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Sample records for temperature measurement predict

  1. Temperature Measurement and Numerical Prediction in Machining Inconel 718.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Álvarez, José; Tapetado, Alberto; Vázquez, Carmen; Miguélez, Henar

    2017-06-30

    Thermal issues are critical when machining Ni-based superalloy components designed for high temperature applications. The low thermal conductivity and extreme strain hardening of this family of materials results in elevated temperatures around the cutting area. This elevated temperature could lead to machining-induced damage such as phase changes and residual stresses, resulting in reduced service life of the component. Measurement of temperature during machining is crucial in order to control the cutting process, avoiding workpiece damage. On the other hand, the development of predictive tools based on numerical models helps in the definition of machining processes and the obtainment of difficult to measure parameters such as the penetration of the heated layer. However, the validation of numerical models strongly depends on the accurate measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, ensuring the calibration of the model. This paper focuses on the measurement and prediction of temperature during the machining of Ni-based superalloys. The temperature sensor was based on a fiber-optic two-color pyrometer developed for localized temperature measurements in turning of Inconel 718. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature in the range of 250 to 1200 °C. Temperature evolution is recorded in a lathe at different feed rates and cutting speeds. Measurements were used to calibrate a simplified numerical model for prediction of temperature fields during turning.

  2. Temperature Measurement and Numerical Prediction in Machining Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapetado, Alberto; Vázquez, Carmen; Miguélez, Henar

    2017-01-01

    Thermal issues are critical when machining Ni-based superalloy components designed for high temperature applications. The low thermal conductivity and extreme strain hardening of this family of materials results in elevated temperatures around the cutting area. This elevated temperature could lead to machining-induced damage such as phase changes and residual stresses, resulting in reduced service life of the component. Measurement of temperature during machining is crucial in order to control the cutting process, avoiding workpiece damage. On the other hand, the development of predictive tools based on numerical models helps in the definition of machining processes and the obtainment of difficult to measure parameters such as the penetration of the heated layer. However, the validation of numerical models strongly depends on the accurate measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, ensuring the calibration of the model. This paper focuses on the measurement and prediction of temperature during the machining of Ni-based superalloys. The temperature sensor was based on a fiber-optic two-color pyrometer developed for localized temperature measurements in turning of Inconel 718. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature in the range of 250 to 1200 °C. Temperature evolution is recorded in a lathe at different feed rates and cutting speeds. Measurements were used to calibrate a simplified numerical model for prediction of temperature fields during turning. PMID:28665312

  3. FFTF fuel assembly outlet temperature measurements and comparison to predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.R.

    1984-06-01

    The data from the FFTF core outlet thermocouples have been valuable in verifying the performance of the core assemblies. The data have been useful to the experimental program and as an aid in understanding some reactor operating phenomena. The thermocouple reliability and repeatability have been good. Almost all of the fueled positions in the core have 3 operable thermocouples and every position has at least one. Differences between the measured assembly outlet temperatures and the calculated outlet temperatures have generally been small. Where significant differences have occurred, an explanation has been found. The difference between the measured and calculated outlet temperatures for each assembly remains constant during the cycle

  4. Prediction and measurement of selected phase transformation temperatures of steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiník O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with precise determination of phase transformation temperatures of steel. A series of experimental measurements were carried out by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA and Direct Thermal Analysis (TA to obtain temperatures very close to the equilibrium temperatures. There are presented results from the high temperatures region, above 1000°C, with focus on the solidus temperatures (TS, peritectic transition (TP and liquidus (TL of multicomponent steels. The data obtained were verified by statistical evaluation and compared with computational thermodynamic and empirical calculations. The calculations were performed using 15 empirical equations obtained by literature research (10 for TL and 5 for TS, as well as by software InterDendritic Solidification (IDS and Thermo-Calc (2015b, TCFE8; TC. It was verified that both thermo-analytical methods used are set correctly; the results are reproducible, comparable and close to equilibrium state.

  5. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  6. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  7. Temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  8. Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.

    1994-01-01

    The present research reports on the effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Experimental and theoretical research related to combustion phenomena in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures has been ongoing for many years. However, detonation cell size data currently exists or hydrogen-air-steam mixtures up to a temperature of only 400K. Sever accident scenarios have been identified for light water reactors (LWRs) where hydrogen-air mixture temperatures in excess of 400K could be generated within containment. The experiments in this report focus on extending the cell size data base for initial mixture temperatures in excess of 400K. The experiments were carried out in a 10-cm inner-diameter, 6.1-m long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700K and spatial temperature uniformity of {plus_minus}14K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K--650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent by hydrogen at 300K down to about 9 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

  9. Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.

    1994-01-01

    The present research reports on the effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Experimental and theoretical research related to combustion phenomena in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures has been ongoing for many years. However, detonation cell size data currently exists or hydrogen-air-steam mixtures up to a temperature of only 400K. Sever accident scenarios have been identified for light water reactors (LWRs) where hydrogen-air mixture temperatures in excess of 400K could be generated within containment. The experiments in this report focus on extending the cell size data base for initial mixture temperatures in excess of 400K. The experiments were carried out in a 10-cm inner-diameter, 6.1-m long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700K and spatial temperature uniformity of ±14K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K--650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent by hydrogen at 300K down to about 9 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments

  10. Predicted precision of ion temperature and impurity fractional density measurements using the JET collective scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsitto, F.

    1992-11-01

    In a previous investigation the possibility of measuring the bulk ion temperature was considered in detail, in the context of the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic for fast ions and alpha particles in the Joint European Torus project. In this report we give an affirmative answer to the question of whether good precision can be obtained in the simultaneous determination of the temperatures and densities of plasma ions from a collective scattering experiment provided some conditions are satisfied. (Author)

  11. Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at 0.1 MPa has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in a 10-cm-inner-diameter, 6.1-m-long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700 K and spatial temperature uniformity of ± 14 K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300--650 K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at ay given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm-inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15% hydrogen at 300 K down to about 9% hydrogen at 650 K. The experimental detonation cell size data were correlated suing a Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) model for the detonation using detailed chemical-kinetic reaction mechanisms. The proportionality constants used to scale the reaction zone length calculations from the ZND model varied from 3o to 51 for the hydrogen-air cell size data at 650 and 300 K, respectively

  12. Detonation cell size measurements and predictions in hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsberg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Safety and Risk Evaluation Division)

    1994-11-01

    The effect of initial mixture temperature on the experimentally measured detonation cell size for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures at 0.1 MPa has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in a 10-cm-inner-diameter, 6.1-m-long heated detonation tube with a maximum operating temperature of 700 K and spatial temperature uniformity of [+-] 14 K. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air initial gas mixture temperature, in the range 300--650 K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at ay given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm-inside-diameter test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15% hydrogen at 300 K down to about 9% hydrogen at 650 K. The experimental detonation cell size data were correlated suing a Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) model for the detonation using detailed chemical-kinetic reaction mechanisms. The proportionality constants used to scale the reaction zone length calculations from the ZND model varied from 3o to 51 for the hydrogen-air cell size data at 650 and 300 K, respectively.

  13. Thermographic skin temperature measurement compared with cold sensation in predicting the efficacy and distribution of epidural anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, Arnoud A; Kistemaker, Kay R J; Boom, Annemieke; Klaessens, John H G M; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M; Boer, Christa

    2018-04-01

    Due to the high rates of epidural failure (3-32%), novel techniques are required to objectively assess the successfulness of an epidural block. In this study we therefore investigated whether thermographic temperature measurements have a higher predictive value for a successful epidural block when compared to the cold sensation test as gold standard. Epidural anesthesia was induced in 61 patients undergoing elective abdominal, thoracic or orthopedic surgery. A thermographic picture was recorded at 5, 10 and 15 min following epidural anesthesia induction. After 15 min a cold sensation test was performed. Epidural anesthesia is associated with a decrease in skin temperature. Thermography predicts a successful epidural block with a sensitivity of 54% and a PPV of 92% and a specificity of 67% and a NPV of 17%. The cold sensation test shows a higher sensitivity and PPV than thermography (97 and 93%), but a lower specificity and NPV than thermography (25 and 50%). Thermographic temperature measurements can be used as an additional and objective method for the assessment of the effectiveness of an epidural block next to the cold sensation test, but have a low sensitivity and negative predictive value. The local decrease in temperature as observed in our study during epidural anesthesia is mainly attributed to a core-to-peripheral redistribution of body heat and vasodilation.

  14. Heat waves measured with MODIS land surface temperature data predict changes in avian community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Albright; Anna M. Pidgeon; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Murray K. Clayton; Curtis H. Flather; Patrick D. Culbert; Volker C. Radeloff

    2011-01-01

    Heat waves are expected to become more frequent and severe as climate changes, with unknown consequences for biodiversity. We sought to identify ecologically-relevant broad-scale indicators of heat waves based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and interpolated air temperature data and assess their associations with avian community structure. Specifically, we...

  15. Equipment for temperature measurements

    OpenAIRE

    HORELICA, Josef

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with theoretical description, practical connection of temperature measuring instruments and how they function while measuring the temperature. This document explaines basic concepts of temperature, temperature scales and temperature measuring. Further there are introduced standard types of sensors used in these measuring intruments. This document includes a picture presentation in PowerPoint, where an aggregate table of sensors and an application of these sensors in measuring ...

  16. Predicting the behavior of a grid-connected photovoltaic system from measurements of solar radiation and ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.; Gordillo, G.; Vallejo, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model to predict in a reliable way the behavior of a GCPV system is presented. ► Radiation and temperature behavior were shaped with probability density functions. ► This probability density functions were made from real measurements. ► This model was verified for comparing their behavior with real measurements. ► It can be used in any electrical systems language which have programming routines. - Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to predict in a statistically reliable way the behavior of a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The methodology developed can be implemented either in common programming software or through an off-the-shelf simulation of electrical systems. Initially, the atmospheric parameters that influence the behavior of PV generators (radiation and temperature) are characterized in a probabilistic manner. In parallel, a model compound by various PV generator components is defined: the modules (and their electrical and physical characteristics), their connection to form the generator, and the inverter type. This model was verified for comparing their behavior with output measured on a real installed system of 3.6 kWp. The solar resource characterized and the photovoltaic system model are integrated in a non-deterministic approach using the stochastic Monte Carlo method, developed in the programming language DPL of the electrical-systems simulation software DIGSILENT®. It is done to estimate the steady-state electrical parameters describing the influence of the grid-connected photovoltaic system. Specifically, we estimated the nominal peak power of the PV generator to minimize network losses, subject to constraints on nodes voltages and conductor currents

  17. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  18. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  19. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltman, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material is exposed to a known amount of radiation and then exposed to the environment where temperature measurements are to be taken. After a predetermined time period, the TLD material is read in a known manner to determine the amount of radiation energy remaining in the TLD material. The difference between the energy originally stored by irradiation and that remaining after exposure to the temperature ofthe environment is a measure of the average temperature of the environment during the exposure. (U.S.)

  20. Extending the predictions of chemical mechanisms for hydrogen combustion by Comparison of predicted and measured flame temperatures in burner-stabilized, 1-D flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    A method is presented for extending the range of conditions for which the performance of chemical mechanisms used to predict hydrogen burning velocities can be evaluated. Specifically, by comparing the computed variation of flame temperature with mass flux in burner-stabilized flat flames with those

  1. Dinosaur Fossils Predict Body Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Charnov, Eric L

    2006-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 °C at 12 kg to approximately 41 °C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy. PMID:16817695

  2. Dinosaur fossils predict body temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Gillooly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding dinosaurs concerns whether they were endotherms, ectotherms, or some unique intermediate form. Here we present a model that yields estimates of dinosaur body temperature based on ontogenetic growth trajectories obtained from fossil bones. The model predicts that dinosaur body temperatures increased with body mass from approximately 25 degrees C at 12 kg to approximately 41 degrees C at 13,000 kg. The model also successfully predicts observed increases in body temperature with body mass for extant crocodiles. These results provide direct evidence that dinosaurs were reptiles that exhibited inertial homeothermy.

  3. Strain and temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    A method of non-invasively measuring strain and temperature of an object, substantially simultaneously, using neutrons of selected energy levels is described. A pulsed neutron source is made to emit thermal and epithermal neutrons in a collimated beam directed at the object. Temperature is monitored by observing the thermal Doppler broadening of resonances in the neutron transmission characteristic for the epithermal neutrons and strain is measured from observations made of changes to the thermal neutron diffraction pattern. The object may be a gas turbine blade or a thrust bearing. (author)

  4. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  5. Prediction of Tungsten CMP Pad Life Using Blanket Removal Rate Data and Endpoint Data Obtained from Process Temperature and Carrier Motor Current Measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, Dale L.; Stein, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Several techniques to predict pad failure during tungsten CMP were investigated for a specific consumable set. These techniques include blanket polish rate measurements and metrics derived from two endpoint detection schemes. Blanket polish rate decreased significantly near pad failure. Metrics from the thermal endpoint technique included change in peak temperature, change in the time to reach peak temperature, and the change in the slope of the temperature trace just prior to peak temperature all as a function of pad life. Average carrier motor current before endpoint was also investigated. Changes in these metrics were observed however these changes, excluding time to peak process temperature, were either not consistent between pads or too noisy to be reliable predictors of pad failure

  6. Influence of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Soil Properties on the Soil-Air Partitioning of Semivolatile Pesticides: Laboratory Measurements and Predictive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Hageman, Kimberly J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Rougé, Valentin; Fujita, Yuki

    2015-09-01

    Soil-air partition coefficient (Ksoil-air) values are often employed to investigate the fate of organic contaminants in soils; however, these values have not been measured for many compounds of interest, including semivolatile current-use pesticides. Moreover, predictive equations for estimating Ksoil-air values for pesticides (other than the organochlorine pesticides) have not been robustly developed, due to a lack of measured data. In this work, a solid-phase fugacity meter was used to measure the Ksoil-air values of 22 semivolatile current- and historic-use pesticides and their degradation products. Ksoil-air values were determined for two soils (semiarid and volcanic) under a range of environmentally relevant temperature (10-30 °C) and relative humidity (30-100%) conditions, such that 943 Ksoil-air measurements were made. Measured values were used to derive a predictive equation for pesticide Ksoil-air values based on temperature, relative humidity, soil organic carbon content, and pesticide-specific octanol-air partition coefficients. Pesticide volatilization losses from soil, calculated with the newly derived Ksoil-air predictive equation and a previously described pesticide volatilization model, were compared to previous results and showed that the choice of Ksoil-air predictive equation mainly affected the more-volatile pesticides and that the way in which relative humidity was accounted for was the most critical difference.

  7. Quantum interferometric measurements of temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzyna, Marcin; Zwierz, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    We provide a detailed description of the quantum interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from the measurements of the optical phase. We rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system prepared in a single-mode Gaussian state with a heated sample modeled as a dissipative thermal reservoir. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nanokelvin regime. Furthermore, we compare the fundamental precision of quantum interferometric thermometers with the theoretical precision offered by the classical idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample. We find that the interferometric thermometer provides a superior performance in temperature sensing even when compared with this idealized pyrometer. We predict that interferometric thermometers will prove useful for ultraprecise temperature sensing and stabilization of quantum optical experiments based on the nonlinear crystals and atomic vapors.

  8. Prediction of future subsurface temperatures in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, S. K.; Jeong, J.; SHIN, E.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of climate change has been increasingly recognized because it has had the huge amount of impact on social, economic, and environmental aspect. For the reason, paleoclimate change has been studied intensively using different geological tools including borehole temperatures and future surface air temperatures (SATs) have been predicted for the local areas and the globe. Future subsurface temperatures can have also enormous impact on various areas and be predicted by an analytical method or a numerical simulation using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data of rocks. SATs have been measured at 73 meteorological observatories since 1907 in Korea and predicted at same locations up to the year of 2100. Measured SATs at the Seoul meteorological observatory increased by about 3.0 K from the year of 1907 to the present. Predicted SATs have 4 different scenarios depending on mainly CO2 concentration and national action plan on climate change in the future. The hottest scenario shows that SATs in Korea will increase by about 5.0 K from the present to the year of 2100. In addition, thermal diffusivity values have been measured on 2,903 rock samples collected from entire Korea. Data pretreatment based on autocorrelation analysis was conducted to control high frequency noise in thermal diffusivity data. Finally, future subsurface temperatures in Korea were predicted up to the year of 2100 by a FEM simulation code (COMSOL Multiphysics) using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data in Korea. At Seoul, the results of predictions show that subsurface temperatures will increase by about 5.4 K, 3.0 K, 1.5 K, and 0.2 K from the present to 2050 and then by about 7.9 K, 4.8 K, 2.5 K, and 0.5 K to 2100 at the depths of 10 m, 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m, respectively. We are now proceeding numerical simulations for subsurface temperature predictions for 73 locations in Korea.

  9. The Prediction and Measurement of Acoustic Absorption in High-Temperature (up to 1200 Degrees k) Atmospheric Gas Mixtures, Using a Specially Designed Plate-Diaphragm Capacitive High-Temperature Acoustic Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Wallace Reuben Arthur

    1990-03-01

    This research is an in-depth study of the absorption of acoustic energy by arbitrary gas mixtures of N _2, O_2, CO _2, H_2O, and Ar, at temperatures up to 1200^circK. Special attention is given to vibrational molecular relaxational acoustic absorption. This dissertation consists of three parts. The first is the design and the modeling of the response of a capacitive annular plate-diaphragm High Temperature Acoustic (HTA) transducer. The second is the discussion, modeling, and/or prediction of the acoustic dissipative mechanisms applicable to acoustic propagation in cylindrical ducts. The third aspect of this research involves the measurements of absorption in high temperature (less than 1200^circK) gas mixtures using the High Temperature Acoustic (HTA) transducer and the comparison with predicted results. Two alternative solutions (iterative and explicit normal mode expansion) for the non-linear fourth order partial differential equations describing the HTA transducer's plate diaphragm response in the presence of an arbitrary backplate shape are fully developed. The first explicit relations for the spatially dependent damped natural frequency and damping factor of the diaphragm are derived. A complete discussion of acoustic dissipation processes in cylindrical ducts is presented. The eigenproblem matrix formulism to predict the molecular relaxational absorption in gas mixtures is developed; physical intuition on the subject is also developed, and the linearly independent energy transfer pathways are clearly identified. Eigenproblem perturbation techniques are used for the sensitivity analysis of the relaxation parameters to the assumed energy transfer rates. A semi-empirical prediction for tube wall boundary layer wall absorption is developed. Some of the first acoustic absorption measurements at temperatures up to 1200^circK are reported. Experiments were fully computer controlled. Pulse technique, spectral analysis, and time (ensemble) averaging are used

  10. Neutron ion temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-11-01

    One important use of fusion product diagnostics is in the determination of the deuterium ion temperature from the magnitude of the 2.5 MeV d(d,n) 3 He neutron emission. The detectors, calibration methods, and limitations of this technique are reviewed here with emphasis on procedures used at PPPL. In most tokamaks, the ion temperature deduced from neutrons is in reasonable agreement with the ion temperature deduced by other techniques

  11. Estimation of complete temperature fields from measured temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, S.T.; Roemer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In hyperthermia treatments, it is desirable to be able to predict complete tissue temperature fields from sampled temperatures taken at a few locations. This is a difficult problem in hyperthermia treatments since the tissue blood perfusion is unknown. An initial attempt to do this automatically using unconstrained optimization techniques to minimize the differences between steady state temperatures measured during a treatment and temperatures (at the same locations) predicted from treatment simulations has been previously reported. A second technique using transient temperatures following a step decrease in power has been developed. This technique, which appears to be able to better predict complete temperature fields is presented and both it and the steady state technique are applied to data from both simulated and experimental hyperthermia treatments. The results of applying the two techniques are compared for one-dimensional situations. One particularly important problem which the transient technique can solve (and the steady state technique does not seem to be able to do as well) is that of predicting the complete temperature field in situations where the true maximum and/or minimum temperatures present are not measured by the available instrumentation

  12. A survey of temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltvold, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    Many different techniques for measuring temperature have been surveyed and are discussed. The concept of temperature and the physical phenomena used in temperature measurement are also discussed. Extensive tables are presented in which the range and accuracy of the various techniques and other related data are included. (author)

  13. Prediction of top oil temperature for transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing

    2000-11-01

    When a transformer's winding gets too hot, either the load has to be reduced as a short-term solution or another transformer bay needs to be installed as a long-term plan. To decide on whether to deploy either of these two strategies, one should be able to predict the transformer temperature accurately. In this work, the traditional top-oil-rise model, top-oil model (which includes an ambient temperature) and semi-physical top-oil model are compared. The semi-physical top-oil model outperforms the other two models. Several attempts are also reported to improve the model used for top-oil temperature (TOT) prediction. It is shown that regardless of the order or complexity of the model, no model performs significantly better than the semi-physical top-oil model investigated; moreover, many models have performance measures that are approximately the same as the semi-physical model. Some of the sources of error that affect top-oil temperature prediction are studied here. Experimentation with various discretization schemes and models convinces the author that the semi-physical top-oil model used to predict transformer temperature is near optimal and that other sources of input-data error are frustrating the author's attempt to reduce the prediction error Further. The research demonstrates that the input error caused by database quantization, remote ambient temperature monitoring and low sampling rate accounts for about two-thirds of the error experienced with field data. The results of these simulations also show that the error caused by these sources is less than that obtained when using equivalent field data. It is the opinion of the author that most of this difference is due to the absence of significant driving variables, rather than the approximation used in constructing a semi-physical model. To further improve the error performance of the semi-physical top-oil model, three different neural network models including static neural network, temporal processing network

  14. Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D 2 and H 2 up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems

  15. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  16. Relationship between water temperature predictability and aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variable seasonal stream temperatures are a critical factor in maintaining aquatic invertebrate community patterns. We investigated whether the degree of predictability in a stream's water temperature profile provides insights into the structure and functional predictability of macroinvertebrate communities. Quarterly ...

  17. Temperature measurement in the sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnamacharyulu, R.J.; Rao, L.V.G.

    ), their advantages and limitations are also touched upon. Calibration of various instruments used for temperature measurement in the sea and the special setup/facilities needed for this purpose are also discussed...

  18. Aerodynamic Temperature Derived from Flux-Profile Measurements and Two-Source Model Predictions over a Cotton Row Crop in an Advective Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface aerodynamic temperature (SAT) is related to the atmospheric forcing conditions (radiation, wind speed and air temperature) and surface conditions. SAT is required in the bulk surface resistance equation to calculate the rate of sensible heat flux exchange. SAT cannot be measured directly...

  19. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; wang, Anmin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displa...

  20. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E.

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique

  1. Michelson interferometer for measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min

    2017-09-01

    We investigate that temperature can be measured by a modified Michelson interferometer, where at least one reflected mirror is replaced by a thermalized sample. Both of two mirrors replaced by the corresponding two thermalized samples can help to approximatively improve the resolution of temperature up to twice than only one mirror replaced by a thermalized sample. For further improving the precision, a nonlinear medium can be employed. The Michelson interferometer is embedded in a gas displaying Kerr nonlinearity. We obtain the analytical equations and numerically calculate the precision with parameters within the reach of current technology, proving that the precision of temperature can be greatly enhanced by using a nonlinear medium. Our results show that one can create an accurate thermometer by measuring the photons in the Michelson interferometer, with no need to directly measure the population of thermalized sample.

  2. Predicting body temperature of endotherms during shuttling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents two models that can be used to predict the temporal dynamics of body temperature in endotherms. A first-order model is based on the assumption that body temperature is uniform at all times, while a second-order model is based on the assumption that animals can be divided in a

  3. Identification and prediction of the fertile window with a new web-based medical device using a vaginal biosensor for measuring the circadian and circamensual core body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Pedro-Antonio; Kaczmarczyk, Marta; Schiweck, Esther; Goeckenjan-Festag, Maren; Alexander, Henry

    2018-03-01

    Fertility awareness-based (FAB) methods represent a term that includes all family planning methods that are based on the identification of the fertile window. They are based on the woman's observation of physiological signs of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. The first approach consists basically in symptothermal methods accompanied by cervical mucus measurements and clinical menstrual cycling data recording. The second most often used methods are the urinary measurement of E3G and luteinizing hormone (LH) with a personalized computer system. Hence these systems lack the efficacy of the continuous circadian and circamensual measurement of the core body temperature. Only this approach enables the accurate detection of the ovulation during the fertile window. A new medical device called OvulaRing has been developed to fill this gap. In the present study, the system and its first clinical results are presented. OvulaRing is a medical device used just like a tampon. The device is a vaginal ring of evatane that contains an integrated biosensor. This sensor measures continuously every 5 min the core body temperature throughout the entire cycle. This device allows a circadian and circamensual intravaginal exact measurement. With this system, 288 measurements are created per day. The system can detect retrospectively and predict prospectively the fertile window of the users. One hundred and fifty eight women aged between 18 and 45 years used this medical device in an open non-randomized clinical study for 15 months. A total of 470 cycles could be recorded and were able for analysis. By the same time in a subgroup of patients, hormonal assessments of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol and progesterone as well as vaginal ultrasound were performed in parallel between the 9th and the 36th day of the cycle. The validation error due to software errors was 0.89% for the retrospective analysis; that means that the accuracy for the detection of

  4. Prediction of brain tissue temperature using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holper, Lisa; Mitra, Subhabrata; Bale, Gemma; Robertson, Nicola; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. Broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an endogenous indicator of tissue temperature based on the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum. We describe a first evaluation of the calibration and prediction of brain tissue temperature obtained during hypothermia in newborn piglets (animal dataset) and rewarming in newborn infants (human dataset) based on measured body (rectal) temperature. The calibration using partial least squares regression proved to be a reliable method to predict brain tissue temperature with respect to core body temperature in the wavelength interval of 720 to 880 nm with a strong mean predictive power of R2=0.713±0.157 (animal dataset) and R2=0.798±0.087 (human dataset). In addition, we applied regression receiver operating characteristic curves for the first time to evaluate the temperature prediction, which provided an overall mean error bias between NIRS predicted brain temperature and body temperature of 0.436±0.283°C (animal dataset) and 0.162±0.149°C (human dataset). We discuss main methodological aspects, particularly the well-known aspect of over- versus underestimation between brain and body temperature, which is relevant for potential clinical applications. PMID:28630878

  5. Improved methodology for temperature predictions in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosek, R.G.; Chang, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced nuclear reactors maximize power and/or flux levels for increased performance levels. One of the challenges is accurate prediction of temperatures in the structural components and experiments. An improved methodology utilizing the computer codes MCNP and ABAQUS has been demonstrated in instrumented experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor. The analytical predictions have shown excellent agreement with the measured results

  6. Investigation into Methods for Predicting Connection Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of connections in fire is largely based on material strength degradation and the interactions between the various components of the connection. In order to predict connection performance in fire, temperature profiles must initially be established in order to evaluate the material strength degradation over time. This paper examines two current methods for predicting connection temperatures: The percentage method, where connection temperatures are calculated as a percentage of the adjacent beam lower-flange, mid-span temperatures; and the lumped capacitance method, based on the lumped mass of the connection. Results from the percentage method do not correlate well with experimental results, whereas the lumped capacitance method shows much better agreement with average connection temperatures. A 3D finite element heat transfer model was also created in Abaqus, and showed good correlation with experimental results. 

  7. Predicted Antenna Temperatures Measured by REX/New Horizons During The Pluto’s FlybyProbing the sub-surface in Microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrat, Cedric; Le Gall, Alice; Lorenz, Ralph; Boomi, Shadi

    2017-10-01

    The Pluto dwarf planet was observed in details in July 2015 by the New Horizons spacecraft (NASA) during a close-targeted flyby which reavealed surprising and fascinating landscapes with a variety of albedo and chemical composition over the surface. During the flyby, the REX microwave instrument was activated in order to measure the antenna temperature while the beam crossed Pluto’s surface. In particular, 3 scans were performed, the first two during few tens of seconds when both the day and night side of Pluto were observed, including the South pole ; and the last one during an occultation with Earth. We present here predited antenna temperatures considering the known and assumed variations of thermal and electrical properties of the Pluto’s sub-surface.. Each scan allow to observe thermal radiation at 4.2 cm wavelength of the surface and subsurface of Pluto, at different locations (latitudes / longitudes). Using a seasonnal thermal model that considers the measured Bond albedo and type of ice, we have modeled the Brightness temperatures that were measured by REX, for different amount of porosity (or thermal inertia). This modeling uses a seasonally-forced thermal model and an emissivity model in the case of circular polarized observations. An antenna temperature if then retrieved assuming a beam pattern for REX. We present here how the antenna temperatures vary with the porosity of the ices obseved.

  8. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  9. Microbial impacts on geothermometry temperature predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiko Fujita; David W. Reed; Kaitlyn R. Nowak; Vicki S. Thompson; Travis L. McLing; Robert W. Smith

    2013-02-01

    Conventional geothermometry approaches assume that the composition of a collected water sample originating in a deep geothermal reservoir still reflects chemical equilibration of the water with the deep reservoir rocks. However, for geothermal prospecting samples whose temperatures have dropped to <120°C, temperature predictions may be skewed by the activity of microorganisms; microbial metabolism can drastically and rapidly change the water’s chemistry. We hypothesize that knowledge of microbial impacts on exploration sample geochemistry can be used to constrain input into geothermometry models and thereby improve the reliability of reservoir temperature predictions. To evaluate this hypothesis we have chosen to focus on sulfur cycling, because of the significant changes in redox state and pH associated with sulfur chemistry. Redox and pH are critical factors in defining the mineral-fluid equilibria that form the basis of solute geothermometry approaches. Initially we are developing assays to detect the process of sulfate reduction, using knowledge of genes specific to sulfate reducing microorganisms. The assays rely on a common molecular biological technique known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which allows estimation of the number of target organisms in a particular sample by enumerating genes specific to the organisms rather than actually retrieving and characterizing the organisms themselves. For quantitation of sulfate reducing genes using qPCR, we constructed a plasmid (a piece of DNA) containing portions of two genes (known as dsrA and dsrB) that are directly involved with sulfate reduction and unique to sulfate reducing microorganisms. Using the plasmid as well as DNA from other microorganisms known to be sulfate reducers or non-sulfate reducers, we developed qPCR protocols and showed the assay’s specificity to sulfate reducers and that a qPCR standard curve using the plasmid was linear over >5 orders of magnitude. As a first test

  10. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvreau, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP's and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 μs, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity

  11. Measurement of rotational temperature at Kolhapur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Mukherjee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the hydroxyl rotational temperature for the (8,3 Meinel band have been reported from the observations of the ratio of the relative intensities of P1(2 and P1(4 lines of the OH(8,3 band at Kolhapur (16.8° N, 74.2° E, dip lat. 10.6° N in India during the period 1 November 2002-29 April 2003 using tilting-filter photometers. Mean values of rotational temperature have been computed for 60 nights. The monthly mean value of temperature lies in the range 194(±11-208(±18K. The mean rotational temperature obtained from all the measurements was found to be 202±15K. The results agree with other low-latitude measurements of rotational temperature using photometric airglow techniques. Quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of about one to two hours have been prominent on many nights. Furthermore, the results show the general agreement between observations and model (MSIS-86 predictions.

  12. Measurement of rotational temperature at Kolhapur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Mukherjee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the hydroxyl rotational temperature for the (8,3 Meinel band have been reported from the observations of the ratio of the relative intensities of P1(2 and P1(4 lines of the OH(8,3 band at Kolhapur (16.8° N, 74.2° E, dip lat. 10.6° N in India during the period 1 November 2002-29 April 2003 using tilting-filter photometers. Mean values of rotational temperature have been computed for 60 nights. The monthly mean value of temperature lies in the range 194(±11-208(±18K. The mean rotational temperature obtained from all the measurements was found to be 202±15K. The results agree with other low-latitude measurements of rotational temperature using photometric airglow techniques. Quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of about one to two hours have been prominent on many nights. Furthermore, the results show the general agreement between observations and model (MSIS-86 predictions.

  13. Multimodal Imaging Measures Predict Rearrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn R Steele

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rearrest has been predicted by hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC during error-processing (Aharoni et al., 2013. Here we evaluate the predictive power after adding an additional imaging modality in a subsample of 45 incarcerated males from Aharoni et al. Event-related potentials (ERPs and hemodynamic activity were collected during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Neural measures of error-processing were obtained from the ACC and two ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne and the error positivity (Pe. Measures from the Pe and ACC differentiated individuals who were and were not subsequently rearrested. Cox regression, logistic regression, and support vector machine (SVM neuroprediction models were calculated. Each of these models proved successful in predicting rearrest and SVM provided the strongest results. Multimodal neuroprediction SVM models with out of sample cross-validating accurately predicted rearrest (83.33%. Offenders with increased Pe amplitude and decreased ACC activation, suggesting abnormal error-processing, were at greatest risk of rearrest.

  14. Temperature measurement of accelerator cell solenoid loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Fan; Dong Pan; Dai Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the research on temperature measurement of solenoid loop. The measuring temperature fiber is layered in solenoid loop for the accelerator cell. When the solenoid loop is supplied with high current form a constant current source, its temperature increases rapidly. The temperature fiber can measure the temperature of the solenoid loop and get temperature measurement rule. Experiment and simulation show temperature of interior solenoid loop the highest and it decreases from the interior to the exterior of solenoid loop. To control temperature of solenoid loop under 60 degree C, simulation displays load interval of constant current source with 80 A current should be at least is 17.5 minutes. (authors)

  15. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  16. New algorithm for extreme temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damean, N.

    2000-01-01

    A new algorithm for measurement of extreme temperature is presented. This algorithm reduces the measurement of the unknown temperature to the solving of an optimal control problem, using a numerical computer. Based on this method, a new device for extreme temperature measurements is projected. It

  17. Experimental relations between airborne and ground measured wheat canopy temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, J. P.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments using ground-based measurements of canopy temperatures have shown that plant temperatures are good indicators of plant water stress, and thus are useful for assessing water requirements and predicting yields. An intensive 23-day airborne- and ground-measurement program was conducted in Phoenix, Arizona in 1977 to compare airborne-acquired wheat canopy temperatures with simultaneous ground measurements. For canopies that covered at least 85 percent of the soil surface, airborne measurements differed from ground measurements of plant temperature by less than 2 C. Regardless of the amount of plant cover, the airborne measurements were virtually identical to ground-nadir measurements, and thus represent a combination of plant temperature and solid background temperature.

  18. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Rodrigo C.; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents. PMID:28955215

  19. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  20. Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

  1. Temperature measurement by neutron resonance radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.; Baciocco, G.; Hannon, A.C.

    1988-03-01

    We present a new data analysis technique for obtaining temperatures from neutron resonance radiography measurements. The technique is applied to measurements on tantalum and rhenium foils, a high temperature engineering alloy and a model catalytic system. Temperatures have been obtained to an accuracy of better than ± 1 0 C in the temperature range 21 0 C to 600 0 C. The results are in good agreement with theoretical simulations. (author)

  2. Temperature measurements in cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation is usually a nearly isothermal process in the liquid phase, but in some specific flow conditions like hot water or cryogenic fluids, significant temperature variations are detected. In addition, a large temperature increase happens inside the cavitation bubbles at the very end of their collapse, due to the fast compression of the gas at the bubble core, which is almost adiabatic. This process is of primary interest in various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, where the mechanisms of bubble collapse plays a major role. To investigate the amplitude and the spatial distribution of these temperature variations inside and outside the cavitation bubbles, a system based on cold wires has been developed. They have been tested in a configuration of a single bubble obtained by submitting a small air bubble to a large amplitude pressure wave. Some promising results have been obtained after the initial validation tests. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research Global under Grant N62909-16-1-2116, Dr. Salahuddin Ahmed & Ki-Han Kim program managers.

  3. Temperature Prediction for High Pressure High Temperature Condensate Gas Flow Through Chokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a theoretical model for predicting the downstream temperatures of high pressure high temperature condensate gas flowing through chokes. The model is composed of three parts: the iso-enthalpy choke model derived from continuity equation and energy conservation equation; the liquid-vapor equilibrium model based on the SRK equation of state (EoS; and the enthalpy model based on the Lee-Kesler EoS. Pseudocritical properties of mixtures, which are obtained by mixing rules, are very important in the enthalpy model, so the Lee-Kesler, Plocker-Knapp, Wong-Sandler and Prausnitz-Gunn mixing rules were all researched, and the combination mixing rules with satisfactory accuracy for high pressure high temperature condensate gases were proposed. The temperature prediction model is valid for both the critical and subcritical flows through different kinds of choke valves. The applications show the model is reliable for predicting the downstream temperatures of condensate gases with upstream pressures up to 85.54 MPa and temperatures up to 93.23 °C. The average absolute errors between the measured and calculated temperatures are expected for less than 2 °C by using the model.

  4. Field of Temperature Measurement by Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor HARGAŠ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces about temperature determination for given dot of picture through image analysis. Heat transfer is the transition of thermal energy from a heated item to a cooler item. Main method of measurement of temperature in image is Pattern Matching, color scale detection and model detection. We can measure temperature dependency at time for selected point of thermo vision images. This measurement gives idea about the heat transfer at time dependences.

  5. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided

  6. Space potential, temperature, and density profile measurements on RENTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoch, P.M.

    1983-05-01

    Radial profiles of the space potential, electron temperature, and density have been measured on RENTOR with a heavy-ion-beam probe. The potential profile has been compared to predictions from a stochastic magnetic field fluctuation theory, using the measured temperature and density profiles. The comparison shows strong qualitative agreement in that the potential is positive and the order of T/sub e//e. There is some quantitative disagreement in that the measured radial electric fields are somewhat smaller than the theoretical predictions. To facilitate this comparison, a detailed analysis of the possible errors has been completed

  7. Quantitative shearography in axisymmetric gas temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerWege, Brad A.; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Hochgreb, Simone

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the use of shearing interferometry (shearography) for the quantitative measurement of gas temperatures in axisymmetric systems in which vibration and shock are substantial, and measurement time is limited. The setup and principle of operation of the interferometer are described, as well as Fourier-transform-based fringe pattern analysis, Abel transform, and sensitivity of the phase lead to temperature calculation. A helium jet and a Bunsen burner flame are shown as verification of the diagnostic. The accuracy of the measured temperature profile is shown to be limited by the Abel transform and is critically dependent on the reference temperature used.

  8. Minimizing noise-temperature measurement errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzried, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of noise-temperature measurement errors of low-noise amplifiers was performed. Results of this analysis can be used to optimize measurement schemes for minimum errors. For the cases evaluated, the effective noise temperature (Te) of a Ka-band maser can be measured most accurately by switching between an ambient and a 2-K cooled load without an isolation attenuator. A measurement accuracy of 0.3 K was obtained for this example.

  9. Temperature Sensitive Particle for Velocity and Temperature Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

    2007-11-01

    Phosphorescence and fluorescence are often applied to measure the temperature and the concentration of oxygen. The intensity and the lifetime of phosphor depend on the temperature and the oxygen concentration, due to the quenching effect of the phosphor. The present study clarified the effects of temperature on the lifetime of phosphorescence of Porphyrins, Ru(bpy)3^2+ and the europium complex. The phosphorescence lifetime of oil solution / water solution / painted wall were measured with changing temperature and oxygen concentration. In addition, the optical property of the small particles incorporated with the europium complex was investigated in the oil/water. The lifetime was strongly affected by temperature. Then, the temperature sensitive particle (TSParticle) with metal complex was applied to measure temperature in Silicone oil (10cSt) two-dimensionally. Present study is the result of ?High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal? entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan(MEXT).

  10. New Temperature-based Models for Predicting Global Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Gasser E.; Youssef, M. Elsayed; Mohamed, Zahraa E.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Hanafy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New temperature-based models for estimating solar radiation are investigated. • The models are validated against 20-years measured data of global solar radiation. • The new temperature-based model shows the best performance for coastal sites. • The new temperature-based model is more accurate than the sunshine-based models. • The new model is highly applicable with weather temperature forecast techniques. - Abstract: This study presents new ambient-temperature-based models for estimating global solar radiation as alternatives to the widely used sunshine-based models owing to the unavailability of sunshine data at all locations around the world. Seventeen new temperature-based models are established, validated and compared with other three models proposed in the literature (the Annandale, Allen and Goodin models) to estimate the monthly average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. These models are developed using a 20-year measured dataset of global solar radiation for the case study location (Lat. 30°51′N and long. 29°34′E), and then, the general formulae of the newly suggested models are examined for ten different locations around Egypt. Moreover, the local formulae for the models are established and validated for two coastal locations where the general formulae give inaccurate predictions. Mostly common statistical errors are utilized to evaluate the performance of these models and identify the most accurate model. The obtained results show that the local formula for the most accurate new model provides good predictions for global solar radiation at different locations, especially at coastal sites. Moreover, the local and general formulas of the most accurate temperature-based model also perform better than the two most accurate sunshine-based models from the literature. The quick and accurate estimations of the global solar radiation using this approach can be employed in the design and evaluation of performance for

  11. Temperature lags of luminescence measurements in a commercial luminescence reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, George [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kiyak, Nafiye G. [ISIK University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Department, Sile, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Polymeris, George S., E-mail: gspolymeris@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beşevler, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    The temperature recorded in thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence equipments is not the temperature of the sample but that of the heating element on which the thermocouple is attached. Depending upon the rate of heating, a temperature difference appears between the samples and the heating element, termed as temperature lag, which could have serious effects on the curve shapes and trapping parameters. In the present work the temperature lag effect is studied in a newly developed luminescence equipment measuring both thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. It is found that the temperature lag could be large for heating rates above 2 K/s and it is strongly dependent upon the sample holder. A simple approximation method is proposed in order to both predict as well as correct for temperature lag effects in luminescence measurements.

  12. Designing an accurate system for temperature measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochan Orest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of compensation of changes in temperature field along the legs of inhomogeneous thermocouple, which measures a temperature of an object, is considered in this paper. This compensation is achieved by stabilization of the temperature field along the thermocouple. Such stabilization does not allow the error due to acquired thermoelectric inhomogeneity to manifest itself. There is also proposed the design of the furnace to stabilize temperature field along the legs of the thermocouple which measures the temperature of an object. This furnace is not integrated with the thermocouple mentioned above, therefore it is possible to replace this thermocouple with a new one when it get its legs considerably inhomogeneous.. There is designed the two loop measuring system with the ability of error correction which can use simultaneously a usual thermocouple as well as a thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field. The latter can be used as a reference sensor for the former.

  13. [Temperature Measurement with Bluetooth under Android Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Shen, Hao; Luo, Changze

    2015-03-01

    To realize the real-time transmission of temperature data and display using the platform of intelligent mobile phone and bluetooth. Application of Arduino Uno R3 in temperature data acquisition of digital temperature sensor DS18B20 acquisition, through the HC-05 bluetooth transmits the data to the intelligent smart phone Android system, realizes transmission of temperature data. Using Java language to write applications program under Android development environment, can achieve real-time temperature data display, storage and drawing temperature fluctuations drawn graphics. Temperature sensor is experimentally tested to meet the body temperature measurement precision and accuracy. This paper can provide a reference for other smart phone mobile medical product development.

