distance compensation was proposed, and the system design was carried out. The microcontroller controls the infrared temperature measurement module and the laser range module to collect temperature and distance data. The compensation formula of temperature with distance wass fitted according to the least square method. Testing had been performed on different individuals to verify the accuracy of the system. The results indicate that the designed non-contact infrared temperature measurement system has a residual error of less than 0.2°C and the response time isless than 0.1s in the range of 0 to 60cm. This provides a reference for developing long-distance temperature measurement equipment in optical rehabilitation therapy.

  3. Air Temperature Measurements Using Dantec Draught Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    This technical report is written based on investigations of Dantec measurement equipment used in a master thesis project by the authors in the period September 2014 to June 2015 (Kristensen & Jensen, 2015).......This technical report is written based on investigations of Dantec measurement equipment used in a master thesis project by the authors in the period September 2014 to June 2015 (Kristensen & Jensen, 2015)....

  4. Pirani pressure sensor with distributed temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.; Bula, W.P.; Zalewski, D.R.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2003-01-01

    Surface micro-machined distributed Pirani pressure gauges, with designed heater-to-heat sink distances (gap-heights) of 0.35 μm and 1.10 μm, are successfully fabricated, modeled and characterized. Measurements and model response correspond within 5% of the measured value in a pressure range of 10 to

  5. An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyskens, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the application of an integrated-circuit (IC) chip which provides an easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, computer-interfaceable temperature sensor for calorimetry and differential temperature measurement. Discusses its design and advantages. (JRH)

  6. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  7. Autonomous System for MISSE Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, G. A.; Lash, T. J.; Kinard, W. H.; Bull, K.; deGeest, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is scheduled to be deployed during the summer of 2001. This experiment is a cooperative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, NASA-GRC, NASA MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials.

  8. Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    1999-01-01

    The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.

  9. Multi-spectral pyrometer for gas turbine blade temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi

    2014-09-01

    To achieve the highest possible turbine inlet temperature requires to accurately measuring the turbine blade temperature. If the temperature of blade frequent beyond the design limits, it will seriously reduce the service life. The problem for the accuracy of the temperature measurement includes the value of the target surface emissivity is unknown and the emissivity model is variability and the thermal radiation of the high temperature environment. In this paper, the multi-spectral pyrometer is designed provided mainly for range 500-1000°, and present a model corrected in terms of the error due to the reflected radiation only base on the turbine geometry and the physical properties of the material. Under different working conditions, the method can reduce the measurement error from the reflect radiation of vanes, make measurement closer to the actual temperature of the blade and calculating the corresponding model through genetic algorithm. The experiment shows that this method has higher accuracy measurements.

  10. Measurement of magnetic properties at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This picture shows part of the low-mu permeameter to measure permeability of stainless steels and other low-mu materials used in superconducting magnets. The sample, a 5 mm diam., 45 mm long rod, is suspended to long leads before being inserted in the test cryostat. For the measurement the sample is surrounded by a flux- measuring coil and placed in the field of a superconducting solenoid. At a given field the sample is removed.During the removal, the voltage induced in the flux-measuring coil is time integrated giving the flux variation. This equipment was developed to select stainless steels and other low-mu materials used in the ISR Prototype Superconducting Qaudrupole. The person is W.Ansorge.

  11. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2017-01-01

    Key Points Rectal probing is subject to procedural bias. This method is suitable for first-line phenotyping, provided probe depth and measurement duration are standardized. It is also useful for detecting individuals with out-of-range body temperatures (during hypothermia, torpor).The colonic temperature attained by inserting the probe >2 cm deep is a measure of deep (core) body temperature.IR imaging of the skin is useful for detecting heat leaks and autonomous thermoregulatory alterations, but it does not measure body temperature.Temperature of the hairy or shaved skin covering the inter-scapular brown adipose tissue can be used as a measure of BAT thermogenesis. However, obtaining such measurements of sufficient quality is very difficult, and interpreting them can be tricky. Temperature differences between the inter-scapular and lumbar areas can be a better measure of the thermogenic activity of inter-scapular brown adipose tissue.Implanted probes for precise determination of BAT temperature (changes) should be fixed close to the Sulzer's vein. For measurement of BAT thermogenesis, core body temperature and BAT temperature should be recorded simultaneously.Tail temperature is suitable to compare the presence or absence of vasoconstriction or vasodilation.Continuous, longitudinal monitoring of core body temperature is preferred over single probing, as the readings are taken in a non-invasive, physiological context.Combining core body temperature measurements with metabolic rate measurements yields insights into the interplay between heat production and heat loss (thermal conductance), potentially revealing novel thermoregulatory phenotypes. Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from

  12. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2009-01-01

    ... (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However, the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and Tint measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Methods: Eight volunteers...

  13. Non-invasive body temperature measurement of wild chimpanzees using fecal temperature decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Siv Aina; Mundry, Roger; Nunn, Charles L; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2009-04-01

    New methods are required to increase our understanding of pathologic processes in wild mammals. We developed a noninvasive field method to estimate the body temperature of wild living chimpanzees habituated to humans, based on statistically fitting temperature decline of feces after defecation. The method was established with the use of control measures of human rectal temperature and subsequent changes in fecal temperature over time. The method was then applied to temperature data collected from wild chimpanzee feces. In humans, we found good correspondence between the temperature estimated by the method and the actual rectal temperature that was measured (maximum deviation 0.22 C). The method was successfully applied and the average estimated temperature of the chimpanzees was 37.2 C. This simple-to-use field method reliably estimates the body temperature of wild chimpanzees and probably also other large mammals.

  14. Thermistor holder for skin-temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sensing head of thermistor probe is supported in center area of plastic ring which has tabs so that it can be anchored in place by rubber bands or adhesive tapes. Device attaches probes to human subjects practically, reliably, and without affecting characteristics of skin segment being measured.

  15. Thermocouple design for measuring temperatures of small insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.A. Hanson; R.C. Venette

    2013-01-01

    Contact thermocouples often are used to measure surface body temperature changes of insects during cold exposure. However, small temperature changes of minute insects can be difficult to detect, particularly during the measurement of supercooling points. We developed two thermocouple designs, which use 0.51 mm diameter or 0.127 mm diameter copper-constantan wires, to...

  16. Three-wavelength pyrometer for measuring flame temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashdollar, K L

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes a pyrometer that measures the continuum radiation from particles in a flame or explosion at three wavelengths (0.8 microm, 0.9 microm, and 1.0 microm). The particle temperature is calculated from the radiation data using the Planck equation. Temperatures measured for coal dust explosions in a closed vessel are presented.

  17. Temperature measurements of natural surfaces using infrared radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D

    1968-09-01

    The radiometric method for surface temperature measurements in meteorology and its airborne use are discussed, with emphasis on possible errors of this method. These are caused by the air layer between radiometer and target, by the nonblackbody characteristic, and by the nonuniformity of natural surfaces. Methods for correcting and reducing these errors are described. Examples of airborne surface temperature measurements are presented.

  18. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for automotive battery stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Radoslaw; Wojtkowski, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    A multi-channel temperature measurement system for monitoring of automotive battery stack is presented in the paper. The presented system is a complete battery temperature measuring system for hybrid / electric vehicles that incorporates multi-channel temperature measurements with digital temperature sensors communicating through 1-Wire buses, individual 1-Wire bus for each sensor for parallel computing (parallel measurements instead of sequential), FPGA device which collects data from sensors and translates it for CAN bus frames. CAN bus is incorporated for communication with car Battery Management System and uses additional CAN bus controller which communicates with FPGA device through SPI bus. The described system can parallel measure up to 12 temperatures but can be easily extended in the future in case of additional needs. The structure of the system as well as particular devices are described in the paper. Selected results of experimental investigations which show proper operation of the system are presented as well.

  20. Temperature lags of luminescence measurements in a commercial luminescence reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, George [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kiyak, Nafiye G. [ISIK University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Department, Sile, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Polymeris, George S., E-mail: gspolymeris@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beşevler, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The temperature recorded in thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence equipments is not the temperature of the sample but that of the heating element on which the thermocouple is attached. Depending upon the rate of heating, a temperature difference appears between the samples and the heating element, termed as temperature lag, which could have serious effects on the curve shapes and trapping parameters. In the present work the temperature lag effect is studied in a newly developed luminescence equipment measuring both thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. It is found that the temperature lag could be large for heating rates above 2 K/s and it is strongly dependent upon the sample holder. A simple approximation method is proposed in order to both predict as well as correct for temperature lag effects in luminescence measurements.

  1. Surveying Temperature and Density Measurements in Nuclear Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, G.; Bassini, R.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Fritz, S.; Groß, C.; Immè, G.; Iori, I.; Lynen, U.; Mahi, M.; Möhlenkamp, T.; Müller, W. F. J.; Ocker, B.; Odeh, T.; Pochodzalla, J.; Riccobene, G.; Romano, F. P.; Saija, A.; Schwarz, C.; Serfling, V.; Schnittker, M.; Schüttauf, A.; Seidel, W.; Sfienti, C.; Trautmann, W.; Trzclnski, A.; Verde, G.; Xi, Hongfei; Zwieglinski, B.

    2001-11-01

    An experimental investigation on thermodynamical observables characterizing the conditions of multifragmenting systems is reported. High granularity hodoscopes allowed simultaneous measurements of isotopic and emission temperatures. HBT interferometry with light charged particles allowed radii measurements. The disagreement between the two temperature measurements could be related to the space-time evolution of the fragmentation process as confirmed by density measurements. The slope temperatures derived from the target spectator decay fragment energy spectra suggest a dependence on the Fermi motion within the initial system. The dependence of the Nuclear Caloric Curve on the mass of the systems was probed.

  2. Multispectral pyrometry for surface temperature measurement of oxidized Zircaloy claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvry, B.; Cheymol, G.; Ramiandrisoa, L.; Javaudin, B.; Gallou, C.; Maskrot, H.; Horny, N.; Duvaut, T.; Destouches, C.; Ferry, L.; Gonnier, C.

    2017-06-01

    Non-contact temperature measurement in a nuclear reactor is still a huge challenge because of the numerous constraints to consider, such as the high temperature, the steam atmosphere, and irradiation. A device is currently developed at CEA to study the nuclear fuel claddings behavior during a Loss-of-Coolant Accident. As a first step of development, we designed and tested an optical pyrometry procedure to measure the surface temperature of nuclear fuel claddings without any contact, under air, in the temperature range 700-850 °C. The temperature of Zircaloy-4 cladding samples was retrieved at various temperature levels. We used Multispectral Radiation Thermometry with the hypothesis of a constant emissivity profile in the spectral ranges 1-1.3 μm and 1.45-1.6 μm. To allow for comparisons, a reference temperature was provided by a thermocouple welded on the cladding surface. Because of thermal losses induced by the presence of the thermocouple, a heat transfer simulation was also performed to estimate the bias. We found a good agreement between the pyrometry measurement and the temperature reference, validating the constant emissivity profile hypothesis used in the MRT estimation. The expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) of the temperature obtained by the pyrometry method was ±4 °C, for temperatures between 700 and 850 °C. Emissivity values, between 0.86 and 0.91 were obtained.

  3. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, M. Nance

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.

  4. Application of Phosphor Thermometry to a Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.; Allison, S.W.; Andrews, W.H.; Cates, M.R.; Grann, E.B.; Manges, W.W.; McIntyre, T.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Simpson, M.L.; Childs, R.M.; Vehec, J.; Zhang, L.

    1999-06-01

    The Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System (GTMS) was developed for the American Iron and Steel Institute by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through a partnership with the National Steel Midwest Division in Portage, Indiana. The GTMS provides crucial on-line thermal process control information during the manufacturing of galvanneal steel. The system has been used with the induction furnaces to measure temperatures ranging from 840 to 1292 F with an accuracy of better than {+-}9 F. The GTMS provides accurate, reliable temperature information thus ensuring a high quality product, reducing waste, and saving energy. The production of uniform, high-quality galvanneal steel is only possible through strict temperature control.

  5. Subsurface temperatures in Denmark – measurements and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, N.; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Bording, Thue Sylvester

    Information of subsurface temperature distribution in the Danish area originates from direct measurements in boreholes and from indirect theoretical modelling. “Point observations” of varying quality are available as industrially measured “Bottom Hole Temperatures” from deep exploration boreholes......, and accurate continuous equilibrium temperature logging has been carried out in a number of accessible deep boreholes. A regional distribution of subsurface temperatures is obtained by combining measurements and 3D numerical modelling in which the heat equation is solved. Modelling results are constrained...

  6. Thermoacoustic measurement of the temperature during microwave thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da; Nie, Liming

    2009-08-01

    Microwave thermotherapy (MT) has been an important treatment in oncology. The measurement of temperature during microwave thermotherapy is vital to ensure the safety of normal tissues. Thermoacoustic signals induced are temperature dependent. This phenomenon demonstrates that the thermal parameters are closely related to the generation of thermoacoustic pressure. Here we present the studies on pulsed microwave-induced thermoacoustic signals toward temperature monitoring of tissue thermotherapy. A high power pulsed microwave was used as thermoacoustic excitation source and heating source simultaneously, thermoacoustic pressure was captured by a multi-element linear transducer array. Excellent agreement was obtained between the inversion calculation results and the actual measurement temperature. The results suggest that thermoacoustic signals can be used to monitor thermotherapy temperature, and has the potential of reconstruct the temperature distribution by filter back-projection algorithm. This method has a great potential to develop into an integrated system for pulsed microwave thermotherapy and curative effect monitoring.

  7. The realization of temperature controller for small resistance measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobecki, Jakub; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Idzkowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    This paper concerns the issues of construction and experimental tests of a temperature stabilization system for small resistance increments measurement circuits. After switching the system on, a PCB board heats up and the long-term temperature drift altered the measurement result. The aim of this work is reducing the time of achieving constant nominal temperature by the measurement system, which would enable decreasing the time of measurements in the steady state. Moreover, the influence of temperatures higher than the nominal on the measurement results and the obtained heating curve were tested. During the working process, the circuit heats up to about 32 °C spontaneously, and it has the time to reach steady state of about 1200 s. Implementing a USART terminal on the PC and an NI USB-6341 data acquisition card makes recording the data (concerning temperature and resistance) in the digital form and its further processing easier. It also enables changing the quantity of the regulator settings. This paper presents sample results of measurements for several temperature values and the characteristics of the temperature and resistance changes in time as well as their comparison with the output values. The object identification is accomplished due to the Ziegler-Nichols method. The algorithm of determining the step characteristics parameters and examples of computations of the regulator settings are included together with example characteristics of the object regulation.

  8. Technology and education: First approach for measuring temperature with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    This poster session presents some ideas and approaches to understand concepts of thermal equilibrium, temperature and heat in order to bulid a man-nature relationship in a harmonious and responsible manner, emphasizing the interaction between science and technology, without neglecting the relationship of the environment and society, an approach to sustainability. It is proposed the development of practices that involve the use of modern technology, of easy access and low cost to measure temperature. We believe that the Arduino microcontroller and some temperature sensors can open the doors of innovation to carry out such practices. In this work we present some results of simple practices presented to a population of students between the ages of 16 and 17 years old. The practices in this proposal are: Zero law of thermodynamics and the concept of temperature, calibration of thermometers and measurement of temperature for heating and cooling of three different substances under the same physical conditions. Finally the student is asked to make an application that involves measuring of temperature and other physical parameters. Some suggestions are: to determine the temperature at which we take some food, measure the temperature difference at different rooms of a house, housing constructions that favour optimal condition, measure the temperature of different regions, measure of temperature trough different colour filters, solar activity and UV, propose applications to understand current problems such as global warming, etc. It is concluded that the Arduino practices and electrical sensors increase the cultural horizon of the students while awaking their interest to understand their operation, basic physics and its application from a modern perspective.

  9. Acoustic method for measuring air temperature and humidity in rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanev, N. G.

    2014-05-01

    A method is proposed to determine air temperature and humidity in rooms with a system of sound sources and receivers, making it possible to find the sound velocity and reverberation time. Nomograms for determining the air temperature and relative air humidity are constructed from the found sound velocity and time reverberation values. The required accuracy of measuring these parameters is estimated.

  10. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  11. High temperature thermographic measurements of laser heated silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhadj, S; Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Cooke, D J; Bude, J D; Johnson, M; Feit, M; Draggoo, V; Bisson, S E

    2009-11-02

    In situ spatial and temporal surface temperature profiles of CO{sub 2} laser-heated silica were obtained using a long wave infrared (LWIR) HgCdTe camera. Solutions to the linear diffusion equation with volumetric and surface heating are shown to describe the temperature evolution for a range of beam powers, over which the peak surface temperature scales linearly with power. These solutions were used with on-axis steady state and transient experimental temperatures to extract thermal diffusivity and conductivity for a variety of materials, including silica, spinel, sapphire, and lithium fluoride. Experimentally-derived thermal properties agreed well with reported values and, for silica, thermal conductivity and diffusivity are shown to be approximately independent of temperature between 300 and 2800K. While for silica our analysis based on a temperature independent thermal conductivity is shown to be accurate, for other materials studied this treatment yields effective thermal properties that represent reasonable approximations for laser heating. Implementation of a single-wavelength radiation measurement in the semi-transparent regime is generally discussed, and estimates of the apparent temperature deviation from the actual outer surface temperature are also presented. The experimental approach and the simple analysis presented yield surface temperature measurements that can be used to validate more complex physical models, help discriminate dominant heat transport mechanisms, and to predict temperature distribution and evolution during laser-based material processing.

  12. Bio-tissue temperature measuring for laser medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Fan, Shifu; Zhao, Youquan

    2006-06-01

    Temperature is an intuitionistic indicator of laser and tissue thermal interaction. It can be used as verification of theory prediction as well as online clinic indicator. Temperature measuring is an indispensable tool in laser and tissue photo-thermal theory research. A computer-assistant noninvasive or minimally invasive temperature measuring system, which can be used in laser medicine, was introduced. Combined infrared radiation thermometer and miniature thermocouple, the surface irradiating point and inner temperature can be monitored synchronously. This system has some necessary advantages for in vivo tissue temperature measuring. The infrared radiation thermometer temperature range is 0~200°C and 1mV/°C analog voltage output signal can be tntered to computer. Inside LED red light and aiming sound can assure the distance between thermometer and measuring point to be the focus distance of 25mm and measuring circle has the least diameter of 2.5mm. The mini K-thermocouples were made by ourselves, their temperature range is 25~500°C, the diameter of 0.4mm, and the response time is rapid up to 0.1s. They are convenient for precision orientation in the organisms. Multichannel temperature measuring can reduce the measurement error and be able for distribution measuring. Integrated temperature sensor LM35 and numerical computation is used to compensate the cold port temperature of the thermocouples. The numerical computation can also revise the nonlinearity error with the least squares method quintic polynomial fitting, which excels to the circuit method. Calibration results with glycerin and mercury thermometer showed the absolute error value is less than 0.45°C within 26-98°C. The real time temperatures of murine skin tissue irradiated by CO II and Nd:YAG laser were measured. Such a system is suitable to high precision, large range, minute point, rapid response and real time tissue temperature measuring in laser applications. The saved data can be used for

  13. Development of a multispectral sensor for crop canopy temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantifying spatial and temporal variability in plant stress has precision agriculture applications in controlling variable rate irrigation and variable rate nutrient application. One approach to plant stress detection is crop canopy temperature measurement by the use of thermographic or radiometric...

  14. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  15. High temperature spectral emissivity measurement using integral blackbody method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yijie; Dong, Wei; Lin, Hong; Yuan, Zundong; Bloembergen, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Spectral emissivity is a critical material's thermos-physical property for heat design and radiation thermometry. A prototype instrument based upon an integral blackbody method was developed to measure material's spectral emissivity above 1000 °. The system was implemented with an optimized commercial variable-high-temperature blackbody, a high speed linear actuator, a linear pyrometer, and an in-house designed synchronization circuit. A sample was placed in a crucible at the bottom of the blackbody furnace, by which the sample and the tube formed a simulated blackbody which had an effective total emissivity greater than 0.985. During the measurement, the sample was pushed to the end opening of the tube by a graphite rod which was actuated through a pneumatic cylinder. A linear pyrometer was used to monitor the brightness temperature of the sample surface through the measurement. The corresponding opto-converted voltage signal was fed and recorded by a digital multi-meter. A physical model was proposed to numerically evaluate the temperature drop along the process. Tube was discretized as several isothermal cylindrical rings, and the temperature profile of the tube was measurement. View factors between sample and rings were calculated and updated along the whole pushing process. The actual surface temperature of the sample at the end opening was obtained. Taking advantages of the above measured voltage profile and the calculated true temperature, spectral emissivity under this temperature point was calculated.

  16. Automated measurement of cattle surface temperature and its correlation with rectal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, HongXiang; Zhao, YiQiang; Ren, Kang; Chen, XiaoLi; Lu, YongQiang; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    The body temperature of cattle varies regularly with both the reproductive cycle and disease status. Establishing an automatic method for monitoring body temperature may facilitate better management of reproduction and disease control in cattle. Here, we developed an Automatic Measurement System for Cattle's Surface Temperature (AMSCST) to measure the temperature of metatarsus by attaching a special shell designed to fit the anatomy of cattle's hind leg. Using AMSCST, the surface temperature (ST) on the metatarsus of the hind leg was successively measured during 24 hours a day with an interval of one hour in three tested seasons. Based on ST and rectal temperature (RT) detected by AMSCST and mercury thermometer, respectively, a linear mixed model was established, regarding both the time point and seasonal factors as the fixed effects. Unary linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis results indicated that the temperatures measured by AMSCST were closely correlated to those measured by mercury thermometer (R2 = 0.998), suggesting that the AMSCST is an accurate and reliable way to detect cattle's body temperature. Statistical analysis showed that the differences of STs among the three seasons, or among the different time points were significant (P<0.05), and the differences of RTs among the different time points were similarly significant (P<0.05). The prediction accuracy of the mixed model was verified by 10-fold cross validation. The average difference between measured RT and predicted RT was about 0.10 ± 0.10°C with the association coefficient of 0.644, indicating the feasibility of this model in measuring cattle body temperature. Therefore, an automated technology for accurately measuring cattle body temperature was accomplished by inventing an optimal device and establishing the AMSCST system.

  17. Rocket plume temperature measurement by wire welded thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang

    2006-05-01

    The plume of solid rocket motor is a high velocity flow with high temperature. Temperature distribution in the plume is of great interest for analyzing the compatibility of rocket weapon system. The high temperature exhausted flow field would cause damage on certain equipment and loading vehicles. An instantaneous temperature field with sharp step is established by the exhausted flow field of rocket motor. The increasing rate of the step depends on the flow velocity at cross section of nozzle exit. To perform an accurate measurement of temperature inside the flow field, a thermocouple must be sturdy enough to endure the flow impingement. In the meantime, the thermocouple must have a short time constant to trace the temperature fluctuation in flow field and a small size to avoid disturbing the flow field severely. The dynamic performance of the thermocouples used in exhausted flow temperature measurement must be evaluated before the experiment. The thermocouple which can be used in measuring the temperature distribution in rocket plume was presented in this paper. A NAMNAC (R) self-renew-erode thermocouples with a nominal time constant of 10 microseconds was used as a reference in a dynamic calibration test for this kind of thermocouple. The thermocouple could trace the temperature increase in the exhausted flow perfectly. This kind of thermocouples was used in several real tests of rocket motors, such as the temperature in free exhausted flow field of a stationary rocket motor test, the stagnate temperature in a shock flow field during the launching of a rocket, and the temperature in a launch tube.

  18. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that sorption characteristics of building materials exhibit hysteresis in the way the equilibrium curves develop between adsorption and desorption, and that the sorption curves are also somewhat temperature dependent. However, these two facts are most often neglected in models...... measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...

  19. Brain temperature measurement: A study of in vitro accuracy and stability of smart catheter temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wu, Pei-Ming; Wu, Zhizhen; Ahn, Chong H; LeDoux, David; Shutter, Lori A; Hartings, Jed A; Narayan, Raj K

    2012-02-01

    The injured brain is vulnerable to increases in temperature after severe head injury. Therefore, accurate and reliable measurement of brain temperature is important to optimize patient outcome. In this work, we have fabricated, optimized and characterized temperature sensors for use with a micromachined smart catheter for multimodal intracranial monitoring. Developed temperature sensors have resistance of 100.79 ± 1.19Ω and sensitivity of 67.95 mV/°C in the operating range from15-50°C, and time constant of 180 ms. Under the optimized excitation current of 500 μA, adequate signal-to-noise ratio was achieved without causing self-heating, and changes in immersion depth did not introduce clinically significant errors of measurements (temperature sensors in comparison to two types of commercial temperature probes (USB Reference Thermometer, NIST-traceable bulk probe with 0.05°C accuracy; and IT-21, type T type clinical microprobe with guaranteed 0.1°C accuracy) under controlled laboratory conditions. These in vitro experimental data showed that the temperature measurement performance of our sensors was accurate and reliable over the course of 5 days. The smart catheter temperature sensors provided accuracy and long-term stability comparable to those of commercial tissue-implantable microprobes, and therefore provide a means for temperature measurement in a microfabricated, multimodal cerebral monitoring device.

  20. Non-contact true temperature measurements in the microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    The theory developed is shown to be capable of calculating true temperature of any material from radiance measurements at a number of different wavelengths. This theory was also shown to be capable of predicting the uncertainty in these calculated temperatures. An additional advantage of these techniques is that they can estimate the emissivity of the target simultaneously with the temperature. This aspect can prove to be very important when a fast method of generating reflectivity vs. wavelength or emissivity vs. wavelength data is required. Experiments performed on various materials over a range of temperatures and experimental conditions were used to verify the accuracy of this theory.

  1. Temperature measurement methods during direct heat arterial tissue fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezo, James D; Kramer, Eric; Taylor, Kenneth D; Ferguson, Virginia; Rentschler, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Fusion of biological tissues through direct and indirect heating is a growing area of medical research, yet there are still major gaps in understanding this procedure. Several companies have developed devices which fuse blood vessels, but little is known about the tissue's response to the stimuli. The need for accurate measurements of tissue behavior during tissue fusion is essential for the continued development and improvement of energy delivery devices. An experimental study was performed to measure the temperatures experienced during tissue fusion and the resulting burst pressure of the fused arteries. An array of thermocouples was placed in the lumen of a porcine splenic artery segment and sealed using a ConMed Altrus thermal fusion device. The temperatures within the tissue, in the device, and at the tissue-device interface were recorded. These measurements were then analyzed to calculate the temperature profile in the lumen of the artery. The temperature in the artery at the site of tissue fusion was measured to range from 142 to 163 °C using the ConMed Altrus. The corresponding burst pressure for arteries fused at this temperature was measured as 416 ± 79 mmHg. This study represents the first known experimental measurement of temperature at the site of vessel sealing found in the literature.

  2. Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Abhay; Stafford, Charles A.

    2016-10-01

    We show that a local measurement of temperature and voltage for a quantum system in steady state, arbitrarily far from equilibrium, with arbitrary interactions within the system, is unique when it exists. This is interpreted as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. We further derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution. In this regard, we find that a positive temperature solution exists whenever there is no net population inversion. However, when there is a net population inversion, we may characterize the system with a unique negative temperature. Voltage and temperature measurements are treated on an equal footing: They are simultaneously measured in a noninvasive manner, via a weakly coupled thermoelectric probe, defined by requiring vanishing charge and heat dissipation into the probe. Our results strongly suggest that a local temperature measurement without a simultaneous local voltage measurement, or vice versa, is a misleading characterization of the state of a nonequilibrium quantum electron system. These results provide a firm mathematical foundation for voltage and temperature measurements far from equilibrium.

  3. Ring to measure magnetic permeability at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    While for magn. permeability measurements at room temperature a split-coil permeameter is used (see photo 7708553X), for measurements at cryogenic temperatures the excitation and the flux-measuring coils are wound directly on the ring sample by means of a toroidal winding machine. The ring in the picture was made to select the mild steel for the ISR Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole(see photo 7702690X). The excitation coil was wound with 1 mm diam. copper wire and had about 2730 turns. For measurements at 4.2 K a max. current of 90 A was used. See also photos 7708553X,7708100,7708103.

  4. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J. M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-07-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01 % in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10{sup 6} for loss tangent values below 10{sup 2}, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99.9 % purity in the same temperature range are presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  5. Influence of temperature to quenching on liquid scintillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, T

    2003-01-01

    The amount of quench is measured with liquid scintillation spectrometer changing the temperature of the sample. The range of the changed temperature is between 0 deg C and 35 deg C. The measurement is carried out for three kinds of unquenched standard, two quenched standards and fifteen kinds of scintillation cocktail and the mixed sample. It is confirmed that the amount of quench increases for all samples as the temperature rises. The influence of the changed amount of quench to the quench correction is examined. (author)

  6. Cars temperature measurements in sooting, laminar diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, L. R.; Dobbs, G. M.

    1984-07-01

    Temperature distributions have been measured in axisymmetric ethylene-air diffusion flames using high spatial resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. As ethylene flow increased and the flame approached a smoke-point condition, the temperatures attained in the upper part of the flame were reduced by about 300K below the maximum radial temperatures low in the flame. Addition of diluent N2 to ethylene caused a reduction in temperature low in the flame but increased temperature higher in the flame. Maximum temperatures attained in all ethylene flames were between 0.84 and 0.89 of respective adiabatic flame temperatures (AFT). The upper temperature of the near-smoke-point flame was only 0.76 of AFT. Results are compared with the generalized flame front model of Mitchell. MIE scattering measurements are also discussed. Brief studies with propane and a nonsooting, CO flame are reported; maximum axial and radial temperatures were between 0.84 and 0.87 of AFT. Results indicate the importance of thermal loss from soot radiation, radial transport processes and fuel pyrolysis. Nonluminous radiation and finite reaction rates are other possible factors. The upper luminous part of the highly sooting ethylene flame is likely above the primary flame front and is a soot burnout zone.

  7. Body temperature measurements in pigs during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, G C; Costa, R S; Tuke, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to compare rectal, pharyngeal and oesophageal temperature measurements in anaesthetized pigs. Data were compared using the Bland-Altman method, and correlation coefficients and error measures were calculated. Sixty-six sets of data were collected from 16 pigs weighing 16.2 ± 4.2 kg. The bias (and 95% limit of agreement) for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.69 (-1.18 to 2.57) ℃ and 0.22 (-0.84 to 1.28) ℃, respectively. The correlation coefficients for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature were 0.47 and 0.87, respectively. The absolute error for rectal and pharyngeal compared with oesophageal temperature was 0.7 ± 0.9℃ and 0.2 ± 0.5℃, respectively. Pharyngeal temperature measurement may be more suitable than rectal temperature measurement for estimation of oesophageal temperature during general anaesthesia of pigs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Noncontact temperature measurement. II. Least squares based techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.

    1991-02-01

    A technique for the noncontact measurement of temperatures is described. The technique is based on the measurement of the emitted intensity at multiple wavelengths and the simultaneous calculation of emissivity and temperature through the use of least squares curve fitting techniques. The technique is shown to make no assumptions regarding the emissivity of the target except that it be possible to model it with an analytic function. A theory is developed to predict the errors in the estimation of temperatures based on both linear and nonlinear least-squares techniques. It is shown that the maximum error in the predicted temperature is related to the noise in the measured intensities in a quantifiable manner. It is shown using computer simulations that the theory and algorithms developed here can predict both the temperatures and the uncertainty associated with each temperature prediction with a very high accuracy. An instrument was developed to test this theory. This instrument, referred to as the MITTMA, was used to measure absolute temperatures of various sources from 900 °C to 2300 °C with an average accuracy of approximately 0.5%.

  9. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological va...

  10. Temperature retrievals from satellite radiance measurements - An empirical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, S.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using satellite measurements to interpolate vertical temperature soundings between radiosonde stations. The calculations presented show that especially in the 1000-800 mb layer, where linear methods of temperature retrieval usually contain large errors, the proposed method reduces the errors substantially. The method finds a set of coefficients, which when multiplied by corresponding measured radiance quantities, yield zero temperature error at a radiosonde station. This derived set of coefficients is then applied to satellite radiance measurements at places between the radiosonde stations. The computations show, for example, that the average absolute error in the layer 1000-800 mb is only 0.3 K when the corresponding 'minimum-information' method error was 2.9 K. The method may be most applicable to measurements from geostationary satellites, but should also be applicable to measurements from polar orbiting satellites under certain conditions.

  11. Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This 2nd edition volume of Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements follows the first publication in 1992. It collects a much larger set of information, reference data, and bibliography in temperature and pressure metrology of gaseous substances, including the physical-chemical issues related to gaseous substances. The book provides solutions to practical applications where gases are used in different thermodynamic conditions. Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements, 2nd edition is the only comprehensive survey of methods for pressure measurement in gaseous media used in the medium-to-low pressure range closely connected with thermometry. It assembles current information on thermometry and manometry that involve the use of gaseous substances which are likely to be valid methods for the future. As such, it is an important resource for the researcher. This edition is updated through the very latest scientific and technical developments of gas-based temperature and pressure measurem...

  12. Influence of temperature changes on ambient air NOx chemiluminescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñarro, Marta Doval; Ferradás, Enrique González; Martínez, Francisco J Marzal

    2012-09-01

    Users of automatic air pollution monitors are largely unaware of how certain parameters, like temperature, can affect readings. The present work examines the influence of temperature changes on chemiluminescence NO(x) measurements made with a Thermo Scientific 42i analyzer, a model widely used in air monitoring networks and air pollution studies. These changes are grouped into two categories according to European Standard EN 14211: (1) changes in the air surrounding the analyzers and (2) changes in the sampled air. First, the sensitivity tests described in Standard EN 14211 were performed to determine whether the analyzer performance was adapted to the requirements of the standard. The analyzer met the performance criteria of both tests; however, some differences were detected in readings with temperature changes even though the temperature compensator was on. Sample temperature changes were studied more deeply as they were the most critical (they cannot be controlled and differences of several tens of degrees can be present in a single day). Significant differences in readings were obtained when changing sample temperature; however, maximum deviations were around 3% for temperature ranges of 15°C. If other possible uncertainty contributions are controlled and temperature variations with respect to the calibration temperature are not higher than 15°C, the effect of temperature changes could be acceptable and no data correction should have to be applied.

  13. Main limitations in infrared temperature measurement of train hot points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca Meca, Francisco J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mazo Quintas, Manuel; Jimenez Calvo, Jose A.; Lillo Rodriguez, Diego; Ramos Sainz, Pablo

    2000-06-01

    Nowadays, in order to guarantee the security in passenger and goods railway transport, fixed systems located in rails are used to measure axles, wheels and brake discs temperatures during train circulation so that abnormally high temperatures as a result of a malfunction can be detected. Measurement systems in this kind of application may be affected by different uncertainty sources, characteristic of infrared temperature measurements, which limit the accuracy of the estimated measurement. Uncertainty sources are specially important in these applications due to: (1) Extremely variable emissivity as a result of stain or different paints used on the surfaces. (2) Difficult evaluation of the environment's radiation as measurements are made outdoors. (3) Alarm temperatures are only about 40 degrees Celsius to 80 degrees Celsius above the environment temperature. The paper analyses the effects of these uncertainties. The results show that, in order to get the minimum uncertainty peaks in the estimated temperature, the proper duty waveband is 3 - 5 micrometer. They also show that, with a proper choice of the wavelength, the uncertainty due to solar radiation remains masked by the uncertainty due to the lens emissivity.

  14. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Hampel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other temperature field measurement approaches such as infrared cameras is that the object under investigation can be thermally insulated and the radiation properties of the surface do not affect the measurement accuracy. The sensor principle is therefore suited for various industrial monitoring applications. Its applicability for surface temperature monitoring has been demonstrated through heating and mixing experiments in a vessel.

  15. Temperature grid sensor for the measurement of spatial temperature distributions at object surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Schubert, Markus; Hampel, Uwe

    2013-01-25

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other temperature field measurement approaches such as infrared cameras is that the object under investigation can be thermally insulated and the radiation properties of the surface do not affect the measurement accuracy. The sensor principle is therefore suited for various industrial monitoring applications. Its applicability for surface temperature monitoring has been demonstrated through heating and mixing experiments in a vessel.

  16. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  17. Soil moisture content estimation from passive temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Landon JS; Roshan, Hamid; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Andersen, Martin S.; Acworth, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Natural temperature variations have increasingly been used to study shallow groundwater; however, the vast majority of studies are limited to saturated conditions. Despite the greater complexity of the unsaturated zone due to the non-linear relationships between moisture content and other physical properties (such as effective thermal conductivity and heat capacity), estimating soil moisture from measurements of natural temperature variations is possible. We have developed fundamental relationships between soil moisture and the diel temperature amplitude ratio and phase-shift. Additionally, we have developed fully coupled thermodynamic and hydraulic finite element (FE) models of temperature and soil moisture response to various boundary conditions. The performance of novel inversion techniques based on existing empirical thermal conductivity models has been evaluated with these results. Two significant empirical models of thermal conductivity of unsaturated sediments were integrated into the approach and compared. We performed a sensitivity analysis of our soil moisture model and determined the feasibility of deriving moisture estimates from temperature data by analysing the required measurement precision for the involved parameters. Inversion of the temperature output from the FE models demonstrates the factors, such as homogeneity and rapidly changing boundary conditions, which may limit the performance of unsaturated zone heat tracing, as well as the benefits of the approach. The use of heat to determine soil moisture content offers the advantages of lower cost; applicability to zones of high pore-water salinity, where inductive electromagnetic measurement methods fail; and the option of high spatial resolution or wide coverage when combined with fibre optic temperature sensing.

