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Sample records for temperature materials laboratory

  1. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  2. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  3. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-03-17

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  4. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, Arvid [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  5. High Temperature Materials Laboratory sixth annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1993-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its sixth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 172 nonproprietary agreements (88 university and 84 industry) and 35 proprietary agreements, (2 university, 33 industry) are now in effect. Six other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-eight states are represented by these interactions. Ninety-four nonproprietary research proposals (44 from universities, 47 from industry, and 3 from other government facilities) and three proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1993 are summarized.

  6. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fourth annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1991-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its fourth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 118 nonproprietary agreements (62 university and 56 industry) and 28 proprietary agreements (2 university, 26 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the user program. Sixty-free nonproprietary research proposals (38 from university, 26 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and four proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1991 are summarized.

  7. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fifth annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1992-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its fifth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy (DOE) User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 145 nonproprietary agreements (77 university and 68 industry) and 30 proprietary agreements (2 university, 28 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-six states are represented by these interactions. Eighty-one nonproprietary research proposals (44 from university, 36 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and six proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1992 are summarized.

  8. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE LOW TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate several low-temperature characteristics of Challenge 5100, a new protective clothing material developed by Chemical Fabrics Corporation. The low temperature characteristics of three other protective clothing materials were also evaluated...

  9. High Temperature Materials Laboratory seventh annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Teague, P.A.

    1994-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its seventh year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements since the HTML began operation in 1987. A total of 193 nonproprietary agreements (91 industry and 102 university) and 41 proprietary agreements (39 industry and two university) are now in effect. This represents an increase of 21 nonproprietary user agreements during FY 1994. Forty-one states are represented by these users. During FY 1994, the HTML User Program evaluated 106 nonproprietary proposals (46 from industry, 52 from universities, and 8 from other government facilities) and 8 proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about ninety-five percent of those evaluated proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the Committee. This annual report discusses FY 1994 activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users and their proposals and FY 1994 publications, and summarizes nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1994.

  10. High Temperature Materials Laboratory eight and ninth annual reports, October 1994 through September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its ninth year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements, and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation. A total of 276 nonproprietary agreements (135 industry, 135 university, and 6 other federal agency) and 56 proprietary agreements are now in effect. This represents an increase of 70 nonproprietary user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1994). A state-by-state summary of these nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A, and an alphabetical listing is provided in Appendix B. Forty-four states are represented by these users. During FY 1995 and 1996, the HTML User Program evaluated 145 nonproprietary proposals (62 from industry, 82 from universities, and 1 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, frequently after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1995 and 1996.

  11. High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Eleventh Annual Report: October 1997 through September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    2000-03-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its eleventh year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation.A total of 522 agreements (351 industry,156 university,and 15 other federal agency) are now in effect (452 nonproprietary and 70 proprietary). This represents an increase of 75 user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1997). A state-by-state summary of the nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A. Forty-six states are represented. During FY 1998, the HTML User Program evaluated 80 nonproprietary proposals (32 from industry, 45 from universities, and 3 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. Appendix B provides a detailed breakdown of the nonproprietary proposals received during FY 1998. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1998.

  12. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Thirteenth Annual Report: October 1999 Through September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, AE

    2001-11-07

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 86 new projects and developing 50 new user agreements. The table on the following page presents the breakdown of these statistics. The figure on page 2 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You may note that our total number of proposals is nearing 1000, and we expect to achieve this number in our first proposal review meeting of FY 2001. The large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. A list of proposals to the HTML follows this section; at the end of the report, we present a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are discussed in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, the completion of a formal Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP), and finalization of a purchase agreement with JEOL for a new-generation electron microscope.

  13. Materials Behavior Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to evaluate mechanical properties of materials including metals, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites under typical...

  14. Energy Materials Research Laboratory (EMRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Materials Research Laboratory at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) creates a cross-disciplinary laboratory facility that lends itself to the...

  15. Active Materials Characterization Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lagoudas, Dimitris

    2001-01-01

    The Active Materials Laboratory has recently acquired upgraded and new equipment made possible by the AFOSR in the form of a research grant as a part of the Defense University Research Instrumentation Program...

  16. Materials Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  17. Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) has been planned, designed, and is being developed. This laboratory will support related efforts to define the requirements for the Microgravity and Materials Processing Laboratory (MMPF) and the MMPF Test Bed for the Space Station. The MMSL will serve as a check out and training facility for science mission specialists for STS, Spacelab and Space Station prior to the full operation of the MMPF Test Bed. The focus of the MMSL will be on experiments related to the understanding of metal/ceramic/glass solidification, high perfection crystal growth and fluid physics. This ground-based laboratory will be used by university/industry/government researchers to examine and become familiar with the potential of new microgravity materials science concepts and to conduct longer term studies aimed at fully developing a l-g understanding of materials and processing phenomena. Such research will help create new high quality concepts for space experiments and will provide the basis for modeling, theories, and hypotheses upon which key space experiments can be defined and developed.

  18. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for delta O-18 versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Böhlke, J.K.; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M.; Werner, Roland A.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally distributed organic and inorganic oxygen isotopic reference materials have been calibrated by six laboratories carrying out more than 5300 measurements using a variety of high-temperature conversion techniques (HTC)a in an evaluation sponsored by the International Union of Pure and

  19. Nanoelectric Materials Laboratory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee; Hill, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    The Ultracapacitor Research and Development project is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ES43 Parts, Packaging, and Fabrication Branch and the EM41 Nonmetallic Materials Branch. NASA's Ultracapacitor Research is an effort to develop solid-state energy storage devices through processing of ceramic materials into printable dielectric inks, which can be formed and treated to produce solid state ultracapacitor cells capable of exceeding lithium-ion battery energy density at a fraction of the weight. Research and development efforts into solid state ultracapacitors have highlighted a series of technical challenges such as understanding as-received nature of ceramic powders, treatment and optimization of ceramic powders, dielectric and conductor ink formulation, and firing of printed (green) ultracapacitor cells. Two facilities have been continually developed since project inception: the Additive Electronics Lab in Bldg. 4487 and the Nanoelectric Materials Lab in Bldg. 4602. The Nanoelectric Materials Lab has become a unique facility at MSFC, capable of custom processing a wide range of media for additive electronics. As research has progressed, it was discovered that additional in-house processing was necessary to achieve smaller, more uniform particle diameters. A vibratory mill was obtained that can agitate powder and media in three directions, which has shown to be much more effective than ball milling. However, in order to understand the effects of milling, a particle size analysis system has been installed to characterize as-received and milled materials Continued research into the ultracapacitor technology included advanced milling and optimization of ceramic nanoparticles, fluidized bed treatment of atomic-layer deposition- (ALD-) coated ceramic particles, custom development of dielectric and conductor inks, as well as custom ink precursors such as polyvinylidene diflouride- (PVDF-) loaded vehicles. Experiments with

  20. High temperature superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario-Franco, M.A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas

    1995-02-01

    The perovskite structure is the basis of all known high-temperature superconducting materials. Many of the most successful (highest T{sub c}) materials are based on mercury and thallium phases but, due to the high toxicity of the component compounds effort has been invested in the substitution of these elements with silver. Progress is reviewed. (orig.)

  1. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  2. Artificial intelligence in the materials processing laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials science and engineering provides a vast arena for applications of artificial intelligence. Advanced materials research is an area in which challenging requirements confront the researcher, from the drawing board through production and into service. Advanced techniques results in the development of new materials for specialized applications. Hand-in-hand with these new materials are also requirements for state-of-the-art inspection methods to determine the integrity or fitness for service of structures fabricated from these materials. Two problems of current interest to the Materials Processing Laboratory at UAH are an expert system to assist in eddy current inspection of graphite epoxy components for aerospace and an expert system to assist in the design of superalloys for high temperature applications. Each project requires a different approach to reach the defined goals. Results to date are described for the eddy current analysis, but only the original concepts and approaches considered are given for the expert system to design superalloys.

  3. Comprehensive inter-laboratory calibration of reference materials for δ18O versus VSMOW using various on-line high-temperature conversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T.; Bohlke, John Karl; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Groning, Manfred; Jansen, Henk G.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mroczkowski, Stanley J.; Qi, Haiping; Soergel, Karin; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Weise, Stephan M.; Werner, Roland A.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally distributed organic and inorganic oxygen isotopic reference materials have been calibrated by six laboratories carrying out more than 5300 measurements using a variety of high-temperature conversion techniques (HTC) in an evaluation sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). To aid in the calibration of these reference materials, which span more than 125‰, an artificially enriched reference water (δ18O of +78.91‰) and two barium sulfates (one depleted and one enriched in 18O) were prepared and calibrated relative to VSMOW2 and SLAP reference waters. These materials were used to calibrate the other isotopic reference materials in this study, which yielded:Reference materialδ18O and estimated combined uncertainty IAEA-602 benzoic acid+71.28 ± 0.36‰USGS35 sodium nitrate+56.81 ± 0.31‰IAEA-NO-3 potassium nitrate+25.32 ± 0.29‰IAEA-601 benzoic acid+23.14 ± 0.19‰IAEA-SO-5 barium sulfate+12.13 ± 0.33‰NBS 127 barium sulfate+8.59 ± 0.26‰VSMOW2 water0‰IAEA-600 caffeine−3.48 ± 0.53‰IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfate−11.35 ± 0.31‰USGS34 potassium nitrate−27.78 ± 0.37‰SLAP water−55.5‰The seemingly large estimated combined uncertainties arise from differences in instrumentation and methodology and difficulty in accounting for all measurement bias. They are composed of the 3-fold standard errors directly calculated from the measurements and provision for systematic errors discussed in this paper. A primary conclusion of this study is that nitrate samples analyzed for δ18O should be analyzed with internationally distributed isotopic nitrates, and likewise for sulfates and organics. Authors reporting relative differences of oxygen-isotope ratios (δ18O) of nitrates, sulfates, or organic material should explicitly state in their reports the δ18O values of two or more internationally distributed nitrates (USGS34, IAEA-NO-3, and USGS35), sulfates (IAEA-SO-5, IAEA

  4. Virtual Reality for Materials Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to research and develop materials through applied virtual reality to enable interactive "materials-by-design." Extensive theoretical and computational...

  5. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  6. The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing - LAMP - is a clean-room research facility run and operated by Pr. Gary Rubloff's group. Research activities focus...

  7. Commissioning a materials research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAVAGE,GERALD A.

    2000-03-28

    This presentation covers the process of commissioning a new 150,000 sq. ft. research facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The laboratory being constructed is a showcase of modern design methods being built at a construction cost of less than $180 per sq. ft. This is possible in part because of the total commissioning activities that are being utilized for this project. The laboratory's unique approach to commissioning will be presented in this paper. The process will be followed through from the conceptual stage on into the actual construction portion of the laboratory. Lessons learned and cost effectiveness will be presented in a manner that will be usable for others making commissioning related decisions. Commissioning activities at every stage of the design will be presented along with the attributed benefits. Attendees will hear answers to the what, when, who, and why questions associated with commissioning of this exciting project.

  8. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  9. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  10. Material Properties at Low Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Duthil, P

    2014-07-17

    From ambient down to cryogenic temperatures, the behaviour of materials changes greatly. Mechanisms leading to variations in electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties in pure metals, alloys, and insulators are briefly introduced from a general engineering standpoint. Data sets are provided for materials commonly used in cryogenic systems for design purposes.

  11. MDOT Materials Laboratories : Environmental Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this EMP was to develop and implement a comprehensive Environmental : Management Plan for MDOT Materials Laboratories. This goal was achieved through : perfonnance of environmental audits to identify potential environmental impacts, and b...

  12. Graphing techniques for materials laboratory using Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1994-01-01

    Engineering technology curricula stress hands on training and laboratory practices in most of the technical courses. Laboratory reports should include analytical as well as graphical evaluation of experimental data. Experience shows that many students neither have the mathematical background nor the expertise for graphing. This paper briefly describes the procedure and data obtained from a number of experiments such as spring rate, stress concentration, endurance limit, and column buckling for a variety of materials. Then with a brief introduction to Microsoft Excel the author explains the techniques used for linear regression and logarithmic graphing.

  13. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  14. Composite Materials for Low-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials with improved thermal conductivity and good mechanical strength properties should allow for the design and construction of more thermally efficient components (such as pipes and valves) for use in fluid-processing systems. These materials should have wide application in any number of systems, including ground support equipment (GSE), lunar systems, and flight hardware that need reduced heat transfer. Researchers from the Polymer Science and Technology Laboratory and the Cryogenics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center were able to develop a new series of composite materials that can meet NASA's needs for lightweight materials/composites for use in fluid systems and also expand the plastic-additive markets. With respect to thermal conductivity and physical properties, these materials are excellent alternatives to prior composite materials and can be used in the aerospace, automotive, military, electronics, food-packaging, and textile markets. One specific application of the polymeric composition is for use in tanks, pipes, valves, structural supports, and components for hot or cold fluid-processing systems where heat flow through materials is a problem to be avoided. These materials can also substitute for metals in cryogenic and other low-temperature applications. These organic/inorganic polymeric composite materials were invented with significant reduction in heat transfer properties. Decreases of 20 to 50 percent in thermal conductivity versus that of the unmodified polymer matrix were measured. These novel composite materials also maintain mechanical properties of the unmodified polymer matrix. These composite materials consist of an inorganic additive combined with a thermoplastic polymer material. The intrinsic, low thermal conductivity of the additive is imparted into the thermoplastic, resulting in a significant reduction in heat transfer over that of the base polymer itself, yet maintaining most of the polymer's original properties. Normal

  15. Investigation of Appropriate Refractory Material for Laboratory Electritic Resistrance Furnance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B Agboola

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous efforts to increase the local content of furnaces; hence the choice of appropriate refractory material for lining of locally manufactured furnaces has remained a major concern. This research work investigates the choice of appropriate local refractory material for the lining of laboratory electric resistance furnace.Electric resistance furnaces are extensively used in the laboratory for heat treatment of metals and alloys. Refractory binders such as silicon carbide were experimented upon for strength and resistance to high temperature.The results obtained showed that Kankara fireclay containing 15% SiC ( 5.70 % linear shrinkage , 46.2% apparent porosity, 1.77gkm³ Bulk density, 18 cycles of spalling tests at 1300°C, 5.253KN/m² of cold strength has appropriate properties for producing grooved bricks for lining of laboratory electric resistance Furnace.

  16. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  17. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  18. Thermal-Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teate, Anthony A.

    1997-01-01

    Since its inception and successful implementation in 1997 at James Madison University, the Thermal Structures and Materials Testing Laboratory (T-SaMTL) funded by the NASA Langley Research Center is evolving into one of the University's premier and exemplary efforts to increase minority representation in the sciences and mathematics. Serving ten (10) students and faculty directly and almost fifty (50) students indirectly, T-SAMTL, through its recruitment efforts, workshops, mentoring program, tutorial services and its research and computational laboratories has marked the completion of the first year with support from NASA totaling $ 100,000. Beginning as an innovative academic research and mentoring program for underrepresented minority science and mathematics students, the program now boasts a constituency which consists of 50% graduating seniors in the spring of 1998 with 50% planning to go to graduate school. The program's intent is to increase the number of underrepresented minorities who receive doctoral degrees in the sciences by initiating an academically enriched research program aimed at strengthening the academic and self actualization skills of undergraduate students with the potential to pursue doctoral study in the sciences. The program provides financial assistance, academic enrichment, and professional and personal development support for minority students who demonstrate the potential and strong desire to pursue careers in the sciences and mathematics. James Madison University was awarded the first $100,000, in April 1997, by The NASA Langley Research Center for establishment and support of its Thermal Structures and Materials Testing

  19. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  20. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  1. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division.

  2. High-temperature levitated materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, David L

    2010-01-01

    .... This can be avoided by suspending the sample through levitation. This technique also makes metastable states of matter accessible, opening up new avenues of scientific enquiry, as well as possible new materials for technological applications...

  3. Materials for room temperature magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl Hansen, B.

    2010-07-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material to change its temperature when a magnetic field is applied or removed. For room temperature cooling, one utilizes that the magnetocaloric effect peaks near magnetic phase transitions and so the materials of interest all have a critical temperature within the range of 250 - 310 K. A magnetic refrigerant should fulfill a number of criteria, among these a large magnetic entropy change, a large adiabatic temperature change, preferably little to no thermal or magnetic hysteresis and the material should have the stability required for long term use. As the temperature range required for room temperature cooling is some 40 - 50 K, the magnetic refrigerant should also be able to cover this temperature span either by exhibiting a very broad peak in magnetocaloric effect or by providing the opportunity for creating a materials series with varying transition temperatures. (Author)

  4. Materials research at selected Japanese laboratories. Based on a 1992 visit: Overview, summary of highlights, notes on laboratories and topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    I visited Japan from June 29 to August 1, 1992. The purpose of this visit was to assess the status of materials science research at selected governmental, university and industrial laboratories and to established acquaintances with Japanese researchers. The areas of research covered by these visits included ceramics, oxide superconductors, intermetallics alloys, superhard materials and diamond films, high-temperature materials and properties, mechanical properties, fracture, creep, fatigue, defects, materials for nuclear reactor applications and irradiation effects, high pressure synthesis, self-propagating high temperature synthesis, microanalysis, magnetic properties and magnetic facilities, and surface science.

  5. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  6. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    VandeWeerd, HA; VanLoo, PLP; VanZutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value; Weerd, H.A. van de; Loo, P.L.P. van; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    1997-01-01

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific behaviour and may control their environment in a better way. An easily applicable form of enrichment for laboratory mice is nesting material. Six different types of nesting materials were evaluated in a pr...

  7. Low Temperature Cryocooler Regenerator Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.A. Gschneidner; A.O. Pecharsky; V.K. Pecharsky

    2002-06-27

    There are four important factors which influence the magnitude of the magnetic heat capacity near the magnetic ordering transition temperature. These include the theoretical magnetic entropy, the deGennes factor, crystalline electric field, and the RKKY (Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida) interaction. The lattice contribution to the heat capacity also needs to be considered since it is the sum of the lattice and magnetic contributions which give rise to the heat capacity maxima. The lattice heat capacity depends on the chemical composition, crystal structure and temperature. As a result, one can obtain large changes in the heat capacity maxima by alloying. Several ternary intermetallic systems have been examined in light of these criteria. A number of deviations from the expected behaviors have been found and are discussed.

  8. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-15

    temperatures In the present range have also been obtained by Krauss and Warncke [8] and by Vollmer et al. [9], using adiabatic calorimetry, and by Kollie [10...value for heat capacity. The electrical resistivity results reported by Kollie [10] and by Powell et al. [13] are respectively about 1 and 1.5% lower...extensive annealing of the specimens used in the measurements: the specimen (>99.89% pure) used by Kollie was annealed at 1100 K for 24 h and Laubitz et al

  9. Advanced materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Vandersande, Jan W.; Wood, Charles

    1992-01-01

    A number of refractory semiconductors are under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for application in thermal to electric energy conversion for space power. The main thrust of the program is to improve or develop materials of high figure of merit and, therefore, high conversion efficiencies over a broad temperature range. Materials currently under investigation are represented by silicon-germanium alloys, lanthanum telluride, and boron carbide. The thermoelectric properties of each of these materials, and prospects for their further improvements, are discussed. Continued progress in thermoelectric materials technology can be expected to yield reliable space power systems with double to triple the efficiency of current state of the art systems.

  10. Laboratory Studies of Cometary Materials - Continuity Between Asteroid and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Walker, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of cometary samples have been enabled by collection of cometary dust in the stratosphere by high altitude aircraft and by the direct sampling of the comet Wild-2 coma by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. Cometary materials are composed of a complex assemblage of highly primitive, unprocessed interstellar and primordial solar system materials as well as a variety of high temperature phases that must have condensed in the inner regions of the protoplanetary disk. These findings support and contradict conclusions of comet properties based solely on astronomical observations. These sample return missions have instead shown that there is a continuity of properties between comets and asteroids, where both types of materials show evidence for primitive and processed materials. Furthermore, these findings underscore the importance and value of direct sample return. There will be great value in comparing the findings of the Stardust cometary coma sample return mission with those of future asteroid surface sample returns OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa II as well as future comet nucleus sample returns.

  11. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  12. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  13. Accelerated laboratory weathering of acrylic lens materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Thomas; Richter, Steffen; Kogler, René; Pasierb, Mike; Walby, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Flat samples from various poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations were subjected to outdoor weathering in Arizona and Florida, EMMAQUA® accelerated outdoor weathering, and two accelerated laboratory weathering procedures at 3 Sun irradiance which, imitate dry (Arizona) and wet (Florida) conditions. The main mode of degradation is yellowing and not the generation of haze for any weathering procedure within the investigated radiant exposure. Higher UV absorber concentrations lead to smaller changes in optical properties and in the resulting relative concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module efficiencies. Comparison of sample properties after various weathering procedures reveals that the influence of weathering factors other than radiant exposure depends on the sample as well.

  14. Materials accounting at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, N.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The materials accounting system at Los Alamos has evolved from an ''80-column'' card system to a very sophisticated near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system (MASS). The present hardware was designed and acquired in the late 70's and is scheduled for a major upgrade in Fiscal Year 1986. The history of the system from 1950 through the DYMAC of the late 70's up to the present will be discussed. The philosophy of the system along with the details of the system will be covered. This system has addressed the integrated problems of management, control, and accounting of nuclear material successfully.

  15. Materials accounting at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, N.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, H.F.

    1985-07-20

    The materials accounting system at Los Alamos has evolved from an ''80-column'' card system to a very sophisticated near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system (MASS). The present hardware was designed and acquired in the late 70's and is scheduled for a major upgrade in fiscal year 1986. The history of the system from 1950 through the DYMAC of the late 70's up to the present will be discussed. The philosophy of the system along with the details of the system will be covered. This system has addressed the integrated problems of management, control, and accounting of nuclear material successfully. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Impact of nesting material on mouse body temperature and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-02-17

    In laboratories, mice are housed at 20-24 °C, which is below their lower critical temperature (≈30 °C). Thus, mice are potentially cold stressed, which can alter metabolism, immune function, and reproduction. These physiological changes reflect impaired wellbeing, and affect scientific outcomes. We hypothesized that nesting material would allow mice to alleviate cold stress by controlling their thermal microenvironment, thus insulating them, reducing heat loss and thermogenic processes. Naïve C57BL/6, CD-1, and BALB/c mice (24 male and 24 female/strain in groups of 3) were housed in standard cages at 20 °C either with or without 8 g nesting material for 4 weeks. Core body temperature was followed using intraperitoneal radio telemetry. The thermal properties of the nests were assessed using a thermal imaging camera, and related to nest quality. Higher scoring nests were negatively correlated with the mean radiated temperature and were thus more insulating. No effects of nesting material on body temperature were found. CD-1 mice with nesting material had higher end body weights than controls. No effect was seen in the other two strains. Mice with the telemetry implant had larger spleens than controls, possibly indicating an immune response to the implant or low level infection from the surgery. BALB/c mice express less mRNA for the UCP1 protein than mice without nesting material. This indicates that BALB/c's with nesting material do not utilize their brown fat to create heat as readily as controls. Nests can alleviate thermal discomfort by decreasing the amount of radiated heat and reduce the need for non-shivering thermogenesis. However, different strains appear to use different behavioral (through different primary modes of behavioral thermoregulation) and physiological strategies (utilizing thermogenesis to different degrees) to maintain a constant body temperature under cool standard laboratory ambient temperatures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Weerd, H A; Van Loo, P L; Van Zutphen, L F; Koolhaas, J M; Baumans, V

    1997-04-01

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific behaviour and may control their environment in a better way. An easily applicable form of enrichment for laboratory mice is nesting material. Six different types of nesting materials were evaluated in a preference test with male and female animals of two strains [C57BL/6J or BALB/c, n = 48]. No significant differences in preference were found between the strains or between the sexes. All mice showed a clear preference for cages with tissues or towels as compared to paper strips or no nesting material, and for cages with cotton string or wood-wool as compared to wood shavings or no nesting material. Paper-derived materials were preferred over wood-derived materials, although the results also suggest that the nature (paper or wood) of the nesting material is less important than its structure, which determines the nestability of the material. Nesting material may be a relatively simple method to contribute to the well-being of laboratory mice.

  18. High-Frequency Microwave Processing of Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Conducts research on high-frequency microwave processing of materials using a highpower, continuous-wave (CW), 83-GHz, quasi-optical beam system for rapid,...

  19. Trackless tack coat materials : a laboratory evaluation performance acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, demonstrate, and document laboratory procedures that could be used by the : Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) to evaluate non-tracking tack coat materials. The procedures would be used to : qualify...

  20. Materials for Room Temperature Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considere...... cooling is some 40 – 50 K, the magnetic refrigerant should also be able to cover this temperature span either by exhibiting a very broad peak in magnetocaloric effect or by providing the opportunity for creating a materials series with varying transition temperatures.......Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered...... candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material...

  1. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  2. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-15

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division.

  3. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  4. Dual – Temperature Electron distribution in a Laboratory Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual-temperature distribution function is used to investigate theoretically the effect of a perturbation of Maxwell distribution function on density ratios in a laboratory plasma produced solely by collision. By assuming a foreknowledge of collision coefficients and cross-sections and an atomic model which sets at two ...

  5. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  6. Study of High Temperature Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Mentlik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of current objectives of the electro insulating technology is the development of the material for extreme conditions. There is a need to operate some devices in extreme temperatures, for example the propulsion of the nuclear fuel bars. In these cases there is necessary to provide not just insulating property, but also the thermal endurance with the required durability of the insulating materials. Critical is the determination of the limit stress for the irreversible structure modification with relation to material property changes. For this purpose there is necessary to conduct lot of test on chosen materials to determine the limits mentioned above. Content of this article is the definition of diagnostic mode, including the definition of the exposure factors, definitions of the diagnostic system for data acquisition and first result of examinations.

  7. Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

  8. Experimental Observations on Material Damping at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chia-Yen; Levine, Marie; Shido, Lillian; Leland, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a unique experimental facility designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The test facility removes other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device. Damping data reported herein are obtained for materials (Aluminum, Aluminum/Terbium/Dysprosium, Titanium, Composites) vibrating in free-free bending modes with low strain levels (< 10(exp -6) ppm). The fundamental frequencies of material samples are ranged from 14 to 202 Hz. To provide the most beneficial data relevant to TPF-like precision optical space missions, the damping data are collected from room temperatures (around 293 K) to cryogenic temperatures (below 40 K) at unevenly-spaced intervals. More data points are collected over any region of interest. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic damping can be as low as 10(exp -4) %, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. However, Titanium 15-3-3-3 shows a remarkable increase in damping at cryogenic temperatures. It demonstrates over one order of magnitude increase in damping in comparison to Aluminum 6061-T6. Given its other properties (e.g., good stiffness and low conductivity) this may prove itself to be a good candidate for the application on TPF. At room temperatures, the test data are correlated well with the damping predicted by the Zener theory. However, large discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the Zener theory and the test data are observed.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  10. Preparation for microgravity - The role of the Microgravity Material Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. Christopher; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Glasgow, Thomas K.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Microgravity Material Science Laboratory using physical and mathematical models to delineate the effects of gravity on processes of scientific and commercial interest are discussed. Where possible, transparent model systems are used to visually track convection, settling, crystal growth, phase separation, agglomeration, vapor transport, diffusive flow, and polymer reactions. Materials studied include metals, alloys, salts, glasses, ceramics, and polymers. Specific technologies discussed include the General Purpose furnace used in the study of metals and crystal growth, the isothermal dendrite growth apparatus, the electromagnetic levitator/instrumented drop tube, the high temperature directional solidification furnace, the ceramics and polymer laboratories and the center's computing facilities.

  11. Conceptual Design Report for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie Austad

    2010-06-01

    This document describes the design at a conceptual level for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) to be located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The IMCL is an 11,000-ft2, Hazard Category-2 nuclear facility that is designed for use as a state of the-art nuclear facility for the purpose of hands-on and remote handling, characterization, and examination of irradiated and nonirradiated nuclear material samples. The IMCL will accommodate a series of future, modular, and reconfigurable instrument enclosures or caves. To provide a bounding design basis envelope for the facility-provided space and infrastructure, an instrument enclosure or cave configuration was developed and is described in some detail. However, the future instrument enclosures may be modular, integral with the instrument, or reconfigurable to enable various characterization environments to be configured as changes in demand occur. They are not provided as part of the facility.

  12. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

    2011-08-30

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  13. Laboratory Investigation of High Temperature Corrosion in Straw fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in straw-fired power plants has been studied in the laboratory for Sandvik 8LR30 and Sanicro 28. The influence of HCl and SO2 was investigated at 600C metal temperature for upto 300 hours.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was examined in ash taken from a straw......-fired boiler. The corrosive potential of the individual components were thus evaluated...

  14. 49 CFR 172.325 - Elevated temperature materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevated temperature materials. 172.325 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.325 Elevated temperature materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a bulk packaging containing an elevated temperature material must be marked...

  15. Marshall Space Flight Center Materials and Processes Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramel, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall?s Materials and Processes Laboratory has been a core capability for NASA for over fifty years. MSFC has a proven heritage and recognized expertise in materials and manufacturing that are essential to enable and sustain space exploration. Marshall provides a "systems-wise" capability for applied research, flight hardware development, and sustaining engineering. Our history of leadership and achievements in materials, manufacturing, and flight experiments includes Apollo, Skylab, Mir, Spacelab, Shuttle (Space Shuttle Main Engine, External Tank, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, and Solid Rocket Booster), Hubble, Chandra, and the International Space Station. MSFC?s National Center for Advanced Manufacturing, NCAM, facilitates major M&P advanced manufacturing partnership activities with academia, industry and other local, state and federal government agencies. The Materials and Processes Laborato ry has principal competencies in metals, composites, ceramics, additive manufacturing, materials and process modeling and simulation, space environmental effects, non-destructive evaluation, and fracture and failure analysis provide products ranging from materials research in space to fully integrated solutions for large complex systems challenges. Marshall?s materials research, development and manufacturing capabilities assure that NASA and National missions have access to cutting-edge, cost-effective engineering design and production options that are frugal in using design margins and are verified as safe and reliable. These are all critical factors in both future mission success and affordability.