  14. Predicting responses from Rasch measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linacre, John M

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing family of Rasch models for polytomous observations. Selecting a suitable model for an existing dataset, estimating its parameters and evaluating its fit is now routine. Problems arise when the model parameters are to be estimated from the current data, but used to predict future data. In particular, ambiguities in the nature of the current data, or overfit of the model to the current dataset, may mean that better fit to the current data may lead to worse fit to future data. The predictive power of several Rasch and Rasch-related models are discussed in the context of the Netflix Prize. Rasch-related models are proposed based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Boltzmann Machines.

  15. Optimal parameters of the SVM for temperature prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper established three different optimization models in order to predict the Foping station temperature value. The dimension was reduced to change multivariate climate factors into a few variables by principal component analysis (PCA. And the parameters of support vector machine (SVM were optimized with genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and developed genetic algorithm. The most suitable method was applied for parameter optimization by comparing the results of three different models. The results are as follows: The developed genetic algorithm optimization parameters of the predicted values were closest to the measured value after the analog trend, and it is the most fitting measured value trends, and its homing speed is relatively fast.

  16. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  17. Measurement of Temperature Dependent Apparent Specific Heat Capacity in Electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, Wafaa; Akyildiz, Ali; Borca Tasciuc, Diana-Andra; De, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of temperature dependent apparent specific heat of ex-vivo porcine liver tissue during radiofrequency alternating current heating for a large temperature range. The difference between spatial and temporal evolution of experimental temperature, obtained during electrosurgical heating by infrared thermometry, and predictions based on finite element modeling was minimized to obtain the apparent specific heat. The model was based on transient heat transfer with internal heat generation considering heat storage along with conduction. Such measurements are important to develop computational models for real time simulation of electrosurgical procedures.

  18. Measuring nanowire thermal conductivity at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Juekuan; Xiong, Yucheng; Huang, Baoling; Xu, Terry T.; Li, Deyu; Xu, Dongyan

    2018-02-01

    This work extends the micro-thermal-bridge method for thermal conductivity measurements of nanowires to high temperatures. The thermal-bridge method, based on a microfabricated device with two side-by-side suspended membranes with integrated platinum resistance heaters/thermometers, has been used to determine thermal conductivity of various nanowires/nanotubes/nanoribbons at relatively low temperatures. However, to date, thermal conductivity characterization of nanowires at temperatures above 600 K has seldom been reported presumably due to several technical difficulties including the instability of the microfabricated thermometers, radiation heat loss, and the effect of the background conductance on the measurement. Here we report on our attempt to address the aforementioned challenges and demonstrate thermal conductivity measurement of boron nanoribbons up to 740 K. To eliminate high temperature resistance instability, the device is first annealed at 1023 K for 5 min in an argon atmosphere. Two radiation shields are installed in the measurement chamber to minimize radiation heat loss from the measurement device to the surroundings; and the temperature of the device at each set point is calibrated by an additional thermocouple directly mounted on the chip carrier. The effect of the background conductance is eliminated by adopting a differential measurement scheme. With all these modifications, we successfully measured the thermal conductivity of boron nanoribbons over a wide temperature range from 27 K to 740 K. The measured thermal conductivity increases monotonically with temperature and reaches a plateau of ~2.5 W m‑1 K‑1 at approximately 400 K, with no clear signature of Umklapp scattering observed in the whole measurement temperature range.

  19. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Using spectra obtained from the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) spectrograph on the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), we investigate the height dependence of electron density, temperature and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere.

  20. General temperature field measurement by digital holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít; Vít, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan; Kopecký, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), A319-A325 ISSN 1559-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : digital holography * temperature field measurement * tomography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2013

  1. Noise thermometry - a new temperature measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Rittinghaus, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal Johnson-Niquist noise is the basis of noise thermometry. This temperature measuring method is, e.g., of interest insofar as the noise thermometer gives absolute values as a primary thermometer and is in principle extensively independent of environmental influences and material properties. The resistance values of the measuring probe are about 10 Ohm to a few kOhm. The demands of electronics are high, the self-noise of the measuring apparatus must be as small as possible; a comparative measuring method is advantageous. 1 to 2,500 K are given as a possible temperature range. An accuracy of 0.1% could be achieved in laboratory measurements. Temperature measurements to be used in operation in a few nuclear reactors are mentioned. (HP/LH) [de

  2. Automated measurement of cattle surface temperature and its correlation with rectal temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HongXiang Kou

    Full Text Available The body temperature of cattle varies regularly with both the reproductive cycle and disease status. Establishing an automatic method for monitoring body temperature may facilitate better management of reproduction and disease control in cattle. Here, we developed an Automatic Measurement System for Cattle's Surface Temperature (AMSCST to measure the temperature of metatarsus by attaching a special shell designed to fit the anatomy of cattle's hind leg. Using AMSCST, the surface temperature (ST on the metatarsus of the hind leg was successively measured during 24 hours a day with an interval of one hour in three tested seasons. Based on ST and rectal temperature (RT detected by AMSCST and mercury thermometer, respectively, a linear mixed model was established, regarding both the time point and seasonal factors as the fixed effects. Unary linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis results indicated that the temperatures measured by AMSCST were closely correlated to those measured by mercury thermometer (R2 = 0.998, suggesting that the AMSCST is an accurate and reliable way to detect cattle's body temperature. Statistical analysis showed that the differences of STs among the three seasons, or among the different time points were significant (P<0.05, and the differences of RTs among the different time points were similarly significant (P<0.05. The prediction accuracy of the mixed model was verified by 10-fold cross validation. The average difference between measured RT and predicted RT was about 0.10 ± 0.10°C with the association coefficient of 0.644, indicating the feasibility of this model in measuring cattle body temperature. Therefore, an automated technology for accurately measuring cattle body temperature was accomplished by inventing an optimal device and establishing the AMSCST system.

  3. Domestic Refrigerators Temperature Prediction Strategy for the Evaluation of the Expected Power Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses and presents a simple temperature prediction strategy for the domestic refrigerator. The main idea is to predict the duration it takes to the Cold chamber temperature to reach the thresholds according to the state of the compressor and to the last temperature measurements....... The experiments are conducted at SYSLAB facility at DTU Risø Campus having a set of refrigerators working at different set point temperatures, with different ambient temperatures and under different thermal load conditions. The prediction strategy is tested using a set of different refrigerators in order...

  4. Regression models for predicting anthropometric measurements of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measure anthropometric dimensions to predict difficult-to-measure dimensions required for ergonomic design of school furniture. A total of 143 students aged between 16 and 18 years from eight public secondary schools in Ogbomoso, Nigeria ...

  5. Wideband filter radiometers for blackbody temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, L. P.; Bamber, C.; Gaertner, A. A.; Gerson, R. K.; Woods, D. J.; Woolliams, E. R.

    2010-10-01

    The use of high-temperature blackbody (HTBB) radiators to realize primary spectral irradiance scales requires that the operating temperature of the HTBB be accurately determined. We have developed five filter radiometers (FRs) to measure the temperature of the National Research Council of Canada's HTBB. The FRs are designed to minimize sensitivity to ambient temperature fluctuations. They incorporate air-spaced colored glass filters and a Si photodiode detector that are housed in a cell whose temperature is controlled to ±0.1°C by means of annular thermoelectric elements at the front and rear of the cell. These wideband filter radiometers operate in four different wavelength bands. The spectral responsivity measurements were performed in an underfill geometry for a power-mode calibration that is traceable to NRC's cryogenic radiometer. The spectral temperature sensitivity of each of these FRs has been measured. The apertures for these FRs were cold-formed by swaging machine-cut apertures onto precision dowel pins. A description of the filter radiometer design, fabrication and testing, together with a detailed uncertainty analysis, is presented. We derive the equations that relate the spectral irradiance measured by the FRs to the spectral radiance and temperature of the HTBB, and deal specifically with the change of index of refraction over the path of the radiation from the interior of the HTBB to the FRs. We believe these equations are more accurate than recently published derivations. Our measurements of the operating temperature of our HTBB working at temperatures near 2500 K, 2700 K and 2900 K, together with measurements using a pyrometer, show agreement between the five filter radiometers and with the pyrometer to within the estimated uncertainties.

  6. Directional radiometric measurements of row-crop temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Kirchner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The variability of directional sensor response for a cotton row crop in Phoenix, Arizona was measured for various solar zenith angles. The geometric structure of the canopy was described with regard to height, width, spacing, and shape of rows. In addition, radiometric temperature data were collected on four scene components: sunlit and shaded vegetation and sunlit and shaded soil. These data were used to test the predictions and assumptions of a modified version of the row crop model of Jackson et al. (1979), which predicts the thermal infrared response of a sensor as a function of sensor view angle, component temperature, and geometrical structure of the canopy. The field data showed sensor response differentials as great as 16.2 C when going from a zenith view angle of 0 deg to one of 80 deg normal to the row direction. The rms deviation between the predicted and measured sensor response for all measurement periods and view angles was 0.96 C.

  7. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  8. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature.

  9. Seasonal sea surface temperature anomaly prediction for coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Charles A.; Pegion, Kathy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Alexander, Michael A.; Tommasi, Desiree; Bond, Nicholas A.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Gudgel, Richard G.; Kristiansen, Trond; O'Brien, Todd D.; Xue, Yan; Yang, Xiasong

    2015-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are often both leading indicators and important drivers of marine resource fluctuations. Assessment of the skill of SST anomaly forecasts within coastal ecosystems accounting for the majority of global fish yields, however, has been minimal. This reflects coarse global forecast system resolution and past emphasis on the predictability of ocean basin-scale SST variations. This paper assesses monthly to inter-annual SST anomaly predictions in coastal "Large Marine Ecosystems" (LMEs). We begin with an analysis of 7 well-observed LMEs adjacent to the United States and then examine how mechanisms responsible for prediction skill in these systems are reflected in predictions for LMEs globally. Historical SST anomaly estimates from the 1/4° daily Optimal Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature reanalysis (OISST.v2) were first found to be highly consistent with in-situ measurements for 6 of the 7 U.S. LMEs. Thirty years of retrospective forecasts from climate forecast systems developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (CM2.5-FLOR) and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (CFSv2) were then assessed against OISST.v2. Forecast skill varied widely by LME, initialization month, and lead but there were many cases of high skill that also exceeded that of a persistence forecast, some at leads greater than 6 months. Mechanisms underlying skill above persistence included accurate simulation of (a) seasonal transitions between less predictable locally generated and more predictable basin-scale SST variability; (b) seasonal transitions between different basin-scale influences; (c) propagation of SST anomalies across seasons through sea ice; and (d) re-emergence of previous anomalies upon the breakdown of summer stratification. Globally, significant skill above persistence across many tropical systems arises via mechanisms (a) and (b). Combinations of all four mechanisms contribute to less prevalent but nonetheless

  10. Heat exchanger fouling: Prediction, measurement, and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) sponsors the development of innovative heat exchange systems. Fouling is a major and persistent cost associated with most industrial heat exchangers and nationally wastes an estimated 2.9 Quads per year. To predict and control fouling, three OIP projects are currently exploring heat exchanger fouling in specific industrial applications. A fouling probe has been developed to determine empirically the fouling potential of an industrial gas stream and to derive the fouling thermal resistance. The probe is a hollow metal cylinder capable of measuring the average heat flux along the length of the tube. The local heat flux is also measured by a heat flux meter embedded in the probe wall. The fouling probe has been successfully tested in the laboratory at flue gas temperatures up to 2200 F and a local heat flux up to 41,000 BTU/hr sq ft. The probe has been field tested at a coal-fired boiler plant. Future tests at a municipal waste incinerator are planned. Two other projects study enhanced heat exchanger tubes, specifically the effect of enhanced surface geometries on the tube bundle performance. Both projects include fouling in a liquid heat transfer fluid. Identifying and quantifying the factors affecting fouling in these enhanced heat transfer tubes will lead to techniques to mitigate fouling.

  11. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  12. Solubility Temperature Dependence Predicted from 2D Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avdeef

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to find a computational procedure to normalize solubility data determined at various temperatures (e.g., 10 – 50 oC to values at a “reference” temperature (e.g., 25 °C. A simple procedure was devised to predict enthalpies of solution, ΔHsol, from which the temperature dependence of intrinsic (uncharged form solubility, log S0, could be calculated. As dependent variables, values of ΔHsol at 25 °C were subjected to multiple linear regression (MLR analysis, using melting points (mp and Abraham solvation descriptors. Also, the enthalpy data were subjected to random forest regression (RFR and recursive partition tree (RPT analyses. A total of 626 molecules were examined, drawing on 2040 published solubility values measured at various temperatures, along with 77 direct calori    metric measurements. The three different prediction methods (RFR, RPT, MLR all indicated that the estimated standard deviations in the enthalpy data are 11-15 kJ mol-1, which is concordant with the 10 kJ mol-1 propagation error estimated from solubility measurements (assuming 0.05 log S errors, and consistent with the 7 kJ mol-1 average reproducibility in enthalpy values from interlaboratory replicates. According to the MLR model, higher values of mp, H‑bond acidity, polarizability/dipolarity, and dispersion forces relate to more positive (endothermic enthalpy values. However, molecules that are large and have high H-bond basicity are likely to possess negative (exothermic enthalpies of solution. With log S0 values normalized to 25 oC, it was shown that the interlaboratory average standard deviations in solubility measurement are reduced to 0.06 ‑ 0.17 log unit, with higher errors for the least-soluble druglike molecules. Such improvements in data mining are expected to contribute to more reliable in silico prediction models of solubility for use in drug discovery.

  13. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  14. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  15. Prediction of average annual surface temperature for both flexible and rigid pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan LOGANATHAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The surface temperature of pavements is a critical attribute during pavement design. Surface temperature must be measured at locations of interest based on time-consuming field tests. The key idea of this study is to develop a temperature profile model to predict the surface temperature of flexible and rigid pavements based on weather parameters. Determination of surface temperature with traditional techniques and sensors are replaced by a newly developed method. The method includes the development of a regression model to predict the average annual surface temperature based on weather parameters such as ambient air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. Detailed information about temperature and other parameters are extracted from the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP online database. The study was conducted on 61 pavement sections in the state of Alabama for a 10-year period. The developed model would predict the average annual surface temperature based on the known weather parameters. The predicted surface temperature model for asphalt pavements was very reliable and can be utilized while designing a pavement. The study was also conducted on seven rigid pavement sections in Alabama to predict their surface temperature, in which a successful model was developed. The outcome of this study would help the transportation agencies by saving time and effort invested in expensive field tests to measure the surface temperature of pavements.

  16. Temperature measurements at the LMFBR core outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argous, J.P.; Berger, R.; Casejuane, R.; Fournier, C.; Girard, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    Over the last few years the temperature sensors used to measure the subassembly outlet temperature in French designed LMFBRs have been modified, basically in an effort to reduce the dispersion of the chromel-alumel thermocouple time constant, and to extend the frequency spectrum of the measurement signals by adding a steel electrode to from a stainless steel-sodium thermocouple. The result of this evolution is the temperature probe immersed in sodium which will be used in the SUPER PHENIX reactor. This paper describes the tests already completed or in progress on this probe. It also presents measurement data on the two basic probe parameters: the thermoelectric power of the stainless steel-sodium thermocouple and the time constant of the chromel-alumel thermocouple

  17. Prediction of Skin Temperature Distribution in Cosmetic Laser Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kuen; Chen, Kuen-Tasnn; Cheng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Wen-Shiung; Chang, Cheng-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The use of lasers in cosmetic surgery has increased dramatically in the past decade. To achieve minimal damage to tissues, the study of the temperature distribution of skin in laser irradiation is very important. The phenomenon of the thermal wave effect is significant due to the highly focused light energy of lasers in very a short time period. The conventional Pennes equation does not take the thermal wave effect into account, which the thermal relaxation time (τ) is neglected, so it is not sufficient to solve instantaneous heating and cooling problem. The purpose of this study is to solve the thermal wave equation to determine the realistic temperature distribution during laser surgery. The analytic solutions of the thermal wave equation are compared with those of the Pennes equation. Moreover, comparisons are made between the results of the above equations and the results of temperature measurement using an infrared thermal image instrument. The thermal wave equation could likely to predict the skin temperature distribution in cosmetic laser surgery.

  18. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring.

  19. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalczo, John T.; Simpson, Marc L.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  20. Slot Antenna for Wireless Temperature Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....

  1. Prediction of mirror performance from laboratory measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes and illustrates a simple method of predicting the imaging performance of synchrotron mirrors from laboratory measurements of their profiles. It discusses the important role of the transverse coherence length of the incident radiation, the fractal-like form of the mirror roughness, mirror characterization, and the use of closed-form expressions for the predicted image intensities

  2. Saturation effects in Na lidar temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von der Gathen, P.

    1991-01-01

    Na atoms residing in the 80-110 km altitude region can be used to probe the Doppler-broadened hyperfine structure (hfs) of their D 2 resonance by ground-bases lidar and hence to deduce atmospheric temperatures. In principle, two different methods may be employed: (1) wavelength scanning of the hfs with a narrow-band laser and signal detection with a broad-band receiver, and (2) use of a broad-band laser and wavelength scanning of the hfs with a narrow-band receiver. These two methods are affected in different ways by laser-induced saturation in the Na layer, the effect on the measurements of sodium densities and of atmospheric temperatures being quite different. Density measurements are affected by the absolute level of saturation. Temperature measurements, however, are affected by the difference in saturation at the scanned wavelengths. If, additionally, observed signal levels are taken into account, method 1 is more efficient than method 2 for both types of measurements at nighttime, whereas a modified method 2 surpasses method 1 for temperature measurements at daytime

  3. Temperature measurements in ZT-40M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, E.M.; Haberstich, A.; Thomas, K.S.; Watt, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Electron temperatures derived from Thomson scattering and ultrasoft x-ray (USXR) measurements taken before and after machine modifications are compared for ZT-40M. Modifications were made to the magnetic field windings to reduce field errors and the joints in the aluminum shell were coated with joint compound to reduce resistance and make all joints electrically uniform. These modifications resulted in increased plasma lifetime in ZT-40M from less than 10 ms to over 20 ms. Thomson scattering measurements were made with a single-point Thomson scattering apparatus. The scattered spectrum is collected by a three-grating spectrometer. The soft x rays are collected by a two-foil differential transmission system whose foil ratios may be easily varied. Before modifications the Thomson scattering and soft x-ray temperatures agreed up until 3 to 4 ms into the discharge. After this time the Thomson scattering temperature decreased slowly while the soft x-ray ''temperature'' increased rapidly. field errors resulted in Thomson scattering and USXR ''temperature'' time histories remaining fairly flat out to 10 to 11 ms, but introduced a small discrepancy (about 50 eV) in the absolute value of the temperatures. This change may be due either to the change in foil thickness used or to changes in radial temperature profiles. Profile changes may have been caused by the addition of four poloidal limiters or improvements to the magnetic field topology. After modifications the temperatures from both Thomson scattering and USXR were lower and the plasma density was higher. This is probably a result of the lower plasma-wall interaction with the new configuration

  4. Fuel centerline temperature measurement experiment in JMTR, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroei; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Sezaki, Katsuji; Komukai, Bunsaku

    1980-11-01

    Fuel centerline temperature measurement experiment which is the most fundamental for the LWR fuel safety study, is planned to conduct in JMTR using OWL-1 loop facility. Irradiation of the first test assembly was completed. In this paper, the comparison between measured fuel centerline temperature data and predicted ones by JAERI's FREG-4 code which is a computer program to calculate fuel temperature distribution is made. Furthermore, the data analysis method such as how to estimate local linear power and inpile behavior of the instrumentations are described. The maximum fuel center temperature was 1250 0 C at steady state, the maximum linear power was 320 W/cm, and the maximum burnup was about 1600 MWD/T. (author)

  5. Two methods to measure granular gas temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastaing, J.-Y.; Géminard, J.-C.; Naert, A.

    2017-07-01

    Grains are vibrated so as to achieve a granular gas, here regarded as an archetype of a dissipative non equilibrium steady state (NESS). We report on two distinct and concordant experimental measures of the system effective temperature. To do so, a blade fastened to the shaft of a small DC-motor, immersed in the grains, behaves as a driven 1D Brownian rotator, which is used as both actuator and sensor simultaneously. On the one hand, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, which involves a measure of the asymmetry of the energy exchanges between the rotator and the NESS reservoir, provides a first effective temperature. On the other hand, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which involves the relation between the spontaneous fluctuations and the response to a weak perturbation, defines a second, independent, effective temperature. Both methods, even though they are based on drastically different ideas, give nicely concordant results.

  6. Measurement of very rapidly variable temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographical research and visits to laboratories were undertaken in order to survey the different techniques used to measure rapidly variable temperatures, specifying the limits in maximum temperature and variation rate (time constant). On the basis of the bibliographical study these techniques were classified in three categories according to the physical meaning of their response time. Extension of the bibliographical research to methods using fast temperature variation measurement techniques and visits to research and industrial laboratories gave in an idea of the problems raised by the application of these methods. The use of these techniques in fields other than those for which they were developed can sometimes be awkward in the case of thermometric probe devices where the time constant cannot generally be specified [fr

  7. Tokamak Plasmas: Electron temperature $(T_ {e}) $ measurements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 55; Issue 5-6. Tokamak Plasmas : Electron temperature ( T e ) measurements by Thomson scattering system. R Rajesh B Ramesh Kumar S K Varshney Manoj Kumar Chhaya Chavda Aruna Thakkar N C Patel Ajai Kumar Aditya Team. Contributed Papers Volume 55 ...

  8. New methode of measurement of temperature flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Grexová

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is a measurement of thermal flow under laboratory conditions. We define the thermal flow as an amount of heat transmitted through a surface of rock over a certain period of time. According to the Atlas of Geothermal Energy, thermal flow ranges from 40 to 120 mW/m2. It is not possible to measure it directly on the rock surface. The conventional ways of measurement is a “separation bar” thermic conduction measurement system or measurement of the temperature of the rock in two different places at selected underground depth intervals. These measurements and analyses are not sufficient to make a final conclusion. It is necessary to repeat the measurements under real conditions.

  9. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2017-11-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  10. Spatial Prediction of Air Temperature in East Central Anatolia of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, B. C.; Erşahin, S.; Özyavuz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Air temperature is an essential component of the factors used in landscape planning. At similar topographic conditions, vegetation may show considerable differences depending on air temperature and precipitation. In large areas, measuring temperature is a cost and time-consuming work. Therefore, prediction of climate variables at unmeasured sites at an acceptable accuracy is very important in regional resource planning. In addition, use a more proper prediction method is crucial since many different prediction techniques yield different performance in different landscape and geographical conditions. We compared inverse distance weighted (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), and ordinary cokriging (OCK) to predict air temperature at unmeasured sites in Malatya region (East Central Anatolia) of Turkey. Malatya region is the most important apricot production area of Turkey and air temperature is the most important factor determining the apricot growing zones in this region. We used mean monthly temperatures from 1975 to 2010 measured at 28 sites in the study area and predicted temperature with IDW, OC, and OCK techniques, mapped temperature in the region, and tested the reliability of these maps. The OCK with elevation as an auxiliary variable occurred the best procedure to predict temperature against the criteria of model efficiency and relative root mean squared error.

  11. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN EAST CENTRAL ANATOLIA OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Bilgili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature is an essential component of the factors used in landscape planning. At similar topographic conditions, vegetation may show considerable differences depending on air temperature and precipitation. In large areas, measuring temperature is a cost and time-consuming work. Therefore, prediction of climate variables at unmeasured sites at an acceptable accuracy is very important in regional resource planning. In addition, use a more proper prediction method is crucial since many different prediction techniques yield different performance in different landscape and geographical conditions. We compared inverse distance weighted (IDW, ordinary kriging (OK, and ordinary cokriging (OCK to predict air temperature at unmeasured sites in Malatya region (East Central Anatolia of Turkey. Malatya region is the most important apricot production area of Turkey and air temperature is the most important factor determining the apricot growing zones in this region. We used mean monthly temperatures from 1975 to 2010 measured at 28 sites in the study area and predicted temperature with IDW, OC, and OCK techniques, mapped temperature in the region, and tested the reliability of these maps. The OCK with elevation as an auxiliary variable occurred the best procedure to predict temperature against the criteria of model efficiency and relative root mean squared error.

  12. Variations in FASST Predictions of Soil Surface Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peck, Lindamae

    2006-01-01

    ..., initial volumetric soil moisture content, bulk density of the dry soil material, albedo (sunny days), and porosity. The thermal conductivity of the dry soil material has a minor effect on predicted soil temperature...

  13. Liquid temperature measuring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Fumi; Karasawa, Hirokazu.

    1995-01-01

    In the present invention, temperature of liquid metal in coolants in an FBR type reactor can accurately be measured at rapid response time. Namely, ultrasonic waves are emitted from an ultrasonic wave sensor disposed in the air to a guide wave tube. Ultrasonic waves are reflected at reflection plates disposed at front and back or upper and lower portions of a small hole disposed to the wave guide tube. The reflected waves are received by the sensor described above. The difference of the reaching time of the reflected waves from the reflecting plates disposed at the front and the back or the upper and lower portions is measured. The speed of sounds in this case is determined based on the size of the small hole and the distance of the upper and the lower reflection plates. The speed of sounds is determined by the formula below: V(m/s) = 2500 - 0.52 T, where T: temperature. The temperature of the liquid can easily be calculated based on the formula. Accordingly, since the speed of the ultrasonic waves from their emission to the reception is msec order, and the processing of the signals are simple, the temperature can be measured at a response time of several msecs. In addition, since the ultrasonic wave sensor is disposed at the outside of the reactor, no special countermeasure for environmental circumstances is necessary, to improve maintenance ability. (I.S.)

  14. Plasma temperature measurements in disruption simulated experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkhipov, N.I. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Bakhtin, V.P. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Toporkov, D.A. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Vasenin, S.G. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Wurz, H. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INR (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Results are reported of experiments to measure the temporal and spatial distributions of a temperature and radiation of a near surface plasma cloud appearing in the disruption simulated experiments. These measurements are needed to verificate the different numerical models of vapor shielding layer which appears to arise near the divertor plates surface and prevents them from the bulk of the incoming energy. Experiments with graphite and tungsten samples were carried out at the 2MK-200 plasma facility. Long CUSP trap was used as a source of high temperature deuterium plasma with a power density W = 10 MW/cm{sup 2} and time duration t = 20 mcs. Laser scattering, space and time resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy was employed to measure the plasma cloud temperature and radiation. The different behaviour of shielding layer parameters was shown for a graphite and tungsten samples. For a tungsten the sharp boundary existed between the incoming deuterium plasma and the thin layer of ablated material plasma and the strong gradient of electron temperature took place in this zone. For a graphite this boundary was broadened at the distance and the main part of the screening layer consisted of the mixture of the incoming deuterium and ablated carbon plasma. (orig.).

  15. Seasonal temperature prediction skill over Southern Africa and human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lazenby, MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa. The above-normal category of the one-tiered system indicates the highest skill in predicting maximum temperature extremes, implying the coupled model predicts skilfully when there is a high likelihood of experiencing extremely high seasonal...

  16. Global rainbow refractometry for droplet temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascal Lemaitre; Emmanuel Porcheron; Amandine Nuboer; Philippe Brun; Pierre Cornet; Jeanne Malet; Jacques Vendel; Laurent Bouilloux [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire DSU/SERAC, BP 68, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gerard Grehan [UMR 6614 CORIA, Laboratoire d' Electromagnetisme et Systemes Particulaires Site Universitaire du Madrillet, Avenue de l' universite BP 12, 76 801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex, (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to establish an accurate database to characterize the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the atmosphere with thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident in the containment enclosure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) has developed the TOSQAN experimental facility. This experiment is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics allowing to measure droplet size and velocity and gas concentrations [1]. The aim of this work is to present the Global Rainbow Thermometry (GRT), which is an advanced non-intrusive optical diagnostic, developed to measure the mean temperature of a set of falling droplets, in a measurement volume of 1 cm{sup 3}. The final paper will be divided in three parts. In the first one, we will explain the principle of the rainbow formation and how droplet temperature can be deduced from the rainbow analysis [2]. This part will be illustrated with the theoretical background on the rainbow and numerical simulations of the global rainbow. The second part will be devoted to present the global rainbow experimental set-up we have developed on optical table, its experimental qualification and finally its implementation on the TOSQAN facility [3]. Finally, we will present the temperature measurements achieved in TOSQAN for thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident. These measurements are useful to characterize the heat and mass transfers between the spraying droplets and the air-steam mixture composing the atmosphere. This analysis will be exposed in a two companion papers. References: [1] E. Porcheron, P. Brun, P. Cornet, J. Malet, J. Vendel. Optical diagnostics applied for single and multi-phase flow characterization in the TOSQAN facility dedicated for thermal hydraulic containment studies. NURETH-10 Seoul, Korea, October 5-9, 2003. [2] P

  17. Global rainbow refractometry for droplet temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal Lemaitre; Emmanuel Porcheron; Amandine Nuboer; Philippe Brun; Pierre Cornet; Jeanne Malet; Jacques Vendel; Laurent Bouilloux; Gerard Grehan

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to establish an accurate database to characterize the heat and mass transfers between a spray and the atmosphere with thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident in the containment enclosure of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN) has developed the TOSQAN experimental facility. This experiment is highly instrumented with non-intrusive diagnostics allowing to measure droplet size and velocity and gas concentrations [1]. The aim of this work is to present the Global Rainbow Thermometry (GRT), which is an advanced non-intrusive optical diagnostic, developed to measure the mean temperature of a set of falling droplets, in a measurement volume of 1 cm 3 . The final paper will be divided in three parts. In the first one, we will explain the principle of the rainbow formation and how droplet temperature can be deduced from the rainbow analysis [2]. This part will be illustrated with the theoretical background on the rainbow and numerical simulations of the global rainbow. The second part will be devoted to present the global rainbow experimental set-up we have developed on optical table, its experimental qualification and finally its implementation on the TOSQAN facility [3]. Finally, we will present the temperature measurements achieved in TOSQAN for thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident. These measurements are useful to characterize the heat and mass transfers between the spraying droplets and the air-steam mixture composing the atmosphere. This analysis will be exposed in a two companion papers. References: [1] E. Porcheron, P. Brun, P. Cornet, J. Malet, J. Vendel. Optical diagnostics applied for single and multi-phase flow characterization in the TOSQAN facility dedicated for thermal hydraulic containment studies. NURETH-10 Seoul, Korea, October 5-9, 2003. [2] P

  18. Temperature measurement in French atomic piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Rastoix, G.

    1950-10-01

    In the Chatillon reactor the temperature is measured (1) in the interior of one of the vertical A1 cylinders filled with UO 2 (temperature interval 20 to 70 deg. C), and (2) in the center of the tank containing D 2 O (20 to 50 deg. C). The instruments used are silver-constantan thermocouples; the wires are insulated by SiO 2 sheaths, those immersed in D 2 O being placed within Al cases 10 mm diameter. In the Saclay reactor the temperature is taken (1) in the interior of 4 U rods (20 to 300 deg. C), (2) at 2 points of the D 2 O mass (20 to 60 deg. C), (3) at one point in graphite (20 to 100 deg. C), and (4) at 5 points in the catalytic setup (200 deg. C). Copper-constantan couples are used (Ag-constantan is not suitable above 150 deg. C); the wires are enclosed in a sheath of glass fabric. In both reactors the accuracy of the temperature measurements is 0.5 deg. C. (author)

  19. Measurements of temperature on LHC thermal models

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C

    2001-01-01

    Full-scale thermal models for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator cryogenic system have been studied at CERN and at Fermilab. Thermal measurements based on two different models permitted us to evaluate the performance of the LHC dipole cryostats as well as to validate the LHC Interaction Region (IR) inner triplet cooling scheme. The experimental procedures made use of temperature sensors supplied by industry and assembled on specially designed supports. The described thermal models took the advantage of advances in cryogenic thermometry which will be implemented in the future LHC accelerator to meet the strict requirements of the LHC for precision, accuracy, reliability, and ease-of-use. The sensors used in the temperature measurement of the superfluid (He II) systems are the primary focus of this paper, although some aspects of the LHC control system and signal conditioning are also reviewed. (15 refs).

  20. Quantum chemical aided prediction of the thermal decomposition mechanisms and temperatures of ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, Maaike C.; Buijs, Wim; Peters, Cor J.; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2007-01-01

    The long-term thermal stability of ionic liquids is of utmost importance for their industrial application. Although the thermal decomposition temperatures of various ionic liquids have been measured previously, experimental data on the thermal decomposition mechanisms and kinetics are scarce. It is desirable to develop quantitative chemical tools that can predict thermal decomposition mechanisms and temperatures (kinetics) of ionic liquids. In this work ab initio quantum chemical calculations (DFT-B3LYP) have been used to predict thermal decomposition mechanisms, temperatures and the activation energies of the thermal breakdown reactions. These quantum chemical calculations proved to be an excellent method to predict the thermal stability of various ionic liquids

  1. Predicting the thermal conductivity of aluminium alloys in the cryogenic to room temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcraft, Adam L.

    2005-06-01

    Aluminium alloys are being used increasingly in cryogenic systems. However, cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made on only a few of the many types in general use. This paper describes a method of predicting the thermal conductivity of any aluminium alloy between the superconducting transition temperature (approximately 1 K) and room temperature, based on a measurement of the thermal conductivity or electrical resistivity at a single temperature. Where predictions are based on low temperature measurements (approximately 4 K and below), the accuracy is generally better than 10%. Useful predictions can also be made from room temperature measurements for most alloys, but with reduced accuracy. This method permits aluminium alloys to be used in situations where the thermal conductivity is important without having to make (or find) direct measurements over the entire temperature range of interest. There is therefore greater scope to choose alloys based on mechanical properties and availability, rather than on whether cryogenic thermal conductivity measurements have been made. Recommended thermal conductivity values are presented for aluminium 6082 (based on a new measurement), and for 1000 series, and types 2014, 2024, 2219, 3003, 5052, 5083, 5086, 5154, 6061, 6063, 6082, 7039 and 7075 (based on low temperature measurements in the literature).

  2. Sea Surface Temperatures (SST): Significance and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. F.

    2006-05-01

    Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth's surface and control the global climate. Quoted global mean temperature values and trends, largely based on land thermometers, differ substantially -" mainly because of uncertainties about SST. The ongoing controversy about the relative importance of natural climate changes and Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) revolves mainly around disparities between temperature trends of the atmosphere and surface (in the tropics and SH, i.e. mostly SST). Accurate measurement of SST is difficult. Geographic coverage is poor and there are many different techniques, each with its own problems and uncertainties: Water temperatures from buckets and ship-engine inlets; fixed and floating buoys; air temperatures from shipboard and island stations; and remote sensing from satellites using IR and microwaves. As is evident, each technique refers to a different level below the air-water interface. Drifter buoys (at around 50 cm) measure temperatures in the euphotic layers that are generally warmer than the bulk mixed layer sampled by ships (typically around 10 m). The IR emission arises from a 10-micron-thick skin that interacts dynamically with the underlying "mixed layer." The microwave data depend also on emissivity and therefore on surface roughness and sea state. SST data derived from corals provide some support for instrumental data but are not conclusive. The majority of corals show a warming trend since 1979; others show cooling or are ambiguous. There are different ways of interpreting this result. Physical optics dictates that the downwelling IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed in the first instance within the skin. Only direct measurements can establish how much of this energy is shared with the bulk mixed layer (to which the usual SST values refer.). SST controls evaporation and therefore global precipitation. SST influences tropical cyclones and sea-level rise; but there is lively debate on those issues. Changes in

  3. Temperature measuring element in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily measure the partial maximum temperature at a portion within the nuclear reactor where the connection with the external portion is difficult. Constitution: Sodium, potassium or the alloy thereof with high heat expansion coefficient is packed into an elastic vessel having elastic walls contained in a capsule. A piercing member formed into an acute triangle is attached to one end in the direction of expansion and contraction of the elastic container. The two sides of the triangle form an acute knife edge. A diaphragm is disposed within a capsule at a position opposed to the sharpened direction of the piercing member. Such a capsule is placed in a predetermined position of the nuclear reactor. The elastic vessel causes thermal expansion displacement depending on the temperature at a certain position, by which the top end of the pierce member penetrates through the diaphragm. A pierced scar of a penetration length depending on the temperature is resulted to the diaphragm. The length of the piercing damage is electroscopically observed and compared with the calibration curve to recognize the maximum temperature in the predetermined portion of the nuclear reactor. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Uncertainty evaluation in transition temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillaud, C. [Electricite de France, Avoine (France); Augendre, H. [Electricite de France, Clamart (France); Bethmont, M. [Electricite de France, Ecuelles (France)

    1996-12-31

    The pressure vessel surveillance program is mainly based on the transition temperature change assessment, a change which is induced by neutron irradiation. Uncertainties in Charpy test measurements are well known; however, the authors are less familiar with uncertainties due to general procedures governing experiments, which can be significant and therefore must be taken into account. In fact, procedures specify neither the number of specimens needed to obtain a transition curve, nor the choice of test temperatures, nor the fitting method for the transition curve. A study has been conducted to determine the influence of the experimental procedure on the accuracy of transition temperature determination, and the initial results are presented in this paper. Two EDF laboratories performed Charpy tests on the surveillance program reference metal, using 8, 16, 24, 32 and 64 specimens to evaluate how the number of specimens affects the transition temperature. The influence of the scatter of mechanical properties has also been studied at two levels of irradiation. The authors have evaluated the effect of different sampling strategies and investigated a new fitting method, which is based on a simultaneous fitting of all curves with common constraints on parameters.

  5. Temperature measurements during laser skin welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Choi, Bernard; Welch, Ashley J.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    A thermal camera was used to measure surface temperatures during laser skin welding to provide feedback for optimization of the laser parameters. Two-cm-long, full- thickness incisions were made in guinea pig skin. India ink was used as an absorber. Continuous-wave, 1.06-μm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing a pulse duration of approximately 100 ms. Cooling durations between scans of 1.6, 4.0, and 8.0 s were studied with total operation times of 3, 5, and 10 min, respectively. A laser spot diameter of 5 mm was used with the power constant at 10 W. Thermal images were obtained at 30 frames per second with a thermal camera detecting 3.5 micrometers radiation. Surface temperatures were recorded at 0, 1, and 6 mm from the center line of the incision. Cooling durations between scans of 1.6 s and 4.0 s in vitro resulted in temperatures at the weld site remaining above ~65°C for prolonged periods of time. Cooling durations between scans as long as 8.0 s were sufficient both in vitro and in vivo to prevent a significant rise in baseline temperatures at the weld site over time.

  6. Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

    1988-01-01

    One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

  7. Seasonal prediction skill of winter temperature over North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P. R.; Kar, S. C.; Mohanty, U. C.; Dey, S.; Kumari, S.; Sinha, P.

    2016-04-01

    The climatology, amplitude error, phase error, and mean square skill score (MSSS) of temperature predictions from five different state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) have been examined for the winter (December-January-February) seasons over North India. In this region, temperature variability affects the phenological development processes of wheat crops and the grain yield. The GCM forecasts of temperature for a whole season issued in November from various organizations are compared with observed gridded temperature data obtained from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the period 1982-2009. The MSSS indicates that the models have skills of varying degrees. Predictions of maximum and minimum temperature obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate forecast system model (NCEP_CFSv2) are compared with station level observations from the Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE). It has been found that when the model temperatures are corrected to account the bias in the model and actual orography, the predictions are able to delineate the observed trend compared to the trend without orography correction.

  8. A Model-Based Temperature-Prediction Method by Temperature-Induced Spectral Variation and Correction of the Temperature Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qhi-xiao; Peng, Si-long; Shan, Peng; Bi, Yi-ming; Tang, Liang; Xie, Qiong

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper, a new model-based method was proposed for temperature prediction and correction. First, a temperature prediction model was obtained from training samples; then, the temperature of test samples were predicted; and finally, the correction model was used to reduce the nonlinear effects of spectra from temperature variations. Two experiments were used to verify the proposed method, including a water-ethanol mixture experiment and a ternary mixture experiment. The results show that, compared with classic method such as continuous piecewise direct standardization (CPDS), our method is efficient for temperature correction. Furthermore, the temperatures of test samples are not necessary in the proposed method, making it easier to use in real applications.

  9. Sex prediction from morphometric palatal rugae measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Ma; Ghafari, J G; Haddad, R V; Ayoub, F

    2017-07-01

    While abundant research has been conducted on palatal rugae (PR), the literature pertaining to the sex dimorphism of the palatal rugae and their use for sex prediction is inconclusive. Moreover, palatal rugae have been classified into categories based on length, shape, direction and unification but accurate rugal morphometric linear and angular measurements have not yet been reported. The aims of this study were to -1- assess the dimensions and bilateral symmetry of the first three palatal rugae in an adult population and -2- explore sex dimorphism and the ability to predict sex from palatal rugae measurements. The maxillary dental casts of 252 non-growing subjects (119 males, 130 females, mean age 25.6 ± 7.7 years) were scanned using a laser system (Perceptron ScanWorks® V5). Angular and linear transverse and anteroposteior measures of the first three palatal rugae were recorded. Independent samples t-tests and paired samples t-tests were used to test for side related differences and sex dimorphism. Multiple logistic regression was employed to model sex using associated palatal rugae measures. Palatal rugae exhibited lateral asymmetry in the majority of bilateral measures. Males presented with larger values for 9 out of 28 parameters. Four linear rugae measurements and one angular measurement together correctly classified 71.4% of the subjects in their true gender. Morphometric palatal rugae measurements demonstrated promising usefulness in sex prediction. Recording morphometric linear and angular measures is recommended as an adjunct to the commonly used classification based on the shapes of rugae.

  10. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  11. A Pedestrian Approach to Indoor Temperature Distribution Prediction of a Passive Solar Energy Efficient House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in energy consumption by buildings in keeping the indoor environment within the comfort levels and the ever increase of energy price there is need to design buildings that require minimal energy to keep the indoor environment within the comfort levels. There is need to predict the indoor temperature during the design stage. In this paper a statistical indoor temperature prediction model was developed. A passive solar house was constructed; thermal behaviour was simulated using ECOTECT and DOE computer software. The thermal behaviour of the house was monitored for a year. The indoor temperature was observed to be in the comfort level for 85% of the total time monitored. The simulation results were compared with the measured results and those from the prediction model. The statistical prediction model was found to agree (95% with the measured results. Simulation results were observed to agree (96% with the statistical prediction model. Modeled indoor temperature was most sensitive to the outdoor temperatures variations. The daily mean peak ones were found to be more pronounced in summer (5% than in winter (4%. The developed model can be used to predict the instantaneous indoor temperature for a specific house design.