  18. Comparison of two methods for contactless surface temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka, Magdalena; Michalski, Dariusz; Strąk, Kinga

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine the temperature filed of the heating surface on the basis of temperature measurements taken by liquid crystal thermography and infrared thermography applied in boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 flow in minichannels, and to compare them. The essential part of the experimental stand is the test section with two parallel rectangular minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. It is possible to observe the channel surfaces through panes: of the first minichannel allows observing foil temperature changes on the plain side due to liquid crystal thermography (LCT), which required treating the foil surface with thermochromic liquid crystals, of the other minichannel enables detecting outer glass or foil surface temperature changes due to infrared thermography (IRT). Comparison of the results of the measurements are presented in graphical form as thermographs and as heating surface temperature vs. minichannel length. The differences between two sets of measurement data concerning the temperature of the heating surface obtained with LCT and IRT, were analyzed using: Pearson linear correlation coefficient, determination coefficient, Experimental Method Error and Method Accuracy. The comparative data analysis shows that similar values and distributions of the surface temperature were obtained from both techniques.

  19. Comparison of two methods for contactless surface temperature measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine the temperature filed of the heating surface on the basis of temperature measurements taken by liquid crystal thermography and infrared thermography applied in boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 flow in minichannels, and to compare them. The essential part of the experimental stand is the test section with two parallel rectangular minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. It is possible to observe the channel surfaces through panes: of the first minichannel allows observing foil temperature changes on the plain side due to liquid crystal thermography (LCT, which required treating the foil surface with thermochromic liquid crystals, of the other minichannel enables detecting outer glass or foil surface temperature changes due to infrared thermography (IRT. Comparison of the results of the measurements are presented in graphical form as thermographs and as heating surface temperature vs. minichannel length. The differences between two sets of measurement data concerning the temperature of the heating surface obtained with LCT and IRT, were analyzed using: Pearson linear correlation coefficient, determination coefficient, Experimental Method Error and Method Accuracy. The comparative data analysis shows that similar values and distributions of the surface temperature were obtained from both techniques.

  20. Temperature Grid Sensor for the Measurement of Spatial Temperature Distributions at Object Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Hampel; Thomas Schäfer; Markus Schubert

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results of the development and application of a new temperature grid sensor based on the wire-mesh sensor principle. The grid sensor consists of a matrix of 256 Pt1000 platinum chip resistors and an associated electronics that measures the grid resistances with a multiplexing scheme at high speed. The individual sensor elements can be spatially distributed on an object surface and measure transient temperature distributions in real time. The advantage compared with other t...

  1. Innovations in plantar pressure and foot temperature measurements in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plantar pressure and temperature measurements in the diabetic foot primarily contribute to identifying abnormal values that increase risk for foot ulceration, and they are becoming increasingly more integrated in clinical practice and daily life of the patient. While plantar pressure measurements

  2. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  3. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  4. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in

  5. Variable temperature system using vortex tube cooling and fiber optic temperature measurement for low temperature magic angle spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachel W.; Zilm, Kurt W.

    2004-06-01

    We describe the construction and operation of a variable temperature (VT) system for a high field fast magic angle spinning (MAS) probe. The probe is used in NMR investigations of biological macromolecules, where stable setting and continuous measurement of the temperature over periods of several days are required in order to prevent sample overheating and degradation. The VT system described is used at and below room temperature. A vortex tube is used to provide cooling in the temperature range of -20 to 20 °C, while a liquid nitrogen-cooled heat exchanger is used below -20 °C. Using this arrangement, the lowest temperature that is practically achievable is -140 °C. Measurement of the air temperature near the spinning rotor is accomplished using a fiber optic thermometer that utilizes the temperature dependence of the absorption edge of GaAs. The absorption edge of GaAs also has a magnetic field dependence that we have measured and corrected for. This dependence was calibrated at several field strengths using the well-known temperature dependence of the 1H chemical shift difference of the protons in methanol.

  6. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  7. Ultraflexible, large-area, physiological temperature sensors for multipoint measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Yusuke; Terakawa, Yuki; Reeder, Jonathan; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Ware, Taylor; Yang, Kejia; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Sekino, Masaki; Voit, Walter; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2015-11-24

    We report a fabrication method for flexible and printable thermal sensors based on composites of semicrystalline acrylate polymers and graphite with a high sensitivity of 20 mK and a high-speed response time of less than 100 ms. These devices exhibit large resistance changes near body temperature under physiological conditions with high repeatability (1,800 times). Device performance is largely unaffected by bending to radii below 700 µm, which allows for conformal application to the surface of living tissue. The sensing temperature can be tuned between 25 °C and 50 °C, which covers all relevant physiological temperatures. Furthermore, we demonstrate flexible active-matrix thermal sensors which can resolve spatial temperature gradients over a large area. With this flexible ultrasensitive temperature sensor we succeeded in the in vivo measurement of cyclic temperatures changes of 0.1 °C in a rat lung during breathing, without interference from constant tissue motion. This result conclusively shows that the lung of a warm-blooded animal maintains surprising temperature stability despite the large difference between core temperature and inhaled air temperature.

  8. Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Measurements at the High Temperature Test Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) temperature monitors are now available for use as temperature sensors in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) irradiation test capsules. Melt wires or paint spots, which are typically used as temperature sensors in ATR static capsules, are limited in that they can only detect whether a single temperature is or is not exceeded. SiC monitors are advantageous because a single monitor can be used to detect for a range of temperatures that may have occurred during irradiation. As part of the efforts initiated by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to make SiC temperature monitors available, a capability was developed to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. As discussed in this report, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. This document describes the INL efforts to develop the capability to complete these resistance measurements. In addition, the procedure is reported that was developed to assure that high quality measurements are made in a consistent fashion.

  9. A Temperature Sensor using a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer for Very Wide Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik; Culley, Dennis E.

    2008-01-01

    A temperature sensor based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer was designed for extreme temperature applications. The sensor can operate under a wide temperature range from hot jet engine compartments to cryogenic space exploration missions. For example, in Jet Engine Distributed Control Architecture, the sensor must be able to operate at temperatures exceeding 150 C. For space missions, extremely low cryogenic temperatures need to be measured. The output of the sensor, which consisted of a stream of digitized pulses whose period was proportional to the sensed temperature, can be interfaced with a controller or a computer. The data acquisition system would then give a direct readout of the temperature through the use of a look-up table, a built-in algorithm, or a mathematical model. Because of the wide range of temperature measurement and because the sensor is made of carefully selected COTS parts, this work is directly applicable to the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics/Subsonic Fixed Wing Program--Jet Engine Distributed Engine Control Task and to the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. In the past, a temperature sensor was designed and built using an SOI operational amplifier, and a report was issued. This work used an SOI 555 timer as its core and is completely new work.

  10. Quantification of in situ temperature measurements on a PBI-based high temperature PEMFC unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Ali, Syed Talat; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    the anode and cathode flow plates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the proposed temperature characterization method and to identify the temperature distribution on an operating HT-PEM in various modes of operation, including a 700 h sensors durability test. The embedded......The temperature is a very important operating parameter for all types of fuel cells. In the present work distributed in situ temperature measurements are presented on a polybenzimidazole based high temperature PEM fuel cell (HT-PEM). A total of 16 T-type thermocouples were embedded on both...... sensors showed minimal influence on cell performance, this difference seen in performance is believed to be caused by different bipolar plate materials. The measurement method is suitable for obtaining detailed data for validation of computational models, moreover the results indicate that the method can...

  11. Validation of Temperature Measurements from the Airborne Raman Ozone Temperature and Aerosol Lidar During SOLVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, John; McGee, Thomas; Hoegy, Walter; Lait, Leslie; Twigg, Laurence; Sumnicht, Grant; Heaps, William; Hostetler, Chris; Bui, T. Paul; Neuber, Roland; hide

    2001-01-01

    The Airborne Raman Ozone, Temperature and Aerosol Lidar (AROTEL) participated in the recent Sage III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) by providing profiles of aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone and temperature with high vertical and horizontal resolution. Temperatures were derived from just above the aircraft to approximately 60 kilometers geometric altitude with a reported vertical resolution of between 0.5 and 1.5 km. The horizontal footprint varied from 4 to 70 km. This paper explores the measurement uncertainties associated with the temperature retrievals and makes comparisons with independent, coincident, measurements of temperature. Measurement uncertainties range from 0.1 K to approximately 4 K depending on altitude and integration time. Comparisons between AROTEL and balloon sonde temperatures retrieved under clear sky conditions using both Rayleigh and Raman scattered data showed AROTEL approximately 1 K colder than sonde values. Comparisons between AROTEL and the Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) on NASA's ER-2 show AROTEL being from 2-3 K colder for altitudes ranging from 14 to 18 km. Temperature comparisons between AROTEL and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office's model showed differences of approximately 1 K below approximately 25 km and a very strong cold bias of approximately 12 K at altitudes between 30 and 35 km.

  12. Is oral temperature an accurate measurement of deep body temperature? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Ganio, Matthew S; Casa, Douglas J; Vingren, Jakob; Klau, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Oral temperature might not be a valid method to assess core body temperature. However, many clinicians, including athletic trainers, use it rather than criterion standard methods, such as rectal thermometry. To critically evaluate original research addressing the validity of using oral temperature as a measurement of core body temperature during periods of rest and changing core temperature. In July 2010, we searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, and the Cochrane Library for the following concepts: core body temperature, oral, and thermometers. Controlled vocabulary was used, when available, as well as key words and variations of those key words. The search was limited to articles focusing on temperature readings and studies involving human participants. Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and subsequently were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. All 16 were included in the review because they met the minimal PEDro score of 4 points (of 10 possible points), with all but 2 scoring 5 points. A critical review of these studies indicated a disparity between oral and criterion standard temperature methods (eg, rectal and esophageal) specifically as the temperature increased. The difference was -0.50°C ± 0.31°C at rest and -0.58°C ± 0.75°C during a nonsteady state. Evidence suggests that, regardless of whether the assessment is recorded at rest or during periods of changing core temperature, oral temperature is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for determining body temperature because many measures demonstrated differences greater than the predetermined validity threshold of 0.27°C (0.5°F). In addition, the differences were greatest at the highest rectal temperatures. Oral temperature cannot accurately reflect core body temperature, probably because it is

  13. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-01

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100-2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700-1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  14. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tairan, E-mail: trfu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  15. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-01

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100-2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700-1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  16. Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensors for Strain and Temperature Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Ju; Wei Jin

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the applications of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) for strain and temperature measurement. Long-period grating sensors and in-fiber modal interferometric sensors are described and compared with their conventional single-mode counterparts. The strain sensitivities of the air-silica PCF sensors are comparable or higher than those implemented in conventional single-mode fibers but the temperature sensitivities of the PCF sensors are much lower.

  17. Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensors for Strain and Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the applications of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs for strain and temperature measurement. Long-period grating sensors and in-fiber modal interferometric sensors are described and compared with their conventional single-mode counterparts. The strain sensitivities of the air-silica PCF sensors are comparable or higher than those implemented in conventional single-mode fibers but the temperature sensitivities of the PCF sensors are much lower.

  18. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Miguel-Soto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG, and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  19. Temperature measurements in a wall stabilized steady flame using CARS

    KAUST Repository

    Sesha Giri, Krishna

    2017-01-05

    Flame quenching by heat loss to a surface continues to be an active area of combustion research. Close wall temperature measurements in an isothermal wall-stabilized flame are reported in this work. Conventional N-vibrational Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) thermometry as close as 275 μm to a convex wall cooled with water has been carried out. The standard deviation of mean temperatures is observed to be ~6.5% for high temperatures (>2000K) and ~14% in the lower range (<500K). Methane/air and ethylene/air stoichiometric flames for various global strain rates based on exit bulk velocities are plotted and compared. CH* chemiluminescence is employed to determine the flame location relative to the wall. Flame locations are shown to move closer to the wall with increasing strain rates in addition to higher near-wall temperatures. Peak temperatures for ethylene are considerably higher (~250-300K) than peak temperatures for methane. Preheat zone profiles are similar for different strain rates across fuels. This work demonstrates close wall precise temperature measurments using CARS.

  20. ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.

    2009-09-09

    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  1. Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

  2. Reliability of different body temperature measurement sites during aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbölös, L; Philipp, A; Ugocsai, P; Foltan, M; Thrum, A; Miskolczi, S; Pousios, D; Khawaja, S; Budra, M; Ohri, S K

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively performed a comparative analysis of temperature measurement sites during surgical repair of the thoracic aorta. Between January 2004 and May 2006, 22 patients (mean age: 63 ± 12 years) underwent operations on the thoracic aorta with arterial cannulation of the aortic arch concavity and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). Indications for surgical intervention were acute type A dissection in 14 (64%) patients, degenerative aneurysm in 6 (27%), aortic infiltration of thymic carcinoma in 1 (4.5%) and intra-aortic stent refixation in 1 (4.5%). Rectal, tympanic and bladder temperatures were evaluated to identify the best reference to arterial blood temperature during HCA and ACP. There were no operative deaths and the 30-day mortality rate was 13% (three patients). Permanent neurological deficits were not observed and transient changes occurred in two patients (9%). During re-warming, there was strong correlation between tympanic and arterial blood temperatures (r = 0.9541, ptemperature (r = 0.7654, p = n.s; r = 0.7939, p = n.s., respectively). We conclude that tympanic temperature measurements correlate with arterial blood temperature monitoring during aortic surgery with HCA and ACP and, therefore, should replace bladder and rectal measurements.

  3. Correction factor in temperature measurements by optoelectronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikberdina, N.; Yunusov, R.; Boronenko, M.; Gulyaev, P.

    2017-11-01

    It is often necessary to investigate high temperature fast moving microobjects. If you want to measure their temperature, use optoelectronic measuring systems. Optoelectronic systems are always calibrated over a stationary absolutely black body. One of the problems of pyrometry is that you can not use this calibration to measure the temperature of moving objects. Two solutions are proposed in [1]. This article outlines the first results of validation [2]. An experimentally justified coefficient that allows one to take into account the influence of its motion on the decrease in the video signal of the photosensor in the regime of charge accumulation. The study was partially supported by RFBR in the framework of a research project № 15-42-00106

  4. Spatially resolved remote measurement of temperature by neutron resonance absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kockelmann, W.; Pooley, D.E. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2015-12-11

    Deep penetration of neutrons into most engineering materials enables non-destructive studies of their bulk properties. The existence of sharp resonances in neutron absorption spectra enables isotopically-resolved imaging of elements present in a sample, as demonstrated by previous studies. At the same time the Doppler broadening of resonance peaks provides a method of remote measurement of temperature distributions within the same sample. This technique can be implemented at a pulsed neutron source with a short initial pulse allowing for the measurement of the energy of each registered neutron by the time of flight technique. A neutron counting detector with relatively high timing and spatial resolution is used to demonstrate the possibility to obtain temperature distributions across a 100 µm Ta foil with ~millimeter spatial resolution. Moreover, a neutron transmission measurement over a wide energy range can provide spatially resolved sample information such as temperature, elemental composition and microstructure properties simultaneously.

  5. On bias of kinetic temperature measurements in complex plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, M.; Moseev, D.; Salewski, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    The kinetic temperature in complex plasmas is often measured using particle tracking velocimetry. Here, we introduce a criterion which minimizes the probability of faulty tracking of particles with normally distributed random displacements in consecutive frames. Faulty particle tracking results...... in a measurement bias of the deduced velocity distribution function and hence the deduced kinetic temperature. For particles with a normal velocity distribution function, mistracking biases the obtained velocity distribution function towards small velocities at the expense of large velocities, i.e., the inferred...... velocity distribution is more peaked and its tail is less pronounced. The kinetic temperature is therefore systematically underestimated in measurements. We give a prescription to mitigate this type of error....

  6. Physical effects on visible temperature measurements of shocked foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, J.; Falk, K.; Fryer, C.; Greef, C.; Williams, J.; Schmidt, D.; McCoy, C.; Boehly, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments measuring the temperature of shock compressed foams at pressures from ~ 50 to >300 GPA. These experiments were carried out at the OMEGA laser facility and utilized the streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) to measure the optical emission from the shocked foam targets and infer the temperature. A comparison of our results to both standard equation of state (EOS) tables and to quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations result in temperatures that are below these theoretical predictions, especially at the higher pressures. This indicates either an error in these models or a limitation with this type of measurement technique. In order to estimate whether the emission from the shock front is consistent with the bulk temperature of the shocked material, a series of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations were performed. We find these simulations predict emission more consistent with the measurements at high pressures, similar to previous results for shocked Silicon. The effect of specific physics issues at the shock front, including temperature relaxation, electron thermal conduction, and radiation transport are evaluated to determine the magnitude of their affect on the emission. Both experimental and simulations results will be presented. Work performed under the auspices of the NNSA/DOE.

  7. Temperature dependence of the Brewer global UV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Ilias; Redondas, Alberto; Lakkala, Kaisa; Berjon, Alberto; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Doppler, Lionel; Feister, Uwe; Heikkila, Anu; Karppinen, Tomi; Karhu, Juha M.; Koskela, Tapani; Garane, Katerina; Fragkos, Konstantinos; Savastiouk, Volodya

    2017-11-01

    Spectral measurements of global UV irradiance recorded by Brewer spectrophotometers can be significantly affected by instrument-specific optical and mechanical features. Thus, proper corrections are needed in order to reduce the associated uncertainties to within acceptable levels. The present study aims to contribute to the reduction of uncertainties originating from changes in the Brewer internal temperature, which affect the performance of the optical and electronic parts, and subsequently the response of the instrument. Until now, measurements of the irradiance from various types of lamps at different temperatures have been used to characterize the instruments' temperature dependence. The use of 50 W lamps was found to induce errors in the characterization due to changes in the transmissivity of the Teflon diffuser as it warms up by the heat of the lamp. In contrast, the use of 200 or 1000 W lamps is considered more appropriate because they are positioned at longer distances from the diffuser so that warming is negligible. Temperature gradients inside the instrument can cause mechanical stresses which can affect the instrument's optical characteristics. Therefore, during the temperature-dependence characterization procedure warming or cooling must be slow enough to minimize these effects. In this study, results of the temperature characterization of eight different Brewer spectrophotometers operating in Greece, Finland, Germany and Spain are presented. It was found that the instruments' response changes differently in different temperature regions due to different responses of the diffusers' transmittance. The temperature correction factors derived for the Brewer spectrophotometers operating at Thessaloniki, Greece, and Sodankylä, Finland, were evaluated and were found to remove the temperature dependence of the instruments' sensitivity.

  8. Measurement of skin temperature after infrared laser stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandri, M; Saturno, M; Spadavecchia, L; Iannetti, G D; Cruccu, G; Truini, A

    2006-01-01

    Several types of lasers are available for eliciting laser evoked responses (LEPs). In order to understand advantages and drawbacks of each one, and to use it properly, it is important that the pattern of skin heating is known and duly considered. This study was aimed at assessing the skin temperature during and immediately after irradiation with pulses by Nd:YAP and CO(2) lasers. The back of the non-dominant hand was irradiated in 8 subjects. Temperatures were measured by a fast analogical pyrometer (5 ms response time). Stimuli were tested on natural colour (white) and blackened skin. Nd:YAP pulses yielded temperatures that were correlated with pulse energy, but not with pulse duration; much higher temperatures were obtained irradiating blackened skin than white skin (ranges 100-194 degrees C vs 35-46 degrees C). Temperature decay was extremely slow in white skin, reaching its basal value in more than 30 s. CO(2) pulses delivered with power of 3W and 6W yielded temperatures of 69-87 degrees C on white skin, and 138-226 degrees C on blackened skin. Temperature decay was very fast (4-8 ms). Differences in peak temperatures and decay times between lasers and tested conditions depend on energy and volume of heated skin. The highest temperatures are reached with lesser degree of penetration, as in the case of CO(2) laser and blackened skin. Taking into account the temperature decay time of the skin, the minimum interstimulus interval to get reliable LEPs should be no less than 10 s for Nd:YAP and 100 ms for CO(2) laser. Another important practical consequence of the heating pattern is that the Nd:YAP pulses will activate warmth receptors more easily than CO(2).

  9. Core-temperature sensor ingestion timing and measurement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrovich, Joseph W; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2010-01-01

    Telemetric core-temperature monitoring is becoming more widely used as a noninvasive means of monitoring core temperature during athletic events. To determine the effects of sensor ingestion timing on serial measures of core temperature during continuous exercise. Crossover study. Outdoor dirt track at an average ambient temperature of 4.4°C ± 4.1°C and relative humidity of 74.1% ± 11.0%. Seven healthy, active participants (3 men, 4 women; age  =  27.0 ± 7.5 years, height  =  172.9 ± 6.8 cm, body mass  =  67.5 ± 6.1 kg, percentage body fat  =  12.7% ± 6.9%, peak oxygen uptake [Vo(2peak)]  =  54.4 ± 6.9 mL•kg⁻¹•min⁻¹) completed the study. Participants completed a 45-minute exercise trial at approximately 70% Vo(2peak). They consumed core-temperature sensors at 24 hours (P1) and 40 minutes (P2) before exercise. Core temperature was recorded continuously (1-minute intervals) using a wireless data logger worn by the participants. All data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (trial × time), Pearson product moment correlation, and Bland-Altman plot. Fifteen comparisons were made between P1 and P2. The main effect of time indicated an increase in core temperature compared with the initial temperature. However, we did not find a main effect for trial or a trial × time interaction, indicating no differences in core temperature between the sensors (P1  =  38.3°C ± 0.2°C, P2  =  38.3°C ± 0.4°C). We found no differences in the temperature recordings between the 2 sensors. These results suggest that assumed sensor location (upper or lower gastrointestinal tract) does not appreciably alter the transmission of reliable and repeatable measures of core temperature during continuous running in the cold.

  10. Real-time temperature field measurement based on acoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yong; Jia, Jiabin; Polydorides, Nick

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic tomography can be used to measure the temperature field from the time-of-flight (TOF). In order to capture real-time temperature field changes and accurately yield quantitative temperature images, two improvements to the conventional acoustic tomography system are studied: simultaneous acoustic transmission and TOF collection along multiple ray paths, and an offline iteration reconstruction algorithm. During system operation, all the acoustic transceivers send modulated and filtered wideband Kasami sequences simultaneously to facilitate fast and accurate TOF measurements using cross-correlation detection. For image reconstruction, the iteration process is separated and executed offline beforehand to shorten computation time for online temperature field reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed methods are validated in the simulation study. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the processing time per frame from 160 ms to 20 ms, while the reconstruction error remains less than 5%. Hence, the proposed method has great potential in the measurement of rapid temperature change with good temporal and spatial resolution.

  11. Photoacoustic temperature measurements for monitoring of thermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiou-Han; Wei, Chen-Wei; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Li, Pai-Chi

    2009-02-01

    Plasmonic photothermal therapy is a new cancer thermotherapy method based on surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles. It is important to measure the temperature during thermotherapy for safety and efficacy. In this study, we apply a photoacoustic (PA) method for real-time, non-invasive temperature measurements. In particular, this method can be effectively combined with a photothermal therapy system that we developed in parallel. The method is based on the fact that the PA pressure amplitude is linearly related to temperature. To explore its potential, a home-made, 20 MHz PA transducer was used, in which an optical fiber was inserted in its center for emitting laser pulses while the PA signal was simultaneously detected. Continuous wave (CW) laser was used to heat the subject, including both phantoms and mice. The temperature of the region of interest was also measured by a fine-needle thermal couple. Results show that the temperature was linearly proportional to the PA signal with good correlation with the CW laser irradiation. The in vivo study also demonstrated potential of this technique.

  12. On Possibility of Detonation Products Temperature Measurements of Emulsion Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrov V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The new view on the structure of the radiance signal recorded by optical pyrometer and the preliminary results of brightness detonation temperature of the emulsion explosive are presented. The structure of an optical signal observed is typical for the heterogeneous explosives. First, there is the short temperature spike to 2500 ÷ 3300 K connecting with a formation of “hot spots” assembly that fire the matrix capable of exothermal reaction. Then the relaxation of radiance to equilibrium level is observed that corresponds to brightness temperature 1840 ÷ 2260 K of explosion products at detonation pressure 1 ÷ 11 GPa. Experimental results are compared with the calculations of other authors. The detonation temperature of the investigated explosive is measured for the first time.

  13. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, S. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements were made in a combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric free jet from a nozzle with a diameter of 6.35 cm using dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). The resulting mean and standard deviation temperature maps are presented. The temperature results show that the gas temperature on the centerline remains constant for approximately 5 nozzle diameters. As the heated gas mixes with the ambient air further downstream the mean temperature decreases. The standard deviation map shows evidence of the increase of turbulence in the shear layer as the jet proceeds downstream and mixes with the ambient air. The challenges of collecting data in a harsh environment are discussed along with influences to the data. The yield of the data collected is presented and possible improvements to the yield is presented are discussed.

  14. Comparison of MODIS-derived land surface temperature with air temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2017-09-01

    Air surface temperature is an important parameter for a wide range of applications such as agriculture, hydrology and climate change studies. Air temperature data is usually obtained from measurements made in meteorological stations, providing only limited information about spatial patterns over wide areas. The use of remote sensing data can help overcome this problem, particularly in areas with low station density, having the potential to improve the estimation of air surface temperature at both regional and global scales. Land Surface (skin) Temperatures (LST) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms provide spatial estimates of near-surface temperature values. In this study, LST values from MODIS are compared to groundbased near surface air (Tair) measurements obtained from 14 observational stations during 2011 to 2015, covering coastal, mountainous and urban areas over Cyprus. Combining Terra and Aqua LST-8 Day and Night acquisitions into a mean monthly value, provide a large number of LST observations and a better overall agreement with Tair. Comparison between mean monthly LSTs and mean monthly Tair for all sites and all seasons pooled together yields a very high correlation and biases. In addition, the presented high standard deviation can be explained by the influence of surface heterogeneity within MODIS 1km2 grid cells, the presence of undetected clouds and the inherent difference between LST and Tair. However, MODIS LST data proved to be a reliable proxy for surface temperature and mostly for studies requiring temperature reconstruction in areas with lack of observational stations.

  15. Effect of ambient temperature and attachment method on surface temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikuta, Agnes; Niedermann, Reto; Rossi, René M

    2014-07-01

    Accurate measurement of skin surface temperature is essential in both thermo-physiological and clinical applications. However, a literature review of the last two decades of physiological or clinical research revealed an inconsistency or a lack of information on how temperature sensors were attached to the skin surface. The purpose of this study was to systematically compare and quantify the performance of different commercially available temperature sensors and their typical attachment methods, and, secondly, to provide a time-efficient and reliable method for testing any sensor-tape combination. In conclusion, both the sensor type and the attachment method influenced the results of temperature measurements (both its absolute and relative dimensions). The sensor shape and the contact of its sensing area to the surface, as well as the conductance of the tape were the most important parameters to minimise the influence of environmental conditions on surface temperature measurement. These results suggest that temperature sensors and attachment methods for human subject and manikin trials should be selected carefully, with a systematic evaluation of the sensor-tape system under conditions of use, and emphasise the need to report these parameters in publications.

  16. [Multi-spectral measurement of Basic oxygen furnace flame temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Qing; Chen, Yan-Ru; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Fei-Nan; Chen, Jing-Jing

    2012-11-01

    A multi-wavelength analysis method is introduced to measure the temperature of basic oxygen furnace flame. In this study, USB4000 spectrometer was applied to obtain radiation spectrum of flame within wavelength range 200-1 100 nm, from which the flame temperature and monochromatic emissivity was derived by Levenberg-Marquart modeling method. Wavelet neural network was applied to process the spectral measurement data, which could cancel the assumption model of emissivity and wavelengths. It is a kind of valid method to acquire the true temperature and spectral emissivity. Each neuron in the hidden layer of a feed-forward network is a combination of the sigmoidal activation function (SAF) and morlet wavelet activation function (WAF). The output of the hidden neuron is the product of the output from these two activation functions.

  17. Estimating local heat transfer coefficients from thin wall temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizov, I. M.; Davletshin, I. A.; Paereliy, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    An approach to experimental estimation of local heat transfer coefficient on a plane wall has been described. The approach is based on measurements of heat-transfer fluid and wall temperatures during some certain time of wall cooling. The wall was a thin plate, a printed circuit board, made of composite epoxy material covered with a copper layer. The temperature field can be considered uniform across the plate thickness when heat transfer is moderate and thermal resistance of the plate in transversal direction is low. This significantly simplifies the heat balance written for the wall sections that is used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient. The copper layer on the plate etched to form a single strip acted as resistance thermometers that measured the local temperature of the wall.

  18. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  19. Infrared thermography for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G

    2014-07-10

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed.

  20. Optical sensor for measuring humidity, strain and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical sensor (100) adapted to measure at least three physical parameters, said optical sensor comprising a polymer-based optical waveguide structure comprising a first Bragg grating structure (101) being adapted to provide information about a first, a second...... relates to a method for measuring the first, the second and the third physical parameter. Preferably, the first, the second and the third physical parameter, are humidity, strain and temperature, respectively....

  1. Elevated-temperature luminescence measurements to improve spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluska, Mariusz; Czerwinski, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Various branches of applied physics use luminescence based methods to investigate light-emitting specimens with high spatial resolution. A key problem is that luminescence signals lack all the advantages of high locality (i.e. of high spatial resolution) when structures with strong built-in electric field are measured. Such fields exist intentionally in most photonic structures, and occur unintentionally in many other materials. In this case, as a result of beam-induced current generation and its outflow, information that indicates irregularities, nonuniformities and inhomogeneities, such as defects, is lost. We show that to avoid nonlocality and enable truly local luminescence measurements, an elevated measurement temperature as high as 350 K (or even higher) is, perhaps surprisingly, advantageous. This is in contrast to a widely used approach, where cryogenic temperatures, or at least room temperature, are recommended. The elevated temperature of a specimen, together with the current outflow being limited by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, is shown to improve the spatial resolution of luminescence measurements greatly. All conclusions drawn using the example of cathodoluminescence are useful for other luminescence techniques.

  2. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  3. Neutron scattering effects on fusion ion temperature measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Lee (Bechtel/Nevada, Las Vegas, NV); Starner, Jason R.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Franklin, James Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Casey, Daniel T.

    2006-06-01

    To support the nuclear fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), a consistent and verifiable method to determine fusion ion temperatures needs to be developed. Since the fusion temperature directly affects the width in the spread of neutron energies produced, a measurement of the neutron energy width can yield the fusion temperature. Traditionally, the spread in neutron energies is measured by using time-of-flight to convert a spread in neutron energies at the source to a spread in time at detector. One potential obstacle to using this technique at the Z facility at SNL is the need to shield the neutron detectors from the intense bremsstrahlung produced. The shielding consists of eight inches of lead and the concern is that neutrons will scatter in the lead, artificially broaden the neutron pulse width and lead to an erroneous measurement. To address this issue, experiments were performed at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics, which demonstrated that a reliable ion temperature measurement can be achieved behind eight inches of lead shielding. To further expand upon this finding, Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) was used to simulate the experimental geometric conditions and perform the neutron transport. MCNPX was able to confidently estimate results observed at the University of Rochester.

  4. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Plasma produced by a 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 6 ns focussed onto a copper solid sample in air at atmospheric pressure is studied spectroscopically. The temperature and electron density characterizing the plasma are measured by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion ...

  5. THERMAL COUPLE FOR MEASURING TEMPERATURE IN A REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanne, W.

    1959-11-24

    A thermocouple device for measuring the temperature of a flowing fluid in a conduit within which is positioned a metallic rod is presented. A thermocouple junction is secured to the rod centrally, and thermal insulating support disks having a diameter greater than the rod are secured to the end portions of the rod and adapted to fit transversely in the conduit.

  6. Glutaraldehyde crosslinking of collagen: effects of time, temperature, concentration and presoaking as measured by shrinkage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijgrok, J M; de Wijn, J R; Boon, M E

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect on the degree of crosslinking of: (a) short term (1 or 5 min) high (50 degrees C) temperature glutaraldehyde (GA) fixation of native collagen membrane, (b) a combination of GA presoaking at low temperature [0 degree C or room temperature (rt)] followed by short time (collagen fleece in a multilayer diffusion model. As a measure for the degree of crosslinking the shrinkage temperature (Ts) was determined. Short time (1 or 5 min) high temperature (50 degrees C) fixation using 0.1% GA solution caused the shrinkage temperature to increase to 80% and 93% respectively, of the maximum attainable Ts employing GA crosslinking (ca 91 degrees C). Fixation with 0.01% GA for 5 min at 50 degrees C appeared equally as effective as 1 min with 0.1% GA. Although an elevated fixation temperature (from rt to 45 degrees C) was found to produce a substantial increase in Ts of the collagen sheets, a homogeneous distribution of cross links was not obtained by this method. Presoaking the samples at rt (1 h) or at 0 degree C (3 h) with subsequent short time heating to 45 degrees C caused an almost equal rise in shrinkage temperature in Ts throughout the collagen samples.

  7. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  8. Fiber-optical method of pyrometric measurement of melts temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, V. A.; Veprikova, Ya R.

    2018-01-01

    There is a scientific problem of non-contact measurement of the temperature of metal melts now. The problem is related to the need to achieve the specified measurement errors in conditions of uncertainty of the blackness coefficients of the radiating surfaces. The aim of this work is to substantiate the new method of measurement in which the influence of the blackness coefficient is eliminated. The task consisted in calculating the design and material of special crucible placed in the molten metal, which is an emitter in the form of blackbody (BB). The methods are based on the classical concepts of thermal radiation and calculations based on the Planck function. To solve the problem, the geometry of the crucible was calculated on the basis of the Goofy method which forms the emitter of a blackbody at the immersed in the melt. The paper describes the pyrometric device based on fiber optic pyrometer for temperature measurement of melts, which implements the proposed method of measurement using a special crucible. The emitter is formed by the melt in this crucible, the temperature within which is measured by means of fiber optic pyrometer. Based on the results of experimental studies, the radiation coefficient ε‧ > 0.999, which confirms the theoretical and computational justification is given in the article

  9. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating

  10. Thin-film resistance temperature detector array for the measurement of temperature distribution inside a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Hyun, Jaeyub; Doh, Il; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-02-01

    A thin-film resistance temperature detector (RTD) array is proposed to measure the temperature distribution inside a phantom. HIFU (high-intensity focused ultrasound) is a non-invasive treatment method using focused ultrasound to heat up a localized region, so it is important to measure the temperature distribution without affecting the ultrasonic field and heat conduction. The present 25 µm thick PI (polyimide) film is transparent not only to an ultrasonic field, because its thickness is much smaller than the wavelength of ultrasound, but also to heat conduction, owing to its negligible thermal mass compared to the phantom. A total of 33 RTDs consisting of Pt resistors and interconnection lines were patterned on a PI substrate using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology, and a polymer phantom was fabricated with the film at the center. The expanded uncertainty of the RTDs was 0.8 K. In the experimental study using a 1 MHz HIFU transducer, the maximum temperature inside the phantom was measured as 70.1 °C just after a HIFU excitation of 6.4 W for 180 s. The time responses of the RTDs at different positions also showed the residual heat transfer inside the phantom after HIFU excitation. HIFU results with the phantom showed that a thin-film RTD array can measure the temperature distribution inside a phantom.

  11. Experimental evaluation of IGBT junction temperature measurement via peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Temperature sensitive electrical parameters allow junction temperature measurements on power semiconductors without modification to module packaging. The peak gate current has recently been proposed for IGBT junction temperature measurement and relies on the temperature dependent resistance of th...

  12. Core Temperature Measurement During Submaximal Exercise: Esophageal, Rectal, and Intestinal Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if intestinal temperature (Tin) might be in acceptable alternative to esophageal (Tes) and rectal temperature (Trec) to assess thermoregulation during supine exercise. We hypothesized that Tin would have values similar to Tes and a response time similar to Trec, but the rate of temperature change across time would not be different between measurement sites. Seven subjects completed a continuous supine protocol of 20 min of rest, 20 min of cycle exercise at 40% peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk), 20 min of cycle exercise at 65% V02pk, and 20 min of recovery. Tes, Trec, and Tin were recorded each min throughout the test. Temperatures were not different after 20 min of rest, but Trec was less than the Tes and Tin at the end of the 40% and 65% VO2pk stages. After 20 min of recovery, Tes was less than either Trec or Tin, which were not different from each other. Time to threshold for increased temperature from rest was greater for Trec than Tes but not different from Tin. Time to reach peak temperature was greater for Tin and Trec than Tes. Similarly, time to a decrease in temperature after exercise was greater for Trec than Tes, but not different from Tin. The rate of temperature change from threshold to the end of the 40% VO2pk stage was not different between measurement sites. However, the rate of change during recovery was more negative for Tes than Tin and Trec, which were different from each other. Measurement of Tin may he an acceptable alternative to Tes and Trec with an understanding of its limitations.

  13. Temperature measurement in WTE boilers using suction pyrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-11-15

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  14. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  15. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty. PMID:24248279

  16. Pyrometric method for measuring emittances at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrín, J.; Rodríguez, J.; Carra, M. E.; Cañadas, I.; Roldan, M. I.; Barbero, J.; Marzo, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work an alternative method for emittance determination based on pyrometric measurements is presented. The measurement procedure has been applied to AISI 310S steel samples in the Plataforma Solar de Almería vertical axis solar furnace SF5. The experimental results show that emittance increases with increasing temperature and decreases with increasing wavelength. This behaviour is in agreement with experimental results obtained by other authors. Analysis of tests has revealed a good repeatability (1%) and accuracy (< 2%) of this measurement procedure.

  17. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Rinaldi; Behzad Najafi

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE...