  16. Thermal Expansion Studies of Selected High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Firdosy, Samad; Caillat, Thierry; Brandon, Erik; Van Der Walde, Keith; Maricic, Lina; Sayir, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) generate electrical power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes (typically plutonium-238) into electricity using a thermoelectric converter. RTGs have been successfully used to power a number of space missions and have demonstrated their reliability over an extended period of time (tens of years) and are compact, rugged, radiation resistant, scalable, and produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. System conversion efficiency for state-of-practice RTGs is about 6% and specific power less than or equal to 5.1 W/kg. Higher specific power would result in more on-board power for the same RTG mass, or less RTG mass for the same on-board power. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been leading, under the advanced thermoelectric converter (ATEC) project, the development of new high-temperature thermoelectric materials and components for integration into advanced, more efficient RTGs. Thermoelectric materials investigated to date include skutterudites, the Yb14MnSb11 compound, and SiGe alloys. The development of long-lived thermoelectric couples based on some of these materials has been initiated and is assisted by a thermo-mechanical stress analysis to ensure that all stresses under both fabrication and operation conditions will be within yield limits for those materials. Several physical parameters are needed as input to this analysis. Among those parameters, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is critically important. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements of several thermoelectric materials under consideration for ATEC are described in this paper. The stress response at the interfaces in material stacks subjected to changes in temperature is discussed, drawing on work from the literature and project-specific tools developed here. The degree of CTE mismatch and the associated effect on the formation of stress is highlighted.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  18. Constraints on the Adiabatic Temperature Change in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the magnetocaloric effect implies constraints on the allowed variation in the adiabatic temperature change for a magnetocaloric material. An inequality for the derivative of the adiabatic temperature change with respect to temperature is derived for both first- and second......-order materials. For materials with a continuous adiabatic temperature change as a function of temperature, this inequality is shown to hold for all temperatures. However, discontinuous materials may violate the inequality. We compare our results with measured results in the literature and discuss...

  19. Laser-shocked energetic materials for laboratory-scale characterization and model validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jennifer

    The development of laboratory-scale methods for characterizing the properties of energetic materials, i.e., using only milligram quantities of material, is essential for the development of new types of explosives and propellants for use in military applications. Laser-based excitation methods for initiating or exciting the energetic material offer several advantages for investigating the response of energetic materials to various stimuli: 1) very small quantities of material can be studied prior to scale-up synthesis, 2) no detonation of bulk energetic material is required, eliminating the need for expensive safety precautions, and 3) extensive diagnostics can be incorporated into the experimental setup to provide as much information as possible per shot. In this presentation, progress in our laboratory developing three laser-based methods for characterizing energetic materials will be discussed. Direct excitation of a sample residue using a focused nanosecond laser pulse enables estimation of the performance of the energetic material based on the measured shock wave velocity with a technique called laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM); recent LASEM results on novel energetic materials will be presented. Impact ignition of energetic materials has also been investigated using laser-driven flyer plates. High-speed schlieren imaging of the flyer plate launch has demonstrated that late-time emission from the impacted energetic material is caused by the reaction of particles ejected off the sample surface with the flyer plate launch products. Finally, the role of a rapid temperature jump (1014 K/s) in the initiation of the explosive cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) has been investigated by indirect ultrafast laser heating. Although the temperature jump was insufficient to decompose the RDX, it did induce a temporary electronic excitation of the heated explosive molecules. These results are being used to validate multiscale models in order to

  20. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  1. Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Measurements at the High Temperature Test Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) temperature monitors are now available for use as temperature sensors in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) irradiation test capsules. Melt wires or paint spots, which are typically used as temperature sensors in ATR static capsules, are limited in that they can only detect whether a single temperature is or is not exceeded. SiC monitors are advantageous because a single monitor can be used to detect for a range of temperatures that may have occurred during irradiation. As part of the efforts initiated by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to make SiC temperature monitors available, a capability was developed to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. As discussed in this report, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. This document describes the INL efforts to develop the capability to complete these resistance measurements. In addition, the procedure is reported that was developed to assure that high quality measurements are made in a consistent fashion.

  2. Iodine Standard Materials: Preparation and Inter-Laboratory Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D D Jenson; M L Adamic; J E Olson; M G Watrous; C Vockenhuber

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is preparing to enter the community of AMS practioners who analyze for 129Iodine. We expect to take delivery of a 0.5 MV compact accelerator mass spectrometry system, built by NEC, in the early summer of 2014. The primary mission for this instrument is iodine; it is designed to analyze iodine in the +3 charge state. As part of the acceptance testing for this instrument, both at NEC and on-site in our laboratory, some sort of standard or reference material is needed to verify performance. Appropriate standard materials are not readily available in the commercial marketplace. Small quantities can sometimes be acquired from other laboratories already engaged in iodine analyses. In the longer-term, meaningful quantities of standard materials are needed for routine use in analyses, and for quality control functions1. We have prepared some standard materials, starting with elemental Woodward iodine and NIST SRM 3231 [Iodine-129 Isotopic Standard (high level)] 10-6 solution. The goal was to make mixtures at the 5x10-10, 5x10-11, 5x10-12 ratio levels, along with some unmodified Woodward, in the chemical form of silver iodide. Approximately twenty grams of each of these mixtures were prepared. The elemental Woodward iodine was dissolved in chloroform, then reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite in water. At this point the NIST spike material was added, in the form of sodium iodide. The mixed iodides were oxidized back to iodine in chloroform using hydrogen peroxide. This oxidation step was essential for isotopic equilibration of the 127 and 129 atoms. The iodine was reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite as before. Excess sulfites and sulfates were precipitated with barium nitrate. After decanting, silver nitrate was used to precipitate the desired silver iodide. Once the silver iodide was produced, the material was kept in darkness as much as possible to minimize photo-oxidation. The various mixtures were synthesized independently of each

  3. Temperature effects on bioremediation of PAHs and PCP contaminated South Louisiana soils: a laboratory mesocosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, J.; Metosh-Dickey, C.; Portier, R.J. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Studies

    2007-06-15

    Goal, Scope and Background: Temperature and soil moisture content are important environmental variables in bioremediation technologies. Optimizing these variables in-situ would enhance and maintain remediation of hazardous wastes during cold winter seasons or in cold regions and may lead to reduced maintenance and/or cost. The effect of elevated temperature and soil moisture on bioremediation efficiency was investigated using a laboratory mesocosm approach. Selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenols degradation in contaminated flooded soils, commonly found in Superfund sites situated in coastal plains sediments/soils, were evaluated in the mesocosms. Materials and Methods: Four laboratory mesocosm treatments in triplicate simulating in-situ bioremediation of contaminated site soils using an immobilized microbe bioreactor system, i.e., bioplug, were established to evaluate temperature effects. Elevated temperature treatments of site soils with and without contaminant-specific microorganisms were established at a temperature of 42{+-}2 C. Similarly, treatment of site soils with and without contaminant-specific microorganisms were established at an ambient temperature of 21{+-}1 C. Composite samples were analyzed for selected PAHs and chlorinated phenols to determine rates of mineralization and overall remediation efficiency for different temperature regimes. Results: Mesocosm studies indicated that the high temperature inoculated treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in mean total PAHs and total phenols with a kinetic rate (KR) of 76{+-}13 ng g{sup -1}d{sup -1} in 49 days (approximately 84% reduction; p{<=}0.01). High temperature non-inoculated mesocosms exhibited significant mineralization of all constituents with KR of 15{+-}6 ng g{sup -1}d{sup -1} (p=0.1794). Phenol compounds in inoculated treatments were also significantly reduced (65%, p{<=}0.01) at elevated temperatures compared to ambient (52%, p{<=}0.01). (orig.)

  4. The validity of temperature-sensitive ingestible capsules for measuring core body temperature in laboratory protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwent, David; Zhou, Xuan; van den Heuvel, Cameron; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Greg D

    2011-10-01

    The human core body temperature (CBT) rhythm is tightly coupled to an endogenous circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus. The standard method for assessing the status of this pacemaker is by continuous sampling of CBT using rectal thermometry. This research sought to validate the use of ingestible, temperature-sensitive capsules to measure CBT as an alternative to rectal thermometry. Participants were 11 young adult males who had volunteered to complete a laboratory protocol that extended across 12 consecutive days. A total of 87 functional capsules were ingested and eliminated by participants during the laboratory internment. Core body temperature samples were collected in 1-min epochs and compared to paired samples collected concurrently via rectal thermistors. Agreement between samples that were collected using ingestible sensors and rectal thermistors was assessed using the gold-standard limits of agreement method. Across all valid paired samples collected during the study (n = 120,126), the mean difference was 0.06°C, whereas the 95% CI (confidence interval) for differences was less than ±0.35°C. Despite the overall acceptable limits of agreement, systematic measurement bias was noted across the initial 5 h of sensor-transit periods and attributed to temperature gradations across the alimentary canal.

  5. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  6. Material Specific Design for Room Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikaku-Ironkwe, O.-Paul; Ofe, Uko; Oriaku, Chijioke; Asiegbu, Dan; Oguzi, Emeka

    2012-02-01

    The transition temperature, Tc, of superconductors has been increased sevenfold from 23K in Nb3Ge to 164K in Hg-1223. A further two-fold increase would get us to above room temperature superconductivity. Studying high temperature superconductors (HTSCs), we have developed a formula that expresses Tc in terms of electronegativity, valence electrons, Ne, atomic number, Z, formula mass and a coupling constant, Ko. We observe an increasing linear relationship between Tc and Ko. Ko also correlates with formula mass and atomic number and the number of atoms in the compound. By our formula, Hg-1223 has Ko = 70. We propose, using our design algorithm, that room temperature superconductivity may be realized in a system with ko = 160; electronegativity = 2.5, Ne/Sqrt Z = 0.8. We proceed to show combinations of oxides and elements that will yield the required parameters for synthesizing reproducible room temperature superconductivity.

  7. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    The laboratory immersion test system built and operated at ORNL was found to successfully screen samples from numerous refractory suppliers, including both commercially available and experimental materials. This system was found to provide an accurate prediction of how these materials would perform in the actual gasifier environment. Test materials included mullites, alumino-silicate bricks, fusion-cast aluminas, alumina-based and chrome-containing mortars, phosphate-bonded mortars, coated samples provided under an MPLUS-funded project, bonded spinels, different fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinels with magnesia content ranging from 2.5% to about 60%, high-MgO castable and brick materials, spinel castables, and alkali-aluminate materials. This testing identified several candidate material systems that perform well in the New Bern gasifier. Fusion-cast aluminas were found to survive for nearly one year, and magnesia-alumina spinels have operated successfully for 18 months and are expected to survive for two years. Alkali-aluminates and high-MgO-content materials have also been identified for backup lining applications. No other material with a similar structure and chemical composition to that of the fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel brick currently being used for the hot-face lining is commercially available. Other materials used for this application have been found to have inferior service lives, as previously discussed. Further, over 100 laboratory immersion tests have been performed on other materials (both commercial and experimental), but none to date has performed as well as the material currently being used for the hot-face lining. Operating experience accumulated with the high-temperature gasifier at New Bern, North Carolina, has confirmed that the molten alkali salts degrade many types of refractories. Fusion-cast alumina materials were shown to provide a great improvement in lifetime over materials used previously. Further improvement was realized

  8. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H.W.

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  9. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  10. High Temperature Acoustic Noise Reduction Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use combustion synthesis techniques to manufacture ceramic-based acoustic liners capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2500?C....

  11. Laboratory Mix Design of Asphalt Mixture Containing Reclaimed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lo Presti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT were used to investigate the change in properties within the specimens and to validate the selected methodology. The study concluded that gyratory compaction is suitable to produce homogeneous test specimens also for mixtures containing high amount of reclaimed asphalt. Nevertheless, preliminary trials for each material are mandatory, as well as final coring and trimming of the specimens due to side effects.

  12. Pràcticum en el laboratori de materials

    OpenAIRE

    Munt Martí, Isidre

    2017-01-01

    En el present document exposo l’experiència viscuda treballant a laboratori de materials de L’EPSEB com a arquitecte tècnic en període de pràctiques. S’exposen els treballs realitzats que he cregut més interessants durant la meva estada: Determinació del ciment aluminós, assaig de densitat i porositat, resistència a compressió d’obra de fàbrica, resistència a compressió de provetes de formigó, assaig de carbonatació, assaig d’abrasió i aixecament gràfic de patrimoni històric....

  13. Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they failure to meet the...

  14. Ultra High Temperature Refractory Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Legacy refractory materials that have origins dating to the original Saturn program are commonly used in current launch facilities. Although they fail to meet the...

  15. Damage Assessment in High Temperature Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newaz, Golam M

    2000-01-01

    .... The thermal wave imaging equipment was checked for its capability in assessment of damage in various materials systems which included thermal barrier coatings, adhesively bonded composites and SiC...

  16. Measurements on insulating materials at cryogenic temperatures. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    Progress made to date on developing instrumentation and measurement methodology for studying high-voltage dielectric losses at cryogenic temperatures is detailed. The work described has been done in support of ERDA-funded ac superconducting transmission line projects at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the Linde Division of the Union Carbide Corporation (UCC-Linde). Dissipation factor measurements have been made at a temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K and at stresses up to 40 kV/mm. Care has been taken to insure that errors in dissipation factor measurements are less than +-1 x 10/sup -6/. Sample dielectrics have included polymer tapes of interest to BNL and epoxy spacer material of interest to UCC-Linde. When dissipation factor measurements are made at high voltage, losses at sample interfaces become important. Flexible superconducting cables are designed to have many layers of coaxially wound plastic tape serving as the insulation. The spaces between tape layers will be impregnated with helium at pressures up to 1.5 MPa. Plans to investigate high-voltage dielectric losses under these conditions are discussed including a technique for measuring partial discharges using pulse-height analysis.

  17. A novel magnetic valve using room temperature magnetocaloric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    Magnetocaloric materials with near-room-temperature tuneable Curie temperatures have been utilized to develop a novel magnetic valve technology. The temperature dependent attractive force between the materials and a permanent magnet assembly is used to actuate valves as a response to temperature...... changes. This is made possible by the strong temperature dependence of the magnetization close to the Curie temperature of the magnetocaloric materials. Different compositions of both La0.67(Ca,Sr)0.33MnO3 and La(Fe,Co,Si)13 have been considered for use in prototype valves. Based on measured magnetization...... data a 3D finite element model has been set up to calculate the magnetic force between (graded) blocks of these materials and a permanent magnet assembly. The results have been used to calculate equilibrium points for actuation systems where the magnetic force is balanced by a spring force...

  18. Temperature Measurement of a Glass Material Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Temperature measurement of a substance that is transparent using the traditional 1-color, 2-color and other pyrometers has been difficult. The radiation detected by pyrometers do not come from a well defined location in the transparent body. The multiwavelength pyrometer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center can measure the surface temperature of many materials. We show in this paper that it also measures the surface and a bulk subsurface temperature of transparent materials like glass.

  19. Research of fuel temperature control in fuel pipeline of diesel engine using positive temperature coefficient material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As fuel temperature increases, both its viscosity and surface tension decrease, and this is helpful to improve fuel atomization and then better combustion and emission performances of engine. Based on the self-regulated temperature property of positive temperature coefficient material, this article used a positive temperature coefficient material as electric heating element to heat diesel fuel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine. A kind of BaTiO3-based positive temperature coefficient material, with the Curie temperature of 230°C and rated voltage of 24 V, was developed, and its micrograph and element compositions were also analyzed. By the fuel pipeline wrapped in six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, its resistivity–temperature and heating characteristics were tested on a fuel pump bench. The experiments showed that in this installation, the surface temperature of six positive temperature coefficient ceramics rose to the equilibrium temperature only for 100 s at rated voltage. In rated power supply for six positive temperature coefficient ceramics, the temperature of injection fuel improved for 21°C–27°C within 100 s, and then could keep constant. Using positive temperature coefficient material to heat diesel in fuel pipeline of diesel engine, the injection mass per cycle had little change, approximately 0.3%/°C. This study provides a beneficial reference for improving atomization of high-viscosity liquids by employing positive temperature coefficient material without any control methods.

  20. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    F, J. Beebe , Washington, D.C. 20315 1 Office, Chief Research § Development, Department of the Army, ATTN: R. Ballard, Physical § Engineering...HpR^fe^ ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER WATERTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS 02172 TECHNICAL REPORT DISTRIBUTION No. of Copies To Mr. Leslie

  1. RECENT ADVANCES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: STACK TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X, Zhang; J. E. O' Brien; R. C. O' Brien; J. J. Hartvigsen; G. Tao; N. Petigny

    2012-07-01

    High temperature steam electrolysis is a promising technology for efficient sustainable large-scale hydrogen production. Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are able to utilize high temperature heat and electric power from advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors or renewable sources to generate carbon-free hydrogen at large scale. However, long term durability of SOECs needs to be improved significantly before commercialization of this technology. A degradation rate of 1%/khr or lower is proposed as a threshold value for commercialization of this technology. Solid oxide electrolysis stack tests have been conducted at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate recent improvements in long-term durability of SOECs. Electrolytesupported and electrode-supported SOEC stacks were provided by Ceramatec Inc., Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI), and Saint Gobain Advanced Materials (St. Gobain), respectively for these tests. Long-term durability tests were generally operated for a duration of 1000 hours or more. Stack tests based on technology developed at Ceramatec and MSRI have shown significant improvement in durability in the electrolysis mode. Long-term degradation rates of 3.2%/khr and 4.6%/khr were observed for MSRI and Ceramatec stacks, respectively. One recent Ceramatec stack even showed negative degradation (performance improvement) over 1900 hours of operation. A three-cell short stack provided by St. Gobain, however, showed rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode. Improvements on electrode materials, interconnect coatings, and electrolyteelectrode interface microstructures contribute to better durability of SOEC stacks.

  2. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio were determined by sonic techniques: thermal expansion values were measured on a differential dilatometer and thermal...accumulation of potentially explosive gases. 4. Thermal conductivity of the nitriding atmosphere is important for production of high quality RBSN...of varying MgO content. Measurements were conducted on a differential dilatometer from room temperatures up to 900°C, and are shown in Figure 3.2.3

  3. Laboratory Study of High Temperature Corrosion in Straw-fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel

    1997-01-01

    The components contributing to corrosion, HCl(g)SO2(g), KCl and K2SO4 were studied in the laboratory for Sandvik 8LR30 and Sanicro 28. The influence of HCl and SO2 was investigated at 600C material temperature and 600/800C flue gas temperature at time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of ash...... deposits in air was examined at 525C-700C. Finally exposures were undertaken combining the aforementioned aggressive gas environment with the ash deposits. Thus the corrosion potential of individual components were evaluated and also whether they had a synergistic, antagonistic or additive effect on one...... another to influence the overall corrosion rate....

  4. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeWeerd, HA; VanLoo, PLP; VanZutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value; Weerd, H.A. van de; Loo, P.L.P. van; Zutphen, L.F.M. van

    Behavioural and psychological needs of laboratory animals generally cannot adequately be met in standard laboratory cages. Environmental enrichment, which provides a more structured environment can enhance the well-being of laboratory animals. They may perform more of their species-specific

  5. Temperature Measurement of Ceramic Materials Using a Multiwavelength Pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    1999-01-01

    The surface temperatures of several pure ceramic materials (alumina, beryllia, magnesia, yittria and spinel) in the shape of pellets were measured using a multiwavelength pyrometer. In one of the measurements, radiation signal collection is provided simply by an optical fiber. In the other experiments, a 4.75 inch (12 cm) parabolic mirror collects the signal for the spectrometer. Temperature measurement using the traditional one- and two-color pyrometer for these ceramic materials is difficult because of their complex optical properties, such as low emissivity which varies with both temperature and wavelength. In at least one of the materials, yittria, the detected optical emission increased as the temperature was decreased due to such emissivity variation. The reasons for such changes are not known. The multiwavelength pyrometer has demonstrated its ability to measure surface temperatures under such conditions. Platinum electrodes were embedded in the ceramic pellets for resistance measurements as the temperature changed.

  6. Survey and analysis of materials research and development at selected federal laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.E.; Fink, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    This document presents the results of an effort to transfer existing, but relatively unknown, materials R and D from selected federal laboratories to industry. More specifically, recent materials-related work at seven federal laboratories potentially applicable to improving process energy efficiency and overall productiviy in six energy-intensive manufacturing industries was evaluated, catalogued, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. Laboratories surveyed include: Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Material Laboratory (AFWAL). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Flight Center (NASA Marshall), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Industries included in the effort are: aluminum, cement, paper and allied products, petroleum, steel and textiles.

  7. Aligning laboratory and field compaction practices for asphalt - the influence of compaction temperature on mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; de Bondt, A.H.; Doree, Andries G.

    2015-01-01

    The approach used to identify a compaction temperature in the laboratory, based on binder viscosity, provides a single compaction temperature whereas, on-site, a roller operates within a temperature window. The effect on the density and mechanical properties of rolling during a temperature window

  8. Daily surface water temperature data collected from bucket casts from pier at Leigh Marine Laboratory, Auckland, New Zealand from 1967-01-01 to 2011-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0127323)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collected seawater temperatures at the Leigh Marine Laboratory. Dataset contains an archive of material to 2011. The location of the laboratory is lat: -36.26929,...

  9. Clinical Laboratory Tycoon case study: are you management material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    Many clinical laboratory scientists find themselves in a management position during their career, but have limited training to assume this role. The Clinical Laboratory Tycoon case study was designed to submerge students into the laboratory business by having the participant act as a laboratory manager with the capacity to make all the decisions about his or her own lab. The student participant completed a set of modules that each related to varying aspects of managing a laboratory including selecting what tests to offer, hiring employees, marketing the services, setting goals, budgeting, and evaluating overall success. This Clinical Laboratory Tycoon case study was used to instruct clinical laboratory science students in a university based clinical laboratory science program as part of their seminar in teaching, research, and management course. The size of these classes range from ten to twenty students and results reported in this paper are collected from a class size of sixteen students. The study could also be adapted for use in a hospital based program or as continuing education for laboratory employees. At the conclusion of the study, the student participants reported what they had learned during their time as managers and how their perspective changed. Student participants reported that they gained an understanding and appreciation for the responsibilities of the laboratory manager. For some, this study helped to define career goals.

  10. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  11. Effect of outgassing temperature on the performance of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figini-Albisetti, Alessandro; Velasco, Leticia F.; Parra, José B.; Ania, Conchi O.

    2010-06-01

    This work illustrates the consequences of an inadequate outgassing temperature of porous materials of different nature (zeolites and activated carbons) on their performance on gas storage and wastewater remediation. Outgassing at low temperature in thermally stable materials leads to an incomplete cleaning of the porous surface; as a result, the gas storage ability based on adsorption isotherms is underestimated. In contrast, outgassing at elevated temperature in temperature-sensitive materials provokes irreversible changes in their composition and structure, which also affects strongly their stability and performance. Two examples illustrating wrong interpretation data on CO 2 capture on zeolites and wastewater treatment using activated carbons are addressed. The results show how the performance of a given material can be significantly modified or misunderstood after the outgassing pretreatment.

  12. High Temperature Stable Nanocrystalline SiGe Thermoelectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sherwin (Inventor); Matejczyk, Daniel Edward (Inventor); Determan, William (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of forming a nanocomposite thermoelectric material having microstructural stability at temperatures greater than 1000 C. The method includes creating nanocrystalline powder by cryomilling. The method is particularly useful in forming SiGe alloy powder.

  13. Processing of extraterrestrial materials by high temperature vacuum vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that problems associated with the extraction and concentration of elements and commpounds important for the construction and operation of space habitats have received little attention. High temperature vacuum vaporization is considered a promising approach; this is a technique for which the space environment offers advantages in the form of low ambient pressures and temperatures and the possibility of sustained high temperatures via solar thermal energy. To establish and refine this new technology, experimental determinations must be made of the material release profiles as a function of temperature, of the release kinetics and chemical forms of material being transported, and of the various means of altering release kinetics. Trace element data determined by neutron activation analysis of meteorites heated to 1400 C in vacuum is summarized. The principal tool, high temperature spectrometry, is used to examine the vaporization thermodynamics and kinetics of major and minor elements from complex multicomponent extraterrestrial materials.

  14. Plasticity In High Temperature Materials: Tantalum and Monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0065 PLASTICITY IN HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS: TANTALUM AND MONAZITE Jeffrey Kysar THE TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE...Agency Air Force Office of Scientific Research Title of Project Plasticity in High Temperature Materials: Tantalum and Monazite February 28, 2014...centered cu- bic tantalum , the methodology also demonstrated a relationship between dislocation mean free path length and GND density. A framework to

  15. Laboratory Study of the Effect of Temperature Changes on Mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is an investigation of the eect of temperature changes on the mixing and performance of ponds. The parameters tested for were: biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, coliform, suspended solid, temperature and pH. Three metallic tanks were fed simultaneously by a plastic container under gravity.

  16. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance.

  17. Contact Thermocouple Methodology and Evaluation for Temperature Measurement in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ethan J.; Pawlik, Ralph J.; Krause, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory testing of advanced aerospace components very often requires highly accurate temperature measurement and control devices, as well as methods to precisely analyze and predict the performance of such components. Analysis of test articles depends on accurate measurements of temperature across the specimen. Where possible, this task is accomplished using many thermocouples welded directly to the test specimen, which can produce results with great precision. However, it is known that thermocouple spot welds can initiate deleterious cracks in some materials, prohibiting the use of welded thermocouples. Such is the case for the nickel-based superalloy MarM-247, which is used in the high temperature, high pressure heater heads for the Advanced Stirling Converter component of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator space power system. To overcome this limitation, a method was developed that uses small diameter contact thermocouples to measure the temperature of heater head test articles with the same level of accuracy as welded thermocouples. This paper includes a brief introduction and a background describing the circumstances that compelled the development of the contact thermocouple measurement method. Next, the paper describes studies performed on contact thermocouple readings to determine the accuracy of results. It continues on to describe in detail the developed measurement method and the evaluation of results produced. A further study that evaluates the performance of different measurement output devices is also described. Finally, a brief conclusion and summary of results is provided.

  18. Results Of Recent High Temperature Co-Electrolysis Studies At The Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Stoots; James E. O' Brien; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2007-11-01

    For the past several years, the Idaho National Laboratory and Ceramatec, Inc. have been studying the feasibility of high temperature solid oxide electrolysis for large-scale, nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Parallel to this effort, the INL and Ceramatec have been researching high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis of steam/CO2 mixtures to produce syngas, the raw material for synthetic fuels production. When powered by nuclear energy, high temperature co-electrolysis offers a carbon-neutral means of syngas production while consuming CO2. The INL has been conducting experiments to characterize the electrochemical performance of co-electrolysis, as well as validate INL-developed computer models. An inline methanation reactor has also been tested to study direct methane production from co-electrolysis products. Testing to date indicate that high temperature steam electrolysis cells perform equally well under co-electrolysis conditions. Process model predictions compare well with measurements for outlet product compositions. The process appears to be a promising technique for large-scale syngas production.

  19. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  20. Laboratory studies on corrosion of materials for fluidized bed combustion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1990-10-01

    An extensive corrosion test program was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the corrosion performance of metallic structural materials in environments that simulate both steady-state and off-normal exposure conditions anticipated in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) systems. This report discusses the possible roles of key parameters, such as sorbent and gas chemistries, metal temperature, gas cycling conditions, and alloy pretreatment, in the corrosion process. Data on scale thickness and intergranular penetration depth are presented for several alloys as a function of the chemistry of the exposure environment, deposit chemistry, and exposure time. Test results were obtained to compare the corrosion behavior of materials in the presence of reagent grade sorbent compounds and spent-bed materials from bubbling- and circulating-fluid-bed systems. Finally, the laboratory test results were compared with metal wastage information developed over the years in several fluidized bed test facilities. Metallic alloys chosen for the tests were carbon steel, Fe-2 1/4Cr-1Mo and Fe-9Cr-1Mo ferritic steels. Types 304 and 310 stainless steel, and Incoloy 800. 26 refs., 61 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Utilizing Materials With Controllable Curie Temperatures for Magnetic Actuation Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic force between a permanent magnet and different blocks of ferromagnetic materials was measured and calculated as a function of distance and temperature in the vicinity of the Curie temperature of the materials. The calculations were carried out using a 3-D finite-element model...... of the system. On the basis of forces predicted by the model a number of equilibrium points were calculated for a system where the magnetic force on a ferromagnetic block of material is balanced by a linear spring force. It is shown how these calculation procedures can be used as a tool for designing autonomous...

  2. New Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzlarich, Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-02-03

    The scope of this proposal was to develop two new high ZT materials with enhanced properties for the n- and p-leg of a thermoelectric device capable of operating at a maximum temperature of 1275 K and to demonstrate the efficiency in a working device. Nanostructured composites and new materials based on n– and p–type nanostructured Si1-xGex (ZT1273K ~ 1) and the recently discovered p–type high temperature Zintl phase material, Yb14MnSb11 (ZT1273K ~1) were developed and tested in a working device.

  3. Compact acoustic levitation device for studies in fluid dynamics and material science in the laboratory and microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic levitation device operable in both ordinary ground-based as well as in potential space-borne laboratories is described together with its various applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, material science, and light scattering. Some of the phenomena which can be studied by this instrument include surface waves on freely suspended liquids, the variations of the surface tension with temperature and contamination, the deep undercooling of materials with the temperature variations of their density and viscosity, and finally some of the optical diffraction properties of transparent substances.

  4. BUCKLING OF A COLUMN WITH TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT MATERIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer SOYKASAP

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckling of a column with temperature dependent material properties is investigated. Euler-Bernoulli theory of thin beams is used to derive the element matrices by means of the minimum potential energy principle. Temperature dependency of material properties is taken into account in the formulation. The column is divided into finite elements with the axial degrees of freedom defined at the outer fiber of the column. Column elements have simpler derivations and compact element matrices than those of classical beam-bending element. Some illustrative examples are presented to show the convergence of numerical results obtained by the use of new elements. The results are compared with those of the classical beam-bending element and analytical solution. The new element converges to the analytical results as powerful as the classical beam-bending element. The temperature effects on the buckling loads of the column with temperature dependent material properties are also examined.

  5. Temperature-regulated guest admission and release in microporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang (Kevin); Shang, Jin; Gu, Qinfen; Awati, Rohan V.; Jensen, Nathan; Grant, Andrew; Zhang, Xueying; Sholl, David S.; Liu, Jefferson Z.; Webley, Paul A.; May, Eric F.