  12. Measurement and prediction of solubilities of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenkamp, Inga; Graubner, Gitte; Gmehling, Jürgen

    2010-03-30

    Solubilities of 2-acetoxy benzoic acid (aspirin), N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (paracetamol) and 2-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid (ibuprofen) have been measured in various solvents and compared with published and predicted data. For the prediction besides the two group contribution models UNIFAC and modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) the quantum chemical approach COSMO-RS (Ol) was used. Additionally melting temperatures and heats of fusion for 2-acetoxy benzoic acid, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol and 2-(p-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid required for the calculations have been determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictability of 2-m temperature across space and time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Thomas; Ben Bouallegue, Zied

    2017-04-01

    In the extra-tropics, 2-m temperature is arguably one of the most important parameters provided by weather forecasts. Although the skill of 2-m temperature forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is slowly increasing, major issues remain. One of the main sources of uncertainty in the short range relates to difficulties in predicting the amount of vertical mixing in very stable boundary layers and associated uncertainties in the low cloudiness forecast. During the convective season, uncertainties in the timing and location of precipitation limit 2-m temperature forecast skill. Here we evaluate NWP model output from the TIGGE dataset against global SYNOP observations to evaluate the current level of 2-m temperature skill as a function of spatial and temporal scale for both deterministic and probabilistic forecasts. By comparing different types of verification metrics such as the generalized discrimination score, anomaly correlation, root mean square error, and mean error we can quantify predictability separately from representativeness errors and conditional biases. Spatial aggregation from the grid-box to the synoptic scale is performed to assess the contribution of synoptic-scale uncertainty on the 2-m temperature error at different lead times from the short range through the medium and extended range. Results allow inferences to be made about possible future improvements in the 2-m temperature forecast associated with improved model physics and spatial resolution.

  14. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of Laser Weld Temperatures for 3D Model Input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagel, Daryl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grossetete, Grant [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maccallum, Danny O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding is a key joining process used extensively in the manufacture and assembly of critical components for several weapons systems. Sandia National Laboratories advances the understanding of the laser welding process through coupled experimentation and modeling. This report summarizes the experimental portion of the research program, which focused on measuring temperatures and thermal history of laser welds on steel plates. To increase confidence in measurement accuracy, researchers utilized multiple complementary techniques to acquire temperatures during laser welding. This data serves as input to and validation of 3D laser welding models aimed at predicting microstructure and the formation of defects and their impact on weld-joint reliability, a crucial step in rapid prototyping of weapons components.

  16. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  17. PREDICTION THE EVOLUTION OF TEMPERATURE AND VIBRATIONS ON SPINDLE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petru GHENCEA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulation spindle behavior in terms of temperature and vibration at higher speeds is more economical and more secure (avoid undesirable mechanical events than testing practice. Testing practice has an important role in finalizing the product but throughout the course of prototype testing is more advantageous economic development simulation parameters based on data sets collected to dangerous speeds. In this paper we present an analysis mode hybrid (artificial neural networks - fuzzy logic on prediction the evolution of temperatures and vibrations at higher speeds for which no measurements were made. The main advantage of the method is the simultaneous prediction of the dynamics of temperature and vibration levels.

  18. Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A second order mathematical model in terms of machining parameters was developed for temperature rise prediction using RSM. This model gives the factor effects of the individual process parameters. Values of Prob> F less than 0.05 indicate model terms are significant. The cutting speed is the most important parameter ...

  19. Temperature prediction in domestic refrigerators: Deterministic and stochastic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, O. (UMR Genie Industriel Alimentaire Cemagref-AgroParisTech-INRA by Refrigeration Process Engineering); Flick, D. [UMR Genie Industriel Alimentaire AgroParisTech-Cemagref-INRA, AgroParisTech-16 rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-01-15

    A simplified steady state heat transfer model was developed for a domestic refrigerator (without a fan). This model considers circular airflow, heat exchange by natural convection between the air and the cold/warm walls and between the air and the load. Radiation between cold/warm walls and load is also taken into account. The model considers the temperature variation related to the height of the refrigerator (top, bottom) and the position (near the cold wall, near the warm wall). Two random parameters were considered: the room and thermostat temperatures. These values were then introduced into the model enabling the calculation of the load and air temperatures. Analysis of the predicted temperatures was undertaken using comparison with survey data; good agreement was obtained for the mean value and the standard deviation. This model could prove to be useful in the development of a risk evaluation tool. (author)

  20. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  1. Crowdsourcing urban air temperature measurements using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery temperature sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution air temperature estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. Temperature observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have temperature sensors to avoid damage to the phone.

  2. Prediction of Austenite Formation Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, P; Schmidl, E; Grund, T; Lampke, T

    2016-01-01

    For the modeling and design of heat treatments, in consideration of the development/ transformation of the microstructure, different material data depending on the chemical composition, the respective microstructure/phases and the temperature are necessary. Material data are, e.g. the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal expansion and transformation data etc. The quality of thermal simulations strongly depends on the accuracy of the material data. For many materials, the required data - in particular for different microstructures and temperatures - are rare in the literature. In addition, a different chemical composition within the permitted limits of the considered steel alloy cannot be predicted. A solution for this problem is provided by the calculation of material data using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In the present study, the start and finish temperatures of the transformation from the bcc lattice to the fcc lattice structure of hypoeutectoid steels are calculated using an Artificial Neural Network. An appropriate database containing different transformation temperatures (austenite formation temperatures) to train the ANN is selected from the literature. In order to find a suitable feedforward network, the network topologies as well as the activation functions of the hidden layers are varied and subsequently evaluated in terms of the prediction accuracy. The transformation temperatures calculated by the ANN exhibit a very good compliance compared to the experimental data. The results show that the prediction performance is even higher compared to classical empirical equations such as Andrews or Brandis. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presented ANN is a convenient tool to distinguish between bcc and fcc phases in hypoeutectoid steels. (paper)

  3. Prediction of Austenite Formation Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, P.; Schmidl, E.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    For the modeling and design of heat treatments, in consideration of the development/ transformation of the microstructure, different material data depending on the chemical composition, the respective microstructure/phases and the temperature are necessary. Material data are, e.g. the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, thermal expansion and transformation data etc. The quality of thermal simulations strongly depends on the accuracy of the material data. For many materials, the required data - in particular for different microstructures and temperatures - are rare in the literature. In addition, a different chemical composition within the permitted limits of the considered steel alloy cannot be predicted. A solution for this problem is provided by the calculation of material data using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In the present study, the start and finish temperatures of the transformation from the bcc lattice to the fcc lattice structure of hypoeutectoid steels are calculated using an Artificial Neural Network. An appropriate database containing different transformation temperatures (austenite formation temperatures) to train the ANN is selected from the literature. In order to find a suitable feedforward network, the network topologies as well as the activation functions of the hidden layers are varied and subsequently evaluated in terms of the prediction accuracy. The transformation temperatures calculated by the ANN exhibit a very good compliance compared to the experimental data. The results show that the prediction performance is even higher compared to classical empirical equations such as Andrews or Brandis. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presented ANN is a convenient tool to distinguish between bcc and fcc phases in hypoeutectoid steels.

  4. Experimental and computational prediction of glass transition temperature of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzghoul, Ahmad; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Mahlin, Denny; Bergström, Christel A S

    2014-12-22

    Glass transition temperature (Tg) is an important inherent property of an amorphous solid material which is usually determined experimentally. In this study, the relation between Tg and melting temperature (Tm) was evaluated using a data set of 71 structurally diverse druglike compounds. Further, in silico models for prediction of Tg were developed based on calculated molecular descriptors and linear (multilinear regression, partial least-squares, principal component regression) and nonlinear (neural network, support vector regression) modeling techniques. The models based on Tm predicted Tg with an RMSE of 19.5 K for the test set. Among the five computational models developed herein the support vector regression gave the best result with RMSE of 18.7 K for the test set using only four chemical descriptors. Hence, two different models that predict Tg of drug-like molecules with high accuracy were developed. If Tm is available, a simple linear regression can be used to predict Tg. However, the results also suggest that support vector regression and calculated molecular descriptors can predict Tg with equal accuracy, already before compound synthesis.

  5. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.

    2002-01-01

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  6. Well-log based prediction of temperature models in the exploration of sedimentary settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea; Wonik, Thomas

    porosity. TC vs. depth profiles corrected for in situ (p, T) conditions finally were used in conjunction with a published site-specific heat-flow value to model a temperature profile. The methodology is shown on the example of a 4-km deep borehole at Hannover in the North German Basin. This borehole...... these measurements are not available or only measured to a certain depth so that a temperature model needs to developed. A prerequisite for such a model is the knowledge of the regional heat flow and the geological conditions translated into lithology and thermal rock properties. For the determination of continuous...... borehole temperature profiles we propose a two-step procedure: (1) the use of standard petrophysical well logs and (2) the inversion of predicted TC to temperature gradients by applying Fourier’s law of heat conduction. The prediction of TC is solved by using set of equations (Fuchs & Förster, 2014...

  7. High-temperature archeointensity measurements from Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Le Goff, Maxime

    2006-01-01

    We present new archeointensity results obtained from 127 potsherds and baked brick fragments dated from the last four millennia BC which were collected from different Syrian archeological excavations. High temperature magnetization measurements were carried out using a laboratory-built triaxial vibrating sample magnetometer (Triaxe), and ancient field intensity determinations were derived from the experimental procedure described by Le Goff and Gallet [Le Goff and Gallet. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 229 (2004) 31-43]. As some of the studied samples were previously analyzed using the classical Thellier and Thellier [Thellier and Thellier . Ann. Geophys. 15 (1959) 285-376] method revised by Coe [Coe. J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262], a comparison of the results is made from the two methods. The differences both at the fragment and site levels are mostly within ± 5%, which strengthens the validity of the experimental procedure developed for the Triaxe. The new data help to better constrain the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Mesopotamia during archeological times, with the probable occurrence of an archeomagnetic jerk around 2800-2600 BC.

  8. Two-Color Pyrometer for Process Temperature Measurement During Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Tapetado Moraleda, Alberto; Díaz Álvarez, José; Miguélez Garrido, María Henar; Vázquez García, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    A fast fiber-optic two-color pyrometer operating on the optical communication bands is designed for temperature measurements in machining processes. Off-the-shelf low-loss fiber-optic demultiplexers and optoelectronics equipment are used in order to obtain a cost-effective sensing solution while reducing both the temperature measurement error and the minimum measurable temperature. The system is capable of measuring highly localized temperatures without using collimation lens. The designed py...

  9. Low temperature fiber optic pyrometer for fast time resolved temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.; Gaenshirt, D.; Kaiser, J.; Villnow, M.; Banda, M.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature Pyrometry at temperatures beyond 150°C is limited in the measurement speed due to slow pyroelectric detectors. To detect the circumferential temperature distribution of fast rotating machines a novel Fiber Optical Pyrometer Type is presented here.

  10. Model predictive control of room temperature with disturbance compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilla, Jozef; Hubinský, Peter

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with temperature control of multivariable system of office building. The system is simplified to several single input-single output systems by decoupling their mutual linkages, which are separately controlled by regulator based on generalized model predictive control. Main part of this paper focuses on the accuracy of the office temperature with respect to occupancy profile and effect of disturbance. Shifting of desired temperature and changing of weighting coefficients are used to achieve the desired accuracy of regulation. The final structure of regulation joins advantages of distributed computing power and possibility to use network communication between individual controllers to consider the constraints. The advantage of using decoupled MPC controllers compared to conventional PID regulators is demonstrated in a simulation study.

  11. Structure life prediction at high temperature: present and future capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboche, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The life prediction techniques for high temperature conditions include several aspects which are considered successively in this article. Crack initiation criteria themselves, defined for the isolated volume element (the tension-compression specimen for example), including parametric relationships and continuous damage approaches and calculation of local stress and strain fields in the structure and their evolution under cyclic plasticity, which poses several difficult problems to obtain stabilized cyclic solutions are examined. The use of crack initiation criteria or damage rules from the result of the cyclic inelastic analysis and the prediction of crack growth in the structure are considered. Different levels are considered for the predictive tools: the classical approach, future methods presently under development and intermediate rules, which are already in use. Several examples are given on materials and components used either in the nuclear industry or in gas turbine engines. (author)

  12. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  13. Using soil temperature and moisture to predict forest soil nitrogen mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Wayne T. Swank

    2002-01-01

    Due to the importance of N in forest productivity ecosystem and nutrient cycling research often includes measurement of soil N transformation rates as indices of potential availability and ecosystem losses of N. We examined the feasibility of using soil temperature and moisture content to predict soil N mineralization rates (Nmin) at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory...

  14. Prediction models and control algorithms for predictive applications of setback temperature in cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Woo; Yoon, Younju; Jeon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Sooyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Initial ANN model was developed for predicting the time to the setback temperature. • Initial model was optimized for producing accurate output. • Optimized model proved its prediction accuracy. • ANN-based algorithms were developed and tested their performance. • ANN-based algorithms presented superior thermal comfort or energy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study, a temperature control algorithm was developed to apply a setback temperature predictively for the cooling system of a residential building during occupied periods by residents. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to determine the required time for increasing the current indoor temperature to the setback temperature. This study involved three phases: development of the initial ANN-based prediction model, optimization and testing of the initial model, and development and testing of three control algorithms. The development and performance testing of the model and algorithm were conducted using TRNSYS and MATLAB. Through the development and optimization process, the final ANN model employed indoor temperature and the temperature difference between the current and target setback temperature as two input neurons. The optimal number of hidden layers, number of neurons, learning rate, and moment were determined to be 4, 9, 0.6, and 0.9, respectively. The tangent–sigmoid and pure-linear transfer function was used in the hidden and output neurons, respectively. The ANN model used 100 training data sets with sliding-window method for data management. Levenberg-Marquart training method was employed for model training. The optimized model had a prediction accuracy of 0.9097 root mean square errors when compared with the simulated results. Employing the ANN model, ANN-based algorithms maintained indoor temperatures better within target ranges. Compared to the conventional algorithm, the ANN-based algorithms reduced the duration of time, in which the indoor temperature

  15. High DNA melting temperature predicts transcription start site location in human and mouse.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dineen, David G

    2009-12-01

    The accurate computational prediction of transcription start sites (TSS) in vertebrate genomes is a difficult problem. The physicochemical properties of DNA can be computed in various ways and a many combinations of DNA features have been tested in the past for use as predictors of transcription. We looked in detail at melting temperature, which measures the temperature, at which two strands of DNA separate, considering the cooperative nature of this process. We find that peaks in melting temperature correspond closely to experimentally determined transcription start sites in human and mouse chromosomes. Using melting temperature alone, and with simple thresholding, we can predict TSS with accuracy that is competitive with the most accurate state-of-the-art TSS prediction methods. Accuracy is measured using both experimentally and manually determined TSS. The method works especially well with CpG island containing promoters, but also works when CpG islands are absent. This result is clear evidence of the important role of the physical properties of DNA in the process of transcription. It also points to the importance for TSS prediction methods to include melting temperature as prior information.

  16. Prediction of the viscosity of lubricating oil blends at any temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, R.M.; Bernardo, M.I.; Fernandez, A.M.; Folgueras, M.B. [University of Oviedo, Oveido (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    1996-04-01

    This paper discusses a method of predicting the viscosity of multicomponent base lubricating oil mixtures based on Andrade`s equation. The kinematic viscosity of three types of base lubricating oils and their binary and ternary mixtures were measured at different temperatures and the parameters of Andrade`s equation were calculated. The results obtained indicate that the Andrade parameters vary linearly with the mixture composition. From these linear equations, generalized mixing equations are derived which confirm the experimental results. By application of the mixing equations, a simple method is obtained for prediction of the viscosity of oil blends at any temperature from viscosity-temperature data of the oil components. The calculated viscosities gave an average absolute deviation of 10% over the temperature range 20-100{degree}C. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28... for Length of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any cotton... its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70° F. ...

  18. Application of digital holography in temperature distribution measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Li, Yan; Wang, Dayong; Zhao, Jie

    2010-11-01

    A reflection heat source including a radiator as well as an aluminum plate is designed, and the temperature field of the aluminum plate is used as the tested object. The reflection lensless Fourier transform (LFT) digital holography is performed to measure the temperature field distribution. For the comparison, the temperature measurement system within the radiator is used to measure the temperature distributions. The results obtained by these two methods are in good agreement, which demonstrates that the digital holography method is valid for the measurement of the temperature distribution.

  19. Measurements and prediction of inhaled air quality with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Radim; Majer, M.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation in relation to the quality of air inhaled by a breathing thermal manikin in a climate chamber. The personalized air was supplied either isothermally or non-isothermally (6 deg.C cooler than...... the room air) at flow rates ranging from less than 5 L/s up to 23 L/s. The air quality assessment was based on temperature measurements of the inhaled air and on the portion of the personalized air inhaled. The percentage of dissatisfied with the air quality was predicted. The results suggest...... that regardless of the temperature combinations, personalized ventilation may decrease significantly the number of occupants dissatisfied with the air quality. Under non-isothermal conditions the percentage of dissatisfied may decrease up to 4 times....

  20. Surface Temperature Variation Prediction Model Using Real-Time Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Vant-Hull, B.; Nazari, R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Combination of climate change and urbanization are heating up cities and putting the lives of millions of people in danger. More than half of the world's total population resides in cities and urban centers. Cities are experiencing urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Hotter days are associated with serious health impacts, heart attaches and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Densely populated cities like Manhattan, New York can be affected by UHI impact much more than less populated cities. Even though many studies have been focused on the impact of UHI and temperature changes between urban and rural air temperature, not many look at the temperature variations within a city. These studies mostly use remote sensing data or typical measurements collected by local meteorological station networks. Local meteorological measurements only have local coverage and cannot be used to study the impact of UHI in a city and remote sensing data such as MODIS, LANDSAT and ASTER have with very low resolution which cannot be used for the purpose of this study. Therefore, predicting surface temperature in urban cities using weather data can be useful.Three months of Field campaign in Manhattan were used to measure spatial and temporal temperature variations within an urban setting by placing 10 fixed sensors deployed to measure temperature, relative humidity and sunlight. Fixed instrument shelters containing relative humidity, temperature and illumination sensors were mounted on lampposts in ten different locations in Manhattan (Vant-Hull et al, 2014). The shelters were fixed 3-4 meters above the ground for the period of three months from June 23 to September 20th of 2013 making measurements with the interval of 3 minutes. These high resolution temperature measurements and three months of weather data were used to predict temperature variability from weather forecasts. This study shows that the amplitude of spatial and temporal variation in temperature for each day can be predicted

  1. Verification of steady-state temperature predictions in an instrumented LMFBR driver subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.R.; Feldman, E.E.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.; Planchon, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The measured coolant temperature within an instrumented, fueled driver subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) have been compared with the full-power, steady-state coolant temperatures predicted by a thermal-hydraulic code. Coolant temperatures were measured at three axial elevations: core midplane, top of core, and above the core. The agreement between the data and predictions is very good for all of the elevations except for the midplane. The deviation at the midplane is discussed and appears to result from a combination of factors which include a skewed axial power profile, a wire wrap hot-spot factor, and a possible elevation misalignment of the subassembly

  2. Measuring the temperature of hot nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschel, S.; Bonasera, A.; May, L.W.; Souliotis, G.A.; Tripathi, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Kohley, Z.; Hagel, K.; Shetty, D.V.; Huseman, K.; Soisson, S.N.; Stein, B.C.; Yennello, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    A new thermometer based on fragment momentum fluctuations is presented. This thermometer exhibited residual contamination from the collective motion of the fragments along the beam axis. For this reason, the transverse direction has been explored. Additionally, a mass dependence was observed for this thermometer. This mass dependence may be the result of the Fermi momentum of nucleons or the different properties of the fragments (binding energy, spin, etc.) which might be more sensitive to different densities and temperatures of the exploding fragments. We expect some of these aspects to be smaller for protons (and/or neutrons); consequently, the proton transverse momentum fluctuations were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the source.

  3. Temperature measurements on a HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohsen, R.A.

    1998-05-07

    Temperature measurements have been made on HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel number 6-2-3-1. These measurements are intended to give a view of the vessel temperature response under conditions similar to operational conditions, starting from worst case. The vessel`s temperature must be above the minimum operating temperature when used to contain an explosive event to ensure that the vessel material has the desired crack arrest properties. Several series of temperature measurements have been conducted over 24 and 48 hour periods during February 1998. These tests were intended to demonstrate that after running the heaters in the environmental shelter for some time, (1) the vessel warms up to temperatures well above the minimum operating temperature, (2) that through-thickness temperature gradients are negligible, and (3) that the temperature differences from one part of the vessel to another are small.

  4. Low Temperature Hall Measurements of Neutron Irradiated Silicon Carbide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonavita, Ange1o

    2004-01-01

    .... No features suggesting annealing were found below a temperature of 340K. Temperature dependant Hall effect measurements were taken over a range of 100K to 340K recording resistivity, carrier densities, and mobility...

  5. Isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient measurement in TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Direct measurement of an isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient at room temperatures in TRIGA Mark II research reactor at Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana is presented. Temperature reactivity coefficient was measured in the temperature range between 15 o C and 25 o C. All reactivity measurements were performed at almost zero reactor power to reduce or completely eliminate nuclear heating. Slow and steady temperature decrease was controlled using the reactor tank cooling system. In this way the temperatures of fuel, of moderator and of coolant were kept in equilibrium throughout the measurements. It was found out that TRIGA reactor core loaded with standard fuel elements with stainless steel cladding has small positive isothermal temperature reactivity coefficient in this temperature range.(author)

  6. Investigation of temperature correction for tire/pavement noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the Federal Highway Administration, : investigated the influence of temperature on tire/pavement noise in order to provide guidance on correcting for temperature variations in measured sound levels. ...

  7. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    tics—emission lines. Dwivedi, Curdt & Wilhelm (1997, 1999a) carried out an observing sequence based on a theoretical study by Dwivedi & Mohan (1995), with intercombination/forbidden. Ne VI and Mg VI lines, which are formed at essentially the same temperature. (4 × 105 K), according to Arnaud & Rothenflug (1985).

  8. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Pu [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Wenzhong, E-mail: lwz7410@hust.edu.cn [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  9. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Pu

    2016-05-01

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  10. Airborne monitoring of crop canopy temperatures for irrigation scheduling and yield prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Goettelman, R. C.; Lapado, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the program discussed was to develop techniques for remotely measuring crop irrigation needs and predicting crop yields, with emphasis on wheat. Airborne measurements, using an IR line scanner and color IR photography, were made to evaluate the feasibility of measuring minimum and maximum (dawn and afternoon) crop temperatures to compute a parameter, termed 'stress degree day' (SDD) - a valuable indicator of crop water needs, which can be related to irrigation scheduling and yield. Crop canopy temperature measurements by airborne IR techniques revealed the superiority of thermal IR data over color IR photography. Water stress undetected in the latter technique was clearly detected in thermal imagery. Color IR photography, however, is valuable in discerning vegetation. The pseudo-colored temperature-difference images (and pseudo-colored images, reading directly in daily SDD increments) are shown to be well suited for assessing plant water status and, thus, for determining the irrigation needs and crop yield potentials.

  11. Predicting the diversity of internal temperatures from the English residential sector using panel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Scott; Shipworth, Michelle; Shipworth, David; Gentry, Michael; Wright, Andrew; Pollitt, Michael; Crawford-Brown, Doug; Lomas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new method is proposed incorporating behavioural, environmental and building efficiency variables to explain internal dwelling temperatures. ► It is the first time panel methods have been used to predict internal dwelling temperatures over time. ► The proposed method is able to explain 45% of the variance of internal temperature between heterogeneous dwellings. ► Results support qualitative research on the importance of social, cultural and psychological behaviour in determining internal dwelling temperatures. behaviour. ► This method presents new opportunities to quantify the size of the direct rebound effect between heterogeneous dwellings. -- Abstract: In this paper, panel methods are applied in new and innovative ways to predict daily mean internal temperature demand across a heterogeneous domestic building stock over time. This research not only exploits a rich new dataset but presents new methodological insights and offers important linkages for connecting bottom-up building stock models to human behaviour. It represents the first time a panel model has been used to estimate the dynamics of internal temperature demand from the natural daily fluctuations of external temperature combined with important behavioural, socio-demographic and building efficiency variables. The model is able to predict internal temperatures across a heterogeneous building stock to within ∼0.71 °C at 95% confidence and explain 45% of the variance of internal temperature between dwellings. The model confirms hypothesis from sociology and psychology that habitual behaviours are important drivers of home energy consumption. In addition, the model offers the possibility to quantify take-back (direct rebound effect) owing to increased internal temperatures from the installation of energy efficiency measures. The presence of thermostats or thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) are shown to reduce average internal temperatures, however, the use of an automatic timer

  12. Integrating a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Wang, Faming; Song, Guowen

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to integrate a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. The human thermoregulatory model, consisting of an active system and a passive system, was used to determine the thermoregulation and heat exchanges within the body. The clothing model simulated heat and moisture transfer from the human skin to the environment through the microenvironment and fabric. In this clothing model, the air gap between skin and clothing, as well as clothing properties such as thickness, thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and tortuosity were taken into consideration. The simulated core and mean skin temperatures were compared to the published experimental results of subject tests at three levels of ambient temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Although lower signal-to-noise-ratio was observed, the developed model demonstrated positive performance at predicting core temperatures with a maximum difference between the simulations and measurements of no more than 0.43 °C. Generally, the current model predicted the mean skin temperatures with reasonable accuracy. It could be applied to predict human physiological responses and assess thermal comfort and heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Stratified Steel Temperature During Holding Period of Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Anirudh; Singh, Umesh; Shukla, Rishabh; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.

    2017-04-01

    Thermal stratification of liquid steel in a ladle during the holding period and the teeming operation has a direct bearing on the superheat available at the caster and hence on the caster set points such as casting speed and cooling rates. The changes in the caster set points are typically carried out based on temperature measurements at the end of tundish outlet. Thermal prediction models provide advance knowledge of the influence of process and design parameters on the steel temperature at various stages. Therefore, they can be used in making accurate decisions about the caster set points in real time. However, this requires both fast and accurate thermal prediction models. In this work, we develop a surrogate model for the prediction of thermal stratification using data extracted from a set of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, pre-determined using design of experiments technique. Regression method is used for training the predictor. The model predicts the stratified temperature profile instantaneously, for a given set of process parameters such as initial steel temperature, refractory heat content, slag thickness, and holding time. More than 96 pct of the predicted values are within an error range of ±5 K (±5 °C), when compared against corresponding CFD results. Considering its accuracy and computational efficiency, the model can be extended for thermal control of casting operations. This work also sets a benchmark for developing similar thermal models for downstream processes such as tundish and caster.

  14. Cryogenic temperature measurement for large applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylöstalo, J; Kyynäräinen, J; Niinikoski, T O; Voutilainen, R

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a resistance thermometry system for the acquisition, control and monitoring of temperature in large-scale cryogenic applications. The resistance of the sensor is converted to a voltage using a self-balancing AC bridge circuit featuring square-wave excitation currents down to 1 nA. The system is easily scalable and includes intelligent features to treat special situations such as magnet quenches differently from normal operation.

  15. Design and Implementation of High Precision Temperature Measurement Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianzhen; Yu, Weiyu; Zhang, Zhijian; Liu, Hancheng

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale neutrino detector requires calibration of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and electronic system in the detector, performed by plotting the calibration source with a group of designated coordinates in the acrylic sphere. Where the calibration source positioning is based on the principle of ultrasonic ranging, the transmission speed of ultrasonic in liquid scintillator of acrylic sphere is related to temperature. This paper presents a temperature measurement unit based on STM32L031 and single-line bus digital temperature sensor TSic506. The measurement data of the temperature measurement unit can help the ultrasonic ranging to be more accurate. The test results show that the temperature measurement error is within ±0.1°C, which satisfies the requirement of calibration source positioning. Take energy-saving measures, with 3.7V/50mAH lithium battery-powered, the temperature measurement unit can work continuously more than 24 hours.

  16. Measurement of local void fraction at elevated temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.; Trabold, T.A.

    1993-03-01

    Significant advances have recently been made in analytical and computational methods for the prediction of local thermal-hydraulic conditions in gas/liquid two-phase flows. There is, however, a need for extensive experimental data, for the dual purposes of constitutive relation development and code qualification. There is especially true of systems involving complicated geometries and/or extreme flow conditions for which little, if any, applicable information exists in the open literature. For the tests described in the present paper, a novel electrical probe has been applied to measure the void fraction in atmospheric pressure air/water flows, and steam/water mixtures at high temperature and pressure. The data acquired in the latter experiments are compared with the results of a one-dimensional two-fluid computational analysis

  17. ATTREX-Aircraft_RemoteSensing_Temperature_Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This collection consists of the observational data from the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) spectral and broad band irradiance measurements covering...

  18. Nonequilibrium shock layer temperature profiles from arc jet radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Harvel E.; Yuen, Eric; Scott, Carl D.; Arepalli, Sivaram

    1989-01-01

    Shock layer temperature profiles are obtained through analysis of radiation from shock layers produced by a blunt body inserted in arc jet flow. Spectral measurements have been made in a nitrogen flow of 54.4 gm/s at an enthalpy of 8.72 MJ/kg. Vibrational temperatures for N2+ are obtained by matching spectral regions from arc jet spectra with spectra generated using the NEQAIR code. Temperature profiles obtained from the radiation layers show a vibrational temperature higher than the rotational temperature near the front of the shock and both temperatures decrease as the flow approaches the body. The spectral measurements are made and analysis completed for four distances, from the surface of the blunt body. The corresponding shock layer thickness is approximately 3.6 cm. Although the shock layer appears to be in thermal nonequilibrium, the measured rotational temperature approaches the single temperature results of viscous shock layer calculations at this test condition.

  19. The liner brightness temperature measurement by two channel optical pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, M. I.; Dudin, S. V.; Ushnurtsev, A. E.; Mintsev, V. B.

    2018-01-01

    Measurability of liner inner surface brightness temperature by two channel optical pyrometer is shown. Liner is compressed by detonation products in large-scale experiment. Absolute radiant intensity values were obtained by measuring optical system channel calibration involving tungsten and xenon radiation sources. Three ways of surface brightness temperature measurement are presented at wavelengths of 620 and 850 nm. Using the developed procedure copper and steel liners behavior (brightness temperature, average speed) under compression by detonation products are evaluated.

  20. Temperature Measurement of a Glass Material Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Temperature measurement of a substance that is transparent using the traditional 1-color, 2-color and other pyrometers has been difficult. The radiation detected by pyrometers do not come from a well defined location in the transparent body. The multiwavelength pyrometer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center can measure the surface temperature of many materials. We show in this paper that it also measures the surface and a bulk subsurface temperature of transparent materials like glass.

  1. Temperature trends and prediction skill in NMME seasonal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2017-04-01

    The North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) provides hindcasts and real-time predictions for monthly mean climate fields at lead times of up to a year. These global climate model outputs can be useful in constructing improved seasonal forecasts. Here, several simple methods are developed and evaluated for forecasting monthly temperatures up to a year in advance based on either unweighted or weighted NMME outputs, and compared to previously developed statistical forecast methods that use only time series of past observations. It is found that the NMME-based methods produce forecast temperature probability distributions that are appropriately shifted toward the warm end of past experience and also show skill at representing interannual variability. NMME-based methods clearly outperformed purely statistical methods for forecasting temperatures over ocean, though over land this improvement is less clear over the evaluation period tested. The NMME seasonal forecasts may be particularly useful for giving early warning of heat waves, given their societal significance and higher conditional skill under those conditions.

  2. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  3. Device for the alternative option of temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargus, Jan; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Novak, Martin; Cubik, Jakub; Cvejn, Daniel; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has good optical properties, and its composition offers the possibility of use in many applications (industry, security device, medicine applications and etc.). We focused on the alternative option of temperature measurement in this article. Our approach is based on measuring changes of chromaticity correlated temperature corresponding to changes in temperature. Described device uses an optical fiber with a defined layer of PDMS and luminophore and we assume that it can find use also in the field of security. The article describes the process of making the prototype of the device and its verification based on laboratory results. The measured temperature depends mainly on the type of optical fiber and the measured temperature range is determined by the thermal resistance of used optical fiber. Using a calibration measurement can determine the value of temperature with an accuracy of +/- 2,5 %.

  4. Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    1999-01-01

    The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.

  5. LIDAR for atmospheric backscatter and temperature measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key capabilities of a multifunctional atmospheric lidar. This lidar could be part of a Surface Weather Station to measure atmospheric...

  6. Measurement of magnetic properties at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This picture shows part of the low-mu permeameter to measure permeability of stainless steels and other low-mu materials used in superconducting magnets. The sample, a 5 mm diam., 45 mm long rod, is suspended to long leads before being inserted in the test cryostat. For the measurement the sample is surrounded by a flux- measuring coil and placed in the field of a superconducting solenoid. At a given field the sample is removed.During the removal, the voltage induced in the flux-measuring coil is time integrated giving the flux variation. This equipment was developed to select stainless steels and other low-mu materials used in the ISR Prototype Superconducting Qaudrupole. The person is W.Ansorge.

  7. Importance of light, temperature, zooplankton, and fish in predicting the nighttime vertical distribution of Mysis diluviana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marilyn K.; ,; Boscarino, Brent T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Eillenberger, June L.

    2009-01-01

    The opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana (formerly M. relicta) performs large amplitude diel vertical migrations in Lake Ontario and its nighttime distribution is influenced by temperature, light and the distribution of its predators and prey. At one location in southeastern Lake Ontario, we measured the vertical distribution of mysids, mysid predators (i.e. planktivorous fishes) and mysid prey (i.e. zooplankton), in addition to light and temperature, on 8 occasions from May to September, 2004 and 2005. We use these data to test 3 different predictive models of mysid habitat selection, based on: (1) laboratoryderived responses of mysids to different light and temperature gradients in the absence of predator or prey cues; (2) growth rate of mysids, as estimated with a mysid bioenergetics model, given known prey densities and temperatures at different depths in the water column; (3) ratio of growth rates (g) and mortality risk (μ) associated with the distribution of predatory fishes. The model based on light and temperature preferences was a better predictor of mysid vertical distribution than the models based on growth rate and g:μon all 8 occasions. Although mysid temperature and light preferences probably evolved as mechanisms to reduce predation while increasing foraging intake, the response to temperature and light alone predicts mysid vertical distribution across seasons in Lake Ontario.

  8. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2009-01-01

    ... (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However, the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and Tint measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Methods: Eight volunteers...

  9. Tack Measurements of Prepreg Tape at Variable Temperature and Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher; Palmieri, Frank L.; Forghani, Alireza; Hickmott, Curtis; Bedayat, Houman; Coxon, Brian; Poursartip, Anoush; Grimsley, Brian

    2017-01-01

    NASA’s Advanced Composites Project has established the goal of achieving a 30 percent reduction in the timeline for certification of primary composite structures for application on commercial aircraft. Prepreg tack is one of several critical parameters affecting composite manufacturing by automated fiber placement (AFP). Tack plays a central role in the prevention of wrinkles and puckers that can occur during AFP, thus knowledge of tack variation arising from a myriad of manufacturing and environmental conditions is imperative for the prediction of defects during AFP. A full design of experiments was performed to experimentally characterize tack on 0.25-inch slit-tape tow IM7/8552-1 prepreg using probe tack testing. Several process parameters (contact force, contact time, retraction speed, and probe diameter) as well as environmental parameters (temperature and humidity) were varied such that the entire parameter space could be efficiently evaluated. Mid-point experimental conditions (i.e., parameters not at either extrema) were included to enable prediction of curvature in relationships and repeat measurements were performed to characterize experimental error. Collectively, these experiments enable determination of primary dependencies as well as multi-parameter relationships. Slit-tape tow samples were mounted to the bottom plate of a rheometer parallel plate fixture using a jig to prevent modification of the active area to be interrogated with the top plate, a polished stainless steel probe, during tack testing. The probe surface was slowly brought into contact with the pre-preg surface until a pre-determined normal force was achieved (2-30 newtons). After a specified dwell time (0.02-10 seconds), during which the probe substrate interaction was maintained under displacement control, the probe was retracted from the surface (0.1-50 millimeters per second). Initial results indicated a clear dependence of tack strength on several parameters, with a particularly

  10. Measurement of temperature fluctuations and anomalous transport ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (b) Displacement of plasma from the centre of the vacuum vessel; horizontal displacement ¡А ( ve means ... vacuum vessel) and the ion saturation current Б× drawn by the pair is obtained by measur- ing the voltage drop ... sheared E- xB rotation (plasma rotation) as observed in other machines [8]. The fluctuation induced ...

  11. Upgrade of the cooling water temperature measures system for HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weiqun; Liu Gongfa; Bao Xun; Jiang Siyuan; Li Weimin; He Duohui

    2007-01-01

    The cooling water temperature measures system for HLS (Hefei Light Source) adopts EPICS to the developing platform and takes the intelligence temperature cruise instrument for the front control instrument. Data of temperatures are required by IOCs through Serial Port Communication, archived and searched by Channel Archiver. The system can monitor the real-time temperatures of many channels cooling water and has the function of history data storage, and data network search. (authors)

  12. Development of electron temperature measuring system by silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianying; Yang Jinwei; Liao Min

    2007-12-01

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy with two channels Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) are adopted for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak in 2005. The working principle, design and first operation of the SDD soft X-ray spectroscopy are introduced. The measuring results of electron temperature are also presented. The results show that the SDD is very good detector for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak. These will become a solid basic work to establish SDD array for electron temperature profiling. (authors)

  13. MPPT Technique Based on Current and Temperature Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Eduardo Moreira; Moreno, Robson Luiz; Ribeiro, Enio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method based on the measurement of temperature and short-circuit current, in a simple and efficient approach. These measurements, which can precisely define the maximum power point (MPP), have not been used together in other existing techniques. The temperature is measured with a low cost sensor and the solar irradiance is estimated through the relationship of the measured short-circuit current and its reference. Fast tracking spee...

  14. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Qin, Li; Xiong, Jijun; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zhang, Wendong; Luo, Tao; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic) technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C) with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  15. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  16. Spectral and temperature-dependent infrared emissivity measurements of painted metals for improved temperature estimation during laser damage testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Sean M.; Keenan, Cameron; Marciniak, Michael A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2014-10-01

    A database of spectral and temperature-dependent emissivities was created for painted Al-alloy laser-damage-testing targets for the purpose of improving the uncertainty to which temperature on the front and back target surfaces may be estimated during laser-damage testing. Previous temperature estimates had been made by fitting an assumed gray-body radiance curve to the calibrated spectral radiance data collected from the back surface using a Telops Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS). In this work, temperature-dependent spectral emissivity measurements of the samples were made from room temperature to 500 °C using a Surface Optics Corp. SOC-100 Hemispherical Directional Reflectometer (HDR) with Nicolet FTS. Of particular interest was a high-temperature matte-black enamel paint used to coat the rear surfaces of the Al-alloy samples. The paint had been assumed to have a spectrally flat and temperatureinvariant emissivity. However, the data collected using the HDR showed both spectral variation and temperature dependence. The uncertainty in back-surface temperature estimation during laser-damage testing made using the measured emissivities was improved from greater than +10 °C to less than +5 °C for IFTS pixels away from the laser burn-through hole, where temperatures never exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR measurements. At beam center, where temperatures exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR, uncertainty in temperature estimates grew beyond those made assuming gray-body emissivity. Accurate temperature estimations during laser-damage testing are useful in informing a predictive model for future high-energy-laser weapon applications.

  17. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of routine postoperative body temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Hester; Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Goossens, Astrid; Speelman, Peter; Legemate, Dink A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On surgical wards, body temperature is routinely measured, but there is no proof that this is useful for detecting postoperative infection. The aim of this study was to compare temperature measurements (the test) with the confirmed absence or presence of a postoperative infection (the

  19. An array for measuring detailed soil temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil temperature dynamics can provide insights into soil variables which are much more difficult or impossible to measure. We designed an array to measure temperature at precise depth increments. Data was collected to determine if the construction materials influence surface and near-surface tempera...

  20. Thermocouple design for measuring temperatures of small insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.A. Hanson; R.C. Venette

    2013-01-01

    Contact thermocouples often are used to measure surface body temperature changes of insects during cold exposure. However, small temperature changes of minute insects can be difficult to detect, particularly during the measurement of supercooling points. We developed two thermocouple designs, which use 0.51 mm diameter or 0.127 mm diameter copper-constantan wires, to...

  1. Three-wavelength pyrometer for measuring flame temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashdollar, K L

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes a pyrometer that measures the continuum radiation from particles in a flame or explosion at three wavelengths (0.8 microm, 0.9 microm, and 1.0 microm). The particle temperature is calculated from the radiation data using the Planck equation. Temperatures measured for coal dust explosions in a closed vessel are presented.

  2. A development of ultrasonic measurement at high temperature and the investigation of the ability of ultrasonic testing at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, T.; Yoshikawa, K.

    1988-01-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of structures, it is important to develop the quantitative evaluation of natural cracks by ultrasonic examination. With the high accurate estimation of crack size and fracture toughness, which may be changeable in the case used at high temperature for long time, the simulation of crack extension can be possible by using the fracture mechanism. In the consideration of the predicted measuring errors, however, it will meet expectations to monitor the crack extension in operation. The high temperature probe was developed for this purpose and also for the use to estimate the degradation of materials. This high temperature probe demonstrated endurance at high temperature for long time without any coolant. This report summarizes the development of this high temperature probe in combination with the discussion of detectability using hydrogen-induced cracks by ultrasonic testing, from which the suitable test method can be selected not to miss the harmful cracks estimated from the fracture

  3. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Multi-channel temperature measurement system for automotive battery stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Radoslaw; Wojtkowski, Wojciech

    2017-08-01

    A multi-channel temperature measurement system for monitoring of automotive battery stack is presented in the paper. The presented system is a complete battery temperature measuring system for hybrid / electric vehicles that incorporates multi-channel temperature measurements with digital temperature sensors communicating through 1-Wire buses, individual 1-Wire bus for each sensor for parallel computing (parallel measurements instead of sequential), FPGA device which collects data from sensors and translates it for CAN bus frames. CAN bus is incorporated for communication with car Battery Management System and uses additional CAN bus controller which communicates with FPGA device through SPI bus. The described system can parallel measure up to 12 temperatures but can be easily extended in the future in case of additional needs. The structure of the system as well as particular devices are described in the paper. Selected results of experimental investigations which show proper operation of the system are presented as well.