  18. Positional repeatability measurements of stepper motors at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, S. M.; Hall, M. S.; Bartko, F.; Houck, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    For cryogenically-cooled infrared instruments and telescopes employed in space, reliable and predictable motor operations at 4 K in vacuum are in most cases necessary. For the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), stepper motors may be employed in a number of applications. A test facility was designed and built for measuring stepper motor positional repeatability, in vacuum, over a temperature range from ambient to liquid helium temperature. Tests regarding positional repeatability were conducted at different motor speeds, directions of motor rotation, step sizes, and power conditions. In addition, tests were performed with respect to the ability of the motor to remain in a position with no power applied to the motor.

  19. Influence of sensor ingestion timing on consistency of temperature measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2009-03-01

    The validity and the reliability of using intestinal temperature (T int) via ingestible temperature sensors (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However, the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and T int measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Eight volunteers (six men and two women) swallowed ITS 5 h (ITS-5) and 29 h (ITS-29) before 4 h of varying intensity activity. T int was measured simultaneously from both ITS, and T int differences between the ITS-5 and the ITS-29 over the 4 h of activity were plotted and compared relative to a meaningful threshold of acceptance (+/-0.25 degrees C). The percentage of time in which the differences between paired ITS (ITS-5 vs ITS-29) were greater than or less than the threshold of acceptance was calculated. T int values showed no systematic bias, were normally distributed, and ranged from 36.94 degrees C to 39.24 degrees C. The maximum T int difference between paired ITS was 0.83 degrees C with a minimum difference of 0.00 degrees C. The typical magnitude of the differences (SE of the estimate) was 0.24 degrees C, and these differences were uniform across the entire range of observed temperatures. Paired T int measures fell outside of the threshold of acceptance 43.8% of the time during the 4 h of activity. The differences between ITS-5 and ITS-29 were larger than the threshold of acceptance during a substantial portion of the observed 4-h activity period. Ingesting an ITS more than 5 h before activity will not completely eliminate confounding factors but may improve accuracy and consistency of core body temperature.

  20. High temperature measurements in irradiated environment using Raman fiber optics distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Pierre; Blairon, Sylvain; Boldo, Didier; Taillade, Frédéric; Caussanel, Matthieu; Beauvois, Gwendal; Duval, Hervé; Grieu, Stéphane; Laffont, Guillaume; Lainé, Frédéric; Carrel, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Optical fiber temperature sensors using Raman effect are a promising technology for temperature mapping of nuclear power plant pipes. These pipes are exposed to high temperature (350 °C) and gamma radiations, which is a harsh environment for standard telecom fibers. Therefore metal coated fibers are to be used to perform measurement over 300 °C. Temperature variations can affect the attenuation of the metallic coated fiber before irradiation. The latter induces an extra attenuation, due to light absorption along the fiber by radiation-induced defects. The recombination of these defects can be strongly accelerated by the high temperature value. As backscattered Raman signal is weak it is important to test optical fibers under irradiation to observe how it gets attenuated. Different experiments are described in this conference paper: two in situ irradiation campaigns with different dose rates at, both ambient and high temperature. We observe that the tested off-the-shelf metallic coated fibers have a high attenuation under irradiation. We also noticed the fact that thermal annealing plays a massive role in the +300 °C temperature range.

  1. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  2. An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyskens, Mark

    1997-07-01

    Our application of an integrated-circuit (IC) temperature sensor which is easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, easily computer-interfacable and has good precision is described. The design, based on the National Semiconductor LM35 IC chip, avoids some of the difficulties associated with conventional sensors (thermocouples, thermistors, and platinum resistance thermometers) and a previously described IC sensor. The sensor can be used with a variety of data-acquisition systems. Applications range from general chemistry to physical chemistry, particularly where computer interfaced, digital temperature measurement is desired. Included is a detailed description of our current design with suggestions for improvement and a performance evaluation of the precision in differential measurement and the time constant for responding to temperature change.

  3. Sensor manufacturer, temperature, and cyanobacteria morphology affect phycocyanin fluorescence measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Caroline M; Wood, Susanna A; Puddick, Jonathan; McBride, Christopher G; Hamilton, David P

    2017-10-27

    Sensors to measure phycocyanin fluorescence in situ are becoming widely used as they may provide useful proxies for cyanobacterial biomass. In this study, we assessed five phycocyanin sensors from three different manufacturers. A combination of culture-based experiments and a 30-sample field study was used to examine the effect of temperature and cyanobacteria morphology on phycocyanin fluorescence. Phycocyanin fluorescence increased with decrease in temperature, although this varied with manufacturer and cyanobacterial density. Phycocyanin fluorescence and cyanobacterial biovolume were strongly correlated (R 2 > 0.83, P single-celled and filamentous species. The relationship was generally weak for a colonial strain of Microcystis aeruginosa. The colonial culture was divided into different colony size classes and phycocyanin measured before and after manual disaggregation. No differences were measured, and the observation that fluorescence spiked when large colonial aggregates drifted past the light source suggests that sample heterogeneity, rather than lack of light penetration into the colonies, was the main cause of the poor relationship. Analysis of field samples showed a strong relationship between in situ phycocyanin fluorescence and spectrophotometrically measured phycocyanin (R 2 > 0.7, P  0.4). The five sensors tested in our study differed in their output of phycocyanin fluorescence, upper working limits (1200 to > 12,000 μg/L), and responses to temperature, highlighting the need for comprehensive sensor calibration and knowledge on the limitations of specific sensors prior to deployment.

  4. Temperature Measurement Technique Using Phosphorescence of Porphyrin Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Kentaro; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2007-11-01

    LIF have been developed to measure the temperature, pH and the oxygen concentration in the fluid. However, the frequent excitation of the fluorescent dye causes the quenching effect. In addition, two color LIF should be applied in order to cancel the effect of non-uniform light intensity of excitation. The phosphor emitting the phosphorescence for a few milliseconds by an excitation was measured at the high time resolution, while the phosphorescence lifetime is the function of the temperature. As the phosphorescence dyes, PtTFPP and PdTFPP were tested. Those mixed with Coumarin30 were also demonstrated. These dyes were excited by a CW laser with the wavelength of 405nm. As the result, it was clarified to be able to measure the temperature using these dyes and this laser. Present study is the result of ``High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal'' entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).

  5. Standard guide for high-temperature static strain measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the selection and application of strain gages for the measurement of static strain up to and including the temperature range from 425 to 650°C (800 to 1200°F). This guide reflects some current state-of-the-art techniques in high temperature strain measurement, and will be expanded and updated as new technology develops. 1.2 This practice assumes that the user is familiar with the use of bonded strain gages and associated signal conditioning and instrumentation as discussed in Refs. (1) and (2). The strain measuring systems described are those that have proven effective in the temperature range of interest and were available at the time of issue of this practice. It is not the intent of this practice to limit the user to one of the gage types described nor is it the intent to specify the type of system to be used for a specific application. However, in using any strain measuring system including those described, the proposer must be able to demonstrate the capability of the proposed sy...

  6. Mesospheric temperature trends derived from standard phase-height measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dieter H. W.; Entzian, Günter; Keckhut, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    New homogeneous time series of daily standard phase-height (SPH) and daily plasma scale-height (PSH) have been derived from a 50-year long-radio-wave measurement of the broadcasting station Allouis (France, 162 kHz). The signal was received at Kühlungsborn (54°N, 12°E, Mecklenburg, Germany) and the present series is a third release. The daily time series of SPH shows in its spectrum dominant modes which are typical for the solar cycle (SC), for El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and for quasi-biannual oscillation (QBO), indicating solar and lower atmospheric influences. Surprisingly, the time series of daily PSH shows a band of dominant cycles larger than 16 years. In order to exclude the influence of the winter anomaly in the determination of column-integrated mesospheric temperature trends the phase-height-temperature procedure is confined to summer months. The derived thickness temperature of the mesosphere decreased statistically significant over the period 1959-2008 after pre-whitening with summer mean of solar sun spot numbers. The trend value is in the order of about -1.05 K/decade if the stratopause trend is excluded. The linear regression is more pronounced, -1.35 K/decade for the period of 1963-1985 (2 SCs), but weaker, -0.51 K/decade during 1986-2008 (last 2 SCs). The linear regression is in very good agreement with a mean column-integrated mesospheric trend derived from OHP-Lidar temperatures on a monthly mean basis for the last two SCs. This clearly shows that the thickness temperature of the mesosphere derived from phase-height measurement is a useful proxy for the long-term summer temperature change in the mesosphere from 1959 until 2008.

  7. Methods of Temperature and Emission Measure Determination of Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Schmelz, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2002-05-01

    Recent observational results from both SOHO-EIT and TRACE indicate that coronal loops are isothermal along their length (axially). These results are obtained from a narrowband filter ratio method that assumes that the plasma is isothermal along the line of sight (radially). However, these temperatures vary greatly from those derived from differential emission measure (DEM) curves produced from spectral lines recorded by SOHO-CDS. The DEM results indicate that the loops are neither axially nor radially isothermal. This discrepancy was investigated by Schmelz et al. (2001). They chose pairs of iron lines from the same CDS data set to mimic the EIT and TRACE loop results. Ratios of different lines gave different temperatures, indicating that the plasma was not radially isothermal. In addition the results indicated that the loop was axially isothermal, even though the DEM analysis of the same data showed this result to be false. Here we have analyzed the EIT data for the CDS loop published by Schmelz et al. (2001). We took the ratios of the 171-to-195 and 195-to-284 filter data, and made temperature maps of the loop. The results indicate that the loop is axially isothermal, but different temperatures were found for each pair of filters. Both ratio techniques force the resultant temperature to lie within the range where the response functions (for filters) or the emissivity functions (for lines) overlap; isothermal loops are therefore a byproduct of the analysis. This conclusion strengthens support for the idea that temperature and emission measure results from filter ratio methods may be misleading or even drastically wrong. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783.

  8. Fabry-Perot measurements of barium temperature in fluorescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrath, S.; Garner, R.

    2010-04-01

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is used to determine the temperature of barium atoms that are liberated from the electrodes of fluorescent lamps during their steady-state operation. Barium, a constituent of the work function lowering emitter material that is placed on the tungsten coil that forms the electrode, is liberated primarily by evaporation from the hot (~1300 K) thermionic electrode. However, there may be situations or modes of operation in which barium is, in addition, sputtered, a condition which may lead to increased end-darkening, shortened life and increased mercury consumption in the lamp. Using the FPI diagnostic, the occurrence of sputtering is inferred when barium temperatures are much greater than the electrode temperature. The FPI diagnostic senses resonance radiation (λ = 553 nm) emitted by barium atoms excited in the low pressure discharge environment, and infers temperature from the Doppler broadened linewidth. The diagnostic has proven to be successful in a number of situations. Measurements have been made on rare gas discharges and on Hg-argon discharges for different discharge currents, gas pressures and auxiliary coil currents. Measurements are phase resolved for ac-driven discharges.

  9. Thermopile probe to measure temperature anomalies in geothermal boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.R.; Stephani, E.L.; Todd, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    The standard thermal well logging tools presently employed by oil well logging service companies use a thermistor probe as the temperature measuring device. The thermistor is normally incorporated as one arm of a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The bridge circuit must be staged for limited temperature ranges and is adequate for most well logging operations where only detection of thermal anomalies is of primary concern and the logging speed is not important. The design of a thermopile sensor using conventional thermocouples and a downhole thermally isolated reference junction has greatly improved the temperature logging capability in a deep geothermal wellbore. The much faster response of the thermopile sensor will allow a logging rate of up to 200 ft/min in contrast to the average rate of 50 ft/min using the thermistor probe. The thermopile sensor is a low impedance device whose characteristics are very well known. The development of a high pressure dewar chamber for use in high temperature downhole instrumentation sondes has provided a suitable environment to employ a downhole reference junction permitting the use of thermocouple measurements in the deep geothermal borehole.

  10. In-flight and simulated aircraft fuel temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel tank measurements from ten flights of an L1011 commercial aircraft are reported for the first time. The flights were conducted from 1981 to 1983. A thermocouple rake was installed in an inboard wing tank and another in an outboard tank. During the test periods of either 2 or 5 hr, at altitudes of 10,700 m (35,000 ft) or higher, either the inboard or the outboard tank remained full. Fuel temperature profiles generally developed in the expected manner. The bulk fuel was mixed by natural convection to a nearly uniform temperature, especially in the outboard tank, and a gradient existed at the bottom conduction zone. The data indicated that when full, the upper surface of the inboard tank was wetted and the outboard tank was unwetted. Companion NASA Lewis Research Center tests were conducted in a 0.20 cubic meter (52 gal) tank simulator of the outboard tank, chilled on the top and bottom, and insulated on the sides. Even though the simulator tank had no internal components corresponding to the wing tank, temperatures agreed with the flight measurements for wetted upper surface conditions, but not for unwetted conditions. It was concluded that if boundary conditions are carefully controlled, simulators are a useful way of evaluating actual flight temperatures.

  11. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. K. [Johnson Research LLC, Pueblo West, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  12. Fabry-Perot measurements of barium temperature in fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadrath, S [OSRAM GmbH, Research Europe, SIGMA Technopark Augsburg, Werner-von-Siemens-Str. 6, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Garner, R, E-mail: stefan.hadrath@osram.co [OSRAM Sylvania, Central Research and Services Laboratory, Beverly, MA 01915-1015 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is used to determine the temperature of barium atoms that are liberated from the electrodes of fluorescent lamps during their steady-state operation. Barium, a constituent of the work function lowering emitter material that is placed on the tungsten coil that forms the electrode, is liberated primarily by evaporation from the hot ({approx}1300 K) thermionic electrode. However, there may be situations or modes of operation in which barium is, in addition, sputtered, a condition which may lead to increased end-darkening, shortened life and increased mercury consumption in the lamp. Using the FPI diagnostic, the occurrence of sputtering is inferred when barium temperatures are much greater than the electrode temperature. The FPI diagnostic senses resonance radiation ({lambda} = 553 nm) emitted by barium atoms excited in the low pressure discharge environment, and infers temperature from the Doppler broadened linewidth. The diagnostic has proven to be successful in a number of situations. Measurements have been made on rare gas discharges and on Hg-argon discharges for different discharge currents, gas pressures and auxiliary coil currents. Measurements are phase resolved for ac-driven discharges.

  13. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1998-11-12

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.

  14. Measurement of Laser Weld Temperatures for 3D Model Input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagel, Daryl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grossetete, Grant [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maccallum, Danny O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding is a key joining process used extensively in the manufacture and assembly of critical components for several weapons systems. Sandia National Laboratories advances the understanding of the laser welding process through coupled experimentation and modeling. This report summarizes the experimental portion of the research program, which focused on measuring temperatures and thermal history of laser welds on steel plates. To increase confidence in measurement accuracy, researchers utilized multiple complementary techniques to acquire temperatures during laser welding. This data serves as input to and validation of 3D laser welding models aimed at predicting microstructure and the formation of defects and their impact on weld-joint reliability, a crucial step in rapid prototyping of weapons components.

  15. Infrared Low Temperature Turbine Vane Rough Surface Heat Transfer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.; Spuckler, C. M.; Lucci, B. L.; Camperchioli, W. P.

    2000-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer distributions obtained using an infrared camera technique are described. Infrared thermography was used because noncontact surface temperature measurements were desired. Surface temperatures were 80 C or less. Tests were conducted in a three vane linear cascade, with inlet pressures between 0.14 and 1.02 atm., and exit Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.7, and 0.9, for turbulence intensities of approximately 1 and 10%. Measurements were taken on the vane suction side, and on the pressure side leading edge region. The designs for both the vane and test facility are discussed. The approach used to account for conduction within the vane is described. Midspan heat transfer distributions are given for the range of test conditions.

  16. In situ measurement of the junction temperature of light emitting diodes using a flexible micro temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Su, Ay; Liu, Yin-Chieh; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Hsieh, Wei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    This investigation aimed to fabricate a flexible micro resistive temperature sensor to measure the junction temperature of a light emitting diode (LED). The junction temperature is typically measured using a thermal resistance measurement approach. This approach is limited in that no standard regulates the timing of data capture. This work presents a micro temperature sensor that can measure temperature stably and continuously, and has the advantages of being lightweight and able to monitor junction temperatures in real time. Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technologies are employed to minimize the size of a temperature sensor that is constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (SS-304 with 30 μm thickness). A flexible micro resistive temperature sensor can be fixed between the LED chip and the frame. The junction temperature of the LED can be measured from the linear relationship between the temperature and the resistance. The sensitivity of the micro temperature sensor is 0.059 ± 0.004 Ω/°C. The temperature of the commercial CREE(®) EZ1000 chip is 119.97 °C when it is thermally stable, as measured using the micro temperature sensor; however, it was 126.9 °C, when measured by thermal resistance measurement. The micro temperature sensor can be used to replace thermal resistance measurement and performs reliably.

  17. Pre-Observational Evolution of Surface Temperature in Romania as Inferred from Borehole Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrescu, Crisan; Tumanian, Maria; Dobrica, Venera; Mares, Constantin; Mares, Ileana

    2012-01-01

    Temperature data from nine boreholes in the Carpathian orogen in Romania were used to obtain information on the ground surface temperature history (GSTH) in the last 250 years. The temperature measurements were taken with a thermistor probe (sensitivity in the 10 mK range) using the stop-and-go technique, at 10 m intervals, in the depth range of 20-580 m. The least squares inverse modelling approach of Tarantola and Valette (J Geophys 50:159-170, 1982) was used to infer the GSTH. Long-term air temperature records available from the Romanian weather station network were used as a comparison term for the first 100-150 years of the GSTH, and as a forcing function in a POM-SAT model that combines borehole temperature profiles (BTPs) and meteorological time series (surface air temperature, SAT) to produce information on the so-called pre-observational mean (POM). Results from a global circulation model for the Romanian area are incorporated in the discussion as well.

  18. Research of temperature field measurement using a flexible temperature sensor array for robot sensing skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Siyu; Li, Ruiqi; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yugang; Liu, Caixia

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a novel temperature sensor array by dispensing conductive composites on a flexible printed circuit board which is able to acquire the ambient temperature. The flexible temperature sensor array was fabricated by using carbon fiber-filled silicon rubber based composites on a flexible polyimide circuit board, which can both ensure their high flexibility. It found that CF with 12 wt% could be served as the best conductive filler for higher temperature sensitivity and better stability comparing with some other proportion for dynamic range from 30&° to 90°. The preparation of the temperature sensitive material has also been described in detail. Connecting the flexible sensor array with a data acquisition card and a personal computer (PC), some heat sources with different shapes were loaded on the sensor array; the detected results were shown in the interface by LabVIEW software. The measured temperature contours are in good agreement with the shapes and amplitudes of different heat sources. Furthermore, in consideration of the heat dissipation in the air, the relationship between the resistance and the distance of heat sources with sensor array was also detected to verify the accuracy of the sensor array, which is also a preparation for our future work. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed flexible sensor array, and it can be used as humanoid artificial skin for sensation system of robots.

  19. EPR-based distance measurements at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumkacheva, Olesya; Bagryanskaya, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR spectroscopy is a powerful technique allowing for distance measurements between spin labels in the range of 2.5-10.0 nm. It was proposed more than 30 years ago, and nowadays is widely used in biophysics and materials science. Until recently, PD EPR experiments were limited to cryogenic temperatures (T biomolecules, the influence of a linker between the spin probe and biomolecule, and future opportunities.

  20. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2015-06-01

    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306.7nm. Measurements were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions. The measured rate constants, inferred using a mechanism-fitting approach, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as:k1=2.93×1013exp(-1350.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(890-1406K)k2=3.49×1013exp(-1449.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(906-1391K)k3=3.5×1013exp(-1407.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(908-1383K)This paper presents, to our knowledge, first high-temperature measurements of the rate constants of the reactions of xylene isomers with OH radicals. Low-temperature rate-constant measurements by Nicovich et al. (1981) were combined with the measurements in this study to obtain the following Arrhenius expressions, which are applicable over a wider temperature range:k1=2.64×1013exp(-1181.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1406K)k2=3.05×109exp(-400/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1391K)k3=3.0×109exp(-440/T)cm3mol-1s-1(526-1383K) © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  1. Temperature measurement by IR camera of heated device to high temperature during a short time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneck-Museux, Nathanaëlle; Vergé, Philippe; Judic, Jean-Pierre; Edard, Pierrick

    2015-04-01

    A device allowing heating a liquid to high temperatures during a very short time has been conceived in our laboratory. The goal of this survey is to find the suitable experimental configurations, so that tested material affected by the temperatures coved between 200 and 750°C. This study is achieved to the Solar Furnace of the DGA in Odeillo. The cavity containing the liquid is a thermocouple sleeve (capillary) in Inconel 600. Its extremity is closed tightly by a removable steel plug permitting the tightness after replenishment. An electromagnet associated to a generator of delay permit to make fall the whole after the solar irradiation in liquid nitrogen in order to stop the reaction of "deterioration" of the tested product. According to capillary dimensions and to heating time, the temperature measurement using a pyrometer is not possible. A second possibility is using thermocouple, but it is not easy to join this captor on Inconel 600. Using by infrared camera allows observing the presence or the absence of inflammation during the solar irradiation and the sleeve fall too. The measures of temperatures by thermocouple show a lot of variability. The measures comparison with those by infrared camera shows a phenomenon of "heat well". Several score of tests to the solar furnace have been achieved in different experimental configurations. Nine experimental configurations have been validated, for variable flux of 100 to 500W/cm². The observation by infrared camera permitted to validate the conceived system and to verify the homogeneity of the sleeve heated.

  2. The measurements of temperature and deformations of car radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peta, Katarzyna; Grochalski, Karol

    2017-10-01

    In the study main factors influencing the exploitative durability of the aluminum radiators used in motorization were classified. Special attention was put to thermal strains occurring during the usage of a car. The causes of theirs formation were identified, including disproportionate distribution of temperature in the construction of radiator, which changes cyclically depending on the characteristics of cooling fluid flow. In order to evaluate the influence of temperature and deformations of radiators on their durability, resistance tensometry method was used supplemented with temperature measurements with the use of thermoelements. Three linear resistive tensometers and three thermoelements were placed in the key areas of radiator (the inlet and outlet of cooling liquid to the heat exchanger and separator of the areas). Measurements were carried out during the examination of the durability of radiators on thermal shocks, which is one of the most basic examinations that imitates conditions of their work and verifies mechanical durability of products. Critical areas in the radiator were located, which are the most vulnerable to damages, including cracks. After the conducted research measurements of tightness were carried out, which verification is one of the most important requirements set for products in contact with intermediary medium in heat exchange. The study was supplemented with the observation of metallographic structures of the areas of fatigue cracks.

  3. A complex permittivity and permeability measurement system for elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The three goals of this research include: (1) to fully develop a method to measure the permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency in the range of 2.6 to 18 GHz, and of temperatures in the range of 25 to 1100 C; (2) to assist LeRC in setting up an in-house system for the measurement of high-temperature permittivity and permeability; and (3) to measure the complex permittivity and permeability of special materials as a function of frequency and temperature to demonstrate the capability of the method. The method chosen for characterizing the materials relies on perturbation of a resonant cavity with a small volume of sample material. Different field configurations in the cavity can be used to separate electric and magnetic effects. The cavity consists of a section of rectangular waveguide terminated at each end of a vertical slot iris. The center of one wall is a small hole through which the sample is introduced.

  4. Submesoscale Sea Surface Temperature Variability from UAV and Satellite Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Castro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies of spatial variability in sea surface temperature (SST using ship-based radiometric data suggested that variability at scales smaller than 1 km is significant and affects the perceived uncertainty of satellite-derived SSTs. Here, we compare data from the Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST thermal infrared radiometer flown over the Arctic Ocean against coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS measurements to assess the spatial variability of skin SSTs within 1-km pixels. By taking the standard deviation, σ, of the BESST measurements within individual MODIS pixels, we show that significant spatial variability of the skin temperature exists. The distribution of the surface variability measured by BESST shows a peak value of O(0.1 K, with 95% of the pixels showing σ < 0.45 K. Significantly, high-variability pixels are located at density fronts in the marginal ice zone, which are a primary source of submesoscale intermittency near the surface. SST wavenumber spectra indicate a spectral slope of −2, which is consistent with the presence of submesoscale processes at the ocean surface. Furthermore, the BESST wavenumber spectra not only match the energy distribution of MODIS SST spectra at the satellite-resolved wavelengths, they also span the spectral slope of −2 by ~3 decades, from wavelengths of 8 km to <0.08 km.

  5. Actual evaporation estimation from infrared measurement of soil surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pognant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the hydrological cycle, actual evaporation represents the second most important process in terms of volumes of water transported, second only to the precipitation phenomena. Several methods for the estimation of the Ea were proposed by researchers in scientific literature, but the estimation of the Ea from potential evapotranspiration often requires the knowledge of hard-to-find parameters (e.g.: vegetation morphology, vegetation cover, interception of rainfall by the canopy, evaporation from the canopy surface and uptake of water by plant roots and many existing database are characterized by missing or incomplete information that leads to a rough estimation of the actual evaporation amount. Starting from the above considerations, the aim of this study is to develop and validate a method for the estimation of the Ea based on two steps: i the potential evaporation estimation by using the meteorological data (i.e. Penman-Monteith; ii application of a correction factor based on the infrared soil surface temperature measurements. The dataset used in this study were collected during two measurement campaigns conducted both in a plain testing site (Grugliasco, Italy, and in a mountain South-East facing slope (Cogne, Italy. During those periods, hourly measurement of air temperature, wind speed, infrared surface temperature, soil heat flux, and soil water content were collected. Results from the dataset collected in the two testing sites show a good agreement between the proposed method and reference methods used for the Ea estimation.

  6. Measuring the temperature history of isochorically heated warm dense metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, Chris; Kim, J.; Park, J.; Moody, J.; Emig, J.; Heeter, B.; Dozieres, M.; Beg, Fn; McLean, Hs

    2017-10-01

    A pump-probe platform has been designed for soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy near edge structure measurements in isochorically heated Al or Cu samples with temperature of 10s to 100s of eV. The method is compatible with dual picosecond-class laser systems and may be used to measure the temperature of the sample heated directly by the pump laser or by a laser-driven proton beam Knowledge of the temperature history of warm dense samples will aid equation of state measurements. First, various low- to mid-Z targets were evaluated for their suitability as continuum X-ray backlighters over the range 200-1800 eV using a 10 J picosecond-class laser with relativistic peak intensity Alloys were found to be more suitable than single-element backlighters. Second, the heated sample package was designed with consideration of target thickness and tamp layers using atomic physics codes. The results of the first demonstration attempts will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-SC0014600.

  7. High temperature measurements of martensitic transformations using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesing, Benjamin P; Mann, Christopher J; Dryepondt, Sebastien

    2013-07-01

    During thermal cycling of nickel-aluminum-platinum (NiAlPt) and single crystal iron-chromium-nickel (FeCrNi) alloys, the structural changes associated with the martensite to austenite phase transformation were measured using dual-wavelength digital holography. Real-time in situ measurements reveal the formation of striations within the NiAlPt alloy at 70°C and the FeCrNi alloy at 520°C. The results demonstrate that digital holography is an effective technique for acquiring noncontact, high precision information of the surface evolution of alloys at high temperatures.

  8. Laser metrology in fluid mechanics granulometry, temperature and concentration measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boutier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption sp

  9. High-resolution measurements of humidity and temperature with lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Spaeth, Florian; Hammann, Eva; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    3-dimensional thermodynamic fields of temperature and moisture including their turbulent fluctuations have been observed with the two scanning lidar systems of University of Hohenheim in three field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. In this contribution, we will introduce these two self-developed instruments and illustrate their performance with measurement examples. Finally, an outlook to envisioned future research activities with the new data sets of the instruments is given. Our temperature lidar is based on the rotational Raman technique. The scanning rotational Raman lidar (RRL) uses a seeded frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. A two-mirror scanner with a 40-cm telescope collects the atmospheric backscatter signals. Humidity measurements are made with a scanning water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) which uses a titanium sapphire laser at 820 nm as transmitter. This laser is pumped with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and injection-seeded for switching between the online and offline wavelengths. The DIAL receiver consists of a scanning 80-cm telescope. The measured temperature and humidity profiles of both instruments have typical resolutions of only a few seconds and 100 m in the atmospheric boundary layer both in day- and night-time. Recent field experiments with the RRL and the DIAL of University of Hohenheim were (1) the HD(CP)2 Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013 in western Germany - this activity is embedded in the project HD(CP)2 (High-definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction); (2) a measurement campaign in Hohenheim in autumn 2013; (3) the campaign SABLE (Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange) in south-western Germany in summer 2014. The collected moisture and temperature data will serve as initial thermodynamic fields for forecast experiments related to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Due to their high resolution and high precision, the systems are capable of resolving

  10. Measurements on insulating materials at cryogenic temperatures. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    Progress made to date on developing instrumentation and measurement methodology for studying high-voltage dielectric losses at cryogenic temperatures is detailed. The work described has been done in support of ERDA-funded ac superconducting transmission line projects at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the Linde Division of the Union Carbide Corporation (UCC-Linde). Dissipation factor measurements have been made at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K and at stresses up to 40 kV/mm. Care has been taken to insure that errors in dissipation factor measurements are less than +-1 x 10/sup -6/. Sample dielectrics have included polymer tapes of interest to BNL and epoxy spacer material of interest to UCC-Linde. When dissipation factor measurements are made at high voltage, losses at sample interfaces become important. Flexible superconducting cables are designed to have many layers of coaxially wound plastic tape serving as the insulation. The spaces between tape layers will be impregnated with helium at pressures up to 1.5 MPa. Plans to investigate high-voltage dielectric losses under these conditions are discussed including a technique for measuring partial discharges using pulse-height analysis.

  11. Experimental temperature measurements for the energy amplifier test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calero, J. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Cennini, P. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Galvez, J. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Garcia Tabares, L. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Jaren, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorente, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martinez Val, J.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Oropesa, J. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rubbia, C. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rubio, J.A. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Saldana, F. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Tamarit, J. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Vieira, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    1996-06-21

    A uranium thermometer has been designed and built in order to make local power measurements in the first energy amplifier test (FEAT). Due to the experimental conditions power measurements of tens to hundreds of nW were required, implying a sensitivity in the temperature change measurements of the order of 1 mK. A uranium thermometer accurate enough to match that sensitivity has been built. The thermometer is able to determine the absolute energetic gain obtained in a tiny subcritical uranium assembly exposed to a proton beam of kinetic energies between 600 MeV and 2.75 GeV. In addition, the thermometer measurements have provided information about the spatial power distribution and the shape of the neutron spallation cascade. (orig.).

  12. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-10-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

  13. The validity of temperature-sensitive ingestible capsules for measuring core body temperature in laboratory protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwent, David; Zhou, Xuan; van den Heuvel, Cameron; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Greg D

    2011-10-01

    The human core body temperature (CBT) rhythm is tightly coupled to an endogenous circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus. The standard method for assessing the status of this pacemaker is by continuous sampling of CBT using rectal thermometry. This research sought to validate the use of ingestible, temperature-sensitive capsules to measure CBT as an alternative to rectal thermometry. Participants were 11 young adult males who had volunteered to complete a laboratory protocol that extended across 12 consecutive days. A total of 87 functional capsules were ingested and eliminated by participants during the laboratory internment. Core body temperature samples were collected in 1-min epochs and compared to paired samples collected concurrently via rectal thermistors. Agreement between samples that were collected using ingestible sensors and rectal thermistors was assessed using the gold-standard limits of agreement method. Across all valid paired samples collected during the study (n = 120,126), the mean difference was 0.06°C, whereas the 95% CI (confidence interval) for differences was less than ±0.35°C. Despite the overall acceptable limits of agreement, systematic measurement bias was noted across the initial 5 h of sensor-transit periods and attributed to temperature gradations across the alimentary canal.

  14. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  15. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C N; Gebremedhin, K G; Parkhurst, A; Hillman, P E

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  16. Insulated skin temperature as a measure of core body temperature for individuals wearing CBRN protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, V L; Wilkinson, D M; Blacker, S D; Horner, F E; Carter, J; Havenith, G; Rayson, M P

    2013-11-01

    This study assessed the validity of insulated skin temperature (Tis) to predict rectal temperature (Tre) for use as a non-invasive measurement of thermal strain to reduce the risk of heat illness for emergency service personnel. Volunteers from the Police, Fire and Rescue, and Ambulance Services performed role-related tasks in hot (30 °C) and neutral (18 °C) conditions, wearing service specific personal protective equipment. Insulated skin temperature and micro climate temperature (Tmc) predicted Tre with an adjusted r(2) = 0.87 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 0.19 °C. A bootstrap validation of the equation resulted in an adjusted r(2) = 0.85 and SEE = 0.20 °C. Taking into account the 0.20 °C error, the prediction of Tre resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 91%, respectively. Insulated skin temperature and Tmc can be used in a model to predict Tre in emergency service personnel wearing CBRN protective clothing with an SEE of 0.2 °C. However, the model is only valid for Tis over 36.5 °C, above which thermal stability is reached between the core and the skin.

  17. Registered Report: Measuring Unconscious Deception Detection by Skin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth Van 't Veer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers. To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments.

  18. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar S. Kolosovas-Machuca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p<0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p<0.001 and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  19. CARS temperature measurements in a hypersonic propulsion test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Smith, M. W.; Antcliff, R. R.; Northam, G. B.; Cutler, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Static-temperature measurements performed in a reacting vitiated air-hydrogen Mach-2 flow in a duct in Test Cell 2 at NASA LaRC by using a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system are discussed. The hypersonic propulsion Test Cell 2 hardware is outlined with emphasis on optical access ports and safety features in the design of the Test Cell. Such design considerations as vibration, noise, contamination from flow field or atmospheric-borne dust, unwanted laser- and electrically-induced combustion, and movement of the sampling volume in the flow are presented. The CARS system is described, and focus is placed on the principle and components of system-to-monochromator signal coupling. Contour plots of scramjet combustor static temperature in a reacting-flow region are presented for three stations, and it is noted that the measurements reveal such features in the flow as maximum temperature near the model wall in the region of the injector footprint.

  20. Instantaneous Temperature Measurements using Constant-Voltage Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte-Bellot, Genevieve; Berson, Arganthael; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Jondeau, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    Up to now, cold wires have been operated by constant-current anemometers, with a classic thermal inertia correction based on the mean value of the cold wire time constant [Lemay, Benaïssa & Antonia, Exp. Thermal & Fluid Sci, 2003, 27,133-143] or with a new correction method making use of the instantaneous value of the cold wire thermal lag [Berson, Poignand, Blanc-Benon & Comte-Bellot, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2010, 81, 015102]. The latter correction method is applied to the constant-voltage anemometer and temperature measurements are presented for the first time with such a device. Two constant-voltage anemometers are used for the instantaneous measurement of temperature fluctuations in unsteady flows. The first one is a new prototype elaborated by Tao Systems Inc. and adapted to fine wires with a resistance between 30 and 100 ohms. It operates a cold wire whose resistance varies with the temperature of the surrounding fluid. The second anemometer is a commercial system by the same company. It operates a hot wire, from which the instantaneous effect of the thermal inertia of the cold wire is determined. Results are presented for two flows: (i) a heated turbulent jet and (ii) an acoustic standing wave inside a resonator where flow reversal occurs.

  1. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  2. Air temperature measurements based on the speed of sound to compensate long distance interferometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrua Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure the real time temperature distribution along an interferometer path based on the propagation of acoustic waves is presented. It exploits the high sensitivity of the speed of sound in air to the air temperature. In particular, it takes advantage of a special set-up where the generation of the acoustic waves is synchronous with the amplitude modulation of a laser source. A photodetector converts the laser light to an electronic signal considered as reference, while the incoming acoustic waves are focused on a microphone and generate a second signal. In this condition, the phase difference between the two signals substantially depends on the temperature of the air volume interposed between the sources and the receivers. The comparison with the traditional temperature sensors highlighted the limit of the latter in case of fast temperature variations and the advantage of a measurement integrated along the optical path instead of a sampling measurement. The capability of the acoustic method to compensate the interferometric distance measurements due to air temperature variations has been demonstrated for distances up to 27 m.

  3. The Measurement and Interpretation of Transformation Temperatures in Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerig, T. W.; Pelton, A. R.; Bhattacharya, K.

    2017-12-01

    A previous paper (Duerig and Bhattacharya in Shap Mem Superelasticity 1:153-161, 2015) introduced several engineering considerations surrounding the R-phase in Nitinol and highlighted a common, if not pervasive, misconception regarding the use of the term Af by the medical device industry. This paper brings additional data to bear on the issue and proposes more accurate terminology. Moreover, a variety of tools are used to establish the forward and reverse stress-temperature phase diagrams for a superelastic wire typical of that used in medical devices. Once established, the two most common methods of measuring transformation temperatures, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Bend Free Recovery, are tested against the observed behavior. Light is also shed upon the origin of the Clausius-Clapeyron ratio (d σ/d T), the triple point, and why such large variations are reported in superelastic alloys.

  4. Measurement system for temperature dependent noise characterization of magnetoresistive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nording, F.; Weber, S.; Ludwig, F.; Schilling, M.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoresistive (MR) sensors and sensor systems are used in a large variety of applications in the field of industrial automation, automotive business, aeronautic industries, and instrumentation. Different MR sensor technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistive, giant magnetoresistive, and tunnel magnetoresistive sensors show strongly varying properties in terms of magnetoresistive effect, response to magnetic fields, achievable element miniaturization, manufacturing effort, and signal-to-noise ratio. Very few data have been reported so far on the comparison of noise performance for different sensor models and technologies, especially including the temperature dependence of their characteristics. In this paper, a stand-alone measurement setup is presented that allows a comprehensive characterization of MR sensors including sensitivity and noise over a wide range of temperatures.