    2017-06-01

    While it has long been known that some highly adsorbing microporous materials suddenly become inaccessible to guest molecules below certain temperatures, previous attempts to explain this phenomenon have failed. Here we show that this anomalous sorption behaviour is a temperature-regulated guest admission process, where the pore-keeping group's thermal fluctuations are influenced by interactions with guest molecules. A physical model is presented to explain the atomic-level chemistry and structure of these thermally regulated micropores, which is crucial to systematic engineering of new functional materials such as tunable molecular sieves, gated membranes and controlled-release nanocontainers. The model was validated experimentally with H2, N2, Ar and CH4 on three classes of microporous materials: trapdoor zeolites, supramolecular host calixarenes and metal-organic frameworks. We demonstrate how temperature can be exploited to achieve appreciable hydrogen and methane storage in such materials without sustained pressure. These findings also open new avenues for gas sensing and isotope separation.

  6. Sealing Materials for Use in Vacuum at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Camarda, Charles J.; Lee Vaughn, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Sealing materials that can be applied and left in place in vacuum over a wide range of temperatures (especially temperatures of a few thousand degrees Celsius) have been conceived and investigated for potential utility in repairing thermal-protection tiles on the space shuttles in orbit before returning to Earth. These materials are also adaptable to numerous terrestrial applications that involve vacuum processing and/or repair of structures that must withstand high temperatures. These materials can be formulated to have mechanical handling characteristics ranging from almost freely flowing liquid-like consistency through paste-like consistency to stiff puttylike consistency, and to retain these characteristics in vacuum until heated to high curing temperatures. A sealing material of this type can be formulated to be used in any of several different ways for example, to be impregnated into a high-temperature-fabric patch, impregnated into a high-temperature-fabric gasket for sealing a patch, applied under a patch, or applied alone in the manner of putty or wallboard compound. The sealing material must be formulated to be compatible with, and adhere to, the structural material(s) to be repaired. In general, the material consists of a vacuum-compatible liquid containing one or more dissolved compound(s) and/or mixed with suspended solid particles. Depending on the intended application, the liquid can be chosen to be of a compound that can remain in place in vacuum for a time long enough to be useful, and/or to evaporate or decompose in a controlled way to leave a useful solid residue behind. The evaporation rate is determined by proper choice of vapor pressure, application of heat, and/or application of ultraviolet light or other optical radiation. The liquid chosen for the original space shuttle application is a commercial silicone vacuum-pump oil.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Nitrile Fuel Tank Materials (Phase 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    reported skin temperatures that the tanks could experience in the SWA theater due to solar loading. Because no data was available at the start of this...environments, it is not unusual for skin temperatures to exceed 140 F. It becomes important and relevant to evaluate diffusion and strength...coating. A plasticizer is usually an oily type additive that allows the nitrile coating to remain flexible at low temperatures. It is well known that

  8. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry.

  9. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Daniel [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden); Hansen, Staffan [LTH Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for {approx} 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project.

  10. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  11. Materials characterization capabilities at DOE Nuclear Weapons Laboratories and Production Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyper, J.W.

    1984-06-01

    The materials characterization and analytical chemistry capabilities at the 11 DOE Nuclear Weapons Laboratories or Production Plants have been surveyed and compared. In general, all laboratories have similar capabilities and equipment. Facilities or capabilities that are unique or that exist at only a few laboratories are described in detail.

  12. Development of heat exchanger for high temperature energy storage with bulk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boura, Cristiano Teixeira; Niederwestberg, Stefan; McLeod, Jacqueline; Herrmann, Ulf; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the concept of a high temperature gas-to-particle heat exchanger, the corresponding test facilities and the results of laboratory tests. A description of the optimal bulk material and separator properties and their influences on the operating conditions is also given. The three phenomena pinning, blistering and blocking could be observed during the tests and were analysed in more detail using simulation software.

  13. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  14. Low temperature dielectric properties of magnetoplumbite family of materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateshwaran, B.; Yao, M.; Guo, R.; Bhalla, A.; Balachandran, U.; Energy Technology; Pennsylvania State Univ.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetoplumbite family of materials exhibit properties that make them suitable to be used as substrates materials for microwave application. Four members of the family studied in this work are LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}, NdGaMgAl{sub 10}O{sub 19}, CaGa{sub 6}Al{sub 6}O{sub 19} and CaGa{sub 12}O{sub 19}. Dielectric studies have been carried out over a temperature range of 4-300 K and a wide frequency range. All four exhibit a low dielectric constant with good temperature stability, low dielectric loss and favorable frequency dependence characteristics.

  15. Static pressure and temperature coefficients of laboratory standard microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1996-01-01

    on an extended lumped parameter representation of the mechanical and acoustical elements of the microphone, assuming the velocity distribution of the diaphragm to follow the zero-order Bessel function. The extension involves the frequency dependency of the dynamic diaphragm mass and stiffness as well as a first......-order approximation of resonances in the back cavity. It was found that each of the coefficients, for a given type of microphone, can be expressed by a single function when the coefficients are normalized by their low-frequency value and the frequency axis normalized by the individual resonance frequency...... of the microphone. The static pressure and temperature coefficients were determined experimentally for about twenty samples of type BK 4160 and BK 4180 microphones. The results agree almost perfectly with the predictions for BK 4160, while some modifications of the lumped parameter values are called for to make...

  16. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  17. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2013-01-01

    Different corrosion resistant stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, pure nickel, Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L), niobium, platinum and gold rods were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature (200-400 °C) acidic water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance w...

  18. Selection of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene

    2017-01-01

    In the future higher temperature Stirling convertors for improved efficiency and performance, various high temperature organic materials have been demanded as essential components for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The higher temperature capabilities would also allow current state-of-the-art (SOA) convertors to be used in additional missions, particularly those that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of comprehensive structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, o-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This paper presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection recommendations.

  19. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Phillip, Bradley L.

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compostions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  20. High-Temperature Structures, Adhesives, and Advanced Thermal Protection Materials for Next-Generation Aeroshell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Congdon, William M.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Whitley, Karen S.

    2005-01-01

    National Laboratories. These tests are designed to validate aeroshell manufacturability using advanced material systems, and to demonstrate the maintenance of bondline integrity at realistically high temperatures and heating rates. Finally, a status is given of ongoing aeroshell modeling and analysis efforts which will be used to correlate with experimental testing, and to provide a reliable means of extrapolating to performance under actual flight conditions. The modeling and analysis effort includes a parallel series of experimental tests to determine TSP thermal expansion and other mechanical properties which are required for input to the analysis models.

  1. Novel High Temperature Materials for In-Situ Sensing Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian Solzbacher; Anil Virkar; Loren Rieth; Srinivasan Kannan; Xiaoxin Chen; Hannwelm Steinebach

    2009-12-31

    The overriding goal of this project was to develop gas sensor materials and systems compatible with operation at temperatures from 500 to 700 C. Gas sensors operating at these temperatures would be compatible with placement in fossil-energy exhaust streams close to the combustion chamber, and therefore have advantages for process regulation, and feedback for emissions controls. The three thrusts of our work included investigating thin film gas sensor materials based on metal oxide materials and electroceramic materials, and also development of microhotplate devices to support the gas sensing films. The metal oxide materials NiO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated for their sensitivity to H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, at high temperatures (T > 500 C), where the sensing properties of these materials have received little attention. New ground was broken in achieving excellent gas sensor responses (>10) for temperatures up to 600 C for NiO and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. The gas sensitivity of these materials was decreasing as temperatures increased above 500 C, which indicates that achieving strong sensitivities with these materials at very high temperatures (T {ge} 650 C) will be a further challenge. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reliability of these materials were investigated across a wide range of deposition conditions, temperatures, film thickness, as using surface active promoter materials. We also proposed to study the electroceramic materials BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} and BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} for their ability to detect H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, respectively. This report focuses on the properties and gas sensing characteristics of BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} (Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}), as significant difficulties were encounter in generating BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} sensors. Significant new results were achieved for Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including

  2. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M. [comps.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory`s defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location.

  3. Abstracts of AF Materials Laboratory Reports. January 1973 - December 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    201,350 January 1973 HIGH TEMPERA! URE RESISTANT ELASTOMERS OF COMPLIANT POLYMERS R. J. Jones; H. N. Cassey F33615-71-C-1397 TRW, Incorporated...October 1973 HIGH TEMPERATURE RESISTANT ELASTOMERS OR COMPLIANT POLYMERS R. L. Jones; H. N. Cassey ; C. D. Bertino F3361S-71-C-1397 TRW...Carlson, R. G. 37 Carter, C. S. 29 Casassa, E. F. 77 Cassey , H. N. - 78 Caton, R. G. 29 Chamberlain, M. B. 97

  4. Apparatus for temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence characterization of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-07-01

    An apparatus for characterization of temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) of solid-state materials is presented. This device excites a specimen using an electron beam and the CL emission is collected from the specimen side opposite the e-beam irradiation. The design of the temperature-controlled specimen holder that enables cooling down to 100 K and heating up to 500 K is described. The desired specimen temperature is automatically stabilized using a PID controller, which is the proportional-integral-derivative control feedback loop. Moreover, the specimen holder provides in situ e-beam current measurement during the specimen excitation. The apparatus allows the measurement of the CL intensity, the CL spectrum, or the CL intensity decay depending on the specimen temperature, or on a variety of excitation conditions, such as excitation energy, electron current (dose), or excitation duration. The apparatus abilities are demonstrated by an example of the CL measurements of the YAG:Ce single-crystal scintillator.

  5. Temperature-responsive compounds as in situ gelling biomedical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyo Jung; Ko, Du Young; Park, Min Hee; Joo, Min Kyung; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2012-07-21

    Aqueous solutions that undergo sol-to-gel transition as the temperature increases have been extensively studied during the last decade. The material can be designed by controlling the hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance of the material. Basically, the molecular weight of the hydrophilic block and hydrophobic block of a compound should be fine-tuned from the synthetic point of view. In addition, stereochemistry, microsequence, topology, and nanostructures of the compound also affect the transition temperature, gel window, phase diagram, and modulus of the gel. From a practical point of view, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and interactions between the material and drug or cell should be considered in designing a thermogelling material. The interactions are particularly important in that they control drug release profile and initial burst release of the drug in the drug delivery system, and affect cell proliferation, differentiation, and biomarker expression in three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering application. This review provides an in-depth summary of the recent progress of thermogelling systems including polymers, low molecular compounds, and nanoemulsions. Their biomedical applications were also comparatively discussed. In addition, perspectives on future material design of a new thermogelling material and its application are suggested.

  6. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Malcolm; Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich; Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich; Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich; Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich; Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich

    2008-12-09

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  7. Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic materials: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenherr, P; Allgayer, N; Weiger, R; Filippi, A; Attin, T; Krastl, G

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the discoloration potential of endodontic materials using a bovine tooth model. Two hundred and 10 dentine-enamel cuboid blocks (10 × 10 × 3.5 mm) were prepared out of the middle thirds of bovine tooth crowns. Standardized cavities were prepared in the walls of the pulp chamber leaving 2 mm of enamel and dentine on the labial wall of the crown. The specimens were randomly assigned to 14 groups (n = 15). Endodontic materials were placed into the cavities as follows: group A: empty, group B: blood, group C: calcium hydroxide, group D: ApexCal, group E: Ultracal XS, group F: Ledermix, group G: triple antibiotic paste (3Mix), group H: grey MTA(GMTA), group I: GMTA + blood, group J: white MTA (WMTA), group K: WMTA + blood, group L: Portland cement (PC), group M: PC + blood and group N: AH Plus. The cavities were sealed with composite and stored in water. Standardized colour measurement (VITA Easyshade compact) was performed at the following intervals: prior to (T0) and after placement of the filling (T1), 1 week (T2), 1 month (T3), 3 months (T4), 6 months (T5) and after 1 year (T6). Colour change (ΔE) values were calculated. A two-way analysis of variance was used to assess significant differences between the endodontic materials. The mean values of all groups were compared using the Tukey multiple comparison test (α = 0.05). Significant differences were detected amongst the experimental groups after 12 months (P discoloration was measured in groups G (3Mix, 66.2 ± 9.9) and F (Ledermix, 46.2 ± 11.6). PC showed the best colour stability amongst the Portland cement-based materials; however, when contaminated with blood (group M), a significantly higher ΔE value (13.6 ± 4.2) was detected (P = 0.032). Materials used in endodontics may stain teeth. Therefore, the choice of material should not rely solely on biological and functional criteria, but also take aesthetic considerations into account. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory standard nuclear material container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The shut down of United States (U.S.) nuclear-weapons production activities in the early 1990s left large quantities of nuclear materials throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex in forms not intended for long-term storage. In May 1994, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 94-1, which called for the stabilization and disposition of 'thousands of containers of plutonium-bearing liquids and solids' in the DOE complex, including LANL in the nuclear-weapons-manufacturing pipeline when manufacturing ended. This resulted in the development of the 3013 standard with container requirements for long term storage (up to 50 years). A follow on was the Criteria For Interim Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials, Charles B. Curtis, in 1996 to address storage other than the 3013 standard for shorter time frames. In January 2000, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2000-1, which stated the need for LANL to repackage 'about one ton of plutonium metal and oxide,' declared excess to Defense Program (DP) needs. The DNFSB recommended that LANL 'stabilize and seal within welded containers with an inert atmosphere the plutonium oxides ... which are not yet in states conforming to the long-term storage envisaged by DOE-STD-3013,' and that they '... enclose existing and newly-generated legacy plutonium metal in sealed containers with an inert atmosphere,' and 'remediate and/or safely store the various residues.' Recommendation 2000-1, while adding to the number of items needing remediation, also reiterated the need to address remaining items from 1994-1 in a timely fashion. Since timetables slipped, the DNFSB recommended that the Complex 'prioritize and schedule tasks according to the consideration of risks.' In March 2005, the DNFSB issued Recommendation 2005-1. This recommendation addresses the need for a consistent set of criteria across the DOE complex for the interim storage of

  9. Refractory materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical work of two decades ago adequately explained the transport behavior and effectively guided the development of thermoelectric materials of high conversion efficiencies of conventional semiconductors (e.g., SiGe alloys). The more significant contributions involved the estimaiation of optimum doping concentrations, the reduction of thermal conductivity by solid solution doping and the development of a variety of materials with ZT approx. 1 in the temperature range 300 K to 1200 K. ZT approx. 1 is not a theoretical limitation although, experimentally, values in excess of one were not achieved. Work has continued with emphasis on higher temperature energy conversion. A number of promising materials have been discovered in which it appears that ZT 1 is realizable. These materials are divided into two classes: (1) the rare-earth chalcogenides which behave as itinerant highly-degenerate n-type semiconductors at room-temperature, and (2) the boron-rich borides, which exhibit p-type small-polaronic hopping conductivity.

  10. Temperature-regulated guest admission and release in microporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang (Kevin); Shang, Jin; Gu, Qinfen; Awati, Rohan V.; Jensen, Nathan; Grant, Andrew; Zhang, Xueying; Sholl, David S.; Liu, Jefferson Z.; Webley, Paul A.; May, Eric F.

    2017-01-01

    While it has long been known that some highly adsorbing microporous materials suddenly become inaccessible to guest molecules below certain temperatures, previous attempts to explain this phenomenon have failed. Here we show that this anomalous sorption behaviour is a temperature-regulated guest admission process, where the pore-keeping group's thermal fluctuations are influenced by interactions with guest molecules. A physical model is presented to explain the atomic-level chemistry and structure of these thermally regulated micropores, which is crucial to systematic engineering of new functional materials such as tunable molecular sieves, gated membranes and controlled-release nanocontainers. The model was validated experimentally with H2, N2, Ar and CH4 on three classes of microporous materials: trapdoor zeolites, supramolecular host calixarenes and metal-organic frameworks. We demonstrate how temperature can be exploited to achieve appreciable hydrogen and methane storage in such materials without sustained pressure. These findings also open new avenues for gas sensing and isotope separation. PMID:28598429

  11. Refractory materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical work of two decades ago adequately explained the transport behavior and effectively guided the development of thermoelectric materials of high conversion efficiencies of conventional semiconductors (e.g., SiGe alloys). The more significant contributions involved the estimation of optimum doping concentrations, the reduction of thermal conductivity by solid solution doping and the development of a variety of materials with ZT approx. 1 in the temperature range 300 K to 1200 K. It was also shown that ZT approx. 1 is not a theoretical limitation although, experimentally, values in excess of one were not achieved. Work has continued with emphasis on higher temperature energy conversion. A number of promising materials have been discovered in which it appears that ZT > 1 is realizable. These materials can be divided into two classes: (i) the rare-earth chalcogenides, which behave as itinerant highly-degenerate n-type semiconductors at room-temperature, and (ii) the boron-rich borides, which exhibit p-type small-polaronic hopping conductivity.

  12. Screening of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-sik E.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Along with major advancement of Stirling-based convertors, high temperature organics are needed to develop future higher temperature convertors for much improved efficiencies as well as to improve the margin of reliability for the current SOA (State-of-the-Art) convertors. The higher temperature capabilities would improve robustness of the convertors and also allow them to be used in additional missions, particularly ones that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Various organic materials have been employed as essential components in the convertor for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of every possible material structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, O-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This report presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection

  13. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H{sup 3} or C{sup 14}. The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994.

  14. Organic Materials for Time-Temperature Integrator Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Melucci, Manuela

    2015-08-12

    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) are devices capable of recording the thermal history of a system. They have an enormous impact in the food and pharmaceutical industries. TTIs exploit several irreversible thermally activated transitions such as recrystallization, dewetting, smoothening, chemical decomposition, and polymorphic transitions, usually considered drawbacks for many technological applications. The aim of this article is to sensitize research groups working in organic synthesis and surface science toward TTI devices, enlarging the prospects of many new materials. We reviewed the principal applications highlighting the need and criticisms of TTIs, which offer a new opportunity for the development of many materials.

  15. High-Temperature Electronic Materials: Silicon Carbide and Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Magnus; Friesel, Milan; Wahab, Qamar-Ul; Straumal, Boris

    The physical and chemical properties of wide-band-gap semiconductors make these materials an ideal choice for device fabrication for applications in many different areas, e.g. light emitters, high-temperature and high-power electronics, high-power microwave devices, micro-electromechanical system (MEM) technology, and substrates for semiconductor preparation. These semiconductors have been recognized for several decades as being suitable for these applications, but until recently the low material quality has not allowed the fabrication of high-quality devices. In this chapter, we review the wide-band-gap semiconductors, silicon carbide and diamond.

  16. A Place for Materials Science: Laboratory Buildings and Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub; Shields, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM), University of Pennsylvania, was built in 1965 as part of the Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDL) program intended to foster interdisciplinary research and training in materials science. The process that led to the construction of the…

  17. Writing Material in Chemical Physics Research: The Laboratory Notebook as Locus of Technical and Textual Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Chad

    2010-01-01

    This article, drawing on ethnographic study in a chemical physics research facility, explores how notebooks are used and produced in the conduct of laboratory science. Data include written field notes of laboratory activity; visual documentation of "in situ" writing processes; analysis of inscriptions, texts, and material artifacts produced in the…

  18. Room temperature Sieving of Hydrogen Isotopes Using 2-D Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krentz, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Serkiz, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Velten, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Xiao, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-28

    Hydrogen isotope separation is critical to the DOE’s mission in environmental remediation and nuclear nonproliferation. Isotope separation is also a critical technology for the NNSA, and the ability to perform the separations at room temperature with a relatively small amount of power and space would be a major advancement for their respective missions. Recent work has shown that 2-D materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride can act as an isotopic sieve at room temperature; efficiently separating hydrogen isotopes in water with reported separation ratios of 10:1 for hydrogen: deuterium separation for a single pass. The work performed here suggests that this technique has merit, and furthermore, we are investigating optimization and scale up of the required 2-D material based membranes.

  19. Development of Distant Learning Laboratory and Creation of Educational Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Education's fundamental goal is to disseminate information, mostly that which relates to science and technology. In this attempt, as I have observed, the office has many programs bringing both students and teachers to NASA Langley to expose them to the facilities and to teach them some about the scientific theory and about available modern technology. As a way of expanding the audience that can be reached, as the expense of bringing people in is limiting, Marchelle Canright has proposed establishing a center dedicated to researching and producing distant learning videos. Although distant learning through telecommunications is not a new concept, as many universities, colleges, and precollege level schools offer televised courses, the research in this field has been limited. Many of the standing distant learning broadcasts are simply recordings of teachers in classrooms giving lectures to their own students; they are not aimed at the television audience. In some cases the videos are produced without a Live-lecture atmosphere, but are still only classroom lectures. In either case, however, the full range of capabilities of video production are not being fully utilized. Methods for best relaying educational material have not been explored. Possibilities for including computerized images and video clips for the purpose of showing diagrams and processes, as well as examples in fitting cases, may add considerably to the educational value of these videos. Also, through Internet and satellite links, it is possible for remote students to interact with the teachers during televised sessions. These possibilities might, also, add to the effectiveness of distant learning programs. Ms. Canright's proposed center will be dedicated to researching these possibilities and eventually spreading the results to distant learning program managers. This is the project I was involved in over the summer. As implied, the center is still at the foundation stages. Ms. Canright has

  20. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped ZnO....... Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...... for conventional ZnO materials. For Al-doped ZnO, α- and γ-Al2O3 were selectively used as dopants in order to understand the doping mechanism of each phase and their effects on the thermoelectric properties. The samples were prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique from precursors calcined at various...

  1. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Materials Samples: Material Certification, Fluence, and Temperature (Nonproprietary Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Krug; R. Shogan; A. Fero; M. Snyder

    2004-11-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores, operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs require detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel. This report contains basic material characterization information of the as-installed samples of reactor internals material which were harvested from a decommissioned PWR.

  2. The effect of elevated temperature on the toxicity of the laboratory cultured dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Mayra; Tosteson, Thomas; Tosteson, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo 1981, is the major benthic dinoflagellate vector implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in finfish on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Clonal laboratory cultures of O. lenticularis (clone 301) exposed to elevated temperatures (30-31 degrees C) for 33 and 54 days showed significant increases in the quantity of extractable toxin they produced as compared to their toxicities versus cells grown at temperatures of 25-26 degrees C. O lenticularis samples collected directly from the field following exposure to elevated temperatures for comparable periods of time also showed significant increases in extractable toxin. The increased toxicity of both field sampled and laboratory grown O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures may result from the effects of elevated temperatures on their metabolism and/or the bacterial symbionts found associated with these microalgae. The number of bacteria associated with cultured O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures was significantly reduced. Increased toxin recovery from O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures may have resulted from the direct effect of temperature on toxin production and/or the reduction of Ostreopsis associated bacterial flora that consume toxin in the process of their growth. This reduction in the quantity of associated bacterial flora in temperature treated cultures may result in increased toxin recovery from O. lenticularis due to a reduction in the consumption of toxin by these symbiont bacteria.

  3. The effect of elevated temperature on the toxicity of the laboratory cultured dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis (Dinophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton, Mayra; Tosteson, Thomas; Tosteson, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo 1981, is the major benthic dinoflagellate vector implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in finfish on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Clonal laboratory cultures of O. lenticularis (clone 301) exposed to elevated temperatures (30-31°C) for 33 and 54 days showed significant increases in the quantity of ex-tractable toxin they produced as compared to their toxicities versus cells grown at temperatures of 25-26°C. O. lenticularis samples collected directly from ...

  4. Strength of preference for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weerd, HA; Van Loo, PLP; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    The present paper describes two experiments in which preferences of laboratory mice for materials which could serve as cage enrichment were investigated. In the first experiment, presence of nesting material (paper towel or tissue) and the presence of a nest box (perforated metal or clear perspex

  5. LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE STABILITY AND TRANSPORT OF INORGANIC COLLOIDS THROUGH NATURAL AQUIFER MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability and transport of radio-labeled Fe2O3 particles were studied using laboratory batch and column techniques. Core material collected from shallow sand and gravel aquifer was used as the immobile column matrix material. Variables in the study included flow rate, pH, i...

  6. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This interdisciplinary laboratory in the College of Engineering support research in areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. These research programs are developed with the assistance of faculty, students, and research associates in the departments of Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Nuclear Engineering.

  7. Investigation of the effect of temperature, porosity, and microstructure on the strength of meteoric and planetary materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laura; Swift, Damian; Herbold, Eric; Tear, Gareth; Zick, Tom; Brugman, Ben; Remington, Tane; Bruck Syal, Megan; Strang, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Laser-driven shock experiments have been performed at the Trident Laser facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory and at the Janus laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, investigating Fe, Fe-Ni metals, silicates, Fe-rich meteorites and chondrites under high strain-rate, dynamic loading at a range of initial temperatures. Material strength as a function of temperature, porosity, and microstructure is studied to reveal the kinetics attributed to the deformation of each material. Post-shock recovery analyses including x-ray diffraction, SEM/EBSD, and x-ray tomography help characterize microstructural and mesoscale changes in the constituent materials. The ultimate goal is to account for varying material and microstructure within meteors subjected to shock wave induced thermal gradients to predict how a bolide will break-up and ablate under high strain-rate loading, such as atmospheric entry, as well as provide reliable models for asteroid deflection methods.

  8. Materials for the scavenging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, T.J.; Phillip, B.L.

    1997-04-29

    A hydrogen getter composition is described comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluoropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases. 7 figs.

  9. Experimental measurements of thermal properties of high-temperature refractory materials used for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Jeter, Sheldon; Al-Ansary, Hany; Abdel-Khalik, Said; Golob, Matthew; Danish, Syed Noman; Saeed, Rageh; Djajadiwinata, Eldwin; Al-Suhaibani, Zeyad

    2016-05-01

    This paper builds on studies conducted on thermal energy storage (TES) systems that were built as a part of the work performed for a DOE-funded SunShot project titled "High Temperature Falling Particle Receiver". In previous studies, two small-scale TES systems were constructed for measuring heat loss at high temperatures that are compatible with the falling particle receiver concept, both of which had shown very limited heat loss. Through the course of those studies, it became evident that there was a lack of information about the thermal performance of some of the insulating refractory materials used in the experiments at high temperatures, especially insulating firebrick and perlite concrete. This work focuses on determining the thermal conductivities of those materials at high temperatures. The apparatus consists of a prototype cylindrical TES bin built with the same wall construction used in previous studies. An electric heater is placed along the centerline of the bin, and thermocouples are used to measure temperature at the interfaces between all layers. Heat loss is measured across one of the layers whose thermal conductivity had already been well established using laboratory experiments. This value is used to deduce the thermal conductivity of other layers. Three interior temperature levels were considered; namely, 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C. Results show that the thermal conductivity of insulating firebrick remains low (approximately 0.22 W/m.K) at an average layer temperature as high as 640°C, but it was evident that the addition of mortar had an impact on its effective thermal conductivity. Results also show that the thermal conductivity of perlite concrete is very low, approximately 0.15 W/m.K at an average layer temperature of 360°C. This is evident by the large temperature drop that occurs across the perlite concrete layer. These results should be useful for future studies, especially those that focus on numerical modeling of TES bins.

  10. Facesheet Delamination of Composite Sandwich Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Herring, Helen M.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of space transportation vehicles will require advances in lightweight structural materials and related design concepts to meet the increased demands on performance. One potential source for significant structural weight reduction is the replacement of traditional metallic cryogenic fuel tanks with new designs for polymeric matrix composite tanks. These new tank designs may take the form of thin-walled sandwich constructed with lightweight core and composite facesheets. Life-time durability requirements imply the materials must safely carry pressure loads, external structural loads, resist leakage and operate over an extremely wide temperature range. Aside from catastrophic events like tank wall penetration, one of the most likely scenarios for failure of a tank wall of sandwich construction is the permeation of cryogenic fluid into the sandwich core and the subsequent delamination of the sandwich facesheet due to the build-up of excessive internal pressure. The research presented in this paper was undertaken to help understand this specific problem of core to facesheet delamination in cryogenic environments and relate this data to basic mechanical properties. The experimental results presented herein provide data on the strain energy release rate (toughness) of the interface between the facesheet and the core of a composite sandwich subjected to simulated internal pressure. A unique test apparatus and associated test methods are described and the results are presented to highlight the effects of cryogenic temperature on the measured material properties.

  11. Growth temperature exerts differential physiological and transcriptional responses in laboratory and wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarra, Francisco J.; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been widely used as a model for studying eukaryotic cells and mapping the molecular mechanisms of many different human diseases. Industrial wine yeasts, on the other hand, have been selected on the basis of their adaptation to stringent...... global insight into how growth temperature affects differential physiological and transcriptional responses in laboratory and wine strains of S. cerevisiae....... environmental conditions and the organoleptic properties that they confer to wine. Here, we used a two-factor design to study the responses of a standard laboratory strain, CEN.PK113-7D, and an industrial wine yeast strain, EC1118, to growth temperatures of 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C in nitrogen...

  12. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis...

  13. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH-[TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James; Bayless, Paul; Strydom, Gerhard; Kumar, Akansha; Gougar, Hans

    2016-11-01

    A point design for a graphite-moderated, high-temperature, gas-cooled test reactor (HTG TR) has been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as part of a United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to explore and potentially expand the existing U.S. test reactor capabilities. This paper provides a summary of the design and its main attributes. The 200 MW HTG TR is a thermal-neutron spectrum reactor composed of hexagonal prismatic fuel and graphite reflector blocks. Twelve fuel columns (96 fuel blocks total and 6.34 m active core height) are arranged in two hexagonal rings to form a relatively compact, high-power density, annular core sandwiched between inner, outer, top, and bottom graphite reflectors. The HTG-TR is designed to operate at 7 MPa with a coolant inlet/outlet temperature of 325°C/650°C, and utilizes TRISO particle fuel from the DOE AGR Program with 425 ?m uranium oxycarbide (UCO) kernels and an enrichment of 15.5 wt% 235U. The primary mission of the HTG TR is material irradiation and therefore the core has been specifically designed and optimized to provide the highest possible thermal and fast neutron fluxes. The highest thermal neutron flux (3.90E+14 n/cm2s) occurs in the outer reflector, and the maximum fast flux levels (1.17E+14 n/cm2s) are produced in the central reflector column where most of the graphite has been removed. Due to high core temperatures under accident conditions, all the irradiation test facilities have been located in the inner and outer reflectors where fast flux levels decline. The core features a large number of irradiation positions with large test volumes and long test lengths, ideal for thermal neutron irradiation of large test articles. The total available test volume is more than 1100 liters. Up to four test loop facilities can be accommodated with pressure tube boundaries to isolate test articles and test fluids (e.g., liquid metal, liquid salt, light water) from the helium primary coolant system.