  5. Study on a transient optical fiber high temperature measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lulu; Liu, Yusha; Wang, Yutian

    2009-07-01

    High temperature is one of the most important parameters in the fields of scientific research and industrial production. At present, thermocouple, thermo resistive and radiance thermometer are already technologically mature which can be adopted to measure the general temperature, but when it comes to the transient high temperature that changes pretty quickly in wretched conditions, those traditional pyrometers can not meet the requirements any more. In this paper, we designed a transient optical high temperature measurement system. First, design of the temperature measurement probe. The system took blackbody cavity sensor together with optical fiber to receive the measured signal, here, the integrated emissivity model of the blackbody cavity was established and the optimum structure parameters were confirmed. Secondly, design of the entire temperature measurement system. A contact-noncontact measurement method was applied, which is to make the blackbody cavity and the measured high-temperature source contact, the fiber probe and the blackbody cavity noncontact, as a result, the error caused by contact measurement is overcame and the precision is guaranteed at the same time. In addition, a fiber grating was introduced as the wavelength filter device which can realize the dynamic filter of narrow-band signals and reduce the impact of background light. Thirdly, signal processing. In this part, we applied labVIEW software and wavelet analysis method. All of the signal acquisition and processing were realized in the labVIEW environment. Through calling matlab in labVIEW, the signals from optical fiber detector were wavelet denoised and decomposed, thus the temperature information was extracted, and the temperature value was obtained. On basis of wavelet transformation, the paper adopted the 4dB wavelet with horizontal scale of 5 to realize the feature extraction and noise removal, parts of the signals before and after the wavelet noise removal were given and analyzed

  6. Quantification of in situ temperature measurements on a PBI-based high temperature PEMFC unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Ali, Syed Talat; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The temperature is a very important operating parameter for all types of fuel cells. In the present work distributed in situ temperature measurements are presented on a polybenzimidazole based high temperature PEM fuel cell (HT-PEM). A total of 16 T-type thermocouples were embedded on both the an...

  7. How is it possible to measure a nuclear temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods for the measurement of nuclear temperatures are summarized. The concepts of hot nuclei and temperature are defined. The nuclear equation of state is presented. The statistical theory of hot nuclei decay properties is analyzed. The obtention of the excitation energy from the recoil velocity measurement is considered in the case of complete and incomplete fusion. The measurements of temperature and excitation energy from the properties of decay products are reviewed. The study shows that no measurement method is perfect. Moreover, it is necessary to select events for which the degree of dissipation of the incident energy is estimated

  8. Measuring temperatures with modified Kleiber 270B pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osch, E.V. van.

    1995-05-01

    At ECN a fast pyrometer is being used as a diagnostic tool for plasma disruption simulation experiments on candidate plasma facing materials for future thermonuclear fusion devices such as NET or ITER. The pyrometer is being used to measure the surface temperature response of the materials to short pulse high heat loads as induced by high power laser or electron beam, simulating the disrupting plasma's energy deposition. A procedure to measure surface temperatures without having to know surface emissivity in advance is described. The formulae needed in this procedure to obtain the correct temperature, starting from the initial incorrect temperature reading, are derived. Inversely, the formula to determine the emissivity of the surface when its temperature is known is equally derived. Finally, a small study on background level sensitivity is presented, showing the, in general, small effect of background on the temperature measurement. (orig.)

  9. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark...... and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good...... agreement with thermocouple readings. Gas lines and bands from CO, CO2 and H2O can be observed in the spectra. CO was only observed at the first measuring port (100ms) with the strongest CO-signal seen during experiments with straw particles. Variations in gas concentration (CO2 and H2O) and the signal from...

  10. A neural network model for predicting weighted mean temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Maohua

    2018-02-01

    Water vapor is an important element of the Earth's atmosphere, and most of it concentrates at the bottom of the troposphere. Knowledge of the water vapor measured by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is an important direction of GNSS research. In particular, when the zenith wet delay is converted to precipitable water vapor, the weighted mean temperature T_m is a variable parameter to be determined in this conversion. The purpose of the study is getting a more accurate T_m model for global users by a combination of two different characteristics of T_m (i.e., the T_m seasonal variations and the relationships between T_m and surface meteorological elements). The modeling process was carried out by using the neural network technology. A multilayer feedforward neural network model (the NN) was established. The NN model is used with measurements of only surface temperature T_S . The NN was validated and compared with four other published global T_m models. The results show that the NN performed better than any of the four compared models on the global scale.

  11. Optimization of Process Parameters During End Milling and Prediction of Work Piece Temperature Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhirud N.L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the machining processes, heat gets generated as a result of plastic deformation of metal and friction along the tool–chip and tool–work piece interface. In materials having high thermal conductivity, like aluminium alloys, large amount of this heat is absorbed by the work piece. This results in the rise in the temperature of the work piece, which may lead to dimensional inaccuracies, surface damage and deformation. So, it is needed to control rise in the temperature of the work piece. This paper focuses on the measurement, analysis and prediction of work piece temperature rise during the dry end milling operation of Al 6063. The control factors used for experimentation were number of flutes, spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rate. The Taguchi method was employed for the planning of experimentation and L18 orthogonal array was selected. The temperature rise of the work piece was measured with the help of K-type thermocouple embedded in the work piece. Signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was carried out using the lower-the-better quality characteristics. Depth of cut was identified as the most significant factor affecting the work piece temperature rise, followed by spindle speed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to find out the significant parameters affecting the work piece temperature rise. ANOVA results were found to be in line with the S/N ratio analysis. Regression analysis was used for developing empirical equation of temperature rise. The temperature rise of the work piece was calculated using the regression equation and was found to be in good agreement with the measured values. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the results obtained. From the confirmation test it was found that the Taguchi method is an effective method to determine optimised parameters for minimization of work piece temperature.

  12. The Measurement and Prediction of Combustible Properties of Dimethylacetamide (DMAc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Dong-Myeong [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The usage of the correct combustion characteristic of the treated substance for the safety of the process is critical. For the safe handling of dimethylacetamide (DMAc) being used in various ways in the chemical industry, the flash point and the autoignition temperature (AIT) of DMAc was experimented. And, the lower explosion limit of DMAc was calculated by using the lower flash point obtained in the experiment. The flash points of DMAc by using the Setaflash and Pensky-Martens closed-cup testers measured 61 .deg. C and 65 .deg. C, respectively. The flash points of DMAc by using the Tag and Cleveland automatic open cup testers are measured 68 .deg. C and 71 .deg. C. The AIT of DMAc by ASTM 659E tester was measured as 347 .deg. C. The lower explosion limit by the measured flash point 61 .deg. C was calculated as 1.52 vol%. It was possible to predict lower explosion limit by using the experimental flash point or flash point in the literature.

  13. An investigation of temperature measurement methods in nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, R.U.; Gill, W.; Sais, D.J.; Schulze, D.H.; Nakos, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project was to provide an assessment of several methods by which the temperature of a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel (RPV) could be measured during an annealing process. This project was a coordinated effort between DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology; DOE's Light Water Reactor Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories; and the Electric Power Research Institute's Non- Destructive Evaluation Center. Ball- thermocouple probes similar to those described in NUREG/CR-5760, spring-loaded, metal- sheathed thermocouple probes, and 1778 air- suspended thermocouples were investigated in experiments that heated a section of an RPV wall to simulate a thermal annealing treatment. A parametric study of ball material, emissivity, thermal conductivity, and thermocouple function locations was conducted. Also investigated was a sheathed thermocouple failure mode known as shunting (electrical breakdown of insulation separating the thermocouple wires). Large errors were found between the temperature as measured by the probes and the true RPV wall temperature during heat-up and cool-down. At the annealing soak temperature, in this case 454 degrees C [850'F], all sensors measured the same temperature within about ±5% (23.6 degrees C [42.5 degrees F]). Because of these errors, actual RPV wall heating and cooling rates differed from those prescribed (by up to 29%). Shunting does not appear to be a problem under these conditions. The large temperature measurement errors led to the development of a thermal model that predicts the RPV wall temperature from the temperature of a ball- probe. Comparisons between the model and the experimental data for ball-probes indicate that the model could be a useful tool in predicting the actual RPV temperature based on the indicated ball- probe temperature. The model does not predict the temperature as well for the spring-loaded and air suspended probes

  14. An anatomically realistic temperature phantom for radiofrequency heating measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, Nadine N.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Guerin, Bastien; Gagoski, Borjan; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An anthropomorphic phantom with realistic electrical properties allows for a more accurate reproduction of tissue current patterns during excitation. A temperature map can then probe the worst-case heating expected in the un-perfused case. We describe an anatomically realistic human head phantom that allows rapid 3D temperature mapping at 7 T. Methods The phantom was based on hand-labeled anatomical imaging data and consists of four compartments matching the corresponding human tissues in geometry and electrical properties. The increases in temperature resulting from radiofrequency excitation were measured with MR thermometry using a temperature sensitive contrast agent (TmDOTMA−) validated by direct fiber optic temperature measurements. Results Acquisition of 3D temperature maps of the full phantom with a temperature accuracy better than 0.1°C was achieved with an isotropic resolution of 5 mm and acquisition times of 2–4 minutes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of constructing anatomically realistic phantoms with complex geometries incorporating the ability to measure accurate temperature maps in the phantom. The anthropomorphic temperature phantom is expected to provide a useful tool for the evaluation of the heating effects of both conventional and parallel transmit pulses and help validate electromagnetic and temperature simulations. PMID:24549755

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) US daily temperature analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. daily temperature analyses are maps depicting various temperature quantities utilizing daily maximum and minimum temperature data across the US. Maps are...

  16. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola W. Meyer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses.

  17. Thermoacoustic measurement of the temperature during microwave thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Cunguang; Xing, Da; Nie, Liming

    2009-08-01

    Microwave thermotherapy (MT) has been an important treatment in oncology. The measurement of temperature during microwave thermotherapy is vital to ensure the safety of normal tissues. Thermoacoustic signals induced are temperature dependent. This phenomenon demonstrates that the thermal parameters are closely related to the generation of thermoacoustic pressure. Here we present the studies on pulsed microwave-induced thermoacoustic signals toward temperature monitoring of tissue thermotherapy. A high power pulsed microwave was used as thermoacoustic excitation source and heating source simultaneously, thermoacoustic pressure was captured by a multi-element linear transducer array. Excellent agreement was obtained between the inversion calculation results and the actual measurement temperature. The results suggest that thermoacoustic signals can be used to monitor thermotherapy temperature, and has the potential of reconstruct the temperature distribution by filter back-projection algorithm. This method has a great potential to develop into an integrated system for pulsed microwave thermotherapy and curative effect monitoring.

  18. Noncontact true temperature measurement. [of levitated sample using laser pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A laser pyrometer has been developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The laser beam is first expanded to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the target. For calibration of such a system, the reflectivity signal of an ideal 0.95 cm diameter gold-coated sphere (reflectivity = 0.99) is used as the reference for any other real targets. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of a blackbody furnace (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photo sensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. Preliminary results indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in excellent correlation with thermocouple measured temperatures.

  19. Body Temperature Measurements for Metabolic Phenotyping in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W.; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2017-01-01

    Endothermic organisms rely on tightly balanced energy budgets to maintain a regulated body temperature and body mass. Metabolic phenotyping of mice, therefore, often includes the recording of body temperature. Thermometry in mice is conducted at various sites, using various devices and measurement practices, ranging from single-time probing to continuous temperature imaging. Whilst there is broad agreement that body temperature data is of value, procedural considerations of body temperature measurements in the context of metabolic phenotyping are missing. Here, we provide an overview of the various methods currently available for gathering body temperature data from mice. We explore the scope and limitations of thermometry in mice, with the hope of assisting researchers in the selection of appropriate approaches, and conditions, for comprehensive mouse phenotypic analyses. PMID:28824441

  20. Prediction with measurement errors in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Julio M; Stanek, Edward J; Lencina, Viviana B; González, Luz Mery; Li, Wenjun; Martino, Silvina San

    2012-02-01

    We address the problem of selecting the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of the latent value (e.g., serum glucose fasting level) of sample subjects with heteroskedastic measurement errors. Using a simple example, we compare the usual mixed model BLUP to a similar predictor based on a mixed model framed in a finite population (FPMM) setup with two sources of variability, the first of which corresponds to simple random sampling and the second, to heteroskedastic measurement errors. Under this last approach, we show that when measurement errors are subject-specific, the BLUP shrinkage constants are based on a pooled measurement error variance as opposed to the individual ones generally considered for the usual mixed model BLUP. In contrast, when the heteroskedastic measurement errors are measurement condition-specific, the FPMM BLUP involves different shrinkage constants. We also show that in this setup, when measurement errors are subject-specific, the usual mixed model predictor is biased but has a smaller mean squared error than the FPMM BLUP which point to some difficulties in the interpretation of such predictors.

  1. The realization of temperature controller for small resistance measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobecki, Jakub; Walendziuk, Wojciech; Idzkowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    This paper concerns the issues of construction and experimental tests of a temperature stabilization system for small resistance increments measurement circuits. After switching the system on, a PCB board heats up and the long-term temperature drift altered the measurement result. The aim of this work is reducing the time of achieving constant nominal temperature by the measurement system, which would enable decreasing the time of measurements in the steady state. Moreover, the influence of temperatures higher than the nominal on the measurement results and the obtained heating curve were tested. During the working process, the circuit heats up to about 32 °C spontaneously, and it has the time to reach steady state of about 1200 s. Implementing a USART terminal on the PC and an NI USB-6341 data acquisition card makes recording the data (concerning temperature and resistance) in the digital form and its further processing easier. It also enables changing the quantity of the regulator settings. This paper presents sample results of measurements for several temperature values and the characteristics of the temperature and resistance changes in time as well as their comparison with the output values. The object identification is accomplished due to the Ziegler-Nichols method. The algorithm of determining the step characteristics parameters and examples of computations of the regulator settings are included together with example characteristics of the object regulation.

  2. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  3. The extent of temporal smearing in surface-temperature histories derived from borehole temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of borehole temperature data to resolve past climatic events is investigated using Backus-Gilbert inversion methods. Two experimental approaches are considered: (1) the data consist of a single borehole temperature profile, and (2) the data consist of climatically-induced temperature transients measured within a borehole during a monitoring experiment. The sensitivity of the data's resolving power to the vertical distribution of the measurements, temperature measurement errors, the inclusion of a local meteorological record, and the duration of a monitoring experiment, are investigated. The results can be used to help interpret existing surface temperature histories derived from borehole temperature data and to optimize future experiments for the detection of climatic signals. ?? 1992.

  4. Surface temperature measurements of heterogeneous explosives by IR emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, B.F.; Funk, D.J.; Dickson, P.M.; Fugard, C.S.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-03-01

    The authors present measurements of the integrated IR emission (1--5 {micro}m) from both the heterogeneous explosive PBX 9501 and pure HMX at calibrated temperatures from 300 C to 2,500 C. The IR power emitted as a function of temperature is that expected of a black body, attenuated by a unique temperature independent constant which the authors report as the thermal emissivity. The authors have utilized this calibration of IR emission in measurements of the surface temperature from PBX 9501 subject to 1 GPa, two dimensional impact, and spontaneous ignition in unconfined cookoff. They demonstrate that the measurement of IR emission in this spectral region provides a temperature probe of sufficient sensitivity to resolve the thermal response from the solid explosive throughout the range of weak mechanical perturbation, prolonged heating to ignition, and combustion.

  5. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, J E; Marrese-Reading, C M; Thornber, B; Dang, L; Johnson, L K; Katz, I

    2007-09-01

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  6. The electronic temperature control and measurements reactor fuel rig circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    The electronic circuits of two digital temperature meters developed for the thermocouple of Ni-NiCr type are described. The output thermocouple signal as converted by means of voltage-to-freguency converter. The frequency is measured by a digital scaler controled by quartz generator signals. One of the described meter is coupled with digital temperature controler which drives the power stage of the reactor rig heater. The internal rig temperature is measured by the thermocouple providing the input signal to the mentioned voltage-to-frequency converter, that means the circuits work in the negative feedback loop. The converter frequency-to-voltage ratio is automatically adjusted to match to thermocouple sensitivity changes in the course of the temperature variations. The accuracy of measuring system is of order of +- 1degC for thermocouple temperature changes from 523 K up to 973 K (50degC up to 700degC). (author)

  7. Acoustic temperature profile measurement technique for large combustion chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshan, S. P.; Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of times of flight of sound waves can be used to determine temperatures in a gas. This paper describes a system, based on this principle, that is capable of giving the temperature profile in a nonisothermal gas volume, for example, prevalent in a large furnace. The apparatus is simple, rugged, accurate, and capable of being automated for process control applications. It is basically an acoustic waveguide where the outside temperature profile is transferred to a chosen gas contained inside the guide.

  8. Lipid measures and cardiovascular disease prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, D.F.; Stroes, E.S.G.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lipid measures are the cornerstone of risk assessment and treatment goals in cardiovascular prevention. Whereas the association between total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk has been generally acknowledged, the rather poor capacity to distinguish between patients

  9. Technology and education: First approach for measuring temperature with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    This poster session presents some ideas and approaches to understand concepts of thermal equilibrium, temperature and heat in order to bulid a man-nature relationship in a harmonious and responsible manner, emphasizing the interaction between science and technology, without neglecting the relationship of the environment and society, an approach to sustainability. It is proposed the development of practices that involve the use of modern technology, of easy access and low cost to measure temperature. We believe that the Arduino microcontroller and some temperature sensors can open the doors of innovation to carry out such practices. In this work we present some results of simple practices presented to a population of students between the ages of 16 and 17 years old. The practices in this proposal are: Zero law of thermodynamics and the concept of temperature, calibration of thermometers and measurement of temperature for heating and cooling of three different substances under the same physical conditions. Finally the student is asked to make an application that involves measuring of temperature and other physical parameters. Some suggestions are: to determine the temperature at which we take some food, measure the temperature difference at different rooms of a house, housing constructions that favour optimal condition, measure the temperature of different regions, measure of temperature trough different colour filters, solar activity and UV, propose applications to understand current problems such as global warming, etc. It is concluded that the Arduino practices and electrical sensors increase the cultural horizon of the students while awaking their interest to understand their operation, basic physics and its application from a modern perspective.

  10. Magnetometry and electrical transport measurements of high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Mun Keat [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-13

    Prior to preparing and performing measurements in pulsed magnetic fields, it is necessary to characterize them. For the cuprates such as HgBa2CuO4+δ (Hg1201), measurements of the superconducting temperature is essential. This experiment comprises just such a characterization of Hg1201 crystals to be used for pulsed magnetic field measurements.

  11. Spectroscopic analysis applied to temperature measurement in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieffe-Prevost, P.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma temperature is defined only if the plasma is in a state near thermodynamic equilibrium. This plasma state is analysed in detail and spectroscopic methods for measuring the temperature are discussed. As an application the hydrogen arc of the National Institute of Metrology of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (Paris) is briefly described [fr

  12. Two particle correlation studies and measurement of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, T.K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Kundu, S.; Banerjee, K.; Dey, A.; Ghosh, T.K.; Mukherjee, G.; Gupta, D.; Meena, J.K.; Roy, A.; Dhara, P.; Banerjee, S.R.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain more detailed information about the emission temperatures, we have measured two particle correlation function at small relative momenta for the reaction 20 Ne+ 12 C at 145 MeV. Here, we report the temperature extracted from the correlation studies and compared it with those obtained from slope thermometer

  13. Survey of Temperature Measurement Techniques For Studying Underwater Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Several optical methods for measuring temperature near underwater shock waves are reviewed and compared. The relative merits of the different techniques are compared, considering accuracy, precision, ease of use, applicable temperature range, maturity, spatial resolution, and whether or not special additives are required.

  14. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  15. Prediction and experimental validation of stagnation temperature attained by a solar cooker of hot box type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimha Rao, A. V; Srikrishna, D. V. N [Warangal (India)

    2000-07-01

    A hot box type solar cooker, having double glass covers and a plane mirror reflector, is tested for stagnation temperature. A computer code is developed based on the analytical model proposed by Vaishya et. al. The global and beam components of solar radiation measured at Warangal are made use to predict the stagnation temperature of the cooker. The observed values of stagnation temperature at Warangal are compared with those of predicted values. A good agreement of the measured and observed values of the stagnation temperature is observed during the afternoon period. The lag in the observed values during the forenoon may be due to thermal inertia of the cooker. [Spanish] Se probo una estufa solar de tipo caja caliente con cubiertas dobles de vidrio y un espejo reflector plano para medir la temperatura de estancamiento. Se desarrollo un codigo de computacion basado en el modelo analitico propuesto por Vaishya et. al. Los componentes de la radiacion solar globales y de rayo medidos en Warangal se usan para predecir la temperatura de estancamiento de la estufa. Los valores observados de la temperatura de estancamiento en Warangal se comparan con los valores predichos. Se aprecia una buena concidencia de los valores medidos y observados de la temperatura de estancamiento durante el periodo de la tarde. El retraso de los valores observados durante la manana puede ser debido a la inercia termica de la estufa.

  16. Response surface and neural network based predictive models of cutting temperature in hard turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozammel Mia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to develop the predictive models of average tool-workpiece interface temperature in hard turning of AISI 1060 steels by coated carbide insert. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN were employed to predict the temperature in respect of cutting speed, feed rate and material hardness. The number and orientation of the experimental trials, conducted in both dry and high pressure coolant (HPC environments, were planned using full factorial design. The temperature was measured by using the tool-work thermocouple. In RSM model, two quadratic equations of temperature were derived from experimental data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE were performed to suffice the adequacy of the models. In ANN model, 80% data were used to train and 20% data were employed for testing. Like RSM, herein, the error analysis was also conducted. The accuracy of the RSM and ANN model was found to be ⩾99%. The ANN models exhibit an error of ∼5% MAE for testing data. The regression coefficient was found to be greater than 99.9% for both dry and HPC. Both these models are acceptable, although the ANN model demonstrated a higher accuracy. These models, if employed, are expected to provide a better control of cutting temperature in turning of hardened steel.

  17. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  18. On bias of kinetic temperature measurements in complex plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, M.; Moseev, D.; Salewski, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    The kinetic temperature in complex plasmas is often measured using particle tracking velocimetry. Here, we introduce a criterion which minimizes the probability of faulty tracking of particles with normally distributed random displacements in consecutive frames. Faulty particle tracking results i...

  19. Lower atmospheric temperature profile measurements using a Raman lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman lidar system was used to measure the temperature profile of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The system consists of a tripled Nd-YAG laser and a 1.5 meter diameter telescope. Two photomultipliers are used at the output of the telescope to allow for measurements at both the laser wavelength and at the Raman shifted wavelength due to atmospheric nitrogen. The signal from the photomultipliers is recorded as photon counts in 1 microsec bins. The results of a number of laser shots are summed together to provide atmospheric returns which have acceptable signal to noise characteristics. Measurements of the Raman nitrogen return were acquired up to an altitude in excess of 20 km. Temperature profiles were retrieved from the attenuation corrected Raman nitrogen return assuming the atmosphere to be in hydrostatic equilibrium and using the ideal gas law. Retrieved temperature profiles are shown compared with independent temperature measurements.

  20. Combined NMR moisture, temperature and pressure measurements during heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pel L.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For model validation, quantitative measurements of the evolution of moisture, temperature, and pressure distributions in time are needed. For this purpose, we have developed an NMR setup to measure the moisture transport in heated building materials. The measured combined moisture content and temperature profiles give a unique insight in the moisture transport and dehydration kinetics inside concrete during fire. These measurements give the first quantitative proof for the build-up of a moisture peak due to the vapor pressure build-up. In this study we have also combined for the first time the measurement of the moisture and temperature profiles with the measurement of the pressure at one position, which show that the pressure build up is directly related to the moisture profiles.

  1. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  2. SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE METHOD FOR PREDICTING INVESTMENT MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kitova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of applying intelligent machine learning technique based on support vectors for predicting investment measures are considered in the article. The base features of support vector method over traditional econometric techniques for improving the forecast quality are described. Computer modeling results in terms of tuning support vector machine models developed with programming language Python for predicting some investment measures are shown.

  3. Electrical resistivity measurement to predict uniaxial compressive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electrical resistivity values of 12 different igneous rocks were measured on core samples using a resistivity meter in the laboratory. The resistivity tests were conducted on the samples fully saturated with brine (NaCl solution) and the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength, density and.

  4. Predictability of cardiovascular risks by psychological measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Kebza, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 241-241 ISSN 0887-0446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/06/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : CVD risks * psychological measures * physiological risks Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  5. Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Abhay; Stafford, Charles A.

    2016-10-01

    We show that a local measurement of temperature and voltage for a quantum system in steady state, arbitrarily far from equilibrium, with arbitrary interactions within the system, is unique when it exists. This is interpreted as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. We further derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution. In this regard, we find that a positive temperature solution exists whenever there is no net population inversion. However, when there is a net population inversion, we may characterize the system with a unique negative temperature. Voltage and temperature measurements are treated on an equal footing: They are simultaneously measured in a noninvasive manner, via a weakly coupled thermoelectric probe, defined by requiring vanishing charge and heat dissipation into the probe. Our results strongly suggest that a local temperature measurement without a simultaneous local voltage measurement, or vice versa, is a misleading characterization of the state of a nonequilibrium quantum electron system. These results provide a firm mathematical foundation for voltage and temperature measurements far from equilibrium.

  6. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Butler, Hannah; Trantham, Matt; Mussack, Katie; Colgan, James; Fontes, Chris; Guzik, Joyce; Kilcrease, David; Perry, Ted; Orban, Chris; Ducret, Jean-Eric; La Pennec, Maelle; Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine; Mancini, Roberto; Heeter, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al., 2015]. Repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for low-Z elements [Colgan, 2013, Armstrong 2014], however no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDLP, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the NLUF Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719, and through the LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under No. DE-NA0001944.

  7. MPPT Technique Based on Current and Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreira Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT method based on the measurement of temperature and short-circuit current, in a simple and efficient approach. These measurements, which can precisely define the maximum power point (MPP, have not been used together in other existing techniques. The temperature is measured with a low cost sensor and the solar irradiance is estimated through the relationship of the measured short-circuit current and its reference. Fast tracking speed and stable steady-state operation are advantages of this technique, which presents higher performance when compared to other well-known techniques.

  8. Continuous temperature measurements on the pouring stand for casting moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Leśniewski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of temperature measurements of liquid iron alloys obtained by means of the pyrometer, PDR-1800 series, are presented in the paper. The measurements were performed in conditions determined by the kind of a pouring device. The results obtained for bottom-tap ladles were supplemented by laboratory measurements. These results allow explaining significant differences in the results of temperature measurements performed in pouring ladles by means of the pyrometric method and immersible thermocouple, which - in turn - improves assessment of metal thermal parameters in pouring devices.

  9. Ring to measure magnetic permeability at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    While for magn. permeability measurements at room temperature a split-coil permeameter is used (see photo 7708553X), for measurements at cryogenic temperatures the excitation and the flux-measuring coils are wound directly on the ring sample by means of a toroidal winding machine. The ring in the picture was made to select the mild steel for the ISR Prototype Superconducting Quadrupole(see photo 7702690X). The excitation coil was wound with 1 mm diam. copper wire and had about 2730 turns. For measurements at 4.2 K a max. current of 90 A was used. See also photos 7708553X,7708100,7708103.

  10. Evaluation of Raytek infrared pyrometer for continuous propellant temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Mark D.

    1990-01-01

    The primary purpose of this evaluation was to determine if the Raytek IR pyrometer that was installed in the 600 gallon propellant mixers could be used to provide a continuous, accurate, reliable measurement of the propellant temperature during mixing. The Raytek infrared sensor is not recommended to be used for controlling propellant temperature nor for inspection buy-off. The first part of the evaluation was to determine the accuracy of the sensor in measuring the propellant temperature. The second part was to determine the reliability of the air purge design in preventing contamination of the IR window.

  11. Influence of temperature to quenching on liquid scintillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, T

    2003-01-01

    The amount of quench is measured with liquid scintillation spectrometer changing the temperature of the sample. The range of the changed temperature is between 0 deg C and 35 deg C. The measurement is carried out for three kinds of unquenched standard, two quenched standards and fifteen kinds of scintillation cocktail and the mixed sample. It is confirmed that the amount of quench increases for all samples as the temperature rises. The influence of the changed amount of quench to the quench correction is examined. (author)

  12. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J. M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-07-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01 % in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10{sup 6} for loss tangent values below 10{sup 2}, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99.9 % purity in the same temperature range are presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. Modeling the wet bulb globe temperature using standard meteorological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljegren, James C; Carhart, Richard A; Lawday, Philip; Tschopp, Stephen; Sharp, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Army has a need for continuous, accurate estimates of the wet bulb globe temperature to protect soldiers and civilian workers from heat-related injuries, including those involved in the storage and destruction of aging chemical munitions at depots across the United States. At these depots, workers must don protective clothing that increases their risk of heat-related injury. Because of the difficulty in making continuous, accurate measurements of wet bulb globe temperature outdoors, the authors have developed a model of the wet bulb globe temperature that relies only on standard meteorological data available at each storage depot for input. The model is composed of separate submodels of the natural wet bulb and globe temperatures that are based on fundamental principles of heat and mass transfer, has no site-dependent parameters, and achieves an accuracy of better than 1 degree C based on comparisons with wet bulb globe temperature measurements at all depots.

  14. Measuring gas temperature during spin-exchange optical pumping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, E.; Jiang, C. Y.; Brown, D. R.; Robertson, L.; Crow, L.; Tong, X.

    2016-04-01

    The gas temperature inside a Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping (SEOP) laser-pumping polarized 3He cell has long been a mystery. Different experimental methods were employed to measure this temperature but all were based on either modelling or indirect measurement. To date there has not been any direct experimental measurement of this quantity. Here we present the first direct measurement using neutron transmission to accurately determine the number density of 3He, the temperature is obtained using the ideal gas law. Our result showed a surprisingly high gas temperature of 380°C, compared to the 245°C of the 3He cell wall temperature and 178°C of the optical pumping oven temperature. This experiment result may be used to further investigate the unsolved puzzle of the "X-factor" in the SEOP process which places an upper bound to the 3He polarization that can be achieved. Additional spin relaxation mechanisms might exist due to the high gas temperature, which could explain the origin of the X-factor.

  15. Low-temperature mobility measurements on CMOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairpetian, A.; Gitlin, D.; Viswanathan, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The surface channel mobility of carriers in eta- and rho-MOS transistors fabricated in a CMOS process was accurately determined at low temperatures down to 5 Κ. The mobility was obtained by an accurate measurement of the inversion charge density using a split C-V technique and the conductance at low drain voltages. The split C-V technique was validated at all temperatures using a one-dimensional Poisson solver (MOSCAP), which was modified for low-temperature application. The mobility dependence on the perpendicular electric field for different substrate bias values appears to have different temperature dependence for eta- and rho-channel devices. The electron mobility increases with a decrease in temperature at all gate voltages. On the other hand, the hole mobility exhibits a different temperature behavior depending upon whether the gate voltage corresponds to strong inversion or is near threshold

  16. Continuous Emission Spectrum Measurement for Electron Temperature Determination in Low-Temperature Collisional Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiuyan; Li Hong; Chen Zhipeng; Xie Jinlin; Liu Wandong

    2011-01-01

    Continuous emission spectrum measurement is applied for the inconvenient diagnostics of low-temperature collisional plasmas. According to the physical mechanism of continuous emission, a simplified model is presented to analyze the spectrum in low temperature plasma. The validity of this model is discussed in a wide range of discharge parameters, including electron temperature and ionization degree. Through the simplified model, the continuous emission spectrum in a collisional argon internal inductively coupled plasma is experimentally measured to determine the electron temperature distribution for different gas pressures and radio-frequency powers. The inverse Abel transform is also applied for a better spatially resoluted results. Meanwhile, the result of the continuous emission spectrum measurement is compared to that of the electrostatic double probes, which indicates the effectiveness of this method. (low temperature plasma)

  17. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Temperature Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global temperature time series provides time series charts using station based observations of daily temperature. These charts provide information about the...

  18. Modern gas-based temperature and pressure measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This 2nd edition volume of Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements follows the first publication in 1992. It collects a much larger set of information, reference data, and bibliography in temperature and pressure metrology of gaseous substances, including the physical-chemical issues related to gaseous substances. The book provides solutions to practical applications where gases are used in different thermodynamic conditions. Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements, 2nd edition is the only comprehensive survey of methods for pressure measurement in gaseous media used in the medium-to-low pressure range closely connected with thermometry. It assembles current information on thermometry and manometry that involve the use of gaseous substances which are likely to be valid methods for the future. As such, it is an important resource for the researcher. This edition is updated through the very latest scientific and technical developments of gas-based temperature and pressure measurem...

  19. On the Prediction of α-Martensite Temperatures in Medium Manganese Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Daniel M.; Baker, Daniel S.; Van Aken, David C.

    2017-05-01

    A new composition-based method for calculating the α-martensite start temperature in medium manganese steel is presented and uses a regular solution model to accurately calculate the chemical driving force for α-martensite formation, Δ G_{{Chem}}^{γ \\to α } . In addition, a compositional relationship for the strain energy contribution during martensitic transformation was developed using measured Young's moduli ( E) reported in literature and measured values for steels produced during this investigation. An empirical relationship was developed to calculate Young's modulus using alloy composition and was used where dilatometry literature did not report Young's moduli. A comparison of the Δ G_{{Chem}}^{γ \\to α } normalized by dividing by the product of Young's modulus, unconstrained lattice misfit squared ( δ 2), and molar volume ( Ω) with respect to the measured α-martensite start temperatures, M_{{S}}^{α } , produced a single linear relationship for 42 alloys exhibiting either lath or plate martensite. A temperature-dependent strain energy term was then formulated as Δ G_{{str}}^{γ \\to α } ( {{{J}}/{{mol}}} ) = EΩ δ2 (14.8 - 0.013T) , which opposed the chemical driving force for α-martensite formation. M_{{S}}^{α } was determined at a temperature where Δ G_{{Chem}}^{γ \\to α } + Δ G_{{str}}^{γ \\to α } = 0 . The proposed M_{{S}}^{α } model shows an extended temperature range of prediction from 170 K to 820 K (-103 °C to 547 °C). The model is then shown to corroborate alloy chemistries that exhibit two-stage athermal martensitic transformations and two-stage TRIP behavior in three previously reported medium manganese steels. In addition, the model can be used to predict the retained γ-austenite in twelve alloys, containing ɛ-martensite, using the difference between the calculated M_{{S}}^{ɛ} and M_{{S}}^{α }.

  20. Soil temperature variability in complex terrain measured using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil temperature (Ts) exerts critical controls on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes but magnitude and nature of Ts variability in a landscape setting are rarely documented. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing systems (FO-DTS) potentially measure Ts at high density over a large extent. ...

  1. A nonintrusive temperature measuring system for estimating deep body temperature in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, S Y; Lee, W K; Baek, H J; Park, K S

    2012-01-01

    Deep body temperature is an important indicator that reflects human being's overall physiological states. Existing deep body temperature monitoring systems are too invasive to apply to awake patients for a long time. Therefore, we proposed a nonintrusive deep body temperature measuring system. To estimate deep body temperature nonintrusively, a dual-heat-flux probe and double-sensor probes were embedded in a neck pillow. When a patient uses the neck pillow to rest, the deep body temperature can be assessed using one of the thermometer probes embedded in the neck pillow. We could estimate deep body temperature in 3 different sleep positions. Also, to reduce the initial response time of dual-heat-flux thermometer which measures body temperature in supine position, we employed the curve-fitting method to one subject. And thereby, we could obtain the deep body temperature in a minute. This result shows the possibility that the system can be used as practical temperature monitoring system with appropriate curve-fitting model. In the next study, we would try to establish a general fitting model that can be applied to all of the subjects. In addition, we are planning to extract meaningful health information such as sleep structure analysis from deep body temperature data which are acquired from this system.

  2. A mathematical model to predict the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Raw wastewater contains considerable amounts of energy that can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer. The technique is well established, and there are approximately 50 facilities in Switzerland, many of which have been successfully using this technique for years. The planning of new facilities requires predictions of the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in the sewer because altered wastewater temperatures may cause problems for the biological processes used in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters. A mathematical model is presented that calculates the discharge in a sewer conduit and the spatial profiles and dynamics of the temperature in the wastewater, sewer headspace, pipe, and surrounding soil. The model was implemented in the simulation program TEMPEST and was used to evaluate measured time series of discharge and temperatures. It was found that the model adequately reproduces the measured data and that the temperature and thermal conductivity of the soil and the distance between the sewer pipe and undisturbed soil are the most sensitive model parameters. The temporary storage of heat in the pipe wall and the exchange of heat between wastewater and the pipe wall are the most important processes for heat transfer. The model can be used as a tool to determine the optimal site for heat recovery and the maximal amount of extractable heat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accurate prediction of severe allergic reactions by a small set of environmental parameters (NDVI, temperature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notas, George; Bariotakis, Michail; Kalogrias, Vaios; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions.

  4. 3D transient model to predict temperature and ablated areas during laser processing of metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak. B. Naghshine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser processing is one of the most popular small-scale patterning methods and has many applications in semiconductor device fabrication and biomedical engineering. Numerical modelling of this process can be used for better understanding of the process, optimization, and predicting the quality of the final product. An accurate 3D model is presented here for short laser pulses that can predict the ablation depth and temperature distribution on any section of the material in a minimal amount of time. In this transient model, variations of thermal properties, plasma shielding, and phase change are considered. Ablation depth was measured using a 3D optical profiler. Calculated depths are in good agreement with measured values on laser treated titanium surfaces. The proposed model can be applied to a wide range of materials and laser systems.

  5. A linear regression model for predicting PNW estuarine temperatures in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Northwest coastal regions, estuaries, and associated ecosystems are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change, especially to changes in nearshore water temperature. While predictive climate models simulate future air temperatures, no such projections exist for...

  6. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  7. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  8. Mold temperature measurement for glass-pressing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The largest use of radiation thermometers within Corning Glass Works is for mold temperature measurement for the glass-pressing process. Pressing television panels at today's high quality would be very difficult without a mold temperature measurement system and the computer manipulation of the quality control data to supervise the mold temperature control loop. The most critical part of a television panel is the inside surface curvature. The ideal surface is usually defined as a spherical surface. The tolerance for a normal TV panel is +-0.30 mm (+-0.012 in.). High resolution display panels are more critical, having a dimensional tolerance only one half as large as TV panels. Panel curvature is a direct (but negative) function of mold temperature. Every 1 0 C increase in mold temperature results in the panel center being 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) shorter (flatter). Random dimensional variations within a panel take up most of the dimensional tolerance. The result is that each mold is controlled to its own individual temperature set point, +-1 0 C. Hot panel and cold panel curvature measurements are correlated by a process computer and used to update the mold temperature set points. The same computer adjusts the mold cooling air to maintain the required mold temperatures. From the temperature measurement standpoint, the significant problem is the changing emissivity of the mold surface when the mold is new or reconditioned. The selection of a radiation thermometer with a short wavelength was an obvious choice to minimize the effect of emissivity variations

  9. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  10. In-core moderator temperature measurement within candu reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, N.

    1983-03-01

    The temperature profile of the D 2O moderator inside a CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor, within the calandria vessel, was measured by means of a specially instrumented probe introduced within the core. Measurements were made under steady and transient reactor conditions using two different sensors, viz. resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and type K chromel-alumel thermocouples. The results established the feasibility of in-core moderatortemperature measurement and indicated that the thermocouples used were relatively not affected by the intense radiation fields thus producing more accurate data.

  11. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in

  12. A molecular dynamics approach for predicting the glass transition temperature and plasticization effect in amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jasmine; Nunes, Cletus; Jonnalagadda, Sriramakamal

    2013-11-04

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (i) To develop an in silico technique, based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to predict glass transition temperatures (Tg) of amorphous pharmaceuticals. (ii) To computationally study the effect of plasticizer on Tg. (iii) To investigate the intermolecular interactions using radial distribution function (RDF). Amorphous sucrose and water were selected as the model compound and plasticizer, respectively. MD simulations were performed using COMPASS force field and isothermal-isobaric ensembles. The specific volumes of amorphous cells were computed in the temperature range of 440-265 K. The characteristic "kink" observed in volume-temperature curves, in conjunction with regression analysis, defined the Tg. The MD computed Tg values were 367 K, 352 K and 343 K for amorphous sucrose containing 0%, 3% and 5% w/w water, respectively. The MD technique thus effectively simulated the plasticization effect of water; and the corresponding Tg values were in reasonable agreement with theoretical models and literature reports. The RDF measurements revealed strong hydrogen bond interactions between sucrose hydroxyl oxygens and water oxygen. Steric effects led to weak interactions between sucrose acetal oxygens and water oxygen. MD is thus a powerful predictive tool for probing temperature and water effects on the stability of amorphous systems during drug development.

  13. Measurement of critical temperature as a function of field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInturff, A. D.; Ishibashi, K.; Heard, G. D.

    The critical temperature has been measured for various magnet conductors as a function of the perpendicular applied magnetic field. The isothermal environment was provided by a variable temperature cryostat which fits into the bore of a 10 telsa solenoid. The temperature gradient across the sample volume was measured to be less than 25 millikelvins. The superconducting to normal state transition was measured resistively, using sample current densities from 0.01 to 2 A cm -2. The maximum applied magnetic field was 10 T and varied less than 0.5% in the sample volume. The critical transport current range of the samples measured from tens to thousands of amperes in the presence of a 10 T perpendicular magnetic field at 4.2 K.

  14. Measurement of rock properties at elevated pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.; Hoskins, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The papers in this volume were presented at an ASTM symposium held on 20 June 1983 in conjunction with the 24th Annual Rock Mechanics Symposium at Texas A and M University, College Station, TX. The purpose of these papers is to present recent developments in the measurement of rock properties at elevated pressures and temperatures, and to examine and interpret the data produced by such measurement. The need for measuring rock properties at elevated pressures and temperatures has become increasingly important in recent years. Location and design of nuclear waste repositories, development of geothermal energy sites, and design and construction of deep excavations for civil, military, and mining engineering require significantly improved capabilities for measuring rock properties under conditions substantially different from those prevailing in most laboratory and in situ work. The development of high-pressure, high-temperature capabilities is also significant for the analysis of tectonic processes

  15. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  16. A Temperature Sensor using a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer for Very Wide Temperature Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik; Culley, Dennis E.

    2008-01-01

    A temperature sensor based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Timer was designed for extreme temperature applications. The sensor can operate under a wide temperature range from hot jet engine compartments to cryogenic space exploration missions. For example, in Jet Engine Distributed Control Architecture, the sensor must be able to operate at temperatures exceeding 150 C. For space missions, extremely low cryogenic temperatures need to be measured. The output of the sensor, which consisted of a stream of digitized pulses whose period was proportional to the sensed temperature, can be interfaced with a controller or a computer. The data acquisition system would then give a direct readout of the temperature through the use of a look-up table, a built-in algorithm, or a mathematical model. Because of the wide range of temperature measurement and because the sensor is made of carefully selected COTS parts, this work is directly applicable to the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics/Subsonic Fixed Wing Program--Jet Engine Distributed Engine Control Task and to the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. In the past, a temperature sensor was designed and built using an SOI operational amplifier, and a report was issued. This work used an SOI 555 timer as its core and is completely new work.