  5. Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique Rafique Memon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have proposed a cost effective DAQ (Data Acquisition system design useful for local industries by using user friendly LABVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Electronic Workbench. The proposed system can measure and control different industrial parameters which can be presented in graphical icon format. The system design is proposed for 8-channels, whereas tested and recorded for two parameters i.e. temperature and RH (Relative Humidity. Both parameters are set as per upper and lower limits and controlled using relays. Embedded system is developed using standard microcontroller to acquire and process the analog data and plug-in for further processing using serial interface with PC using LABVIEW. The designed system is capable of monitoring and recording the corresponding linkage between temperature and humidity in industrial unit's and indicates the abnormalities within the process and control those abnormalities through relays

  6. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  7. Are Sea Surface Temperature satellite measurements reliable proxies of lagoon temperature in the South Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberge, Simon; Menkes, Christophe; Le Gendre, Romain; Passfield, Teuru; Andréfouët, Serge

    2017-12-01

    In remote coral reef environments, lagoon and reef in situ measurements of temperature are scarce. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measured by satellite has been frequently used as a proxy of the lagoon temperature experienced by coral reef organisms (TL) especially during coral bleaching events. However, the link between SST and TL is poorly characterized. First, we compared the correlation between various SST series and TL from 2012 to 2016 in three atolls and one island in the Central South Pacific Ocean. Simple linear correlation between SST and TL ranged between 0.44 and 0.97 depending on lagoons, localities of sensors, and type of SST data. High-resolution-satellite-measurements of SST inside the lagoons did not outperform oceanic SST series, suggesting that SST products are not adapted for small lagoons. Second, we modelled the difference between oceanic SST and TL as a function of the drivers of lagoon water renewal and mixing, namely waves, tide, wind, and season. The multivariate models reduced significantly the bias between oceanic SST and TL. In atoll lagoons, and probably in other hydrodynamically semi-open systems, a correction taking into account these factors is necessary when SST are used to characterize organisms' thermal stress thresholds.

  8. Hydroxyl temperature and intensity measurements during noctilucent cloud displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Taylor

    Full Text Available Two Fourier transform spectrometers have been used to investigate the properties of the near-infrared hydroxyl (OH nightglow emission under high-latitude summertime conditions and any association with noctilucent clouds (NLCs. The measurements were made from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska (65.1°N, 147.5°W, during August 1986. Simultaneous photographic observations of the northern twilight sky were made from Gulkana, Alaska (62.2°N, 145.5°W, approximately 340 km to the south to establish the presence of NLCs over the spectrometer site. Data exhibiting significant short-term variations in the relative intensity (as much as 50–100% and rotational temperature (typically 5–15 K were recorded on six occasions when NLCs were observed. Joint measurements were also obtained on several "cloud-free" nights. No obvious relationship was found linking the mean OH intensity or its variation with the occurrence of NLCs. However, a clear tendency was found for the mean OH temperature to be lower on NLC nights than on cloud-free nights. In particular, a significant fraction of the OH(3–1 band spectra recorded by each instrument (16–57% exhibited temperatures below ~154 K on NLC nights compared with <3% on cloud-free nights. This result is qualitatively consistent with current models for ice particle nucleation and growth, but the mean OH temperature on NLC nights (~156 K was significantly higher than would be expected for long-term particle growth in this region. These observations raise questions concerning the expected proximity of the high-latitude, summertime OH layer and the NLC growth region.

  9. Investigation of the limits of a fibre optic sensor system for measurement of temperature distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Johnson, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an innovative temperature sensor system which is able to measure the temperature distribution along a fibre optical cable. This technique for temperature measurement is based on Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR).......The aim of this project is to develop an innovative temperature sensor system which is able to measure the temperature distribution along a fibre optical cable. This technique for temperature measurement is based on Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR)....

  10. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  11. Measuring information-based energy and temperature of literary texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chu; Yang, Albert C.-C.; Eugene Stanley, H.; Peng, C.-K.

    2017-02-01

    We apply a statistical method, information-based energy, to quantify informative symbolic sequences. To apply this method to literary texts, it is assumed that different words with different occurrence frequencies are at different energy levels, and that the energy-occurrence frequency distribution obeys a Boltzmann distribution. The temperature within the Boltzmann distribution can be an indicator for the author's writing capacity as the repertory of thoughts. The relative temperature of a text is obtained by comparing the energy-occurrence frequency distributions of words collected from one text versus from all texts of the same author. Combining the relative temperature with the Shannon entropy as the text complexity, the information-based energy of the text is defined and can be viewed as a quantitative evaluation of an author's writing performance. We demonstrate the method by analyzing two authors, Shakespeare in English and Jin Yong in Chinese, and find that their well-known works are associated with higher information-based energies. This method can be used to measure the creativity level of a writer's work in linguistics, and can also quantify symbolic sequences in different systems.

  12. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R2=0.946 and R2=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. PMID:22721687

  13. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. IR Temperature Measurement in Pressure-Shear Plate Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Tong; Malhotra, Pinkesh; Clifton, Rodney; School of Engineering, Brown University Team

    2017-06-01

    Pressure-Shear Plate Impact (PSPI) experiments on samples sandwiched between two hard plates have been developed previously for measuring the shearing resistance of materials at high strain rates, large inelastic shear strains, and high pressures. To enhance the value of such experiments in developing constitutive models for the dynamic response of materials, concurrent temperature measurements are being pursued by monitoring the infrared radiation emitted from the sample/rear-plate interface. The emitted radiation is collected by fast HgCdTe detectors through a pair of 90o off-axis parabolic reflectors. ZnSe is used as the rear plate (window) because its transmission band (0.6 μm -16 μm) covers an exceptionally wide range of wavelengths - extending beyond the cutoff wavelength of the IR detector. Moreover, ZnSe remains nominally linear-elastic up to a pressure of 12 GPa - encompassing the pressure range for most PSPI experiments. Because temperatures generated in PSPI experiments are modest, the emissivity of the interface is increased by applying a thin layer of SiC at the sample/window interface. The high shearing resistance of SiC ensures that the allowable range of shear stresses is not limited by the presence of the high-emissivity layer. Pilot experiments will be assessed for their potential and limitations. This work is supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  15. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  16. Development of a method for estimating oesophageal temperature by multi-locational temperature measurement inside the external auditory canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Hirofumi; Horie, Seichi; Kawanami, Shoko; Inoue, Jinro; Iijima, Yoshinori; Sato, Kiyoharu; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to develop a practical method to estimate oesophageal temperature by measuring multi-locational auditory canal temperatures. This method can be applied to prevent heatstroke by simultaneously and continuously monitoring the core temperatures of people working under hot environments. We asked 11 healthy male volunteers to exercise, generating 80 W for 45 min in a climatic chamber set at 24, 32 and 40 °C, at 50% relative humidity. We also exposed the participants to radiation at 32 °C. We continuously measured temperatures at the oesophagus, rectum and three different locations along the external auditory canal. We developed equations for estimating oesophageal temperatures from auditory canal temperatures and compared their fitness and errors. The rectal temperature increased or decreased faster than oesophageal temperature at the start or end of exercise in all conditions. Estimated temperature showed good similarity with oesophageal temperature, and the square of the correlation coefficient of the best fitting model reached 0.904. We observed intermediate values between rectal and oesophageal temperatures during the rest phase. Even under the condition with radiation, estimated oesophageal temperature demonstrated concordant movement with oesophageal temperature at around 0.1 °C overestimation. Our method measured temperatures at three different locations along the external auditory canal. We confirmed that the approach can credibly estimate the oesophageal temperature from 24 to 40 °C for people performing exercise in the same place in a windless environment.

  17. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  18. Implementation of Moderator Circulation Test Temperature Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yeong Muk; Hong, Seok Boong; Kim, Min Seok; Choi, Hwa Rim [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Shin [Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Moderator Circulation Test(MCT) facility is 1/4 scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. MCT is an equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started implementation of MCT Temperature Measurement System (TMS) using multiple infrared sensors. To control multiple infrared sensors, MCT TMS is implemented using National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The MCT TMS is implemented to measure sensor data of multiple infrared sensors using the LabVIEW. The 35 sensor pipes of MCT TMS are divided into 2 ports to meet the minimum measurement time of 0.2 seconds. The software of MCT TMS is designed using collection function and processing function. The MCT TMS has the function of monitoring the states of multiple infrared sensors. The GUI screen of MCT TMS is composed of sensor pipe categories for user.

  19. Comparison of Measurements of Internal Temperatures in Ablation Material by Various Thermocouple Configurations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dow, Marvin

    1964-01-01

    .... The measurement of internal temperatures in materials with low values of thermal conductivity subjected to severe heating by thermocouples requires that the thermocouple produce a minimum temperature...

  20. Optical measurement system for non-contact temperature profile

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available colours or shades depending upon the temperature range and mean temperature selected. The bright regions in the thermal image indicate high temperatures and the dark regions indicate low temperatures. In this study we make use of laser heating of High...

  1. Assessment for Melting Temperature Measurement of Nucleic Acid by HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution melting (HRM, with a high sensitivity to distinguish the nucleic acid species with small variations, has been widely applied in the mutation scanning, methylation analysis, and genotyping. For the aim of extending HRM for the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid secondary structures on sequence dependence, we investigated effects of the dye of EvaGreen, metal ions, and impurities (such as dNTPs on melting temperature (Tm measurement by HRM. The accuracy of HRM was assessed as compared with UV melting method, and little difference between the two methods was found when the DNA Tm was higher than 40°C. Both insufficiency and excessiveness of EvaGreen were found to give rise to a little bit higher Tm, showing that the proportion of dye should be considered for precise Tm measurement of nucleic acids. Finally, HRM method was also successfully used to measure Tms of DNA triplex, hairpin, and RNA duplex. In conclusion, HRM can be applied in the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA or secondary structural elements (even when dNTPs are present.

  2. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The Vapor Liquid Equilibrium measurement setup of this work was first established several years ago. It is a flow type high temperature high pressure apparatus which was designed to operate below 500 C temperature and 2000 psia pressure. Compared with the static method, this method has three major advantages: the first is that large quantity of sample can be obtained from the system without disturbing the equilibrium state which was established before; the second is that the residence time of the sample in the equilibrium cell is greatly reduced, thus decomposition or contamination of the sample can be effectively prevented; the third is that the flow system allows the sample to degas as it heats up since any non condensable gas will exit in the vapor stream, accumulate in the vapor condenser, and not be recirculated. The first few runs were made with Quinoline-Tetralin system, the results were fairly in agreement with the literature data . The former graduate student Amad used the same apparatus acquired the Benzene-Ethylbenzene system VLE data. This work used basically the same setup (several modifications had been made) to get the VLE data of Ethylbenzene-Quinoline system.

  3. Improved Creep Measurements for Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Ye, X.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2010-01-01

    Our team has developed a novel approach to measuring creep at extremely high temperatures using electrostatic levitation (ESL). This method has been demonstrated on niobium up to 2300 C, while ESL has melted tungsten (3400 C). This method has been extended to lower temperatures and higher stresses and applied to new materials, including a niobium-based superalloy, MASC. High-precision machined spheres of the sample are levitated in the NASA MSFC ESL, a national user facility and heated with a laser. The samples are rotated with an induction motor at up to 30,000 revolutions per second. The rapid rotation loads the sample through centripetal acceleration, producing a shear stress of about 60 MPa at the center, causing the sample to deform. The deformation of the sample is captured on high-speed video, which is analyzed by machine-vision software from the University of Massachusetts. The deformations are compared to finite element models to determine the constitutive constants in the creep relation. Furthermore, the non-contact method exploits stress gradients within the sample to determine the stress exponent in a single test.

  4. Electrochemical noise measurements of stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis-Juarez, C.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares Km. 36.5, Carretera Federal Mexico-Toluca, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, C.P. 52045, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Malo, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, C.P. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], E-mail: jmmalo@iie.org.mx; Uruchurtu, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    Corrosion in a high purity aqueous environment simulating a boiling water reactor (BWR) is addressed in this work. This condition necessitates autoclave experiments under high pressure and temperature. Long-term electrochemical noise measurements were explored as a mean to detect and monitor stress corrosion cracking phenomenon. An experimental set up, designed to insulate the working electrode from external interference, made possible to detect and monitor stress corrosion cracking in slow strain rate tests for sensitized and solution annealed 304 stainless steel at 288 {sup o}C. Time-series analysis showed variations in the signature of the current density series due to transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC)

  5. Experiment of electrical conductivity at low temperature (preliminary measurement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, H.

    1998-07-01

    A muon collider needs very large amount of RF power, how to reduce the RF power consumption is of major concern. Thus the application of liquid nitrogen cooling has been proposed. However, it is known that the electrical conductivity depends on many factors and the data from different sources vary in a wide range, especially the data of conductivity of beryllium has no demonstration in a real application. Therefore it is important to know the conductivity of materials, which are commercially available, and at a specified frequency. Here, the results of the preliminary measurement on the electrical conductivity of copper at liquid nitrogen temperature are summarized. Addressed also are the data fitting method and the linear expansion of copper.

  6. Raman Channel Temperature Measurement of SiC MESFET as a Function of Ambient Temperature and DC Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey J.; Krainsky, Isay L.

    2009-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to measure the junction temperature of a Cree SiC MESFET as a function of the ambient temperature and DC power. The carrier temperature, which is approximately equal to the ambient temperature, is varied from 25 C to 450 C, and the transistor is biased with VDS=10V and IDS of 50 mA and 100 mA. It is shown that the junction temperature is approximately 52 and 100 C higher than the ambient temperature for the DC power of 500 and 1000 mW, respectively.

  7. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to measure...

  8. SMEX03 Surface and Soil Temperature Measurements: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains land surface temperature and soil temperature data at depths of 1 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003...

  9. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2002-10-29

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  10. In situ gas temperature measurements by UV-absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2009-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of the NO A(2)Sigma(+) situ evaluation of gas temperature. Experiments were performed with a newly developed atmospheric-pressure high-temperature flow gas cell at highly uniform and stable gas temperatures over a 0.533 m path...

  11. Temperature dependence of ferromagnetic resonance measurements in nanostructured line arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposo V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of temperature on the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra of nanostructured line arrays. Different temperature dependences are observed for permalloy an nickel based samples. The qualitative features of the temperature dependence of the resonance field and linewidth can be described by the usual expression of slow relaxing linewidth mechanism and Bloch equation.

  12. Tack Measurements of Prepreg Tape at Variable Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher; Palmieri, Frank L.; Forghani, Alireza; Hickmott, Curtis; Bedayat, Houman; Coxon, Brian; Poursartip, Anoush; Grimsley, Brian

    2017-01-01

    NASA’s Advanced Composites Project has established the goal of achieving a 30 percent reduction in the timeline for certification of primary composite structures for application on commercial aircraft. Prepreg tack is one of several critical parameters affecting composite manufacturing by automated fiber placement (AFP). Tack plays a central role in the prevention of wrinkles and puckers that can occur during AFP, thus knowledge of tack variation arising from a myriad of manufacturing and environmental conditions is imperative for the prediction of defects during AFP. A full design of experiments was performed to experimentally characterize tack on 0.25-inch slit-tape tow IM7/8552-1 prepreg using probe tack testing. Several process parameters (contact force, contact time, retraction speed, and probe diameter) as well as environmental parameters (temperature and humidity) were varied such that the entire parameter space could be efficiently evaluated. Mid-point experimental conditions (i.e., parameters not at either extrema) were included to enable prediction of curvature in relationships and repeat measurements were performed to characterize experimental error. Collectively, these experiments enable determination of primary dependencies as well as multi-parameter relationships. Slit-tape tow samples were mounted to the bottom plate of a rheometer parallel plate fixture using a jig to prevent modification of the active area to be interrogated with the top plate, a polished stainless steel probe, during tack testing. The probe surface was slowly brought into contact with the pre-preg surface until a pre-determined normal force was achieved (2-30 newtons). After a specified dwell time (0.02-10 seconds), during which the probe substrate interaction was maintained under displacement control, the probe was retracted from the surface (0.1-50 millimeters per second). Initial results indicated a clear dependence of tack strength on several parameters, with a particularly

  13. Comparison of three methods of temperature measurement in hypothermic, euthermic, and hyperthermic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Rebecca J; Cohn, Leah A; Dodam, John R; Wagner-Mann, Colette C; Mann, F A

    2007-06-15

    To assess the reliability and accuracy of a predictive rectal thermometer, an infrared auricular thermometer designed for veterinary use, and a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip for measurement of core body temperature over various temperature conditions in dogs. Prospective study. 8 purpose-bred dogs. A minimum of 7 days prior to study commencement, a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip was implanted in 1 of 3 locations (interscapular, lateral aspect of shoulder, or sacral region) in each dog. For comparison with temperatures measured via rectal thermometer, infrared auricular thermometer, and microchip, core body temperature was measured via a thermistor-tipped pulmonary artery (TTPA) catheter. Hypothermia was induced during anesthesia at the time of TTPA catheter placement; on 3 occasions after placement of the catheter, hyperthermia was induced via administration of a low dose of endotoxin. Near-simultaneous duplicate temperature measurements were recorded from the TTPA catheter, the rectal thermometer, auricular thermometer, and subcutaneous microchips during hypothermia, euthermia, and hyperthermia. Reliability (variability) of temperature measurement for each device and agreement between each device measurement and core body temperature were assessed. Variability between duplicate near-simultaneous temperature measurements was greatest for the auricular thermometer and least for the TTPA catheter. Measurements obtained by use of the rectal thermometer were in closest agreement with core body temperature; for all other devices, temperature readings typically underestimated core body temperature. Among the 3 methods of temperature measurement, rectal thermometry provided the most accurate estimation of core body temperature in dogs.

  14. Measurements of temperature of the tungsten hexa-ethoxide pyrolysis flame using IR camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudau, AE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In laser pyrolysis, temperature measurement and control plays a vital role during the development of nanoparticles. Authors present the results of temperature measurements using infrared camera on a tungsten hexa-ethoxide pyrolysis flame used...

  15. Determination of temperature and concentrations of main components in flames by fitting measured Raman spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; Toro, V.V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    The procedure of deriving flame temperature and major species concentrations by fitting measured Raman spectra in hydrocarbon flames is described. The approach simplifies the calibration procedure to determine temperature and major species concentrations from the measured Raman spectra. The

  16. Comparison of measured and calculated temperatures for a Mach 8 hypersonic wing test structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, R. D.; Fields, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Structural temperatures were measured on a hypersonic wing test structure during a heating test that simulated a Mach 8 thermal environment. Measured data are compared to design calculations and temperature predictions obtained from a finite-difference thermal analysis.

  17. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  18. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [Norton Energy Research & Development, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  19. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Butler, Hannah; Trantham, Matt; Mussack, Katie; Colgan, James; Fontes, Chris; Guzik, Joyce; Kilcrease, David; Perry, Ted; Orban, Chris; Ducret, Jean-Eric; La Pennec, Maelle; Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine; Mancini, Roberto; Heeter, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al., 2015]. Repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for low-Z elements [Colgan, 2013, Armstrong 2014], however no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDLP, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the NLUF Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719, and through the LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under No. DE-NA0001944.

  20. Penetrative convection in stratified fluids: velocity and temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The flux through the interface between a mixing layer and a stable layer plays a fundamental role in characterizing and forecasting the quality of water in stratified lakes and in the oceans, and the quality of air in the atmosphere. The evolution of the mixing layer in a stably stratified fluid body is simulated in the laboratory when "Penetrative Convection" occurs. The laboratory model consists of a tank filled with water and subjected to heating from below. The methods employed to detect the mixing layer growth were thermocouples for temperature data and two image analysis techniques, namely Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF and Feature Tracking (FT. LIF allows the mixing layer evolution to be visualized. Feature Tracking is used to detect tracer particle trajectories moving within the measurement volume. Pollutant dispersion phenomena are naturally described in the Lagrangian approach as the pollutant acts as a tag of the fluid particles. The transilient matrix represents one of the possible tools available for quantifying particle dispersion during the evolution of the phenomenon.

  1. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1999-02-20

    It is well known that the fluid phase equilibria can be represented by a number of {gamma}-models , but unfortunately most of them do not function well under high temperature. In this calculation, we mainly investigate the performance of UNIQUAC and NRTL models under high temperature, using temperature dependent parameters rather than using the original formulas. the other feature of this calculation is that we try to relate the excess Gibbs energy G{sup E}and enthalpy of mixing H{sup E}simultaneously. In other words, we will use the high temperature and pressure G{sup E} and H{sup E}data to regress the temperature dependant parameters to find out which model and what kind of temperature dependant parameters should be used.

  2. A new computer method for temperature measurement based on an optimal control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damean, N.; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    1996-01-01

    A new computer method to measure extreme temperatures is presented. The method reduces the measurement of the unknown temperature to the solving of an optimal control problem, using a numerical computer. Based on this method, a new device for temperature measurement is built. It consists of a

  3. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  4. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Measurements in a Large-Scale, Supersonic, Heated Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Bivolaru, D.; Tedder, S.; Cutler, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Two laser-based measurement techniques have been used to characterize an axisymmetric, combustion-heated supersonic jet issuing into static room air. The dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurement technique measured temperature and concentration while the interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) method simultaneously measured two components of velocity. This paper reports a preliminary analysis of CARS-IRS temperature and velocity measurements from selected measurement locations. The temperature measurements show that the temperature along the jet axis remains constant while dropping off radially. The velocity measurements show that the nozzle exit velocity fluctuations are about 3% of the maximum velocity in the flow.

  5. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Chen, Wen; Hulley, Glynn; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hook, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Information on Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be generated from observations made from satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as MODIS and ASTER and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Both observations have unique advantages, however, when combined, introduced are challenges related to inhomogeneity of the resulting information. NASA has identified a major need for developing long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are consistent across multiple missions and satellite sensors. Under a project titled: "A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Earth System Data Record (ESDR) for Earth Science" led by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, such an effort is underway. In this presentation we will describe part of that effort, dealing with the generation of an approach to derive LST information from the GOES satellites from 2000 and onward. Since implementation of the well-established split window approach is not possible after mid-2003 (will be possible again after the launch of GOES-R in October of 2016), there is a need to focus on retrievals from a single thermal channel in order to provide continuity in the LST record. The methodology development requires the generation of consistently calibrated GOES observations, identification of clear sky radiances, and development of retrieval algorithms that benefit from most recent advances in related fields that provide auxiliary information required for driving the inference schemes. Results will be presented from two approaches. One is based on a regression approach that utilizes a wide range of simulations using MODTRAN, SeeBor Version 5.0 global atmospheric profiles and. The second approach uses MERRA-2 reanalysis fields with the RTTOV radiative transfer model approach to derive LST from the LEO satellites, adjusted for the GEO characteristics. The advantage of this latter approach is in the consistency between this retrieval approaches and those used at JPL

  6. Comparison between core temperatures measured telemetrically using the CorTemp® ingestible temperature sensor and rectal temperature in healthy Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinchuk, Stephanie; Taylor, Susan M; Shmon, Cindy L; Pharr, John; Campbell, John

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the CorTemp(®) ingestible telemetric core body temperature sensor in dogs, to establish the relationship between rectal temperature and telemetrically measured core body temperature at rest and during exercise, and to examine the effect of sensor location in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract on measured core temperature. CorTemp(®) sensors were administered orally to fasted Labrador retriever dogs and radiographs were taken to document sensor location. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a 10-minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach (120 to 610 min) was variable. Measured core temperature was consistently higher than rectal temperature across all GI locations but temperature differences based on GI location were not significant (P = 0.5218). Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0.4°C above their rectal temperature with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) between 1.2°C and -0.5°C. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0.3°C higher than their concurrent rectal temperature, with LoA of +1.6°C and -1.1°C.

  7. Equilibrium adsorption data from temperature-programmed desorption measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeth, F.; Mugge, J.M.; van der Vaart, R.; van der Vaart, Rick; Bosch, H.; Reith, T.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a novel method that enables the calculation of a series of adsorption isotherms basically from a single Temperature-Programmed Desorption (TPD) experiment. The basic idea is to saturate an adsorbent packed in a fixed bed at a certain feed concentration and temperature and to

  8. A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    the signal to noise by contributing significantly to the overall system temperature. The power spectrum is ... the input of the circulator, the second term represents the thermal noise contribution from the feed assembly .... calibrated platinum resistance thermometer is estimated to give the temperature of liquid nitrogen baths ...

  9. Microchip-based body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Lohse, Louise

    In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs.......In the present study, we tested whether an electronic identification and body temperature monitorring technology presently applied in small experimental animals could be transferred for use in pigs....

  10. NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

  11. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Mussack, Katie; Orban, Chris; Colgan, James; Ducret, Jean-Eric; Fontes, Christopher J.; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Heeter, Robert F.; Kilcrease, Dave; Le Pennec, Maelle; Mancini, Roberto; Perry, Ted; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Trantham, Matt

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. This discrepancy has led to an investigation of opacities through laboratory experiments and improved opacity models for many of the larger contributors to the sun’s opacity, including iron and oxygen. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al, 2015]. Although these results are still controversial, repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for C, O and Fe to address the solar abundance issue [Colgan, 2013]. Armstrong et al [2014] have also implemented changes in the ATOMIC code for low-Z elements. However, no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions.This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDPLP, grant No. DE-NA0001840, and the NLUF Program, grant No. DE-NA0000850, and through LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  12. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  13. Thermocouple temperature measurements in shock-compressed solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, D. D.; Sheffield, S. A.

    1980-10-01

    The emf produced by 5-μm-thick foil thermocouples when subjected to shock loading was studied over a stress range from 0.5 to 10 GPa. Thermocouples of either copper and constantan or chromel and alumel were embedded in the host materials, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Epon 828 epoxy, single-crystal Al2O3, or vitreous SiO2. The observed emf history rises to a plateau in a period that varied from less than 100 ns for Al2O3 to about 500 ns for PMMA. Temperatures inferred from the constant-voltage portion of the records using standard thermocouple tables (corrected for pressure) compare favorably with calculated temperatures for PMMA and epoxy below 2.0 and 4.5 GPa, respectively. Above these threshold stresses, the observed temperatures increase rapidly with compression, which may indicate an exothermic reaction. Inferred temperatures for the two types of thermocouples are in good agreement. The shape of the response history, and agreement with predicted temperatures for PMMA and epoxy, indicate that the thermocouple and host material come to thermal equilibrium during the transient portion of the response. In the elastic materials Al2O3 and SiO2, the observed temperatures are better correlated with temperatures predicted for shock compression of the thermocouple materials than those predicted for the host materials, indicating that thermal equilibration is not achieved in the available test time.

  14. Measurements of effective noise temperature in fused silica fiber violin modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilenko, I.A.; Lourie, S.L

    2002-11-25

    The results of measurements of the effective noise temperature in fused silica fiber violin modes are presented. In these measurements the fibers were stressed and value of the effective noise temperature was obtained by direct observation of oscillations in the fundamental violin modes of several samples. Measured values indicate that effective noise temperature does not exceed the room temperature significantly. This result is important for the design of the advanced gravitational wave antennae.

  15. Measurement of three-dimensional temperature fields with interferometric tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D; He, A

    1999-06-01

    Optical computerized tomography (OCT) technology is used to reconstruct the asymmetric three-dimensional temperature field generated by radiators and electronic chips. First, the OCT method is described. Second, the reconstructed results are tested by a double-cylinder radiator model. Finally, OCT is applied to reconstruction of the temperature field above the surface of a CPU. The air-temperature field above a CPU circuit can be imaged with an OCT system that reflects whether the heat production from different parts of the CPU is even; therefore possibly the technique can be used to determine whether the integrated-circuit design in the CPU is smart.

  16. Time resolved temperature measurement of polymer surface irradiated by mid-IR free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Chiba, Tomoyuki; Oyama, Takahiro; Imai, Takayuki; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2017-08-01

    We have developed the time-resolved temperature measurement system by using a radiation thermometer FLIR SC620. Temporal temperature profiles of an acrylic resin surface by the irradiation of infrared free electron laser (FEL) pulse were recorded in an 8 ms resolution to measure an instantaneous temperature rise and decay profile. Under the single-shot condition, a peak temperature defined as the temperature jump from the ambient temperature was found to be proportional to the absorbance. Under the multi-shot condition, the temperature accumulation was found to reach a roughly constant value where the supply and release of the heat is balanced.

  17. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    Objective Body temperature is a simple, but clinically important parameter in monitoring the health status of pigs, both at individual level and herd level. The standard procedure for obtaining such data is normally performed by recording of the core body temperature, using a rectal digital...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus......-infected with 2 different strains of CSFV, one of them known to induce pyrexia. Peripheral body temperature recorded from the transponder by a hand-held scanner and core body temperature recorded by a conventional rectal digital thermometer was registered on a daily basis for 3 weeks. The data set obtained...

  18. In-motion, non-contact rail temperature measurement sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Preventing track buckling incidents (Figure 1) is important to the railroad industry. Track materials, rail steel, for example, experience thermal expansion, which refers to the increase in a materials volume as its temperature rises. Thermal expa...

  19. [Measurement Error Analysis and Calibration Technique of NTC - Based Body Temperature Sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chi; Hu, Wei; Diao, Shengxi; Lin, Fujiang; Qian, Dahong

    2015-11-01

    A NTC thermistor-based wearable body temperature sensor was designed. This paper described the design principles and realization method of the NTC-based body temperature sensor. In this paper the temperature measurement error sources of the body temperature sensor were analyzed in detail. The automatic measurement and calibration method of ADC error was given. The results showed that the measurement accuracy of calibrated body temperature sensor is better than ± 0.04 degrees C. The temperature sensor has high accuracy, small size and low power consumption advantages.

  20. Temperature control and measurement with tunable femtosecond optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dipankar; Goswami, Debabrata

    2016-09-01

    We present the effects of wavelength dependent temperature rise in a femtosecond optical tweezers. Our experiments involve the femtosecond trapping laser tunable from 740-820 nm at low power 25 mW to cause heating in the trapped volume within a homogeneous solution of sub micro-molar concentration of IR dye. The 780 nm high repetition rate laser acts as a resonant excitation source which helps to create the local heating effortlessly within the trapping volume. We have used both position autocorrelation and equipartion theorem to evaluate temperature at different wavelength having different absorption coefficient. Fixing the pulse width in the temporal domain gives constant bandwidth at spatial domain, which makes our system behave as a tunable temperature rise device with high precision. This observation leads us to calculate temperature as well as viscosity within the vicinity of the trapping zone. A mutual energy transfer occurs between the trapped bead and solvents that leads to transfer the thermal energy of solvents into the kinetic energy of the trap bead and vice-versa. Thus hot solvated molecules resulting from resonant and near resonant excitation of trapping wavelength can continuously dissipate heat to the trapped bead which will be reflected on frequency spectrum of Brownian noise exhibited by the bead. Temperature rise near the trapping zone can significantly change the viscosity of the medium. We observe temperature rise profile according to its Gaussian shaped absorption spectrum with different wavelength.

  1. Reannealed Fiber Bragg Gratings Demonstrated High Repeatability in Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.

    2004-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are formed by periodic variations of the refractive index of an optical fiber. These periodic variations allow an FBG to act as an embedded optical filter, passing the majority of light propagating through a fiber while reflecting back a narrow band of the incident light. The peak reflected wavelength of the FBG is known as the Bragg wavelength. Since the period and width of the refractive index variation in the fiber determines the wavelengths that are transmitted and reflected by the grating, any force acting on the fiber that alters the physical structure of the grating will change the wavelengths that are transmitted and reflected by it. Both thermal and mechanical forces acting on the grating will alter its physical characteristics, allowing the FBG sensor to detect both the temperature variations and the physical stresses and strains placed upon it. This ability to sense multiple physical forces makes the FBG a versatile sensor. To assess the feasibility of using Bragg gratings as temperature sensors for propulsion applications, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center evaluated the performance of Bragg gratings at elevated temperatures for up to 300 C. For these purposes, commercially available polyimide-coated high-temperature gratings were used that were annealed by the manufacturer to 300 C. To assure the most thermally stable gratings at the operating temperatures, we reannealed the gratings to 400 C at a very slow rate for 12 to 24 hr until their reflected optical powers were stabilized. The reannealed gratings were then subjected to periodic thermal cycling from room temperature to 300 C, and their peak reflected wavelengths were monitored. The setup shown is used for reannealing and thermal cycling the FBGs. Signals from the photodetectors and the spectrum analyzer were fed into a computer equipped with LabVIEW software. The software synchronously monitored the oven/furnace temperature and the optical spectrum analyzer

  2. Measuring the temperature of coke quenched in a dry quenching unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Skichko, T.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus used to measure the temperature of coke while in a loading hopper is described. The device consists of a tube through which water is passed. The coke in the hopper surrounds the tube and heats the water. The temperature difference between the entering and exiting water is measured and the temperature of the coke calculated. Some heat transfer assumptions are made.

  3. System for improving measurement accuracy of transducer by measuring transducer temperature and resistance change using thermoelectric voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl F. (Inventor); Parker, Allen R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A constant current loop measuring system measures a property including the temperature of a sensor responsive to an external condition being measured. The measuring system includes thermocouple conductors connected to the sensor, sensing first and second induced voltages responsive to the external condition. In addition, the measuring system includes a current generator and reverser generating a constant current, and supplying the constant current to the thermocouple conductors in forward and reverse directions generating first and second measured voltages, and a determining unit receiving the first and second measured voltages from the current generator and reverser, and determining the temperature of the sensor responsive to the first and second measured voltages.

  4. Measurements of true polymer melt temperature in a circular cross-sectional duct by moving temperature sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharaphun,S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design and develop an experimental apparatus and a temperature sensor in order to measure true melt temperature rise due to the shear heating during the flow. The designed apparatus featured two different forms, one being the polymer melt flowing past the stationary sensor (so-called moving piston, and the other being the sensor moving along the stationary polymer melt (so-called moving sensor. By subtracting the temperature data obtained by moving sensor from those obtained by moving piston the true melt temperature rise could be yielded. The temperature data were collected using a high-speed data logger and a computer. The effects of melt/piston velocity, initial melts temperature and various types of polymer melts used were of interest in this work. It was found that the experimental apparatus designed and used in this work was very effective and gave reasonably accurate

  5. The historical development of temperature measurement in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, E. F. J.

    2007-01-01

    The association between temperature and disease is almost as old as medicine itself. After Galileo introduced the thermoscope thermometry evolved slowly and only became established in medicine by the work of Carl Wunderlich in the 19th Century. Thermal imaging began in the beginning of the 19th century with William and John Herschel, but was not developed commercially until World War 2. Today modern infrared imaging systems offer high resolution images of human body temperature, and can be used to quantify sensitive changes in skin temperature in relation to certain diseases, and their response to medication. Computing has dramatically improved the power of thermal imaging, and reliable imaging procedures have been established for medical use of this technique.

  6. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2005-04-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

  7. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  8. Microstructure in hardened cement pastes measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry and low temperature microcalorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Baroghel, V.B.; Künzel, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    , image analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry and low temperature microcalorimetry.The present paper is dealing with cumulated pore size distributions measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) from two laboratories (LCPC, IBP) and low temperature microcalorimetry (CAL) from one laboratory (BKM...

  9. Body temperature measurement in VLBW infants by continuous skin measurement is a good or even better alternative than continuous rectal measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, R D G; van Lingen, R A; van Zoeren-Grobben, D

    2009-02-01

    An inadequate body temperature in preterm infants influences morbidity and mortality. Continuous rectal measurement is a reliable method to measure body temperature but might have adverse effects and is even contra-indicated in case of low platelets or necrotising enterocolitis. A save and non-invasive method to measure body temperature is the transcutaneous 'zero heat flow' method. We hypothesised that for monitoring body temperature in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, central measurement of temperature by way of the zero heat flow principle is just as reliable as rectal temperature. Twenty-six infants, birth weight between 520 g and 1250 g, gestational age 25.28-32.28 weeks were provided with an insulated continuous skin probe with 'zero heat flow' and a continuous rectal probe. Both measurements were registered every hour over a period of 48 h. The sample size was calculated to detect a difference of less than or equal to 0.20 degrees C. 1205 of the 1248 temperature measurements were analysed. At any moment, skin temperature was higher or equal when compared to rectal temperature. Mean skin temperature was 0.13 degrees C (SD 0.33) higher than mean rectal temperature (t-test, p skin temperature was 0.82 (p temperature measurement by 'zero heat flow' method is just as reliable as by rectal method.

  10. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    occurred in ambient temperatures of 38–46-C and was designed to elicit elevations in Tint, which were recorded approximately every min on a portable data...is sufficient to eliminate the effects of fluid ingestion for the majority of volunteers (31), although 10 h of in- gestion timing before activity

  11. A Mueller bridge set for cryogenic temperature measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J.M.

    1966-01-01

    An a.c. Mueller bridge set for resistance thermometry at cryogenic temperature is described. A commercial tuned null detector is used at an operating frequency of 1025 c/s. The set includes a high stability oscillator, line reject filter, phase shifter, Q multiplier and selector box. The latter...

  12. Measurement of Plasma Ion Temperature and Flow Velocity from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has been analysed, the differences between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. Local ion temperature and flow velocity have been derived from the chord-averaged emission line profile by a ...