  14. Homogeneity and stability studies during the preparation of a laboratory reference material of soy leaves for the determination of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Ana M P; Lima, Daniel C; de Jesus, Robson M; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2011-01-01

    The homogeneity and stability of metals were tested in a candidate laboratory reference material of soy leaves. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to quantify calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and vanadium. A 6 kg amount of the material, which was dried, ground, and classified as mesh 60, was distributed among 100 bottles. The between-bottle homogeneity test was established by analyzing two subsamples from nine bottles. For the within-bottle test, five determinations of each element of a single bottle were performed. The stability test was performed at temperatures of -10, +27, and +40 degrees C, and after storage times of 4, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. The obtained results indicated that the material was homogeneous and stable under the conditions studied.

  15. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C.; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water store...

  16. Low Temperature Regolith Bricks for In-Situ Structural Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Kevin; Sakthivel, Tamil S.; Mantovani, James; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Current technology for producing in-situ structural materials on future missions to Mars or the moon relies heavily on energy-intensive sintering processes to produce solid bricks from regolith. This process requires heating the material up to temperatures in excess of 1000 C and results in solid regolith pieces with compressive strengths in the range of 14000 to 28000 psi, but are heavily dependent on the porosity of the final material and are brittle. This method is currently preferred over a low temperature cementation process to prevent consumption of precious water and other non-renewable materials. A high strength structural material with low energy requirements is still needed for future colonization of other planets. To fulfill these requirements, a nano-functionalization process has been developed to produce structural bricks from regolith simulant and shows promising mechanical strength results. Functionalization of granular silicate particles into alkoxides using a simple low temperature chemical process produces a high surface area zeolite particles that are held together via inter-particle oxygen bonding. Addition of water in the resulting zeolite particles produces a sol-gel reaction called "inorganic polymerization" which gives a strong solid material after a curing process at 60 C. The aqueous solution by-product of the reaction is currently being investigated for its reusability; an essential component of any ISRU technology. For this study, two batches of regolith bricks are synthesized from JSC-1A; the first batch from fresh solvents and chemicals, the second batch made from the water solution by-product of the first batch. This is done to determine the feasibility of recycling necessary components of the synthesis process, mainly water. Characterization including BET surface area, SEM, and EDS has been done on the regolith bricks as well as the constituent particles,. The specific surface area of 17.53 sq m/g (average) of the granular regolith

  17. Cement stabilization of road pavement materials: laboratory testing programme phase 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available . There is no doubt that both conditioning time and material temperature during the early stages of hydration of the cement affect the compacted density and unconfined compressive strength and indirect tensile strength (these three are obviously interrelated...

  18. Comparison of Measurements of Internal Temperatures in Ablation Material by Various Thermocouple Configurations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dow, Marvin

    1964-01-01

    .... The measurement of internal temperatures in materials with low values of thermal conductivity subjected to severe heating by thermocouples requires that the thermocouple produce a minimum temperature...

  19. Extreme temperatures increase the deleterious consequences of inbreeding under laboratory and semi-natural conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Barker, J. Stuart F.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The majority of experimental studies of the effects of population bottlenecks on fitness are performed under laboratory conditions, which do not account for the environmental complexity that populations face in nature. In this study, we test inbreeding depression in multiple replicates of inbred...... show inbreeding depression for egg-to-adult viability. The level of inbreeding depression is highly dependent on test temperature and is observed only at low and high temperatures. Inbreeding did not affect the developmental time or the sex ratio of emerging adults. However, temperature affected...... increases at stressful temperatures. Our results contribute to knowledge on the environmental dependency of inbreeding under different environmental conditions and emphasize that climate change may impact negatively on fitness through synergistic interactions with the genotype....

  20. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental anagement ystem Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  1. High temperature corrosion of superheater materials for power production through biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthjaelp, K.; Broendsted, P. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Jansen, P. [FORCE Institute (Denmark); Montgomery, M.; Nielsen, K.; Maahn, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Corrosion and Surface Techn. Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures of selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sanvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo), investigated at 600 deg. C in time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200 ppm) and of SO{sub 2} (300 ppm) on the corrosion progress has been investigated. In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525 deg. C, 600 deg. C, and 700 deg. C. The ashes utilised are from a straw fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different analysis techniques to characterise the composition of the ash coatings have been investigated in order to judge the reliability and accuracy of the SEM-EDX method. The results are considered as an important step towards a better understanding of the high temperature corrosion under the conditions found in biomass fired power plants. One of the problems to solve in a suggested subsequent project is to combine the effect of the aggressive gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) and the active ash coatings on high temperature corrosion of materials. (EG) 20 refs.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...... proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). All samples were exposed to anodic polarisation in 85% phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Platinum and gold plates were tested for the valid comparison. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy...... and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that stainless steels are the most inclined to corrosion under high anodic polarization. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance under conditions, simulating HTPEMWE. In particular, Inconel625 is the most promising alloy...

  3. New Oxide Materials for an Ultra High Temperature Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perepezko, John H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-11-13

    In this project, a new oxide material, Hf6Ta2O17 has been successfully synthesized by the controlled oxidization of Hf-Ta alloys. This oxide exhibits good oxidation resistance, high temperature phase stability up to more than 2000°C, low thermal conductivity and thus could serve as a component or a coating material in an ultrahigh temperature environment. We have examined the microstructure evolution and phase formation sequence during the oxidation exposure of Hf-Ta alloys at 1500°C and identified that the oxidation of a Hf-26.7atomic %Ta alloy leads to the formation of a single phase adherent Hf6Ta2O17 with a complex atomic structure i.e. superstructure. The overall reactive diffusion pathway is consistent with the calculated Hf-Ta-O ternary phase diagram. Besides the synthesis of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure by oxidizing Hf-Ta alloys, we have also developed a synthesis method based upon the reactive sintering of the correct ratios of mixed powders of HfO2 and Ta2O5 and verified the low thermal conductivity of Hf6Ta2O17 superstructure on these samples. We have completed a preliminary analysis of the oxidation kinetics for Hf6Ta2O17, which shows an initial parabolic oxidation kinetics.

  4. Development and Operation of the AEDC High Temperature Wall Laboratory (HTWL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    AEDC-TMR-95-P1 III it" DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF THE AEDC HIGH TEMPERATURE WALL LABORATORY (HTWL) G. R. Beitel Micro Craft Technology/AEDC...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Micro Craft Technology/AEDC Operations...29 5. HTWL Equipment Layout 32 6. Ballast Resistor Bank and Water Flow System Details 33 7. HTL High Pressure Demineralized Water Pump 34 8. Blowdown

  5. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties pressure-volume-temperature relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G

    1977-01-01

    Recommended Reference Materials for Realization of Physicochemical Properties presents recommendations of reference materials for use in measurements involving physicochemical properties, namely, vapor pressure; liquid-vapor critical temperature and critical pressure; orthobaric volumes of liquid and vapor; pressure-volume-temperature properties of the unsaturated vapor or gas; and pressure-volume-temperature properties of the compressed liquid. This monograph focuses on reference materials for vapor pressures at temperatures up to 770 K, as well as critical temperatures and critical pressures

  6. Testing Plastic Deformations of Materials in the Introductory Undergraduate Mechanics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Kroger, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Normally, a mechanics laboratory at the undergraduate level includes an experiment to verify compliance with Hooke's law in materials, such as a steel spring and an elastic rubber band. Stress-strain curves are found for these elements. Compression in elastic bands is practically impossible to achieve due to flaccidity. A typical experiment for…

  7. EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW ON THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF BARRIER MATERIALS: LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests were conducted on barrier materials to determine if their hydraulic conductivity changes as a result of freezing and thawing. esults of the tests were compared to data collected from a field study. ests were conducted on two compacted clays, one sand-bentonite mi...

  8. Evaluation of fundamental properties of filter materials at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Y.; Hiramatsu, K.; Kawamoto, H. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan); Araki, T. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Hekinan (Japan); Yamada, M.; Iida, J. [Center For Coal Utilization Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In developing a dust collecting technology for high-temperature coal combustion gases for use in a next-generation system of efficient power generation, it is important to raise reliability by ascertaining the relevant physical properties and behaviors of the dust collecting filters. Accordingly, the aim of this research is to clarify the mechanical and thermal properties, and the high-temperature corrosion behaviors (oxidization, reduction), which figure among the fundamental factors restricting reliability in filter materials. In addition, since the ultimate research aim is the selection and development of filters which can be used in the actual dust collecting systems PFBC (950 C in an oxidization atmosphere) and IGCC (700 C in a reduction atmosphere), it is also necessary to conduct tests on the fundamental properties of existing filters, and to classify them for their suitability with given service atmospheres. Finally, for one particular filter selected as suitable for an oxidation atmosphere of 950 C, observations are made of mechanical properties and micro-structural changes before and after an actual dust collecting trial, and cause of damage are investigated. (orig.)

  9. Improved Creep Measurements for Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, Robert W.; Ye, X.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2010-01-01

    Our team has developed a novel approach to measuring creep at extremely high temperatures using electrostatic levitation (ESL). This method has been demonstrated on niobium up to 2300 C, while ESL has melted tungsten (3400 C). This method has been extended to lower temperatures and higher stresses and applied to new materials, including a niobium-based superalloy, MASC. High-precision machined spheres of the sample are levitated in the NASA MSFC ESL, a national user facility and heated with a laser. The samples are rotated with an induction motor at up to 30,000 revolutions per second. The rapid rotation loads the sample through centripetal acceleration, producing a shear stress of about 60 MPa at the center, causing the sample to deform. The deformation of the sample is captured on high-speed video, which is analyzed by machine-vision software from the University of Massachusetts. The deformations are compared to finite element models to determine the constitutive constants in the creep relation. Furthermore, the non-contact method exploits stress gradients within the sample to determine the stress exponent in a single test.

  10. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan J. Jacobson

    2006-09-30

    Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study were perovskite oxides based on substituted LaFeO{sub 3} (P1 compositions), where significant data in single cell tests exist at PNNL for example, for La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ. The materials selection was then extended to La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions (K1 compositions), and then in a longer range task we evaluated the possibility of completely unexplored group of materials that are also perovskite related, the ABM{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}. A key component of the research strategy was to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. In the initial phase, we did this in parallel with

  11. Model of the magnetization of nanocrystalline materials at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.

    2014-07-01

    A theoretical model incorporating the material texture has been developed to simulate the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline materials at low temperatures where the effect of thermal energy on magnetization is neglected. The method is based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) theory and it describes the magnetization dynamics of individual grains in the effective field. The modified LLG equation incorporates the intrinsic fields from the intragrain magnetocrystalline and grain boundary anisotropies and the interacting fields from intergrain dipolar and exchange couplings between the neighbouring grains. The model is applied to study magnetic properties of textured nanocrystalline Ni samples at 2K and is capable to reproduce closely the hysteresis loop behaviour at different orientations of applied magnetic field. Nanocrystalline Ni shows the grain boundary anisotropy constant K 1 s = - 6.0 × 104 J / m 3 and the intergrain exchange coupling denoted by the effective exchange constant Ap = 2.16 × 10-11 J/m. Analytical expressions to estimate the intergrain exchange energy density and the effective exchange constant have been formulated.

  12. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  13. High Temperature Corrosion of Superheater Materials for Power Production through Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Nielsen, Karsten agersted

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures on selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. An experimental...... plant boiler. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sandvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo)investigated at 600Cin time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200ppm) and of SO2 (300 ppm......) on the corrosion progress has been investigated.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525C, 600C and 700C. The ashes utilised are from a straw-fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed...

  14. Laboratory Measured Emission Losses of Methyl Isothiocyanate at Pacific Northwest Soil Surface Fumigation Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhou; Hebert, Vincent R; Miller, Glenn C

    2017-02-01

    Temperature is a major environmental factor influencing land surface volatilization at the time of agricultural field fumigation. Cooler fumigation soil temperatures relevant to Pacific Northwest (PNW) application practices with metam sodium/potassium should result in appreciably reduced methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) emission rates, thus minimizing off target movement and bystander inhalation exposure. Herein, a series of laboratory controlled flow-through soil column assessments were performed evaluating MITC emissions over the range of cooler temperatures (2-13°C). Assessments were also conducted at the maximum allowed label application temperature of 32°C. All assessments were conducted at registration label-specified field moisture capacity, and no more than 50% cumulative MITC loss was observed over the 2-day post-fumigation timeframe. Three-fold reductions in MITC peak fluxes at cooler PNW application temperatures were observed compared to the label maximum temperature. This study supports current EPA metam sodium/potassium label language that indicates surface fumigations during warmer soil conditions should be discouraged.

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  16. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. The focus of this document will be the overall range of DOE's structural materials research activities being conducted to support VHTR development. By far, the largest portion of material's R&D supporting VHTR development is that being performed directly as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Supplementary VHTR materials R&D being performed in the DOE program, including university and international research programs and that being performed under direct contracts with the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, will also be described. Specific areas of high-priority materials research that will be needed to deploy the NGNP and provide a basis for subsequent VHTRs are described, including the following: (1) Graphite: (a) Extensive unirradiated materials characterization and assessment of irradiation effects on properties must be performed to qualify new grades of graphite for nuclear service, including thermo-physical and mechanical properties and their changes, statistical variations from billot-to-billot and lot-to-lot, creep, and especially, irradiation creep. (b) Predictive models, as well as codification of the requirements and design methods for graphite core supports, must be developed to provide a basis for licensing. (2) Ceramics: Both fibrous and load-bearing ceramics must be qualified for environmental and radiation service as insulating materials. (3) Ceramic Composites: Carbon-carbon and SiC-SiC composites must be qualified for specialized usage in selected high-temperature components, such as core stabilizers, control rods, and insulating covers and ducting. This will require development of component-specific designs and fabrication processes, materials characterization, assessment of environmental and irradiation effects, and establishment of codes and standards for materials testing and design

  17. Modified T-history method for measuring thermophysical properties of phase change materials at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaraa, Ehsan; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank; Liu, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to store large amounts of energy in a narrow temperature difference during phase transition. The thermophysical properties of PCMs such as latent heat, specific heat and melting and solidification temperature need to be defined at high precision for the design and estimating the cost of latent heat storage systems. The existing laboratory standard methods, such as differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), use a small sample size (1-10 mg) to measure thermophysical properties, which makes these methods suitable for homogeneous elements. In addition, this small amount of sample has different thermophysical properties when compared with the bulk sample and may have limitations for evaluating the properties of mixtures. To avoid the drawbacks in existing methods, the temperature - history (T-history) method can be used with bulk quantities of PCM salt mixtures to characterize PCMs. This paper presents a modified T-history setup, which was designed and built at the University of South Australia to measure the melting point, heat of fusion, specific heat, degree of supercooling and phase separation of salt mixtures for a temperature range between 200 °C and 400 °C. Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) was used to verify the accuracy of the new setup.

  18. Magnetic antiskyrmions above room temperature in tetragonal Heusler materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajaya K.; Kumar, Vivek; Ma, Tianping; Werner, Peter; Pippel, Eckhard; Sahoo, Roshnee; Damay, Franoise; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically stable, vortex-like objects surrounded by chiral boundaries that separate a region of reversed magnetization from the surrounding magnetized material. They are closely related to nanoscopic chiral magnetic domain walls, which could be used as memory and logic elements for conventional and neuromorphic computing applications that go beyond Moore’s law. Of particular interest is ‘racetrack memory’, which is composed of vertical magnetic nanowires, each accommodating of the order of 100 domain walls, and that shows promise as a solid state, non-volatile memory with exceptional capacity and performance. Its performance is derived from the very high speeds (up to one kilometre per second) at which chiral domain walls can be moved with nanosecond current pulses in synthetic antiferromagnet racetracks. Because skyrmions are essentially composed of a pair of chiral domain walls closed in on themselves, but are, in principle, more stable to perturbations than the component domain walls themselves, they are attractive for use in spintronic applications, notably racetrack memory. Stabilization of skyrmions has generally been achieved in systems with broken inversion symmetry, in which the asymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction modifies the uniform magnetic state to a swirling state. Depending on the crystal symmetry, two distinct types of skyrmions have been observed experimentally, namely, Bloch and Néel skyrmions. Here we present the experimental manifestation of another type of skyrmion—the magnetic antiskyrmion—in acentric tetragonal Heusler compounds with D2d crystal symmetry. Antiskyrmions are characterized by boundary walls that have alternating Bloch and Néel type as one traces around the boundary. A spiral magnetic ground-state, which propagates in the tetragonal basal plane, is transformed into an antiskyrmion lattice state under magnetic fields applied along the tetragonal axis over a wide range of temperatures

  19. High temperature corrosion of separator materials for MCFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Tanimoto, Kazumi; Kojima, Toshikatsu [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is one of promising high efficiency power generation devices with low emission. Molten carbonate used for its electrolyte plays an important role in MCFC. It separates between anode and cathode gas environment and provides ionic conductivity on MCFC operation. Stainless steel is conventionally used as separator/current collector materials in MCFC cathode environment. As corrosion of the components of MCFC caused by the electrolyte proceeds with the electrolyte consumption, the corrosion in the MCFC is related to its performance and life. To understand and inhibit the corrosion in the MCFC is important to realize MCFC power generation system. We have studied the effect of alkaline earth carbonate addition into carbonate on corrosion of type 316L stainless steel. In this paper, we describe the effect of the temperature on corrosion behavior of type 316L stainless steel with carbonate mixture, (Li{sub 0.62}K{sub 0.38}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, under the cathode environment in out-of-cell test.

  20. Development of hemoglobin typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Tookjai, Monthathip; Punyamung, Manoo; Pongpunyayuen, Panida; Jaiping, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    To date, the hemoglobin (Hb) typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia with low (1.8%-3.2%) and high (4%-6%) levels of HbA2 are available but there are no Hb typing quality control materials for analysis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies which are highly prevalent in South-East Asian countries. The main aim of the present study was to develop the lyophilized Hb typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies that are commonly found in South-East Asia. Erythrocytes of blood samples containing Hb Bart's, HbH, HbE, HbF, Hb Constant Spring (CS), Hb Hope, and Hb Q-Thailand were washed and dialysed with 0.85% saline solution. The erythrocytes were then lysed in 5% sucrose solution. The lyophilized Hb typing control materials were prepared by using a freeze drying (lyophilization) method. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of lyophilized Hb was performed after the storage at -20 °C for 1 year and also after reconstitution and storage at 4 or -20 °C for 30 days. In addition, the Hb analysis was compared between the three different methods of HPLC, low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Following a year of storage at -20 °C, the HPLC chromatograms of lyophilized Hb typing control materials showed similar patterns to the equivalent fresh whole blood. The stability of reconstituted Hb typing control materials was also observed through 30 days after reconstitution and storage at -20 °C. Moreover, the Hb typing control materials could be analyzed by three methods, HPLC, LPLC and CE. Even a degraded peak of HbCS was found on CE electropherogram. The lyophilized Hb typing control materials could be developed and used as control materials for investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

  1. Recent Progress At The Idaho National Laboratory In High Temperature Electrolysis For Hydrogen And Syngas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stoots; J. O' Brien; J. Herring; J. Hartvigsen

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the most recent results of experiments conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) studying electrolysis of steam and coelectrolysis of steam / carbon dioxide in solid-oxide electrolysis stacks. Single button cell tests as well as multi-cell stack testing have been conducted. Multi-cell stack testing used 10 x 10 cm cells (8 x 8 cm active area) supplied by Ceramatec, Inc (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA) and ranged from 10 cell short stacks to 240 cell modules. Tests were conducted either in a bench-scale test apparatus or in a newly developed 5 kW Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test facility. Gas composition, operating voltage, and operating temperature were varied during testing. The tests were heavily instrumented, and outlet gas compositions were monitored with a gas chromatograph. The ILS facility is currently being expanded to 15 kW testing capacity (H2 production rate based upon lower heating value).

  2. Materials Capability Review Los Alamos National Laboratory April 29-May 2, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses Capability Reviews to assess the quality and institutional integration of science, technology and engineering (STE) and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of LANL STE. The capabilities are deliberately chosen to be crosscutting over the Laboratory and therefore will include experimental, theoretical and simulation disciplines from multiple line organizations. Capability Reviews are designed to provide a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. The principal product of the Capability Review is the report that includes the review committee's assessments, recommendations, and recommendations for STE.

  3. 10 CFR 31.11 - General license for use of byproduct material for certain in vitro clinical or laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., veterinarian in the practice of veterinary medicine, clinical laboratory or hospital to receive, acquire... only by physicians, veterinarians in the practice of veterinary medicine, clinical laboratories or... laboratory tests not involving internal or external administration of byproduct material, or the radiation...

  4. The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Materials on English Language Learner (ELL) Students' Comprehension of Science Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavathu, Marian; Zhou, George

    2012-01-01

    Through a qualitative research design, this article investigates the impacts of differentiated laboratory instructional materials on English language learners' (ELLs) laboratory task comprehension. The factors affecting ELLs' science learning experiences are further explored. Data analysis reveals a greater degree of laboratory task comprehension…

  5. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS WITH BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS LABORATORY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving biological material can cause diseases to the professional healthcare and also bring psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the accidents occurring with biological material with professional of clinical laboratories of Sinop-MT. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and health variables. 21 (87.5% of respondents stated that they never suffered any kind of accident. One of the injured workers reported that there was involvement in your emotional life. It is observed underreporting of occupational accidents by employees affected, making it difficult to increase research on the subject and actions about the problem.

  6. Effects of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration: a laboratory incubation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhou

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity--WHC and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C. Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC than at higher moisture level (80% WHC during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming's impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration.

  7. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  8. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  9. Influence of the material for preformed moulds on the polymerization temperature of resin materials for temporary FPDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Philipp-Cornelius; Schmitz-Wätjen, Hans; Stiesch, Meike; Eisenburger, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Temperature increase of 5.5 ℃ can cause damage or necrosis of the pulp. Increasing temperature can be caused not only by mechanical factors, e.g. grinding, but also by exothermic polymerization reactions of resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate influences of the form material on the intrapulpal temperature during the polymerization of different self-curing resin materials for temporary restorations. 30 provisonal bridges were made of 5 resin materials: Prevision Temp (Pre), Protemp 4 (Pro), Luxatemp Star (Lux), Structure 3 (Str) and an experimental material (Exp). Moulds made of alginate (A) and of silicone (S) and vacuum formed moulds (V) were used to build 10 bridges each on a special experimental setup. The intrapulpal temperatures of three abutment teeth (a canine, a premolar, and a molar,) were measured during the polymerization every second under isothermal conditions. Comparisons of the maximum temperature (TMax) and the time until the maximum temperature (tTMax) were performed using ANOVA and Tukey Test. Using alginate as the mould material resulted in a cooling effect for every resin material. Using the vacuum formed mould, TMax increased significantly compared to alginate (Pmaterial on tTMax. All of the mould materials are suitable for clinical use if the intraoral application time does not exceed the manufacturer's instructions for the resin materials.

  10. Properties of magnetocaloric materials with a distribution of Curie temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The magnetocaloric properties of inhomogeneous ferromagnets that contain distributions of Curie temperatures are considered as a function of the width of such a distribution. Assuming a normal distribution of the Curie temperature, the average adiabatic temperature change, ΔTad, the isothermal...

  11. The Trope Tank: A Laboratory with Material Resources for Creative Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Montfort

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2014v10n2p53 Principles for organizing and making use of a laboratory with material computing resources are articulated. This laboratory, the Trope Tank, is a facility for teaching, research, and creative collaboration and offers hardware (in working condition and set up for use from the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, including videogame systems, home computers, and an arcade cabinet. To aid in investigating the material history of texts, the lab has a small 19th century letterpress, a typewriter, a print terminal, and dot-matrix printers. Other resources include controllers, peripherals, manuals, books, and software on physical media. These resources are used for teaching, loaned for local exhibitions and presentations, and accessed by researchers and artists. The space is primarily a laboratory (rather than a library, studio, or museum, so materials are organized by platform and intended use. Textual information about the historical contexts of the available systems, and resources are set up to allow easy operation, and even casual use, by researchers, teachers, students, and artists.

  12. Experimental observation of electron-temperature-gradient turbulence in a laboratory plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, S K; Singh, S K; Awasthi, L M; Singh, R; Kaw, P K

    2012-06-22

    We report the observation of electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) driven turbulence in the laboratory plasma of a large volume plasma device. The removal of unutilized primary ionizing and nonthermal electrons from uniform density plasma and the imposition and control of the gradient in the electron temperature (T[Symbol: see text] T(e)) are all achieved by placing a large (2 m diameter) magnetic electron energy filter in the middle of the device. In the dressed plasma, the observed ETG turbulence in the lower hybrid range of frequencies ν = (1-80 kHz) is characterized by a broadband with a power law. The mean wave number k perpendicular ρ(e) = (0.1-0.2) satisfies the condition k perpendicular ρ(e) ≤ 1, where ρ(e) is the electron Larmor radius.

  13. 40 CFR 262.206 - Labeling and management standards for containers of unwanted material in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Material for Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.206 Labeling and management standards... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling and management standards for containers of unwanted material in the laboratory. 262.206 Section 262.206 Protection of Environment...

  14. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... temperatures for self-reactive materials. (a) General. When the § 172.101 table of this subchapter specifies... packagings meeting Packing Group I are not authorized. Self-reactive materials which require temperature...

  15. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.247 Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials. When... constructed of carbon steel which is in elevated temperature material service is excepted from § 178.345-7(d...

  16. Embedded optical probes for simultaneous pressure and temperature measurement of materials in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, R. L.; Rodriguez, G.; Gibson, L. L.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Grover, M.; Lalone, B. M.; Udd, E.

    2014-05-01

    We present recent efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop sensors for simultaneous, in situ pressure and temperature measurements under dynamic conditions by using an all-optical fiber-based approach. While similar tests have been done previously in deflagration-to-detonation tests (DDT), where pressure and temperature were measured to 82 kbar and 400°C simultaneously, here we demonstrate the use of embedded fiber grating sensors to obtain high temporal resolution, in situ pressure measurements in inert materials. We present two experimental demonstrations of pressure measurements: (1) under precise shock loading from a gas-gun driven plate impact and (2) under high explosive driven shock in a water filled vessel. The system capitalizes on existing telecom components and fast transient digitizing recording technology. It operates as a relatively inexpensive embedded probe (single-mode 1550 nm fiber-based Bragg grating) that provides a continuous fast pressure record during shock and/or detonation. By applying well-controlled shock wave pressure profiles to these inert materials, we study the dynamic pressure response of embedded fiber Bragg gratings to extract pressure amplitude of the shock wave and compare our results with particle velocity wave profiles measured simultaneously.

  17. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High-Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Z. A.; Holt, J. B.

    1997-04-01

    KEYNOTE ADDRESS. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis: Twenty Years of Search and Findings (A. Merzhanov). SOLID-STATE COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS. Recent Progress in Combustion Synthesis of High-Performance Materials in Japan (M. Koizumi & Y. Miyamoto). Modeling and Numerical Computation of a Nonsteady SHS Process (A. Bayliss & B. Matkowsky). New Models of Quasiperiodic Burning in Combustion Synthesis (S. Margolis, et al.). Modeling of SHS Operations (V. Hlavacek, et al.). Combustion Theory for Sandwiches of Alloyable Materials (R. Armstrong & M. Koszykowski). Observations on the Combustion Reaction Between Thin Foils of Ni and Al (U. Anselmi-Tamburini & Z. Munir). Combustion Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (Y. Kaieda, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Nickel Aluminides (B. Rabin, et al.). Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of NiTi Intermetallics (H. Yi & J. Moore). Shock-Induced Chemical Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds (S. Work, et al.). Advanced Ceramics Via SHS (T. DeAngelis & D. Weiss). In-Situ Formation of SiC and SiC-C Blocked Solids by Self-Combustion Synthesis (S. Ikeda, et al.). Powder Purity and Morphology Effects in Combustion-Synthesis Reactions (L. Kecskes, et al.). Simultaneous Synthesis and Densification of Ceramic Components Under Gas Pressure by SHS (Y. Miyamoto & M. Koizumi). The Use of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of High-Density Titanium Diboride (P. Zavitsanos, et al.). Metal--Ceramic Composite Pipes Produced by a Centrifugal-Thermit Process (O. Odawara). Simultaneous Combustion Synthesis and Densification of AIN (S. Dunmead, et al.). Fabrication of a Functionally Gradient Material by Using a Self-Propagating Reaction Process (N. Sata, et al.). Combustion Synthesis of Oxide-Carbide Composites (L. Wang, et al.). Heterogeneous Reaction Mechanisms in the Si-C System Under Conditions of Solid Combustion (R. Pampuch, et al.). Experimental Modeling of Particle-Particle Interactions During SHS of TiB2 -Al2O3 (K. Logan

  18. Radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used as surfaces in general-purpose radioisotope laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Natalia M; Tesán, Fiorella C; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Salgueiro, María J

    2014-12-01

    In accord with as-low-as-reasonably-achievable and good-manufacturing-practice concepts, the present study evaluated the efficiency of radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used in laboratory surfaces and whether solvent spills on these materials affect the findings. Four materials were evaluated: stainless steel, a surface comprising one-third acrylic resin and two-thirds natural minerals, an epoxy cover, and vinyl-based multipurpose flooring. Radioactive material was eluted from a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator, and samples of the surfaces were control-contaminated with 37 MBq (100 μL) of this eluate. The same procedure was repeated with samples of surfaces previously treated with 4 solvents: methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, and ethanol. The wet radioactive contamination was allowed to dry and then was removed with cotton swabs soaked in soapy water. The effectiveness of decontamination was defined as the percentage of activity removed per cotton swab, and the efficacy of decontamination was defined as the total percentage of activity removed, which was obtained by summing the percentages of activity in all the swabs required to complete the decontamination. Decontamination using our protocol was most effective and most efficacious for stainless steel and multipurpose flooring. Moreover, treatment with common organic solvents seemed not to affect the decontamination of these surfaces. Decontamination of the other two materials was less efficient and was interfered with by the organic solvents; there was also great variability in the overall results obtained for these other two materials. In expanding our laboratory, it is possible for us to select those surface materials on which our decontamination protocol works best. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  19. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, F. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  20. Laboratory Experiments on the Low-temperature Formation of Carbonaceous Grains in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulvio, Daniele; Góbi, Sándor; Jäger, Cornelia; Kereszturi, Ákos; Henning, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The life cycle of cosmic dust grains is far from being understood and the origin and evolution of interstellar medium (ISM) grains is still under debate. In the ISM, the cosmic dust destruction rate is faster than the production rate by stellar sources. However, observations of ISM refractory matter suggest that to maintain a steady amount of cosmic grains, some supplementary production mechanism takes place. In this context, we aimed to study possible reformation mechanisms of cosmic grains taking place at low temperature directly in the ISM. The low-temperature condensation of carbonaceous materials has been investigated in experiments mimicking the ISM conditions. Gas-phase carbonaceous precursors created by laser ablation of graphite were forced to accrete on cold substrates (T ≈ 10 K) representing surviving dust grains. The growing and evolution of the condensing carbonaceous precursors have been monitored by MIR and UV spectroscopy under a number of experimental scenarios. For the first time, the possibility to form ISM carbonaceous grains in situ is demonstrated. The condensation process is governed by carbon chains that first condense into small carbon clusters and finally into more stable carbonaceous materials, of which structural characteristics are comparable to the material formed in gas-phase condensation experiments at very high temperature. We also show that the so-formed fullerene-like carbonaceous material is transformed into a more ordered material under VUV processing. The cold condensation mechanisms discussed here can give fundamental clues to fully understand the balance between the timescale for dust injection, destruction, and reformation in the ISM.