  17. Method for local temperature measurement in a nanoreactor for in situ high-resolution electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbo, S B; Kooyman, P J; Creemer, J F; Morana, B; Mele, L; Dona, P; Nelissen, B J; Helveg, S

    2013-10-01

    In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of solids under reactive gas conditions can be facilitated by microelectromechanical system devices called nanoreactors. These nanoreactors are windowed cells containing nanoliter volumes of gas at ambient pressures and elevated temperatures. However, due to the high spatial confinement of the reaction environment, traditional methods for measuring process parameters, such as the local temperature, are difficult to apply. To address this issue, we devise an electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) method that probes the local temperature of the reaction volume under inspection by the electron beam. The local gas density, as measured using quantitative EELS, is combined with the inherent relation between gas density and temperature, as described by the ideal gas law, to obtain the local temperature. Using this method we determined the temperature gradient in a nanoreactor in situ, while the average, global temperature was monitored by a traditional measurement of the electrical resistivity of the heater. The local gas temperatures had a maximum of 56 °C deviation from the global heater values under the applied conditions. The local temperatures, obtained with the proposed method, are in good agreement with predictions from an analytical model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling infrared temperature measurements: implications for laser irradiation and cryogen cooling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.; Pearce, J.A.; Welch, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The use of thermographic techniques has increased as infrared detector technology has evolved and improved. For laser-tissue interactions, thermal cameras have been used to monitor the thermal response of tissue to pulsed and continuous wave irradiation. It is important to note that the temperature indicated by the thermal camera may not be equal to the actual surface temperature. It is crucial to understand the limitations of using thermal cameras to measure temperature during laser irradiation of tissue. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the potential difference between measured and actual surface temperatures in a quantitative fashion using a 1D finite difference model. Three ablation models and one cryogen spray cooling simulation were adapted from the literature, and predictions of radiometric temperature measurements were calculated. In general, (a) steep superficial temperature gradients, with a surface peak, resulted in an underestimation of the actual surface temperature, (b) steep superficial temperature gradients, with a subsurface peak, resulted in an overestimation, and (c) small gradients led to a relatively accurate temperature estimate. (author)

  19. Is Oral Temperature an Accurate Measurement of Deep Body Temperature? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Casa, Douglas J.; Vingren, Jakob; Klau, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Context: Oral temperature might not be a valid method to assess core body temperature. However, many clinicians, including athletic trainers, use it rather than criterion standard methods, such as rectal thermometry. Objective: To critically evaluate original research addressing the validity of using oral temperature as a measurement of core body temperature during periods of rest and changing core temperature. Data Sources: In July 2010, we searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Premier, and the Cochrane Library for the following concepts: core body temperature, oral, and thermometers. Controlled vocabulary was used, when available, as well as key words and variations of those key words. The search was limited to articles focusing on temperature readings and studies involving human participants. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and subsequently were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers. All 16 were included in the review because they met the minimal PEDro score of 4 points (of 10 possible points), with all but 2 scoring 5 points. A critical review of these studies indicated a disparity between oral and criterion standard temperature methods (eg, rectal and esophageal) specifically as the temperature increased. The difference was −0.50°C ± 0.31°C at rest and −0.58°C ± 0.75°C during a nonsteady state. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that, regardless of whether the assessment is recorded at rest or during periods of changing core temperature, oral temperature is an unsuitable diagnostic tool for determining body temperature because many measures demonstrated differences greater than the predetermined validity threshold of 0.27°C (0.5°F). In addition, the differences were greatest at the highest rectal temperatures. Oral temperature cannot

  20. Temperature, its measurement and control in industry - ITM '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.; Blieck, L.; Jescheck, M.; Neubert, W.; Kunze, D.

    1990-01-01

    The publication refers to the new VDE/VDI guideline 3511 and explains its practical intentions and implications by thoroughly discussing the applications of temperature sensors and their limits of use. The current state of the art in temperature measuring is fully described by the discussion of the new temperature scale introduced recently, the ITS '90. The authors of the book look in detail at the particular requirements and conditions of infrared measuring techniques using radiation thermometers as defined in DIN 5496, the applications of microprocessors (DIN-measuring-field-bus, etc.), time program emitters, and measuring transducers (EX ib, etc.). A full chapter has been devoted to the subject of surface temperature measurement. Examples referring to practical applications in industry serve as an introduction to thermal control engineering, in particular with infrared sensors, for processes such as thermal forming. New, optical thermometers for the low temperature range have been given much attention. An annex presents comprehensive tables for calculation and conversion of thermal quantities. (orig./HP) With 192 figs., 134 refs [de

  1. High-temperature absorbed dose measurements in the megagray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, P.; Ardonceau, J.; Zuppiroli, L.

    1988-01-01

    Organic conductors of the tetraselenotetracene family have been tested as ''high-temperature'' absorbed dose dosimeters. They were heated up to 120 0 C and irradiated at this temperature with 1-MeV electrons in order to simulate, in a short time, a much longer γ-ray irradiation. The electric resistance increase of the crystal can be considered a good measurement of the absorbed dose in the range 10 6 Gy to a few 10 8 Gy and presumably one order of magnitude more. This dosimeter also permits on-line (in-situ) measurements of the absorbed dose without removing the sensor from the irradiation site. The respective advantages of organic and inorganic dosimeters at these temperature and dose ranges are also discussed. In this connection, we outline new, but negative, results concerning the possible use of silica as a high-temperature, high-dose dosimeter. (author)

  2. Gas Temperature Measurement in a Glow Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloneker, Kenneth; Podder, Nirmol; McCurdy, William E.; Shi, Shi

    2009-10-01

    In this study a relatively inexpensive quartz protected thermocouple is used to measure the gas temperature in the positive column of a glow discharge plasma. For simplicity a K-type thermocouple is used to interpret the gas temperature from the sensor voltage at pressures from 0.5 Torr to 15 Torr and discharge currents from 5 mA to 120 mA. Gas temperature is investigated as a function of the gas pressure at fixed discharge currents and as a function of discharge current at fixed gas pressures in three different gas species (Ar, N2, and He). An infinite cylinder model is used to compute the average gas temperature of the discharge from joule heating and gas thermal conductivity. The model and measurement data agree within 1% to 10% depending on plasma parameters. Data for all three gases have a similar quasi-linear increasing error as compared to the model.

  3. Measuring Skin Temperatures with the IASI Hyperspectral Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, S.; George, M.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.

    2017-12-01

    Although the role of satellites in observing the variability of the Earth system has increased in recent decades, remote-sensing observations are still underexploited to accurately assess climate change fingerprints, in particular temperature variations. The IASI - Flux and Temperature (IASI-FT) project aims at providing new benchmarks for temperature observations using the calibrated radiances measured twice a day at any location by the IASI thermal infrared instrument on the suite of MetOp satellites (2006-2025). The main challenge is to achieve the accuracy and stability needed for climate studies, particularly that required for climate trends. Time series for land and sea skin surface temperatures are derived and compared with in situ measurements and atmospheric reanalysis. The observed trends are analyzed at seasonal and regional scales in order to disentangle natural (weather/dynamical) variability and human-induced climate forcings.

  4. Effect of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their development during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A year-round (i.e. 365 days experiment was performed at the Mendel University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic (GPS 49°0’51.967”N and 16°36’14.614”E, the altitude 179 m with the aim to quantify the effect of the variation of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their changes during the day. Barn airspace temperatures were monitored daily in one-hour intervals and the recorded values were used for calculations of average diurnal temperatures. These were classified into 7 categories (i.e. below 0 °C; 0.1 to 5 °C; 5.1 to 10 °C; 10.1 to 15 °C; 15.1 to 20 °C; 20.1 to 25 °C and above 25 °C. Regarding this classification system, all differences between temperatures measured at identical hours but within various limits were statistically highly significant. The statistical analysis involved also the calculation of the third degree polynomial regression equations, which enabled to characterise the relationship between the temperature and the hour of measurement within the aforementioned categories of diurnal temperatures. Individual equations were markedly different and ranged from y = − 0.0019x3 + 0.0596x2 − 0.3797x − 1.2169 (for temperatures below 0 °C to y = − 0.0108x3 + 0.3297x2 − 1.9367x + 24.3931 (for temperatures above 25 °C. Correlation coefficients (r and coefficients of determination (R2 of these regression equations were generally very high and ranged from 0.872 to 0.976 and from 0.760 to 0.953, respectively. Regarding high values of both coefficients it can be concluded that the calculated equations enable a good and reliable prediction of the diurnal development of barn airspace temperatures.

  5. Measuring temperature using MRI: a powerful and versatile technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert; Streicher, Markus

    2012-02-01

    The Larmor frequency of water protons has reliably linear temperature dependence. Since this frequency shift is easily measurable using relatively simple MRI techniques, a remarkable opportunity arises for uniquely non-invasive and accurate temperature evaluation, deep within any water-containing object. Major applications are appearing in the field of image-guided surgery. The cutting-edge papers collected in this Special Issue demonstrate both the versatility and the power of MRI thermometry.

  6. Diamond micro-Raman thermometers for accurate gate temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Roland B.; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin [Center for Device Thermography and Reliability, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-26

    Determining the peak channel temperature in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors and other devices with high accuracy is an important and challenging issue. A surface-sensitive thermometric technique is demonstrated, utilizing Raman thermography and diamond microparticles to measure the gate temperature. This technique enhances peak channel temperature estimation, especially when it is applied in combination with standard micro-Raman thermography. Its application to other metal-covered areas of devices, such as field plates is demonstrated. Furthermore, this technique can be readily applied to other material/device systems.

  7. Diamond micro-Raman thermometers for accurate gate temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Roland B.; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Determining the peak channel temperature in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors and other devices with high accuracy is an important and challenging issue. A surface-sensitive thermometric technique is demonstrated, utilizing Raman thermography and diamond microparticles to measure the gate temperature. This technique enhances peak channel temperature estimation, especially when it is applied in combination with standard micro-Raman thermography. Its application to other metal-covered areas of devices, such as field plates is demonstrated. Furthermore, this technique can be readily applied to other material/device systems.

  8. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, R. A.; Walker, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques for containerless study of high temperature processes and material properties was studied. Gas jet and electromagnetic levitation and electromagnetic and laser heating techniques are used with LIF in earth-based containerless high temperature experiments. Included are the development of an apparatus and its use in the studies of (1) chemical reactions on Al2O3, molybdenum, tungsten and LaB6 specimens, (2) methods for noncontact specimen temperature measurement, (3) levitation jet properties and (4) radiative lifetime and collisional energy transfer rates for electronically excited atoms.

  9. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica De Miguel-Soto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG, and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  10. Study of Optical Fiber Sensors for Cryogenic Temperature Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Soto, Veronica; Leandro, Daniel; Lopez-Aldaba, Aitor; Beato-López, Juan Jesus; Pérez-Landazábal, José Ignacio; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Jamier, Raphael; Roy, Philippe; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2017-11-30

    In this work, the performance of five different fiber optic sensors at cryogenic temperatures has been analyzed. A photonic crystal fiber Fabry-Pérot interferometer, two Sagnac interferometers, a commercial fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and a π-phase shifted fiber Bragg grating interrogated in a random distributed feedback fiber laser have been studied. Their sensitivities and resolutions as sensors for cryogenic temperatures have been compared regarding their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the results have been compared with the given by a commercial optical backscatter reflectometer that allowed for distributed temperature measurements of a single mode fiber.

  11. Temperature measurements in a wall stabilized steady flame using CARS

    KAUST Repository

    Sesha Giri, Krishna

    2017-01-05

    Flame quenching by heat loss to a surface continues to be an active area of combustion research. Close wall temperature measurements in an isothermal wall-stabilized flame are reported in this work. Conventional N-vibrational Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) thermometry as close as 275 μm to a convex wall cooled with water has been carried out. The standard deviation of mean temperatures is observed to be ~6.5% for high temperatures (>2000K) and ~14% in the lower range (<500K). Methane/air and ethylene/air stoichiometric flames for various global strain rates based on exit bulk velocities are plotted and compared. CH* chemiluminescence is employed to determine the flame location relative to the wall. Flame locations are shown to move closer to the wall with increasing strain rates in addition to higher near-wall temperatures. Peak temperatures for ethylene are considerably higher (~250-300K) than peak temperatures for methane. Preheat zone profiles are similar for different strain rates across fuels. This work demonstrates close wall precise temperature measurments using CARS.

  12. Downhole temperature tool accurately measures well bore profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an inexpensive temperature tool provides accurate temperatures measurements during drilling operations for better design of cement jobs, workovers, well stimulation, and well bore hydraulics. Valid temperature data during specific wellbore operations can improve initial job design, fluid testing, and slurry placement, ultimately enhancing well bore performance. This improvement applies to cement slurries, breaker activation for slurries, breaker activation for stimulation and profile control, and fluid rheological properties for all downhole operations. The temperature tool has been run standalone mounted inside drill pipe, on slick wire line and braided cable, and as a free-falltool. It has also been run piggyback on both directional surveys (slick line and free-fall) and standard logging runs. This temperature measuring system has been used extensively in field well bores to depths of 20,000 ft. The temperature tool is completely reusable in the field, ever similar to the standard directional survey tools used on may drilling rigs. The system includes a small, rugged, programmable temperature sensor, a standard body housing, various adapters for specific applications, and a personal computer (PC) interface

  13. [Comparison of different methods of temperature measurment in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Momcilo; Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Berenji, Karolina

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of failing to notice fever in children can be serious. On the other hand, false positive reading can result in unnecesery investigation or diagnostic approach. The aim of this study was to compare different ways of body temperature measurement. This prospective study was carried out on Pediatric Department of General Hospital in Subotica during 10 months (March-December 2006). In 263 children aged 1 month to 18 years of age, the body temperature was obtained from 4 measurement sites: tactile assesment, forehead and ear by electronic thermometer, rectal temperature in small children (up to 2 years of age) or axillar temperature in older children by mercury thermometer. Tympanic thermometry was considered as a standard for fever detection. The sensitivity of rectal temperature to detect fever is 46.67%, while specificity is 92.19%. The sensitivity of fever detection by electronic thermometry on the forehead is lower according to rectal thermometry - 36.08%, while specificity is 95.18%. The lowest values ofsensitivity are recorded in axillar thermometry (35.82%), specificity is 90.20%. The correlation coefficient is higher between tympanic and rectal temperature measurement (r=0.5076, pchildren and tympanic thermometry in children over 2 years of age.

  14. Results of performance testing the Russian RPV temperature measurement probe used for annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakos, J.T.; Selsky, S.

    1998-03-01

    This paper provides information on three (3) topics related to temperature measurements in an annealing procedure: (1) results of a series of experiments performed by CNIITMASH of the Russian consortium MOHT on their reactor pressure vessel (RPV) temperature measurement probe, (2) a discussion regarding uncertainties and errors in RPV temperature measurements, and (3) predictions from a thermal model of a spherical RPV temperature measurement probe. MOHT teamed with MPR Associates and was to perform the Annealing Demonstration Project (ADP) on behalf of the US Department of Energy, ESEERCo, EPRI, CRIEPI, Framatome, and Consumers Power Co. at the Midland plant. Experimental results show that the CNIITMASH probe errors are a maximum of about 27 C (49 F) during a 15 C/hr (27 F/hr) heat-up but only about 3 C (5.4 F) (0.6%) during the hold portion at 470 C (878 F). These errors are much smaller than those obtained from a similar series of experiments performed by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). The discussion about uncertainties and errors shows that results presented as a temperature difference provides a measure of the probe error. Qualitative agreement is shown between the model predictions, the experimental results of the CNIITMASH probe and the experimental results of a series of similar experiments performed by Sandia

  15. Long-Term Durability of a Matrix for High-Temperature Composites Predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are being increasingly used in applications where they are exposed for long durations to harsh environments such as elevated temperatures, moisture, oils and solvents, and thermal cycling. The exposure to these environments leads to the degradation of structures made from these materials. This also affects the useful lifetimes of these structures. Some of the more prominent aerospace applications of polymer matrix composites include engine supports and cowlings, reusable launch vehicle parts, radomes, thrust-vectoring flaps, and the thermal insulation of rocket motors. This demand has led to efforts to develop lightweight, high-strength, high-modulus materials that have upper-use temperatures over 316 C. A cooperative program involving two grants to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and in-house work at the NASA Glenn Research Center was conducted to identify the mechanisms and the measurement of mechanical and physical properties that are necessary to formulate a mechanism-based model for predicting the lifetime of high-temperature polymer matrix composites. The polymer that was studied was PMR-15 polyimide, a leading matrix resin for use in high-temperature-resistant aerospace composite structures such as propulsion systems. The temperature range that was studied was from 125 to 316 C. The diffusion behavior of PMR-15 neat resin was characterized and modeled. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was also conducted in nitrogen, oxygen, and air to provide quantitative information on thermal and oxidative degradation reactions. A new low-cost technique was developed to collect chemical degradation data for isothermal tests lasting up to 4000 hr in duration. In the temperature range studied, results indicate complex behavior that was not observed by previous TGA tests, including the presence of weight-gain reactions. These were found to be significant in the initial periods of aging from 125 to 225 C. Two types of weight loss

  16. Prediction of water temperature metrics using spatial modelling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water temperature regime dynamics should be viewed regionally, where regional divisions have an inherent underpinning by an understanding of natural thermal variability. The aim of this research was to link key water temperature metrics to readily-mapped environmental surrogates, and to produce spatial images of ...

  17. Artefacts in intracavitary temperature measurements during regional hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, H P; Berg, C A T Van den; Haaren, P M A Van; Crezee, J

    2007-01-01

    For adequate hyperthermia treatments, reliable temperature information during treatment is essential. During regional hyperthermia, temperature information is preferably obtained non-invasively from intracavitary or intraluminal measurements to avoid implant risks for the patient. However, for intracavitary or intraluminal thermometry optimal tissue contact is less natural as for invasive thermometry. In this study, the reliability of intraluminal/intracavitary measurements was examined in phantom experiments and in a numerical model for various extents of thermal contact between thermometry and the surroundings. Both thermocouple probes and fibre optic probes were investigated. Temperature rises after a 30 s power pulse of the 70 MHz AMC-4 hyperthermia system were measured in a tissue-equivalent phantom using a multisensor thermocouple probe placed centrally in a hollow tube. The tube was filled with (1) air (2) distilled water or (3) saline solution that mimics the properties of tissue, simulating situations with (1) bad thermal contact and no power dissipation in the tube (2) good thermal contact but no power dissipation or (3) good thermal contact and tissue representative power dissipation. For numerical simulations, a cylindrical symmetric model of a thermocouple probe or a fibre optic probe in a cavity was developed. The cavity was modelled as air, distilled water or saline solution. A generalised E-Field distribution was assumed, resulting in a power deposition. With this power deposition, the temperature rise after a 30 s power pulse was calculated. When thermal contact was bad (1), both phantom measurements and simulations with a thermocouple probe showed very high temperature rises (>0.5 0 C), which are artefacts due to self-heating of the thermocouple probe, since no power is dissipated in air. Simulations with a fibre optic probe showed almost no temperature rise when the cavity was filled with air. When thermal contact was good, but no power was

  18. Effects of modeled tropical sea surface temperature variability on coral reef bleaching predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooidonk, R.; Huber, M.

    2012-03-01

    Future widespread coral bleaching and subsequent mortality has been projected using sea surface temperature (SST) data derived from global, coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (GCMs). While these models possess fidelity in reproducing many aspects of climate, they vary in their ability to correctly capture such parameters as the tropical ocean seasonal cycle and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. Such weaknesses most likely reduce the accuracy of predicting coral bleaching, but little attention has been paid to the important issue of understanding potential errors and biases, the interaction of these biases with trends, and their propagation in predictions. To analyze the relative importance of various types of model errors and biases in predicting coral bleaching, various intra- and inter-annual frequency bands of observed SSTs were replaced with those frequencies from 24 GCMs 20th century simulations included in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th assessment report. Subsequent thermal stress was calculated and predictions of bleaching were made. These predictions were compared with observations of coral bleaching in the period 1982-2007 to calculate accuracy using an objective measure of forecast quality, the Peirce skill score (PSS). Major findings are that: (1) predictions are most sensitive to the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability in the ENSO 24-60 months frequency band and (2) because models tend to understate the seasonal cycle at reef locations, they systematically underestimate future bleaching. The methodology we describe can be used to improve the accuracy of bleaching predictions by characterizing the errors and uncertainties involved in the predictions.

  19. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesner, F.; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.

    2015-07-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented method aims at reconstructing the recent temperature history of the last year from sediment thermal properties and temperatures from only a few meters depth. For solving the heat equation, a commonly used forward model is introduced and analyzed: knowing the bottom water temperature variations for the preceding years and the thermal properties of the sediments, the forward model determines the sediment temperature field. The bottom water temperature variation is modeled as an annual cosine defined by the mean temperature, the amplitude and a phase shift. As the forward model operator is non-linear but low-dimensional, common inversion schemes such as the Newton algorithm can be utilized. The algorithms are tested for artificial data with different noise levels and for two measured data sets: from the North Sea and from the Davis Strait. Both algorithms used show stable and satisfying results with reconstruction errors in the same magnitude as the initial data error. In particular, the artificial data sets are reproduced with accuracy within the bounds of the artificial noise level. Furthermore, the results for the measured North Sea data show small variances and resemble the bottom water temperature variations recorded from a nearby monitoring site with relative errors smaller than 1 % in all parameters.

  20. Predicting individual variation in language from infant speech perception measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christia, A.; Seidl, A.; Junge, C.; Soderstrom, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. If such findings are held up under scrutiny, they could both illuminate

  1. Predicting the liveweight of sheep by using linear body measurements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Awuah, E Ampofo, R Dodoo. Abstract. The relationship between live body weight and some linear body measurements using data on sheep are explored. Predictive models for body weight were then fitted to the data. The optimum model for ...

  2. Sensitive Dependence of Gibbs Measures at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Daniel; Rivera-Letelier, Juan

    2015-09-01

    The Gibbs measures of an interaction can behave chaotically as the temperature drops to zero. We observe that for some classical lattice systems there are interactions exhibiting a related phenomenon of sensitive dependence of Gibbs measures: An arbitrarily small perturbation of the interaction can produce significant changes in the low-temperature behavior of its Gibbs measures. For some one-dimensional XY models we exhibit sensitive dependence of Gibbs measures for a (nearest-neighbor) interaction given by a smooth function, and for perturbations that are small in the smooth category. We also exhibit sensitive dependence of Gibbs measures for an interaction on a classical lattice system with finite-state space. This interaction decreases exponentially as a function of the distance between sites; it is given by a Lipschitz continuous potential in the configuration space. The perturbations are small in the Lipschitz topology. As a by-product we solve some problems stated by Chazottes and Hochman.

  3. Estimation of piping temperature fluctuations based on external strain measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Maye, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the difficulty to carry out measurements at the inner sides of nuclear reactor piping subjected to thermal transients, temperature and stress variations in the pipe walls are estimated by means of external thermocouples and strain-gauges. This inverse problem is solved by spectral analysis. Since the wall harmonic transfer function (response to a harmonic load) is known, the inner side signal will be obtained by convolution of the inverse transfer function of the system and of the strain measurement enables detection of internal temperature fluctuations in a frequency range beyond the scope of the thermocouples. (authors). 5 figs., 3 refs

  4. Temperature dependence of the Brewer global UV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Ilias; Redondas, Alberto; Lakkala, Kaisa; Berjon, Alberto; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Doppler, Lionel; Feister, Uwe; Heikkila, Anu; Karppinen, Tomi; Karhu, Juha M.; Koskela, Tapani; Garane, Katerina; Fragkos, Konstantinos; Savastiouk, Volodya

    2017-11-01

    Spectral measurements of global UV irradiance recorded by Brewer spectrophotometers can be significantly affected by instrument-specific optical and mechanical features. Thus, proper corrections are needed in order to reduce the associated uncertainties to within acceptable levels. The present study aims to contribute to the reduction of uncertainties originating from changes in the Brewer internal temperature, which affect the performance of the optical and electronic parts, and subsequently the response of the instrument. Until now, measurements of the irradiance from various types of lamps at different temperatures have been used to characterize the instruments' temperature dependence. The use of 50 W lamps was found to induce errors in the characterization due to changes in the transmissivity of the Teflon diffuser as it warms up by the heat of the lamp. In contrast, the use of 200 or 1000 W lamps is considered more appropriate because they are positioned at longer distances from the diffuser so that warming is negligible. Temperature gradients inside the instrument can cause mechanical stresses which can affect the instrument's optical characteristics. Therefore, during the temperature-dependence characterization procedure warming or cooling must be slow enough to minimize these effects. In this study, results of the temperature characterization of eight different Brewer spectrophotometers operating in Greece, Finland, Germany and Spain are presented. It was found that the instruments' response changes differently in different temperature regions due to different responses of the diffusers' transmittance. The temperature correction factors derived for the Brewer spectrophotometers operating at Thessaloniki, Greece, and Sodankylä, Finland, were evaluated and were found to remove the temperature dependence of the instruments' sensitivity.

  5. Water temperature and concentration measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, J R; Lightstone, J M; Piecuch, S; Koch, J D

    2011-01-01

    We present an application of absorption spectroscopy to directly measure temperature and concentration histories of water vapor within the expansion of a high explosive detonation. While the approach of absorption spectroscopy is well established, the combination of a fast, near-infrared array, broadband light source, and rigid gauge allow the first application of time-resolved absorption measurements in an explosive environment. The instrument is demonstrated using pentaerythritol tetranitrate with a sampling rate of 20 kHz for 20 ms following detonation. Absorption by water vapor is measured between 1335 and 1380 nm. Water temperatures are determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Water mole fractions are deduced following the temperature assignment. The sources of uncertainty and their impact on the results are discussed. These measurements will aid the development of chemical-specific reaction models and the predictive capability in technical fields including combustion and detonation science

  6. Age prediction on the basis of brain anatomical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, S A; Hänggi, J; Mérillat, S; Jäncke, L

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether age can be predicted on the basis of different anatomical features obtained from a large sample of healthy subjects (n = 3,144). From this sample we obtained different anatomical feature sets: (1) 11 larger brain regions (including cortical volume, thickness, area, subcortical volume, cerebellar volume, etc.), (2) 148 cortical compartmental thickness measures, (3) 148 cortical compartmental area measures, (4) 148 cortical compartmental volume measures, and (5) a combination of the above-mentioned measures. With these anatomical feature sets, we predicted age using 6 statistical techniques (multiple linear regression, ridge regression, neural network, k-nearest neighbourhood, support vector machine, and random forest). We obtained very good age prediction accuracies, with the highest accuracy being R 2  = 0.84 (prediction on the basis of a neural network and support vector machine approaches for the entire data set) and the lowest being R 2  = 0.40 (prediction on the basis of a k-nearest neighborhood for cortical surface measures). Interestingly, the easy-to-calculate multiple linear regression approach with the 11 large brain compartments resulted in a very good prediction accuracy (R 2  = 0.73), whereas the application of the neural network approach for this data set revealed very good age prediction accuracy (R 2  = 0.83). Taken together, these results demonstrate that age can be predicted well on the basis of anatomical measures. The neural network approach turned out to be the approach with the best results. In addition, it was evident that good prediction accuracies can be achieved using a small but nevertheless age-representative dataset of brain features. Hum Brain Mapp 38:997-1008, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. EPOS1 - a multiparameter measuring system to earthquake prediction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Heinicke, J.; Koch, U.; Wiegand, J.

    1998-01-01

    The approach to earthquake prediction by geophysical, geochemical and hydrological measurements is a long and winding road. Nevertheless, the results show a progress in that field (e.g. Kobe). This progress is also a result of a new generation of measuring equipment. SARAD has developed a versatile measuring system (EPOS1) based on experiences and recent results from different research groups. It is able to record selected parameters suitable to earthquake prediction research. A micro-computer system handles data exchange, data management and control. It is connected to a modular sensor system. Sensor modules can be selected according to the actual needs at the measuring site. (author)

  8. Predicting low-temperature cracking in asphalt pavements : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In Wisconsin's winter climate, low temperatures can cause asphalt pavements to contract and crack, reducing their ride quality and service lives. To help engineers more accurately determine how well certain pavement designs will fare in such conditio...

  9. Core-temperature sensor ingestion timing and measurement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrovich, Joseph W; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2010-01-01

    Telemetric core-temperature monitoring is becoming more widely used as a noninvasive means of monitoring core temperature during athletic events. To determine the effects of sensor ingestion timing on serial measures of core temperature during continuous exercise. Crossover study. Outdoor dirt track at an average ambient temperature of 4.4°C ± 4.1°C and relative humidity of 74.1% ± 11.0%. Seven healthy, active participants (3 men, 4 women; age  =  27.0 ± 7.5 years, height  =  172.9 ± 6.8 cm, body mass  =  67.5 ± 6.1 kg, percentage body fat  =  12.7% ± 6.9%, peak oxygen uptake [Vo(2peak)]  =  54.4 ± 6.9 mL•kg⁻¹•min⁻¹) completed the study. Participants completed a 45-minute exercise trial at approximately 70% Vo(2peak). They consumed core-temperature sensors at 24 hours (P1) and 40 minutes (P2) before exercise. Core temperature was recorded continuously (1-minute intervals) using a wireless data logger worn by the participants. All data were analyzed using a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (trial × time), Pearson product moment correlation, and Bland-Altman plot. Fifteen comparisons were made between P1 and P2. The main effect of time indicated an increase in core temperature compared with the initial temperature. However, we did not find a main effect for trial or a trial × time interaction, indicating no differences in core temperature between the sensors (P1  =  38.3°C ± 0.2°C, P2  =  38.3°C ± 0.4°C). We found no differences in the temperature recordings between the 2 sensors. These results suggest that assumed sensor location (upper or lower gastrointestinal tract) does not appreciably alter the transmission of reliable and repeatable measures of core temperature during continuous running in the cold.

  10. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K McFarlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual’s temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes for the measurement of peripheral  (bicep and central (abdominal skin temperature. Young men and women (N=30 were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO2max of cycling in a hot (39±2°C, humid (45±5% RH environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5 were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5, For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9 and thermal (1.9, suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35ºC, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects.

  11. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K McFarlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual’s temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes for the measurement of peripheral (bicep and central (abdominal skin temperature. Young men and women (N=30 were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO 2 max of cycling in a hot (39±2°C, humid (45±5% RH environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5 were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5, For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9 and thermal (1.9, suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35ºC, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects

  12. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tianqi; Geng Chao; Zhang Zhangang; Gu Song; Tong Teng; Xi Kai; Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Zhao Fazhan; Liu Gang; Han Zhengsheng

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12 C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209 Bi and 12 C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12 C ions but keep constant for 209 Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Real-time temperature field measurement based on acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Yong; Jia, Jiabin; Polydorides, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic tomography can be used to measure the temperature field from the time-of-flight (TOF). In order to capture real-time temperature field changes and accurately yield quantitative temperature images, two improvements to the conventional acoustic tomography system are studied: simultaneous acoustic transmission and TOF collection along multiple ray paths, and an offline iteration reconstruction algorithm. During system operation, all the acoustic transceivers send modulated and filtered wideband Kasami sequences simultaneously to facilitate fast and accurate TOF measurements using cross-correlation detection. For image reconstruction, the iteration process is separated and executed offline beforehand to shorten computation time for online temperature field reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed methods are validated in the simulation study. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the processing time per frame from 160 ms to 20 ms, while the reconstruction error remains less than 5%. Hence, the proposed method has great potential in the measurement of rapid temperature change with good temporal and spatial resolution. (paper)

  14. Photoacoustic temperature measurements for monitoring of thermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiou-Han; Wei, Chen-Wei; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Li, Pai-Chi

    2009-02-01

    Plasmonic photothermal therapy is a new cancer thermotherapy method based on surface plasmon resonance of nanoparticles. It is important to measure the temperature during thermotherapy for safety and efficacy. In this study, we apply a photoacoustic (PA) method for real-time, non-invasive temperature measurements. In particular, this method can be effectively combined with a photothermal therapy system that we developed in parallel. The method is based on the fact that the PA pressure amplitude is linearly related to temperature. To explore its potential, a home-made, 20 MHz PA transducer was used, in which an optical fiber was inserted in its center for emitting laser pulses while the PA signal was simultaneously detected. Continuous wave (CW) laser was used to heat the subject, including both phantoms and mice. The temperature of the region of interest was also measured by a fine-needle thermal couple. Results show that the temperature was linearly proportional to the PA signal with good correlation with the CW laser irradiation. The in vivo study also demonstrated potential of this technique.

  15. Constituent Ion Temperatures Measured in the Topside Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C. T.; Heelis, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma temperatures in the ionosphere are associated with both the dynamics and structure of the neutral and charge particles. The temperatures are determined by solar energy inputs and energy exchange between charged particles and neutrals. Previous observations show that during daytime the O+ temperature is generally higher when the fractional contribution of H+ to the plasma is high. Further simulations confirm that the daytime heat balance between the H+ and O+ always keeps the H+ at a temperature higher than the O+. In addition the plasma transport parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field influences the plasma temperature through adiabatic heating and cooling effects. These processes are also important during the nighttime, when the source of photoionization is absent. In this work we examine a more sophisticated analysis procedure to extract individual mass dependent ion temperature and apply it on the DMSP F15 RPA measurements. The result shows that the daytime TH+ is a few hundred degrees higher than the TO+ and the nighttime temperature difference between TH+ and TO+ is indicative of mass dependent adiabatic heating and cooling processes across the equatorial region.

  16. On Possibility of Detonation Products Temperature Measurements of Emulsion Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrov V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The new view on the structure of the radiance signal recorded by optical pyrometer and the preliminary results of brightness detonation temperature of the emulsion explosive are presented. The structure of an optical signal observed is typical for the heterogeneous explosives. First, there is the short temperature spike to 2500 ÷ 3300 K connecting with a formation of “hot spots” assembly that fire the matrix capable of exothermal reaction. Then the relaxation of radiance to equilibrium level is observed that corresponds to brightness temperature 1840 ÷ 2260 K of explosion products at detonation pressure 1 ÷ 11 GPa. Experimental results are compared with the calculations of other authors. The detonation temperature of the investigated explosive is measured for the first time.

  17. CARS Temperature Measurements in a Combustion-Heated Supersonic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, S. A.; Danehy, P. M.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements were made in a combustion-heated supersonic axi-symmetric free jet from a nozzle with a diameter of 6.35 cm using dual-pump Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). The resulting mean and standard deviation temperature maps are presented. The temperature results show that the gas temperature on the centerline remains constant for approximately 5 nozzle diameters. As the heated gas mixes with the ambient air further downstream the mean temperature decreases. The standard deviation map shows evidence of the increase of turbulence in the shear layer as the jet proceeds downstream and mixes with the ambient air. The challenges of collecting data in a harsh environment are discussed along with influences to the data. The yield of the data collected is presented and possible improvements to the yield is presented are discussed.

  18. A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Korb, C. Laurence; Milrod, Jeffry; Walden, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential absorption lidar system capable of remotely measuring the vertical structure of tropospheric pressure and temperature are described. The measurements are based on the absorption by atmospheric oxygen of the spectrally narrowband output of two pulsed alexandrite lasers. Detailed laser output spectral characteristics, which are critical to successful lidar measurements, are presented. Spectral linewidths of 0.026 and 0.018 per cm for the lasers were measured with over 99.99 percent of the energy contained in three longitudinal modes.

  19. Assessing Confidence in Pliocene Sea Surface Temperatures to Evaluate Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling. M.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.33.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history.This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

  20. Assessing confidence in Pliocene sea surface temperatures to evaluate predictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Bragg, Fran J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Foley, Kevin M.; Riesselman, Christina R.

    2012-01-01

    In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.3–3.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history. This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

  1. Electrical measurement of absolute temperature and temperature transients in a buried nanostructure under ultrafast optical heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Hu, X. K.; Liebing, N.; Böhnert, T.; Costa, J. D.; Tarequzzaman, M.; Ferreira, R.; Sievers, S.; Bieler, M.; Schumacher, H. W.

    2017-06-01

    We report absolute temperature measurements in a buried nanostructure with a sub-nanosecond temporal resolution. For this purpose, we take advantage of the temperature dependence of the resistance of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) as detected by a fast sampling oscilloscope. After calibrating the measurement setup using steady-state electric heating, we are able to quantify temperature changes in the MTJ induced by femtosecond optical heating of the metal contact lying several 100 nm above the MTJ. We find that a femtosecond pulse train with an average power of 400 mW and a repetition rate of 76 MHz leads to a constant temperature increase of 80 K and a temporally varying temperature change of 2 K in the MTJ. The maximum temperature change in the MTJ occurs 4 ns after the femtosecond laser pulses hit the metal contact, which is supported by simulations. Our work provides a scheme to quantitatively study local temperatures in nanoscale structures and might be important for the testing of nanoscale thermal transport simulations.

  2. Comparison of MODIS-derived land surface temperature with air temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2017-09-01

    Air surface temperature is an important parameter for a wide range of applications such as agriculture, hydrology and climate change studies. Air temperature data is usually obtained from measurements made in meteorological stations, providing only limited information about spatial patterns over wide areas. The use of remote sensing data can help overcome this problem, particularly in areas with low station density, having the potential to improve the estimation of air surface temperature at both regional and global scales. Land Surface (skin) Temperatures (LST) derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms provide spatial estimates of near-surface temperature values. In this study, LST values from MODIS are compared to groundbased near surface air (Tair) measurements obtained from 14 observational stations during 2011 to 2015, covering coastal, mountainous and urban areas over Cyprus. Combining Terra and Aqua LST-8 Day and Night acquisitions into a mean monthly value, provide a large number of LST observations and a better overall agreement with Tair. Comparison between mean monthly LSTs and mean monthly Tair for all sites and all seasons pooled together yields a very high correlation and biases. In addition, the presented high standard deviation can be explained by the influence of surface heterogeneity within MODIS 1km2 grid cells, the presence of undetected clouds and the inherent difference between LST and Tair. However, MODIS LST data proved to be a reliable proxy for surface temperature and mostly for studies requiring temperature reconstruction in areas with lack of observational stations.

  3. Measurements of fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity on a commercial AGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, A.; Bridge, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    Tests have been carried out on the commercial AGR at Hikley Point to determine the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity, an important safety related parameter. Reactor neutron flux was measured during transients induced by movement of a bank of control rods from one steady position to another. An inverse kinetics analysis was applied to the measured flux to determine the change which occured in core reactivity as the fuel temperature changed. The variation of mean fuel temperature was deduced from the flux transient by means of a nine-plane thermal hydraulics representation of the AGR fuel channel. Results so far obtained confirm the predicted variation of fuel temperature coefficient with butn-up. (author)

  4. Infrared thermography for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G

    2014-07-10

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed.

  5. Estimating local heat transfer coefficients from thin wall temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazizov, I. M.; Davletshin, I. A.; Paereliy, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    An approach to experimental estimation of local heat transfer coefficient on a plane wall has been described. The approach is based on measurements of heat-transfer fluid and wall temperatures during some certain time of wall cooling. The wall was a thin plate, a printed circuit board, made of composite epoxy material covered with a copper layer. The temperature field can be considered uniform across the plate thickness when heat transfer is moderate and thermal resistance of the plate in transversal direction is low. This significantly simplifies the heat balance written for the wall sections that is used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient. The copper layer on the plate etched to form a single strip acted as resistance thermometers that measured the local temperature of the wall.

  6. Measured energy savings from using night temperature setback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Wrench, L.E.; O'Neill, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured energy savings resulting from using night temperature setback in typical light-construction wooden office buildings was determined. Researchers installed monitoring equipment in a six-building sample of two-story wooden buildings at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Data obtained during both single-setting and night-setback operating modes were used to develop models of each building's heat consumption as a function of the difference between inside and outside temperature. These models were used to estimate seasonal savings that could be obtained from the use of night-setback thermostat control. The measured savings in heating energy from using night temperature setback for the six Fort Devens buildings ranged from 14% to 25%; the mean savings was 19.2%. Based on an energy cost of $0.65/therm of natural gas, the estimated average cost savings of using automatic setback thermostats in these buildings is $780 per year per building

  7. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  8. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Usamentiaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed.

  9. Parametrization of optimum filter passbands for rotational Raman temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Eva; Behrendt, Andreas

    2015-11-30

    We revisit the methodology of rotational Raman temperature measurements covering both lidar and non-range-resolved measurements, e.g., for aircraft control. The results of detailed optimization calculations are presented for the commonly used extraction of signals from the anti-Stokes branch. Different background conditions and realistic shapes of the filter transmission curves are taken into account. Practical uncertainties of the central passbands and widths are discussed. We found a simple parametrization for the optimum filter passband shifts depending on the atmospheric temperature range of interest and the background. The approximation errors of this parametrization are smaller than 2% for temperatures between 200 and 300 K and smaller than 4% between 180 and 200 K.

  10. Ultra sound absorption measurements in rock samples at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, C.; Berckhemer, H.

    1974-01-01

    A new technique, comparable with the reverberation method in room acoustics, is described. It allows Q-measurements at rock samples of arbitrary shape in the frequency range of 50 to 600 kHz in vacuum (.1 mtorr) and at low temperatures (+20 to -180 C). The method was developed in particular to investigate rock samples under lunar conditions. Ultrasound absorption has been measured at volcanics, breccia, gabbros, feldspar and quartz of different grain size and texture yielding the following results: evacuation raises Q mainly through lowering the humidity in the rock. In a dry compact rock, the effect of evacuation is small. With decreasing temperature, Q generally increases. Between +20 and -30 C, Q does not change much. With further decrease of temperature in many cases distinct anomalies appear, where Q becomes frequency dependent.