  13. Hybrid fiber optic interferometers for temperature and strain measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianyin; Quan, Wenwen; Shao, Laipeng; Lu, Hanglin; Du, Jing; Hu, Junhui

    2017-10-01

    The hybrid fiber optic interferometers are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In our schemes, the hybrid fiber optic interferometers are constructed by single mode-multimode-polarization maintaining-single mode optical fiber (SMPS) structure and a Sagnac loop. The temperature and strain characteristics of the hybrid interferometers are studied in experiment, and the sensitivities depending on the length of polarization maintaining optical fiber (PMF) and multimode optical fiber (MMF) are detailedly investigated in experiment. The experimental results have demonstrated that the PMF and MMF lengths have low affect on the strain sensitivity but has great influence on the temperature sensitivity. The achieved strain sensitivity is 37.2pm/μɛ for 10cm PMF and 12cm MMF. The achieved strain sensitivity is 38.0pm/μɛ for 12cm PMF when the length of MMF is fixed at 15cm, and is 37.2 pm/μɛ for 12cm MMF when the length of PMF is fixed at 10cm. The obtained temperature sensitivities is 1.723nm/°C when the length of MPF is 8cm with the fixed length of 15cm MMF, and the obtained temperature sensitivities reach 1.848nm/℃when the length of MMF is 12cm with the fixed length of 10cm PMF.

  14. Measuring stream temperature with digital data loggers: a user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Dunham; Gwynne Chandler; Bruce Rieman; Don Martin

    2005-01-01

    Digital data loggers (thermographs) are among the most widespread instruments in use for monitoring physical conditions in aquatic ecosystems. The intent of this protocol is to provide guidelines for selecting and programming data loggers, sampling water temperatures in the field, data screening and analysis, and data archiving.

  15. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nique to provide remote, in-situ, rapid and multi-elemental analysis of bulk and trace sample in any phase (solid, liquid and gas) with no or minimal sample prepa- ration [2–4]. The characterization of LIPs by determining their temperature and electron den- sity is essential and has gained considerable interest in recent years ...

  16. Determination of the yield locus by means of temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banabic, D.; Huetink, Han

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical background of the thermo-graphical method of determining the yield locus. The analytical expression of the temperature variation of the specimen deformed in the elastic state is determined starting from the first law of thermodynamics. The experimental method for

  17. Tokamak Plasmas: Measurement of temperature fluctuations and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Temperature fluctuations; anomalous transport; plasma rotation. ... S K Saha1. Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064, India ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  18. A new design for simultaneous temperature and strain measurement with spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fuchang; Chen, Bai; Lin, Zunqi

    2010-11-01

    We design a new system for simultaneous distributed measurement of temperature and strain based on both spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered signals. The Raman signal can determine the temperature. Although the Brillouin frequency shift is dependent on both temperature and strain of fiber, once the temperature is determined from the Raman signal, the strain can then be computed from the frequency measurement of the Brillouin signal.

  19. Study on effect of temperature and humidity on the CO2 concentration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YuLiang; Ni, Xiang; Wu, YuanXi; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    In the application of non dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration measurement, we need avoid the interference factors (such as temperature, pressure, gas, fluctuation of the light source and dust pollution etc.). In the past experiments only single factor, such as temperature, is often emphasized to the influence on the measurement results, without considering the effect of multiple factors. In order to study the change of gas concentration with measurement parameters, we constructs a CO2 detecting device with a BM530 gas detecting module, TMD10 temperature and humidity sensor. The experimental results show that: there is a correlation between the two interference factors: temperature and humidity. With the decreasing temperature, gas concentration measurement value decreases too. In developing process of instruments, we can make correction of the concentration- temperature instead of that of the measurement results under different temperature and humidity conditions.

  20. Comparison between auricular and standard rectal thermometers for the measurement of body temperature in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2011-04-01

    Although the rectal mucosa remains the traditional site for measuring body temperature in dogs, an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature. In this study, 88 mature healthy dogs had body temperatures measured with auricular and rectal thermometers. The mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar for each method, but Bland-Altman plots showed high biases and limits of agreement unacceptable for clinical purposes. The results indicate that auricular and rectal temperatures should not be interpreted interchangeably.

  1. Unique thermocouple to measure the temperatures of squibs, igniters, propellants, and rocket nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanigian, Jacob; Nanigian, Dan

    2006-05-01

    The temperatures produced by the various components in the propulsion system of rockets and missiles determine the performance of the rocket. Since these temperatures occur very rapidly and under extreme conditions, standard thermocouples fail before any meaningful temperatures are measured. This paper describes the features of a special family of high performance thermocouples, which can measure these transient temperatures with millisecond response times and under the most severe conditions of erosion. Examples of igniter, propellant and rocket nozzle temperatures are included in this paper. Also included is heat flux measurements made by these sensors in rocket applications.

  2. Wall temperature measurements at elevated pressures and high temperatures in sooting flames in a gas turbine model combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Patrick; Yin, Zhiyao; Geigle, Klaus Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Wall temperatures were measured with thermographic phosphors on the quartz walls of a model combustor in ethylene/air swirl flames at 3 bar. Three operating conditions were investigated with different stoichiometries and with or without additional injection of oxidation air downstream of the primary combustion zone. YAG:Eu and YAG:Dy were used to cover a total temperature range of 1000-1800 K. Measurements were challenging due to the high thermal background from soot and window degradation at high temperatures. The heat flux through the windows was estimated from the temperature gradient between the in- and outside of the windows. Differences in temperature and heat flux density profiles for the investigated cases can be explained very well with the previously measured differences in flame temperatures and flame shapes. The heat loss relative to thermal load is quite similar for all investigated flames (15-16%). The results complement previous measurements in these flames to investigate soot formation and oxidation. It is expected, that the data set is a valuable input for numerical simulations of these flames.

  3. Computation and measurement of air temperature distribution of an industrial melt blowing die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The air flow field of the dual slot die on an HDF-6D melt blowing non-woven equipment is computed numerically. A temperature measurement system is built to measure air temperatures. The computation results tally with the measured results proving the correctness of the computation. The results have great valuable significance in the actual melt blowing production.

  4. Liquid Temperature Measurements Using Two Different Tunable Hollow Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Sergio; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Torres-Gomez, Ismael

    2017-01-29

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of two hollow prisms. One is a prism with a grating glued to its hypotenuse. This ensemble, prism + grating, is called a grism. It can be applied as an on-axis tunable spectrometer. The other hollow prism is a constant deviation one called a Pellin-Broca. It can be used as a tunable dispersive element in a spectrometer with no moving parts. The application of prisms as temperature sensors is shown.

  5. Silica Bottle Resonator Sensor for Refractive Index and Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Nemova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically demonstrate a bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude and with alength several of hundreds of microns made on the top of the fiber with a radius of tens microns for refractive index and temperature sensor applications. The whispering gallery modes (WGMs in the resonators can be excited with a taper fiber placed on the top of the resonator. These sensors can be considered as an alternative to fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors.The sensitivity of TM-polarized modes is higher than the sensitivity of the TE-polarized modes, but these values are comparable and both polarizations are suitable for sensor applications. The sensitivity ~150 (nm/RIU can be reached with abottle resonator on the fiber with the radius 10 μm. It can be improved with theuse of a fiber with a smaller radius. The temperature sensitivity is found to be ~10 pm/K. The temperature sensitivity can decrease ~10% for a fiber with a radius rco = 10 μm instead of a fiber with a radius rco = 100 μm. These sensors have sensitivities comparable to FBG sensors. A bottle resonator sensor with a nanoscale altitude made on the top of the fiber can be easily integrated in any fiber scheme.

  6. Multi Point Velocity, Density and Temperature Measurements using LITA Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a nonintrusive, transient-grating optical technique that provides simultaneous high-accuracy measurements of velocity,...

  7. Measurement of body temperature in normothermic and febrile rats: Limitations of using rectal thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Erlwanger, Kennedy H; Mitchell, Duncan; Hetem, Robyn S; Madziva, Michael T; Harden, Lois M

    2017-10-01

    Stress-induced hyperthermia following rectal thermometry is reported in normothermic rats, but appears to be muted or even absent in febrile rats. We therefore investigated whether the use of rectal thermometry affects the accuracy of temperature responses recorded in normothermic and febrile rats. Using intra-abdominally implanted temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters we measured the temperature response to rectal temperature measurement in male Sprague Dawley rats (~200g) injected subcutaneously with Brewer's yeast (20ml/kg of a 20% Brewer's yeast solution=4000mg/kg) or saline (20ml/kg of 0.9% saline). Rats had been pre-exposed to, or were naive to rectal temperature measurement before the injection. The first rectal temperature measurement was taken in the plateau phase of the fever (18h after injection) and at hourly intervals thereafter. In normothermic rats, rectal temperature measurement was associated with an increase in abdominal temperature (0.66±0.27°C) that had a rapid onset (5-10min), peaked at 15-20min and lasted for 35-50min. The hyperthermic response to rectal temperature measurement was absent in febrile rats. Exposure to rectal temperature measurement on two previous occasions did not reduce the hyperthermia. There was a significant positive linear association between temperatures recorded using the two methods, but the agreement interval identified that rectal temperature measured with a thermocouple probe could either be 0.7°C greater or 0.5°C lower than abdominal temperature measured with radiotelemeter. Thus, due to stress-induced hyperthermia, rectal thermometry does not ensure accurate recording of body temperature in short-spaced, intermittent intervals in normothermic and febrile rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Correlation of Handheld Infrared Skin Thermometer and Infrared Videothermography Device for Measurement of Corneal Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Zafer; Barut Selver, Ozlem; Akkin, Cezmi; Canturk, Ecem; Afrashi, Filiz

    2016-05-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of handheld infrared skin thermometer and videothermography device for the measurement of corneal temperature. Forty healthy individuals (80 eyes) were enrolled to the study. Participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination and medical history review for excluding any ocular and systemic diseases. The measurements of the central corneal temperature were performed in a room having constant temperature, humidity, and brightness levels. To avoid any variability, all the temperature measurements were performed in the same examination room by a single examiner. The temperature was measured with a handheld infrared skin thermometer (MEDISANA, FTN) from the corneal surface. The same instrument was also used to measure the subjects' body temperature. Moreover, the subjects underwent the corneal temperature measurement by a noncontact videothermography device (Optris PI 450; Optris GmbH). The male to female ratio was 19:21 among the subjects. The mean age was 25.1±4.7 years. The mean body temperature was 36.93±0.33°C. The mean corneal temperatures measured by the handheld infrared skin thermometer and the ocular videothermography device were 36.94±0.28°C and 35.61±0.61°C, respectively (Ptemperature difference was 1.34±0.57°C, with a 95% confidence interval. There was a moderate correlation between the corneal temperatures measured by the 2 devices in the right, the left eyes, and both eyes, respectively (P=0.450, 0.539, 0.490). Handheld infrared skin thermometers can be used for the evaluation of the corneal temperature. These devices may provide a simple, practical, and cheaper way to detect the corneal temperature, and the widely performed corneal temperature measurements may afford us to understand the temperature variability in numerous ocular conditions in a better way.

  9. Hotspot electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, L C; Benedetti, L R; Chen, H; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Ma, T; Nagel, S R; Landen, O L; Pak, A; Patel, P K; Schneider, M; Scott, H A

    2016-11-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature in the hotspot of inertially confined, layered, spherical implosions on the National Ignition Facility using a differential filtering diagnostic. Measurements of the DT and DD ion temperatures using neutron time-of-flight detectors are complicated by the contribution of hot spot motion to the peak width, which produce an apparent temperature higher than the thermal temperature. The electron temperature is not sensitive to this non-thermal velocity and is thus a valuable input to interpreting the stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we show that the current differential filtering diagnostic provides insufficient temperature resolution for the hot spot temperatures of interest. We then propose a new differential filter configuration utilizing larger pinhole size to increase spectral fluence, as well as thicker filtration. This new configuration will improve measurement uncertainty by more than a factor of three, allowing for a more accurate hotspot temperature.

  10. Hotspot electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, L. C.; Benedetti, L. R.; Chen, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Nagel, S. R.; Landen, O. L.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Schneider, M.; Scott, H. A.

    2016-11-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature in the hotspot of inertially confined, layered, spherical implosions on the National Ignition Facility using a differential filtering diagnostic. Measurements of the DT and DD ion temperatures using neutron time-of-flight detectors are complicated by the contribution of hot spot motion to the peak width, which produce an apparent temperature higher than the thermal temperature. The electron temperature is not sensitive to this non-thermal velocity and is thus a valuable input to interpreting the stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we show that the current differential filtering diagnostic provides insufficient temperature resolution for the hot spot temperatures of interest. We then propose a new differential filter configuration utilizing larger pinhole size to increase spectral fluence, as well as thicker filtration. This new configuration will improve measurement uncertainty by more than a factor of three, allowing for a more accurate hotspot temperature.

  11. Online junction temperature measurement via internal gate resistance during turn-on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Liserre, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement exploits the temperature dependent resistance of the temperature sensitive electrical parameter (TSEP): the internal gate resistance. This dependence can be observed during the normal...... TSEP based measurement methods, primarily being: an absence of any dependence on operating conditions such as load current, and the potential to achieve higher sensitivity (20mV/C or more) than alternative TSEPs....

  12. Species and temperature measurements of methane oxidation in a nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Lefkowitz, Joseph K; Guo, Peng; Rousso, Aric; Ju, Yiguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation and temperature measurements of methane oxidation during a nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge in a low-temperature flow reactor have been performed. Measurements of temperature and formaldehyde during a burst of pulses were made on a time-dependent basis using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and measurements of all other major stable species were made downstream of a continuously pulsed discharge using gas chromatography. The major species for a stoichiometric me...

  13. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sandra L.; Emery, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. During this one year grant, design and construction of an improved infrared radiometer was completed and testing was initiated. In addition, development of an improved parametric model for the bulk-skin temperature difference was completed using data from the previous version of the radiometer. This model will comprise a key component of an improved procedure for estimating the bulk SST from satellites. The results comprised a significant portion of the Ph.D. thesis completed by one graduate student and they are currently being converted into a journal publication.

  14. Long-term, high frequency in situ measurements of intertidal mussel bed temperatures using biomimetic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Brian; Choi, Francis; Matzelle, Allison; Torossian, Jessica L; Morello, Scott L; Mislan, K A S; Yamane, Lauren; Strickland, Denise; Szathmary, P Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E; Tockstein, Alyson; Hilbish, Thomas J; Burrows, Michael T; Power, Anne Marie; Gosling, Elizabeth; Mieszkowska, Nova; Harley, Christopher D G; Nishizaki, Michael; Carrington, Emily; Menge, Bruce; Petes, Laura; Foley, Melissa M; Johnson, Angela; Poole, Megan; Noble, Mae M; Richmond, Erin L; Robart, Matt; Robinson, Jonathan; Sapp, Jerod; Sones, Jackie; Broitman, Bernardo R; Denny, Mark W; Mach, Katharine J; Miller, Luke P; O'Donnell, Michael; Ross, Philip; Hofmann, Gretchen E; Zippay, Mackenzie; Blanchette, Carol; Macfarlan, J A; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio; Ruttenberg, Benjamin; Peña Mejía, Carlos E; McQuaid, Christopher D; Lathlean, Justin; Monaco, Cristián J; Nicastro, Katy R; Zardi, Gerardo

    2016-10-11

    At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics of intertidal mussels at 71 sites worldwide, from 1998-present. Loggers recorded temperatures at 10-30 min intervals nearly continuously at multiple intertidal elevations. Comparisons against direct measurements of mussel tissue temperature indicated errors of ~2.0-2.5 °C, during daily fluctuations that often exceeded 15°-20 °C. Geographic patterns in thermal stress based on biomimetic logger measurements were generally far more complex than anticipated based only on 'habitat-level' measurements of air or sea surface temperature. This unique data set provides an opportunity to link physiological measurements with spatially- and temporally-explicit field observations of body temperature.

  15. Long-term, high frequency in situ measurements of intertidal mussel bed temperatures using biomimetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Brian; Choi, Francis; Matzelle, Allison; Torossian, Jessica L.; Morello, Scott L.; Mislan, K. A. S.; Yamane, Lauren; Strickland, Denise; Szathmary, P. Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E.; Tockstein, Alyson; Hilbish, Thomas J.; Burrows, Michael T.; Power, Anne Marie; Gosling, Elizabeth; Mieszkowska, Nova; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Nishizaki, Michael; Carrington, Emily; Menge, Bruce; Petes, Laura; Foley, Melissa M.; Johnson, Angela; Poole, Megan; Noble, Mae M.; Richmond, Erin L.; Robart, Matt; Robinson, Jonathan; Sapp, Jerod; Sones, Jackie; Broitman, Bernardo R.; Denny, Mark W.; Mach, Katharine J.; Miller, Luke P.; O'Donnell, Michael; Ross, Philip; Hofmann, Gretchen E.; Zippay, Mackenzie; Blanchette, Carol; Macfarlan, J. A.; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio; Ruttenberg, Benjamin; Peña Mejía, Carlos E.; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Lathlean, Justin; Monaco, Cristián J.; Nicastro, Katy R.; Zardi, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics of intertidal mussels at 71 sites worldwide, from 1998-present. Loggers recorded temperatures at 10-30 min intervals nearly continuously at multiple intertidal elevations. Comparisons against direct measurements of mussel tissue temperature indicated errors of ~2.0-2.5 °C, during daily fluctuations that often exceeded 15°-20 °C. Geographic patterns in thermal stress based on biomimetic logger measurements were generally far more complex than anticipated based only on ‘habitat-level’ measurements of air or sea surface temperature. This unique data set provides an opportunity to link physiological measurements with spatially- and temporally-explicit field observations of body temperature.

  16. Investigation of solidification of thin walled ductile cast iron using temperature measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of solidification of thin walled ductile cast iron can be improved using temperature measurement. This article includes some background of the precautions that have to be taken when measuring temperatures in thin walled castings. The aim is to minimize influence of temperature...... measurement on castings and to get sufficient response time of thermocouples. Investigation of thin wall ductile iron has been performed with temperature measurement in plates with thickness between 2,8 and 8mm. The cooling curves achieved are combined with examination of the microstructure in order to reveal...

  17. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  18. Non-contact local temperature measurement inside an object using an infrared point detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaka, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Local temperature measurement in deep areas of objects is an important technique in biomedical measurement. We have investigated a non-contact method for measuring temperature inside an object using a point detector for infrared (IR) light. An IR point detector with a pinhole was constructed and the radiant IR light emitted from the local interior of the object is photodetected only at the position of pinhole located in imaging relation. We measured the thermal structure of the filament inside the miniature bulb using the IR point detector, and investigated the temperature dependence at approximately human body temperature using a glass plate positioned in front of the heat source.

  19. Design, construction, and analysis of a continuous-temperature infrared calibrator for temperature measurement using an infrared scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C K; Su, K C

    1979-07-01

    A continuous-temperature infrared calibrator is designed and constructed for providing reference video signals in temperature measurement using an infrared scanner. The calibrator can be controlled for a wide range of temperature settings and to present a continuous span of reference signals for calibration purposes. Both analytical and experimental methods are used to evaluate the performance of the calibrator. Results show that the calibrator has a normal total emissivity of at least 0.984, which is about 1% lower than the predicted value. Methods to improve the emissivity of the calibrator are also discussed. The paper provides for analytical equations useful for parameters estimation in the future design of the calibrator.

  20. Measurement error of surface-mounted fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liu; Zude, Zhou; Erlong, Zhang; Jun, Zhang; Yuegang, Tan; Mingyao, Liu

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are extensively used to measure surface temperatures. However, the temperature gradient effect of a surface-mounted FBG sensor is often overlooked. A surface-type temperature standard setup was prepared in this study to investigate the measurement errors of FBG temperature sensors. Experimental results show that the measurement error of a bare fiber sensor has an obvious linear relationship with surface temperature, with the largest error achieved at 8.1 °C. Sensors packaged with heat conduction grease generate smaller measurement errors than do bare FBG sensors and commercial thermal resistors. Thus, high-quality packaged methods and proper modes of fixation can effectively improve the accuracy of FBG sensors in measuring surface temperatures.

  1. How to Measure Heat Capacity at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    This chapter is devoted to the description of calorimetric techniques used to measure heat capacity of solids: pulse heat calorimetry (Sect. 2.3), relaxation calorimetry (Sect. 2.4), dual slope calorimetry (Sect. 2.5), a.c. calorimetry (Sect. 2.6), differential scanning calorimetry (Sect. 2.7). Examples of measurements of heat capacity are reported in Sects. 2.3 and 2.4.

  2. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Chen, Wen; Ma, Yingtao; Islam, Tanvir; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hulley, Glynn; Hook, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Information on Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be generated from observations made from satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as MODIS and ASTER and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Under a project titled: "A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Earth System Data Record for Earth Science" led by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, an effort is underway to develop long term consistent information from both such systems. In this presentation we will describe an effort to derive LST information from GOES satellites. Results will be presented from two approaches: 1) based on regression developed from a wide range of simulations using MODTRAN, SeeBor Version 5.0 global atmospheric profiles and the CAMEL (Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity for Land) product based on the standard University of Wisconsin 5 km emissivity values (UWIREMIS) and the ASTER Global Emissivity Database (GED) product; 2) RTTOV radiative transfer model driven with MERRA-2 reanalysis fields. We will present results of evaluation of these two methods against various products, such as MOD11, and ground observations for the five year period of (2004-2008).

  3. Measurement of MTF target plasma temperature using filtered photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccetti, J.M.; Wysocki, F.J.; Idzorek, G.; Oona, H.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Sheehey, P.T.; Thio, F.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is an approach to fusion where a preheated and magnetized plasma is adiabatically compressed to fusion conditions. Successful MTF requires a suitable initial target plasma with a magnetic field of at least 5 T in a closed-field-line topology, a density of roughly 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}, a temperature of at least 50 eV but preferably closer to 300 eV, and must e free of impurities which would raise radiation losses. The goal of these experiments is to demonstrate plasma conditions meeting the requirements for an MTF initial target plasma. The plasma is produced by driving a z-directed current of 1--2 MA through either a static gas fill or a 38 {micro}m diameter polyethylene fiber. The data obtained from an array of filtered photodiodes is used to estimate the plasma temperature. The filter material and thickness for each diode is chosen such that the lowest absorption edge for each is at a successively higher energy, covering the range from a few eV to 5 keV. The analysis assumes a fully stripped optically thin plasma which radiates as either a blackbody, a bremsstrahlung emitter, or a group of emission lines (gaussian-like).

  4. Land Surface Temperature Measurements from EOS MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zheng-Ming

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments made by the MODIS LST (Land-Surface Temperature) group at University of California, Santa Barbara, under NASA Contract. Version 1 of the MODIS Land-Surface Temperature Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) was reviewed in June 1994, version 2 reviewed in November 1994, version 3.1 in August 1996, and version 3.3 updated in April 1999. Based on the ATBD, two LST algorithms were developed, one is the generalized split-window algorithm and another is the physics-based day/night LST algorithm. These two LST algorithms were implemented into the production generation executive code (PGE 16) for the daily standard MODIS LST products at level-2 (MODII-L2) and level-3 (MODIIA1 at 1 km resolution and MODIIB1 at 5km resolution). PGE codes for 8-day 1 km LST product (MODIIA2) and the daily, 8-day and monthly LST products at 0.05 degree latitude/longitude climate model grids (CMG) were also delivered. Four to six field campaigns were conducted each year since 2000 to validate the daily LST products generated by PGE16 and the calibration accuracies of the MODIS TIR bands used for the LST/emissivity retrieval from versions 2-4 of Terra MODIS data and versions 3-4 of Aqua MODIS data. Validation results from temperature-based and radiance-based methods indicate that the MODIS LST accuracy is better than 1 C in most clear-sky cases in the range from -10 to 58 C. One of the major lessons learn from multi- year temporal analysis of the consistent V4 daily Terra MODIS LST products in 2000-2003 over some selected target areas including lakes, snow/ice fields, and semi-arid sites is that there are variable numbers of cloud-contaminated LSTs in the MODIS LST products depending on surface elevation, land cover types, and atmospheric conditions. A cloud-screen scheme with constraints on spatial and temporal variations in LSTs was developed to remove cloud-contaminated LSTs. The 5km LST product was indirectly validated through comparisons to

  5. Dynamic Temperature and Pressure Measurements in the Core of a Propulsion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Bill; Gordon, Grant; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic temperature and pressure measurements were made in the core of a TECH977 propulsion engine as part of a NASA funded investigation into indirect combustion noise. Dynamic temperature measurements were made in the combustor, the inter-turbine duct, and the mixer using ten two-wire thermocouple probes. Internal dynamic pressure measurements were made at the same locations using piezoresistive transducers installed in semi-infinite coils. Measurements were acquired at four steady state operating conditions covering the range of aircraft approach power settings. Fluctuating gas temperature spectra were computed from the thermocouple probe voltage measurements using a compensation procedure that was developed under previous NASA test programs. A database of simultaneously acquired dynamic temperature and dynamic pressure measurements was produced. Spectral and cross-spectral analyses were conducted to explore the characteristics of the temperature and pressure fluctuations inside the engine, with a particular focus on attempting to identify the presence of indirect combustion noise.

  6. Measured versus simulated transients of temperature logs—a test of borehole climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowicz, Jacek; Safanda, Jan

    2005-12-01

    We report the results of repeated temperature, T, measurements with depth (z) for two borehole sites located in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, in central Alberta and south central Saskatchewan. These were logged at three different times within the time period of 1986 AD to 2004 AD. Subsurface temperature transient changes of 0.1 to 0.4 °C observed between the repeated temperature logs over the last two decades agree only partially with the changes derived from the synthetic profiles in which surface temperature time series were used as forcing signals. The surface temperature forcing is responsible for the majority of the observed deviation of temperature with depth. In some cases, differences higher than the error of measurement are observed between the model and measurements. This can be an indication that factors other than the surface temperature change also influence the subsurface thermal regime.

  7. Temperature measurements at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B. W.

    The high-precision and high-accuracy measurements involved in the calibrations of various types of thermometers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are described. The responsibilities of the NIST Thermometry Group include not only calibration of the standard instruments of the scales but also the calibration of base-metal and noble-metal thermocouples, industrial platinum resistance thermometers, liquid in-glass thermometers, thermistor thermometers, and digital thermometers. General laboratory thermometer calibrations are described. Also, a Measurement Assurance Program is described which provides a direct assessment of a customer's technological competence in thermometry.

  8. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray; Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett

    1991-01-01

    The results of the NPN bipolar transistor (BJT) (2N6023) breakdown voltage measurements were analyzed. Switching measurements were made on the NPN BJT, the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) (TA9796) and the N-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) (RFH75N05E). Efforts were also made to build a H-bridge inverter. Also discussed are the plans that have been made to do life testing on the devices, to build an inductive switching test circuit and to build a dc/dc switched mode converter.

  9. Radiometric absolute noise-temperature measurement system features improved accuracy and calibration ease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W.; Ewen, H.; Haroules, G.

    1970-01-01

    Radiometric receiver system, which measures noise temperatures in degrees Kelvin, does not require cryogenic noise sources for routine operation. It eliminates radiometer calibration errors associated with RF attenuation measurements. Calibrated noise source is required only for laboratory adjustment and calibration.

  10. Plasma rotation and ion temperature measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2015-01-01

    We present the first deuterium ion temperature and rotation measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade. The results are in general agreement with boron-based charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements and consistent with neoclassical simulations for the plasma...

  11. Depth-Penetrating Temperature Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coatings Incorporating Thermographic Phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Bencic, Timothy J..; Allison, Stephen W.; Beshears, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Thermographic phosphors have been previously demonstrated to provide effective non-contact, emissivity-independent surface temperature measurements. Because of the translucent nature of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), thermographic phosphor-based temperature measurements can be extended beyond the surface to provide depth-selective temperature measurements by incorporating the thermographic phosphor layer at the depth where the temperature measurement is desired. In this paper, thermographic phosphor (Y2O3:Eu) fluorescence decay time measurements are demonstrated to provide through-the-coating thickness temperature readings up to 1100 C with the phosphor layer residing beneath a 100 micron thick TBC (plasma-sprayed 8wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia). With an appropriately chosen excitation wavelength and detection configuration, it is shown that sufficient phosphor emission is generated to provide effective temperature measurements, despite the attenuation of both the excitation and emission intensities by the overlying TBC. This depth-penetrating temperature measurement capability should prove particularly useful for TBC diagnostics where a large thermal gradient is typically present across the TBC thickness. The fluorescence decay from the Y2O3:Eu layer exhibited both an initial short-term exponential rise and a longer-term exponential decay. The rise time constant was demonstrated to provide better temperature indication below 500 C while the decay time constant was a better indicator at higher temperatures.

  12. Relationship of porcelain insulator temperature and flashover voltage measurement procedure in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wańkowicz, J.

    In this paper the existence of a connection between a conditioning procedure and the solid insulator temperature changes in a vacuum is shown. The increase of an insulator temperature and consolidation of the other working-temperature in the system insulator-electrodes, is a predominant feature for the high voltage measurements performed on dimensionally small insulators in a vacuum. It was found that numerous surface breakdowns influence the insulator surface strength due to its temperature changes.

  13. Measuring system for magnetic field and temperature with digital signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The measuring system for the magnetic field and temperature using silicon whiskers p-type conductivity as a primary device has been developed. The developed system allows the measurement of the magnetic field and temperature in the temperature range 4,2—77 K, as well as to measure the temperature under the influence of magnetic fields in the range of 100—300 K. It is shown that this system is suitable for the conversion of small signals using a programmable gain amplifier and analog-to-digital converter with high resolution.

  14. Temperature and Species Measurements of Combustion Produced by a 9-Point Lean Direct Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of temperature and relative species concentrations in the combustion flowfield of a 9-point swirl venturi lean direct injector fueled with JP-8. The temperature and relative species concentrations of the flame produced by the injector were measured using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). Results of measurements taken at four flame conditions are presented. The species concentrations reported are measured relative to nitrogen and include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

  15. Development of a CCD-based pyrometer for surface temperature measurement of casting billets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Lang, Xianli; Hu, Zhenwei; Shu, Shuangbao

    2017-06-01

    In order to achieve high accuracy and good stability of temperature measurement results, an online vision-based temperature field measurement system for continuous casting billets is developed instead of the conventional single-point radiation pyrometer in this paper. This system is a hybrid temperature measurement system which consists of a monochrome array CCD camera with high resolution and a single spot colorimetric thermometer simultaneously. In this system, a narrow-band spectrum radiation temperature measurement model is established for the optical CCD-based pyrometer system, and the non-uniformity of the temperature field measurement due to the inter-element sensitivity deviations of the CCD-array detector and photometric distortion caused by the vignetting in the optical system is analyzed in detail and compensated. Furthermore, in order to eliminate the temperature fluctuation caused by the stripped iron oxide scale on billets, a temperature field reconstruction approach, which took full advantage of the high resolution characteristic of CCD and the distribution character of the surface temperature field of billets, is introduced in this system. Meanwhile, based on the narrow band spectral thermometry theory, the spot temperature measured by the colorimetric thermometer is used to correct the temperature field measured by the CCD camera on-line so as to reduce the temperature measurement error caused by the inconclusive absolute emissivity of different grades of steel and the interference of industrial dust. Currently, the system has been successfully applied and verified in some continuous casting production lines. Industrial trials indicate that the system could effectively eliminate false temperature variation caused by striped iron oxide scale and provide information about changes of processing parameters in the continuous casting production line in real time.

  16. An apparatus to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation panels at sub-ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Klünder, T.; Hegeman, I.; Tolboom, A.H.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A single-sided guarded-plate apparatus has been developed to measure the thermal conductivity of insulation panels of sub-meter size at sub-ambient temperatures ranging from 250 to 300 K. This apparatus allows thermal conductivity measurements to be performed at large temperature differences

  17. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154... DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...

  18. One centimeter spatial resolution temperature measurements in a nuclear reactor using Rayleigh scatter in optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, A. K.; Gifford, D. K.; Dickerson, B. D.; Fielder, B. F.; Froggatt, M. E.

    2007-07-01

    We present the use of swept wavelength interferometry for distributed fiber-optic temperature measurements in a Nuclear Reactor. The sensors consisted of 2 m segments of commercially available, single mode optical fibers. The interrogation technique is based on measuring the spectral shift of the intrinsic Rayleigh backscatter signal along the optical fiber and converting the spectral shift to temperature.

  19. Measuring main-ion temperatures in ASDEX upgrade using scattering of ECRH radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak.......We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak....

  20. Microstructure in hardened cement pastes measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry and low temperature microcalorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Baroghel, V.B.; Künzel, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Cumulated pore size distributions for hardened cement pastes measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry from two laboratories and low temperature microcalorimetry from one laboratory are presented.......Cumulated pore size distributions for hardened cement pastes measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry from two laboratories and low temperature microcalorimetry from one laboratory are presented....

  1. Reliability of an infrared forehead skin thermometer for core temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, J.A.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The SensorTouch thermometer performs an infrared measurement of the skin temperature above the Superficial Temporal Artery (STA). This study evaluates the validity and the accuracy of the SensorTouch thermometer. Two experiments were performed in which the body temperature was measured with a rectal

  2. Optical-Thickness Corrections to Transient Ece Temperature-Measurements in Tokamak and Stellarator Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.; Gorini, G.; Mantica, P.

    1995-01-01

    The conditions are examined under which optical thickness (tau) corrections to electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements of electron temperature (T-e) can be neglected. By means of simple algebra it is demonstrated that for measurements of T-e transients the ECE radiation temperature (T-rad)

  3. Non-contact temperature measurement of surfaces with unknown emissivity information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, M.; Bodrov, V. [Moscow Power Engineering Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a non-traditional approach to measure remote radiation spectrum temperature using a combination of modern array photo detectors, optical diffractive elements, methods of mathematical statistics and the theory of probability for simultaneous measurement of spectrum and temperature of objects with unknown emissivity. The developed approach can be used during high and ultra high temperatures. The accuracy of non-contact temperature measurement in different industrial applications depends on the spectral emissivity information of measured surfaces. Spectral emissivity information of materials is usually unknown or changes with technological process. Although published data can sometimes improve the accuracy of results, it does not eliminate the uncertainty of received results. By using the multi-channel principle of temperature measurement, it is possible to acquire unlimited information about radiation spectral density. A dual band method of ratio pyrometry was used to derive statistical regularities at temperature measurements. The most probable values of temperatures were found by analyzing the histograms for each set of obtained values. Further processing of this temperature information made it possible to determine the statistical temperature without using any prior information of thermal properties of the heated surface of a material. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of gas concentration and temperature by the ball surface acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Kazushi; Akao, Shingo; Takeda, Nobuo; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Oizumi, Toru; Tsukahara, Yusuke

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a ball surface acoustic wave (SAW) trace moisture sensor with an amorphous silica sensitive film and realized wide-range measurement from 0.017 ppmv [a frost point (FP) of -99 °C] to 6.0 × 103 ppmv (0 °C FP). However, since the sensitivity of the sensor depends on the temperature, measurement results are disturbed when the temperature largely changes. To overcome this problem, we developed a method to simultaneously measure temperature and gas concentration using a ball SAW sensor. Temperature and concentration is derived by solving equations for the delay time change at two frequencies. When the temperature had a large jump, the delay time change was significantly disturbed, but the water concentration was almost correctly measured, by compensating the sensitivity change using measured temperature. The temperature measured by a ball SAW sensor will also be used to control the ball temperature. This method will make a ball SAW sensor reliable in environments of varying temperatures.

  5. Temperature measurement of plasma-facing surfaces in tokamaks by active pyrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorova, V.; Semerok, A.; Farcage, D.; Weulersse, J.M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCP/LILM, Bat. 467, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thro, P.Y., E-mail: pierre-yves.thro@cea.f [CEA Saclay, DEN/DPC/SCP/LILM, Bat. 467, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gauthier, E.; Roche, H.; Loarer, Th.; Grisolia, Ch. [CEA Cadarache, DSM/ IRFM/SIPP, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2009-06-15

    This paper discusses feasibility and tests of a new method for in situ temperature measurement of tokamak plasma-facing metallic surfaces under plasma presence. In such conditions, the other temperature-measurement methods are not applicable due to the perturbing thermal radiation reflected by the walls. Our approach overcomes this limitation by looking with two pyrometers to the measured surface while thermally perturbed. Because of the thermal perturbation each pyrometer records a signal modulation. The temperature, deduced by the ratio between the two signal modulations is dependent neither on the environmental reflecting fluxes nor on the surface emissivity. Originally, the measured temperature is linked to the signals ratio via the experimental set-up parameters. Here, we proposed an alternative way to deduce it from the pyrometers calibration data only. With this method we obtained temperature measurements with accuracy better than 90%.

  6. A possibility of local measurements of ion temperature in a high-temperature plasma by laser induced ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantor, M.

    2012-01-01

    A new diagnostic for local measurements of ion temperature and drift velocity in fusion plasmas is proposed in the paper. The diagnostic is based on laser induced ionization of excited hydrogen and deuterium atoms from the levels which ionization energy less than the laser photon energy. A high

  7. [Measuring body temperature in dairy cows--applications and influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V; Heuwieser, W

    2013-01-01

    Measuring body temperature plays an integral role in early puerperal cow monitoring programs. Furthermore, body temperature is part of the definition of puerperal metritis. Antibiotic treatment decisions are based on body temperature in several international publications on intervention strategies widely adopted in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this article is to provide a brief overview of the most recent publications on this important criterion. Several factors can influence the measurement of the body temperature (type of thermometer, insertion depth, skills of the investigator) as well as the cow's body temperature (days in milk, parity, time of the day, climate at calving). Furthermore, the occurrence of increased body temperature in healthy cows was demonstrated independently by several investigations. In ambiguous cases (e.g. raised body temperature as the only symptom) results should be interpreted with caution.