  1. Development of high temperature liquid metal test facilities for qualification of materials and investigations of thermoelectrical modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onea, A.; Hering, W.; Reiser, J.; Weisenburger, A.; Diez de los Rios Ramos, N.; Lux, M.; Ziegler, R.; Baumgärtner, S.; Stieglitz, R.

    2017-07-01

    Three classes of experimental liquid metal facilities have been completed during the LIMTECH project aiming the qualification of materials, investigation of thermoelectrical modules, investigation of sodium transitional regimes and fundamental thermo-dynamical flows in concentrating solar power (CSP) relevant geometries. ATEFA facility is dedicated to basic science investigation focussed on the alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (AMTEC) technology. Three SOLTEC facilities are aimed to be used in different laboratories for long term material investigation sodium environment up to a 1000 K temperature and for long term tests of AMTEC modules. The medium scale integral facility KASOLA is planned as the backbone for CSP development and demonstration.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy of Mercury analogue materials under simulated Mercury surface temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitze, Maximilian; Morlok, Andreas; Hiesinger, Harald; Weber, Iris; Stojic, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the exploration of planetary surfaces with remote sensing observations [e.g., 1]. The MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer) instrument onboard the BepiColombo spacecraft is designed to explore the surface mineralogy of Mercury in the wavelength region from 7 μ m to 14 μ m [2]. Mercury's surface reaches dayside temperatures of about 700 K [3]. It is well known that bondings between atoms change with temperature, resulting in infrared spectra changes with temperature [4]. In particular, rock-forming minerals like silicates show distinct absorption bands in the infrared due to molecular vibrations, for example, of Si-O bondings [4]. To accurately understand and correctly interpret returned MERTIS data, it is necessary to collect laboratory data of analogue materials under condition similar to Mercury [5]. It is known from previous investigations [5] that the Reststrahlenbands of olivine shift with temperature. In this work we report on temperature effects on Mercury analogue materials in ambient air. At the IRIS (Infrared & Raman for Interplanetary Spectroscopy) laboratory in Münster we used a Bruker VERTEX 70v IR spectrometer together with a Harrick heating stage in a Praying Mantis Diffuse Reflectance Accessory to measure mid-infrared reflectance of mineral powder samples with different grain sizes at increasing temperatures. We report on our spectral results for a natural olivine with Fo91 with a grain size range between 63 μ m and 125 μ m as well as a natural labradorite with a grain size range between 90 μ m and 125 μ m. Spectra were collected at 26, 75, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 degrees Celsius with a liquid nitrogen cooled MCT detector under normal ambient pressure. To ensure complete thermal equilibrium of our measured samples, we heated them to higher temperatures and subsequently cooled them to the temperatures at which the spectra were taken. For background calibration, we

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Research In High Temperature Electrolysis For Hydrogen And Syngas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl M. Stoots; James E. O' Brien; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2008-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA), in collaboration with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA), is actively researching the application of solid oxide fuel cell technology as electrolyzers for large scale hydrogen and syngas production. This technology relies upon electricity and high temperature heat to chemically reduce a steam or steam / CO2 feedstock. Single button cell tests, multi-cell stack, as well as multi-stack testing has been conducted. Stack testing used 10 x 10 cm cells (8 x 8 cm active area) supplied by Ceramatec and ranged from 10 cell short stacks to 240 cell modules. Tests were conducted either in a bench-scale test apparatus or in a newly developed 5 kW Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test facility. Gas composition, operating voltage, and operating temperature were varied during testing. The tests were heavily instrumented, and outlet gas compositions were monitored with a gas chromatograph. The ILS facility is currently being expanded to ~15 kW testing capacity (H2 production rate based upon lower heating value).

  4. Materials capability review Los Alamos National Laboratory, May 3-6, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    , environment for conducting science, technology and engineering. The specific charge for the Materials Capability Review is to assess the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed Research and Development project titled, 'First Principles Predictive Capabilities for Transuranic Materials: Mott Insulators to Correlated Metals' using the criteria performance, quality, and relevance for the current status of the project. The committee is requested to provide advice on future direction of the project.

  5. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fracture toughness determination of dental materials by laboratory testing and finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparti, R M; Beatty, M W

    1995-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of finite element analysis in predicting the stress intensity factor (KIC) for three types of dental materials: a glass ionomer, a dental amalgam, and a composite resin. Laboratory tests were conducted on small single-edge notch specimens loaded in three-point bending to determine values for fracture toughness (KQ). Using the dimensions measured for each laboratory specimen, a J integral approach was employed to calculate KIC using finite element analysis. Both two-dimensional plane strain and three-dimensional models were used in determining KIC for each specimen, and these values were compared to the KQ values obtained from laboratory tests. The results indicated that no significant differences existed between laboratory results and those obtained from both two- and three-dimensional finite element models (P > .85). For the three-dimensional model, values for KIC were found to vary across the specimen thickness, with the values at the center of the specimen closely paralleling those obtained from the two-dimensional plane strain model. It was concluded that the two-dimensional plane strain J integral technique was as effective as the three-dimensional technique in calculating values for KIC.

  7. Laboratory and field testing for utilization of an excavated soil as landfill liner material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozbey, Ilknur; Guler, Erol

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a silty soil excavated in highway construction as landfill liner material. The tests were conducted both at laboratory and in situ scales, and the soil was tested in pure and lime treated forms. Different levels of compaction energy were used. For the field study, a test pad was constructed and in situ hydraulic conductivity experiments were conducted by sealed double ring infiltrometers (SDRI). Laboratory testing revealed that while lime treatment improved the shear strength, it resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity values compared to pure soil. It was observed that leachate permeation did not change the hydraulic conductivity of the pure and lime treated samples. Laboratory hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 10(-9) m/s and met the 1.0E-08 m/s criterion in the Turkish regulations, which is one order of magnitude higher than the value allowed in most developed countries. SDRI testing, which lasted for 6 mo, indicated that lime treatment increased the hydraulic conductivity of pure soil significantly in the field scale tests. In situ hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 1E-08 and 1E-07 m/s, and exceeded the allowable value in the Turkish regulations. Undisturbed samples collected from the test pad were not representative of field hydraulic conductivities. Contrary to laboratory findings, higher compaction efforts did not result in lower hydraulic conductivities in field scales. The study verified the importance of in situ hydraulic conductivity testing in compacted liners.

  8. Titanium nitride as a refractory plasmonic material for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The use of titanium nitride as a plasmonic material for high temperature applications such as solar/thermophotovoltaics is studied numerically and experimentally. Performance of titanium nitride is compared with widely used materials in each field. © 2014 OSA....

  9. Analysis of Flood Hazards for the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaggs, Richard; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Waichler, Scott R.; Kim, Taeyun; Ward, Duane L.

    2010-11-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a flood hazard analysis for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. The general approach for the analysis was to determine the maximum water elevation levels associated with the design-basis flood (DBFL) and compare them to the floor elevations at critical building locations. Two DBFLs for the MFC site were developed using different precipitation inputs: probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and 10,000 year recurrence interval precipitation. Both precipitation inputs were used to drive a watershed runoff model for the surrounding upland basins and the MFC site. Outflows modeled with the Hydrologic Engineering Centers Hydrologic Modeling System were input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System hydrodynamic flood routing model.

  10. Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaeh, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

  11. Materials and Methods for Streamlined Laboratory Analysis of Environmental Samples, FY 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Naes, Benjamin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olsen, Khris B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chouyyok, Wilaiwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Willingham, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spigner, Angel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies upon laboratory analysis of environmental samples (typically referred to as “swipes”) collected during on-site inspections of safeguarded facilities to support the detection and deterrence of undeclared activities. Unfortunately, chemical processing and assay of the samples is slow and expensive. A rapid, effective, and simple extraction process and analysis method is needed to provide certified results with improved timeliness at reduced costs (principally in the form of reduced labor), while maintaining or improving sensitivity and efficacy. To address these safeguard needs the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) explored and demonstrated improved methods for environmental sample (ES) analysis. Improvements for both bulk and particle analysis were explored. To facilitate continuity and adoption, the new sampling materials and processing methods will be compatible with existing IAEA protocols for ES analysis. PNNL collaborated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which performed independent validation of the new bulk analysis methods and compared performance to traditional IAEA’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) protocol. ORNL efforts are reported separately. This report describes PNNL’s FY 2016 progress, which was focused on analytical application supporting environmental monitoring of uranium enrichment plants and nuclear fuel processing. In the future the technology could be applied to other safeguard applications and analytes related to fuel manufacturing, reprocessing, etc. PNNL’s FY 2016 efforts were broken into two tasks and a summary of progress, accomplishments and highlights are provided below. Principal progress and accomplishments on Task 1, Optimize Materials and Methods for ICP-MS Environmental Sample Analysis, are listed below. • Completed initial procedure for rapid uranium extraction from ES swipes based upon carbonate-peroxide chemistry (delivered to ORNL for

  12. General Motors and the University of Michigan smart materials and structures collaborative research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Shaw, John; Johnson, Nancy L.; Browne, Alan L.; Alexander, Paul W.; Mankame, Nilesh D.

    2007-04-01

    The field of Smart Materials and Structures is evolving from high-end, one-of-a-kind products for medical, military and aerospace applications to the point of viability for mainstream affordable high volume products for automotive applications. For the automotive industry, there are significant potential benefits to be realized including reduction in vehicle mass, added functionality and design flexibility and decrease in component size and cost. To further accelerate the path from basic research and development to launched competitive products, General Motors (GM) has teamed with the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan (UM) to establish a $2.9 Million Collaborative Research Laboratory (CRL) in Smart Materials and Structures. Researchers at both GM and UM are working closely together to create leap-frog technologies which start at conceptualization and proceed all the way through demonstration and handoff to product teams, thereby bridging the traditional technology gap between industry and academia. In addition to Smart Device Technology Innovation, other thrust areas in the CRL include Smart Material Maturity with a basic research focus on overcoming material issues that form roadblocks to commercialism and Mechamatronic System Design Methodology with an applied focus on development tools (synthesis and analysis) to aid the engineer in application of smart materials to system engineering. This CRL is a global effort with partners across the nation and world from GM's Global Research Network such as HRL Laboratories in California and GM's India Science Lab in Bangalore, India. This paper provides an overview of this new CRL and gives examples of several of the projects underway.

  13. Solid lubricant materials for high temperatures: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1985-01-01

    Solid lubricants that can be used above 300 C in air are discussed, including coatings and self-lubricating composite bearing materials. The lubricants considered are representative dichalcogenides, graphite, graphite fluoride, polyimides, soft oxides, oxidatively stable fluorides, and hard coating materials. A few general design considerations revelant to solid lubrication are interspersed.

  14. The use of laboratory methods in contact dermatitis induced by composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, F; Lembo, G; Balato, N; Patruno, C; Scognamiglio, G; Strazzullo, G; de Stefano, S

    1990-05-01

    Thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to investigate the chemical constituents and haptens responsible in 2 different circumstances where allergic contact dermatitis from composite materials was suspected. In an aircraft factory where epoxy resins were used, tetraglycidyl-4,4'-dimethyl dianiline and phenylglycidyl ether were identified as the haptens responsible for an outbreak of contact dermatitis. The role of abietic acid as the main sensitizer in colophony was confirmed in a case of contact dermatitis occurring in a sportsman with an acute eczematous reaction due to a leg bandage. Identification of the chemical sensitizers was possible only by using the aforementioned laboratory methods.

  15. Laboratory and field measurements of enantiomeric monoterpene emissions as a function of chemotype, light and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Staudt, M.; Bourgeois, I.; Williams, J.

    2014-03-01

    Plants emit significant amounts of monoterpenes into the earth's atmosphere, where they react rapidly to form a multitude of gas phase species and particles. Many monoterpenes exist in mirror-image forms or enantiomers. In this study the enantiomeric monoterpene profile for several representative plants (Quercus ilex L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Pinus halepensis Mill.) was investigated as a function of chemotype, light and temperature both in the laboratory and in the field. Analysis of enantiomeric monoterpenes from 19 Quercus ilex individuals from Southern France and Spain revealed four regiospecific chemotypes (genetically fixed emission patterns). In agreement with previous work, only Quercus ilex emissions increased strongly with light. However, for all three plant species no consistent enantiomeric variation was observed as a function of light, and the enantiomeric ratio of α-pinene was found to vary by less than 20% from 100 and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR (photosynthetically active radiation). The rate of monoterpene emission increased with temperature from all three plant species, but little variation in the enantiomeric distribution of α-pinene was observed with temperature. There was more enantiomeric variability between individuals of the same species than could be induced by either light or temperature. Field measurements of α-pinene enantiomer mixing ratios in the air, taken at a Quercus ilex forest in Southern France, and several other previously reported field enantiomeric ratio diel cycle profiles are compared. All show smoothly varying diel cycles (some positive and some negative) even over changing wind directions. This is surprising in comparison with variations of enantiomeric emission patterns shown by individuals of the same species.

  16. Deep-focus earthquake analogs recorded at high pressure and temperature in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubnel, Alexandre; Brunet, Fabrice; Hilairet, Nadège; Gasc, Julien; Wang, Yanbin; Green, Harry W

    2013-09-20

    Phase transformations of metastable olivine might trigger deep-focus earthquakes (400 to 700 kilometers) in cold subducting lithosphere. To explore the feasibility of this mechanism, we performed laboratory deformation experiments on germanium olivine (Mg2GeO4) under differential stress at high pressure (P = 2 to 5 gigapascals) and within a narrow temperature range (T = 1000 to 1250 kelvin). We found that fractures nucleate at the onset of the olivine-to-spinel transition. These fractures propagate dynamically (at a nonnegligible fraction of the shear wave velocity) so that intense acoustic emissions are generated. Similar to deep-focus earthquakes, these acoustic emissions arise from pure shear sources and obey the Gutenberg-Richter law without following Omori's law. Microstructural observations prove that dynamic weakening likely involves superplasticity of the nanocrystalline spinel reaction product at seismic strain rates.

  17. Characterization of energetic materials at temperatures approaching cookoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renlund, A.M.; Miller, J.C.; Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Hobbs, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    The authors conducted experiments that monitored the response of heated, confined energetic materials in both fixed-volume and fixed-load configurations. They studied a variety of HMX-based materials, looking at the effects of particle size and binders. The {beta}-{delta} phase transition near 170 C led to a more reactive state. Materials that underwent complete transition in the fixed-load experiments (allowed to expand fully to accommodate the 5% volume increase) cooked off faster than those in the fixed-volume configuration.

  18. THE IMPACT OF LABORATORY AIR TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON BENTONITE WATER ABSORPTION CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Strgar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite, which is a mineral component of geosynthetic clay liners, has important physical and chemical properties that ensure very small hydraulic permeability. The main component of bentonite is a clay mineral called sodium montmorillonite whose very low permeability is due to its ability to swell. The deposits of bentonite are spread all over the world, however, only a very small number of those deposits satisfies all the quality and durability demands that must be met if the bentonite is to be used in the sealing barriers. Depending on the location of installation and their purpose, geosynthetic clay liners must meet certain requirements. Their compatibility with the prescribed criterion is confirmed through various laboratory procedures. Amongst them are tests examining the index indicators (free swell index, fluid loss index, and water absorption capacity. This paper presents results regarding the impact of laboratory air temperature and relative humidity of the testing area on the water absorption capacity. This is one of the criteria that bentonite must satisfy during the quality and durability control of the mineral component of geosynthetic clay liner (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Application of the Materials Requirement Planning (MRP in the Pharmaceutical Laboratory Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Saumell–Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the logistics management of any business organization the allocation of material resources is very important, both for its dynamic approach to the internal processes of the company, as the pursuit of customer satisfaction, enabling the fulfillment of their goals efficiently and effectively. In this context, are used with effective results the models of Material’s Requirements Planning (MRP which allow to plan and control the demands for materials and production capacities in companies, conjugating with orders’s delivery dates, so is a tool proven effective, especially in the conditions of the Cuban economy. The present work has as objective to apply a MRP model in drugs manufacturing in the Company Laboratory Oriente in Santiago de Cuba, based on a theoretical and practical analysis for application of MRP tool using the WinQSB software. 

  20. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is to develop new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  1. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is developing new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  2. An electrostatic levitator for high-temperature containerless materials processing in 1-g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang K.; Barber, Daniel; Man, Kin F.; Gutt, Gary; Rulison, Aaron; Spjut, R. Erik

    1993-10-01

    This article discusses recent developments in high-temperature electrostatic levitation technology for containerless processing of metals and alloys. Presented is the first demonstration of an electrostatic levitation technology which can levitate metals and alloys (2-4 mm diam spheres) in vacuum and of superheating-undercooling-recalescence cycles which can be repeated while maintaining good positioning stability. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) has several important advantages over the electromagnetic levitator. Most important is the wide range of sample temperature which can be achieved without affecting levitation. This article also describes the general architecture of the levitator, electrode design, position control hardware and software, sample heating, charging, and preparation methods, and operational procedures. Particular emphasis is given to sample charging by photoelectric and thermionic emission. While this ESL is more oriented toward ground-based operation, an extension to microgravity applications is also addressed briefly. The system performance was demonstrated by showing multiple superheating-undercooling-recalescence cycles in a zirconium sample (Tm=2128 K). This levitator, when fully matured, will be a valuable tool both in Earth-based and space-based laboratories for the study of thermophysical properties of undercooled liquids, nucleation kinetics, the creation of metastable phases, and access to a wide range of materials with novel properties.

  3. 9 Cr-- 1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-11-27

    One or more embodiments relates to a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel has a tempered martensite microstructure and is comprised of both large (0.5-3 .mu.m) primary titanium carbides and small (5-50 nm) secondary titanium carbides in a ratio of. from about 1:1.5 to about 1.5:1. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel may be fabricated using exemplary austenizing, rapid cooling, and tempering steps without subsequent hot working requirements. The 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibits improvements in total mass gain, yield strength, and time-to-rupture over ASTM P91 and ASTM P92 at the temperature and time conditions examined.

  4. Pressure and Temperature Sensors Using Two Spin Crossover Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin-Maricel Jureschi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of a new design concept for dual spin crossover based sensors for concomitant detection of both temperature and pressure is presented. It is conjectured from numerical results obtained by mean field approximation applied to a Ising-like model that using two different spin crossover compounds containing switching molecules with weak elastic interactions it is possible to simultaneously measure P and T. When the interaction parameters are optimized, the spin transition is gradual and for each spin crossover compounds, both temperature and pressure values being identified from their optical densities. This concept offers great perspectives for smart sensing devices.

  5. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Concrete Materials and Structures - a Literature Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this limited study was to provide an overview of the effects of elevated temperature on the behavior of concrete materials and structures. In meeting this objective the effects of elevated temperatures on the properties of ordinary Portland cement concrete constituent materials and concretes are summarized. The effects of elevated temperature on high-strength concrete materials are noted and their performance compared to normal strength concretes. A review of concrete materials for elevated-temperature service is presented. Nuclear power plant and general civil engineering design codes are described. Design considerations and analytical techniques for evaluating the response of reinforced concrete structures to elevated-temperature conditions are presented. Pertinent studies in which reinforced concrete structural elements were subjected to elevated temperatures are described.

  6. Apparatus and test method for characterizing the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bao-guo; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, De-pin

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials such as fabrics treated with phase change material microcapsules, a new apparatus was developed. The apparatus and the test method can measure the heat flux, temperature, and displacement signals during the dynamic contact and then quickly give an evaluation for the temperature regulating properties by simulating the dynamic heat transfer and temperature regulating process when the materials contact the body skin. A series of indices including the psychosensory intensity, regulating capability index, and relative regulating index were defined to characterize the temperature regulating properties. The measurement principle, the evaluation criteria and grading method, the experimental setup and the test results discussion, and the gage capability analysis of the apparatus are presented. The new apparatus provides a method for the objective measurement and evaluation of the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

  7. Physics and Materials Science of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-26

    SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF BULK HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS. F. M. Costa and J. M. Vieira, Departamento de Eng. Ceramica e de Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro...Lisboa, Portugal; F. Costa, Dep Eng Ceramica e do Vidro, Universidade de Aveiro, P-3800 Avaerio, Portugal; and J. M. Alves and M. M. Godinho, Dep Fisica

  8. Temperature and pH sensors based on graphenic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, P; Calisi, N; Melai, B; Cortigiani, B; Mannini, M; Caneschi, A; Lorenzetti, G; Paoletti, C; Lomonaco, T; Paolicchi, A; Scataglini, I; Dini, V; Romanelli, M; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2017-05-15

    Point-of-care applications and patients' real-time monitoring outside a clinical setting would require disposable and durable sensors to provide better therapies and quality of life for patients. This paper describes the fabrication and performances of a temperature and a pH sensor on a biocompatible and wearable board for healthcare applications. The temperature sensor was based on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layer that changed its electrical resistivity with the temperature. When tested in a human serum sample between 25 and 43°C, the sensor had a sensitivity of 110±10Ω/°C and an error of 0.4±0.1°C compared with the reference value set in a thermostatic bath. The pH sensor, based on a graphene oxide (GO) sensitive layer, had a sensitivity of 40±4mV/pH in the pH range between 4 and 10. Five sensor prototypes were tested in a human serum sample over one week and the maximum deviation of the average response from reference values obtained by a glass electrode was 0.2pH units. For biological applications, the temperature and pH sensors were successfully tested for in vitro cytotoxicity with human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) over 24h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering Materials for Very High Temperatures: An ONRL Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-29

    high temperature, time-dependent strength of hot isostatically pressed (HIP’ed) Y-TZP (Swab, Katz, & Starita , 1987). In this instance a commercially...12, p-137-14 6. Swab, J, Katz, R. N. & Starita , C., (1987), unpublished research. Tracy, C. & Slavin, M. J., (1927), Presented at 89th annual meeting

  10. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials for Waste Heat Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Seebeck effect (17, 18). ............................................................................................7 Figure 7. Carrier concentration...5) where is Planck’s constant and is the density of states effective mass. The Seebeck coefficient is proportional to temperature... effect (17, 18). 2.2 The Electrical Conductivity The flow of current associated with the Seebeck voltage logically creates the search for TE

  11. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science program report, Weapons Resarch and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L.

    1997-03-01

    This report is the annual progress report for the Chemistry Materials Science Program: Weapons Research and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development. Twenty-one projects are described separately by their principal investigators.

  12. Degradation of sustainable mulch materials in two types of soil under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen; Aceituno, Patricia; Campos, Juan; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Mulching is a technique used in cultivation worldwide, especially for vegetable crops, for reducing weed growth, minimising or eliminating soil erosion, and often for enhancing total yields. Manufactured plastic films, mainly polyethylene (PE), have been widely used for this purpose due to their excellent mechanical properties, light weight and relatively low prices in recent years. However, the use of PE is associated with serious environmental problems related to its petrochemical origin and its long shelf-life, which causes a waste problem in our crop fields. For this reason, the use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as alternative to PE is increasing nowadays, especially in organic farming. However, these materials can suffer an undesirable early degradation (and therefore not fulfilling their function successfully), greatly resulting from the type of soil. For this reason, this study aimed to analyse the degradation pattern of different mulch materials buried in two types of soils, clay and sand, under laboratory conditions (25°C, dark surroundings, constant humidity). The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 µm); black biopolymers (15 µm): 2) maize starch-based, 3) potato starch-based, 4) polylactic acid-based, 5) black paper, 85 g/m2. Periodically (every 15-20 days), the weight and surface loss of the different materials were recorded. The results indicate that mulch degradation was earlier and higher in the clay soil, especially in the paper and in the potato starch-based materials, followed by the maize starch-based mulch, while polylactic acid-based suffered the least and the latest degradation. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, degradation. Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  13. Materials Capability Review Los Alamos National Laboratory May 4-7, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoniette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses external peer review to measure and continuously improve the quality of its science, technology and engineering (STE). LANL uses capability reviews to assess the STE quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. STE capabilities are define to cut across directorates providing a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g ., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. LANL plans to perform a complete review of the Laboratory's STE capabilities (hence staff) in a three-year cycle. The principal product of an external review is a report that includes the review committee's assessments, commendations, and recommendations for STE. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). This report will be used by Laboratory Management for STE assessment and planning. The report is also provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of LANL's Annual Performance Plan and to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) LLC's Science and Technology Committee (STC) as part of its responsibilities to the LANS Board of Governors. LANL has defined fourteen

  14. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  15. Effects of freezing on soil temperature, freezing front propagation and moisture redistribution in peat: laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Nagare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are not many studies that report water movement in freezing peat. Soil column studies under controlled laboratory settings can help isolate and understand the effects of different factors controlling freezing of the active layer in organic covered permafrost terrain. In this study, four peat Mesocosms were subjected to temperature gradients by bringing the Mesocosm tops in contact with sub-zero air temperature while maintaining a continuously frozen layer at the bottom (proxy permafrost. Soil water movement towards the freezing front (from warmer to colder regions was inferred from soil freezing curves, liquid water content time series and from the total water content of frozen core samples collected at the end of freezing cycle. A substantial amount of water, enough to raise the upper surface of frozen saturated soil within 15 cm of the soil surface at the end of freezing period appeared to have moved upwards during freezing. Diffusion under moisture gradients and effects of temperature on soil matric potential, at least in the initial period, appear to drive such movement as seen from analysis of freezing curves. Freezing front (separation front between soil zones containing and free of ice propagation is controlled by latent heat for a long time during freezing. A simple conceptual model describing freezing of an organic active layer initially resembling a variable moisture landscape is proposed based upon the results of this study. The results of this study will help in understanding, and ultimately forecasting, the hydrologic response of wetland-dominated terrain underlain by discontinuous permafrost.

  16. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research.

  17. High temperature properties of dispersion strengthened Al-Al4C3 materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besterci, M.; Slesar, M.; Miskovicova, M.; Pelikan, K.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most important properties of dispersion strengthened materials is their strength stability at high temperatures. The strength and plasticity of the material Al + 5 vol. pct Al4C3, tested in the temperature range from 100 to 400 C, are analyzed. On the basis of the experiments the functions for the temperature dependence of the strength and plasticity are described, the deformation process is evaluated, and the fracture mechanisms are quantified. 17 references.

  18. High Temperature Metal Hydrides as Heat Storage Materials for Solar and Related Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Bogdanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the continuous production of electricity with solar heat power plants the storage of heat at a temperature level around 400 °C is essential. High temperature metal hydrides offer high heat storage capacities around this temperature. Based on Mg-compounds, these hydrides are in principle low-cost materials with excellent cycling stability. Relevant properties of these hydrides and their possible applications as heat storage materials are described.

  19. Nanostructured Composite Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    classes of materials, half-Heusler intermetallic bulk nanocomposites and bismuth -telluride based nanocomposites; • Complete structural and...measurements K. Stokes Physics/AMRI Bismuth telluride/metallic nanoparticle composites, transport measurements J. Wiley Chemistry/AMRI Chemical...as inclusions for nanocomposites. Here, the nanoparticles are synthesized by sol-gel chemistry using hafnium(IV) tert-butoxide and ammonium hydroxide

  20. WS2 as an excellent high-temperature thermoelectric material

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala

    2014-11-25

    The potential of WS2 as a thermoelectric material is assessed. The electronic contribution to the thermoelectric properties is calculated within the constant relaxation time approximation from the electronic band structure, whereas the lattice contribution is evaluated using self-consistently calculated phonon lifetimes. In addition, the dependence of the lattice thermal conductivity on the mean free path of the phonons is determined.

  1. Advanced Low Temperature Thermoelectric Materials for Cryogenic Power Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work we will: 1) develop novel TE materials  with a factor of 2x or more improvement in the dimensionless TE figure of merit (ZT) over state-of-the-art...

  2. Combustion and Plasma Synthesis of High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    cc 0v Table 4. Characteristics of Some Refractory Materials Dolomite and Magnesite-Based Characteristics Dolomite - Magnesite- Based Based...Other routes also exist such as calcination of organo-metallic compounds with a nitriding agent. Recently, thermal plasma processes have been used for

  3. Thin Film Materials and Devices for Resistive Temperature Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    is based on the phenomenon known as the Seebeck effect . Named after the T. Seebeck who first observed this effect , he noted that there is a current...this effect is known as the thermal electromotive force. A device which uses the Seebeck effect for the measurement of temperature is known as a...21 Figure 2-7. Graph showing the effect of total deposition pressure on TCR and resistivity of deposited pm-Ge:H thin films

  4. Characterization of temperature-dependent optical material properties of polymer powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laumer, Tobias [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); SAOT Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Stichel, Thomas; Bock, Thomas; Amend, Philipp [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Schmidt, Michael [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Photonic Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); SAOT Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    In former works, the optical material properties of different polymer powders used for Laser Beam Melting (LBM) at room temperature have been analyzed. With a measurement setup using two integration spheres, it was shown that the optical material properties of polymer powders differ significantly due to multiple reflections within the powder compared to solid bodies of the same material. Additionally, the absorption behavior of the single particles shows an important influence on the overall optical material properties, especially the reflectance of the powder bed. Now the setup is modified to allow measurements at higher temperatures. Because crystalline areas of semi-crystalline thermoplastics are mainly responsible for the absorption of the laser radiation, the influence of the temperature increase on the overall optical material properties is analyzed. As material, conventional polyamide 12 and polypropylene as new polymer powder material, is used. By comparing results at room temperature and at higher temperatures towards the melting point, the temperature-dependent optical material properties and their influence on the beam-matter interaction during the process are discussed. It is shown that the phase transition during melting leads to significant changes of the optical material properties of the analyzed powders.