  11. Temperature Measurements of Dense Plasmas by Detailed Balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, A; Redmer, R; Ropke, G; Reinholz, H; Thiele, R; Fortmann, C; Forster, E; Cao, L; Tschentscher, T; Toleikis, S; Glenzer, S H

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas at high electron densities of n e = 10 20 - 10 26 cm -3 and moderate temperatures T e = 1 - 20 eV are important for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. These plasmas are usually referred to as Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and are characterized by a coupling parameter of Λ ∼> 1 where correlations become important. The characterization of such plasmas is still a challenging task due to the lack of direct measurement techniques for temperatures and densities. They propose to measure the Thomson scattering spectrum of vacuum-UV radiation off density fluctuations in the plasma. Collective Thomson scattering provides accurate data for the electron temperature applying first principles. Further, this method takes advantage of the spectral asymmetry resulting from detailed balance and is independent of collisional effects in these dense systems

  12. Prediction of the indoor temperatures of an urban area with an in-time regression mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smargiassi, Audrey; Fournier, Michel; Griot, Chloé; Baudouin, Yves; Kosatsky, Tom

    2008-05-01

    Excess mortality has been noted during high ambient temperature episodes. During such episodes, individuals are not likely to be uniformly exposed to temperatures within cities. Exposure of individuals to high temperatures is likely to fluctuate with the micro-urban variation of outdoor temperatures (heat island effect) and with factors linked to building properties. In this paper, a GIS-based regression mapping approach is proposed to model urban spatial patterns of indoor temperatures in time, for all residential buildings of an urban area. In July 2005, the hourly indoor temperature was measured with data loggers for 31 consecutive days, concurrently in 75 dwellings in Montreal. The general estimating equation model (GEE) developed to predict indoor temperatures integrates temporal variability of outdoor temperatures (and their 24 h moving average), with geo-referenced determinants available for the entire city, such as surface temperatures at each site (from a satellite image) and building characteristics (from the Montreal Property Assessment database). The proportion of the variability of the indoor temperatures explained increases from 20%, using only outdoor temperatures, to 54% with the full model. Using this model, high-resolution maps of indoor temperatures can be provided across an entire urban area. The model developed adds a temporal dimension to similar regression mapping approaches used to estimate exposure for population health studies, based on spatial predictors, and can thus be used to predict exposure to indoor temperatures under various outdoor temperature scenarios. It is thus concluded that such a model might be used as a means of mapping indoor temperatures either to inform urban planning and housing strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change, to orient public health interventions, or as a basis for assessing exposure as part of epidemiological studies.

  13. Geothermal Project Den Haag - 3-D models for temperature prediction and reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghy, D.; Pechnig, R.; Willemsen, G.; Simmelink, H. J.; Vandeweijer, V.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the "Den Haag Zuidwest" geothermal district heating system a deep geothermal installation is projected. The target horizon of the planned doublet is the "Delft sandstone" which has been extensively explored for oil- and gas reservoirs in the last century. In the target area, this upper Jurassic sandstone layer is found at a depth of about 2300 m with an average thickness of about 50 m. The study presented here focuses on the prediction of reservoir temperatures and production behavior which is crucial for planning a deep geothermal installation. In the first phase, the main objective was to find out whether there is a significant influence of the 3-dimensional structures of anticlines and synclines on the temperature field, which could cause formation temperatures deviating from the predicted extrapolated temperature data from oil and gas exploration wells. To this end a regional model was set up as a basis for steady state numerical simulations. Since representative input parameters are decisive for reliable model results, all available information was compiled: a) the subsurface geometry, depth and thickness of the stratigraphic layers known from seismic data sets 2) borehole geophysical data and c) geological and petrographical information from exploration wells. In addition 50 cuttings samples were taken from two selected key wells in order to provide direct information on thermal properties of the underlying strata. Thermal conductivity and rock matrix density were measured in the laboratory. These data were combined with a petrophysical log analysis (Gamma Ray, Sonic, Density and Resistivity), which resulted in continuous profiles of porosity, effective thermal conductivity and radiogenetic heat production. These profiles allowed to asses in detail the variability of the petrophysical properties with depth and to check for lateral changes between the wells. All this data entered the numerical simulations which were performed by a 3-D

  14. A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    •calibrating the contributions from the feed assembly and receiver. The thermodynamic temperature of the CMB is estimated to be. 3.45 ± 0.78 K. Key words. Cosmic microwave background — cosmology: observations. 1. Introduction. The spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been measured by the.

  15. Tokamak Plasmas: Measurement of temperature fluctuations and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 55; Issue 5-6. Tokamak Plasmas : Measurement of temperature fluctuations and anomalous transport in the SINP tokamak. R Kumar S K Saha. Contributed Papers Volume 55 Issue 5-6 November-December 2000 pp ...

  16. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature and electron density characterizing the plasma are measured by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion line emissions in the time window of 300–2000 ns. An echelle spectrograph coupled with a gated intensified charge coupled detector is used to record the plasma emissions.

  17. Elevated-temperature luminescence measurements to improve spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluska, Mariusz; Czerwinski, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Various branches of applied physics use luminescence based methods to investigate light-emitting specimens with high spatial resolution. A key problem is that luminescence signals lack all the advantages of high locality (i.e. of high spatial resolution) when structures with strong built-in electric field are measured. Such fields exist intentionally in most photonic structures, and occur unintentionally in many other materials. In this case, as a result of beam-induced current generation and its outflow, information that indicates irregularities, nonuniformities and inhomogeneities, such as defects, is lost. We show that to avoid nonlocality and enable truly local luminescence measurements, an elevated measurement temperature as high as 350 K (or even higher) is, perhaps surprisingly, advantageous. This is in contrast to a widely used approach, where cryogenic temperatures, or at least room temperature, are recommended. The elevated temperature of a specimen, together with the current outflow being limited by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, is shown to improve the spatial resolution of luminescence measurements greatly. All conclusions drawn using the example of cathodoluminescence are useful for other luminescence techniques.

  18. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 74; Issue 6. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser-induced copper plasma by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions. V K Unnikrishnan Kamlesh Alti V B Kartha C Santhosh G P Gupta B M Suri. Research Articles ...

  19. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  20. Fiber-optical method of pyrometric measurement of melts temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, V. A.; Veprikova, Ya R.

    2018-01-01

    There is a scientific problem of non-contact measurement of the temperature of metal melts now. The problem is related to the need to achieve the specified measurement errors in conditions of uncertainty of the blackness coefficients of the radiating surfaces. The aim of this work is to substantiate the new method of measurement in which the influence of the blackness coefficient is eliminated. The task consisted in calculating the design and material of special crucible placed in the molten metal, which is an emitter in the form of blackbody (BB). The methods are based on the classical concepts of thermal radiation and calculations based on the Planck function. To solve the problem, the geometry of the crucible was calculated on the basis of the Goofy method which forms the emitter of a blackbody at the immersed in the melt. The paper describes the pyrometric device based on fiber optic pyrometer for temperature measurement of melts, which implements the proposed method of measurement using a special crucible. The emitter is formed by the melt in this crucible, the temperature within which is measured by means of fiber optic pyrometer. Based on the results of experimental studies, the radiation coefficient ε‧ > 0.999, which confirms the theoretical and computational justification is given in the article

  1. Towards Systematic Prediction of Urban Heat Islands: Grounding Measurements, Assessing Modeling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Voelkel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While there exists extensive assessment of urban heat, we observe myriad methods for describing thermal distribution, factors that mediate temperatures, and potential impacts on urban populations. In addition, the limited spatial and temporal resolution of satellite-derived heat measurements may limit the capacity of decision makers to take effective actions for reducing mortalities in vulnerable populations whose locations require highly-refined measurements. Needed are high resolution spatial and temporal information for urban heat. In this study, we ask three questions: (1 how do urban heat islands vary throughout the day? (2 what statistical methods best explain the presence of temperatures at sub-meter spatial scales; and (3 what landscape features help to explain variation in urban heat islands? Using vehicle-based temperature measurements at three periods of the day in the Pacific Northwest city of Portland, Oregon (USA, we incorporate LiDAR-derived datasets, and evaluate three statistical techniques for modeling and predicting variation in temperatures during a heat wave. Our results indicate that the random forest technique best predicts temperatures, and that the evening model best explains the variation in temperature. The results suggest that ground-based measurements provide high levels of accuracy for describing the distribution of urban heat, its temporal variation, and specific locations where targeted interventions with communities can reduce mortalities from heat events.

  2. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating

  3. Monitoring and Prediction of the Liquid Steel Temperature in the Ladle and Tundish

    OpenAIRE

    Dorčák, Ľ.; Terpák, J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is focused on the description of the main features of an online system for the real time monitoring and prediction of the liquid steel temperature in the ladle and tundish. Monitoring and prediction are based on a combination of analytical and statistical methods. Thus e.g., the temperature profiles of the walls are calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme taking into account the current temperature of the steel, preheating of the ladle and/or tundish, properties o...

  4. Thin-film resistance temperature detector array for the measurement of temperature distribution inside a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Hyun, Jaeyub; Doh, Il; Ahn, Bongyoung; Kim, Yong Tae

    2018-02-01

    A thin-film resistance temperature detector (RTD) array is proposed to measure the temperature distribution inside a phantom. HIFU (high-intensity focused ultrasound) is a non-invasive treatment method using focused ultrasound to heat up a localized region, so it is important to measure the temperature distribution without affecting the ultrasonic field and heat conduction. The present 25 µm thick PI (polyimide) film is transparent not only to an ultrasonic field, because its thickness is much smaller than the wavelength of ultrasound, but also to heat conduction, owing to its negligible thermal mass compared to the phantom. A total of 33 RTDs consisting of Pt resistors and interconnection lines were patterned on a PI substrate using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technology, and a polymer phantom was fabricated with the film at the center. The expanded uncertainty of the RTDs was 0.8 K. In the experimental study using a 1 MHz HIFU transducer, the maximum temperature inside the phantom was measured as 70.1 °C just after a HIFU excitation of 6.4 W for 180 s. The time responses of the RTDs at different positions also showed the residual heat transfer inside the phantom after HIFU excitation. HIFU results with the phantom showed that a thin-film RTD array can measure the temperature distribution inside a phantom.

  5. The validity of tympanic and exhaled breath temperatures for core temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Cheung, Stephen S

    2010-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of tympanic (T ty ) and exhaled breath (T X ) temperatures as indices of rectal temperature (T re ) by applying heat (condition A) and cold (condition B) in a dynamic A-B-A-B sequence. Fifteen healthy adults (8 men; 7 women; 24.9 ± 4.6 years) volunteered. Following a 15 min baseline period, participants entered a water tank maintained at 42 °C water temperature and passively rested until their T re increased by 0.5 °C above baseline. Thereafter, they entered a different water tank maintained at 12 °C water temperature until their T re decreased by 0.5 °C below baseline. This procedure was repeated twice (i.e. A-B-A-B). T ty demonstrated moderate response delays to the repetitive changes in thermal balance, whereas T X and T re responded relatively fast. Both T ty and T X correlated significantly with T re (P < 0.05). Linear regression models were used to predict T re based on T ty and T X . The predicted values from both models correlated significantly with T re (P < 0.05) and followed the changes in T re during the A-B-A-B thermal protocol. While some mean differences with T re were observed (P < 0.05), the 95% limits of agreement were acceptable for both models. It is concluded that the calculated models based on tympanic and exhaled breath temperature are valid indicators of core temperature. (note)

  6. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    39⋅0. 2⋅29. 4⋅04. Figure 1. Resistivity measurement system. pore fluid salinity, pore fluid saturation, temperature and pressure were kept the same. Resistivity measurements were performed on cylindri- cal samples of 54⋅4 mm diameter and ~ 50 mm length. Axial end surfaces of the samples were ground flat and parallel.

  7. Core Temperature Measurement During Submaximal Exercise: Esophageal, Rectal, and Intestinal Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Williams, W. Jon; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if intestinal temperature (Tin) might be in acceptable alternative to esophageal (Tes) and rectal temperature (Trec) to assess thermoregulation during supine exercise. We hypothesized that Tin would have values similar to Tes and a response time similar to Trec, but the rate of temperature change across time would not be different between measurement sites. Seven subjects completed a continuous supine protocol of 20 min of rest, 20 min of cycle exercise at 40% peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk), 20 min of cycle exercise at 65% V02pk, and 20 min of recovery. Tes, Trec, and Tin were recorded each min throughout the test. Temperatures were not different after 20 min of rest, but Trec was less than the Tes and Tin at the end of the 40% and 65% VO2pk stages. After 20 min of recovery, Tes was less than either Trec or Tin, which were not different from each other. Time to threshold for increased temperature from rest was greater for Trec than Tes but not different from Tin. Time to reach peak temperature was greater for Tin and Trec than Tes. Similarly, time to a decrease in temperature after exercise was greater for Trec than Tes, but not different from Tin. The rate of temperature change from threshold to the end of the 40% VO2pk stage was not different between measurement sites. However, the rate of change during recovery was more negative for Tes than Tin and Trec, which were different from each other. Measurement of Tin may he an acceptable alternative to Tes and Trec with an understanding of its limitations.

  8. Predicting live weight using body measurements in Afar goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    breeds. According to Yakubu et al. (2011), since LW and body measurement parameters vary with breed and environment, breed specific models need to be developed. Therefore, this study was aimed at developing models for predicting LW of Afar goats using body measurements based on data collected in Gulina woreda ...

  9. Petrophysical properties of greensand as predicted from NMR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zakir; Grattoni, Carlos A.; Solymar, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a useful tool in reservoir evaluation. The objective of this study is to predict petrophysical properties from NMR T2 distributions. A series of laboratory experiments including core analysis, capillary pressure measurements, NMR T2 measurements and i...

  10. A comparison of four methods of normal newborn temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sganga, A; Wallace, R; Kiehl, E; Irving, T; Witter, L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare newborn temperature measurements obtained by digital disposable, electronic, and tympanic thermometers with glass mercury thermometers, and (b) compare financial implications of each method. In this correlational study, 12 perinatal and neonatal nurses obtained temperature measurements of 184 newborns between 1 and 168 hours of age. The stratified convenience sample was selected using medical records numbers. Temperature instruments included glass thermometer, tympanic thermometer, electronic thermometer, and a digital thermometer. Data were analyzed by Pearson r coefficients, mean, standard deviation, and range using an SPSS statistical package. The glass thermometer, electronic thermometer, and digital thermometer temperature assessments were highly correlated (0.748-1.0). The tympanic thermometer had a low correlation coefficient (0.35). Use of the glass thermometer had the highest accompanying cost. Tympanic thermometers were the most cost effective. In healthy newborns, the use of electronic and digital thermometers can be encouraged if there is concern about using glass thermometers. These results cannot be extrapolated to sick infants. While tympanic thermometers had the lowest associated cost, their lack of correlation with the gold standard glass thermometers for accurate temperature assessment makes them a poor choice for healthy newborns.

  11. Thermal conductivity measurements at cryogenic temperatures at LASA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggi, F.; Pedrini, D.; Rossi, L.

    1995-08-01

    Here the improvement realised to have better control of the reference junction temperature and measurements carried out on Nb 3 Sn cut out from 2 different coils (named LASA3 and LASA5), showing the difference between the longitudinal and the transverse thermal conductivity, is described. Two different methods of data analysis are presented, the DAM (derivative approximated method) and the TCI (thermal conductivity integral. The data analysis for the tungsten and the LASA5 coil has been done according to the two methods showing that the TCI method with polynomial functions is not adequate to describe the thermal conductivity. Only a polynomial fit based on the TCI method but limited at a lower order than the nominal, when the data are well distributed along the range of measurements, can describe reasonably the thermal conductivity dependence with the temperature. Finally the measurements on a rod of BSCCO 2212 high T c superconductor are presented

  12. In situ response time measurements of RTD temperature sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, I.M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistence thermometers. The test consist in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step pertubation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that the time constant determined by method is within 15 percent of true value. The loop-current-step-response test is a remote in situ test, which can be performed with the sensor installed in the process. Consequently it takes account the local heat transfer conditions, and appropriated for nuclear power plants, where sensors are installed in points of difficult access. (author) [pt

  13. Reconstruction method for inversion problems in an acoustic tomography based temperature distribution measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sha; Liu, Shi; Tong, Guowei

    2017-01-01

    In industrial areas, temperature distribution information provides a powerful data support for improving system efficiency, reducing pollutant emission, ensuring safety operation, etc. As a noninvasive measurement technology, acoustic tomography (AT) has been widely used to measure temperature distribution where the efficiency of the reconstruction algorithm is crucial for the reliability of the measurement results. Different from traditional reconstruction techniques, in this paper a two-phase reconstruction method is proposed to ameliorate the reconstruction accuracy (RA). In the first phase, the measurement domain is discretized by a coarse square grid to reduce the number of unknown variables to mitigate the ill-posed nature of the AT inverse problem. By taking into consideration the inaccuracy of the measured time-of-flight data, a new cost function is constructed to improve the robustness of the estimation, and a grey wolf optimizer is used to solve the proposed cost function to obtain the temperature distribution on the coarse grid. In the second phase, the Adaboost.RT based BP neural network algorithm is developed for predicting the temperature distribution on the refined grid in accordance with the temperature distribution data estimated in the first phase. Numerical simulations and experiment measurement results validate the superiority of the proposed reconstruction algorithm in improving the robustness and RA. (paper)

  14. Reconstruction method for inversion problems in an acoustic tomography based temperature distribution measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Liu, Shi; Tong, Guowei

    2017-11-01

    In industrial areas, temperature distribution information provides a powerful data support for improving system efficiency, reducing pollutant emission, ensuring safety operation, etc. As a noninvasive measurement technology, acoustic tomography (AT) has been widely used to measure temperature distribution where the efficiency of the reconstruction algorithm is crucial for the reliability of the measurement results. Different from traditional reconstruction techniques, in this paper a two-phase reconstruction method is proposed to ameliorate the reconstruction accuracy (RA). In the first phase, the measurement domain is discretized by a coarse square grid to reduce the number of unknown variables to mitigate the ill-posed nature of the AT inverse problem. By taking into consideration the inaccuracy of the measured time-of-flight data, a new cost function is constructed to improve the robustness of the estimation, and a grey wolf optimizer is used to solve the proposed cost function to obtain the temperature distribution on the coarse grid. In the second phase, the Adaboost.RT based BP neural network algorithm is developed for predicting the temperature distribution on the refined grid in accordance with the temperature distribution data estimated in the first phase. Numerical simulations and experiment measurement results validate the superiority of the proposed reconstruction algorithm in improving the robustness and RA.

  15. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  16. Temperature measurement in WTE boilers using suction pyrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-11-15

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  17. Pyrometric method for measuring emittances at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrín, J.; Rodríguez, J.; Carra, M. E.; Cañadas, I.; Roldan, M. I.; Barbero, J.; Marzo, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work an alternative method for emittance determination based on pyrometric measurements is presented. The measurement procedure has been applied to AISI 310S steel samples in the Plataforma Solar de Almería vertical axis solar furnace SF5. The experimental results show that emittance increases with increasing temperature and decreases with increasing wavelength. This behaviour is in agreement with experimental results obtained by other authors. Analysis of tests has revealed a good repeatability (1%) and accuracy (< 2%) of this measurement procedure.

  18. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the present...

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 x 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the...

  20. Le Chatelier's Principle and the Prediction Temperature on Solubilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Prini, R.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Le Chatelier's Principle from a thermodynamic perspective and applies it to the effect of temperature on the solubility of gases in liquids. Rationale of this discussion is to evaluate data in a previous article claimed to be contradictory to the Principle. (Author/JN)

  1. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Zonally Average 500 MB Temperature Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 500-hPa temperature anomalies averaged over the latitude band 20oN ? 20oS. The anomalies are...

  2. Electron temperature measurement of tungsten inert gas arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Manabu; Tashiro, Shinichi

    2008-01-01

    In order to make clear the physical grounds of deviations from LTE (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) in the atmospheric helium TIG arcs electron temperature and LTE temperature obtained from electron number density were measured by using of line-profile analysis of the laser scattering method without an assumption of LTE. The experimental results showed that in comparison with the argon TIG arcs, the region where a deviation from LTE occurs tends to expand in higher arc current because the plasma reaches the similar state to LTE within shorter distance from the cathode due to the slower cathode jet velocity

  3. A Mueller bridge set for cryogenic temperature measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J.M.

    1966-01-01

    An a.c. Mueller bridge set for resistance thermometry at cryogenic temperature is described. A commercial tuned null detector is used at an operating frequency of 1025 c/s. The set includes a high stability oscillator, line reject filter, phase shifter, Q multiplier and selector box. The latter...... permits the dissipation in the thermometers not being measured to be maintained at the operating level with direct current. A temperature change of the order of 10 μdegK can be detected with 10-8 W applied to the thermometer....

  4. A sensitive optical pyrometer for shock-temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M. B.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    A new optical system was used to determine temperatures above 2400 K in shocked materials by measuring the spectral radiance of sub-microsecond pulses of light emitted from initially transparent solid samples in the visible and near infrared (450 to 900 nm). The high sensitivity of this optical pyrometer is attributed to the small number of channels, large aperture (0.03 steradian), the large bandwidth per channel (40 nm), and large photodiode detection area (0.2 sq cm). Improved calibration techniques reduce systematic errors encountered in previous shock-temperature experiments.

  5. Determining noncondensible gas fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures using wet and dry bulb temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, P.; Bowman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The work reported in this note was undertaken to provide a method of determining the noncondensible gas fractions in a steam-gas mixture such as might be found in large reactor safety experiment like LOFT. In essence, the method used involves measuring the wet and dry bulb temperatures and using an algorithm, in place of the psychometric chart, to determine the partial pressure of the noncondensible gas in the mixture. In accomplishing this, the authors did the following: (1) extended the use of wet and dry-bulb temperature readings to determine mixture composition up to a temperature of 589 K and a pressure of 4.13 x 10 6 Pa. (2) developed an algorithm to reduce the data (3) found which materials would survive those temperatures

  6. Landform features and seasonal precipitation predict shallow groundwater influence on temperature in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Zachary C.; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.

    2017-07-01

    Headwater stream responses to climate change will depend in part on groundwater-surface water exchanges. We used linear modeling techniques to partition likely effects of shallow groundwater seepage and air temperature on stream temperatures for 79 sites in nine focal watersheds using hourly air and water temperature measurements collected during summer months from 2012 to 2015 in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Shallow groundwater effects exhibited more variation within watersheds than between them, indicating the importance of reach-scale assessments and the limited capacity to extrapolate upstream groundwater influences from downstream measurements. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models revealed intricate interactions among geomorphological landform features (stream slope, elevation, network length, contributing area, and channel confinement) and seasonal precipitation patterns (winter, spring, and summer months) that together were robust predictors of spatial and temporal variation in groundwater influence on stream temperatures. The final BRT model performed well for training data and cross-validated samples (correlation = 0.984 and 0.760, respectively). Geomorphological and precipitation predictors of groundwater influence varied in their importance between watersheds, suggesting differences in spatial and temporal controls of recharge dynamics and the depth of the groundwater source. We demonstrate an application of the final BRT model to predict groundwater effects from landform and precipitation covariates at 1075 new sites distributed at 100 m increments within focal watersheds. Our study provides a framework to estimate effects of groundwater seepage on stream temperature in unsampled locations. We discuss applications for climate change research to account for groundwater-surface water interactions when projecting future thermal thresholds for stream biota.

  7. Testing and application of simple semi-analytical models for soil temperature estimation and prediction in environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiros, Ioannis X; Droulia, Fotoula; Thoma, Eleni; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-07-29

    The ability of various semi-analytical models to predict soil temperature profiles in an experimental plot during a 16-year monitoring study for soil depths up to 120 cm is evaluated. The models are developed from an analytical model by replacing the steady-state soil temperature with easily obtained hourly and daily average temperature values. Such values include the hourly air temperature, the daily average air temperature, the hourly soil temperature of selected soil depths from three daily observations, the daily average of the soil temperature profile and the hourly soil temperature for the bottom depth. The performance evaluation results show that, in principle, all models exhibit high correlation (R 2 values in the range 0.85-0.97), indicating a very good agreement between measured and predicted values. In addition, error statistics reveal that the best performance in terms of Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is the model based on the daily average of the soil temperature profile with MAE values in the range of 0-0.4°C and RMSE values in the range of 0.1-1.5°C.

  8. Initial Neutral Particle Analyzer Measurements of Ion Temperature in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; R.E. Bell; M.P. Petrov; A.L. Roquemore; and E.V. Suvorkin

    2002-07-08

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer which measures the energy spectra of minority H and bulk D species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 msec. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from (delta)E/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector. The NPA measures thermal Maxwellian ion spectra to obtain line integrated ion temperatures, T{sub i}. For line integral electron densities below neL {approx} 3.5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -2}, good agreement is observed between the line integrated NPA T{sub i} and the central T{sub i}(0) measured by the spatially localized CHarge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic. However, with increasingly higher n{sub eL} the NPA T{sub i} falls below the central T{sub i}(0) measured by CHERS because the charge exchange neutral emissivity weights the line integrated NPA measurement outboard of the plasma core. An analytic neutral analysis code, DOUBLE, has been applied to the NPA data to correct for this effect and restore agreement with T{sub i}(0) measured by CHERS. A description of the NPA diagnostic on NSTX and initial ion temperature measurements along with an illustration of application of the DOUBLE code are presented.

  9. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  10. LSTM-Based Temperature Prediction for Hot-Axles of Locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of locomotives plays a central role for the smooth operation of railway systems. Hot-axle failures are one of the most commonly found problems leading to locomotive accidents. Since the operating status of the locomotive axle bearings can be distinctly reflected by the axle temperatures, online temperature monitoring has become an essential way to detect hot-axle failures. In this work, we explore the feasibility of predict the hot-axle failures by identifying the temperature from predicted nominal values. We propose a data-driven approach based on the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM network to predict the sensor temperature for axle bearings. The effectiveness of the prediction model was validated with operation data collected from commercial locomotives. With a prediction accuracy is within a few percent, the proposed techniques can be used as a dynamic reference for hot-axle monitoring.

  11. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  12. Comparing predicted estrogen concentrations with measurements in US waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostich, Mitch; Flick, Robert; Martinson, John

    2013-01-01

    The range of exposure rates to the steroidal estrogens estrone (E1), beta-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in the aquatic environment was investigated by modeling estrogen introduction via municipal wastewater from sewage plants across the US. Model predictions were compared to published measured concentrations. Predictions were congruent with most of the measurements, but a few measurements of E2 and EE2 exceed those that would be expected from the model, despite very conservative model assumptions of no degradation or in-stream dilution. Although some extreme measurements for EE2 may reflect analytical artifacts, remaining data suggest concentrations of E2 and EE2 may reach twice the 99th percentile predicted from the model. The model and bulk of the measurement data both suggest that cumulative exposure rates to humans are consistently low relative to effect levels, but also suggest that fish exposures to E1, E2, and EE2 sometimes substantially exceed chronic no-effect levels. -- Highlights: •Conservatively modeled steroidal estrogen concentrations in ambient water. •Found reasonable agreement between model and published measurements. •Model and measurements agree that risks to humans are remote. •Model and measurements agree significant questions remain about risk to fish. •Need better understanding of temporal variations and their impact on fish. -- Our model and published measurements for estrogens suggest aquatic exposure rates for humans are below potential effect levels, but fish exposure sometimes exceeds published no-effect levels

  13. Adaptive Outlier-tolerant Exponential Smoothing Prediction Algorithms with Applications to Predict the Temperature in Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Shaolin; Zhang Wei; Li Ye; Fan Shunxi

    2011-01-01

    The exponential smoothing prediction algorithm is widely used in spaceflight control and in process monitoring as well as in economical prediction. There are two key conundrums which are open: one is about the selective rule of the parameter in the exponential smoothing prediction, and the other is how to improve the bad influence of outliers on prediction. In this paper a new practical outlier-tolerant algorithm is built to select adaptively proper parameter, and the exponential smoothing pr...

  14. Temperature Measurement Technique Using Phosphorescence of Porphyrin Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Kentaro; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2007-11-01

    LIF have been developed to measure the temperature, pH and the oxygen concentration in the fluid. However, the frequent excitation of the fluorescent dye causes the quenching effect. In addition, two color LIF should be applied in order to cancel the effect of non-uniform light intensity of excitation. The phosphor emitting the phosphorescence for a few milliseconds by an excitation was measured at the high time resolution, while the phosphorescence lifetime is the function of the temperature. As the phosphorescence dyes, PtTFPP and PdTFPP were tested. Those mixed with Coumarin30 were also demonstrated. These dyes were excited by a CW laser with the wavelength of 405nm. As the result, it was clarified to be able to measure the temperature using these dyes and this laser. Present study is the result of ``High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal'' entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).

  15. Systems Modeling for Crew Core Body Temperature Prediction Postlanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Cynthia; Ochoa, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, NASA s latest crewed spacecraft project, presents many challenges to its designers including ensuring crew survivability during nominal and off nominal landing conditions. With a nominal water landing planned off the coast of San Clemente, California, off nominal water landings could range from the far North Atlantic Ocean to the middle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. For all of these conditions, the vehicle must provide sufficient life support resources to ensure that the crew member s core body temperatures are maintained at a safe level prior to crew rescue. This paper will examine the natural environments, environments created inside the cabin and constraints associated with post landing operations that affect the temperature of the crew member. Models of the capsule and the crew members are examined and analysis results are compared to the requirement for safe human exposure. Further, recommendations for updated modeling techniques and operational limits are included.

  16. Methods of Temperature and Emission Measure Determination of Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirtain, J. W.; Schmelz, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2002-05-01

    Recent observational results from both SOHO-EIT and TRACE indicate that coronal loops are isothermal along their length (axially). These results are obtained from a narrowband filter ratio method that assumes that the plasma is isothermal along the line of sight (radially). However, these temperatures vary greatly from those derived from differential emission measure (DEM) curves produced from spectral lines recorded by SOHO-CDS. The DEM results indicate that the loops are neither axially nor radially isothermal. This discrepancy was investigated by Schmelz et al. (2001). They chose pairs of iron lines from the same CDS data set to mimic the EIT and TRACE loop results. Ratios of different lines gave different temperatures, indicating that the plasma was not radially isothermal. In addition the results indicated that the loop was axially isothermal, even though the DEM analysis of the same data showed this result to be false. Here we have analyzed the EIT data for the CDS loop published by Schmelz et al. (2001). We took the ratios of the 171-to-195 and 195-to-284 filter data, and made temperature maps of the loop. The results indicate that the loop is axially isothermal, but different temperatures were found for each pair of filters. Both ratio techniques force the resultant temperature to lie within the range where the response functions (for filters) or the emissivity functions (for lines) overlap; isothermal loops are therefore a byproduct of the analysis. This conclusion strengthens support for the idea that temperature and emission measure results from filter ratio methods may be misleading or even drastically wrong. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783.

  17. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined......, we simplify state prediction for the MPC. Consequently, the control problem of the nonlinear system is simplified into a quadratic programming. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation time, which is the traveling time of wind from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based...... by the effective wind speed on the rotor disc. We take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore, the scheduling variable is known for the entire prediction horizon. By taking the advantage of having future values of the scheduling variable...

  18. Implementation of an artificial neural network as a PAT tool for the prediction of temperature distribution within a pharmaceutical fluidized bed granulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korteby, Yasmine; Mahdi, Yassine; Azizou, Amel; Daoud, Kamel; Regdon, Géza

    2016-06-10

    In this study, a novel in-line measurement technique of the air temperature distribution during a granulation process using a conical fluidized bed was designed and built for the purpose of measuring the temperature under the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and introduced to predict the establishment of temperature profiles. Three sets of thermocouples were used, placed at different positions covering the whole operating range, connected to data acquisition measurement hardware, allowing an in-line acquisition and recording of temperatures every second. The measurements throughout the fluidized bed were performed in a steady state by spraying a solution of PVP onto a lactose monohydrate powder bed in order to make predictions of the temperature distribution and the hydrodynamics of the bed during the granulation process using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and to establish the different temperature profiles for different process conditions through the precise predicted information by the constructed, trained, validated and tested neural network. The model's testing results showed a strong prediction capacity of the effects of process variables. Indeed, the predicted temperature values obtained with the ANN model were in good agreement with the values measured with in-line reference method and hence the method can have an application as a predictive control tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring core body temperature with a non-invasive sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazgaoker, Savyon; Ketko, Itay; Yanovich, Ran; Heled, Yuval; Epstein, Yoram

    2017-05-01

    In various occupations, workers may be exposed to extreme environmental conditions and physical activities. Under these conditions the ability to follow the workers' body temperature may protect them from overheating that may lead to heat related injuries. The "Dräger" Double Sensor (DS) is a novel device for assessing body-core temperature (T c ). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the DS in measuring T c under heat stress. Seventeen male participants performed a three stage protocol: 30min rest in a thermal comfort environment (20-22°C, 50% relative humidity), followed by an exposure to a hot environment of 40°C, 40% relative humidity -30min at rest and 60min of exercise (walking on a treadmill at 5km/h and 2% elevation). Simultaneously temperatures measured by the DS (T DS ) and by rectal temperature (T re ) (YSI-401 thermistor) were recorded and then compared. During the three stages of the study the average temperature obtained by the DS was within±0.3°C of rectal measurement. The correlation between T DS and T re was significantly better during the heat exposures phases than during resting under comfort conditions. These preliminary results are promising for potential use of the DS by workers under field conditions and especially under environmental heat stress or when dressed in protective garments. For this goal, further investigations are required to validate the accuracy of the DS under various levels of heat stress, clothing and working levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. K. [Johnson Research LLC, Pueblo West, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor 'boosted heat pump' technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pumpsystem operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops. The system was shown to select capacity correctly, supplying the appropriate amount of heat to the house across the full range of outdoor temperatures. The system's Coefficient of Performance (Seasonal COP, or SCOP) over two entire winters was calculated, based on measured data, to be 3.29over the first winter and 2.68 over the second winter. A second seasonal efficiency calculation by a different method yielded a SCOP of 2.78 for the first winter and 2.83 for the second winter. This second seasonal efficiency calculation was determined by comparing measured heat pump energy use to the in situ energy use with resistance heat alone. This method is the ratio of the slopes of thedaily energy use load lines.

  1. Temperature measurement on neurological pulse generators during MR scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesch François

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to manufacturers of both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI machines, and implantable neurological pulse generators (IPGs, MRI is contraindicated for patients with IPGs. A major argument for this restriction is the risk to induce heat in the leads due to the electromagnetic field, which could be dangerous for the surrounding brain parenchyma. The temperature change on the surface of the case of an ITREL-III (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN and the lead tip during MRI was determined. An anatomical realistic and a cubic phantom, filled with phantom material mimicking human tissue, and a typical lead configuration were used to imitate a patient who carries an IPG for deep brain stimulation. The measurements were performed in a 1.5 T and a 3.0 T MRI. 2.1°C temperature increases at the lead tip uncovered the lead tip as the most critical part concerning heating problems in IPGs. Temperature increases in other locations were low compared to the one at the lead tip. The measured temperature increase of 2.1°C can not be considered as harmful to the patient. Comparison with the results of other studies revealed the avoidance of loops as a practical method to reduce heating during MRI procedures.

  2. Hybrid-type temperature sensor for in situ measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuchi, Tohru; Hiraka, Kensuke

    2006-11-01

    A hybrid-type surface temperature sensor combines the contact and noncontact methods, which allows us to overcome the shortcomings of both methods. The hybrid-type surface thermometer is composed mainly of two components: a metal film sheet that makes contact with an object and a radiometer that is used to detect the radiance of the rear surface of the metal film, which is actually a modified radiation thermometer. Temperature measurement using the hybrid-type thermometer with a several tens micrometer thick Hastelloy sheet, a highly heat and corrosion resistant alloy, is possible with a systematic error of -0.5K and random errors of ±0.5K, in the temperature range from 900to1000K. This thermometer provides a useful means for calibration of in situ temperature measurement in various processes, especially in the silicon semiconductor industry. This article introduces the basic idea of the hybrid-type surface sensor, presents experimental results and discussions, and finally describes some applications.

  3. Comparison Testings between Two High-temperature Strain Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J.-F.; Castelli, M. G.; Androjna, D.; Blue, C.; Blue, R.; Lin, R. Y.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center to compare and contrast the performance of a newly developed resistance strain gage, the PdCr temperature-compensated wire strain gage, to that of a conventional high-temperature extensometry. The evaluation of the two strain measurement systems was conducted through the application of various thermal and mechanical loading spectra using a high-temperature thermomechanical uniaxial testing system equipped with quartz lamp heating. The purpose of the testing was not only to compare and contrast the two strain sensors but also to investigate the applicability of the PdCr strain gage to the testing environment typically employed when characterizing the high-temperature mechanical behavior of structural materials. Strain measurement capabilities to 8OO C were investigated with a nickel base superalloy IN100 substrate material, and application to titanium matrix composite (TMC) materials was examined with the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 08 system. PdCr strain gages installed by three attachment techniques, namely, flame spraying, spot welding and rapid infrared joining were investigated.

  4. Rotational Raman-based temperature measurements in a high-velocity, turbulent jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Wernet, Mark P.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous rotational Raman scattering spectroscopy is used to acquire measurements of the mean and root mean square (rms) temperature fluctuations in turbulent, high-velocity heated jets. Raman spectra in air were obtained across a matrix of radial and axial locations downstream from a 50 mm diameter nozzle operating from subsonic to supersonic conditions over a wide range of temperatures and Mach numbers, in accordance with the Tanna matrix frequently used in jet noise studies. These data were acquired in the hostile, high noise (115 dB) environment of a large scale open air test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Temperature estimates were determined by performing non-linear least squares fitting of the single shot spectra to the theoretical rotational Stokes spectra of N2 and O2. The laser employed in this study was a high energy, long-pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. One thousand single-shot spectra were acquired at each spatial coordinate. Mean temperature and rms temperature variations were calculated at each measurement location. Excellent agreement between the averaged and single-shot temperatures was observed with an accuracy better than 2.5% for temperature, and rms variations in temperature between  ±2.2% at 296 K and  ±4.5% at 850 K. The mean and normalized rms temperatures measured here were then compared to NASA’s Consensus data set of PIV velocity and turbulence measurements in similar jet flows. The results of this and planned follow-on studies will support NASA GRC’s development of physics-based jet noise prediction, turbulence modeling and aeroacoustic source modeling codes.

  5. Predicted and measured velocity distribution in a model heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.B.; Carlucci, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between numerical predictions, using the porous media concept, and measurements of the two-dimensional isothermal shell-side velocity distributions in a model heat exchanger. Computations and measurements were done with and without tubes present in the model. The effect of tube-to-baffle leakage was also investigated. The comparison was made to validate certain porous media concepts used in a computer code being developed to predict the detailed shell-side flow in a wide range of shell-and-tube heat exchanger geometries

  6. High temperature elastic constant measurements: application to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, J.M.

    1969-03-01

    We present an apparatus with which we have measured the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio of several compounds from the resonance frequency of cylinders in the temperature range 0 deg. C-700 deg. C. We especially studied the elastic constants of plutonium and measured for the first time to our knowledge the Young's modulus of Pu δ and Pu ε . E δ 360 deg. C = 1.6 10 11 dy/cm 2 ; E ε 490 deg. C = 1.1 10 11 dy/cm 2 , σ ε = 0.25 ± 0.03 Using our results, we have calculated the compressibility, the Debye temperature, the Grueneisen constant and the electronic specific heat of Pu ε . (author) [fr

  7. Dual purpose pyrometer for temperature and solidification velocity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.

    1990-01-01

    A dual purpose pyrometer is described that allows both accurate radiance temperature measurement and fast temporal response. The system uses two silicon photodiodes with separate optical paths derived from a common spot on the sample. The optical bandwidths and response times of each detection circuit are tailored to the function of each radiometer. The radiance temperature of electromagnetically levitated metallic samples is measured over a narrow optical bandwidth with a high-gain silicon detector. The velocity of solidification of undercooled melts can be deduced from the rise time of the second silicon detector which samples a broad optical bandwidth and has a fast response time. Results from experiments on the undercooling and solidification behavior of electromagnetically levitated pure nickel show that the solidification velocity approaches 17 m/s at high undercooling.

  8. Worst-case prediction of normal operating containment temperatures for environmentally qualified equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopoler, M.J.; Sundergill, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Due to issues raised in NRC Information Notice No. 87-65, a southern US nuclear plant was concerned about thermal aging of environmentally qualified (EQ) equipment located in areas of elevated containment temperatures. A method to predict the worst-case monthly temperatures at various zones in the containment and calculate the qualified life using this monthly temperature was developed. Temperatures were predicted for twenty locations inside the containment. Concern about the qualified life of EQ equipment resulted from normal operating temperatures above 120F in several areas of the containment, especially during the summer. At a few locations, the temperature exceeded 140F. Also, NRC Information Notice No. 89-30 reported high containment temperatures at three other nuclear power plants. The predicted temperatures were based on a one-year containment temperature monitoring program. The monitors included permanent temperature monitors required by the Technical Specifications and temporary monitors installed specifically for this program. The temporary monitors were installed near EQ equipment in the expected worst-case areas based on design and operating experience. A semi-empirical model that combined physical and statistical models was developed. The physical model was an overall energy balance for the containment. The statistical model consists of several linear regressions that conservatively relate the monitor temperatures to the bulk containment temperature. The resulting semi-empirical model predicts the worst-case monthly service temperatures at the location of each of the containment temperature monitors. The monthly temperatures are the maximum expected because they are based on the historically worst-case atmospheric data

  9. Research of temperature field measurement using a flexible temperature sensor array for robot sensing skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Siyu; Li, Ruiqi; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yugang; Liu, Caixia

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a novel temperature sensor array by dispensing conductive composites on a flexible printed circuit board which is able to acquire the ambient temperature. The flexible temperature sensor array was fabricated by using carbon fiber-filled silicon rubber based composites on a flexible polyimide circuit board, which can both ensure their high flexibility. It found that CF with 12 wt% could be served as the best conductive filler for higher temperature sensitivity and better stability comparing with some other proportion for dynamic range from 30&° to 90°. The preparation of the temperature sensitive material has also been described in detail. Connecting the flexible sensor array with a data acquisition card and a personal computer (PC), some heat sources with different shapes were loaded on the sensor array; the detected results were shown in the interface by LabVIEW software. The measured temperature contours are in good agreement with the shapes and amplitudes of different heat sources. Furthermore, in consideration of the heat dissipation in the air, the relationship between the resistance and the distance of heat sources with sensor array was also detected to verify the accuracy of the sensor array, which is also a preparation for our future work. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed flexible sensor array, and it can be used as humanoid artificial skin for sensation system of robots.

  10. Length determination on industrial polymer parts from measurement performed under transient temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    the cooling phase, from 27 °C to 20 °C approximately. The length variation was measured by means of an inductive probe and the temperature with an RTD surface sensor. The frame of the system was composed by elements in Zerodur and Invar to minimize the thermal deformations of the structure. Uniform...... temperature in the part was assumed. The reference length at 20 °C (L20) was calculated with an a posteriori regression of the data from the complete cooling curve. A prediction of L20 was then performed exploiting partial segments of the curve. Several segments with different time spans and starting points...

  11. Propargyl Recombination: Estimation of the High Temperature, Low Pressure Rate Constant from Flame Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Jensen, Anker

    2005-01-01

    3 at temperatures below 1000 K, while data at high temperature and low pressure only can be obtained from flames. In the present work, an estimate of the rate constant for the reaction at 1400 +/- 50 K and 20 Torr is obtained from analysis of the fuel-rich acetylene flame of Westmoreland, Howard......, and Longwell. Based on an accurate modeling of the flame structure, in particular the concentration profile of propargyl, we estimate the rate constant by fitting the kinetic modeling predictions to the measured benzene and phenyl profiles. The best agreement is obtained with k = 1.3 x 10(12) cm(3)/mol...