  8. Sub-Microsecond Temperature Measurement in Liquid Water Using Laser Induced Thermal Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderfer, David W.; Herring, G. C.; Danehy, Paul M.; Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Using laser-induced thermal acoustics, we demonstrate non-intrusive and remote sound speed and temperature measurements over the range 10 - 45 C in liquid water. Averaged accuracy of sound speed and temperature measurements (10 s) are 0.64 m/s and 0.45 C respectively. Single-shot precisions based on one standard deviation of 100 or greater samples range from 1 m/s to 16.5 m/s and 0.3 C to 9.5 C for sound speed and temperature measurements respectively. The time resolution of each single-shot measurement was 300 nsec.

  9. Measurement of He neutral temperature in detached plasmas using laser absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aramaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the heat load onto plasma-facing components by plasma detachment is an inevitable scheme in future nuclear fusion reactors. Since the control of the plasma and neutral temperatures is a key issue to the detached plasma generation, we have developed a laser absorption spectroscopy system for the metastable helium temperature measurements and used together with a previously developed laser Thomson scattering system for the electron temperature and density measurements. The thermal relaxation process between the neutral and the electron in the detached plasma generated in the linear plasma device, NAGDIS-II was studied. It is shown that the electron temperature gets close to the neutral temperature by increasing the electron density. On the other hand, the pressure dependence of electron and neutral temperatures shows the cooling effect by the neutrals. The possibility of the plasma fluctuation measurement using the fluctuation in the absorption signal is also shown.

  10. The half-life of 198Au : High-precision measurement shows no temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J. R.; Golovko, V. V.; Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    We have measured the half-life of the β -decay of 198Au in a metallic environment, both at low temperature (19K), and also at room temperature. We find the half-lives at both temperatures to be the same within 0.04%, a finding that contradicts a recent report of a 3.6±1.0 % difference in the 198Au half-life when measured at essentially the same two temperatures. Our results for the half-life, 2.6949±0.0009 d at room temperature and 2.6953±0.0008 d at 19K, also agree well with previous precision room temperature measurements.

  11. Noncontact temperature measurement. I - Interpolation based techniques. II - Least squares based techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.

    1991-02-01

    Two types of techniques for noncontact temperature measurements are described. The one type, the interpolation-based techniques, is based on the ratio pyrometry techniques (two, three, and four color). It is shown that the ratio pyrometry methods are very sensitive to measurement noise and that the sensitivity increases quickly with the number of terms in the ratio. In these methods (under certain conditions) reference temperature can be used to make accurate predictions regarding the temperature elsewhere in the system. The other type of technique is based on measurements of the emitted intensity at multiple wavelengths and the simultaneous calculation of emissivity and temperature through the use of a least square curve fitting technique. Using computer simulations, it is shown that the theory and the algorithms developed for this method can accurately predict both the temperature and the uncertainty associated with each temperature prediction.

  12. Temperature measurement involving nanostructured thermal barrier coating using a multiwavelength pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    It has been reported that erroneous results were obtained when a conventional pyrometer was used to measure the surface temperature of turbine engine components. Temperatures discrepancies were observed in components which were identical, except that one had its measured surface covered by a nanostructured thermal barrier coating (TBC) whereas the other component's surface was not so coated. These components were placed in an identical environment, receiving identical heat fluxes. A pyrometer measured the TBC covered surface hundreds degrees lower. These coatings were about 25 (mu)m thick, consisting of hundreds of layers of finer structures. The TBC's had very low thermal conductivity, heat flux calculations indicated that the temperatures of the coated surface should exhibit much higher temperature than the uncoated surface. Because these coatings were transparent to radiation from the visible to the infrared region, the temperatures measured by the pyrometer should be the temperature of the covered surface. Turbo components' performance and service life depend critically on the temperatures that it would experience; it is therefore important to know accurately and confidently the real surface temperature. Out of these concerns, an investigation into the measurement of nanostructured material surface temperature was carried out.

  13. Fast temperature fluctuation measurements in SOL of tokamak TCV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Pitts, R.A.

    coupling both across the plasma sheath and in the probe circuit itself. Comparisons are also made between the results from higher frequency sweeping and the standard values derived from a slower sweep to show that the fast measurement is reliable. Considerable effort has been expended in recent years......A fast scanning assembly has been widely used on the TCV tokamak to insert a probe head equipped with an array of single Langmuir probe tips up to the separatrix at the plasma midplane. Using fast voltage sweeping, we obtain IV-characteristics every 8 μs, allowing an estimate of the electron......-characteristics, some effort is required to demonstrate the credibility of the Te derived from the characteristics. Following the methodology proposed in [3], we use both numerical (5spice code) and lab simulations of the equivalent probe circuit, together with a simplified plasma circuit to study the capacitative...

  14. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  15. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  16. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  17. A Comparative Study of 3 Different Methods of Temperature Measurement in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatproedprai, Susheera; Heamawatanachai, Kanitha; Tempark, Therdpong; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2016-02-01

    The accuracy of body temperature measurement is very important in children. The accuracy and reliability of the forehead skin thermometer (FST) and infrared tympanic thermometer (TT) are inconclusive. To determine: 1) the mean difference, agreement, and accuracy of body temperature detected in children by FST and ITT, as compared with the gold standard rectal mercury-in-glass thermometer (RMT); and, 2) the cut-off level for FST and ITT in the detection of fever Children ≤ 2 years old with the chief complaint of "fever" were recruited for this study. Body temperature (BT) was measured by 3 different methods, including FST 5 times; ITT 3 times; and, RMT, 1 time, for each patient. Each measurement method was performed by 3 well-trained staff members, all of whom were blinded to the recorded data of the other methods. The mean difference in body temperature, agreement by Bland-Altman method, and the verified performance of FST and ITT by diagnostic test were assessed. A total 312 children were recruited. Body temperatures measured by FST and ITT were lower than those measured by RMT, with a mean difference of 1.04°C (p temperature and both forehead and ear temperature were statistically significantly different (p temperature screening methods for daily clinical use. However, the cut-off points to detect fever should be lowered to 37.0°C to be consistent with gold standard measurement.

  18. Effect of the Thermocouple on Measuring the Temperature Discontinuity at a Liquid-Vapor Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohammad Amin; Nobes, David S; Elliott, Janet A W

    2017-07-18

    The coupled heat and mass transfer that occurs in evaporation is of interest in a large number of fields such as evaporative cooling, distillation, drying, coating, printing, crystallization, welding, atmospheric processes, and pool fires. The temperature jump that occurs at an evaporating interface is of central importance to understanding this complex process. Over the past three decades, thermocouples have been widely used to measure the interfacial temperature jumps at a liquid-vapor interface during evaporation. However, the reliability of these measurements has not been investigated so far. In this study, a numerical simulation of a thermocouple when it measures the interfacial temperatures at a liquid-vapor interface is conducted to understand the possible effects of the thermocouple on the measured temperature and features in the temperature profile. The differential equations of heat transfer in the solid and fluids as well as the momentum transfer in the fluids are coupled together and solved numerically subject to appropriate boundary conditions between the solid and fluids. The results of the numerical simulation showed that while thermocouples can measure the interfacial temperatures in the liquid correctly, they fail to read the actual interfacial temperatures in the vapor. As the results of our numerical study suggest, the temperature jumps at a liquid-vapor interface measured experimentally by using a thermocouple are larger than what really exists at the interface. For a typical experimental study of evaporation of water at low pressure, it was found that the temperature jumps measured by a thermocouple are overestimated by almost 50%. However, the revised temperature jumps are still in agreement with the statistical rate theory of interfacial transport. As well as addressing the specific application of the liquid-vapor temperature jump, this paper provides significant insight into the role that heat transfer plays in the operation of thermocouples

  19. Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single fiber Bragg grating embedded in a composite laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Berggren, S.; Zhu, Y.; Han, M.; Huang, H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a fiber Bragg gating (FBG) sensor that can be surface mounted for simultaneous strain and temperature measurements. By embedding a conventional FBG sensor in a composite laminate, local birefringence is introduced, which causes the bandwidth of the FBG spectrum to vary with strain as well as temperature. As such, temperature and strain can be simultaneously determined from two FBG spectral parameters, i.e. the spectral bandwidth and the Bragg wavelength. Techniques for improving the spectrum of the FBG-composite sensor and for inversely determining the strain and temperature from the measured FBG spectral parameters are discussed. Thermal–mechanical testing of the FBG-composite sensor was carried out to validate the sensor performance. The measurement errors, within one standard deviation, for the strain and temperature measurements were found to be ±62 με and ±1.94 °C, respectively.

  20. An analysis of long term temperature measurement using laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczur, M.; Styszko, K.; Tomaszek, J.; Żurawska, K.

    2016-09-01

    The temperature measurement is extremely important because it occurs in many technical and engineering processes, including combustion chambers, mixers or chemical reactors as well as environmental flows. In contrast to the point measurement method, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) allows temperature determination in the whole plain 2D, or even 3D, domain. A major advantage of LIF is also its relatively high accuracy. This technique involves dissolving a temperature- sensitive fluorescence dye to a fluid. It is known that in LIF the fluorescent reemission is a function of temperature but, in many cases, it can also be a function of time, due to dye properties degradation. In the present research, a long-term temperature measurement using LIF was performed in order to analyse the method uncertainty related to time. The results of the stability of Rhodamine-B in nonisothermal experimental measurements in water solution, together with the chemical analysis using spectrophotometry, are presented.

  1. Temperature Measurements in Compressed and Uncompressed SPECTOR Plasmas at General Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William; Carter, Neil; Howard, Stephen; Carle, Patrick; O'Shea, Peter; Fusion Team, General

    2017-10-01

    Accurate temperature measurements are critical to establishing the behavior of General Fusion's SPECTOR plasma injector, both before and during compression. As compression tests impose additional constraints on diagnostic access to the plasma, a two-color, filter-based soft x-ray electron temperature diagnostic has been implemented. Ion Doppler spectroscopy measurements also provide impurity ion temperatures on compression tests. The soft x-ray and ion Doppler spectroscopy measurements are being validated against a Thomson scattering system on an uncompressed version of SPECTOR with more diagnostic access. The multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic also provides up to a six point temperature and density profile, with the density measurements validated against a far infrared interferometer. Temperatures above 300 eV have been demonstrated to be sustained for over 500 microseconds in uncompressed plasmas. Optimization of soft x-ray filters is ongoing, in order to balance blocking of impurity line radiation with signal strength.

  2. Calibrating airborne measurements of airspeed, pressure and temperature using a Doppler laser air-motion sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Cooper

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new laser air-motion sensor measures the true airspeed with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.1 m s−1 and so reduces uncertainty in the measured component of the relative wind along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to about the same level. The calculated pressure expected from that airspeed at the inlet of a pitot tube then provides a basis for calibrating the measurements of dynamic and static pressure, reducing standard uncertainty in those measurements to less than 0.3 hPa and the precision applicable to steady flight conditions to about 0.1 hPa. These improved measurements of pressure, combined with high-resolution measurements of geometric altitude from the global positioning system, then indicate (via integrations of the hydrostatic equation during climbs and descents that the offset and uncertainty in temperature measurement for one research aircraft are +0.3 ± 0.3 °C. For airspeed, pressure and temperature, these are significant reductions in uncertainty vs. those obtained from calibrations using standard techniques. Finally, it is shown that although the initial calibration of the measured static and dynamic pressures requires a measured temperature, once calibrated these measured pressures and the measurement of airspeed from the new laser air-motion sensor provide a measurement of temperature that does not depend on any other temperature sensor.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature distribution using high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengshi; Murayama, Hideaki

    2017-04-01

    New approach in simultaneous measurement of dynamic strain and temperature has been done by using a high birefringence PANDA fiber Bragg grating sensor. By this technique, we have succeeded in discriminating dynamic strain and temperature distribution at the sampling rate of 800 Hz and the spatial resolution of 1 mm. The dynamic distribution of strain and temperature were measured with the deviation of 5mm spatially. In addition, we have designed an experimental setup by which we can apply quantitative dynamic strain and temperature distribution to the fiber under testing without bounding it to a specimen.

  4. Simultaneous temperature and strain measurement with combined spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahbabi, M. N.; Cho, Y. T.; Newson, T. P.

    2005-06-01

    We report on a novel method for simultaneous distributed measurement of temperature and strain based on spatially resolving both spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered anti-Stokes signals. The magnitude of the intensity of the anti-Stokes Raman signal permits the determination of the temperature. The Brillouin frequency shift is dependent on both the temperature and the strain of the fiber; once the temperature has been determined from the Raman signal, the strain can then be computed from the frequency measurement of the Brillouin signal.

  5. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... of temperature, from 40 C to -10 C. The consistency of the expected theoretical results with the calibration procedure and the experimental validation shows that this proposed method is applicable to measure accurate strain and temperature in polymers during static or fatigue tensile testing. Two different...

  6. A study on the applicability of implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Background The applicability of an electronic monitoring system using microchip transponders for measurement of body temperatures was tested in 6-week-old conventional Danish weaners infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subcutaneous tissue temperatures obtained by the implantable......C lower than the rectal temperature. However, a simple linear relationship between the measures of the two methods was found. Conclusions Our study showed that the tested body monitoring system may represent a promising tool to obtain an approximate correlate of body temperatures in groups of pigs...

  7. Simultaneous independent distributed strain and temperature measurements over 15 km using spontaneous Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Huai H.; Lees, Gareth P.; Newson, Trevor P.

    2000-08-01

    Long range simultaneous distributed strain and temperature sensors have many applications for measurements in the power and oil industries and also for structural monitoring. We present an efficient technique to measure both the intensity and frequency shift at every point along the sensitive fiber with a low loss filtering device utilizing two in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers. From these two measurements, it is possible to compute accurately the strain and temperature profile.

  8. Liquid metals surface temperature fields measurements with a two-colour pyrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Monier, Romain; Thumerel, François; Chapuis, Julien; Soulié, Fabien; Bordreuil, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents an apparatus to measure surface temperature distribution of liquid metals during fusion processes. The apparatus is based on dual wavelength radiation thermometry and is designed to measure temperature from 1500 to 3000 K. The pyrometer is based on standard optical parts and industrial CCD cameras. Uncertainties are analysed on the base of the radiometric equations. To insure relative precision in the measurement, a calibration procedure is conducted...

  9. Radiation damage measurements in room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franks, L A; Olsen, R W; Walsh, D S; Vizkelethy, G; Trombka, J I; Doyle, B L; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI sub 2) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 0 p/cm sup 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 2 p/cm sup 2. CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5x10 sup 9 p/cm sup 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from a moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particles at fluences up to 1.5x10 sup 1 sup 0 alpha/cm sup 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5x10 sup 9 alpha/cm sup 2. CT detectors show resolution...

  10. Noise Reduction on Nasal Skin Temperature Measured by Radiation Thermometer with Differential Revision Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tota; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    This paper shows noise reduction on nasal skin temperature measured by a radiation thermometer with differential revision filtering. We evaluated and examined emotion stress from the nasal skin temperature fluctuation of the space-time with the radiation thermometer. The measured data with the radiation thermometer consists of three kind of factor, because of one point [24±3φ/m] measurement system. Three kinds of factors are temperature fluctuation dependent feelings stress, noise of the radiation thermometer and the other parts which it should measure as the subject moves. We make threshold processing on a change of an area in time of a measurement signal provided in a radiation thermometer. We suggested Differential Revision Filtering (DRF) that a new method use a measurement value of change of one second and a low pass filter go through. By using this method, we got the possibility that decrease movement of a measurement and a noise of measurement device.

  11. Local temperature measurement in the vicinity of electromagnetically heated magnetite and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Kane, Ravi S.; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a new technique employing fluorescent quantum dots as temperature probes for measuring the temperature rise in the proximity of nanoparticles heated by a radio frequency (rf) electromagnetic field. The remote heating of nanoparticles by an rf field is a promising approach to control biological transformations at the molecular level. In principle, the heat dissipated by each nanoparticle might produce a temperature increase in its proximity, facilitating a change in the molecules directly attached to it but not in the others. Although this method has been demonstrated to provide control over biological transformations, the proposed mechanism involves producing and maintaining large temperature differences across small distances, in the range of several degrees Celsius across tens of nanometers. Existing theories for heat generation and transfer in rf heated nanoparticle systems cannot account for these gradients. To better understand the limitations of local heating, the temperature in the vicinity of rf heated nanoparticles was measured. Dilute aqueous suspensions of gold and magnetite nanoparticles were remotely heated by an rf field between 600-800 kHz. Two systems were investigated: a control sample consisting of quantum dots mixed with nanoparticles and a solution of quantum dots covalently linked to nanoparticles. The temperature of the fluorescent probes represents the average temperature in the former and the local temperature in the later. For the experimental conditions employed in this study, the measured temperature rise in the vicinity of rf heated nanoparticles were similar to the average or "bulk" temperature, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  12. Agreement between auricular and rectal measurements of body temperature in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of body temperature is a routine part of the clinical assessment of a patient. However, this procedure may be time-consuming and stressful to most animals because the standard site of temperature acquisition remains the rectal mucosa. Although an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature, evidence is still lacking regarding agreement between these two methods in cats. In this investigation, we evaluated the agreement between temperatures measured in the rectum and ear in 29 healthy cats over a 2-week period. Temperatures were measured in the rectum (using digital and mercury-in-glass thermometers) and ear once a day for 14 consecutive days, producing 406 temperature readings for each thermometer. Mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar between methods, and Bland-Altman plots showed small biases and narrow limits of agreement acceptable for clinical purposes. The interobserver variability was also checked, which indicated a strong correlation between two near-simultaneous temperature readings. Results are consistent with auricular thermometry being a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for assessing core body temperature in healthy cats.

  13. Model Study of the Influence of Ambient Temperature and Installation Types on Surface Temperature Measurement by Using a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Liu; Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Surface temperature is an important parameter in clinical diagnosis, equipment state control, and environmental monitoring fields. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) temperature sensor possesses numerous significant advantages over conventional electrical sensors, thus it is an ideal choice to achieve high-accuracy surface temperature measurements. However, the effects of the ambient temperature and installation types on the measurement of surface temperature are often overlooked. A theoretical an...

  14. Considerations for the measurement of core, skin and mean body temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Tipton, Michael J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-12-01

    Despite previous reviews and commentaries, significant misconceptions remain concerning deep-body (core) and skin temperature measurement in humans. Therefore, the authors have assembled the pertinent Laws of Thermodynamics and other first principles that govern physical and physiological heat exchanges. The resulting review is aimed at providing theoretical and empirical justifications for collecting and interpreting these data. The primary emphasis is upon deep-body temperatures, with discussions of intramuscular, subcutaneous, transcutaneous and skin temperatures included. These are all turnover indices resulting from variations in local metabolism, tissue conduction and blood flow. Consequently, inter-site differences and similarities may have no mechanistic relationship unless those sites have similar metabolic rates, are in close proximity and are perfused by the same blood vessels. Therefore, it is proposed that a gold standard deep-body temperature does not exist. Instead, the validity of each measurement must be evaluated relative to one's research objectives, whilst satisfying equilibration and positioning requirements. When using thermometric computations of heat storage, the establishment of steady-state conditions is essential, but for clinically relevant states, targeted temperature monitoring becomes paramount. However, when investigating temperature regulation, the response characteristics of each temperature measurement must match the forcing function applied during experimentation. Thus, during dynamic phases, deep-body temperatures must be measured from sites that track temperature changes in the central blood volume. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature measurement of flat glass edge during grinding and effect of wheel and workpiece speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Tala; Garnier, Bertrand; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2017-06-01

    Flat glass temperature at the vicinity of the grinding wheel during grinding can become very high and reach that of the glass transition (typically around 550-600 °C). In such cases, the mechanical strength of glass is greatly affected and the grinding process cannot be carried out properly. Hence, thermal phenomena must be managed by adjusting the machining parameters to avoid overheating. For this purpose, it is very important to be able to measure the glass temperature, especially at the grinding interface. However, measuring the interfacial glass temperature is difficult and none of the existing methods for metal grinding is adequate for glass grinding. This work shows a novel temperature method that uses constantan and copper strips on both sides of the glass plates; thermoelectric contact being provided by the metallic binder of diamond particles in the grinding wheel. This new technique allows the measurement of the glass edge temperature during the wheel displacement around the glass plate. The experimental results show an average glass edge temperature between 300 and 600 °C depending on the value of the machining parameters such as work speed, wheel speed, depth of cut and water coolant flow rate. As this new thermal instrumentation is rather intrusive, glass temperature biases were analysed using a 3D heat transfer model with a moving source. Model computations performed using finite elements show that the temperature biases are less than 70 °C, which is smaller than the standard deviation of the glass edge temperatures measured during grinding.

  16. Comparison of Temperature Measurements in the Middle Atmosphere by Satellite with Profiles Obtained by Meteorological Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Feofilov, Artem; Bedrick, M.; Rose, R. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Measurements using the inflatable falling sphere technique have occasionally been used to obtain temperature results from density data and thereby provide comparison with temperature profiles obtained by satellite sounders in the mesosphere and stratosphere. To insure density measurements within narrow time frames and close in space, the inflatable falling sphere is launched within seconds of the nearly overhead satellite pass. Sphere measurements can be used to validate remotely measured temperatures but also have the advantage of measuring small-scale atmospheric features. Even so, with the dearth of remaining falling spheres available (the manufacture of these systems has been discontinued), it may be time to consider whether the remote measurements are mature enough to stand alone. Three field studies are considered, one in 2003 from Northern Sweden, and two in 2010 from the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll in the South Pacific and from Barking Sands, Hawaii. All three sites are used to compare temperature retrievals between satellite and in situ falling spheres. The major satellite instruments employed are SABER, MLS, and AIRS. The comparisons indicate that remotely measured temperatures mimic the sphere temperature measurements quite well. The data also confirm that satellite retrievals, while not always at the exact location required for detailed studies in space and time, compare sufficiently well to be highly useful. Although the falling sphere will provide a measurement at a specific location and time, satellites only pass a given location daily or less frequently. This report reveals that averaged satellite measurements can provide temperatures and densities comparable to those obtained from the falling sphere, thereby providing a reliable measure of global temperature

  17. Study on the Temperature Measurement of High-Power Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Fiber Optic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofei Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure high-power PMSM normal operation and monitor its fault online, its stator and rotor temperature is need to in real time high accuracy measurement. The temperature measurement principle of fiber optic sensor has been briefly introduced. The high- power PMSM rotor’s temperature measurement adopted semiconductor absorption optical fiber sensor, and its stator temperature measurement adopted optical fiber grating temperature sensor. The temperature measurement systems were designed respectively. The characteristics of the two temperature measurement systems are summarized. When they were applied to actual industrial field, the problems that needed to resolve were pointed.

  18. Remote temperature measurements in femto-liter volumes using dual-focus-Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Claus B; Weiss, Kerstin; Loman, Anastasia; Enderlein, Jörg; Richtering, Walter

    2009-05-07

    Remote temperature measurements in microfluidic devices with micrometer spatial resolution are important for many applications in biology, biochemistry and chemistry. The most popular methods use the temperature-dependent fluorescence lifetime of Rhodamine B, or the temperature-dependent size of thermosensitive materials such as microgel particles. Here, we use the recently developed method of dual-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (2fFCS) for measuring the absolute diffusion coefficient of small fluorescent molecules at nanomolar concentrations and show how these data can be used for remote temperature measurements on a micrometer scale. We perform comparative temperature measurements using all three methods and show that the accuracy of 2fFCS is comparable or even better than that achievable with Rhodamine B fluorescence lifetime measurements. The temperature dependent microgel swelling leads to an enhanced accuracy within a narrow temperature range around the volume phase transition temperature, but requires the availability of specific microgels, whereas 2fFCS is applicable under very general conditions.

  19. Application of laser diode in airplane engine nozzle temperature measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuan-fei; Ren, Qiang; Li, Xue-yuan

    2013-08-01

    Thermoelectric couple was employed in traditional airplane engine nozzle temperature measurement system with the disadvantages of large size, heavy weight, big error and slow response. This paper presents a new kind of real—time temperature measurement system using laser diode InGaAs/I as light source, and using pyroelectric detector LiTa03 as optical receiving unit and using a microprocessor as signal processing center. This instrument consists of three parts: optical emitting and receiving system, signal amplifying and controlling system, and display system. The principle, structure, anti—interference measure of the system are introduced. Experimental results of airplane engine real—time temperature measurement show that temperature measurement accuracy and response time conform to our requirement in the range of 300°C一800°C and agree with prediction of theory. All these prove that the design is correct.

  20. High Resolution Temperature Measurement of Liquid Stainless Steel Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Devesse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A contactless temperature measurement system is presented based on a hyperspectral line camera that captures the spectra in the visible and near infrared (VNIR region of a large set of closely spaced points. The measured spectra are used in a nonlinear least squares optimization routine to calculate a one-dimensional temperature profile with high spatial resolution. Measurements of a liquid melt pool of AISI 316L stainless steel show that the system is able to determine the absolute temperatures with an accuracy of 10%. The measurements are made with a spatial resolution of 12 µm/pixel, justifying its use in applications where high temperature measurements with high spatial detail are desired, such as in the laser material processing and additive manufacturing fields.

  1. Accuracy of Tympanic Temperature Measurement in Firefighters Completing a Simulated Structural Firefighting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Toby; Brearley, Matt; Bowen, Beth; Walker, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    In the course of their duties, firefighters risk heat stroke and other medical conditions due to exertion in high-temperature environments. Infrared tympanic temperature measurement (TTym) is often used by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to assess the core body temperature of firefighters. The accuracy of TTym in this setting has been called into question. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to examine the accuracy of TTym for core body temperature assessment at emergency firefighting events compared with gastrointestinal temperature measurement (TGI) as measured by ingestible thermometers. Forty-five (42 male, three female) professional urban firefighters from an Australian fire service completed two 20-minute work periods in a 100°C (± 5°C) heat chamber while wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and breathing apparatus (weighing approximately 22 kg). Measurements were taken immediately before entering, and on exiting, the heat chamber. Tympanic temperature was assessed by an infrared tympanic thermometer and TGI was measured by ingestible sensor and radio receiver. Complete data were available for 37 participants. Participant temperatures were higher on exiting the heat chamber than at baseline (TTym: 35.9°C (SD=0.7) vs 37.5°C (SD=0.8); TGI: 37.2°C (SD=0.4) vs 38.6°C (SD=0.5)). Tympanic temperature underestimated TGI on average by 1.3°C (SD=0.5) before entering the chamber and by 1.0°C (SD=0.8) following the exercise. Using pooled data, the average underestimation was 1.2°C (SD=0.7). Tympanic thermometers cause an unreliable measure of core body temperature for firefighters engaged in fire suppression activities. Accurate and practical measures of core body temperature are required urgently.

  2. Measurement research on magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel under different temperature, harmonic and dc bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The iron core of large power transformer is mainly composed of electrical sheet steel, which is easily affected by temperature, harmonic, and DC bias. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel under different temperature, harmonic and DC Bias. This paper presents the experiment measurement system for the 30ZH120 electrical steel sheet. The B-H magnetization curve, permeability, and loss curve under different temperature, different harmonic, and different DC bias are given, respectively. The simulation of transformer is carried out by using measuring result under DC bias. The presented research provides a reference for optimizing the design of power transformer.

  3. Measurements of Temperature of CNC Machine Tool Ball Screw Utilising IR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapłata J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In numerous papers it is proposed to use IR measurements of feed axis ball screw temperature distribution in order to compensate CNC machine tool thermal errors. The paper aims to validate reliability of the IR measurements in application to the feed axes ball screws. The identification of key factors influencing the accuracy of the IR measurements of ball screw temperature distribution has been conducted. A test-bench utilizing a ball screw assembly with built-in temperature sensors was introduced and the experimental data are presented along with conclusions.

  4. [The choice of the method for body temperature measurement in intensive care patients: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Measuring body temperature in intensive care patients is a routine nursing task, but there is no common practice regarding the site of measurement. to identify which method is most suitable and therefore advisable in critical patients the available databases were consulted and the pertinent literature was reviewed. many studies have been performed regarding the different methods, more or less invasive, of body temperature monitoring and their accuracy, reliability and patient tolerability . in the literature , it is agreed that the gold standard site for body temperature measurement is the pulmonary, femoral or brachial artery but that further studies are necessary in this field.

  5. How to Use the DHT22 Sensor for Measuring Temperature and Humidity with the Arduino Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Mihai

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to achieve a functional system in terms of hardware and software, to measure temperature and humidity. Also, this system will allow to monitoring the time. In this, we use an Arduino board with interfacing a sensor placed in local environment to measure temperature and humidity. The paper aims to achieve the following goals: achieving a functional system in terms of hardware and software that allows measuring and monitoring temperature, humidity and the time; using a development board for the communication with the sensor and clock; implementation a program that allows requirements.

  6. Elastic-properties measurement at high temperatures through contact resonance atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Pezzuolo, Andrea; Carmignato, Simone

    2015-01-01

    . To this regard, some open issues are of particular interest: low depth of penetration, high lateral resolution and measurements at elevated temperatures. An interesting solution is given by acoustic microscopy techniques, which can be successfully implemented for advanced research in surface elasticity, allowing...... during scanning, in order to allow exploitation of high resolution measurements at relatively high temperatures. Such instrument set up was undergone a set of calibration experiments in order to allow not only qualitative but also quantitative characterization of surfaces. The work was completed...... with a feasibility study with mechanical and topography measurements at temperatures as high as 150°C, with lateral resolution lower than 100 nm....

  7. Measurement of the high-temperature strain of UHTC materials using chemical composition gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Jin, Hua; Du, Chong; Wang, Libin; Peng, Tao; Scarpa, F.; Huo, Shiyu

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a simple bonding and measuring technique to realise silica-based chemical composition gratings’ (CCGs) high temperature applications on hot structures. We describe a series of experiments on CCGs to measure the thermal and mechanical response characteristics of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials when the maximum temperature is above 1000 °C. Response characteristics are obtained at the heating and cooling stages. Results show that the wavelength response of the CCGs bonded on the UHTC plate increases non-linearly with increasing temperatures, but decreases almost linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature-dependent strain transfer coefficients are calculated theoretically and experimentally; results show that the values of strain transfer coefficients below 1000 °C are significantly affected by the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate material and the interface. The strain transfer coefficient value tends to vary slowly between 0.616 and 0.626 above 700 °C.

  8. A simple method to measure the complex permittivity of materials at variable temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Yang; Liu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Di; Wu, Shiyue; Yuan, Jianping; Li, Lixin

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of the complex permittivity (CP) of a material at different temperatures in microwave heating applications is difficult and complicated. In this paper a simple and convenient method is employed to measure the CP of a material over variable temperature. In this method the temperature of a sample is increased experimentally to obtain the formula for the relationship between CP and temperature by a genetic algorithm. We chose agar solution (sample) and a Yangshao reactor (microwave heating system) to validate the reliability and feasibility of this method. The physical parameters (the heat capacity, C p , density, ρ, and thermal conductivity, k) of the sample are set as constants in the process of simulation and inversion. We analyze the influence of the variation of physical parameters with temperature on the accuracy of the inversion results. It is demonstrated that the variation of these physical parameters has little effect on the inversion results in a certain temperature range.

  9. Characteristics of Thermal Coefficient of Fiber Bragg Grating for Temperature Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heonyoung; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Daehyun [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Donghoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    A fiber Bragg grating sensor is considered a smart sensor that shows outstanding performance in the field of structural health monitoring (Sham). It has a powerful advantage, especially that of multiplexing, which enables several parameters to be sensed at multiple points by using a single optical fiber line. Among several parameters, the thermal expansion coefficient and thermo-optic coefficient are required to measure temperature. In previous studies, these were considered constant variables. This study shows that two parameters vary with temperature and newly proposes a temperature function for these two parameters. Specifically, these two parameters were defined as a single variable, and then, it was experimentally verified that this variable is a function of temperature. Finally, it was shown that temperature from RT to 100 .deg. C was precisely measured by using the temperature function that was defined through the experiment.

  10. Measurement of water transfer and swelling stress in the buffer material due to temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Chijimatsu, M.; Fujita, A.

    1999-03-01

    Coefficients concerning the water transfer in the buffer material was obtained by empirically giving a temperature gradient, and the swelling stress was measured when water was soaked in the sample under the uniform temperature and temperature gradient conditions. The distributions of temperature and water in the buffer material empirically given a temperature gradient were measured to deduce water diffusion constant due to the temperature gradient. The diffusion constant was the order of 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s/degC. As a result of a equitemperature soaking test, it was found that the swelling stress of the part where soaktion was slow was greater than that of the part with fast soaking at a stage of non-uniform water distribution. The water soaking quantity to the sample and swelling stress reached a stationary state after 7000 hours and the water distribution in the whole sample was found saturated. (H. Baba)

  11. A new and inexpensive temperature-measuring system. Application to photovoltaic solar facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohorquez, Miguel Angel Martinez; Enrique Gomez, Juan Manuel; Andujar Marquez, Jose Manuel [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, de Sistemas Informaticos y Automatica, Universidad de Huelva, Carretera Huelva - Palos de la, Frontera S/N, 21819 Huelva (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This article presents the design, construction and testing of a new and inexpensive digital sensor-based temperature-measuring system, whose principal characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation and easy scaling, and all this at a very low cost. This new digital sensor-based measuring system overcomes the traditional problems of digital measuring sensors, offering characteristics similar to Pt100-based measuring systems, and therefore can be used in any installation where reliable temperature measurement is necessary. It is especially suitable for installations where cost is a deciding factor in the choice of measuring system. It presents a practical application of the developed instrumentation system for use in photovoltaic solar facilities. This new temperature-measuring system has been registered in the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office with the number P200803364. (author)

  12. Effect of camera temperature variations on stereo-digital image correlation measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2015-11-25

    In laboratory and especially non-laboratory stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) applications, the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the cameras used in the system may change slightly due to the camera warm-up effect and possible variations in ambient temperature. Because these camera parameters are generally calibrated once prior to measurements and considered to be unaltered during the whole measurement period, the changes in these parameters unavoidably induce displacement/strain errors. In this study, the effect of temperature variations on stereo-DIC measurements is investigated experimentally. To quantify the errors associated with camera or ambient temperature changes, surface displacements and strains of a stationary optical quartz glass plate with near-zero thermal expansion were continuously measured using a regular stereo-DIC system. The results confirm that (1) temperature variations in the cameras and ambient environment have a considerable influence on the displacements and strains measured by stereo-DIC due to the slightly altered extrinsic and intrinsic camera parameters; and (2) the corresponding displacement and strain errors correlate with temperature changes. For the specific stereo-DIC configuration used in this work, the temperature-induced strain errors were estimated to be approximately 30–50 με/°C. To minimize the adverse effect of camera temperature variations on stereo-DIC measurements, two simple but effective solutions are suggested.

  13. Measurement of cryogenic moderator temperature effects in a small heterogeneous thermal reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoovler, G.S.; Ball, R.M.; Lewis, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    Past papers have described a critical experiment (CX) built at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the neutronic behavior of the particle-bed reactor (PBK). Among the experiments previously reported were tests to measure the reactivity effect of uniform temperature variations between 20 and 80{degree}C. This paper describes additional experiments designed to examine the effects of cryogenic moderator temperatures on core reactivity and neutron spectrum. The general importance of temperature effects to the design of the PBR have been previously discussed. A unique feature of the PBR is that the moderator may be at cryogenic temperatures during reactor startup. Because temperature effects in small, heterogeneous thermal reactors can be significant and because we found no integral measurements with cryogenic moderators in such systems, an experiment with a cryogenic moderator was designed and performed in the CX as an extension to the isothermal measurements previously reported.

  14. Moissanite-anvil cells for the electrical transport measurements at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomo, Shusuke; Tozer, Stanley W.

    2010-03-01

    We have successfully measured the Hall effect of a single crystal of a high temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4 in moissanite-anvil high pressure cells. A pressure cell with new Zylon-gasket and wiring arrangement survived under pressure up to at least 5 GPa. Pressure which was clamped at room temperature increased with lowering the temperature down to below 60 K by a factor of 1.3-1.4.

  15. Moissanite-anvil cells for the electrical transport measurements at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yomo, Shusuke [School of Biological Science and Engineering, Tokai University, Minami-ku, Sapporo 005-8601 (Japan); Tozer, Stanley W, E-mail: yomo@tokai-u.j [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310-3706 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    We have successfully measured the Hall effect of a single crystal of a high temperature superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in moissanite-anvil high pressure cells. A pressure cell with new Zylon-gasket and wiring arrangement survived under pressure up to at least 5 GPa. Pressure which was clamped at room temperature increased with lowering the temperature down to below 60 K by a factor of 1.3-1.4.

  16. Temperature measurement in the convective and segregated vibrated bed of powder : A numerical study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyono, Satoru; Taguchi, Y-h.

    2004-01-01

    In numerically simulated vibrated beds of powder, we measure temperature under convection by the generalized Einstein's relation. The spatial temperature distribution turns out to be quite uniform except for the boundary layers. In addition to this, temperature remains uniform even if segregation occurs. This suggests the possibility that there exists some "thermal equilibrium state" even in a vibrated bed of powder. This finding may lead to a unified view of the dynamic steady state of granu...