  5. Temperature Dependence and Magnetic Properties of Injection Molding Tool Materials Used in Induction Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the heating phase of an induction heated injection molding tool precisely, the temperature-dependent magnetic properties, B–H curves, and the hysteresis loss are necessary for the molding tool materials. Hence, injection molding tool steels, core materials among other materials have...

  6. Amorphous and Nanocrystalline High Temperature Magnetic Material for PWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    in collaboration with Magnetics, Inc. has produced nanopowders of the HITPERM materials. The work was extended to include study of...the interfacial stresses between the substrate and coating that arises during the coating processes. Alumina , Beryllia, Forsterite and Pt were...trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of plasma synthesized ferrite coatings. NiZn ferrites were sprayed onto Alumina substrates using the

  7. Experimental study of discontinuous plastic flow, phase transformation and micro-damage evolution in ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Marcinek, Dawid Jarosław; Sgobba, S

    2009-01-01

    The present Thesis deals with three low temperature phenomena occurring in ductile materials subjected to mechanical loads: serrated yielding, plastic strain induced γ-α’ phase transformation and evolution of micro-damage: - the Thesis explains the physical mechanisms governing each phenomenon at the micro and macroscopic levels; - the document describes in detail the advanced laboratory equipment needed for cryogenic experiments; - the results of tests carried out with unique precision and focused on serrated yielding and evolution of micro-damage (the observations were made with different strain rates and with the use of different materials) are presented; - validation of suitable kinetic laws and identification of parameters for tested materials is carried out.

  8. Temperature Dependence Characterization of Layered Materials via the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoxiang; Stevens, Christopher; Paul, Jagannath; Karaiskaj, Denis; Miller, Casey

    The Curie temperature of PyCu alloy films can be controlled by Cu content. The additional thickness in layered materials changes the Cure temperature and hence the magnetic coupling between permalloy and Cu layers. The decoupling is investigated by the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE) as a function of temperature around the Curie temperature. The measurements reveal the coupling dynamics between permalloy and Co in novel magnetic heterostructures. This research at USF is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  9. Effect of retro-reflective materials on temperature environment in tents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low thermal inertia and poor thermal insulation of ultrathin envelope in tents, its indoor temperature environment is extremely bad and its occupants are tormented. Especially under the high solar radiation, both indoor air temperature and inner surface radiation temperature increase rapidly. And thereby, decreasing radiation heat gain in summer is necessary to refine indoor temperature environment in tents. Retro-reflective materials make it a reasonable choice due to their high reflectivity for solar radiation. To reveal the temperature environment improvement of tents by integrating with retro-reflective materials, a comparative experiment is carried out under the summer climatic conditions of Chengdu city, China. Experimental results show that due to integrating with retro-reflective materials, indoor air peak temperature in the tent can be reduced by more than 7.7 °C, while inner surface radiant temperature can be lowered up to 4.8 °C in the day time. It shows retro-reflective materials could refine indoor temperature environment in tents. Through a comparison of the walls in different orientations, on which retro-reflective materials are covered, the top, east and north walls are found to be better choices, while the north wall is the worst one for retro-reflective materials.

  10. Temperature restrictions for materials used in aerospace industry for the near-Sun orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Elena; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2017-11-01

    For near-Sun missions, the spacecraft approaches very close to the Sun and space environmental effects become relevant. Strong restrictions on how much close it can get derive from the maximum temperature that the used materials can stand, in order not to compromise the spacecraft's activity and functionalities. In other words, the minimum perihelion distance of a given mission can be determined based on the materials' temperature restrictions. The temperature of an object in space depends on its optical properties: reflectivity, absorptivity, transmissivity, and emissivity. Usually, it is considered as an approximation that the optical properties of materials are constant. However, emissivity depends on temperature. The consideration of the temperature dependence of emissivity and conductivity of materials used in the aerospace industry leads to the conclusion that the temperature dependence on the heliocentric distance is different from the case of constant optical properties [1]. Particularly, taking into account that emissivity is directly proportional to the temperature, the temperature of an object increases as r-2/5 when the heliocentric distance r decreases. This means that the same temperature will actually be reached at a different distance and, eventually, the spacecraft will be allowed to approach closer to the Sun without compromising its activities. We focused on metals used for aerospace structures (Al, Ti), however our analysis can be extended to all kinds of composite materials, once their optical properties - in particular emissivity - are defined.

  11. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have higher resistivity and therefore unacceptable large electrical resistance in a lateral resistor configuration. This work looks at an alternate bolometer device design which incorporates higher TCR materials in a vertically

  12. Materials for High-Temperature Hydrogen Fluorine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-04

    was detected). This complete phase diagram is being determined,(i) and the solid solution region extends to 57 mol % LaF3 in SrF2 with maximum melting...lanthanum chromite (LaCrQ 3 ), yttrium (Y), yttrium oxide (Y2 03 ), nickel aluminide (NiAl), Y20 3 doped Ni, magnesium oxide (MgO), aluminum oxide...with externally wound cooling coils. Figure 1 is an as-built flow diagram of the material test facility as designed by the Y’-12 Engineering Division

  13. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MODERN LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY FOR SOIL MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želimir Veinović

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeability tests are one of the most often performed experiments in geotechnics. Conventional methods conducted by oedometer and triaxial apparatus have many disadvantages, the most significant being the test duration. As a consequence, errors in permeability measurements could occur. On the contrary, by applying modern flow-pump method, permeability measurements can be obtained much more rapidly. Moreover, the permeability/void ratio relation can be obtained by using adequate laboratory devices. This is particularly important for soft materials, since their permeability could vary within several orders of magnitude depending on the variation of void ratio. The article presents advantages and disadvantages of the flow-pump method performed in a modified triaxial cell and hydraulic oedometer, in comparison with conventional constant head and falling head methods. The specimens were prepared from the waste stone dust, which is the product of final dimension stone processing (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  15. The role of laboratory analog experiments in assessing the performance of waste package materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-12-31

    There is an immediate need to begin to validate models that can be used for assessing the performance of waste package materials in an unsaturated repository environment. This paper examines available testing information and testing approaches that could support validation of models for engineering barrier system (EBS) radionuclide release. The content is presented in the context of the general methodology that has been proposed for validating performance assessment models. Available experimental observations are used to test some of the EBS release rate modeling premises. These observations include evidence of fluid film formation on waste glass surfaces in isothermal humid environments, accelerated waste glass reaction rates under repository service conditions of large glass surface area to water volume ratio, and mobilization of radionuclides as solutes and colloids. It is concluded that some important modeling premises may not be consistent with available experimental information. However, it is also concluded that future laboratory testing, which simulates the integrated waste package systems, is needed to evaluate the significance of these inconsistencies and to test the system level models. A small-scale apparatus which was developed and tested to examine the feasibility of laboratory analog testing for the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository environment is described. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabani Amin M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3 laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226 was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7% of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18, resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a

  17. Effects of Various Dental Materials on Alkaline Phosphatase Extracted from Pulp: An Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lorin R.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that demonstrates the effects of various dental materials on a representative enzyme from the pulp is outlined. The experiment encourages students to consider the effects that various restorative materials and techniques might have on enzymes in the living pulp. (Author/MLW)

  18. Investigation of medium and high temperature phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, D.; Kraehling, H.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the programs for acquisition and analysis of the test results is given. Basically it concerns three programs. The TEST program controls the recording of the test data. With the THELLI program it is possible to follow the temperature curve recorded for each individual thermoelement during the test. With the AUSW program the test data can be analyzed, to determine, for example, the melting point and the start of melting. The first results of the service life tests are discussed. From these it is attempted to draw inferences for the subsequent tests. An attempt is made to focus on the determination of the area-related mass loss, the reduction in thickness and the corrosion rate as well as optical and scanning electron microscope evaluation.

  19. Research on ambient temperature passive magnetic bearings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.; Ryitov, D.D.` Smith, J.R.; Tung, L.S.

    1997-04-01

    Research performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the equilibrium and stability of a new class of ambient-temperature passive bearing systems is described. The basic concepts involved are: (1) Stability of the rotating system is only achieved in the rotating state. That is, disengaging mechanical systems are used to insure stable levitation at rest (when Earnshaw`s theorem applies). (2) Stable levitation by passive magnetic elements can be achieved if the vector sum of the force derivatives of the several elements of the system is net negative (i.e. restoring) for axial, transverse, and tilt-type perturbations from equilibrium. To satisfy the requirements of (2) using only permanent magnet elements we have employed periodic ``Halbach arrays.`` These interact with passive inductive loaded circuits and act as stabilizers, with the primary forces arising from axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements. Stabilizers and other elements needed to create compact passive magnetic bearing systems have been constructed. Novel passive means for stabilizing classes of rotor-dynamic instabilities in such systems have also been investigated.

  20. Materials and Components for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells – an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Radhika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recent advancements made in the area of materials and components for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs. LT-SOFC is a new trend in SOFCtechnology since high temperature SOFC puts very high demands on the materials and too expensive to match marketability. The current status of the electrolyte and electrode materials used in SOFCs, their specific features and the need for utilizing them for LT-SOFC are presented precisely in this review article. The section on electrolytes gives an overview of zirconia, lanthanum gallate and ceria based materials. Also, this review article explains the application of different anode, cathode and interconnect materials used for SOFC systems. SOFC can result in better performance with the application of liquid fuels such methanol and ethanol. As a whole, this review article discusses the novel materials suitable for operation of SOFC systems especially for low temperature operation.

  1. Feasibility of using microencapsulated phase change materials as filler for improving low temperature performance of rubber sealing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Avinash; Shubin, Sergey N; Alcock, Ben; Freidin, Alexander B; Thorkildsen, Brede; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2017-11-01

    The feasibility of a novel composite rubber sealing material to improve sealing under transient cooling (in a so-called blowdown scenario) is investigated here. A composite of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) filled with Micro Encapsulated Phase Change Materials (MEPCM) is described. The fillers contain phase change materials that release heat during the phase transformation from liquid to solid while cooling. This exotherm locally heats the rubber and may improve the function of the seal during a blowdown event. A representative HNBR-MEPCM composite was made and the critical thermal and mechanical properties were obtained by simulating the temperature distribution during a blowdown event. Simulations predict that the MEPCM composites can delay the temperature decrease in a region of the seal during the transient blowdown. A sensitivity analysis of material properties is also presented which highlights possible avenues of improvement of the MEPCMs for sealing applications.

  2. The Application of High Temperature Superconducting Materials to Power Switches

    CERN Document Server

    March, S A; Ballarino, A

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting switches may find application in superconducting magnet systems that require energy extraction. Such superconducting switches could be bypass-switches that are operated in conjunction with a parallel resistor or dump-switches where all of the energy is dissipated in the switch itself. Bypass-switches are more suited to higher energy circuits as a portion of the energy can be dissipated in the external dump resistor. Dump- switches require less material and triggering energy as a lower switch resistance is needed to achieve the required total dump resistance. Both superconducting bypass-switches and superconducting dump-switches can be ther- mally activated. Switching times that are comparable to those obtained with mechanical bypass-switch systems can be achieved using a co-wound heater that is powered by a ca- pacitor discharge. Switches that have fast thermal diffusion times through the insulation can be modelled as a lumped system whereas those with slow thermal diffusion times were modelle...

  3. Studies and development of high-temperature catalytic materials for application in gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, Dennis; Thevenin, Philippe [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2000-04-01

    The catalyst system should fulfil the following conditions: (1) Low pressure drop, (2) Ignition of the fuel at the compressor outlet temperature, i.e. 300 - 400 deg C, (3) Resistance to thermal shocks, and (4) Resistance to sintering and deactivation for at least 1 year (8000 hours). As a single component can hardly retain all these properties, material science must then be combined with combustion technology and chemical reaction engineering. The work was then divided in four main tasks; material development, catalytic activity and kinetics measurement, mathematical modelling and design and engineering. The material development was devoted to the different components of a catalytic system, monolith, washcoat and active phase. The preparation method has proven to be of great importance with respect to the BET surface area of the prepared powder as well as the catalytic activity. A carbonate precipitation and a sol-gel procedure were developed at our laboratory. The use of modifiers in the sol-gel method has shown to affect the surface properties as well as the catalytic activity in ethanol and diesel combustion. Various catalytic materials have then been prepared: spinel, perovskite, hexaaluminate and pyrochlore. The hexaaluminate have the highest resistance to sintering in term of BET surface area when aged in 10% steam at temperature up to 1400 deg C for 4 hours. However, the LaAl{sub 11}O{sub 18} hexaaluminate does not have sufficient catalytic activity to ignite the fuel at 300-400 deg C. Substitution with transition metals have then been examined. In the case of ethanol combustion, the Mn-substituted La-hexaaluminate has a T{sub 50} (temperature for 50% conversion) of about 350 deg C. The noble metal-supported catalysts reveal a much higher activity with a T{sub 50} below 250 deg C. However their thermal stability may limit their use to temperatures below 900 deg C. The need of more thermal stable materials lead to the study of NZP-type material, yttrium

  4. Variations in erosive wear of metallic materials with temperature via the electron work function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Yu, Bin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); Yan, X.G. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Li, D.Y., E-mail: dongyang.li@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical properties of metals are intrinsically determined by their electron behavior, which is largely reflected by the electron work function (EWF or φ). Since the work function varies with temperature, the dependence of material properties on temperature could be predicted via variations in work function with temperature. Combining a hardness – φ relationship and the dependence of work function on temperature, a temperature-dependent model for predicting solid-particle erosion is proposed. Erosive wear losses of copper, nickel, and carbon steel as sample materials were measured at different temperatures. Results of the tests are consistent with the theoretical prediction. This study demonstrates a promising parameter, electron work function, for looking into fundamental aspects of wear phenomena, which would also help develop alternative methodologies for material design. - Highlights: • Metallic materials' wear resistance is influenced by temperature. • Electron work function (EWF) intrinsically determines materials' wear resistance. • An EWF-based temperature-dependent solid-particle erosion model is proposed.

  5. Influence of Decontaminating Agents and Swipe Materials on Laboratory Simulated Working Surfaces Wet Spilled with Sodium Pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchata, Suman; Lavanya, K; Shivanand, Bhushan

    2017-01-01

    Decontamination of various working surfaces with sodium pertechnetate minor spillage is essential for maintaining good radiation safety practices as well as for regulatory compliance. To observe the influences of decontaminating agents and swipe materials on different type of surfaces used in nuclear medicine laboratory work area wet spilled with 99m-technetium (99mTc) sodium pertechnetate. Lab-simulated working surface materials. Experimental study design. Direct decontamination method on dust-free lab simulated new working surfaces [stainless steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Perspex, resin] using four decontaminating agents [tap water, soap water (SW), Radiacwash, and spirit] with four different swipe material [cotton, tissue paper (TP), Whatman paper (WP), adsorbent sheet (AS)] was taken 10 samples (n = 10) for each group. Parametric test two-way analysis of variance is used with significance level of 0.005, was used to evaluate statistical differences between different group of decontaminating agent and swipe material, and the results are expressed in mean ± SD. Decontamination factor is calculated after five cleaning for each group. A total of 160 samples result calculated using four decontaminating agent (tap water, SW, Radiacwash, and spirit), four swipe material (cotton, TP, WP, and AS) for commonly used surface (stainless steel, PVC, Perspex, resin) using direct method by 10 samples (n = 10) for each group. Tap water is the best decontaminating agent compared with SW, Radiac wash and spirit for the laboratory simulated stainless steel, PVC, and Perspex surface material, whereas in case of resin surface material, SW decontaminating agent is showing better effectiveness. Cotton is the best swipe material compared to WP-1, AS and TP for the stainless steel, PVC, Perspex, and resin laboratory simulated surface materials. Perspex and stainless steel are the most suitable and recommended laboratory surface material compared to PVC and resin in nuclear medicine

  6. Rare earth chalcogenides for use as high temperature thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiels, Jhn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-01-02

    In the first part of the thesis, the electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall effect were measured in Xy(Y2S3)1-y (X = Cu, B, or Al), for y = 0.05 (Cu, B) or 0.025-0.075 for Al, in order to determine their potential as high- temperature (HT)(300-1000 C) thermoelectrics. Results indicate that Cu, B, Al- doped Y2S3 are not useful as HT thermoelectrics. In the second part, phase stability of γ-cubic LaSe1.47-1.48 and NdSe1.47 was measured periodically during annealing at 800 or 1000 C for the same purpose. In the Nd selenide, β phase increased with time, while the Nd selenide showed no sign of this second phase. It is concluded that the La selenide is not promising for use as HT thermoelectric due to the γ-to-β transformation, whereas the Nd selenide is promising.

  7. Processing Techniques Developed to Fabricate Lanthanum Titanate Piezoceramic Material for High-Temperature Smart Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic materials are potential candidates for use as actuators and sensors in intelligent gas turbine engines. For piezoceramics to be applied in gas turbine engines, they will have to be able to function in temperatures ranging from 1000 to 2500 F. However, the maximum use temperature for state-of-the-art piezoceramic materials is on the order of 300 to 400 F. Research activities have been initiated to develop high-temperature piezoceramic materials for gas turbine engine applications. Lanthanum titanate has been shown to have high-temperature piezoelectric properties with Curie temperatures of T(sub c) = 1500 C and use temperatures greater than 1000 C. However, the fabrication of lanthanum titanate poses serious challenges because of the very high sintering temperatures required for densification. Two different techniques have been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to fabricate dense lanthanum titanate piezoceramic material. In one approach, lower sintering temperatures were achieved by adding yttrium oxide to commercially available lanthanum titanate powder. Addition of only 0.1 mol% yttrium oxide lowered the sintering temperature by as much as 300 C, to just 1100 C, and dense lanthanum titanate was produced by pressure-assisted sintering. The second approach utilized the same commercially available powders but used an innovative sintering approach called differential sintering, which did not require any additive.

  8. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  9. Thermal cycling for restorative materials: does a standardized protocol exist in laboratory testing? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morresi, Anna Lucia; D'Amario, Maurizio; Capogreco, Mario; Gatto, Roberto; Marzo, Giuseppe; D'Arcangelo, Camillo; Monaco, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    In vitro tests continue to be an indispensable method for the initial screening of dental materials. Thermal cycling is one of the most widely used procedures to simulate the physiological aging experienced by biomaterials in clinical practice. Consequently it is routinely employed in experimental studies to evaluate materials' performance. A literature review aimed to elucidate test parameters for in vitro aging of adhesive restorations was performed. This study aims to assess whether or not a standardized protocol of thermal cycling has been acknowledged from a review of the literature. An exhaustive literature search, examining the effect of thermal cycling on restorative dental materials, was performed with electronic database and by hand. The search was restricted to studies published from 1998 to August 2013. No language restrictions were applied. The search identified 193 relevant experimental studies. Only twenty-three studies had faithfully applied ISO standard. The majority of studies used their own procedures, showing only a certain consistency within the temperature parameter (5-55°C) and a great variability in the number of cycles and dwell time chosen. A wide variation in thermal cycling parameters applied in experimental studies has been identified. The parameters selected amongst these studies seem to be done on the basis of convenience for the authors in most cases. A comparison of results between studies would appear to be impossible. The available data suggest that further investigations will be required to ultimately develop a standardized thermal cycling protocol. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Materials for Ultrahigh Temperature Structural Applications Above 2000 deg C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Upadhya, K

    1997-01-01

    The primary incentive for developing ultrahigh temperature materials for liquid bi-propellant rocket engines lies in the minimization and/or elimination of fuel-film and regenerative cooling of combustion chambers...

  11. Temperature-dependent electrical properties of graphene inkjet-printed on flexible materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, De; Le, Linh T; Li, Yue; Zunino, James L; Lee, Woo

    2012-09-18

    Graphene electrode was fabricated by inkjet printing, as a new means of directly writing and micropatterning the electrode onto flexible polymeric materials. Graphene oxide sheets were dispersed in water and subsequently reduced using an infrared heat lamp at a temperature of ~200 °C in 10 min. Spacing between adjacent ink droplets and the number of printing layers were used to tailor the electrode's electrical sheet resistance as low as 0.3 MΩ/□ and optical transparency as high as 86%. The graphene electrode was found to be stable under mechanical flexing and behave as a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) material, exhibiting rapid electrical resistance decrease with temperature increase. Temperature sensitivity of the graphene electrode was similar to that of conventional NTC materials, but with faster response time by an order of magnitude. This finding suggests the potential use of the inkjet-printed graphene electrode as a writable, very thin, mechanically flexible, and transparent temperature sensor.

  12. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-11-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined.

  13. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  14. YAG:Yb3+ crystal as a potential material for optical temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkhanyan, H. G.; Demirkhanyan, G. G.; Kostanyan, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    The possibilities are discussed of Y3Al5O12:Yb3+ crystal as a material for an optical temperature sensor (OTS) based on the temperature dependences of the more intense spectral emission lines and on the ratio of the absorption coefficients from the ground and first excited Stark sublevels. The operating temperature and average sensitivity for OTSs are determined. It is shown that the former is an effective method for an OTS in a cryogenic temperature range (40–130 K) and the latter in a high temperature range (500–1000 K).

  15. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters. Topical report for part 1 of high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spear, K.E.; Crossland, C.E.; Shelleman, D.L.; Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-11

    This program consists of two separate research areas. Part 1, for which this report is written, studied the high temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic hot gas filters, while Part 2 studied the long-term durability of ceramic heat exchangers to coal combustion environments. The objectives of Part 1 were to select two candidate ceramic filter materials for flow-through hot corrosion studies and subsequent corrosion and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, a thermodynamic database was developed so that thermochemical modeling studies could be performed to simulate operating conditions of laboratory reactors and existing coal combustion power plants, and to predict the reactions of new filter materials with coal combustion environments. The latter would make it possible to gain insight into problems that could develop during actual operation of filters in coal combustion power plants so that potential problems could be addressed before they arise.

  16. Measurement of the high-temperature strain of UHTC materials using chemical composition gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Jin, Hua; Du, Chong; Wang, Libin; Peng, Tao; Scarpa, F.; Huo, Shiyu

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a simple bonding and measuring technique to realise silica-based chemical composition gratings’ (CCGs) high temperature applications on hot structures. We describe a series of experiments on CCGs to measure the thermal and mechanical response characteristics of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) materials when the maximum temperature is above 1000 °C. Response characteristics are obtained at the heating and cooling stages. Results show that the wavelength response of the CCGs bonded on the UHTC plate increases non-linearly with increasing temperatures, but decreases almost linearly with decreasing temperatures. The temperature-dependent strain transfer coefficients are calculated theoretically and experimentally; results show that the values of strain transfer coefficients below 1000 °C are significantly affected by the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate material and the interface. The strain transfer coefficient value tends to vary slowly between 0.616 and 0.626 above 700 °C.

  17. Low Temperature Mechanical Testing of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy-Resin Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Biss, Emily J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of cryogenic fuels (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) in current space transportation vehicles, in combination with the proposed use of composite materials in such applications, requires an understanding of how such materials behave at cryogenic temperatures. In this investigation, tensile intralaminar shear tests were performed at room, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen temperatures to evaluate the effect of temperature on the mechanical response of the IM7/8551-7 carbon-fiber/epoxy-resin system. Quasi-isotropic lay-ups were also tested to represent a more realistic lay-up. It was found that the matrix became both increasingly resistant to microcracking and stiffer with decreasing temperature. A marginal increase in matrix shear strength with decreasing temperature was also observed. Temperature did not appear to affect the integrity of the fiber-matrix bond.

  18. A simple method to measure the complex permittivity of materials at variable temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Yang; Liu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Di; Wu, Shiyue; Yuan, Jianping; Li, Lixin

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of the complex permittivity (CP) of a material at different temperatures in microwave heating applications is difficult and complicated. In this paper a simple and convenient method is employed to measure the CP of a material over variable temperature. In this method the temperature of a sample is increased experimentally to obtain the formula for the relationship between CP and temperature by a genetic algorithm. We chose agar solution (sample) and a Yangshao reactor (microwave heating system) to validate the reliability and feasibility of this method. The physical parameters (the heat capacity, C p , density, ρ, and thermal conductivity, k) of the sample are set as constants in the process of simulation and inversion. We analyze the influence of the variation of physical parameters with temperature on the accuracy of the inversion results. It is demonstrated that the variation of these physical parameters has little effect on the inversion results in a certain temperature range.

  19. Measurement of water transfer and swelling stress in the buffer material due to temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Chijimatsu, M.; Fujita, A.

    1999-03-01

    Coefficients concerning the water transfer in the buffer material was obtained by empirically giving a temperature gradient, and the swelling stress was measured when water was soaked in the sample under the uniform temperature and temperature gradient conditions. The distributions of temperature and water in the buffer material empirically given a temperature gradient were measured to deduce water diffusion constant due to the temperature gradient. The diffusion constant was the order of 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s/degC. As a result of a equitemperature soaking test, it was found that the swelling stress of the part where soaktion was slow was greater than that of the part with fast soaking at a stage of non-uniform water distribution. The water soaking quantity to the sample and swelling stress reached a stationary state after 7000 hours and the water distribution in the whole sample was found saturated. (H. Baba)

  20. RESEARCHES REGARDING USE OF TEXTILE MATERIALS FOR THERMAL INSULATION AT NEGATIVE TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSUB Andrei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thermal insulation in negative temperature acts to reduce heat flow to the cooled space or to objects that have a temperature below ambient temperature. To achieve economic operation of the space to be cooled insulation thickness and quality is an important factor. In this article we want to compare three products used in thermal insulation at negative temperatures: expanded polystyrene, non-woven and wool coats. The materials will be tested with a mechanical vapor compression refrigerator capable of producing temperatures in the range +4 .. -35 ° C, managed by a programmer Dixel capable of recording values between +40. .. -60 °C. Refrigeration insulation enclosure was made with 100 mm expanded polystyrene. On one side of the enclosure will be a cut of 250 * 250 mm, chosen in a central position where the material will be introduced to be tested. The dimensions of the samples are 250 * 250 * 60 mm. To check the insulation properties of materials it will be used a temperature logger capable of recording with two probes temperatures between +125...-40° C. One of the probes will be inserted inside the refrigerator and the second probe will be positioned to the outside of the test material adhered to an aluminum plate, in order to read a average temperature. The difference in thickness of the insulation shall be filled with non-woven material. Hardening the assembly will be made using a 6 mm thick OSB board. The materials will be tested in an identical ambient temperature and humidity.

  1. Summary of U. S. LMFBR programs on high temperature structural design and associated materials testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    This document was prepared at the request of the Division of Reactor Development and Demonstration (DRDD), U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. Four general areas of research and development are included: high-temperature structural design; irradiation effects--mechanical properties of structural materials; sodium environmental effects--influence of sodium on mechanical properties; and general material qualification.

  2. Temperature response of biological materials to pulsed non-ablative CO2 laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, M. J.; Kemper, J.; Gijsbers, G. H.; van der Meulen, F. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents surface temperature responses of various tissue phantoms and in vitro and in vivo biological materials in air to non-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation, measured with a thermocamera. We studied cooling off behavior of the materials after a laser pulse, to come to an

  3. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  4. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2016-01-15

    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements.

  5. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Manjusha; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS) that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements. PMID:26784192

  6. Overview of Fiber Optic Sensor Technologies for Strain/Temperature Sensing Applications in Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Ramakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the different types of fiber optic sensors (FOS that can be used with composite materials and also their compatibility with and suitability for embedding inside a composite material. An overview of the different types of FOS used for strain/temperature sensing in composite materials is presented. Recent trends, and future challenges for FOS technology for condition monitoring in smart composite materials are also discussed. This comprehensive review provides essential information for the smart materials industry in selecting of appropriate types of FOS in accordance with end-user requirements.

  7. Pathology of Building Materials in Historic Buildings. Relationship Between Laboratory Testing and Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerma, C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of historic buildings requires a pathology analysis of the construction materials used in order to define their conservation state. Usually we can find capillary moisture, salt crystalli-zation or density differences by deterioration. Sometimes this issue is carried out by destructive testing which determine materials’ physical and chemical characteristics. However, they are unfavorable regarding the building’s integrity, and they are sometimes difficult to implement. This paper presents a technique using infrared thermography to analyze the existing pathology and has the advantage of being able to diagnose inaccessible areas in buildings. The results obtained by this technique have been compared with those obtained in the laboratory, in order to validate this study and thus to extrapolate the methodology to other buildings and materials.El estudio de edificios históricos requiere un análisis de la patología de los materiales de construcción empleados para poder definir su estado de conservación. Habitualmente nos encontramos con humedades por capilaridad, cristalización de sales o diferencias de densidad por deterioro. En ocasiones esto se lleva a cabo mediante ensayos destructivos que nos determinan las características físicas y químicas de los materiales, pero que resultan desfavorables respecto a la integridad del edificio, y en ocasiones resulta complejo llevarlos a cabo. Este trabajo presenta una técnica para analizar la patología existente mediante el empleo de termografía infrarroja con la ventaja de poder diagnosticar zonas de difícil acceso en los edificios. Para validar este estudio se han comparado los resultados obtenidos mediante esta técnica con los alcanzados en el laboratorio. De esta forma podemos extrapolar la metodología empleada a otros edificios y materiales.

  8. Pengaruh Variasi Kecepatan Stiring & Temperatur Sintering Terhadap Perubahan Struktur Mikro & Fase Material Sensor Gas Tio2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Dewi Ratnasari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian material untuk sensor gas ini menggunakan bahan dasar TiO2 dan zat pelarut H2SO4 pekat 98% . Metode pembentuk sol-gel dilakukan dengan sampel di stiring menggunakan magnetic stirrer selama 2,5 jam, kecepatan 600, 700 dan 800 rpm dengan temperatur 200 º C hingga terbentuk gel. Drying dilakukan selama 1 jam dengan temperatur 350 º C, proses kalsinasi selama 1 jam temperatur 500 ºC. Proses selanjutnya serbuk TiO2 dikompaksi dengan tekanan 200 bar agar terbentuk padatan / pellet. Sintering dilakukan pada temperatur 700 ºC selama 1 jam. Karakterisasi material dilakukan dengan alat uji Scanning Electron microscope (SEM dan X-ray diffraction (XRD untuk menganalisa perubahan struktur mikro & fase material keramik TiO2. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian difraksi sinar–x (XRD, variasi stiring 600 rpm, 700 rpm & 800 rpm telah merubah fase anatase (raw material menjadi unstabil fase orthohombik (TiOSO4. Sintering pada temperatur 700 ͦ C telah menyebabkan unstabil fase TiOSO4 menjadi stabil fase TiO2 anatase. Sintesa sol-gel stiring 700 rpm dan 800 rpm dilanjutkan sintering 700 ͦ C menyebabkan reduksi kation Titanium. Berdasarkan hasil SEM, proses sol-gel dapat mereduksi raw material menjadi 130 nm pada kecepatan stiring 700 rpm temperatur operasi 200 ͦ C selama 150 menit.