  12. High resolution temperature measurements in the borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, H.; Heidinger, P.; Šafanda, Jan; Čermák, Vladimír; Burkhardt, H.; Popov, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2004), s. 813-819 ISSN 1086-9379 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0997; GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) WI687/17-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : temperature measurements * borehole * Mexico Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2004

  13. Gas temperature measurements in short duration turbomachinery test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattafesta, L. N.; Epstein, A. H.

    1988-07-01

    Thermocouple rakes for use in short-duration turbomachinery test facilities have been developed using very fine thermocouples. Geometry variations were parametrically tested and showed that bare quartz junction supports (76 microns in diameter) yielded superior performance, and were rugged enough to survive considerable impact damage. Using very low cost signal conditioning electronics, temperature accuracies of 0.3 percent were realized yielding turbine efficiency measurements at the 1-percent level. Ongoing work to improve this accuracy is described.

  14. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site

  15. PCPV instrumentation and measurement techniques at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemann, H.

    1978-11-01

    Strain measurement within the structural concrete of the prototype Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessel have been performed during a one year operation at elevated temperatures up to 120 0 C. Laboratory investigations on the properties of the gauges and the concrete mix are applied to separate the different contributions to the strain data. A decrease of creep and loss of prestress and the arise of stable conditions is observed. (author)

  16. High-temperature rate constant measurements for OH+xylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2015-06-01

    The overall rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with o-xylene (k 1), m-xylene (k 2), and p-xylene (k 3) were measured behind reflected shock waves over 890-1406K at pressures of 1.3-1.8atm using OH laser absorption near 306.7nm. Measurements were performed under pseudo-first-order conditions. The measured rate constants, inferred using a mechanism-fitting approach, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as:k1=2.93×1013exp(-1350.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(890-1406K)k2=3.49×1013exp(-1449.3/T)cm3mol-1s-1(906-1391K)k3=3.5×1013exp(-1407.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(908-1383K)This paper presents, to our knowledge, first high-temperature measurements of the rate constants of the reactions of xylene isomers with OH radicals. Low-temperature rate-constant measurements by Nicovich et al. (1981) were combined with the measurements in this study to obtain the following Arrhenius expressions, which are applicable over a wider temperature range:k1=2.64×1013exp(-1181.5/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1406K)k2=3.05×109exp(-400/T)cm3mol-1s-1(508-1391K)k3=3.0×109exp(-440/T)cm3mol-1s-1(526-1383K) © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  17. MTF measurement of IR optics in different temperature ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Alexander; Duncker, Hannes; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    Infrared (IR) optical systems are at the core of many military, civilian and manufacturing applications and perform mission critical functions. To reliably fulfill the demanding requirements imposed on today's high performance IR optics, highly accurate, reproducible and fast lens testing is of crucial importance. Testing the optical performance within different temperature ranges becomes key in many military applications. Due to highly complex IR-Applications in the fields of aerospace, military and automotive industries, MTF Measurement under realistic environmental conditions become more and more relevant. A Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) test bench with an integrated thermal chamber allows measuring several sample sizes in a temperature range from -40 °C to +120°C. To reach reliable measurement results under these difficult conditions, a specially developed temperature stable design including an insulating vacuum are used. The main function of this instrument is the measurement of the MTF both on- and off-axis at up to +/-70° field angle, as well as measurement of effective focal length, flange focal length and distortion. The vertical configuration of the system guarantees a small overall footprint. By integrating a high-resolution IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) in the detection unit, time consuming measurement procedures such as scanning slit with liquid nitrogen cooled detectors can be avoided. The specified absolute accuracy of +/- 3% MTF is validated using internationally traceable reference optics. Together with a complete and intuitive software solution, this makes the instrument a turn-key device for today's state-of- the-art optical testing.

  18. Temperature-Dependent Coercive Field Measured by a Quantum Dot Strain Gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Keil, Robert; Zopf, Michael; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2017-12-13

    Coercive fields of piezoelectric materials can be strongly influenced by environmental temperature. We investigate this influence using a heterostructure consisting of a single crystal piezoelectric film and a quantum dots containing membrane. Applying electric field leads to a physical deformation of the piezoelectric film, thereby inducing strain in the quantum dots and thus modifying their optical properties. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission shows butterfly-like loops, from which the coercive fields are directly derived. The results suggest that coercive fields at cryogenic temperatures are strongly increased, yielding values several tens of times larger than those at room temperature. We adapt a theoretical model to fit the measured data with very high agreement. Our work provides an efficient framework for predicting the properties of ferroelectric materials and advocating their practical applications, especially at low temperatures.

  19. Prediction of creep of metallic materials under time-variable temperatures and stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsoulas, N.D.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the prediction of metallic materials creep behaviour at time-variable temperatures, exclusively with creep input data under constant loading. The method is derived from a more general physical-phenomenological model and, additionally, incorporates the prediction under time-variable stresses. To test the method's predicting capability, a series of experiments was carried out for the creep strain at time-variable temperatures and stresses for austenitic steel X8CrNiMoNb 16-16. The test data were predicted reasonably well using the method in question. (orig.) [de

  20. Third trimester ultrasound soft-tissue measurements accurately predicts macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Saccone, Gabriele; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until September 2015 with no limit for language. We included only studies assessing the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the abdomen or thigh in the prediction of macrosomia  ≥34 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was the accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia. We generated the forest plot for the pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence interval (CI). Additionally, summary receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were plotted and the area under the curve (AUC) was also computed to evaluate the overall performance of the diagnostic test accuracy. Three studies, including 287 singleton gestations, were analyzed. The pooled sensitivity of sonographic measurements of abdominal or thigh fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia was 80% (95% CI: 66-89%) and the pooled specificity was 95% (95% CI: 91-97%). The AUC for diagnostic accuracy of sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue in the prediction of macrosomia was 0.92 and suggested high diagnostic accuracy. Third-trimester sonographic measurements of fetal soft tissue after 34 weeks may help to detect macrosomia with a high degree of accuracy. The pooled detection rate was 80%. A standardization of measurements criteria, reproducibility, building reference charts of fetal subcutaneous tissue and large studies to assess the optimal cutoff of fetal adipose thickness are necessary before the introduction of fetal soft-tissue markers in the clinical practice.

  1. Active silicon x-ray for measuring electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.T.

    1994-07-01

    Silicon diodes are commonly used for x-ray measurements in the soft x-ray region between a few hundred ev and 20 keV. Recent work by Cho has shown that the charge collecting region in an underbiased silicon detector is the depletion depth plus some contribution from a region near the depleted region due to charge-diffusion. The depletion depth can be fully characterized as a function of the applied bias voltage and is roughly proportional to the squart root of the bias voltage. We propose a technique to exploit this effect to use the silicon within the detector as an actively controlled x-ray filter. With reasonable silicon manufacturing methods, a silicon diode detector can be constructed in which the sensitivity of the collected charge to the impinging photon energy spectrum can be changed dynamically in the visible to above the 20 keV range. This type of detector could be used to measure the electron temperature in, for example, a tokamak plasma by sweeping the applied bias voltage during a plasma discharge. The detector samples different parts of the energy spectrum during the bias sweep, and the data collected contains enough information to determine the electron temperature. Benefits and limitations of this technique will be discussed along with comparisons to similar methods for measuring electron temperature and other applications of an active silicon x-ray filter

  2. Actual evaporation estimation from infrared measurement of soil surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pognant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the hydrological cycle, actual evaporation represents the second most important process in terms of volumes of water transported, second only to the precipitation phenomena. Several methods for the estimation of the Ea were proposed by researchers in scientific literature, but the estimation of the Ea from potential evapotranspiration often requires the knowledge of hard-to-find parameters (e.g.: vegetation morphology, vegetation cover, interception of rainfall by the canopy, evaporation from the canopy surface and uptake of water by plant roots and many existing database are characterized by missing or incomplete information that leads to a rough estimation of the actual evaporation amount. Starting from the above considerations, the aim of this study is to develop and validate a method for the estimation of the Ea based on two steps: i the potential evaporation estimation by using the meteorological data (i.e. Penman-Monteith; ii application of a correction factor based on the infrared soil surface temperature measurements. The dataset used in this study were collected during two measurement campaigns conducted both in a plain testing site (Grugliasco, Italy, and in a mountain South-East facing slope (Cogne, Italy. During those periods, hourly measurement of air temperature, wind speed, infrared surface temperature, soil heat flux, and soil water content were collected. Results from the dataset collected in the two testing sites show a good agreement between the proposed method and reference methods used for the Ea estimation.

  3. Measuring the temperature history of isochorically heated warm dense metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, Chris; Kim, J.; Park, J.; Moody, J.; Emig, J.; Heeter, B.; Dozieres, M.; Beg, Fn; McLean, Hs

    2017-10-01

    A pump-probe platform has been designed for soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy near edge structure measurements in isochorically heated Al or Cu samples with temperature of 10s to 100s of eV. The method is compatible with dual picosecond-class laser systems and may be used to measure the temperature of the sample heated directly by the pump laser or by a laser-driven proton beam Knowledge of the temperature history of warm dense samples will aid equation of state measurements. First, various low- to mid-Z targets were evaluated for their suitability as continuum X-ray backlighters over the range 200-1800 eV using a 10 J picosecond-class laser with relativistic peak intensity Alloys were found to be more suitable than single-element backlighters. Second, the heated sample package was designed with consideration of target thickness and tamp layers using atomic physics codes. The results of the first demonstration attempts will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-SC0014600.

  4. A simplified heat transfer model for predicting temperature change inside food package kept in cold room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, A H; Solanki, S C; Yadav, Rajvir

    2013-04-01

    A simple analytical heat flow model for a closed rectangular food package containing fruits or vegetables is proposed for predicting time temperature distribution during transient cooling in a controlled environment cold room. It is based on the assumption of only conductive heat transfer inside a closed food package with effective thermal properties, and convective and radiative heat transfer at the outside of the package. The effective thermal conductivity of the food package is determined by evaluating its effective thermal resistance to heat conduction in the packages. Food packages both as an infinite slab and a finite slab have been investigated. The finite slab solution has been obtained as the product of three infinite slab solutions describe in ASHRAE guide and data book. Time temperature variation has been determined and is presented graphically. The cooling rate and the half cooling time were also obtained. These predicted values, are compared with the experimentally measured values for both the finite and infinite closed packages containing oranges. An excellent agreement between them validated the simple proposed model.

  5. Hysteresis and Temperature Dependency of Moisture Sorption – New Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    for combined heat and moisture transport in materials. There is a need for further elaboration of the importance of these issues, and it is the intent of this paper to contribute to such elaboration. The paper seeks to contribute to the knowledge base about such sorption characteristic by presenting some new...... measurements of hysteresis and temperature dependency of the moisture sorption characteristics of three different porous building materials: aerated concrete, cement paste and spruce. Scanning curves are measured for all three materials where periods with adsorption and desorption interrupt each other...

  6. Laser metrology in fluid mechanics granulometry, temperature and concentration measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boutier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    In fluid mechanics, non-intrusive measurements are fundamental in order to improve knowledge of the behavior and main physical phenomena of flows in order to further validate codes.The principles and characteristics of the different techniques available in laser metrology are described in detail in this book.Velocity, temperature and concentration measurements by spectroscopic techniques based on light scattered by molecules are achieved by different techniques: laser-induced fluorescence, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering using lasers and parametric sources, and absorption sp

  7. Measurement of ocean temperature and salinity via microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Sea-surface temperature with an accuracy of 1 C and salinity with an accuracy of 1% were measured with a 1.43 and 2.65 GHz radiometer system after correcting for the influence of cosmic radiation, intervening atmosphere, sea-surface roughness, and antenna beamwidth. The radiometers are a third-generation system using null-balancing and feedback noise injection. Flight measurements from aircraft over bay regions and coastal areas of the Atlantic resulted in contour maps with spatial resolution of 0.5 km.

  8. submitter Experimental temperature measurements for the energy amplifier test

    CERN Document Server

    Calero, J; Gallego, E; Gálvez, J; García Tabares, L; González, E; Jaren, J; López, C; Lorente, A; Martínez Val, J M; Oropesa, J; Rubbia, C; Rubio, J A; Saldana, F; Tamarit, J; Vieira, S

    1996-01-01

    A uranium thermometer has been designed and built in order to make local power measurements in the First Energy Amplifier Test (FEAT). Due to the experimental conditions power measurements of tens to hundreds of nW were required, implying a sensitivity in the temperature change measurements of the order of 1 mK. A uranium thermometer accurate enough to match that sensitivity has been built. The thermometer is able to determine the absolute energetic gain obtained in a tiny subcritical uranium assembly exposed to a proton beam of kinetic energies between 600 MeV and 2.75 GeV. In addition, the thermometer measurements have provided information about the spatial power distribution and the shape of the neutron spallation cascade.

  9. Measurement of giant dipole resonance width at low temperature: A new experimental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, Deepak; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T.K.; Mukherjee, G.; Pandey, R.; Gohil, M.; Pai, H.; Meena, J.K.; Banerjee, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The systematic evolution of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) width in the temperature region of 0.9-1.4 MeV has been measured experimentally for 119 Sb using alpha induced fusion reaction and employing the LAMBDA high energy photon spectrometer. The temperatures have been precisely determined by simultaneously extracting the vital level density parameter from the neutron evaporation spectrum and the angular momentum from gamma multiplicity filter using a realistic approach. The systematic trend of the data seems to disagree with the thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM). The model predicts the gradual increase of GDR width from its ground state value whereas the measured GDR widths appear to remain constant at the ground state value till T∼1 MeV and increase thereafter, indicating towards a failure of the adiabatic assumption of the model at low temperature.

  10. High resolution measurements of the temperature dependence of the roton energy of superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.V.; Azuah, R.T.; Stirling, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Recent neutron inelastic scattering measurements [1] at the ILL (energy resolution 4 He roton energy on temperature have shown significant deviations from the expected behaviour; the temperature variation was found to be slower than predicted by the established roton-roton interaction theory due to Bedel, Pines and Zawadowski [2] (BPZ). New measurements of the roton excitations in superfluid 4 He have been made using the IRIS spectrometer (energy resolution ∼ 20 μeV) at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The roton energy was determined over a temperature range of 0.5 K to 1.6 K. It was found that the results can be described well by the BPZ theory and so appear to contradict the ILL results. (author)

  11. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  12. New England observed and predicted median August stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median August stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  13. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum negative rate of change in New England based on a...

  14. New England observed and predicted Julian day of maximum growing season stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted Julian day of maximum growing season stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial...

  15. New England observed and predicted median July stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted median July stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  16. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily range points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature daily ranges in New England based on a spatial statistical network...

  17. New England observed and predicted growing season maximum stream/river temperature points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted growing season maximum stream/river temperatures in New England based on a spatial statistical...

  18. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) One Month Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a probabilistic one-month temperature outlook for the United States twice a month. CPC issues an initial monthly outlook...

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Three Month Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a series of thirteen probabilistic three-month temperature outlooks for the United States. CPC issues the thirteen...

  20. Predictions of glass transition temperature for hydrogen bonding biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sman, R G M

    2013-12-19

    We show that the glass transition of a multitude of mixtures containing hydrogen bonding materials correlates strongly with the effective number of hydroxyl groups per molecule, which are available for intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This correlation is in compliance with the topological constraint theory, wherein the intermolecular hydrogen bonds constrain the mobility of the hydrogen bonded network. The finding that the glass transition relates to hydrogen bonding rather than free volume agrees with our recent finding that there is little difference in free volume among carbohydrates and polysaccharides. For binary and ternary mixtures of sugars, polyols, or biopolymers with water, our correlation states that the glass transition temperature is linear with the inverse of the number of effective hydroxyl groups per molecule. Only for dry biopolymer/sugar or sugar/polyol mixtures do we find deviations due to nonideal mixing, imposed by microheterogeneity.

  1. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...

  2. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accurate predictor of height in forensic science, but cannot be directly measured in living patients.32 In a recent study in a public hospital in Brazil, it was indeed found that height prediction equations based on knee height outperformed those based on. Discrepancies of up to 19.8 cm were recorded, which is clinically.

  3. Accuracy of Mandibular Rami Measurements in Prediction of Sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, observational study was carriedout using 500 digital orthopantomographs (OPGs) with five rami measurements taken for each radiograph in the South Indian population. The determination of sex was done by discriminant function analysis with a prediction accuracy being 84.1% ...

  4. Prediction of Air Flow and Temperature Profiles Inside Convective Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Vintilă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar tray drying is an effective alternative for post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Product quality and uniformity of the desired final moisture content are affected by the uneven air flow and temperature distribution inside the drying chamber. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate the operation parameters of a new indirect solar dryer having an appropriate design based on thermal uniformity inside the drying chamber, low construction costs and easy accessibility to resources needed for manufacture. The research was focused on both the investigation of different operation conditions and analysis of the influence of the damper position, which is incorporated into the chimney, on the internal cabinet temperature and air flow distribution. Numerical simulation was carried out with Comsol Multiphysics CFD commercial code using a reduced 2D domain model by neglecting any end effects from the side walls. The analysis of the coupled thermal-fluid model provided the velocity field, pressure distribution and temperature distribution in the solar collector and in the drying chamber when the damper was totally closed, half open and fully open and for different operation conditions. The predicted results were compared with measurements taken in-situ. With progressing computing power, it is conceivable that CFD will continue to provide explanations for more fluid flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena, leading to better equipment design and process control for the food industry.

  5. Predicting temperature drop rate of mass concrete during an initial cooling period using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Santosh; Zhou, Yihong; Zhao, Chunju; Zhou, Huawei

    2018-02-01

    Thermal cracking on concrete dams depends upon the rate at which the concrete is cooled (temperature drop rate per day) within an initial cooling period during the construction phase. Thus, in order to control the thermal cracking of such structure, temperature development due to heat of hydration of cement should be dropped at suitable rate. In this study, an attempt have been made to formulate the relation between cooling rate of mass concrete with passage of time (age of concrete) and water cooling parameters: flow rate and inlet temperature of cooling water. Data measured at summer season (April-August from 2009 to 2012) from recently constructed high concrete dam were used to derive a prediction model with the help of Genetic Programming (GP) software “Eureqa”. Coefficient of Determination (R) and Mean Square Error (MSE) were used to evaluate the performance of the model. The value of R and MSE is 0.8855 and 0.002961 respectively. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the relative impact on the target parameter due to input parameters. Further, testing the proposed model with an independent dataset those not included during analysis, results obtained from the proposed GP model are close enough to the real field data.

  6. Temperature Fields in Soft Tissue during LPUS Treatment: Numerical Prediction and Experiment Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujawska, Tamara; Wojcik, Janusz; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that beneficial therapeutic effects in soft tissues can be induced by the low power ultrasound (LPUS). For example, increasing of cells immunity to stress (among others thermal stress) can be obtained through the enhanced heat shock proteins (Hsp) expression induced by the low intensity ultrasound. The possibility to control the Hsp expression enhancement in soft tissues in vivo stimulated by ultrasound can be the potential new therapeutic approach to the neurodegenerative diseases which utilizes the known feature of cells to increase their immunity to stresses through the Hsp expression enhancement. The controlling of the Hsp expression enhancement by adjusting of exposure level to ultrasound energy would allow to evaluate and optimize the ultrasound-mediated treatment efficiency. Ultrasonic regimes are controlled by adjusting the pulsed ultrasound waves intensity, frequency, duration, duty cycle and exposure time. Our objective was to develop the numerical model capable of predicting in space and time temperature fields induced by a circular focused transducer generating tone bursts in multilayer nonlinear attenuating media and to compare the numerically calculated results with the experimental data in vitro. The acoustic pressure field in multilayer biological media was calculated using our original numerical solver. For prediction of temperature fields the Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation was employed. Temperature field measurements in vitro were carried out in a fresh rat liver using the 15 mm diameter, 25 mm focal length and 2 MHz central frequency transducer generating tone bursts with the spatial peak temporal average acoustic intensity varied between 0.325 and 1.95 W/cm 2 , duration varied from 20 to 500 cycles at the same 20% duty cycle and the exposure time varied up to 20 minutes. The measurement data were compared with numerical simulation results obtained under experimental boundary conditions. Good agreement between the

  7. A new measure-correlate-predict approach for resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensen, A.; Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Madsen, H. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mathematical Modelling, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to find reasonable candidate site for wind farms, it is of great importance to be able to calculate the wind resource at potential sites. One way to solve this problem is to measure wind speed and direction at the site, and use these measurements to predict the resource. If the measurements at the potential site cover less than e.g. one year, which most likely will be the case, it is not possible to get a reliable estimate of the long-term resource, using this approach. If long-term measurements from e.g. some nearby meteorological station are available, however, then statistical methods can be used to find a relation between the measurements at the site and at the meteorological station. This relation can then be used to transform the long-term measurements to the potential site, and the resource can be calculated using the transformed measurements. Here, a varying-coefficient model, estimated using local regression, is applied in order to establish a relation between the measurements. The approach is evaluated using measurements from two sites, located approximately two kilometres apart, and the results show that the resource in this case can be predicted accurately, although this approach has serious shortcomings. (au)

  8. Monitoring and Prediction of the Liquid Steel Temperature in the Ladle and Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorčák, Ľ.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the description of the main features of an online system for the real time monitoring and prediction of the liquid steel temperature in the ladle and tundish. Monitoring and prediction are based on a combination of analytical and statistical methods. Thus e.g., the temperature profiles of the walls are calculated using multi-layer implicit difference scheme taking into account the current temperature of the steel, preheating of the ladle and/or tundish, properties of the refractories, etc. Liquid steel temperatures are calculated from the heat balance of the heat fluxes into the walls and other losses. The influences of all the processes in the secondary metallurgy are taken into account in this system too. The liquid steel temperature prediction is being made continuously during the processing of steel from the LD converter to the continuous casting.

  9. Rational design of temperature-sensitive alleles using computational structure prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Poultney

    Full Text Available Temperature-sensitive (ts mutations are mutations that exhibit a mutant phenotype at high or low temperatures and a wild-type phenotype at normal temperature. Temperature-sensitive mutants are valuable tools for geneticists, particularly in the study of essential genes. However, finding ts mutations typically relies on generating and screening many thousands of mutations, which is an expensive and labor-intensive process. Here we describe an in silico method that uses Rosetta and machine learning techniques to predict a highly accurate "top 5" list of ts mutations given the structure of a protein of interest. Rosetta is a protein structure prediction and design code, used here to model and score how proteins accommodate point mutations with side-chain and backbone movements. We show that integrating Rosetta relax-derived features with sequence-based features results in accurate temperature-sensitive mutation predictions.

  10. Radiometric measurement of temperature distributions in solar cavity receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, E. F.; Giannola, P. S.

    1989-03-01

    An engineering tool incorporating a scanning infrared radiometer, an image digitizer, a microcomputer, and the software to drive the system was developed to allow remote mapping of the temperature distribution in solar cavity receivers. Using enclosure analysis, the infrared image processing program extracts the irradiance map from the radiosity map of the cavity to yield an emissive power map. Using the calibration curve of the radiometer and the emissivity of the surface of the cavity, the emissive power map is transformed into a temperature map. The system was tested by comparing its calculated temperatures to temperatures measured by thermocouples at several locations on the surfaces of heated model cavity receivers. The average relative error for the cavities ranged from 4.6 percent to 34.9 percent, with the relative error on the base usually less than half that on the wall. Some work was also carried out to compensate the detected radiosity field for the system transfer function error of the scanner system.

  11. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C.; Hoell, A.; Shukla, S.; Bladé, I.; Liebmann, B.; Roberts, J. B.; Robertson, F. R.; Husak, G.

    2014-12-01

    In eastern East Africa (the southern Ethiopia, eastern Kenya and southern Somalia region), poor boreal spring (long wet season) rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers implement disaster risk reduction measures while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent East African droughts to a stronger Walker circulation, resulting from warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool and an increased east-to-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the western Pacific, we show that the two dominant modes of East African boreal spring rainfall variability are tied to SST fluctuations in the western central Pacific and central Indian Ocean, respectively. Variations in these two rainfall modes can thus be predicted using two SST indices - the western Pacific gradient (WPG) and central Indian Ocean index (CIO), with our statistical forecasts exhibiting reasonable cross-validated skill (rcv ≈ 0.6). In contrast, the current generation of coupled forecast models show no skill during the long rains. Our SST indices also appear to capture most of the major recent drought events such as 2000, 2009 and 2011. Predictions based on these simple indices can be used to support regional forecasting efforts and land surface data assimilations to help inform early warning and guide climate outlooks.

  12. Effect of length of measurement period on accuracy of predicted annual heating energy consumption of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Tae, Choon-Soeb; Zaheeruddin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the temperature dependent regression models of energy consumption as a function of the length of the measurement period. The methodology applied was to construct linear regression models of daily energy consumption from 1 day to 3 months data sets and compare the annual heating energy consumption predicted by these models with actual annual heating energy consumption. A commercial building in Daejon was selected, and the energy consumption was measured over a heating season. The results from the investigation show that the predicted energy consumption based on 1 day of measurements to build the regression model could lead to errors of 100% or more. The prediction error decreased to 30% when 1 week of data was used to build the regression model. Likewise, the regression model based on 3 months of measured data predicted the annual energy consumption within 6% of the measured energy consumption. These analyses show that the length of the measurement period has a significant impact on the accuracy of the predicted annual energy consumption of buildings

  13. Measuring artificial recharge with fiber optic distributed temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Matthew W; Bauer, Brian; Hutchinson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat was used as a tracer to measure infiltration rates from a recharge basin. The propagation of diurnal oscillation of surface water temperature into the basin bed was monitored along a transect using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS). The propagation rate was related to downward specific discharge using standard theory of heat advection and dispersion in saturated porous media. An estimate of the temporal variation of heat propagation was achieved using a wavelet transform to find the phase lag between the surface temperature diurnal oscillation and the correlated oscillation at 0.33 and 0.98 m below the bed surface. The wavelet results compared well to a constant velocity model of thermal advection and dispersion during periods of relatively constant discharge rates. The apparent dispersion of heat was found to be due primarily to hydrodynamic mechanisms rather than thermal diffusion. Specific discharge estimates using the FODTS technique also compared well to water balance estimates over a four month period, although there were occasional deviations that have yet to be adequately explained. The FODTS technique is superior to water balance in that it produces estimates of infiltration rate every meter along the cable transect, every half hour. These high resolution measurements highlighted areas of low infiltration and demonstrated the degradation of basin efficiency due to source waters of high suspended solids. FODTS monitoring promises to be a useful tool for diagnosing basin performance in an era of increasing groundwater demand. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Measuring the Densities of Aqueous Glasses at Cryogenic Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Julius, Ethan F; Tyree, Timothy J; Dan, Ritwik; Moreau, David W; Thorne, Robert

    2017-06-28

    We demonstrate a method for determining the vitreous phase cryogenic temperature densities of aqueous mixtures, and other samples that require rapid cooling, to prepare the desired cryogenic temperature phase. Microliter to picoliter size drops are cooled by projection into a liquid nitrogen-argon (N2-Ar) mixture. The cryogenic temperature phase of the drop is evaluated using a visual assay that correlates with X-ray diffraction measurements. The density of the liquid N2-Ar mixture is adjusted by adding N2 or Ar until the drop becomes neutrally buoyant. The density of this mixture and thus of the drop is determined using a test mass and Archimedes principle. With appropriate care in drop preparation, management of gas above the liquid cryogen mixture to minimize icing, and regular mixing of the cryogenic mixture to prevent density stratification and phase separation, densities accurate to <0.5% of drops as small as 50 pL can readily be determined. Measurements on aqueous cryoprotectant mixtures provide insight into cryoprotectant action, and provide quantitative data to facilitate thermal contraction matching in biological cryopreservation.

  15. Registered Report: Measuring Unconscious Deception Detection by Skin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth Van 't Veer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers. To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments.

  16. CARS temperature measurements in a hypersonic propulsion test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Smith, M. W.; Antcliff, R. R.; Northam, G. B.; Cutler, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Static-temperature measurements performed in a reacting vitiated air-hydrogen Mach-2 flow in a duct in Test Cell 2 at NASA LaRC by using a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system are discussed. The hypersonic propulsion Test Cell 2 hardware is outlined with emphasis on optical access ports and safety features in the design of the Test Cell. Such design considerations as vibration, noise, contamination from flow field or atmospheric-borne dust, unwanted laser- and electrically-induced combustion, and movement of the sampling volume in the flow are presented. The CARS system is described, and focus is placed on the principle and components of system-to-monochromator signal coupling. Contour plots of scramjet combustor static temperature in a reacting-flow region are presented for three stations, and it is noted that the measurements reveal such features in the flow as maximum temperature near the model wall in the region of the injector footprint.

  17. Comparing various artificial neural network types for water temperature prediction in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Maciej J.; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw J.; Osuch, Marzena

    2015-10-01

    A number of methods have been proposed for the prediction of streamwater temperature based on various meteorological and hydrological variables. The present study shows a comparison of few types of data-driven neural networks (multi-layer perceptron, product-units, adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference systems and wavelet neural networks) and nearest neighbour approach for short time streamwater temperature predictions in two natural catchments (mountainous and lowland) located in temperate climate zone, with snowy winters and hot summers. To allow wide applicability of such models, autoregressive inputs are not used and only easily available measurements are considered. Each neural network type is calibrated independently 100 times and the mean, median and standard deviation of the results are used for the comparison. Finally, the ensemble aggregation approach is tested. The results show that simple and popular multi-layer perceptron neural networks are in most cases not outperformed by more complex and advanced models. The choice of neural network is dependent on the way the models are compared. This may be a warning for anyone who wish to promote own models, that their superiority should be verified in different ways. The best results are obtained when mean, maximum and minimum daily air temperatures from the previous days are used as inputs, together with the current runoff and declination of the Sun from two recent days. The ensemble aggregation approach allows reducing the mean square error up to several percent, depending on the case, and noticeably diminishes differences in modelling performance obtained by various neural network types.

  18. Air temperature measurements based on the speed of sound to compensate long distance interferometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrua Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure the real time temperature distribution along an interferometer path based on the propagation of acoustic waves is presented. It exploits the high sensitivity of the speed of sound in air to the air temperature. In particular, it takes advantage of a special set-up where the generation of the acoustic waves is synchronous with the amplitude modulation of a laser source. A photodetector converts the laser light to an electronic signal considered as reference, while the incoming acoustic waves are focused on a microphone and generate a second signal. In this condition, the phase difference between the two signals substantially depends on the temperature of the air volume interposed between the sources and the receivers. The comparison with the traditional temperature sensors highlighted the limit of the latter in case of fast temperature variations and the advantage of a measurement integrated along the optical path instead of a sampling measurement. The capability of the acoustic method to compensate the interferometric distance measurements due to air temperature variations has been demonstrated for distances up to 27 m.

  19. Temperature dependent measurement of internal damping of austenitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oravcová Monika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed on the analysis of the internal damping changes of austenitic stainless steels AISI 304, AISI 316L and AISI 316Ti depending from temperature. In experimental measurements only resonance method was used which is based on continuous excitation of oscillations of the specimens and the whole apparatus vibrates at the frequency near to the resonance. Microplastic processes and dissipation of energy within the metals are evaluated and investigated by internal damping measurements. Damping capacity of materials is closely tied to the presence of defects including second phase particles and voids. By measuring the energy dissipation in the material, we can determine the elastic characteristics, Youngs modulus, the level of stress relaxation and many other.

  20. Embedded DAQ System Design for Temperature and Humidity Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarique Rafique Memon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have proposed a cost effective DAQ (Data Acquisition system design useful for local industries by using user friendly LABVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Electronic Workbench. The proposed system can measure and control different industrial parameters which can be presented in graphical icon format. The system design is proposed for 8-channels, whereas tested and recorded for two parameters i.e. temperature and RH (Relative Humidity. Both parameters are set as per upper and lower limits and controlled using relays. Embedded system is developed using standard microcontroller to acquire and process the analog data and plug-in for further processing using serial interface with PC using LABVIEW. The designed system is capable of monitoring and recording the corresponding linkage between temperature and humidity in industrial unit's and indicates the abnormalities within the process and control those abnormalities through relays

  1. Zircaloy sheathed thermocouples for PWR fuel rod temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.V.; Wesley, R.D.; Wilkins, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Small diameter zircaloy sheathed thermocouples have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Surface mounted thermocouples were developed to measure the temperature of zircaloy clad fuel rods used in the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program (TFBP), and embedded thermocouples were developed for use by the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program for support tests using zircaloy clad electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulators. The first objective of this developmental effort was to produce zircaloy sheathed thermocouples to replace titanium sheathed thermocouples and thereby eliminate the long-term corrosion of the titanium-to-zircaloy attachment weld. The second objective was to reduce the sheath diameter to obtain faster thermal response and minimize cladding temperature disturbance due to thermocouple attachment

  2. The Measurement and Interpretation of Transformation Temperatures in Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerig, T. W.; Pelton, A. R.; Bhattacharya, K.

    2017-12-01

    A previous paper (Duerig and Bhattacharya in Shap Mem Superelasticity 1:153-161, 2015) introduced several engineering considerations surrounding the R-phase in Nitinol and highlighted a common, if not pervasive, misconception regarding the use of the term Af by the medical device industry. This paper brings additional data to bear on the issue and proposes more accurate terminology. Moreover, a variety of tools are used to establish the forward and reverse stress-temperature phase diagrams for a superelastic wire typical of that used in medical devices. Once established, the two most common methods of measuring transformation temperatures, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Bend Free Recovery, are tested against the observed behavior. Light is also shed upon the origin of the Clausius-Clapeyron ratio (d σ/d T), the triple point, and why such large variations are reported in superelastic alloys.

  3. Spectroscopic temperature measurements of non-equilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Lee, R.W.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The characterization of laser-produced plasmas has required the application of spectroscopic techniques to non-standard conditions where kinetics models have not been extensively tested. The plasmas are produced by the Nova laser for the study of inertial confinement fusion, can be mm in size, and evolve on sub-nanosecond time scales. These targets typically achieve electron temperatures from 2-4 keV and electron densities of 10 20 -10 22 cm -3 . The authors have measured the electron temperature of two types of targets: bags of gas and hohlraums, Au cylinders with laser entrance holes in the flat ends. By comparing data from different targets, they examine the time-dependence of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics

  4. Apparent increase in the thickness of superconducting particles at low temperatures measured by electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    We predict that superconducting particles will show an apparent increase in thickness at low temperatures when measured by electron holography. This will result not from a real thickness increase, rather from an increase in the mean inner potential sensed by the electron wave traveling through the particle, originating in expansion of the electronic wavefunction of the superconducting electrons and resulting negative charge expulsion from the interior to the surface of the superconductor, giving rise to an increase in the phase shift of the electron wavefront going through the sample relative to the wavefront going through vacuum. The temperature dependence of the observed phase shifts will yield valuable new information on the physics of the superconducting state of metals. - Highlights: • A new property of superconducting particles is predicted. • Electron holography will show an apparent increase in thickness at low temperatures. • This will result from a predicted increase in the mean inner potential. • This will originate in expulsion of electrons from the interior to the surface. • This is not predicted by the conventional BCS theory of superconductivity

  5. Measurement of the spin and temperature dependence of the ddμ-molecule formation rate in solid and liquid deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, D.L.; Drebushko, A.E.; Dzhelepov, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    Ddμ molecule formation rates have been measured from the two hyperfine states of the dμ-atom in the temperature range of T=5-30 K. Results are consistent with the measurement of the TRIUMF group at T=3 K and contradict theoretical predictions. The work was performed on the JINR phasotron (Dubna). 23 refs., 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Hydroxyl temperature and intensity measurements during noctilucent cloud displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Taylor

    Full Text Available Two Fourier transform spectrometers have been used to investigate the properties of the near-infrared hydroxyl (OH nightglow emission under high-latitude summertime conditions and any association with noctilucent clouds (NLCs. The measurements were made from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska (65.1°N, 147.5°W, during August 1986. Simultaneous photographic observations of the northern twilight sky were made from Gulkana, Alaska (62.2°N, 145.5°W, approximately 340 km to the south to establish the presence of NLCs over the spectrometer site. Data exhibiting significant short-term variations in the relative intensity (as much as 50–100% and rotational temperature (typically 5–15 K were recorded on six occasions when NLCs were observed. Joint measurements were also obtained on several "cloud-free" nights. No obvious relationship was found linking the mean OH intensity or its variation with the occurrence of NLCs. However, a clear tendency was found for the mean OH temperature to be lower on NLC nights than on cloud-free nights. In particular, a significant fraction of the OH(3–1 band spectra recorded by each instrument (16–57% exhibited temperatures below ~154 K on NLC nights compared with <3% on cloud-free nights. This result is qualitatively consistent with current models for ice particle nucleation and growth, but the mean OH temperature on NLC nights (~156 K was significantly higher than would be expected for long-term particle growth in this region. These observations raise questions concerning the expected proximity of the high-latitude, summertime OH layer and the NLC growth region.

  7. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of individual-participant data available from 73 prospective studies involving 294,998 participants without a known history of diabetes mellitus or CVD at the baseline assessment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Measures of risk......,840 incident fatal and nonfatal CVD outcomes (13,237 coronary heart disease and 7603 stroke outcomes) were recorded. In analyses adjusted for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors, there was an approximately J-shaped association between HbA1c values and CVD risk. The association between HbA1c values......IMPORTANCE: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction...

  8. Admission body temperature predicts long-term mortality after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Rungby, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is considered crucial in the management of acute stroke patients. Recently hypothermia applied as a therapy for stroke has been demonstrated to be feasible and safe in acute stroke patients. In the present study, we investigated the predictive role of admission body temperature...

  9. Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Determination of Heating Time During High-Temperature Heat Treatment of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xin-you

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical prediction provides basic understanding and guidance to correctly implement a certaintechnology in the production process. The present study uses a differential equation to predict the heattransfer time between the surface and core layer of wood during the heat treatment, with applicability inestimating the duration of heat treatments at high temperatures. The obtained prediction was compared withthe result of an experimental study performed on Chinese poplar wood with various thicknesses (20, 40 and60mm. During this experiment, the time necessary for the core of wood to reach a temperature of 100°C,130°C and finally 180°C was monitored and the recorded values were compared with the predicted ones.The result of this comparison proved that the experimental values matched the theoretically predicted times,validating thus the applicability of the proposed equation as prediction tool.

  10. The prediction of BRDFs from surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.; Leonard, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of predicting the BRDF of smooth surfaces from profile measurements of their surface finish. The conversion of optical profile data to the BRDF at the same wavelength is essentially independent of scattering models, while the conversion of mechanical measurements, and wavelength scaling in general, are model dependent. Procedures are illustrated for several surfaces, including two from the recent HeNe BRDF round robin, and results are compared with measured data. Reasonable agreement is found except for surfaces which involve significant scattering from isolated surface defects which are poorly sampled in the profile data

  11. Step Prediction During Perturbed Standing Using Center Of Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos R. Popovic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a sensor that can measure balance during quiet standing and predict stepping response in the event of perturbation has many clinically relevant applica- tions, including closed-loop control of a neuroprothesis for standing. This study investigated the feasibility of an algorithm that can predict in real-time when an able-bodied individual who is quietly standing will have to make a step to compensate for an external perturbation. Anterior and posterior perturbations were performed on 16 able-bodied subjects using a pul- ley system with a dropped weight. A linear relationship was found between the peak center of pressure (COP velocity and the peak COP displacement caused by the perturbation. This result suggests that one can predict when a person will have to make a step based on COP velocity measurements alone. Another important feature of this finding is that the peak COP velocity occurs considerably before the peak COP displacement. As a result, one can predict if a subject will have to make a step in response to a perturbation sufficiently ahead of the time when the subject is actually forced to make the step. The proposed instability detection algorithm will be implemented in a sensor system using insole sheets in shoes with minitur- ized pressure sensors by which the COPv can be continuously measured. The sensor system will be integrated in a closed-loop feedback system with a neuroprosthesis for standing in the near future.

  12. Influence and modelling of view angles and microrelief on surface temperature measurements of bare agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Michel; Cierniewski, Jerzy

    The exploitation of remote sensing instruments with large fields of view necessarily implies the analysis of instruments acquired over a wide variety of viewing geometries. The purpose of this study is to underline the effects of view angles and microrelief on the directional surface temperature measurements of cultivated bare soils. A campaign of measurements was carried out at Poznan (Poland) in April 1995. The directional temperatures were measured on a furrowed sandy soil. The measurements were acquired at ground level with a radiothermometer in the 8-14 μm band. The radiothermometer was fixed on a special goniometric support 2.1 m above the soil surface and was directed at the soil with view zenith angles varying from -60° to +60° by steps of 10°. The data were collected for solar zenith angles ranging from 40.2° to 62.3°. In the experiment, for a given sun position, the difference between oblique and nadir measurements could reach 6°C. A model aimed at explaining the variations of the surface temperature measurements of furrowed soil in relation to its viewing conditions is presented. This model requires the precise soil microrelief geometry configuration, the illumination and viewing conditions of the surface and the radiative temperatures of the shaded and sunlit soil facets. The results show a good correlation between the predicted and the measured data. This type of modelling can be used to correct radiative temperature measurements of soils from view angles and soil microrelief geometry effects.

  13. A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderover, Jeremy

    A mid-infrared (mid-IR) absorption sensor based on quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology has been developed and demonstrated for high-temperature thermometry and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in combustion environments. The sensor probes the high-intensity fundamental CO ro-vibrational band at 4.6 mum enabling sensitive measurement of CO and temperature at kHz acquisition rates. Because the sensor operates in the mid-IR CO fundamental band it is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than most of the previously developed CO combustion sensors which utilized absorption in the near-IR overtone bands and mature traditional telecommunications-based diode lasers. The sensor has been demonstrated and validated under operation in both scanned-wavelength absorption and wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) modes in room-temperature gas cell and high-temperature shock tube experiments with known and specified gas conditions. The sensor has also been demonstrated for CO and temperature measurements in an atmospheric premixed ethylene/air McKenna burner flat flame for a range of equivalence ratios (phi = 0.7-1.4). Demonstration of the sensor under scanned-wavelength direct absorption operation was performed in a room-temperature gas cell (297 K and 0.001-1 atm) allowing validation of the line strengths and line shapes predicted by the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database. Application of the sensor in scanned-wavelength mode, at 1-2 kHz acquisition bandwidths, to specified high-temperature shock-heated gases (950-3400 K, 1 atm) provided validation of the sensor for measurements under the high-temperature conditions found in combustion devices. The scanned-wavelength shock tube measurements yielded temperature determinations that deviated by only +/-1.2% (1-sigma deviation) with the reflected shock temperatures and CO mole fraction determinations that deviated by that specified CO mole fraction by only +/-1.5% (1-sigma deviation). These deviations are in fact smaller

  14. Spatiotemporal infrared measurement of interface temperatures during water droplet evaporation on a nonwetting substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Aditya; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2017-01-01

    High-fidelity experimental characterization of sessile droplet evaporation is required to understand the interdependent physical mechanisms that drive the evaporation. In particular, cooling of the interface due to release of the latent heat of evaporation, which is not accounted for in simplified vapor-diffusion-based models of droplet evaporation, may significantly suppress the evaporation rate on nonwetting substrates, which support tall droplet shapes. This suppression is counteracted by convective mass transfer from the droplet to the air. While prior numerical modeling studies have identified the importance of these mechanisms, there is no direct experimental evidence of their influence on the interfacial temperature distribution. Infrared thermography is used here to simultaneously measure the droplet volume, contact angle, and spatially resolved interface temperatures for water droplets on a nonwetting substrate. The technique is calibrated and validated to quantify the temperature measurement accuracy; a correction is employed to account for reflections from the surroundings when imaging the evaporating droplets. Spatiotemporally resolved interface temperature data, obtained via infrared thermography measurements, allow for an improved prediction of the evaporation rate and can be utilized to monitor temperature-controlled processes in droplets for various lab-on-a-chip applications.