  17. Novel Zero-Heat-Flux Deep Body Temperature Measurement in Lower Extremity Vascular and Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Marja-Tellervo; Pesonen, Anne; Jousela, Irma; Päivärinta, Janne; Poikajärvi, Satu; Albäck, Anders; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Pesonen, Eero

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deep body temperature obtained using a novel noninvasive continuous zero-heat-flux temperature measurement system with core temperatures obtained using conventional methods. A prospective, observational study. Operating room of a university hospital. The study comprised 15 patients undergoing vascular surgery of the lower extremities and 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Zero-heat-flux thermometry on the forehead and standard core temperature measurements. Body temperature was measured using a new thermometry system (SpotOn; 3M, St. Paul, MN) on the forehead and with conventional methods in the esophagus during vascular surgery (n = 15), and in the nasopharynx and pulmonary artery during cardiac surgery (n = 15). The agreement between SpotOn and the conventional methods was assessed using the Bland-Altman random-effects approach for repeated measures. The mean difference between SpotOn and the esophageal temperature during vascular surgery was+0.08°C (95% limit of agreement -0.25 to+0.40°C). During cardiac surgery, during off CPB, the mean difference between SpotOn and the pulmonary arterial temperature was -0.05°C (95% limits of agreement -0.56 to+0.47°C). Throughout cardiac surgery (on and off CPB), the mean difference between SpotOn and the nasopharyngeal temperature was -0.12°C (95% limits of agreement -0.94 to+0.71°C). Poor agreement between the SpotOn and nasopharyngeal temperatures was detected in hypothermia below approximately 32°C. According to this preliminary study, the deep body temperature measured using the zero-heat-flux system was in good agreement with standard core temperatures during lower extremity vascular and cardiac surgery. However, agreement was questionable during hypothermia below 32°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of cloud liquid water on tropospheric temperature retrievals from microwave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, Leonie; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-11-01

    Microwave radiometry is a suitable technique to measure atmospheric temperature profiles with high temporal resolution during clear sky and cloudy conditions. In this study, we included cloud models in the inversion algorithm of the microwave radiometer TEMPERA (TEMPErature RAdiometer) to determine the effect of cloud liquid water on the temperature retrievals. The cloud models were built based on measurements of cloud base altitude and integrated liquid water (ILW), all performed at the aerological station (MeteoSwiss) in Payerne (Switzerland). Cloud base altitudes were detected using ceilometer measurements while the ILW was measured by a HATPRO (Humidity And Temperature PROfiler) radiometer. To assess the quality of the TEMPERA retrieval when clouds were considered, the resulting temperature profiles were compared to 2 years of radiosonde measurements. The TEMPERA instrument measures radiation at 12 channels in the frequency range from 51 to 57 GHz, corresponding to the left wing of the oxygen emission line complex. When the full spectral information with all the 12 frequency channels was used, we found a marked improvement in the temperature retrievals after including a cloud model. The chosen cloud model influenced the resulting temperature profile, especially for high clouds and clouds with a large amount of liquid water. Using all 12 channels, however, presented large deviations between different cases, suggesting that additional uncertainties exist in the lower, more transparent channels. Using less spectral information with the higher, more opaque channels only also improved the temperature profiles when clouds where included, but the influence of the chosen cloud model was less important. We conclude that tropospheric temperature profiles can be optimized by considering clouds in the microwave retrieval, and that the choice of the cloud model has a direct impact on the resulting temperature profile.

  19. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-12

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  20. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  1. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M. Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining. PMID:25587976

  2. The balancing of existing space heating systems using temperature measurements; L'equilibrage des installations de chauffage existantes par mesure des temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, G.

    2004-03-01

    The balancing of space heating systems using the measurements of water temperature or of the ambient temperature is a method used since several decades. However, the results obtained with this method have been very often disappointing. Today, the improvements made in the metrology of surface temperatures allow to reconsider this approach. This technical paper describes: the progresses made in surface temperature measurements, the balancing principle using water temperature measurements, a numerical example and the study of a concrete case (relation between temperature drop and flow rate), and the choice of a balancing method. (J.S.)

  3. Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

  4. IR Camera Validation of IGBT Junction Temperature Measurement via Peak Gate Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Dupont, Laurent; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Infra-red measurements are used to assess the measurement accuracy of the Peak Gate Current (IGPeak) method for IGBT junction temperature measurement. Single IGBT chips with the gate pad in both the centre and the edge are investigated, along with paralleled chips, as well as chips suffering...

  5. MRI temperature and velocity measurements in a fluid layer with heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, S.; Métivier, C.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) is an innovative technique which can provide 2D and 3D temperature measurements using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Despite the powerful advantages of MRT, this technique is sparcely developed and used in the engineering sciences. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to measure temperatures with MRI in a fluid layer submitted to heat transfer. By imposing a vertical temperature gradient, we study the temperature fields in both conductive and convective regimes. The temperature fields are obtained by measuring the transverse relaxation time T_2 in glycerol, a Newtonian fluid. The MRT protocol is described in detail and the results are presented. We show that for a conductive regime, temperature measurements are in very good agreement with the theoretical profile. In the convective regime, when comparing the temperature and velocity fields obtained by MRI, we get an excellent agreement in terms of flow structure. Temperature uncertainties are found to be less than 1°C for all our results.

  6. Comparison of temperature measurements in bladder, rectum and pulmonary artery in patients after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollerich, H.; Ismael, Farouq; Nijsten, Maarten; Dieperink, Willem

    2012-01-01

    In many patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) con-tinuous temperature monitoring is performed with rectal probes. Currently there are more options to measure temperature in critically ill patients. Since bladder catheters are routinely used in the majority of ICU patients, using bladder

  7. Infrared skin temperature measurement cannot be used to detect myofascial tender spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, M; Burnham, R

    2001-07-01

    To determine the relationship between skin temperature and pressure tolerance in patients with myofascial pain. Blinded, criterion standard. Community physiatry clinic. Sixteen consecutive female patients with myofascial pain or fibromyalgia with shoulder girdle symptoms above the T4 level for at least 3 months. No patient met the exclusion criteria of recent trauma to the area or therapy within 48 hours. Skin temperature was measured by using a hand-held infrared thermometer over 36 points arranged in a grid on the upper and midtrapezius. Pressure threshold was then assessed at each point by using a pressure threshold meter. A second, blinded examiner then examined each patient to find any myofascial tender spots and noted within which square on the grid they occurred. The correlation between temperature and pressure threshold and the temperature differences between tender and nontender areas. A nonsignificant correlation of.023 (p =.57) was found between temperature and pressure threshold. The mean temperature of the tender spots was 32.1 degrees C. No significant difference existed between tender spot temperature and temperature of nontender points (32.1 degrees C, p =.653) or contralateral points (32 degrees C, p =.893). Skin temperature, measured with a hand-held infrared thermometer, cannot be used to diagnose and follow treatment progress of myofascial tender spots, because skin temperature over tender spots does not correlate with pressure sensitivity. Copyright 2001 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  8. Temperature Measurement Inside Protective Headgear: Comparison With Core Temperatures and Indicators of Physiological Strain During Exercise in a Hot Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joel B; Goldston, Kelly R; Adams, Amy N; Crisp, Kelli M; Franklin, Brian B; Kreutzer, Andreas; Montalvo, Diego X; Turner, Marcell G; Phillips, Melody D

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive temperature monitoring with a sensor inside protective headgear may be effective in detecting temperatures that are associated with heat illness. The purpose was to establish the relationship between in-hardhat temperatures (Tih) and core temperature (Tc) as measured by rectal (Tre) and esophageal (Tes) probes. Thirty males (age 24.57 ± 4.32 yrs.) completed two trials: continuous submaximal exercise (CSE) and a series of high intensity 30-s sprints (HIE) with a one-minute rest between each. Exercise in both conditions was in a 36(°)C environment (40% RH) while wearing a standard hardhat with sensors mounted on the forehead that were monitored remotely. Exercise continued until voluntary termination or until Tc reached 39.5(°)C. Temperatures, heart rate, cardiorespiratory, and perceptual responses were monitored throughout. A physiological strain index (PSI) was calculated from Tc and HR. The final temperatures in the CSE condition were 38.77 ± 0.41, 38.90 ± 0.49 and 39.29 ± 0.58(°)C and in the HIE condition, final temperatures were 38.76 ± 0.37, 38.91 ± 0.47, and 39.19 ± 0.57 f (o)C for Tih, Tre, and Tes, respectively. The PSI in CSE was 9.62 ± 062, 9.18 ± 1.11, and 10.04 ± 1.05, and in the HIE condition 9.67 ± 068, 9.29 ± 0.99. and 9.86 ± 1.02 based on Tih, Tre and Tes, respectively. The general agreement between the Tih and other temperature measures along with the consistency as indicated by a low coefficient of variation (approx. 1%) in the recordings of the Tih sensors at the point of termination suggest that this device, or similar devices, may have application as a warning system for impending heat-related problems.

  9. Conventional and novel body temperature measurement during rest and exercise induced hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towey, Colin; Easton, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Pedlar, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite technological advances in thermal sensory equipment, few core temperature (TCORE) measurement techniques have met the established validity criteria in exercise science. Additionally, there is debate as to what method serves as the most practically viable, yet upholds the proposed measurement accuracy. This study assessed the accuracy of current and novel TCORE measurement techniques in comparison to rectal temperature (TREC) as a reference standard. Fifteen well-trained subjects (11 male, 4 female) completed 60min of exercise at an intensity equating to the lactate threshold; measured via a discontinuous exercise test. TREC was significantly elevated from resting values (37.2±0.3°C) at the end of moderate intensity exercise (39.6±0.04°C; P=0.001). Intestinal telemetric pill (TPILL) temperature and temporal artery temperature (TTEM) did not differ significantly from TREC at rest or during exercise (P>0.05). However, aural canal temperature (TAUR) and thermal imaging temperature (TIMA) were both significantly lower than TREC (P0.27°C). Against TREC, these results support the use of TPILL over all other techniques as a valid measure of TCORE at rest and during exercise induced hyperthermia. Novel findings illustrate that TIMA (when measured at the inner eye canthus) shows poor agreement to TREC during rest and exercise, which is similar to other 'surface' measures. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous distributed measurements of temperature and strain using spontaneous Raman and Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahbabi, M. N.; Cho, Y. T.; Newson, Trevor P.

    2004-06-01

    We report on a novel method for simultaneous distributed measurement of the temperature and strain in an optical fiber based on spatially resolving the anti-Stokes signals of both the spontaneous Raman and Brillouin backscattered signals.

  11. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.3 mm Wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witebsky, C.; Smoot, G.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 3.3 mm wavelength in 1982, 1983, and 1984 as part of a larger project to determine the CBR temperature at five wavelengths from 12 cm to 3.3 mm (Smoot et al. 1985). The 3.3-mm measurements yield a brightness temperature of 2.57 K with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 20.12 K. This paper describes the instrument, the measurement techniques, and the data-analysis procedures used. Our result is in good agreement with recent measurements at comparable wavelengths by Meyer and Jura (1985) and by Peterson, Richards, and Timusk (1985), but it disagrees with the temperatures reported by Woody and Richards (1981).

  12. High Temperature Antenna Measurement System with GSG or GS Contact Probing Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer L.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Applications that require data transmission at high temperatures are becoming more common due to growing commercial and military needs. Antennas are an indispensable part of these systems and the ability to characterize them at elevated temperatures is quite complicated with little or no information being reported on the subject [1]. This paper describes a measurement system that can characterize planar antennas up 600 C with ground-signal-ground (GSG) or ground-signal (GS) probe contacts. The return loss and radiation patterns of a folded slot antenna (FSA), designed to operate at 5 GHz (no ground plane on back side) and fabricated on an alumina substrate, are presented at room temperature (RT) and 250 C [2]. All measurements were made with Agilent's Precision Network Analyzer (PNA) E8361. The return loss and radiation patterns were also measured on a Styrofoam chuck to illustrate the effect the high temperature measurement system has on the patterns.

  13. In-Situ Rolling Element Bearing Temperature and/or Pressure Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nickel, David

    1999-01-01

    ... attitude-control wheels. Thin-film deposition and patterning processes have been formulated for the production of thin-film resistive sensors for in-situ measurement of pressure and temperature transients in lubricated contacts...

  14. Arctic (and Antarctic) Observing Experiment - an Assessment of Methods to Measure Temperature over Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Henderson, G. R.; Zook, J.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has been undergoing profound changes; the most visible is the dramatic decrease in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE). These changes pose a challenge to our ability to measure surface temperature across the Polar Regions. Traditionally, the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) and International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB) have measured surface air temperature (SAT) at 2-m height, which minimizes the ambiguity of measurements near of the surface. Specifically, is the temperature sensor measuring open water, snow, sea ice, or air? But now, with the dramatic decrease in Arctic SIE, increase in open water during summer, and the frailty of the younger sea ice pack, the IABP has had to deploy and develop new instruments to measure temperature. These instruments include Surface Velocity Program (SVP) buoys, which are commonly deployed on the world's ice-free oceans and typically measure sea surface temperature (SST), and the new robust Airborne eXpendable Ice Beacons (AXIB), which measure both SST and SAT. "Best Practice" requires that these instruments are inter-compared, and early results showing differences in collocated temperature measurements of over 2°C prompted the establishment of the IABP Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) buoy test site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. Preliminary results showed that the color of the hull of SVP buoys introduces a bias due to solar heating of the buoy. Since then, we have recommended that buoys should be painted white to reduce biases in temperature measurements due to different colors of the buoys deployed in different regions of the Arctic or the Antarctic. Measurements of SAT are more robust, but some of the temperature shields are susceptible to frosting. During our presentation we will provide an intercomparison of the temperature measurements at the AOX test site (i.e. high quality DOE/ARM observations compared with

  15. Advanced lifetime PSP imaging system for pressure and temperature field measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuo, Kazunori; Asai, Keisuke; Takahashi, Akira; Mizushima, Hiroshi

    2006-06-01

    The newly designed lifetime imaging system (LIS), which was composed of a multi-gated CCD camera and LED illuminators, has been developed to measure simultaneously pressure and temperature field from luminescent lifetime decay of pressure-sensitive paint (PSP). The new system could reduce the measurement error due to shot noise of a CCD and laser speckle, compared to the previous lifetime imaging system. Optimization of PSP film thickness on white basecoat was also conducted for improving measurement accuracy, and could minimize the measurement error. As a verification test, pressure and temperature images on a simple delta wing were visualized by the newly designed LIS. The quality of the pressure image was considerably improved in comparison with that measured by the previous system. These results indicated that the new LIS was a practical measurement tool to acquire simultaneously pressure and temperature field on an aerodynamic model surface.

  16. Measurement of Machining Temperature Using Infrared Radiation Pyrometer With Optical Fiber: Characteristics of Pyrometer

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 隆司; 金田, 泰幸; 佐藤, 昌彦; 杉田, 忠彰

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of a new type of infrared radiation pyrometer using an optical fiber are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The structure of this pyrometer is that the optical fiber accepts the infrared flux radiated from the object and transmits it to an infrared detector InSb cell. This I. R. P. is suitable for measuring the temperature of a very small object whose temperature changes rapidly. The flexibility of the optical fiber also makes it possible to measure...

  17. Temperature measurement using ultraviolet laser absorption of carbon dioxide behind shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B

    2005-11-01

    A diagnostic for microsecond time-resolved temperature measurements behind shock waves, using ultraviolet laser absorption of vibrationally hot carbon dioxide, is demonstrated. Continuous-wave laser radiation at 244 and 266 nm was employed to probe the spectrally smooth CO2 ultraviolet absorption, and an absorbance ratio technique was used to determine temperature. Measurements behind shock waves in both nonreacting and reacting (ignition) systems were made, and comparisons with isentropic and constant-volume calculations are reported.

  18. Heat transfer resistances in the measurements of cold helium vapour temperature in a subatmospheric process line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, A.; Pietrowicz, S.; Fydrych, J.

    2017-02-01

    The superfluid helium technology, which is essentially used in particle accelerators, requires complex cryogenic systems that include long lines transferring cold helium vapours at a subathmospheric pressure below 50 mbar. Usually in large systems the subatmospheric pressure is generated by a set of warm and cold compressors. In consequence, the heat loads to the line and especially the helium temperature in the inlet to the cold compressors are crucial parameters. In order to measure the helium temperature the temperature sensors are usually fixed to the external surface of the process lines. However, this technique can lead to unwanted measurement errors and affect the temperature measurement dynamics mainly due to low thermal conductivity of the pipe wall material, large pipe diameters and low helium density. Assembling a temperature sensor in a well (cold finger) reaching the centerline of the flowing helium is a technique that can improve the measurement quality and dynamics (response time). The paper presents the numerical simulations of heat transfers occurring in the both measurement techniques and discusses the impacts of the heat transfer resistances on the temperature measurement dynamics.

  19. Investigation of Thermographic Phosphors for Gas-Phase Temperature Measurements in Combustion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Dustin

    The feasibility of a planar gas temperature diagnostic, termed aerosol phosphor thermometry (APT), was investigated for combustion applications. APT has several advantages over other thermometry methods, such as the potential to measure both the reactants and products of a combusting flow, and the capability of providing simultaneous spatially-resolved planar temperature and velocity measurements. Unfortunately, thermal quenching of the phosphor signal due to nonradiative relaxation at elevated temperatures has limited the state-of-the-art for accurate single-shot APT to measurements below approximately 800 K. Therefore, the primary focus of this work was to establish a methodology that utilizes configurational coordinate diagrams in combination with host-referred binding energy diagrams to systematically select new phosphors for high-temperature thermometry applications. Oxide hosts doped with trivalent ions were investigated, and based on the analysis Ce3+ doped ortho-phosphates were selected for testing. All selected phosphors had high measured quenching temperatures (T50>800 K), partially validating the methodology. One particular phosphor, Ce:GdPO4, had a quenching temperature of T50=1000 K and demonstrated usable signal levels out to 1300 K, representing a substantial improvement on the current state-of-the-art from a temperature quenching perspective. Following this, an experimental setup designed to characterize the properties of thermographic phosphors in an environment representative of APT applications was presented. Luminescence imaging and spectrally-resolved measurements of aerosolized phosphor particles in a seeded jet were presented. A significant result of this work was the ability to quantitatively assess systematic errors due to radiative trapping in the measured spectra of the furnace by making a head-to-head comparison with data collected in the jet. Finally, the current viability of APT for high-temperature applications was assessed by using

  20. Association of digital cushion thickness with sole temperature measured with the use of infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, G; Trojacanec, P; Ganda, E K; Bicalho, M L S; Bicalho, R C

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between digital cushion thickness and sole temperature measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected from 216 lactating Holstein cows at 4 to 10d in milk (DIM). Cows were locomotion scored and sole temperature was measured after claw trimming (a minimum delay of 3 min was allowed for the hoof to cool) using an infrared thermography camera. Temperature was measured at the typical ulcer site of the lateral digit of the left hind foot. Immediately after the thermographic image was obtained, the thickness of the digital cushion was measured by ultrasonography. Rumen fluid samples were collected with a stomach tube and sample pH was measured immediately after collection. Additionally, a blood sample was obtained and used for measurements of serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and haptoglobin. To evaluate the associations of digital cushion thickness with sole temperature, a linear regression model was built using the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Sole temperature was the response variable, and digital cushion thickness quartiles, locomotion score group, rumen fluid pH, rumen fluid sample volume, environmental temperature, age in days, and serum levels of NEFA, BHBA, and haptoglobin were fitted in the model. Only significant variables were retained in the final model. Simple linear regression scatter plots were used to illustrate associations between sole temperature (measured by infrared thermography at the typical ulcer site) and environmental temperature and between NEFA and BHBA serum levels and haptoglobin. One-way ANOVA was used to compare rumen fluid pH for different locomotion score groups and for different digital cushion quartiles. Results from the multivariable linear regression model showed that sole temperature increased as locomotion scores increased and decreased as digital cushion thickness

  1. Experimental validation of error in temperature measurements in thin walled ductile iron castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    An experimental analysis has been performed to validate the measurement error of cooling curves measured in thin walled ductile cast iron. Specially designed thermocouples with Ø0.2 mm thermocouple wire in Ø1.6 mm ceramic tube was used for the experiments. Temperatures were measured in plates...... to a level about 20C lower than the actual temperature in the casting. Factors affecting the measurement error (oxide layer on the thermocouple wire, penetration into the ceramic tube and variation in placement of thermocouple) are discussed. Finally, it is shown how useful cooling curve may be obtained...

  2. Simultaneous Global Pressure and Temperature Measurement Technique for Hypersonic Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    2000-01-01

    High-temperature luminescent coatings are being developed and applied for simultaneous pressure and temperature mapping in conventional-type hypersonic wind tunnels, providing global pressure as well as Global aeroheating measurements. Together, with advanced model fabrication and analysis methods, these techniques will provide a more rapid and complete experimental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic database for future aerospace vehicles. The current status in development of simultaneous pressure- and temperature-sensitive coatings and measurement techniques for hypersonic wind tunnels at Langley Research Center is described. and initial results from a feasibility study in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel are presented.

  3. Two-dimensional time resolved measurements of the electron temperature in MST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Univ. di Padova, Padova, (Italy). Dipart. di Fisica; Marrelli, L. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Martin, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Univ. di Padova, Padova, (Italy). Dipart. di Fisica; Piovesan, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Spizzo, G. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Chapman, B. E. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Craig, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas; Den Hartog, D. J. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas; Goetz, J. A. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; O’Connell, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Prager, S. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas; Reyfman, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sarff, J. S. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) time resolved images of the electron temperature profile in the core of the MST reversed field pinchplasma are presented. The measurements have been obtained with a soft x-ray (SXR) tomographic diagnostic comprised of four cameras, each with a multichannel photodiode array, viewing the plasma from different poloidal angles, with a total of 74 channels. The 2D electron temperature profile is estimated by simultaneously measuring the SXR emissivity through different beryllium foils using the standard double-filter technique. With these methods, fast temperature variation in the core of the plasma (up to 100 kHz) can be analyzed.

  4. Feasibility study of measuring the temperature and pressure of warm dense matter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of making accurate measurements of the temperature and pressure of solid-density samples rapidly heated by the Z-Petawatt laser to warm dense matter (WDM) conditions, with temperatures approaching 100eV. The study focused specifically on the heating caused by laser generated proton beams. Based on an extensive literature search and numerical investigations, a WDM experiment is proposed which will accurately measure temperature and pressure based on optical emission from the surface and sample expansion velocity.

  5. Measurement of 9 mm cartridge case external temperatures and its forensic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashi, B; Edwards, M R; Sermon, P A; Courtney, L; Harrison, D; Xu, Y

    2010-07-15

    The external temperature of the cartridge cases of 9 mm parabellum ammunition during the firing sequence was measured by a series of methods. Using a thermal imaging camera was the most successful method and showed that aluminium alloy cases reached higher temperatures than did brass cases. Peak temperatures for brass cases were 336 K at the case mouth after 1.2 ms and 331 K at the case base after 2 ms. Corresponding temperatures for aluminium alloy cases were 363 K at the mouth after 0.8 ms and 372 K at the base after 1.2 ms. These times at temperature would not be sufficient to destroy any DNA residues left on the case. Measurement of the DNA of fired cartridges showed that DNA deposited on the cartridge case before firing was not affected by the temperatures reached during the firing sequence. Estimates of temperatures to be found in pure aluminium and mild steel cases were made, these indicating that pure aluminium would give higher temperatures than aluminium alloy and steel a lower temperature than for brass. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Granular temperature measured experimentally in a shear flow by acoustic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2017-09-01

    Granular temperature may control high-speed granular flows, yet it is difficult to measure in laboratory experiments. Here we utilize acoustic energy to measure granular temperature in dense shear flows. We show that acoustic energy captures the anticipated behavior of granular temperature as a function of grain size in quartz sand shear flows. We also find that granular temperature (through its proxy acoustic energy) is nearly linearly proportional to inertial number, and dilation is proportional to acoustic energy raised to the power 0.6 ±0.2 . This demonstrates the existence of a relationship between granular temperature and dilation. It is also consistent with previous results on dilation due to externally imposed vibration, thus showing that internally and externally induced vibrations have identical results on granular shear flows.

  7. Temperature Effects on the Wind Direction Measurement of 2D Solid Thermal Wind Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bei; Zhu, Yan-Qing; Yi, Zhenxiang; Qin, Ming; Huang, Qing-An

    2015-01-01

    For a two-dimensional solid silicon thermal wind sensor with symmetrical structure, the wind speed and direction information can be derived from the output voltages in two orthogonal directions, i.e., the north-south and east-west. However, the output voltages in these two directions will vary linearly with the ambient temperature. Therefore, in this paper, a temperature model to study the temperature effect on the wind direction measurement has been developed. A theoretical analysis has been presented first, and then Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations have been performed. It is found that due to symmetrical structure of the thermal wind sensor, the temperature effects on the output signals in the north-south and east-west directions are highly similar. As a result, the wind direction measurement of the thermal wind sensor is approximately independent of the ambient temperature. The experimental results fit the theoretical analysis and simulation results very well. PMID:26633398

  8. Apparatus for production, measurement and reaction studies of dissociated gases at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, J. D.; Gilbreath, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described which is used for the controlled production, characterization, and study of dissociated gases in a microwave discharge at elevated temperatures. A unique feature is the ability to produce and study a microwave discharge plasma in the heated zone. This allows elevated temperature reactions to be studied in high concentrations of dissociated gases. Further, the system permits weight change measurements of specimens in the plasma, thus facilitating reaction rate determinations. Included is a description of a cavity for use on a 50-mm diameter cylindrical reactor. The effects of flow rate, pressure, temperature, power, metal sample, and sampling position on dissociation percentage of oxygen in the apparatus are described as well as a technique for sample temperature measurements in the plasma which permits determination of high temperature recombination coefficients and reaction rates.

  9. Measurement of water vapour transport through a porous non-hygroscopic material in a temperature gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Padfield, Tim; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    This was an experiment to identify the driving potential for water vapour diffusion through porous materials in a temperature gradient. The specimen of mineral fibre insulation was placed between a space with controlled temperature and relative humidity and a space with a controlled, higher...... temperature, and a measured but not controlled relative humidity (RH). This assembly was allowed to reach equilibrium with no vapour movement between the spaces, as tested by a constant RH on each side and by zero flux of water vapour measured in the cold side chamber. The RH and temperature values were...... be tested experimentally in this way, but it is reasonable to assume that concentration is the driving potential. The close equality of the concentrations makes it unnecessary to invoke temperature difference as a third possible potential for driving diffusion....

  10. Kiloampere, Variable-Temperature, Critical-Current Measurements of High-Field Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, L F; Cheggour, N; Stauffer, T C; Filla, B J; Lu, X F

    2013-01-01

    We review variable-temperature, transport critical-current (I c) measurements made on commercial superconductors over a range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to about 1 kA. We have developed and used a number of systems to make these measurements over the last 15 years. Two exemplary variable-temperature systems with coil sample geometries will be described: a probe that is only variable-temperature and a probe that is variable-temperature and variable-strain. The most significant challenge for these measurements is temperature stability, since large amounts of heat can be generated by the flow of high current through the resistive sample fixture. Therefore, a significant portion of this review is focused on the reduction of temperature errors to less than ±0.05 K in such measurements. A key feature of our system is a pre-regulator that converts a flow of liquid helium to gas and heats the gas to a temperature close to the target sample temperature. The pre-regulator is not in close proximity to the sample and it is controlled independently of the sample temperature. This allows us to independently control the total cooling power, and thereby fine tune the sample cooling power at any sample temperature. The same general temperature-control philosophy is used in all of our variable-temperature systems, but the addition of another variable, such as strain, forces compromises in design and results in some differences in operation and protocol. These aspects are analyzed to assess the extent to which the protocols for our systems might be generalized to other systems at other laboratories. Our approach to variable-temperature measurements is also placed in the general context of measurement-system design, and the perceived advantages and disadvantages of design choices are presented. To verify the accuracy of the variable-temperature measurements, we compared critical-current values obtained on a specimen immersed in liquid helium ("liquid" or I c liq) at 5

  11. Quantifying energy and mass transfer in crop canopies: sensors for measurement of temperature and air velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugbee, B.; Monje, O.; Tanner, B.

    1996-01-01

    Here we report on the in situ performance of inexpensive, miniature sensors that have increased our ability to measure mass and energy fluxes from plant canopies in controlled environments: 1. Surface temperature. Canopy temperature measurements indicate changes in stomatal aperture and thus latent and sensible heat fluxes. Infrared transducers from two manufacturers (Exergen Corporation, Newton, MA; and Everest Interscience, Tucson, AZ, USA) have recently become available. Transducer accuracy matched that of a more expensive hand-held infrared thermometer. 2. Air velocity varies above and within plant canopies and is an important component in mass and energy transfer models. We tested commercially-available needle, heat-transfer anemometers (1 x 50 mm cylinder) that consist of a fine-wire thermocouple and a heater inside a hypodermic needle. The needle is heated and wind speed determined from the temperature rise above ambient. These sensors are particularly useful in measuring the low wind speeds found within plant canopies. 3. Accurate measurements of air temperature adjacent to plant leaves facilitates transport phenomena modeling. We quantified the effect of radiation and air velocity on temperature rise in thermocouples from 10 to 500 micrometers. At high radiation loads and low wind speeds, temperature errors were as large as 7 degrees C above air temperature.

  12. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K McFarlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual’s temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes for the measurement of peripheral (bicep and central (abdominal skin temperature. Young men and women (N=30 were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO 2 max of cycling in a hot (39±2°C, humid (45±5% RH environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5 were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5, For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9 and thermal (1.9, suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35ºC, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects

  13. Long-term, high frequency in situ measurements of intertidal mussel bed temperatures using biomimetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Brian; Choi, Francis; Matzelle, Allison; Torossian, Jessica L.; Morello, Scott L.; Mislan, K.A.S.; Yamane, Lauren; Strickland, Denise; Szathmary, P. Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E.; Tockstein, Alyson; Hilbish, Thomas J.; Burrows, Michael T.; Power, Anne Marie; Gosling, Elizabeth; Mieszkowska, Nova; Harley, Christopher D.G.; Nishizaki, Michael; Carrington, Emily; Menge, Bruce; Petes, Laura; Foley, Melissa M.; Johnson, Angela; Poole, Megan; Noble, Mae M.; Richmond, Erin L.; Robart, Matt; Robinson, Jonathan; Sapp, Jerod; Sones, Jackie; Broitman, Bernardo R.; Denny, Mark W.; Mach, Katharine J.; Miller, Luke P.; O’Donnell, Michael; Ross, Philip; Hofmann, Gretchen E.; Zippay, Mackenzie; Blanchette, Carol; Macfarlan, J.A.; Carpizo-Ituarte, Eugenio; Ruttenberg, Benjamin; Peña Mejía, Carlos E.; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Lathlean, Justin; Monaco, Cristián J.; Nicastro, Katy R.; Zardi, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics of intertidal mussels at 71 sites worldwide, from 1998-present. Loggers recorded temperatures at 10–30 min intervals nearly continuously at multiple intertidal elevations. Comparisons against direct measurements of mussel tissue temperature indicated errors of ~2.0–2.5 °C, during daily fluctuations that often exceeded 15°–20 °C. Geographic patterns in thermal stress based on biomimetic logger measurements were generally far more complex than anticipated based only on ‘habitat-level’ measurements of air or sea surface temperature. This unique data set provides an opportunity to link physiological measurements with spatially- and temporally-explicit field observations of body temperature. PMID:27727238

  14. ADC non-linear error corrections for low-noise temperature measurements in the LISA band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, J; Lobo, A; Mateos, N [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Fac. de Ciencies, Torre C5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ramos-Castro, J [Dep. Eng. Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Ed. C4, J Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); DIaz-Aguilo, M, E-mail: sanjuan@ieec.fcr.e [Dep. Fisica Aplicada, UPC, Campus Nord, Ed. B4/B5, J Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-01

    Temperature fluctuations degrade the performance of different subsystems in the LISA mission. For instance, they can exert stray forces on the test masses and thus hamper the required drag-free accuracy. Also, the interferometric system performance depends on the stability of the temperature in the optical elements. Therefore, monitoring the temperature in specific points of the LISA subsystems is required. These measurements will be useful to identify the sources of excess noise caused by temperature fluctuations. The required temperature stability is still to be defined, but a figure around 10{mu}K Hz{sup -1/2} from 0.1 mHz to 0.1 Hz can be a good rough guess. The temperature measurement subsystem on board the LISA Pathfinder mission exhibits noise levels of 10{mu}K Hz{sup -1/2} for f >0.1 mHz. For LISA, based on the above hypothesis, the measurement system should overcome limitations related to the analog-to-digital conversion stage which degrades the performance of the measurement when temperature drifts. Investigations on the mitigation of such noise will be here presented.

  15. Model Study of the Influence of Ambient Temperature and Installation Types on Surface Temperature Measurement by Using a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    .... The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) temperature sensor possesses numerous significant advantages over conventional electrical sensors, thus it is an ideal choice to achieve high-accuracy surface temperature measurements...

  16. Time-resolved temperature measurement and numerical simulation of millisecond laser irradiated silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zewen; Zhang, Hongchao; Shen, Zhonghua; Ni, Xiaowu

    2013-07-01

    Thermal process of 1064 nm millisecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiated silicon was time-resolved temperature measured by an infrared radiation pyrometer, temperature evolutions of the spot center for wide range of laser energy densities were presented. The waveforms of temperature evolution curves contained much information about phase change, melting, solidification and vaporization. An axisymmetric numerical model was established for millisecond laser heating silicon. The transient temperature fields were obtained by using the finite element method. The numerical results of temperature evolutions of the spot center are in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the axial temperature distributions of the numerical results give a better understanding of the waveforms in the experimental results. The melting threshold, vaporizing threshold, melting duration, and melting depth were better identified by analyzing two kinds of results.

  17. Time-resolved temperature measurement and numerical simulation of millisecond laser irradiated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zewen; Zhang Hongchao; Shen Zhonghua; Ni Xiaowu [School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2013-07-21

    Thermal process of 1064 nm millisecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiated silicon was time-resolved temperature measured by an infrared radiation pyrometer, temperature evolutions of the spot center for wide range of laser energy densities were presented. The waveforms of temperature evolution curves contained much information about phase change, melting, solidification and vaporization. An axisymmetric numerical model was established for millisecond laser heating silicon. The transient temperature fields were obtained by using the finite element method. The numerical results of temperature evolutions of the spot center are in good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, the axial temperature distributions of the numerical results give a better understanding of the waveforms in the experimental results. The melting threshold, vaporizing threshold, melting duration, and melting depth were better identified by analyzing two kinds of results.

  18. The validity of wireless iButtons and thermistors for human skin temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A D Harper; Crabtree, D R; Bilzon, J L J; Walsh, N P

    2010-01-01

    Skin temperature is a fundamental variable in human thermo-physiology, and yet skin temperature measurement remains impractical in most free-living, exercise and clinical settings, using currently available hard-wired methods. The purpose of this study was to compare wireless iButtons and hard-wired thermistors for human skin temperature measurement. In the first of two investigations, iButtons and thermistors monitored temperature in a controlled water bath (range: 10-40 degrees C) and were referenced against a certified, mercury thermometer. In the second investigation, eight healthy males completed three randomized trials (ambient temperature = 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C) while both devices recorded skin temperature at rest (in low and high wind velocities) and during cycle-ergometry exercise. The results are as follows. Investigation 1: both devices displayed very high validity correlation with the reference thermometer (r > 0.999). Prior to correction, the mean bias was +0.121 degrees C for iButtons and +0.045 degrees C for thermistors. Upon calibration correction the mean bias for iButtons and thermistors was not significantly different from zero bias. Interestingly, a typical error of the estimate of iButtons (0.043 degrees C) was 1.5 times less than that of thermistors (0.062 degrees C), demonstrating iButtons' lower random error. Investigation 2: the offset between iButton and thermistor readings was generally consistent across conditions; however, thermistor responses gave readings that were always closer to ambient temperature than those given by iButtons, suggesting potential thermistor drift towards environmental conditions. Mean temperature differences between iButtons and thermistors during resting trials ranged from 0.261 degrees C to 1.356 degrees C. Mean temperature differences between iButtons and thermistors during exercise were 0.989 degrees C (ambient temperature = 10 degrees C), 0.415 degrees C (ambient temperature = 20

  19. Real-time measurement of aerosol particle concentration at high temperatures; Hiukkaspitoisuuden reaaliaikainen mittaaminen korkeassa laempoetilassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J.; Hautanen, J.; Laitinen, A. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Physics

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a new method for continuous aerosol particle concentration measurement at elevated temperatures (up to 800-1000 deg C). The measured property of the aerosol particles is the so called Fuchs surface area. This quantity is relevant for diffusion limited mass transfer to particles. The principle of the method is as follows. First, aerosol particles are charged electrically by diffusion charging process. The charging takes place at high temperature. After the charging, aerosol is diluted and cooled. Finally, aerosol particles are collected and the total charge carried by the aerosol particles is measured. Particle collection and charge measurement take place at low temperature. Benefits of this measurement method are: particles are charged in-situ, charge of the particles is not affected by the temperature and pressure changes after sampling, particle collection and charge measurement are carried out outside the process conditions, and the measured quantity is well defined. The results of this study can be used when the formation of the fly ash particles is studied. Another field of applications is the study and the development of gasification processes. Possibly, the method can also be used for the monitoring the operation of the high temperature particle collection devices. (orig.)

  20. Systematic method for the validation of long-term temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Jaber, H.; Glisic, B.

    2016-12-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is the process of collecting and analyzing measurements of various structural and environmental parameters on a structure for the purpose of formulating conclusions on the performance and condition of the structure. Accurate long-term temperature data is critical for SHM applications as it is often used to compensate other measurements (e.g., strain), or to understand the thermal behavior of the structure. Despite the need for accurate long-term temperature data, there are currently no validation methods to ensure the accuracy of collected data. This paper researches and presents a novel method for the validation of long-term temperature measurements from any type of sensors. The method relies on modeling the dependence of temperature measurements inside a structure on the ambient temperature measurements collected from a reliable nearby weather tower. The model is then used to predict future measurements and assess whether or not future measurements conform to predictions. The paper presents both the model selection process, as well as the sensor malfunction detection process. To illustrate and validate the method, it is applied to data from a monitoring system installed on a real structure, Streicker Bridge on the Princeton University campus. Application of the method to data collected from about forty sensors over five years showed the potential of the method to categorize normal sensor function, as well as characterize sensor defect and minor drift.