  9. Quantification of the effect of hysteresis on the adiabatic temperature change in magnetocaloric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2014-01-01

    description of the phase transition at varying magnetic fields and temperatures. Using detailed experimental property data, a Preisach type model is used to describe the thermal hysteresis effects and simulate the material under realistic working conditions. We find that the adiabatic temperature change......We quantify the effect of hysteresis on the performance of the magnetocaloric first order material Gd5Si2Ge2 undergoing an ideal active magnetic regenerator (AMR) cycle. The material is carefully characterized through magnetometry (VSM) and calorimetry (DSC) in order to enable an accurate model...

  10. [Effect of high-temperature phase change material on the performance of infrared decoy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Chen, Xin; Han, Ai-Jun; Ye, Ming-Quan; Zhao, Min-Chun

    2013-10-01

    The impact of the high-temperature phase change material on conventional infrared decoy's combustion performance and infrared radiation characteristics was studied. The selected high-temperature phase change materials did not reduce infrared radiation in the 3-5 microm or 8-14 microm band of infrared decoy, while extended the burning time, and reduced the burning rate of the grain, thus prolonged the effective interference time of IR decoy. The results show the phase change material is effective infrared decoy functional additives.

  11. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X.

  12. Material degradation due to moisture and temperature. Part 1: mathematical model, analysis, and analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Mudunuru, M. K.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical response, serviceability, and load-bearing capacity of materials and structural components can be adversely affected due to external stimuli, which include exposure to a corrosive chemical species, high temperatures, temperature fluctuations (i.e., freezing-thawing), cyclic mechanical loading, just to name a few. It is, therefore, of paramount importance in several branches of engineering—ranging from aerospace engineering, civil engineering to biomedical engineering—to have a fundamental understanding of degradation of materials, as the materials in these applications are often subjected to adverse environments. As a result of recent advancements in material science, new materials such as fiber-reinforced polymers and multi-functional materials that exhibit high ductility have been developed and widely used, for example, as infrastructural materials or in medical devices (e.g., stents). The traditional small-strain approaches of modeling these materials will not be adequate. In this paper, we study degradation of materials due to an exposure to chemical species and temperature under large strain and large deformations. In the first part of our research work, we present a consistent mathematical model with firm thermodynamic underpinning. We then obtain semi-analytical solutions of several canonical problems to illustrate the nature of the quasi-static and unsteady behaviors of degrading hyperelastic solids.

  13. Post-test analysis of lithium-ion battery materials at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareno, Javier; Dietz-Rago, Nancy; Bloom, Ira

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performance is often limited by surface and interfacial reactions at the electrodes. However, routine handling of samples can alter the very surfaces that are the object of study. Our approach combines standardized testing of batteries with sample harvesting under inert atmosphere conditions. Cells of different formats are disassembled inside an Argon glove box with controlled water and oxygen concentrations below 2 ppm. Cell components are characterized in situ, guaranteeing that observed changes in physicochemical state are due to electrochemical operation, rather than sample manipulation. We employ a complementary set of spectroscopic, microscopic, electrochemical and metallographic characterization to obtain a complete picture of cell degradation mechanisms. The resulting information about observed degradation mechanisms is provided to materials developers, both academic and industrial, to suggest new strategies and speed up the Research & Development cycle of Li-ion and related technologies. This talk will describe Argonne's post-test analysis laboratory, with an emphasis on capabilities and opportunities for collaboration. Cell disassembly, sample harvesting procedures and recent results will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Hybrid and Electric Systems, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. New Construction and Catalyst Support Materials for Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis presents an attractive technology allowing to produce hydrogen for further use as a renewable energy source in the "Hydrogen cycle". Electrolysis of water steam at elevated temperatures has several advantages over the low temperature process....... However, at the same time it involves increased demands to dimensional and chemical stability of components against corrosion environment. Therefore, materials utilized in low temperature PEM electrolyzers cannot be used in systems operating above 100 °C and new candidates should be tested. The materials...... gives an introduction into the subject and Chapter 2 subsequently presents the theoretical background of the topic and describes techniques used to characterize catalysts and construction materials. Chapter 3 presents general principles and overview of materials used for PEM water electrolysis. Chapter...

  15. A Review on Die Attach Materials for SiC-Based High-Temperature Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Hui Shun; Cheong, Kuan Yew; Ismail, Ahmad Badri

    2010-08-01

    Recently, high-temperature power devices have become a popular discussion topic because of their various potential applications in the automotive, down-hole oil and gas industries for well logging, aircraft, space exploration, nuclear environments, and radars. Devices for these applications are fabricated on silicon carbide-based semiconductor material. For these devices to perform effectively, an appropriate die attach material with specific requirements must be selected and employed correctly. This article presents a review of this topic, with a focus on the die attach materials operating at temperatures higher than 623 K (350 °C). Future challenges and prospects related to high-temperature die attach materials also are proposed at the end of this article.

  16. Recent Progress in Nanostructured Oxide TE Materials for Power Generation at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Linderoth, Søren

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials, which can convert waste heat into electricity, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution and environmental problems. Metal oxides have been considered as potential TE materials for power generation that can operate at high temperatures......σT/κ , where S, σ, T and κ are the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, absolute temperature and thermal conductivity, respectively). We have fabricated high-quality oxide TE materials based on Ca3Co4O9 by optimizing the method for synthesis, modifying the compositions...... and by nanostructuring. This report will focus on the high temperature TE properties of heavy ions doping nanostrcutred Ca3Co4O9 oxides, which exhibit promising ZT, implying suitable polycrystalline oxide TE materials for power generation from waste heat....

  17. Rate- and Temperature-Dependent Material Behavior of a Multilayer Polymer Battery Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, Ilya; Martinsen, Michael; Francis, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Designing battery packs for safety in automotive applications requires multiscale modeling, as macroscopic deformations due to impact cause the mechanical failure of individual cells on a sub-millimeter level. The separator material plays a critical role in this process, as the thinning or perforating of the separator can lead to thermal runaway and catastrophic failure of an entire battery pack. The electrochemical properties of various polymer separators have been extensively investigated; however, the dependency of mechanical properties of these thin films on various factors, such as high temperature and strain rate, has not been sufficiently characterized. In this study, the macroscopic mechanical properties of a multilayer polymer thin film used as a battery separator are studied experimentally at various temperatures, strain rates, and solvent saturations. Due to the anisotropy of the material, material testing was conducted in two perpendicular directions (machine and transverse directions). Material samples were tested in both dry and saturated conditions at several temperatures, and it was found that temperature and strain rate have a nearly linear effect on the stress experienced by the material. Additionally, saturating the separator material in a common lithium-ion solvent had softened it and had a positive effect on its toughness. The experimental results obtained in this study can be used to develop mathematical constitutive models of the multilayer separator material for subsequent numerical simulations and design.

  18. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Chetan A.; Ghige, Suvarna K.; Gosavi, Suchitra R.; Hazarey, Vinay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C–400°C–600°C–800°C–1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Results: Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Conclusion: Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics. PMID:26005305

  19. Seeing the light: the effects of particles, dissolved materials, and temperature on in situ measurements of DOM fluorescence in rivers and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Bryan D.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Saraceno, John Franco; Kraus, Tamara E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Field-deployable sensors designed to continuously measure the fluorescence of colored dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in situ are of growing interest. However, the ability to make FDOM measurements that are comparable across sites and over time requires a clear understanding of how instrument characteristics and environmental conditions affect the measurements. In particular, the effects of water temperature and light attenuation by both colored dissolved material and suspended particles may be significant in settings such as rivers and streams. Using natural standard reference materials, we characterized the performance of four commercially-available FDOM sensors under controlled laboratory conditions over ranges of temperature, dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations, and turbidity that spanned typical environmental ranges. We also examined field data from several major rivers to assess how often attenuation artifacts or temperature effects might be important. We found that raw (uncorrected) FDOM values were strongly affected by the light attenuation that results from dissolved substances and suspended particles as well as by water temperature. Observed effects of light attenuation and temperature agreed well with theory. Our results show that correction of measured FDOM values to account for these effects is necessary and feasible over much of the range of temperature, DOM concentration, and turbidity commonly encountered in surface waters. In most cases, collecting high-quality FDOM measurements that are comparable through time and between sites will require concurrent measurements of temperature and turbidity, and periodic discrete sample collection for laboratory measurement of DOM.

  20. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Mark R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. Methods The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints, brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Results Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period. Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of

  1. Factors contributing to the temperature beneath plaster or fiberglass cast material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michael J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2008-02-25

    Most cast materials mature and harden via an exothermic reaction. Although rare, thermal injuries secondary to casting can occur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that contribute to the elevated temperature beneath a cast and, more specifically, evaluate the differences of modern casting materials including fiberglass and prefabricated splints. The temperature beneath various types (plaster, fiberglass, and fiberglass splints), brands, and thickness of cast material were measured after they were applied over thermometer which was on the surface of a single diameter and thickness PVC tube. A single layer of cotton stockinette with variable layers and types of cast padding were placed prior to application of the cast. Serial temperature measurements were made as the cast matured and reached peak temperature. Time to peak, duration of peak, and peak temperature were noted. Additional tests included varying the dip water temperature and assessing external insulating factors. Ambient temperature, ambient humidity and dip water freshness were controlled. Outcomes revealed that material type, cast thickness, and dip water temperature played key roles regarding the temperature beneath the cast. Faster setting plasters achieved peak temperature quicker and at a higher level than slower setting plasters. Thicker fiberglass and plaster casts led to greater peak temperature levels. Likewise increasing dip-water temperature led to elevated temperatures. The thickness and type of cast padding had less of an effect for all materials. With a definition of thermal injury risk of skin injury being greater than 49 degrees Celsius, we found that thick casts of extra fast setting plaster consistently approached dangerous levels (greater than 49 degrees for an extended period). Indeed a cast of extra-fast setting plaster, 20 layers thick, placed on a pillow during maturation maintained temperatures over 50 degrees of Celsius for over 20 minutes. Clinicians should be

  2. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  3. The Influence of Aging Period, Freezing Temperature and Packaging Material on Frozen Beef Chemical Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Sri Widati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the influences of aging period, freezing temperature and packaging material on the frozen beef chemical quality. The material of the study was 2-3 years old Ongole grade beef of the Longissimus dorsi part,  and was then classified into 3 treat­ments, namely A (aging periode; 0, 12 and 24 hours, B (freezing temperature; -10°C and -20°C and C (packaging material; aluminum foil (Al, polyprophylene (PP, poly­ethylene (PE and without packaging material. The ob­served variables were water content, crude protein, fat, ash content. The data were analyzed by the Completely Randomized Design (CRD in the Factorial (3x2x4 pattern. The results indicated that the aging periode de­creased the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, and decreased the crude protein but increased the fat content insignificantly. The lower freezing temperature prevented the decreases of the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, but prevented the decrease of crude protein, fat content insignificantly. The packaging material could prevent the decreases of water content, ash content sig­nificantly (P<0.05, but prevent the decreases of protein, and fat content insignificantly. A significant interaction (P<0.05 occured between the freezing temperature and packaging material factors on ash content of the frozen beef. The conclusion was the frozen beef without aging has a high of water content, protein, and ash, but has a low fat content.Temperature at -200C and using aluminium foil packaging can prevent decreasing quality of frozen beef. Keywords : Aging period, freezing temperature,  packaging material

  4. Insect temperature-body size trends common to laboratory, latitudinal and seasonal gradients are not found across altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Curtis R.; Hirst, Andrew G.; Atkinson, David

    2018-01-01

    altitude. Although the general direction of body size clines along altitudinal gradients has been examined previously, to our knowledge altitude-body size (A-S) clines have never been synthesised quantitatively, nor compared with temperature-size (T-S) responses measured under controlled laboratory...... conditions. Here we quantitatively examine variation in intraspecific A-S clines among 121 insect species from 50 different global locations, representing 12 taxonomic orders. While some taxa were better represented in the literature than others, our analysis reveals extensive variation in the magnitude...... and direction of A-S clines. Following the assumption that temperature on average declines by 1°C per 150 m increase in altitude, order-specific A-S clines in the field appear to deviate from laboratory T-S responses. Specifically, the magnitude of A-S clines and T-S responses are more closely matched in some...

  5. The impact of individual materials parameters on color temperature reproducibility among phosphor converted LED sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Susanne; Nemitz, Wolfgang; Sommer, Christian; Hartmann, Paul; Fulmek, Paul; Nicolics, Johann; Pachler, Peter; Hoschopf, Hans; Schrank, Franz; Langer, Gregor; Wenzl, Franz P.

    2014-09-01

    For a systematic approach to improve the white light quality of phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for general lighting applications it is imperative to get the individual sources of error for color temperature reproducibility under control. In this regard, it is imperative to understand how compositional, optical and materials properties of the color conversion element (CCE), which typically consists of phosphor particles embedded in a transparent matrix material, affect the constancy of a desired color temperature of a white LED source. In this contribution we use an LED assembly consisting of an LED die mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) by chip-on-board technology and a CCE with a glob-top configuration as a model system and discuss the impact of potential sources for color temperature deviation among individual devices. Parameters that are investigated include imprecisions in the amount of materials deposition, deviations from the target value for the phosphor concentration in the matrix material, deviations from the target value for the particle sizes of the phosphor material, deviations from the target values for the refractive indexes of phosphor and matrix material as well as deviations from the reflectivity of the substrate surface. From these studies, some general conclusions can be drawn which of these parameters have the largest impact on color deviation and have to be controlled most precisely in a fabrication process in regard of color temperature reproducibility among individual white LED sources.

  6. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Chetan A; Ghige, Suvarna K; Gosavi, Suchitra R; Hazarey, Vinay K

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C-400°C-600°C-800°C-1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics.

  7. Summary of workshop on high temperature materials based on Laves phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Offices of Fossil Energy and Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy jointly sponsored the Workshop on High Temperature Materials Based on Laves Phases in conjunction with the Tenth Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials held at the Radisson Summit Hill Hotel in Knoxville, Tennessee on May 14-16, 1996. The objective of this workshop was to review the current status and to address critical issues in the development of new-generation high-temperature structural materials based on Laves phases. The one-day workshop included two sessions of overview presentations and a session of discussion on critical scientific and technological issues. The Laves phases represent an abundant class of intermetallic alloys with possible high-temperature structural applications. Laves phases form at or near the AB{sub 2} composition, and there are over 360 binary Laves phases. The ability of these alloys to dissolve considerable amounts of ternary alloying additions provides over 900 combined binary and ternary Laves phases. Many Laves phases have unique properties which make them attractive for high-temperature structural use. At half their homologous temperature, they retain >0.85 of their ambient yield strength, which is higher than all other intermetallics. Many of the Laves phases also have high melting temperatures, excellent creep properties, reasonably low densities, and for alloys containing Cr, Al, Si or Be, good oxidation resistance. Despite these useful properties, the tendency for low-temperature brittleness has limited the potential application of this large class of alloys.

  8. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking & Immunohematology, 10-4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, the third of three courses in the medical laboratory technician field adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, was designed as a refresher course for student self-study and evaluation. It is suitable for use by advanced students or beginning students participating in a supervised…

  9. The influence of high temperatures on the tribological properties of automotive friction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Luke

    Temperatures of over 800C can be generated at the frictional interface within the brake systems of large vehicles, such high temperatures result in severe wear at the frictional interface, and can also lead to a very dangerous condition known as brake fade, characterised by a sharp fall in the coefficient of friction between the pad and disc, resulting in a catastrophic loss of braking efficiency. Common friction materials are very specialised composites often containing up to 15 components bound together within a phenolic resin matrix. The high temperature behaviour of the various constituents of friction materials were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, focusing in particular on the thermal decomposition of the phenolic resin matrix material, where it has been firmly established that the thermal decomposition products of phenolic resin are the primary cause of brake fade. This has lead to the development of a novel approach for reducing fade in conventional resin based friction materials, involving a partial carbonisation to 400C. The high temperature wear characteristics of both modified and conventional friction materials were examined using standard dynamometer tests, as well as a 'continuous drag' type test machine, equipped with a heating facility. During this study a number of factors were identified as the main influences on the overall wear behaviour of friction materials. These included test temperature, sample test history, and the various effects of friction films, which were the subject of a detailed analysis. The formation of friction films was found to be an important facet of a successful friction material, producing a reduction in wear at the frictional interface. Films were examined and analysed using EDX, SEM, and X-ray diffraction techniques, which revealed the presence of a high proportion of magnetite (Fe3O4), containing iron which originated from the disc surface. It was established that the incorporation of iron in friction

  10. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Four appendices are included. The first covers applications of low-temperature geothermal energy including industrial processes, agricultural and related processes, district heating and cooling, and miscellaneous. The second discusses hydrogeologic factors affecting the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells: water quality, withdrawal rate, water depth, water temperature, basic well designs, and hydrogeologic provinces. In the third appendix, properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials are described, including: specific gravity, mechanical strength properties, resistance to physical and biological attack, thermal properties of nonmetallics, fluid flow characteristics, corrosion resistance, scaling resistance, weathering resistance of nonmetallics, and hydrolysis resistance of nonmetallics. Finally, special considerations in the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells using nonmetallics materials are covered. These include; drilling methods, joining methods, methods of casing and screen installation, well cementing, and well development. (MHR)

  11. Heat treated 9 Cr-1 Mo steel material for high temperature application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Alman, David; Dogan, Omer; Holcomb, Gordon; Cowen, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    The invention relates to a composition and heat treatment for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed, 9 Cr-1 Mo steel exhibiting improved creep strength and oxidation resistance at service temperatures up to 650.degree. C. The novel combination of composition and heat treatment produces a heat treated material containing both large primary titanium carbides and small secondary titanium carbides. The primary titanium carbides contribute to creep strength while the secondary titanium carbides act to maintain a higher level of chromium in the finished steel for increased oxidation resistance, and strengthen the steel by impeding the movement of dislocations through the crystal structure. The heat treated material provides improved performance at comparable cost to commonly used high-temperature steels such as ASTM P91 and ASTM P92, and requires heat treatment consisting solely of austenization, rapid cooling, tempering, and final cooling, avoiding the need for any hot-working in the austenite temperature range.

  12. Mortality of Eggs and Newly Hatched Larvae of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Exposed to High Temperatures in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaeian Moosavi, F; Cargnus, E; Pavan, F; Zandigiacomo, P

    2017-06-01

    The hypothesis that bunch-zone leaf removal reduces infestations of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by increasing egg and larval mortality owing to sunlight exposure was evaluated in the laboratory by subjecting different egg stages (white, red-eyes, and black-head) and newly hatched larvae to high temperatures. Based on temperatures recorded in a northern Italian vineyard on sun-exposed berries belonging to south-west facing bunches, eggs were subjected to constant temperatures of 40 °C and 37 °C for one or two periods of 3 or 6 h, and to 24-h temperature cycle with peak of 40 °C. Larvae were exposed to 24-h high-temperature cycles with peaks of 35, 37, and 40 °C. The results showed partial egg mortality at 40 °C, increasing with exposure hours and periods, and as eggs matured. Egg mortality was not affected by exposure to 37 °C. Larval survival already decreased significantly at 37 °C and was even lower at 40 °C. These laboratory data are in agreement with the hypothesis that temperatures reached by berries exposed to sunlight cause egg and larval mortality. Data on egg and larval susceptibility to high temperatures have also implications for species distribution and effects of climate change. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Electrical Properties of Materials for Elevated Temperature Resistance Strain Gage Application. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1987-01-01

    The objective was to study the electrical resistances of materials that are potentially useful as resistance strain gages at 1000 C. Transition metal carbides and nitrides, boron carbide and silicon carbide were selected for the experimental phase of this research. Due to their low temperature coefficient of resistance and good stability, TiC, ZrC, B sub 4 C and beta-SiC are suggested as good candidates for high temperature resistance strain gage applications.

  14. Virtual earthquake engineering laboratory with physics-based degrading materials on parallel computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Ho

    For the last few decades, we have obtained tremendous insight into underlying microscopic mechanisms of degrading quasi-brittle materials from persistent and near-saintly efforts in laboratories, and at the same time we have seen unprecedented evolution in computational technology such as massively parallel computers. Thus, time is ripe to embark on a novel approach to settle unanswered questions, especially for the earthquake engineering community, by harmoniously combining the microphysics mechanisms with advanced parallel computing technology. To begin with, it should be stressed that we placed a great deal of emphasis on preserving clear meaning and physical counterparts of all the microscopic material models proposed herein, since it is directly tied to the belief that by doing so, the more physical mechanisms we incorporate, the better prediction we can obtain. We departed from reviewing representative microscopic analysis methodologies, selecting out "fixed-type" multidirectional smeared crack model as the base framework for nonlinear quasi-brittle materials, since it is widely believed to best retain the physical nature of actual cracks. Microscopic stress functions are proposed by integrating well-received existing models to update normal stresses on the crack surfaces (three orthogonal surfaces are allowed to initiate herein) under cyclic loading. Unlike the normal stress update, special attention had to be paid to the shear stress update on the crack surfaces, due primarily to the well-known pathological nature of the fixed-type smeared crack model---spurious large stress transfer over the open crack under nonproportional loading. In hopes of exploiting physical mechanism to resolve this deleterious nature of the fixed crack model, a tribology-inspired three-dimensional (3d) interlocking mechanism has been proposed. Following the main trend of tribology (i.e., the science and engineering of interacting surfaces), we introduced the base fabric of solid

  15. High temperature indentation behavior of eutectic lead-free solder materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worrack H.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic malfunction caused by thermal stresses is one major problem in modern electronic industries. Therefore, the precise knowledge of the mechanical solder material properties as a function of temperature is required. Nanoindentation and its potential of recording load-displacement curves is a widely-used miniature test for the determination of Young’s modulus and hardness values. Furthermore, such tests can be performed in a temperature range from Room Temperature (RT up to +500°C by using a Hot-Stage add on. In this paper the lead-free solder alloys Sn91Zn9 and Sn42Bi58, and also copper and fused silica, which is used for the indenter calibration are investigated. The results for quartz and copper agree with the published values in several references. However, the Young’s modulus of Sn42Bi58 as a function of temperature differs from the values presented in the literature. Due to delayed material response in the unloading regime it must be assumed that creep effects lead to an incorrect automatic data evaluation. Investigation and understanding of the creep behavior is part of this paper. For this purpose a visco-elastic material model is used to model the indentation response at elevated temperatures and to determine the corresponding viscous material constants.

  16. SIMULASI PENGARUH FRICTION, SPEED, MATERIAL, DAN TEMPERATURE TERHADAP DAMAGE PADA BLOCK PRE FORMING DENGAN METODE TAGUCHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Tyagita

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada proses pembentukan logam damage dapat disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor yaitu beban yang bekerja pada benda kerja, temperatur pemanasan awal, dan temperatur yang disebankan gesekan antara die dan material yang akan di lakukan pre forming. Proses metal forming bisa dilakukan dengan 2 cara yaitu pengerjaan panas (hot working dan pengerjaan dingin (cold working. Pada proses pengerjaan panas dan pengerjaan dingin logam mengalami deformasi plastis dan perubahan bentuk. Pada pengerjaan panas, gaya deformasi yang diperlukan adalah lebih rendah dan perubahan sifat mekanik juga tidak siknifikan. Pada pengerjaan dingin, diperlukan gaya yang lebih besar, akan tetapi kekuatan logam tersebut akan meningkat secara signifikan. Tren penggunaan simulasi semakin meningkat dikarenakan mampu memprediksi dan menggambarkan mekanisme proses serta mendapatkan optimasi proses pre forming. Studi yang dilakukan menggunakan simulasi 3 dimensi (3D untuk memprediksi pengaruh variasi friction, speed, material, dan temperature terhadap damage pada block pre forming. Dari hasil simulasi menunjukkan nilai damage terbesar terlihat pada spesimen nomor 9 dengan nilai damage tertinggi sebesar 0,0302 pada variasi friction sebesar 0,2; speed punch 2 inc/s, material al 2xxx, dan temperature 122 °F. Nilai damage terendah terlihat pada spesimen nomor 6 dengan nilai damage tertinggi sebesar 0,0101 pada variasi friction sebesar 0,12; speed punch 2 inc/s, material al 1xxx, dan temperature 122 °F. Nilai load prediction terbesar terlihat pada grafik 1 dengan nilai 1470 klbf. Nilai load prediction terkecil terlihat pada grafik 6 dengan nilai 155

  17. Ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive for piezoelectric composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Liao, Qingwei; Zhou, Xingli; Wang, Likun; Zhong, Chao; Zhang, Di

    2018-01-01

    Limited by the low thermal resistance of composite material, ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive with curing temperature less than 100 °C needed urgently for the surface conduction treatment of piezoelectric composite material. An ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive with high adhesion strength for the applications of piezoelectric composite material was investigated. The crystal structure of cured adhesive, SEM/EDS analysis, thermal analysis, adhesive properties and conductive properties of different content of nano-silver filler or micron-silver doping samples were studied. The results show that with 60 wt.% nano-silver filler the ultra-low temperature curable conductive silver adhesive had the relatively good conductivity as volume resistivity of 2.37 × 10-4 Ω cm, and good adhesion strength of 5.13 MPa. Minor micron-doping (below 15 wt.%) could improve conductivity, but would decrease other properties. The ultra-low temperature curable nano-silver conductive adhesive could successfully applied to piezoelectric composite material.

  18. High-Temperature Release of SO2 from Calcined Cement Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of alternative fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions may occur and cause reductive decomposition of sulfates from calcined cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2...... concentration, which may cause deposit formation in the kiln system. In this study, the release of sulfur from calcined cement raw materials under both oxidizing and reducing conditions is investigated. The investigations include thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the temperature interval of 800–1500 °C...... and experiments in a tube furnace reactor in the temperature interval of 900–1100 °C. The investigated conditions resemble actual conditions in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. It was found that the sulfates CaSO4, K2SO4, and Na2SO4 were all stable under oxidizing conditions but began to decompose...

  19. Nanostructured oxide materials and modules for high temperature power generation from waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2013-01-01

    are not easily satisfied by conventional thermoelectric materials. Not only they must possess a sufficient thermoelectric performance, they should also be stable at high temperatures, nontoxic and low-cost comprising elements, and must be also able to be processed and shaped cheaply. Oxides are among......A large amount of thermal energy that emitted from many industrial processes is available as waste heat. Thermoelectric power generators that convert heat directly into electricity can offer a very promising way for waste heat recovery. However, the requirements for this task place in the materials...... the strongest candidate materials for this purpose. In this review, the progress in the development of two representative p- and n-type novel oxide materials based on Ca3Co4O9 and doped-ZnO is presented. Thermoelectric modules built up from these oxides were fabricated, tested at high temperatures, and compared...

  20. Determining the tensile response of materials at high temperature using DIC and the Virtual Fields Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Guillermo; Koohbor, Behrad; Kidane, Addis; Sutton, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    An experimental approach based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is successfully applied to predict the uniaxial stress-strain response of 304 stainless steel specimens subjected to nominally uniform temperatures ranging from room temperature to 900 °C. A portable induction heating device equipped with custom made water-cooled copper coils is used to heat the specimen. The induction heater is used in conjunction with a conventional tensile frame to enable high temperature tension experiments. A stereovision camera system equipped with appropriate band pass filters is employed to facilitate the study of full-field deformation response of the material at elevated temperatures. Using the temperature and load histories along with the full-field strain data, a Virtual Fields Method (VFM) based approach is implemented to identify constitutive parameters governing the plastic deformation of the material at high temperature conditions. Results from these experiments confirm that the proposed method can be used to measure the full field deformation of materials subjected to thermo-mechanical loading.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE BRAZING UPON INDICATORS OF MATERIAL BRAZEABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koleňák

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of both common and extreme parameters of AISI 321stainless steel high-temperature brazing using the NI 102 brazing alloy upon material brazeability indicators. The ascertainment of the wetting angle, the area over which Ni brazing alloy spreads, the width of AISI 321 steel's dissolubility band, and the width of Ni brazing alloy’s diffusion band into the basic material.

  2. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Fourteenth Annual Report: October 2000 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.

    2002-05-16

    The HTML User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 92 new projects and developing 48 new user agreements. Table 1 presents the breakdown of these statistics. Figure 1 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You will note that the total number of HTML proposals has now exceeded 1000. Also, the large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. At the end of the report, we present a list of proposals to the HTML and a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are highlighted in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, and approval by ORNL for the construction of a building to house our new aberration-corrected electron microscope (ACEM) and several other sensitive electron and optical instruments.

  3. Manganese mono-boride, an inexpensive room temperature ferromagnetic hard material

    OpenAIRE

    Shuailing Ma; Kuo Bao; Qiang Tao; Pinwen Zhu; Teng Ma; Bo Liu; Yazhou Liu; Tian Cui

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized orthorhombic FeB-type MnB (space group: Pnma) with high pressure and high temperature method. MnB is a promising soft magnetic material, which is ferromagnetic with Curie temperature as high as 546.3?K, and high magnetization value up to 155.5?emu/g, and comparatively low coercive field. The strong room temperature ferromagnetic properties stem from the positive exchange-correlation between manganese atoms and the large number of unpaired Mn 3d electrons. The asymptotic Vickers...

  4. Al doped graphene: A promising material for hydrogen storage at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Z. M.; Jiang, Q.; Zhang, R. Q.; Tan, T. T.; Li, S.

    2008-01-01

    A promising material for hydrogen storage at room temperature-Al doped graphene was proposed theoretically by using density functional theory calculation. Hydrogen storage capacity of 5.13 wt% was predicted at T = 300 K and P = 0.1 Gpa with adsorption energy Eb = -0.260 eV/H2. This is close to the target of 6 wt% and satisfies the requirement of immobilization hydrogen with Eb of -0.2 ~ -0.4 eV/H2 at ambient temperature and modest pressure for commercial applications specified by U.S. Departm...