  15. Electrochemical noise measurements of stainless steel in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis-Juarez, C.R.; Malo, J.M.; Uruchurtu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion in a high purity aqueous environment simulating a boiling water reactor (BWR) is addressed in this work. This condition necessitates autoclave experiments under high pressure and temperature. Long-term electrochemical noise measurements were explored as a mean to detect and monitor stress corrosion cracking phenomenon. An experimental set up, designed to insulate the working electrode from external interference, made possible to detect and monitor stress corrosion cracking in slow strain rate tests for sensitized and solution annealed 304 stainless steel at 288 o C. Time-series analysis showed variations in the signature of the current density series due to transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC)

  16. Measurement of the temperature coefficient of ratio transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.; Shaumeyer, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the temperature coefficient of the output of several ratio transformers at ratios near 0.500,000 using an ac bridge and a dual-phase, lock-in amplifier. The two orthogonal output components were each resolved to +/- ppb of the bridge drive signal. The results for three commercial ratio transformers between 20 and 50 C range from 0.5 to 100 ppb/K for the signal component in phase with the bridge drive, and from 4 to 300 ppb/K for the quadrature component.

  17. Noncontact measurement of high temperature using optical fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, R. O.

    1990-01-01

    The primary goal of this research program was the investigation and application of noncontact temperature measurement techniques using optical techniques and optical fiber methods. In particular, a pyrometer utilizing an infrared optical light pipe and a multiwavelength filtering approach was designed, revised, and tested. This work was motivated by the need to measure the temperatures of small metallic pellets (approximately 3 mm diameter) in free fall at the Microgravity Materials Processing Drop Tube at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. In addition, research under this program investigated the adaptation of holography technology to optical fiber sensors, and also examined the use of rare-earth dopants in optical fibers for use in measuring temperature. The pyrometer development effort involved both theoretical analysis and experimental tests. For the analysis, a mathematical model based on radiative transfer principles was derived. Key parameter values representative of the drop tube system, such as particle size, tube diameter and length, and particle temperature, were used to determine an estimate of the radiant flux that will be incident on the face of an optical fiber or light pipe used to collect radiation from the incandescent falling particle. An extension of this work examined the advantage of inclining or tilting the collecting fiber to increase the time that the falling particle remains in the fiber field-of-view. Those results indicate that increases in total power collected of about 15 percent may be realized by tilting the fiber. In order to determine the suitability of alternative light pipes and optical fibers, and experimental set-up for measuring the transmittance and insertion loss of infrared fibers considered for use in the pyrometer was assembled. A zirconium fluoride optical fiber and several bundles of hollow core fiber of varying diameters were tested. A prototype two-color pyrometer was assembled and tested at Virginia Tech, and then

  18. New Equation for Prediction of Martensite Start Temperature in High Carbon Ferrous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2018-02-01

    Since previous equations fail to predict M S temperature of high carbon ferrous alloys, we first propose an equation for prediction of M S temperature of ferrous alloys containing > 2 wt pct C. The presence of carbides (Fe3C and Cr-rich M 7C3) is thermodynamically considered to estimate the C concentration in austenite. Especially, equations individually specialized for lean and high Cr alloys very accurately reproduce experimental results. The chemical driving force for martensitic transformation is quantitatively analyzed based on the calculation of T 0 temperature.

  19. Prediction of air temperature for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua

    2008-11-01

    Six models for determining air temperatures for thermal comfort of people using sleeping bags were reviewed. These models were based on distinctive metabolic rates and mean skin temperatures. All model predictions of air temperatures are low when the insulation values of the sleeping bag are high. Nevertheless, prediction variations are greatest for the sleeping bags with high insulation values, and there is a high risk of hypothermia if an inappropriate sleeping bag is chosen for the intended conditions of use. There is, therefore, a pressing need to validate the models by wear trial and determine which one best reflects ordinary consumer needs.

  20. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  1. Temperature diagnostics of ECR plasma by measurement of electron bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirangan, S.; Agnihotri, A. N.; Desai, C. A.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2012-07-01

    The x-ray bremsstrahlung spectrum emitted by the electron population in a 14.5 GHz ECR plasma source has been measured using a NaI(Tl) detector, and hence the electron temperature of the higher energy electron population in the plasma has been determined. The x-ray spectra for Ne and Ar gases have been systematically studied as a function of inlet gas pressure from 7 × 10-7 mbar to 7 × 10-5 mbar and for input microwave power ˜1 W to ˜300 W. At the highest input power and optimum pressure conditions, the end point bremsstrahlung energies are seen to reach ˜700 keV. The estimated electron temperatures (Te) were found to be in the range 20 keV-80 keV. The Te is found to be peaking at a pressure of 1 × 10-5 mbar for both gases. The Te is seen to increase with increasing input power in the intermediate power region, i.e., between 100 and 200 W, but shows different behaviour for different gases in the low and high power regions. Both gases show very weak dependence of electron temperature on inlet gas pressure, but the trends in each gas are different.

  2. Temperature diagnostics of ECR plasma by measurement of electron bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasthurirangan, S. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Agnihotri, A. N.; Desai, C. A.; Tribedi, L. C. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The x-ray bremsstrahlung spectrum emitted by the electron population in a 14.5 GHz ECR plasma source has been measured using a NaI(Tl) detector, and hence the electron temperature of the higher energy electron population in the plasma has been determined. The x-ray spectra for Ne and Ar gases have been systematically studied as a function of inlet gas pressure from 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mbar to 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mbar and for input microwave power {approx}1 W to {approx}300 W. At the highest input power and optimum pressure conditions, the end point bremsstrahlung energies are seen to reach {approx}700 keV. The estimated electron temperatures (T{sub e}) were found to be in the range 20 keV-80 keV. The T{sub e} is found to be peaking at a pressure of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mbar for both gases. The T{sub e} is seen to increase with increasing input power in the intermediate power region, i.e., between 100 and 200 W, but shows different behaviour for different gases in the low and high power regions. Both gases show very weak dependence of electron temperature on inlet gas pressure, but the trends in each gas are different.

  3. Glycated Hemoglobin Measurement and Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Gao, Pei; Khan, Hassan; Butterworth, Adam S.; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kondapally Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao; Thompson, Alex; Sarwar, Nadeem; Willeit, Peter; Ridker, Paul M; Barr, Elizabeth L.M.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Psaty, Bruce M.; Brenner, Hermann; Balkau, Beverley; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Daimon, Makoto; Willeit, Johann; Njølstad, Inger; Nissinen, Aulikki; Brunner, Eric J.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Price, Jackie F.; Sundström, Johan; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Verschuren, W. M. M.; Wald, Nicholas; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Whincup, Peter H.; Ford, Ian; Goldbourt, Uri; Gómez-de-la-Cámara, Agustín; Gallacher, John; Simons, Leon A.; Rosengren, Annika; Sutherland, Susan E.; Björkelund, Cecilia; Blazer, Dan G.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Onat, Altan; Marín Ibañez, Alejandro; Casiglia, Edoardo; Jukema, J. Wouter; Simpson, Lara M.; Giampaoli, Simona; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Selmer, Randi; Wennberg, Patrik; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T.; Dankner, Rachel; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Kavousi, Maryam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Evans, Denis; Wallace, Robert B.; Cushman, Mary; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Umans, Jason G.; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Sato, Shinichi; Gillum, Richard F.; Folsom, Aaron R.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Moons, Karel G.; Griffin, Simon J.; Sattar, Naveed; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Thompson, Simon G.; Danesh, John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Analysis of individual-participant data available from 73 prospective studies involving 294 998 participants without a known history of diabetes mellitus or CVD at the baseline assessment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Measures of risk discrimination for CVD outcomes (eg, C-index) and reclassification (eg, net reclassification improvement) of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (<5%), intermediate (5%to <7.5%), and high (≥7.5%) risk. RESULTS During a median follow-up of 9.9 (interquartile range, 7.6-13.2) years, 20 840 incident fatal and nonfatal CVD outcomes (13 237 coronary heart disease and 7603 stroke outcomes) were recorded. In analyses adjusted for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors, there was an approximately J-shaped association between HbA1c values and CVD risk. The association between HbA1c values and CVD risk changed only slightly after adjustment for total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations or estimated glomerular filtration rate, but this association attenuated somewhat after adjustment for concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein. The C-index for a CVD risk prediction model containing conventional cardiovascular risk factors alone was 0.7434 (95% CI, 0.7350 to 0.7517). The addition of information on HbA1c was associated with a C-index change of 0.0018 (0.0003 to 0.0033) and a net reclassification improvement of 0.42 (−0.63 to 1.48) for the categories of predicted 10-year CVD risk. The improvement provided by HbA1c assessment in prediction of CVD risk was equal to or better than estimated improvements for

  4. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  5. Spatio-temporal prediction of daily temperatures using time-series of MODIS LST images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengl, T.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Percec Tadic, M.; Pebesma, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    A computational framework to generate daily temperature maps using time-series of publicly available MODIS MOD11A2 product Land Surface Temperature (LST) images (1 km resolution; 8-day composites) is illustrated using temperature measurements from the national network of meteorological stations

  6. Software Measurement and Defect Prediction with Depress Extensible Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeyski Lech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context. Software data collection precedes analysis which, in turn, requires data science related skills. Software defect prediction is hardly used in industrial projects as a quality assurance and cost reduction mean. Objectives. There are many studies and several tools which help in various data analysis tasks but there is still neither an open source tool nor standardized approach. Results. We developed Defect Prediction for software systems (DePress, which is an extensible software measurement, and data integration framework which can be used for prediction purposes (e.g. defect prediction, effort prediction and software changes analysis (e.g. release notes, bug statistics, commits quality. DePress is based on the KNIME project and allows building workflows in a graphic, end-user friendly manner. Conclusions. We present main concepts, as well as the development state of the DePress framework. The results show that DePress can be used in Open Source, as well as in industrial project analysis.

  7. Using Noble Gas Measurements to Derive Air-Sea Process Information and Predict Physical Gas Saturations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamme, Roberta C.; Emerson, Steven R.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Long, Matthew C.; Yashayaev, Igor

    2017-10-01

    Dissolved gas distributions are important because they influence oceanic habitats and Earth's climate, yet competing controls by biology and physics make gas distributions challenging to predict. Bubble-mediated gas exchange, temperature change, and varying atmospheric pressure all push gases away from equilibrium. Here we use new noble gas measurements from the Labrador Sea to demonstrate a technique to quantify physical processes. Our analysis shows that water-mass formation can be represented by a quasi steady state in which bubble fluxes and cooling push gases away from equilibrium balanced by diffusive gas exchange forcing gases toward equilibrium. We quantify the rates of these physical processes from our measurements, allowing direct comparison to gas exchange parameterizations, and predict the physically driven saturation of other gases. This technique produces predictions that reasonably match N2/Ar observations and demonstrates that physical processes should force SF6 to be ˜6% more supersaturated than CFC-11 and CFC-12, impacting ventilation age calculations.

  8. Composition-Based Prediction of Temperature-Dependent Thermophysical Food Properties: Reevaluating Component Groups and Prediction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, David Martin; Frelka, John C; Heldman, Dennis Ray

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity) is an important component of process design for food manufacturing. Current models for prediction of thermophysical properties of foods are based on the composition, specifically, fat, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, water, and ash contents, all of which change with temperature. The objectives of this investigation were to reevaluate and improve the prediction expressions for thermophysical properties. Previously published data were analyzed over the temperature range from 10 to 150 °C. These data were analyzed to create a series of relationships between the thermophysical properties and temperature for each food component, as well as to identify the dependence of the thermophysical properties on more specific structural properties of the fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Results from this investigation revealed that the relationships between the thermophysical properties of the major constituents of foods and temperature can be statistically described by linear expressions, in contrast to the current polynomial models. Links between variability in thermophysical properties and structural properties were observed. Relationships for several thermophysical properties based on more specific constituents have been identified. Distinctions between simple sugars (fructose, glucose, and lactose) and complex carbohydrates (starch, pectin, and cellulose) have been proposed. The relationships between the thermophysical properties and proteins revealed a potential correlation with the molecular weight of the protein. The significance of relating variability in constituent thermophysical properties with structural properties--such as molecular mass--could significantly improve composition-based prediction models and, consequently, the effectiveness of process design. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  10. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS, an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment.

  11. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  12. Parathyroid Hormone Measurement in Prediction of Hypocalcaemia following Thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrvarz, S.; Mohebbi, H. A.; Motamedi, M. H. K.; Khatami, S. M.; Reazie, R.; Rasouli, H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk of postthyroidectomy hypocalcaemia by measuring parathyroid hormone (PTH) level after thyroidectomy. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from March 2008 to July 2010. Methodology: All included patients were referred for total or near bilateral thyroidectomy. Serum Calcium (Ca) and PTH levels were measured before and 24 hours after surgery. In low Ca cases or development of hypocalcaemia symptoms, daily monitoring of Ca levels were continued. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). A p-value less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. To assess the standard value of useful predictive factors, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Of total 99 patients who underwent bilateral thyroidectomy, 47 patients (47.5%) developed hypocalcaemia, out of them, 12 (25.5%) became symptomatic while 2 patients developed permanent hypoparathyroidism. After surgery, mean rank of PTH level within the normocalcaemic and hypocalcaemic patients was 55.34 and 44.1 respectively, p=0.052. Twenty four hours after surgery, 62% drop in PTH was associated with 83.3% of symptomatic hypocalcaemic. For diagnosis of symptomatic hypocalcaemia, 62% PTH drop had sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 90.80%. The area under the ROC curve for the PTH postoperative and PTH drop for diagnostic symptomatic hypocalcaemia were 0.835 and 0.873 respectively. Conclusion: Measuring PTH levels after 24 hours postthyroidectomy is not reliable factor for predicting hypocalcaemia itself. For predicting the risk of hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy it is more reliable to measure the serum PTH level before and after operation and compare the reduction level of percentage of PTH drop for predicting the risk of hypocalcaemia. (author)

  13. Measuring and Predicting Sleep and Performance During Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    stage of sleep. Furthermore, the finding that even relatively brief sleep periods (eg, a 4-hour daily nap following 90 hours of continuous...amounts of SWS obtained. Because normal performance levels are restored recovery sleep periods that include much less sleep time than the amount...Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 work periods sleep periods fatigue level Two-Step Models a b 83 Measuring and Predicting Sleep and Performance During Military

  14. Short ECG segments predict defibrillation outcome using quantitative waveform measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coult, Jason; Sherman, Lawrence; Kwok, Heemun; Blackwood, Jennifer; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Rea, Thomas D

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative waveform measures of the ventricular fibrillation (VF) electrocardiogram (ECG) predict defibrillation outcome. Calculation requires an ECG epoch without chest compression artifact. However, pauses in CPR can adversely affect survival. Thus the potential use of waveform measures is limited by the need to pause CPR. We sought to characterize the relationship between the length of the CPR-free epoch and the ability to predict outcome. We conducted a retrospective investigation using the CPR-free ECG prior to first shock among out-of-hospital VF cardiac arrest patients in a large metropolitan region (n=442). Amplitude Spectrum Area (AMSA) and Median Slope (MS) were calculated using ECG epochs ranging from 5s to 0.2s. The relative ability of the measures to predict return of organized rhythm (ROR) and neurologically-intact survival was evaluated at different epoch lengths by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using the 5-s epoch as the referent group. Compared to the 5-s epoch, AMSA performance declined significantly only after reducing epoch length to 0.2s for ROR (AUC 0.77-0.74, p=0.03) and with epochs of ≤0.6s for neurologically-intact survival (AUC 0.72-0.70, p=0.04). MS performance declined significantly with epochs of ≤0.8s for ROR (AUC 0.78-0.77, p=0.04) and with epochs ≤1.6s for neurologically-intact survival (AUC 0.72-0.71, p=0.04). Waveform measures predict defibrillation outcome using very brief ECG epochs, a quality that may enable their use in current resuscitation algorithms designed to limit CPR interruption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simple model for the prediction of ammonia volatilization from water basin: effect of water temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intamanee, J.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a primary chemical used for preserving rubber latex. Consequently, the wastewater from concentrated rubber latex processing contains high ammonia concentration. The volatilization of ammonia from such wastewater may cause an air pollution problem such as the formation of an acid rain or an aerosol of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, which can seriously affect environment and human being. To assess the air pollution problem regarding atmospheric ammonia volatized from wastewater, the model for the prediction of ammonia volatilization rate and flux is therefore desirable. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of water temperature and pH on ammonia volatilization process and to develop a model to describe ammonia volatilization rate and flux including such effects.Ammonia volatilization from water was studied by using a volatilization tank (surface area = 780 cm2, volume = 7 L placed in a water bath in order to control the water temperature. The temperature and pH in the range of 25 to 50ºC and 5 to 11 were respectively investigated. The overall mass transfer coefficients of ammonia were measured as a function of temperature and pH. The quadratic multiple regression technique was used to obtain the model for mass transfer coefficient from experimental data. The model suggests that the overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia increases with increasing water temperature and pH while the temperature-pH interaction retards the increasing characteristic of mass transfer coefficient. Thus the increasing in mass transfer coefficient at higher temperature and pH was slower than that at the lower one. The simple model for the prediction of ammonia volatilization rate and flux was developed based on mass transfer theory and mass transfer coefficient model obtained from this study. This simple ammonia emission model can be used to predict ammonia volatilization rate and flux at any pH, water temperature and

  16. Development of a method for estimating oesophageal temperature by multi-locational temperature measurement inside the external auditory canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Hirofumi; Horie, Seichi; Kawanami, Shoko; Inoue, Jinro; Iijima, Yoshinori; Sato, Kiyoharu; Abe, Takeshi

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to develop a practical method to estimate oesophageal temperature by measuring multi-locational auditory canal temperatures. This method can be applied to prevent heatstroke by simultaneously and continuously monitoring the core temperatures of people working under hot environments. We asked 11 healthy male volunteers to exercise, generating 80 W for 45 min in a climatic chamber set at 24, 32 and 40 °C, at 50% relative humidity. We also exposed the participants to radiation at 32 °C. We continuously measured temperatures at the oesophagus, rectum and three different locations along the external auditory canal. We developed equations for estimating oesophageal temperatures from auditory canal temperatures and compared their fitness and errors. The rectal temperature increased or decreased faster than oesophageal temperature at the start or end of exercise in all conditions. Estimated temperature showed good similarity with oesophageal temperature, and the square of the correlation coefficient of the best fitting model reached 0.904. We observed intermediate values between rectal and oesophageal temperatures during the rest phase. Even under the condition with radiation, estimated oesophageal temperature demonstrated concordant movement with oesophageal temperature at around 0.1 °C overestimation. Our method measured temperatures at three different locations along the external auditory canal. We confirmed that the approach can credibly estimate the oesophageal temperature from 24 to 40 °C for people performing exercise in the same place in a windless environment.

  17. Theoretical prediction of electrocaloric effect based on non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric (EC effect has been paid great attentions recently for applications on cooling or electricity generation. However, the directly commercial measurement equipment for the effect is still unavailable. Here we report a novel method to predict EC effect by non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields. According to the method, the analytical equations of EC temperature change ΔT are directly given for normal ferroelectrics and relaxor. The calculations have been performed on several materials and it is shown that the method is suitable for both inorganic and organic ferroelectrics, and relaxor.

  18. Implementation of Moderator Circulation Test Temperature Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yeong Muk; Hong, Seok Boong; Kim, Min Seok; Choi, Hwa Rim; Kim, Hyung Shin

    2016-01-01

    Moderator Circulation Test(MCT) facility is 1/4 scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. MCT is an equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started implementation of MCT Temperature Measurement System (TMS) using multiple infrared sensors. To control multiple infrared sensors, MCT TMS is implemented using National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The MCT TMS is implemented to measure sensor data of multiple infrared sensors using the LabVIEW. The 35 sensor pipes of MCT TMS are divided into 2 ports to meet the minimum measurement time of 0.2 seconds. The software of MCT TMS is designed using collection function and processing function. The MCT TMS has the function of monitoring the states of multiple infrared sensors. The GUI screen of MCT TMS is composed of sensor pipe categories for user

  19. Implementation of Moderator Circulation Test Temperature Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yeong Muk; Hong, Seok Boong; Kim, Min Seok; Choi, Hwa Rim [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Shin [Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Moderator Circulation Test(MCT) facility is 1/4 scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. MCT is an equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started implementation of MCT Temperature Measurement System (TMS) using multiple infrared sensors. To control multiple infrared sensors, MCT TMS is implemented using National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The MCT TMS is implemented to measure sensor data of multiple infrared sensors using the LabVIEW. The 35 sensor pipes of MCT TMS are divided into 2 ports to meet the minimum measurement time of 0.2 seconds. The software of MCT TMS is designed using collection function and processing function. The MCT TMS has the function of monitoring the states of multiple infrared sensors. The GUI screen of MCT TMS is composed of sensor pipe categories for user.

  20. Selective solar absorber emittance measurement at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Philémon; Braillon, Julien; Raccurt, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Durability of solar components for CSP (Concentrated Solar Power Plant) technologies is a key point to lower cost and ensure their large deployment. These technologies concentrated the solar radiation by means of mirrors on a receiver tube where it is collected as thermal energy. The absorbers are submitted to strong environmental constraints and the degradation of their optical properties (emittance and solar absorbance) have a direct impact on performance. The characterization of a material in such condition is complicated and requires advanced apparatuses, and different measurement methods exist for the determination of the two quantities of relevance regarding an absorber, which are its emittance and its solar absorbance. The objective is to develop new optical equipment for measure the emittance of this solar absorber at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present an optical bench developed for emittance measurement on absorbers is conditions of use. Results will be shown, with a discussion of some factors of influence over this measurement and how to control them.

  1. A measurement-based method for predicting margins and uncertainties for unprotected accidents in the Integral Fast Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A measurement-based method for predicting the response of an LMR core to unprotected accidents has been developed. The method processes plant measurements taken at normal operation to generate a stochastic model for the core dynamics. This model can be used to predict three sigma confidence intervals for the core temperature and power response. Preliminary numerical simulations performed for EBR-2 appear promising. 6 refs., 2 figs

  2. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  3. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  4. Measurements of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity at Hinkley Point 'B': 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.A.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity made at Hinkley Point 'B' AGR in 1981 are described. These measurements follow earlier tests reported in e.g. RD/B/N4846 and are part of a series of measurements designed to support theoretical estimates of the change of fuel temperature coefficient as a function of core irradiation. Low and high power measurements were made at a mean core irradiation of 1170GWD. As previously, the measurements at both power levels show agreement with theoretical predictions to within the estimated experimental errors. Recent measurements (mean core irradiation >500GWD) show evidence of a small systematic difference between measured and theoretical values with the experimental values being approximately equal to 0.1mN/ 0 C more positive than the theoretical ones. The measured value of αsub(U) at high power was -0.64+-0.10mN/ 0 C and the low power value, corrected theoretically to normal operating conditions, was also -0.64+-0.10mN/ 0 C. (author)

  5. Using an artificial neural network to predict carbon dioxide compressibility factor at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohagheghian, Erfan [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada); Zafarian-Rigaki, Habiballah; Motamedi-Ghahfarrokhi, Yaser; Hemmati-Sarapardeh, Abdolhossein [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Carbon dioxide injection, which is widely used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, has the potential of being coupled with CO{sub 2} sequestration and reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Hence, knowing the compressibility factor of carbon dioxide is of a vital significance. Compressibility factor (Z-factor) is traditionally measured through time consuming, expensive and cumbersome experiments. Hence, developing a fast, robust and accurate model for its estimation is necessary. In this study, a new reliable model on the basis of feed forward artificial neural networks is presented to predict CO{sub 2} compressibility factor. Reduced temperature and pressure were selected as the input parameters of the proposed model. To evaluate and compare the results of the developed model with pre-existing models, both statistical and graphical error analyses were employed. The results indicated that the proposed model is more reliable and accurate compared to pre-existing models in a wide range of temperature (up to 1,273.15 K) and pressure (up to 140MPa). Furthermore, by employing the relevancy factor, the effect of pressure and temprature on the Z-factor of CO{sub 2} was compared for below and above the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, and the physcially expected trends were observed. Finally, to identify the probable outliers and applicability domain of the proposed ANN model, both numerical and graphical techniques based on Leverage approach were performed. The results illustrated that only 1.75% of the experimental data points were located out of the applicability domain of the proposed model. As a result, the developed model is reliable for the prediction of CO{sub 2} compressibility factor.

  6. Temperature Effects on Kinetics of KV11.1 Drug Block Have Important Consequences for In Silico Proarrhythmic Risk Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windley, Monique J; Mann, Stefan A; Vandenberg, Jamie I; Hill, Adam P

    2016-07-01

    Drug block of voltage-gated potassium channel subtype 11.1 human ether-a-go-go related gene (Kv11.1) (hERG) channels, encoded by the KCNH2 gene, is associated with reduced repolarization of the cardiac action potential and is the predominant cause of acquired long QT syndrome that can lead to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Current safety guidelines require that potency of KV11.1 block is assessed in the preclinical phase of drug development. However, not all drugs that block KV11.1 are proarrhythmic, meaning that screening on the basis of equilibrium measures of block can result in high attrition of potentially low-risk drugs. The basis of the next generation of drug-screening approaches is set to be in silico risk prediction, informed by in vitro mechanistic descriptions of drug binding, including measures of the kinetics of block. A critical issue in this regard is characterizing the temperature dependence of drug binding. Specifically, it is important to address whether kinetics relevant to physiologic temperatures can be inferred or extrapolated from in vitro data gathered at room temperature in high-throughout systems. Here we present the first complete study of the temperature-dependent kinetics of block and unblock of a proarrhythmic drug, cisapride, to KV11.1. Our data highlight a complexity to binding that manifests at higher temperatures and can be explained by accumulation of an intermediate, non-blocking encounter-complex. These results suggest that for cisapride, physiologically relevant kinetic parameters cannot be simply extrapolated from those measured at lower temperatures; rather, data gathered at physiologic temperatures should be used to constrain in silico models that may be used for proarrhythmic risk prediction. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Predicting geometry of rectangular and hyperbolic fin profiles with temperature-dependent thermal properties using decomposition and evolutionary methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, Arka; Singla, Rohit K.; Roy, Pranab K.; Prasad, Dilip K.; Das, Ranjan; Repaka, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Dimensions of rectangular and hyperbolic fin are predicted for satisfying a given temperature. • Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) is used to solve the forward problem. • DE in conjunction with ADM is used to solve the inverse problem. • Measurement error up to 5% is found to yield satisfactory reconstructions. - Abstract: This work proposes the application of the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) in conjunction with the differential evolution (DE) for simultaneously estimating the dimensions of a rectangular and hyperbolic profile annular fin in order to satisfy a prescribed temperature requirement. The thermal conductivity and the surface heat transfer are assumed to be temperature-dependent. The required temperature field has been obtained using ADM for cases, involving insulated and convective boundary conditions at the tip. Then, using an inverse scheme based on DE, required fins dimensions satisfying a prescribed temperature field are estimated. Owing to the correlated nature of the unknowns, many feasible solutions have been found to lie within a given range satisfying the given temperature field. This temperature field can offer the flexibility in selecting the designing parameters. The present study is expected to be useful for selecting the dimensions of a rectangular and hyperbolic profile annular fin which can satisfy the given temperature field

  8. Decay heat measurements and predictions of BWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Pre-calorimetry decay heat predictions obtained with the ORIGEN2 computer code were compared to calorimeter data obtained for eleven boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assemblies using General Electric, Morris Operation's in-pool calorimeter. Ten of the 7 x 7 BWR spent fuel assemblies were obtained from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The remaining BWR assembly was from Commonwealth Edison's Dresden Nuclear Power Plant. The assemblies had burnups ranging from 5.3 to 27.6 GWD/MTU and had been removed from their respective reactors for 2 or more years. The majority of the assemblies had burnups of between 20 and 28 GWD/MTU and had been out of the reactor 2 to 4 years. The assemblies represent spent fuel that has been continuously burned and fuel that has been reinserted. Comparisons of ORIGEN2 pre-calorimetry decay heat predictions with calorimeter data showed that predictions agreed with data within the precision/repeatibility of the experimental data (+-15 Watts or 5% for a 300 Watt BWR assembly). Comparisons of predicted axial gamma profiles based on core-averaged axial burnups with measured profiles showed difference. These differences may be explained by reactor operation with partially inserted control rods

  9. Assessment for Melting Temperature Measurement of Nucleic Acid by HRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution melting (HRM, with a high sensitivity to distinguish the nucleic acid species with small variations, has been widely applied in the mutation scanning, methylation analysis, and genotyping. For the aim of extending HRM for the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid secondary structures on sequence dependence, we investigated effects of the dye of EvaGreen, metal ions, and impurities (such as dNTPs on melting temperature (Tm measurement by HRM. The accuracy of HRM was assessed as compared with UV melting method, and little difference between the two methods was found when the DNA Tm was higher than 40°C. Both insufficiency and excessiveness of EvaGreen were found to give rise to a little bit higher Tm, showing that the proportion of dye should be considered for precise Tm measurement of nucleic acids. Finally, HRM method was also successfully used to measure Tms of DNA triplex, hairpin, and RNA duplex. In conclusion, HRM can be applied in the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA or secondary structural elements (even when dNTPs are present.

  10. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  11. Electrochemical noise measurements of stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis-Juarez, C.R. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares Km. 36.5, Carretera Federal Mexico-Toluca, Municipio de Ocoyoacac, C.P. 52045, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Malo, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, C.P. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)], E-mail: jmmalo@iie.org.mx; Uruchurtu, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    Corrosion in a high purity aqueous environment simulating a boiling water reactor (BWR) is addressed in this work. This condition necessitates autoclave experiments under high pressure and temperature. Long-term electrochemical noise measurements were explored as a mean to detect and monitor stress corrosion cracking phenomenon. An experimental set up, designed to insulate the working electrode from external interference, made possible to detect and monitor stress corrosion cracking in slow strain rate tests for sensitized and solution annealed 304 stainless steel at 288 {sup o}C. Time-series analysis showed variations in the signature of the current density series due to transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC)

  12. Temperature in subsonic and supersonic radiation fronts measured at OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Heather; Kline, John; Lanier, Nick; Perry, Ted; Fontes, Chris; Fryer, Chris; Brown, Colin; Morton, John

    2017-10-01

    Propagation of heat fronts relevant to astrophysical plasmas is challenging in the supersonic regime. Plasma Te changes affect opacity and equation of state without hydrodynamic change. In the subsonic phase density perturbations form at material interfaces as the plasma responds to radiation pressure of the front. Recent experiments at OMEGA studied this transition in aerogel foams driven by a hohlraum. In COAX, two orthogonal backlighters drive x-ray radiography and K-shell absorption spectroscopy to diagnose the subsonic shape of the front and supersonic Te profiles. Past experiments used absorption spectroscopy in chlorinated foams to measure the heat front; however, Cl dopant is not suitable for higher material temperatures at NIF. COAX has developed use of Sc and Ti dopants to diagnose Te between 60-100eV and 100-180eV. Analysis with PrismSPECT using OPLIB tabular opacity data will evaluate the platform's ability to advance radiation transport in this regime.

  13. Containerless high temperature property measurements by atomic fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, P. C.; Schiffman, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence techniques were developed for the containerless study of high temperature processes, material properties, levitation, and heating techniques for containerless earth-based experimentation. Experiments were performed in which fluorescence of atomic aluminum, mercury, or tungsten were studied. These experiments include measurements of: (1) Al atom evaporation from CW CO2 laser heated and aerodynamically levitated sapphire and alumina spheres, and self-supported sapphire filaments, (2) Al atom reaction with ambient oxygen in the wake of a levitated specimen, (3) Hg atom concentrations in the wake of levitated alumina and sapphire spheres, relative to the ambient Hg atom concentration, (4) Hg atom concentrations in supersonic levitation jets, and (5) metastable, electronically excited W atom concentrations produced by evaporation of an electrically heated tungsten filament.

  14. Predictions of protein flexibility: first-order measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Julio A; Chacón, Pablo; Abagyan, Ruben

    2004-09-01

    The normal modes of a molecule are utilized, in conjunction with classical conformal vector field theory, to define a function that measures the capability of the molecule to deform at each of its residues. An efficient algorithm is presented to calculate the local chain deformability from the set of normal modes of vibration. This is done by considering each mode as an off-grid sample of a deformation vector field. Predictions of deformability are compared with experimental data in the form of dihedral angle differences between two conformations of ten kinases by using a modified correlation function. Deformability calculations correlate well with experimental results and validate the applicability of this method to protein flexibility predictions. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Influence of pre-measurement thermal treatment on OSL of synthetic quartz measured at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, Y.D.; Gandhi, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Much effort has been made to study the influence of pre-measurement thermal treatment and ionizing radiation on quartz specimens owing to its use in a large number of applications. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) being a structured and sensitive phenomenon promises to correlate the responsible color center and luminescence emission. OSL studies on quartz with such conditions can reveal many significant results. The aim of the present investigation is to understand the effect of annealing temperature on OSL characteristics of synthetic quartz recorded at room temperature. At identical annealing duration and β-dose, the shape of OSL decay curve remains non-exponential; when specimens annealed at lower temperature (∼400 deg. C). The shape of decay curve changes to exponential in nature along with rise in OSL intensity when the specimen was given higher temperature of annealing (>400 deg. C). The effects of such protocol on pattern of OSL sensitivity as well as area under the OSL decay curve are also presented here. The presence of shallow traps, when OSL decay curve was recorded at room temperature seems to be responsible for the changes in OSL pattern. The influence of shallow traps is attributed to non-exponential decay of OSL recorded at room temperature

  16. Microclimate Data Improve Predictions of Insect Abundance Models Based on Calibrated Spatiotemporal Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudo, François; Faye, Emile; Dangles, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature has recently recognized the role of microclimates in controlling the physiology and ecology of species, yet the relevance of fine-scale climatic data for modeling species performance and distribution remains a matter of debate. Using a 6-year monitoring of three potato moth species, major crop pests in the tropical Andes, we asked whether the spatiotemporal resolution of temperature data affect the predictions of models of moth performance and distribution. For this, we used three different climatic data sets: (i) the WorldClim dataset (global dataset), (ii) air temperature recorded using data loggers (weather station dataset), and (iii) air crop canopy temperature (microclimate dataset). We developed a statistical procedure to calibrate all datasets to monthly and yearly variation in temperatures, while keeping both spatial and temporal variances (air monthly temperature at 1 km² for the WorldClim dataset, air hourly temperature for the weather station, and air minute temperature over 250 m radius disks for the microclimate dataset). Then, we computed pest performances based on these three datasets. Results for temperature ranging from 9 to 11°C revealed discrepancies in the simulation outputs in both survival and development rates depending on the spatiotemporal resolution of the temperature dataset. Temperature and simulated pest performances were then combined into multiple linear regression models to compare predicted vs. field data. We used an additional set of study sites to test the ability of the results of our model to be extrapolated over larger scales. Results showed that the model implemented with microclimatic data best predicted observed pest abundances for our study sites, but was less accurate than the global dataset model when performed at larger scales. Our simulations therefore stress the importance to consider different temperature datasets depending on the issue to be solved in order to accurately predict species

  17. Microclimate data improve predictions of insect abundance models based on calibrated spatiotemporal temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François eRebaudo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A large body of literature has recently recognized the role of microclimates in controlling the physiology and ecology of species, yet the relevance of fine-scale climatic data for modeling species performance and distribution remains a matter of debate. Using a 6-year monitoring of three potato moth species, major crop pests in the tropical Andes, we asked whether the spatiotemporal resolution of temperature data affect the predictions of models of moth performance and distribution. For this, we used three different climatic data sets: i the WorldClim dataset (global dataset, ii air temperature recorded using data loggers (weather station dataset, and iii air crop canopy temperature (microclimate dataset. We developed a statistical procedure to calibrate all datasets to monthly and yearly variation in temperatures, while keeping both spatial and temporal variances (air monthly temperature at 1km² for the WorldClim dataset, air hourly temperature for the weather station, and air minute temperature over 250m radius disks for the microclimate dataset. Then, we computed pest performances based on these three datasets. Results for temperature ranging from 9 to 11ºC revealed discrepancies in the simulation outputs in both survival and development rates depending on the spatiotemporal resolution of the temperature dataset. Temperature and simulated pest performances were then combined into multiple linear regression models to compare predicted vs. field data. We used an additional set of study sites to test the ability of the results of our model to be extrapolated over larger scales. Results showed that the model implemented with microclimatic data best predicted observed pest abundances for our study sites, but was less accurate than the global dataset model when performed at larger scales. Our simulations therefore stress the importance to consider different temperature datasets depending on the issue to be solved in order to accurately predict

  18. Microclimate Data Improve Predictions of Insect Abundance Models Based on Calibrated Spatiotemporal Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudo, François; Faye, Emile; Dangles, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature has recently recognized the role of microclimates in controlling the physiology and ecology of species, yet the relevance of fine-scale climatic data for modeling species performance and distribution remains a matter of debate. Using a 6-year monitoring of three potato moth species, major crop pests in the tropical Andes, we asked whether the spatiotemporal resolution of temperature data affect the predictions of models of moth performance and distribution. For this, we used three different climatic data sets: (i) the WorldClim dataset (global dataset), (ii) air temperature recorded using data loggers (weather station dataset), and (iii) air crop canopy temperature (microclimate dataset). We developed a statistical procedure to calibrate all datasets to monthly and yearly variation in temperatures, while keeping both spatial and temporal variances (air monthly temperature at 1 km² for the WorldClim dataset, air hourly temperature for the weather station, and air minute temperature over 250 m radius disks for the microclimate dataset). Then, we computed pest performances based on these three datasets. Results for temperature ranging from 9 to 11°C revealed discrepancies in the simulation outputs in both survival and development rates depending on the spatiotemporal resolution of the temperature dataset. Temperature and simulated pest performances were then combined into multiple linear regression models to compare predicted vs. field data. We used an additional set of study sites to test the ability of the results of our model to be extrapolated over larger scales. Results showed that the model implemented with microclimatic data best predicted observed pest abundances for our study sites, but was less accurate than the global dataset model when performed at larger scales. Our simulations therefore stress the importance to consider different temperature datasets depending on the issue to be solved in order to accurately predict species

  19. Fuel temperature prediction using a variable bypass gap size in the prismatic VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Nam, E-mail: snlee@kaeri.re.kr; Tak, Nam-il; Kim, Min Hwan

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The bypass flow of the prismatic very high temperature reactor is analyzed. • The bypass gap sizes are calculated considering the effect of the neutron fluences and thermal expansion. • The fuel hot spot temperature and temperature profiles are calculated using the variable gap size. • The BOC, MOC and EOC condition at the cycle 07 and 14 are applied. - Abstract: The temperature gradient and hot spot temperatures were calculated in the prismatic very high temperature reactor as a function of the variable bypass gap size. Many previous studies have predicted the temperature of the reactor core based on a fixed bypass gap size. The graphite matrix of the assemblies in the reactor core undergoes a dimensional change during the operation due to thermal expansion and neutron fluence. The expansion and shrinkage of the bypass gaps change the coolant flow fractions into the coolant channels, the control rod holes, and the bypass gaps. Therefore, the temperature of the assemblies may differ compared to those for the fixed bypass gap case. The temperature gradient and the hot spot temperatures are important for the design of reactor structures to ensure their safety and efficiency. In the present study, the temperature variation of the PMR200 is studied at the beginning (BOC), middle (MOC), and end (EOC) of cycles 07 and 14. CORONA code which has been developed in KAERI is applied to solve the thermal-hydraulics of the reactor core of the PMR200. CORONA solves a fluid region using a one-dimensional formulation and a solid region using a three-dimensional formulation to enhance the computational speed and still obtain a reasonable accuracy. The maximum temperatures in the fuel assemblies using the variable bypass gaps did not differ much from the corresponding temperatures using the fixed bypass gaps. However, the maximum temperatures in the reflector assemblies using the variable bypass gaps differ significantly from the corresponding temperatures

  20. Fuel temperature prediction using a variable bypass gap size in the prismatic VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Nam; Tak, Nam-il; Kim, Min Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The bypass flow of the prismatic very high temperature reactor is analyzed. • The bypass gap sizes are calculated considering the effect of the neutron fluences and thermal expansion. • The fuel hot spot temperature and temperature profiles are calculated using the variable gap size. • The BOC, MOC and EOC condition at the cycle 07 and 14 are applied. - Abstract: The temperature gradient and hot spot temperatures were calculated in the prismatic very high temperature reactor as a function of the variable bypass gap size. Many previous studies have predicted the temperature of the reactor core based on a fixed bypass gap size. The graphite matrix of the assemblies in the reactor core undergoes a dimensional change during the operation due to thermal expansion and neutron fluence. The expansion and shrinkage of the bypass gaps change the coolant flow fractions into the coolant channels, the control rod holes, and the bypass gaps. Therefore, the temperature of the assemblies may differ compared to those for the fixed bypass gap case. The temperature gradient and the hot spot temperatures are important for the design of reactor structures to ensure their safety and efficiency. In the present study, the temperature variation of the PMR200 is studied at the beginning (BOC), middle (MOC), and end (EOC) of cycles 07 and 14. CORONA code which has been developed in KAERI is applied to solve the thermal-hydraulics of the reactor core of the PMR200. CORONA solves a fluid region using a one-dimensional formulation and a solid region using a three-dimensional formulation to enhance the computational speed and still obtain a reasonable accuracy. The maximum temperatures in the fuel assemblies using the variable bypass gaps did not differ much from the corresponding temperatures using the fixed bypass gaps. However, the maximum temperatures in the reflector assemblies using the variable bypass gaps differ significantly from the corresponding temperatures