  1. Dual-Pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Temperature and CO2 Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Robert P.; Velur-Natarajan, Viswanathan; Carter, Campbell D.; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Gord, James R.; Danehy, Paul M.; Fiechtner, G. J.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of temperature and CO2 concentration using dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, (CARS) are described. The measurements were performed in laboratory flames,in a room-temperature gas cell, and on an engine test stand at the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. A modeless dye laser, a single-mode Nd:YAG laser, and an unintensified back-illuminated charge-coupled device digital camera were used for these measurements. The CARS measurements were performed on a single-laser-shot basis. The standard deviations of the temperatures and CO2 mole fractions determined from single-shot dual-pump CARS spectra in steady laminar propane/air flames were approximately 2 and 10% of the mean values of approximately 2000 K and 0.10, respectively. The precision and accuracy of single-shot temperature measurements obtained from the nitrogen part of the dual-pump CARS system were investigated in detail in near-adiabatic hydrogen/air/CO2 flames. The precision of the CARS temperature measurements was found to be comparable to the best results reported in the literature for conventional two-laser, single-pump CARS. The application of dual-pump CARS for single-shot measurements in a swirl-stabilized combustor fueled with JP-8 was also demonstrated.

  2. Influence of ambient temperature on whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, G.; Bausch, R.; Ismail, A. H.; Cordes, A.; Pikkemaat, R.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurements are easy to implement and could be used for continuous monitoring. However, several factors (e.g. environment temperature) influence the measurements limiting the accuracy of the technology. Changes in skin temperature produced by changes in ambient temperature are related with changes in skin blood flow and skin impedance. It is assumed that skin impedance change is responsible for the error observed in whole body and segmental measurements. Measurements including body parts more distant from the torso seem to be more affected. In the present article skin and segment impedance have been performed on healthy subjects under extreme changes in environment temperature (13-39 °C). A commercial BIS device with a range between 5 kHz and 1 MHz has been used for the measurements. The results indicate that not only skin impedance, but also impedance of deeper tissue (e.g. muscle) may be responsible for the influence of environment temperature on BIS measurements. Segmental (knee-to-knee) BIS measurements show a relative change of only 2 %, while forearm and whole body impedance changed 14 % and 8 % respectively.

  3. Optical measurement of static temperature and hydroxyl radical profiles in a hydrogen-fueled supersonic combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Profiles of static temperature and hydroxyl radical concentration were measured in a two-dimensional supersonic combustor test section 22.8 cm downstream of hydrogen injection. A high-pressure gas generator supplied vitiated air to the test section at Mach 2.44, atmospheric pressure, and a total temperature of about 2240 K. Room-temperature hydrogen was injected through a 0.40-cm step slot at Mach 1 and matched pressure. The measurements utilized a noninterfering spectral line absorption technique in which narrow ultraviolet emission lines of the hydroxyl electronic transition are absorbed by the broader absorption lines in the combustion gas. Comparison of the measured temperature profiles with theoretical calculations showed good agreement.

  4. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Based on a Potassium Faraday Dispersive Filter for Daytime Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is proposed for measuring the profiles of atmospheric temperature in daytime. Based on the theory of high resolution Rayleigh scattering, the feasibility and advantages of using potassium (K Faraday dispersive optical filters as blocking filters for measuring atmospheric temperature are demonstrated with a numerical simulation. It was found that temperature profiles could be measured within 1K error for the height of 9 km with a 500 m range resolution in 60 min by using laser pulses with 1mJ/pulse and 1 kHz, and a 50 cm diameter telescope. Furthermore, we are developing compact pulsed laser system for temperature lidar transmitter.

  5. Electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Leonard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Benedetti, Robin; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Khan, Shahab; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Nagel, Sabrina; Pak, Arthur; Patel, Prav; Schneider, Marilyn; Springer, Paul; LLNL Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature within the hot spot of inertially confined, layered implosions on the NIF using a titanium differential filtering x-ray diagnostic. The electron temperature from x-ray emission is insensitive to non-thermal velocity flows as is the case with ion temperature measurements and is thus a critical parameter in interpreting stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we discuss measurements using titanium filters ranging from 10 μm to 1mm in thickness with a sensitivity band of 10-30keV coupled with penumbral pinholes. The use of larger pinhole diameters increases x-ray fluence improving sensitivity of photon energies with minimal attenuation from the compressed fuel/shell. This diagnostic has been fielded on a series of cryogenic shots with DT ion temperatures ranging from 2-5keV. Analysis of the measurement will be presented along with a comparison against simulated electron temperatures and x-ray spectra as well as a comparison to DT ion temperature measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Investigation of metrological parameters of measuring system for small temperature changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samynina M. G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Metrological parameters of the non-standard contact device were investigated to characterize its performance in temperature change measurements in the specified temperature range. Several series thermistors with a negative temperature coefficient of resistance connected into a linearization circuit were used as the sensing element of the semiconductor device. Increasing the number of thermistors leads to improved circuitry resolving power and reduced dispersion of this parameter. However, there is the question of optimal ratio of the number of thermistors and implemented temperature resolution, due to the nonlinear resolution dependence of the number of series-connected thermoelements. An example of scheme of four similar thermistors as the primary sensor and of a standard measuring instrument, which is working in ohmmeter mode, shows the ability to measure temperature changes at the level of hundredth of a Celsius degree. In this case, a quantization error, which is determined by a resolution of the measuring system, and the ohmmeter accuracy make the main contribution to the overall accuracy of measuring small temperature changes.

  7. Two-Step Calibration of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer for High Temperature Measurement Using a Quartz Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    There is no theoretical upper temperature limit for pyrometer application in temperature measurements. NASA Glenn's multiwavelength pyrometer can make measurements over wide temperature ranges. However, the radiation spectral response of the pyrometer's detector must be calibrated before any temperature measurement is attempted, and it is recommended that calibration be done at temperatures close to those for which measurements will be made. Calibration is a determination of the constants of proportionality at all wavelengths between the detector's output (voltage) and its input signals (usually from a blackbody radiation source) in order to convert detector output into radiation intensity. To measure high temperatures, the detectors are chosen to be sensitive in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers. A blackbody furnace equilibrated at around 1000 C is often used for this calibration. Though the detector may respond sensitively to short wavelengths radiation, a blackbody furnace at 1000 C emits only feebly at very short wavelengths. As a consequence, the calibration constants that result may not be the most accurate. For pyrometry calibration, a radiation source emitting strongly at the short wavelengths is preferred. We have chosen a quartz halogen lamp for this purpose.

  8. ``Multi-temperature'' method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M.

    2013-08-01

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as "multi-temperature" (short "multi-T") method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH4, CO2) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of three different methods of temperature measurement in acutely ill geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singler, Katrin; Bertsch, Thomas; Heppner, Hans Juergen; Kob, Robert; Hammer, Klaus; Biber, Roland; Sieber, Cornel C; Christ, Michael

    2013-11-01

    we examined the diagnostic accuracy of different methods of body temperature measurement to diagnose infection in geriatric patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). this observational study was done in consecutive patients ≥75 years old presenting to the ED. Body temperature was determined by tympanal thermometry, temporal artery thermometry and rectal temperature measurement. Adjudicated final diagnosis of infection was done by two experts including patient history, clinical and laboratory findings as well as radiographic studies. a total of 427 patients were included in the data analysis (age: 82.7 ± 5.1 years). Infection was present in 105 patients (24.6%). Respiratory rate, heart rate and body temperature were significantly higher in patients with infection, blood pressure was lower (P temperature measured by tympanal and temporal artery thermometry was correlated with rectal thermometry. Body temperature was significantly higher in patients with infection compared with those without infection independent of the method of body temperature measurement (P measurement tympanal thermometry showed a higher bias than temporal artery thermometry (0.54 versus 0.03°C), while its limits of agreement were more narrow (-0.14 to 1.21°C versus -0.94-1.01°C). diagnostic accuracy for the identification of infection was comparable among tympanal and rectal thermometry and lower for temporal artery thermometry. Different cut-off points should be used to identify infection using tympanal (37.3°C) or rectal (37.9°C) thermometry. In general, temperature measurement is an insensitive method to identify geriatric patients with infection. Registration number clinicaltrials.com: KSMC-tempger-1.

  10. Comparison of MODIS-derived land surface temperatures with ground surface and air temperature measurements in continuous permafrost terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hachem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining high resolution records of surface temperature from satellite sensors is important in the Arctic because meteorological stations are scarce and widely scattered in those vast and remote regions. Surface temperature is the primary climatic factor that governs the existence, spatial distribution and thermal regime of permafrost which is a major component of the terrestrial cryosphere. Land Surface (skin Temperatures (LST derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms provide spatial estimates of near-surface temperature values. In this study, LST values from MODIS are compared to ground-based near-surface air (Tair and ground surface temperature (GST measurements obtained from 2000 to 2008 at herbaceous and shrub tundra sites located in the continuous permafrost zone of Northern Québec, Nunavik, Canada, and of the North Slope of Alaska, USA. LSTs (temperatures at the surface materials-atmosphere interface are found to be better correlated with Tair (1–3 m above the ground than with available GST (3–5 cm below the ground surface. As Tair is most often used by the permafrost community, this study focused on this parameter. LSTs are in stronger agreement with Tair during the snow cover season than in the snow free season. Combining Aqua and Terra LST-Day and LST-Nigh acquisitions into a mean daily value provides a large number of LST observations and a better overall agreement with Tair. Comparison between mean daily LSTs and mean daily Tair, for all sites and all seasons pooled together yields a very high correlation (R = 0.97; mean difference (MD = 1.8 °C; and standard deviation of MD (SD = 4.0 °C. The large SD can be explained by the influence of surface heterogeneity within the MODIS 1 km2 grid cells, the presence of undetected

  11. Freeze-drying process design by manometric temperature measurement: design of a smart freeze-dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J

    2005-04-01

    To develop a procedure based on manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and an expert system for good practices in freeze drying that will allow development of an optimized freeze-drying process during a single laboratory freeze-drying experiment. Freeze drying was performed with a FTS Dura-Stop/Dura-Top freeze dryer with the manometric temperature measurement software installed. Five percent solutions of glycine, sucrose, or mannitol with 2 ml to 4 ml fill in 5 ml vials were used, with all vials loaded on one shelf. Details of freezing, optimization of chamber pressure, target product temperature, and some aspects of secondary drying are determined by the expert system algorithms. MTM measurements were used to select the optimum shelf temperature, to determine drying end points, and to evaluate residual moisture content in real-time. MTM measurements were made at 1 hour or half-hour intervals during primary drying and secondary drying, with a data collection frequency of 4 points per second. The improved MTM equations were fit to pressure-time data generated by the MTM procedure using Microcal Origin software to obtain product temperature and dry layer resistance. Using heat and mass transfer theory, the MTM results were used to evaluate mass and heat transfer rates and to estimate the shelf temperature required to maintain the target product temperature. MTM product dry layer resistance is accurate until about two-thirds of total primary drying time is over, and the MTM product temperature is normally accurate almost to the end of primary drying provided that effective thermal shielding is used in the freeze-drying process. The primary drying times can be accurately estimated from mass transfer rates calculated very early in the run, and we find the target product temperature can be achieved and maintained with only a few adjustments of shelf temperature. The freeze-dryer overload conditions can be estimated by calculation of heat/mass flow at the target product

  12. Accuracy and precision of four common peripheral temperature measurement methods in intensive care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadian S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simin Asadian,1 Alireza Khatony,1 Gholamreza Moradi,2 Alireza Abdi,1 Mansour Rezaei,3 1Nursing and Midwifery School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Biostatistics & Epidemiology Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Introduction: An accurate determination of body temperature in critically ill patients is a fundamental requirement for initiating the proper process of diagnosis, and also therapeutic actions; therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and precision of four noninvasive peripheral methods of temperature measurement compared to the central nasopharyngeal measurement. Methods: In this observational prospective study, 237 patients were recruited from the intensive care unit of Imam Ali Hospital of Kermanshah. The patients’ body temperatures were measured by four peripheral methods; oral, axillary, tympanic, and forehead along with a standard central nasopharyngeal measurement. After data collection, the results were analyzed by paired t-test, kappa coefficient, receiver operating characteristic curve, and using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, software. Results: There was a significant meaningful correlation between all the peripheral methods when compared with the central measurement (P<0.001. Kappa coefficients showed good agreement between the temperatures of right and left tympanic membranes and the standard central nasopharyngeal measurement (88%. Paired t-test demonstrated an acceptable precision with forehead (P=0.132, left (P=0.18 and right (P=0.318 tympanic membranes, oral (P=1.00, and axillary (P=1.00 methods. Sensitivity and specificity of both the left and right tympanic membranes were more than for other methods. Conclusion: The tympanic and forehead methods had the highest and lowest accuracy for measuring body temperature, respectively. It is recommended to use the tympanic method (right and left for

  13. A New Method to Measure Temperature and Burner Pattern Factor Sensing for Active Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The determination of the temperatures of extended surfaces which exhibit non-uniform temperature variation is very important for a number of applications including the "Burner Pattern Factor" (BPF) of turbine engines. Exploratory work has shown that use of BPF to control engine functions can result in many benefits, among them reduction in engine weight, reduction in operating cost, increase in engine life, while attaining maximum engine efficiency. Advanced engines are expected to operate at very high temperature to achieve high efficiency. Brief exposure of engine components to higher than design temperatures due to non-uniformity in engine burner pattern can reduce engine life. The engine BPF is a measure of engine temperature uniformity. Attainment of maximum temperature uniformity and high temperatures is key to maximum efficiency and long life. A new approach to determine through the measurement of just one radiation spectrum by a multiwavelength pyrometer is possible. This paper discusses a new temperature sensing approach and its application to determine the BPF.

  14. Note: A temperature-stable low-noise transimpedance amplifier for microcurrent measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Shi, Xueyou; Zhao, Kai; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Hanlu

    2017-02-01

    Temperature stability and noise characteristics often run contradictory in microcurrent (e.g., pA-scale) measurement instruments because low-noise performance requires high-value resistors with relatively poor temperature coefficients. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier with high-temperature stability, which involves an active compensation mechanism to overcome the temperature drift mainly caused by high-value resistors, is presented. The implementation uses a specially designed R-2R compensating network to provide programmable current gain with extra-fine trimming resolution. The temperature drifts of all components (e.g., feedback resistors, operational amplifiers, and the R-2R network itself) are compensated simultaneously. Therefore, both low-temperature drift and ultra-low-noise performance can be achieved. With a current gain of 1011 V/A, the internal current noise density was about 0.4 fA/√Hz, and the average temperature coefficient was 4.3 ppm/K at 0-50 °C. The amplifier module maintains accuracy across a wide temperature range without additional thermal stabilization, and its compact size makes it especially suitable for high-precision, low-current measurement in outdoor environments for applications such as electrochemical emission supervision, air pollution particles analysis, radiation monitoring, and bioelectricity.

  15. A concept for non-invasive temperature measurement during injection moulding processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Christian; Spekowius, Marcel, E-mail: spekowius@ikv.rwth-aachen.de; Wipperfürth, Jens; Schöngart, Maximilian, E-mail: schoengart@ikv.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), RWTH Aachen University Pontstr. 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    Current models of the injection moulding process insufficiently consider the thermal interactions between melt, solidified material and the mould. A detailed description requires a deep understanding of the underlying processes and a precise observation of the temperature. Because todays measurement concepts do not allow a non-invasive analysis it is necessary to find new measurement techniques for temperature measurements during the manufacturing process. In this work we present the idea of a set up for a tomographic ultrasound measurement of the temperature field inside a plastics melt. The goal is to identify a concept that can be installed on a specialized mould for the injection moulding process. The challenges are discussed and the design of a prototype is shown. Special attention is given to the spatial arrangement of the sensors. Besides the design of a measurement set up a reconstruction strategy for the ultrasound signals is required. We present an approach in which an image processing algorithm can be used to calculate a temperature distribution from the ultrasound scans. We discuss a reconstruction strategy in which the ultrasound signals are converted into a spartial temperature distribution by using pvT curves that are obtained by dilatometer measurements.

  16. Reconstruction method for inversion problems in an acoustic tomography based temperature distribution measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Liu, Shi; Tong, Guowei

    2017-11-01

    In industrial areas, temperature distribution information provides a powerful data support for improving system efficiency, reducing pollutant emission, ensuring safety operation, etc. As a noninvasive measurement technology, acoustic tomography (AT) has been widely used to measure temperature distribution where the efficiency of the reconstruction algorithm is crucial for the reliability of the measurement results. Different from traditional reconstruction techniques, in this paper a two-phase reconstruction method is proposed to ameliorate the reconstruction accuracy (RA). In the first phase, the measurement domain is discretized by a coarse square grid to reduce the number of unknown variables to mitigate the ill-posed nature of the AT inverse problem. By taking into consideration the inaccuracy of the measured time-of-flight data, a new cost function is constructed to improve the robustness of the estimation, and a grey wolf optimizer is used to solve the proposed cost function to obtain the temperature distribution on the coarse grid. In the second phase, the Adaboost.RT based BP neural network algorithm is developed for predicting the temperature distribution on the refined grid in accordance with the temperature distribution data estimated in the first phase. Numerical simulations and experiment measurement results validate the superiority of the proposed reconstruction algorithm in improving the robustness and RA.

  17. Power System State Estimation Accuracy Enhancement Using Temperature Measurements of Overhead Line Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wydra Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.

  18. Non-contact temperature measurement of silicon substrate in sputtering plasma using optical interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Hattori, Katsuhiro; Oda, Akinori; Kousaka, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    The substrate temperature is one of important parameters to control the plasma processing and involve the film properties or the chemistry of gas phase. High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) realizes a very significant fraction of the ionized species and which induced onto the substrate and heated it. It is essential to analyze the substrate temperature and the heating mechanisms. In this study, we have measured the silicon substrate temperature in HiPIMS by using the optical low-coherence interferometry. The reflected light from the front surface interferes that from back surface. The optical path length of Si wafer is obtained by the inverse Fourier transform of spectral interferogram and varies with the change in the silicon temperature. The silicon temperatures with various resistivities were measured and the change in the optical thickness increased with decreasing the resistivity owing to the carrier density of the silicon substrate. The time variation of Si substrate temperatures at various applied voltages in the HiPIMS using the titanium target was measured and the silicon temperatures increased with increasing the applied voltage.

  19. Temperature measurements in a capacitive system of deep loco-regional hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinbas, H; Rosch, M; Demiray, M

    2017-01-01

    Hyperthermia has been shown to be a medically useful procedure applicable for different indications. For the connection between clinical effects and heat, it is important to understand the actual temperatures achieved in the tissue. There are limited temperature data available when using capacitive hyperthermia devices even though this is worldwide the most widespread method for loco-regional heating. Hence, this study examines temperature measurements using capacitive heating. Bioequivalent phantoms were used for the measurements, which, however, do not consider perfusion in live tissue. In general, the required temperature impact for an effective cancer therapy should need an increase of 0.2°C/min, which has been achieved. In the described tests on the non-perfused dummy, on average, the temperature increases by approximately 2°C in the first 12 min. The temperature difference relative to the starting temperature was 10-12°C within a therapy time of 60 min (rising from the initial room temperature between 20-24°C and 32-34°C). The average deviation with three individual measurements each on different days in a specified localization was 2°C. The minimum temperature difference was 4.2°C, and the maximum value was reached in the liver with 10.5°C. These values were achieved with a moderate energy input of 60-150 watts, with much higher performance outputs still available. These results show that the tested capacitive device is capable of achieving quick temperature increase with a sufficient impact into the depth of a body.

  20. Rotational Raman-based temperature measurements in a high-velocity, turbulent jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Wernet, Mark P.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous rotational Raman scattering spectroscopy is used to acquire measurements of the mean and root mean square (rms) temperature fluctuations in turbulent, high-velocity heated jets. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of radial and axial locations downstream from a 50 mm diameter nozzle operating from subsonic to supersonic conditions over a wide range of temperatures and Mach numbers, in accordance with the Tanna matrix frequently used in jet noise studies. These data were acquired in the hostile, high noise (115 dB) environment of a large scale open air test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Temperature estimates were determined by performing non-linear least squares fitting of the single shot spectra to the theoretical rotational Stokes spectra of N2 and O2. The laser employed in this study was a high energy, long-pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. One thousand single-shot spectra were acquired at each spatial coordinate. Mean temperature and rms temperature variations were calculated at each measurement location. Excellent agreement between the averaged and single-shot temperatures was observed with an accuracy better than 2.5% for temperature, and rms variations in temperature between  ±2.2% at 296 K and  ±4.5% at 850 K. The mean and normalized rms temperatures measured here were then compared to NASA’s Consensus data set of PIV velocity and turbulence measurements in similar jet flows. The results of this and planned follow-on studies will support NASA GRC’s development of physics-based jet noise prediction, turbulence modeling and aeroacoustic source modeling codes.

  1. Simultaneous measurement of the species concentration, flow velocity, and temperature in a gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Glosemeyer, D.; Bennis, G. L.; Soltanolkotabi, M.; Gupta, R.

    1999-03-01

    Photothermal deflection spectroscopy has the potential of serving as an important diagnostic technique in combustion environments for measurements of species concentration, temperature, and flow velocity. We demonstrate, by application to a jet of N2 seeded with 0.5% NO2, that these three important parameters can be measured simultaneously, that is, in a single pulse.

  2. Measurements of Humidity and Temperature in the Marine Environment during the HEXOS Main Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsaros, K.B.; Cosmo, J. de; Lind, R.J.; Anderson, R.J.; Smith, S.D.; Kraan, R.; Oost, W.A.; Uhlig, K.; Mestayer, P.G.; Larsen, S.E.; Smith, M.H.; Leeuw, G. de

    1994-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fluctuations in temperature and humidity are needed for determination of the surface evaporation rate and the air-sea sensible heat flux using either the eddy correlation or inertial dissipation method for flux calculations. These measurements are difficult to make over the

  3. The use of spontaneous voltage fluctuations for the measurement of low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.

    1950-01-01

    A discussion is given of the method proposed by Lawson and Long to use the noise across a resistance as a measure of its absolute temperature. The statistical fluctuations in the measured noise are calculated, taking into account the bandwidth of the amplifier. This calculation shows that is not

  4. Measuring heat balance residual at lake surface using distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Emmerik, T.H.M.; Rimmer, A.; Lechinsky, Y.; Wenker, K.J.R.; Nussboim, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a new method to verify the measurements of surface fluxes and the heat balance at a lake surface, by means of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) measurements from 0.5 m above to 1.5 m below the surface. Using a polyvinyl chloride hyperboloid construction, a floating

  5. Measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at 6. 3 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandolesi, N.; Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Morigi, G.

    1984-06-15

    We present results of a measurement of the cosmic background radiation temperature at a wavelength of 6.3 cm. We obtained the value T/sub CBR/ = 2.71 +- 0.20 K. This is in good agreement with, and has a smaller error than, any previous measurement at equal or longer wavelengths.

  6. Specifications for temperature measurement in the district heating sector; Anforderungen an die Temperaturmessung in der Fernwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathies, Nicolaus [Krohne Messtechnik GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Schupp, Reiner [MID-Cert GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Wrong design of thermometers often causes faulty billing. Correct design depends on the requirements of the market segment and of the heating systems concerned. Additionally, aspects resulting from the measurement process and the environmental conditions must be taken into account as well as equipment-specific criteria. The authors outline the requirements to a correct temperature measurement. (orig./GL)

  7. Measuring core temperature using the proprietary application and thermo-smartphone adapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darocha, Tomasz; Majkowski, Jacek; Sanak, Tomasz; Podsiadło, Paweł; Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Sałapa, Kinga; Mazur, Piotr; Ziętkiewicz, Mirosław; Gałązkowski, Robert; Krzych, Łukasz; Drwiła, Rafał

    2017-12-01

    Fast and accurate measurement of core body temperature is crucial for accidental hypothermia treatment. We have developed a novel light and small adapter to the headset jack of a mobile phone based on Android. It has been applied to measure temperature and set up automatic notifications (e.g. Global Positioning System coordinates to emergency services dispatcher, ECMO coordinator). Its validity was confirmed in comparison with Vital Signs Monitor Spacelabs Healthcare Elance 93300 as a reference method, in a series of 260 measurements in the temperature range of 10-42 °C. Measurement repeatability was verified in a battery of 600 measurements (i.e. 100 readings at three points of 10, 25, 42 °C for both esophageal and tympanic catheters). Inter-method difference of ≤0.5 °C was found for 98.5% for esophageal catheter and 100% for tympanic catheter measurements, with concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99 for both. The readings were almost completely repeatable with water bath measurements (difference of ≤0.5 °C in 10 °C: 100% for both catheters; in 25 °C: 99% for esophageal catheter and 100% tympanic catheter; in 42 °C: 100% for both catheters). This lightweight adapter attached to smartphone and standard disposable probes is a promising tool to be applied on-site for temperature measurement in patients at risk of hypothermia.

  8. Simultaneous measurements of temperature and density in air flows using UV laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D. G.; Mckenzie, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of temperature and density using laser-induced fluorescence of oxygen in combination with Q-branch Raman scattering of nitrogen and oxygen is demonstrated in a low-speed air flow. The lowest density and temperature measured in the experiment correspond to the freestream values at Mach 5 in the Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel for stagnation conditions of 100 atm and 1000 K. The experimental results demonstrate the viability of the optical technique for measurements that support the study of compressible turbulence and the validation of numerical codes in supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnel flows.

  9. In vivo brain temperature measurements based on fiber optic Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaii, Mohammad I.; Latifi, Hamid; Karami, Fatemeh; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Chavoshi Nejad, Sara; Dargahi, Leila

    2017-04-01

    This work reports on the development of an optical fiber sensor based fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) probe for in vivo measurements of brain temperature. The major goal of this work is to demonstrate that the changes in brain temperature induced by drugs is an important reality, which could provide new valuable information on the mechanisms of drug action and open new therapeutic approaches. This probe can be interrogated using a portable optical measurement setup, allowing for measurements to be performed outside of standard optical laboratories.

  10. Using Distributed Temperature Sensing for evaporation measurements: background, verification, and future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilperoort, Bart; Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; van Iersel, Tara; Jiménez Rodríguez, Cesar; Luxemburg, Willem; Cisneros Vaca, Cesar; Ucer, Murat

    2017-04-01

    Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a relatively new method for measuring latent and sensible heat fluxes. The method has been successfully tested before on multiple sites (Euser, 2014). It uses a glass fibre optic cable of which the temperature can be measured every 12.5cm. By placing the cable vertically along a structure, the air temperature profile can be measured. If the cable is wrapped with cloth and kept wet (akin to a psychrometer), a vertical wet-bulb temperature gradient over height can be calculated. From these dry and wet-bulb temperatures over the height the Bowen ratio is determined and together with the energy balance the latent and sensible heat can be determined. To verify the measurements of the DTS based Bowen ratio method (BR-DTS) we assessed in detail; the accuracy of the air temperature and wet-bulb temperature measurements, the influence of solar radiation and wind on these temperatures, and a comparison to standard methods of evaporation measurement. We tested the performance of the BR-DTS on a 45m high tower in a tall mixed forest in the centre of the Netherlands in August. The average tree height is 30m, hence we measure temperature gradients above, in, and underneath the canopy. We found that solar radiation has a significant effect on the temperature measurements due to heating of the cable coating and leads to deviations up to 2° C. By using cables with different coating thickness we could theoretically correct for this effect, but this introduces too much uncertainty for calculating the temperature gradient. By installing screens the effect of direct sunlight on the cable is sufficiently reduced, and the correlation of the cable temperature with reference air temperature sensors is very high (R2=0.988 to 0.998). Wind speed seems to have a minimal effect on the measured wet-bulb temperature, both below and above the canopy. The latent heat fluxes of the BR-DTS were compared to an eddy covariance system using data from 10 days

  11. Vertical Magnetic Levitation Force Measurement on Single Crystal YBaCuO Bulk at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sukru; Guner, Sait Baris; Ozturk, Kemal; Ozturk, Ozgur

    Magnetic levitation force measurements of HTS samples are performed with the use of liquid nitrogen. It is both convenient and cheap. However, the temperature of the sample cannot be changed (77 K) and there is problem of frost. So, it is necessary to build another type of system to measure the levitation force high Tc superconductor at different temperatures. In this study, we fabricated YBaCuO superconducting by top-seeding-melting-growth (TSMG) technique and measured vertical forces of them at FC (Field Cooling) and ZFC (Zero Field Cooling) regimes by using our new designed magnetic levitation force measurement system. It was used to investigate the three-dimensional levitation force and lateral force in the levitation system consisting of a cylindrical magnet and a permanent cylindrical superconductor at different temperatures (37, 47, 57, 67 and 77 K).

  12. A Thermally Annealed Mach-Zehnder Interferometer for High Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyao Feng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI for high temperature measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The device is constructed of a piece of thin-core fiber (TCF sandwiched between two short sections of multimode fiber (MMF, i.e., a MMF-TCF-MMF structure. A well-defined interference spectrum is obtained owing to the core-mismatch, and the interference dips are sensitive to the ambient temperature. The experimental results show that the proposed interferometer is capable of high temperature measurement up to 875 °C with a sensitivity of 92 pm/°C over repeated measurements. The explored wavelength drop point may limit the measurement range, which can be improved by repeated thermal annealing.

  13. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  14. Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis of pavement surface temperature measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hendel, Martin; Diab, Youssef; Royon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Pavement-watering has been studied since the 1990's and is currently considered a promising tool for urban heat island reduction and climate change adaptation. However, possible future water resource availability problems require that water consumption be optimized. Although pavement heat flux can be studied to improve pavement-watering methods (frequency and water consumption), these measurements are costly and require invasive construction work to install appropriate sensors in a dense urban environment. Therefore, we analyzed measurements of pavement surface temperatures in search of alternative information relevant to this goal. It was found that high frequency surface temperature measurements (more than every 5 minutes) made by an infrared camera can provide enough information to optimize the watering frequency. Furthermore, if the water retaining capacity of the studied pavement is known, optimization of total water consumption is possible on the sole basis of surface temperature measurements.

  15. A thermally annealed Mach-Zehnder interferometer for high temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhongyao; Li, Jiacheng; Qiao, Xueguang; Li, Ling; Yang, Hangzhou; Hu, Manli

    2014-08-04

    An in-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for high temperature measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The device is constructed of a piece of thin-core fiber (TCF) sandwiched between two short sections of multimode fiber (MMF), i.e., a MMF-TCF-MMF structure. A well-defined interference spectrum is obtained owing to the core-mismatch, and the interference dips are sensitive to the ambient temperature. The experimental results show that the proposed interferometer is capable of high temperature measurement up to 875 °C with a sensitivity of 92 pm/°C over repeated measurements. The explored wavelength drop point may limit the measurement range, which can be improved by repeated thermal annealing.

  16. Diffractometric measurement of the temperature dependence of piezoelectric tensor in GMO monocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breczko, Teodor; Lempaszek, Andrzej

    2007-04-01

    Functional materials, of which an example is ferroelectric, ferroelastic monocrystal of molybdate (III) gadolinium (VI), are often used in the micro-motor operators (micro-servo motors) working in changeable environment conditions. Most frequently this change refers to temperature. That is why the important practical problem is the precise measurement of the value of piezoelectric tensor elements in dependence on the temperature of a particular monocrystal. In the presented article for this kind of measurements, the use of X-ray diffractometer has been shown. The advantage of the method presented is that, apart from precise dependence measurement between the temperature of a monocrystal and the value of piezoelectric tensor elements, it enables synchronous measurement of the value of thermal expansion tensor elements for a monocrystal.

  17. Fluid dynamic design and experimental study of an aspirated temperature measurement platform used in climate observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie, E-mail: yangjie396768@163.com [Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing 210044 (China); School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Liu, Qingquan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Observation and Information Processing, Nanjing 210044 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Dai, Wei [School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Ding, Renhui [Jiangsu Meteorological Observation Center, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Due to the solar radiation effect, current air temperature sensors inside a thermometer screen or radiation shield may produce measurement errors that are 0.8 °C or higher. To improve the observation accuracy, an aspirated temperature measurement platform is designed. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is implemented to analyze and calculate the radiation error of the aspirated temperature measurement platform under various environmental conditions. Then, a radiation error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using a genetic algorithm (GA) method. In order to verify the performance of the temperature sensor, the aspirated temperature measurement platform, temperature sensors with a naturally ventilated radiation shield, and a thermometer screen are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The average radiation errors of the sensors in the naturally ventilated radiation shield and the thermometer screen are 0.44 °C and 0.25 °C, respectively. In contrast, the radiation error of the aspirated temperature measurement platform is as low as 0.05 °C. This aspirated temperature sensor allows the radiation error to be reduced by approximately 88.6% compared to the naturally ventilated radiation shield, and allows the error to be reduced by a percentage of approximately 80% compared to the thermometer screen. The mean absolute error and root mean square error between the correction equation and experimental results are 0.032 °C and 0.036 °C, respectively, which demonstrates the accuracy of the CFD and GA methods proposed in this research.

  18. Measurement of high-temperature spectral emissivity using integral blackbody approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yijie; Dong, Wei; Lin, Hong; Yuan, Zundong; Bloembergen, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Spectral emissivity is one of the most critical thermophysical properties of a material for heat design and analysis. Especially in the traditional radiation thermometry, normal spectral emissivity is very important. We developed a prototype instrument based upon an integral blackbody method to measure material's spectral emissivity at elevated temperatures. An optimized commercial variable-high-temperature blackbody, a high speed linear actuator, a linear pyrometer, and an in-house designed synchronization circuit was used to implemented the system. A sample was placed in a crucible at the bottom of the blackbody furnace, by which the sample and the tube formed a simulated reference blackbody which had an effective total emissivity greater than 0.985. During the measurement, a pneumatic cylinder pushed a graphite rode and then the sample crucible to the cold opening within hundreds of microseconds. The linear pyrometer was used to monitor the brightness temperature of the sample surface, and the corresponding opto-converted voltage was fed and recorded by a digital multimeter. To evaluate the temperature drop of the sample along the pushing process, a physical model was proposed. The tube was discretized into several isothermal cylindrical rings, and the temperature of each ring was measurement. View factors between sample and rings were utilized. Then, the actual surface temperature of the sample at the end opening was obtained. Taking advantages of the above measured voltage signal and the calculated actual temperature, normal spectral emissivity under the that temperature point was obtained. Graphite sample at 1300°C was measured to prove the validity of the method.

  19. Analysis of nocturnal air temperature in districts using mobile measurements and a cooling indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, François; Bouyer, Julien; Claverie, Rémy; Pétrissans, Mathieu

    2017-10-01

    The urban heat island phenomenon is generally defined as an air temperature difference between a city center and the non-urbanized rural areas nearby. However, this description does not encompass the intra-urban temperature differences that exist between neighborhoods in a city. This study investigates the air temperature dynamics of neighborhoods for meteorological conditions that lead to important urban heat island amplitude. Local climate zones (LCZs) have been determined in Nancy, France, and mobile screen-height air temperature measurements are performed using an instrumented vehicle. Initially, hourly measurements are performed within four different LCZs. These results show that air temperature within LCZ demonstrates a nocturnal cooling in two phases, i.e., a first phase between 1 to 3 h before sunset and 3 to 5 h after sunset, and a second phase from 3 to 5 h after sunset to sunrise. During phase 1, neighborhoods exhibit different cooling rate values and air temperature gaps develop between districts, while during phase 2, cooling rates tend to be analogous. Then, a larger meteorological data set is used to investigate these two phases for a selection of 13 LCZs. Normalized cooling rates are calculated between daytime measures and nighttime measures in order to quantify the air temperature dynamics of the studied areas during phase 1. Considering this indicator, three groups are emerging: LCZ compact midrise and open midrise with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.09 h -1 LCZ large lowrise and open lowrise/sparsely built with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.011 h -1 LCZ low plants with mean normalized cooling rate values of 0.014 h -1 Results indicate that the relative position of LCZ within the conurbation does not drive air temperature dynamics during phase 1. In addition, measures performed during phase 2 tend to illustrate that cooling rates are similar to all LCZ during this period.

  20. Non-invasive temperature measurement by using phase changes in electromagnetic waves in a cavity resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yasutoshi; Ohwada, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment, a novel method of non-invasive measurement of changes in body temperature is proposed. The proposed method is based on phase changes with temperature in electromagnetic waves in a heating applicator and the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. An image of the temperature change inside a body is reconstructed by applying a computed tomography algorithm. This method can be combined easily with a heating applicator based on a cavity resonator and can be used to treat cancer effectively while non-invasively monitoring the heating effect. In this paper the phase change distributions of electromagnetic waves with temperature changes are measured experimentally, and the accuracy of reconstruction is discussed. The phase change distribution is reconstructed by using a prototype system with a rectangular aluminum cavity resonator that can be rotated 360° around an axis of rotation. To make measurements without disturbing the electromagnetic field distribution, an optical electric field sensor is used. The phase change distribution is reconstructed from 4-projection data by using a simple back-projection algorithm. The paper demonstrates that the phase change distribution can be reconstructed. The difference between phase changes obtained experimentally and by numerical analysis is about 20% and is related mainly to the limited signal detection sensitivity of electromagnetic waves. A temperature change inside an object can be reconstructed from the measured phase changes in a cavity resonator.