  5. Substrate material selection method for multilayer diffractive optics in a wide environmental temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Mingxu; Cui, Qingfeng; Zhao, Chunzhu; Zhang, Bo; Mao, Shan; Zhao, Yuanming; Zhao, Lidong

    2017-04-01

    We present a substrate material selection method for multilayer diffractive optical elements (MLDOEs) to obtain high polychromatic integral diffraction efficiency (PIDE) in a wide environmental temperature range. The extended expressions of the surface relief heights for the MLDOEs are deduced with consideration of the influence of the environmental temperature. The PIDE difference Δη¯(λ) and PIDE change factor F are introduced to select a reasonable substrate material combination. A smaller value of Δη¯(λ) or F indicates a smaller decrease of the PIDE in a wide temperature range, and the corresponding substrate material combination is better. According to the deduced relation, double-layer and three-layer DOEs with different combinations are discussed. The results show that IRG26 and zinc sulfide is the best substrate material combination in the infrared waveband for double-layer DOEs, and polycarbonate is more reasonable than polymethyl methacrylate as the middle filling optical material for three-layer DOEs when the two substrate materials are the same.

  6. Proinsulin is stable at room temperature for 24 hours in EDTA: A clinical laboratory analysis (adAPT 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane; McDonald, Timothy; Sutherland, Calum; Mostazir, Mohammod; VanAalten, Lidy

    2017-01-01

    Aims Reference laboratories advise immediate separation and freezing of samples for the assay of proinsulin, which limit its practicability for smaller centres. Following the demonstration that insulin and C-peptide are stable in EDTA at room temperature for at least 24hours, we undertook simple stability studies to establish whether the same might apply to proinsulin. Methods Venous blood samples were drawn from six adult women, some fasting, some not, aliquoted and assayed immediately and after storage at either 4°C or ambient temperature for periods from 2h to 24h. Results There was no significant variation or difference with storage time or storage condition in either individual or group analysis. Conclusion Proinsulin appears to be stable at room temperature in EDTA for at least 24h. Immediate separation and storage on ice of samples for proinsulin assay is not necessary, which will simplify sample transport, particularly for multicentre trials. PMID:28426711

  7. Inter-laboratory comparison study for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal feed using spiked and incurred material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; Elbers, Ingrid J W; Mulder, Patrick P J

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by plants. PAs in animal feed can cause acute or chronic intoxications in animals and can be transferred to milk. An inter-laboratory comparison study among 12 laboratories, using their own methods of analysis, was conducted for the detection and quantification of PAs in animal feed. The participants were asked to quantify PAs in a blank test sample, a blank test sample to be spiked with a provided spiking mixture of seven PA standards, and a test sample contaminated with common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris). Ten of the participating laboratories used an LC-MS/MS method, one used an LC-ToF-MS method, and one used a GC-MS method. None of the laboratories reported false-negative samples, while two laboratories reported false-positive results in the blank sample. z-scores were calculated for each laboratory for seven PAs in test samples B and C. z-scores varied considerably between laboratories for the concentrations of the free bases and less for the N-oxides, probably due to the lower levels of the free bases as compared with the N-oxides in the contaminated feed. Questionable or unsatisfactory results for the z-scores were obtained for 8% of the cases for the spiked sample and for 12% of the incurred sample. Three laboratories scored consequently positive or negative results. No preferred method for quantification of PAs in feed could be identified within the methods used for this study due to the relatively small number of participants. It was concluded that this inter-laboratory study shows that the methods used for PA detection need further development for accurate estimation of PAs in contaminated feed.

  8. Investigation on the effects of temperature dependency of material parameters on a thermoelastic loading problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mukhopadhyay, Santwana

    2017-08-01

    The present work is concerned with the investigation of thermoelastic interactions inside a spherical shell with temperature-dependent material parameters. We employ the heat conduction model with a single delay term. The problem is studied by considering three different kinds of time-dependent temperature and stress distributions applied at the inner and outer surfaces of the shell. The problem is formulated by considering that the thermal properties vary as linear function of temperature that yield nonlinear governing equations. The problem is solved by applying Kirchhoff transformation along with integral transform technique. The numerical results of the field variables are shown in the different graphs to study the influence of temperature-dependent thermal parameters in various cases. It has been shown that the temperature-dependent effect is more prominent in case of stress distribution as compared to other fields and also the effect is significant in case of thermal shock applied at the two boundary surfaces of the spherical shell.

  9. Research on precise control of 3D print nozzle temperature in PEEK material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhichao; Wang, Gong; Huo, Yu; Zhao, Wei

    2017-10-01

    3D printing technology has shown more and more applicability in medication, designing and other fields for its low cost and high timeliness. PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), as a typical high-performance special engineering plastic, become one of the most excellent materials to be used in 3D printing technology because of its excellent mechanical property, good lubricity, chemical resistance, and other properties. But the nozzle of 3D printer for PEEK has also a series of very high requirements. In this paper, we mainly use the nozzle temperature control as the research object, combining with the advantages and disadvantages of PID control and fuzzy control. Finally realize a kind of fuzzy PID controller to solve the problem of the inertia of the temperature system and the seriousness of the temperature control hysteresis in the temperature control of the nozzle, and to meet the requirements of the accuracy of the nozzle temperature control and rapid reaction.

  10. Measurement of water vapour transport through a porous non-hygroscopic material in a temperature gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Padfield, Tim; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    This was an experiment to identify the driving potential for water vapour diffusion through porous materials in a temperature gradient. The specimen of mineral fibre insulation was placed between a space with controlled temperature and relative humidity and a space with a controlled, higher...... temperature, and a measured but not controlled relative humidity (RH). This assembly was allowed to reach equilibrium with no vapour movement between the spaces, as tested by a constant RH on each side and by zero flux of water vapour measured in the cold side chamber. The RH and temperature values were...... be tested experimentally in this way, but it is reasonable to assume that concentration is the driving potential. The close equality of the concentrations makes it unnecessary to invoke temperature difference as a third possible potential for driving diffusion....

  11. Hot Plate Method with Two Simultaneous Temperature Measurements for Thermal Characterization of Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osséni, Sibiath O. G.; Ahouannou, Clément; Sanya, Emile A.; Jannot, Yves

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a study of the hot plate method with two simultaneous temperature measurements, on the heated and unheated faces of a sample to characterize. The thermal properties of polyvinyl chloride, plaster and laterite were considered to be a representative range of building materials. A 1D quadrupolar model was developed to represent the temperature evolution on the two faces over time. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of a quarter of the testing device with COMSOL software allowed defining the domain of the 1D hypothesis validity. The analysis of estimation possibilities of materials' thermal characteristics, with the developed method, revealed that thermal effusivity can be accurately estimated by using the temperature of the heated face at the beginning of heating. We showed that the simultaneous use of two temperatures enables the estimation of the thermal conductivity with a greater accuracy and over a shorter time interval than using the temperature of the heated face alone. We also demonstrated that under certain conditions (samples with a high ratio of thickness to width) the method with two temperature measurements enabled the estimation of the thermal effusivity and conductivity, while the method with one temperature allowed only the thermal effusivity to be estimated, because of 3D effects. This conclusion was confirmed by experimental results obtained with a mortar sample.

  12. Temperature dependence of optical properties in Nd/Cr:YAG materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: honda-y@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Motokoshi, Shinji [Institute for Laser Technology, 1-8-4 Utsubo-honmachi, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0004 (Japan); Jitsuno, Takahisa; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Fujioka, Kana [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakatsuka, Masahiro [Institute for Laser Technology, 1-8-4 Utsubo-honmachi, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Minoru [Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-osaka, Osaka 577-8052 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    The energy transfer from Cr{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+} for Nd/Cr:YAG (Nd: 1.0%, Cr: 2.0%) materials was investigated by measuring the temperature dependences of fluorescence characteristics. The fluorescence intensity of Nd{sup 3+} increased with temperature owing to enhancement of the absorption coefficient of Cr{sup 3+}. The energy transfer efficiency was constant from 77 to 450 K. The energy transfer time decreased with increasing temperature. -- Highlights: • We investigate the energy transfer from Cr{sup 3+} to Nd{sup 3+} in Nd/Cr:YAG materials by measuring the temperature dependence of fluorescence characteristics. • The fluorescence intensity of Nd{sup 3+} increased with temperature owing to enhancement of the absorption coefficient of Cr{sup 3+}. • The energy transfer efficiency was constant from 77 to 450 K. • The energy transfer time decreased with increasing temperature. • Nd/Cr:YAG ceramics pumped by a flash lamp would not only provide high conversion efficiency, but can also be expected to function as an effective laser operating at high temperature.

  13. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices; intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yan; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|E_F|=2.93k_B*T) or intrinsic carrier density (n_in=3.87*10^6 cm^-2 K^-2*T^2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of ...

  14. High Temperature Steam Oxidation Testing of Candidate Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parkison, Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-12-23

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels in order to overcome the inherent shortcomings of light water reactor (LWR) fuels when exposed to beyond design basis accident conditions. The campaign has invested in development of experimental infrastructure within the Department of Energy complex capable of chronicling the performance of a wide range of concepts under prototypic accident conditions. This report summarizes progress made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in FY13 toward these goals. Alternative fuel cladding materials to Zircaloy for accident tolerance and a significantly extended safety margin requires oxidation resistance to steam or steam-H2 environments at ≥1200°C for short times. At ORNL, prior work focused attention on SiC, FeCr and FeCrAl as the most promising candidates for further development. Also, it was observed that elevated pressure and H2 additions had minor effects on alloy steam oxidation resistance, thus, 1 bar steam was adequate for screening potential candidates. Commercial Fe-20Cr-5Al alloys remain protective up to 1475°C in steam and CVD SiC up to 1700°C in steam. Alloy development has focused on Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-Y and Fe-Cr-Al-Y alloys with the aluminaforming alloys showing more promise. At 1200°C, ferritic binary Fe-Cr alloys required ≥25% Cr to be protective for this application. With minor alloy additions to Fe-Cr, more than 20%Cr was still required, which makes the alloy susceptible to α’ embrittlement. Based on current results, a Fe-15Cr-5Al-Y composition was selected for initial tube fabrication and welding for irradiation experiments in FY14. Evaluations of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were conducted up to 1700°C in steam. The reaction of H2O with the alumina reaction tube at 1700°C resulted in Al(OH)3

  15. Assessment of the quality of test results from selected civil engineering material testing laboratories in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbawala, SJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available . Three soil samples commonly found on construction sites in Tanzania were sampled and submitted to the selected five laboratories that were requested to perform the foundation indicator tests (particle size distribution, liquid limit and plastic limit...

  16. Effect of Oxygen Concentration on Autogenous Ignition Temperature and Pneumatic Impact Ignitability of Nonmetallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Extensive test data exist on the ignitability of nonmetallic materials in pure oxygen, but these characteristics are not as well understood for lesser oxygen concentrations. In this study, autogenous ignition temperature testing and pneumatic impact testing were used to better understand the effects of oxygen concentration on ignition of nonmetallic materials. Tests were performed using oxygen concentrations of 21, 34, 45, and 100 %. The following materials were tested: PTFE Teflon(Registered Trademark), Buna-N, Silicone, Zytel(Registered Trademark) 42, Viton(registered Trademark) A, and Vespel(Registered Trademark) SP-21.

  17. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Rapid Setting Cementitious Materials for Large Crater Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Force Civil Engineer Support Agency AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory APB Airfields and Pavements Branch ASTM American Society for Testing and...Information Technology Laboratory NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NDT non-destructive testing OPC ordinary portland cement Prime BEEF Base...of set. The protocol recom- mends ASTM C 191, Standard test methods for time of setting of hydraulic cement by Vicat needle (2004), and the RS

  18. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This document summarizes FY2016 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for MFE carried out by ORNL. The organization of the report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities.

  19. High temperature thermal storage for solar gas turbines using encapsulated phase change materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of high temperature thermal storage systems is required to increase the solar share of solar-hybrid gas turbine cycles. This paper proposes a pressurised packed bed of Encapsulated Phase Change Materials (EPCM) as a thermal storage...

  20. Infrared Radiometry of High-Temperature Processes During the Spot Heating of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanas'yev, A. V.; Orlov, I. Ya.; Khrulev, A. E.

    2004-08-01

    We propose the method of a ``shifted'' meter for monitoring the temperature regimes during the spot heating of materials and present the results of an experimental study of the proposed method in the case of the electron-beam welding of zirconium pipes in vacuum.

  1. Ultra-Fast Boriding in High-Temperature Materials Processing Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to further develop, optimize, scale-up, and commercialize an ultra-fast boriding (also referred to as “boronizing”) process that can provide much higher energy efficiency, productivity, and near-zero emissions in many of the high-temperature materials processing industries.

  2. Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonghyan; Krishna, Venkatramana D; Torremorell, Montserrat; Goyal, Sagar M; Cheeran, Maxim C-J

    2018-02-13

    Indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) ensues when susceptible animals contact PEDV-contaminated fomite materials. Although the survival of PEDV under various pHs and temperatures has been studied, virus stability on different fomite surfaces under varying temperature conditions has not been explored. Hence, we evaluated the survival of PEDV on inanimate objects routinely used on swine farms such as styrofoam, rubber, plastic, coveralls, and other equipment. The titer of infectious PEDV at 4 °C decreased by only 1 to 2 log during the first 5 days, and the virus was recoverable for up to 15 days on Styrofoam, aluminum, Tyvek ® coverall, cloth, and plastic. However, viral titers decreased precipitously when stored at room temperature; no virus was detectable after one day on all materials tested. A more sensitive immunoplaque assay was able to detect virus from Styrofoam, metal, and plastic at 20 days post application, representing a 3-log loss of input virus on fomite materials. Recovery of infectious PEDV from Tyvek ® coverall and rubber was above detection limit at 20 days. Our findings indicate that the type of fomite material and temperatures impact PEDV stability, which is important in understanding the nuances of indirect transmission and epidemiology of PEDV.

  3. Stability of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus on Fomite Materials at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghyan Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV ensues when susceptible animals contact PEDV-contaminated fomite materials. Although the survival of PEDV under various pHs and temperatures has been studied, virus stability on different fomite surfaces under varying temperature conditions has not been explored. Hence, we evaluated the survival of PEDV on inanimate objects routinely used on swine farms such as styrofoam, rubber, plastic, coveralls, and other equipment. The titer of infectious PEDV at 4 °C decreased by only 1 to 2 log during the first 5 days, and the virus was recoverable for up to 15 days on Styrofoam, aluminum, Tyvek® coverall, cloth, and plastic. However, viral titers decreased precipitously when stored at room temperature; no virus was detectable after one day on all materials tested. A more sensitive immunoplaque assay was able to detect virus from Styrofoam, metal, and plastic at 20 days post application, representing a 3-log loss of input virus on fomite materials. Recovery of infectious PEDV from Tyvek® coverall and rubber was above detection limit at 20 days. Our findings indicate that the type of fomite material and temperatures impact PEDV stability, which is important in understanding the nuances of indirect transmission and epidemiology of PEDV.

  4. Microscale Polymer Bottles Corked with a Phase-Change Material for Temperature-Controlled Release

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Dong Choon; Lu, Ping; Choi, Sang Il; Jeong, Unyong; Xia, Younan

    2013-01-01

    Keep your wine chilled! Microscale polymer bottles are loaded with dye molecules and then corked with a phase-change material (PCM). When temperature is raised beyond its melting point, the PCM quickly melt and trigger an instant release of the encapsulated dye. The release profiles can be manipulated by using a binary mixture of PCMs with different melting points.

  5. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The results are presented of an exhaustive literature search and evaluation concerning the properties and economics of commercially available nonmetallic well casing and screens. These materials were studied in terms of their use in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction.

  6. Evaluation of MHD materials for use in high-temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.

    1978-06-15

    The MHD and high-temperature fuel cell literature was surveyed for data pertaining to materials properties in order to identify materials used in MHD power generation which also might be suitable for component use in high-temperature fuel cells. Classes of MHD-electrode materials evaluated include carbides, nitrides, silicides, borides, composites, and oxides. Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/ used as a reference point to evaluate materials for use in the solid-oxide fuel cell. Physical and chemical properties such as electrical resistivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and thermodynamic stability toward oxidation were used to screen candidate materials. A number of the non-oxide ceramic MHD-electrode materials appear promising for use in the solid-electrolyte and molten-carbonate fuel cell as anodes or anode constituents. The MHD-insulator materials appear suitable candidates for electrolyte-support tiles in the molten-carbonate fuel cells. The merits and possible problem areas for these applications are discussed and additional needed areas of research are delineated.

  7. Research for Brazing Materials of High-Temperature Thermoelectric Modules with CoSb3 Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Seong; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Byeong Geun; Lee, Soonil; Seo, Won-Seon; Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok

    2017-05-01

    Metallic glass (MG) can be a candidate for an alternative brazing material of high-temperature thermoelectric modules, since we can expect both a lower brazing temperature and a high operating temperature for the junction from the MG brazers. Another advantage of MG powders is their outstanding oxidation resistance, namely, high-temperature durability in atmosphere. We fabricated three compositions of Al-based MGs—Al-Y-Ni, Al-Y-Ni-Co, and Al-Y-Ni-Co-La—by using the melt spinning process, and their T gs were 273°C, 264°C, and 249°C, respectively. The electrical resistivity of the Al-Y-Ni MG ribbon dropped significantly after annealing at 300°C. The electrical resistivity of crystallized Al-Y-Ni reduced down to 0.03 mΩ cm, which is an order of magnitude lower than that of the amorphous one. After the MG ribbons were pulverized to sub-100 μm, the average particle size was about 400 μm.

  8. Analysis of polarization offsets observed for temperature-graded ferroelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui, E-mail: chenhui@syuct.edu.cn; Cheng, Taimin; Zheng, Hanlei; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-04-08

    A transverse Ising model in the framework of the mean field approximation is developed to analyze the polarization offsets phenomena in temperature-graded ferroelectric materials. A function of two-spin exchange interaction strength has been introduced to describe the ferroelectric distortion due to the distribution of temperature gradients in materials. Comparisons of the computational results with the experimental data reveal some fundamental factors in the formation of polarization offsets. It is shown that ferroelectric distortion has influenced much on polarization offsets in temperature-graded ferroelectric materials. When quantum fluctuation effect as well as ferroelectric distortion is considered, we have successfully reproduced the experimental observations qualitatively, especially for the indistinguishable polarization offsets from the background at small temperature gradients, which were not successfully reproduced in prior theoretical studies. - Highlights: • A transverse Ising model is developed to analyze the polarization offsets phenomena in temperature-graded ferroelectrics. • A function of two-spin exchange interaction strength has been introduced to describe the ferroelectric distortion. • The experimental observations have been successfully reproduced qualitatively. • Ferroelectric distortion and quantum fluctuation effect are the two important factors to influence the polarization offsets.

  9. In Situ Monitoring of Microwave Processing of Materials at High Temperatures through Dielectric Properties Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garcia-Baños

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted processes have recognized advantages over more conventional heating techniques. However, the effects on the materials’ microstructure are still a matter of study, due to the complexity of the interaction between microwaves and matter, especially at high temperatures. Recently developed advanced microwave instrumentation allows the study of high temperature microwave heating processes in a way that was not possible before. In this paper, different materials and thermal processes induced by microwaves have been studied through the in situ characterization of their dielectric properties with temperature. This knowledge is crucial in several aspects: to analyze the effects of the microwave field on the reaction pathways; to design and optimize microwave-assisted processes, and to predict the behavior of materials leading to repeatable and reliable heating processes, etc.

  10. Fly ash porous material using geopolymerization process for high temperature exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Jamaludin, Liyana; Hussin, Kamarudin; Bnhussain, Mohamed; Ghazali, Che Mohd Ruzaidi; Ahmad, Mohd Izzat

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of temperature on geopolymers manufactured using pozzolanic materials (fly ash). In this paper, we report on our investigation of the performance of porous geopolymers made with fly ash after exposure to temperatures from 600 °C up to 1000 °C. The research methodology consisted of pozzolanic materials (fly ash) synthesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution as an alkaline activator. Foaming agent solution was added to geopolymer paste. The geopolymer paste samples were cured at 60 °C for one day and the geopolymers samples were sintered from 600 °C to 1000 °C to evaluate strength loss due to thermal damage. We also studied their phase formation and microstructure. The heated geopolymers samples were tested by compressive strength after three days. The results showed that the porous geopolymers exhibited strength increases after temperature exposure.

  11. Fly Ash Porous Material using Geopolymerization Process for High Temperature Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Izzat Ahmad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of temperature on geopolymers manufactured using pozzolanic materials (fly ash. In this paper, we report on our investigation of the performance of porous geopolymers made with fly ash after exposure to temperatures from 600 °C up to 1000 °C. The research methodology consisted of pozzolanic materials (fly ash synthesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution as an alkaline activator. Foaming agent solution was added to geopolymer paste. The geopolymer paste samples were cured at 60 °C for one day and the geopolymers samples were sintered from 600 °C to 1000 °C to evaluate strength loss due to thermal damage. We also studied their phase formation and microstructure. The heated geopolymers samples were tested by compressive strength after three days. The results showed that the porous geopolymers exhibited strength increases after temperature exposure.

  12. A finite element technique for non-deterministic thermal deformation analyses including temperature dependent material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, W. R., Jr.; Walston, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A technique utilizing the finite element displacement method is developed for the static analysis of structures subjected to non-deterministic thermal loading in which the material properties, assumed isotropic, are temperature dependent. Matrix equations are developed for the first two statistical moments of the displacements using a third order series expansion for the displacements in terms of the random temperatures. Sample problems are included to demonstrate the range of applicability of the third order series solutions. These solutions are compared with results from Monte Carlo analyses and also, for some problems, with solutions obtained by numerically integrating equations for the statistical properties of the displacements. In general, it is shown that the effect of temperature dependent material properties can have a significant effect on the covariances of the displacements.

  13. Estimation of Temperature Conductivity Coefficient Impact upon Fatigue Damage of Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibik, V.; Galeeva, A.

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we consider the peculiarities of adhesive wear of cutting tools. Simulation of heat flows in the cutting zone showed that, as thermal conduction and heat conductivity of tool material grow, the heat flows from the front and back surfaces to tool holder will increase and so, the temperature of the contact areas of the tool will lower. When estimating the adhesive wear rate of cemented-carbide tool under the cutting rates corresponding to the cutting temperature of up to 900 °C, it is necessary to take the fatigue character of adhesive wear into consideration. The process of accumulation and development of fatigue damage is associated with micro- and macroplastic flowing of material, which is determined by the processes of initiation, motion, generation, and elimination of line defects - dislocations. Density of dislocations grows with increase of the loading cycles amount and increase of load amplitude. Growth of dislocations density leads to loosening of material, formation of micro- and macrocracks. The heat capacity of material grows as the loosening continues. In the given paper the authors prove theoretically that temperature conductivity coefficient which is associated with heat capacity of material, decreases as fatigue wear grows.

  14. Room-temperature Electrochemical Synthesis of Carbide-derived Carbons and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Nanomaterials Group. Materials Science and Engineering Dept.

    2015-02-28

    This project addresses room-temperature electrochemical etching as an energy-efficient route to synthesis of 3D nanoporous carbon networks and layered 2D carbons and related structures, as well as provides fundamental understanding of structure and properties of materials produced by this method. Carbide-derived-carbons (CDCs) are a growing class of nanostructured carbon materials with properties that are desirable for many applications, such as electrical energy and gas storage. The structure of these functional materials is tunable by the choice of the starting carbide precursor, synthesis method, and process parameters. Moving from high-temperature synthesis of CDCs through vacuum decomposition above 1400°C and chlorination above 400°C, our studies under the previous DOE BES support led to identification of precursor materials and processing conditions for CDC synthesis at temperatures as low as 200°C, resulting in amorphous and highly reactive porous carbons. We also investigated synthesis of monolithic CDC films from carbide films at 250-1200°C. The results of our early studies provided new insights into CDC formation, led to development of materials for capacitive energy storage, and enabled fundamental understanding of the electrolyte ions confinement in nanoporous carbons.

  15. Makeup and uses of a basic magnet laboratory for characterizing high-temperature permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1991-01-01

    A set of instrumentation for making basic magnetic measurements was assembled in order to characterize high intrinsic coercivity, rare earth permanent magnets with respect to short term demagnetization resistance and long term aging at temperatures up to 300 C. The major specialized components of this set consist of a 13 T peak field, capacitor discharge pulse magnetizer; a 10 in. pole size, variable gap electromagnet; a temperature controlled oven equipped with iron cobalt pole piece extensions and a removable paddle that carries the magnetization and field sensing coils; associated electronic integrators; and sensor standards for field intensity H and magnetic moment M calibration. A 1 cm cubic magnet sample, carried by the paddle, fits snugly between the pole piece extensions within the electrically heated aluminum oven, where fields up to 3.2 T can be applied by the electromagnet at temperatures up to 300 C. A sample set of demagnetization data for the high energy Sm2Co17 type of magnet is given for temperatures up to 300 C. These data are reduced to the temperature dependence of the M-H knee field and of the field for a given magnetic induction swing, and they are interpreted to show the limits of safe operation.

  16. Laboratory experiment on coalbed-methane desorption influenced by water injection and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, D.; Feng, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2011-07-15

    The exploration of coalbed-methane (CBM) has significantly increased in the last decade, its exploitation is now widely spread. CBM exploitation technologies involve high-pressure water, which reduces the CBM-desorption capacity resulting in a low efficiency. This study has been conducted to examine the CBM desorption and output after water injection and temperature increase. They developed a new experimental system to simulate water-injection in ideal conditions and study the behaviour of water and methane in a coalbed. These experiments revealed that, at constant temperature, water injection pressure controls the CBM-desorption capacity; and that this capacity is highly increased when the temperature is increased. These results show that a higher temperature would increase the efficiency of CBM exploitation, thus producers are likely to use heating in future CBM technologies. Some advances were made in the knowledge of water pressure and temperature effects on desorption behaviour but further research has to be carried to fully define these effects.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Low-Temperature Admixtures for Runway Craters in Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Materials BIC Bayesian Information Criterion C2S Dicalcium Silicate, or Larnite C3A Tricalcium Aluminate C3S Tricalcium Silicate C4AF Tetracalcium...composed of silica sand and a variety of calcium silicates, aluminous materials, and gypsum, hardening quickly to an initial “set” of approximately 250...dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate , and tetracalcium alumino ferrite. ERDC TR-14-10 31 were present, including Yeelimite, Belite, Bassanite

  18. Super-strong materials for temperatures exceeding 2000 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestroni, Laura; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Fahrenholtz, William G.; Watts, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Ceramics based on group IV-V transition metal borides and carbides possess melting points above 3000 °C, are ablation resistant and are, therefore, candidates for the design of components of next generation space vehicles, rocket nozzle inserts, and nose cones or leading edges for hypersonic aerospace vehicles. As such, they will have to bear high thermo-mechanical loads, which makes strength at high temperature of great importance. While testing of these materials above 2000 °C is necessary to prove their capabilities at anticipated operating temperatures, literature reports are quite limited. Reported strength values for zirconium diboride (ZrB2) ceramics can exceed 1 GPa at room temperature, but these values rapidly decrease, with all previously reported strengths being less than 340 MPa at 1500 °C or above. Here, we show how the strength of ZrB2 ceramics can be increased to more than 800 MPa at temperatures in the range of 1500-2100 °C. These exceptional strengths are due to a core-shell microstructure, which leads to in-situ toughening and sub-grain refinement at elevated temperatures. Our findings promise to open a new avenue to designing materials that are super-strong at ultra-high temperatures.

  19. Encapsulation of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Rupa

    Thermal energy storage is a major contributor to bridge the gap between energy demand (consumption) and energy production (supply) by concentrating solar power. The utilization of high latent heat storage capability of phase change materials is one of the keys to an efficient way to store thermal energy. However, some of the limitations of the existing technology are the high volumetric expansion and low thermal conductivity of phase change materials (PCMs), low energy density, low operation temperatures and high cost. The present work deals with encapsulated PCM system, which operates at temperatures above 500°C and takes advantage of the heat transfer modes at such high temperatures to overcome the aforementioned limitations of PCMs. Encapsulation with sodium silicate coating on preformed PCM pellets were investigated. A low cost, high temperature metal, carbon steel has been used as a capsule for PCMs with a melting point above 500° C. Sodium silicate and high temperature paints were used for oxidation protection of steel at high temperatures. The emissivity of the coatings to enhance heat transfer was investigated.

  20. Materials insights into low-temperature performances of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gaolong; Wen, Kechun; Lv, Weiqiang; Zhou, Xingzhi; Liang, Yachun; Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhilin; Zou, Minda; Li, Jinchao; Zhang, Yuqian; He, Weidong

    2015-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been employed in many fields including cell phones, laptop computers, electric vehicles (EVs) and stationary energy storage wells due to their high energy density and pronounced recharge ability. However, energy and power capabilities of LIBs decrease sharply at low operation temperatures. In particular, the charge process becomes extremely sluggish at temperatures below -20 °C, which severely limits the applications of LIBs in some cold areas during winter. Extensive research has shown that the electrolyte/electrode composition and microstructure are of fundamental importance to low-temperature performances of LIBs. In this report, we review the recent findings in the role of electrolytes, anodes, and cathodes in the low temperature performances of LIBs. Our overview aims to understand comprehensively the fundamental origin of low-temperature performances of LIBs from a materials perspective and facilitates the development of high-performance lithium-ion battery materials that are operational at a large range of working temperatures.

  1. Advanced Experimental Methods for Low-temperature Magnetotransport Measurement of Novel Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Joseph A; Le, Son T; Richter, Curt A; Seiler, David G

    2016-01-21

    Novel electronic materials are often produced for the first time by synthesis processes that yield bulk crystals (in contrast to single crystal thin film synthesis) for the purpose of exploratory materials research. Certain materials pose a challenge wherein the traditional bulk Hall bar device fabrication method is insufficient to produce a measureable device for sample transport measurement, principally because the single crystal size is too small to attach wire leads to the sample in a Hall bar configuration. This can be, for example, because the first batch of a new material synthesized yields very small single crystals or because flakes of samples of one to very few monolayers are desired. In order to enable rapid characterization of materials that may be carried out in parallel with improvements to their growth methodology, a method of device fabrication for very small samples has been devised to permit the characterization of novel materials as soon as a preliminary batch has been produced. A slight variation of this methodology is applicable to producing devices using exfoliated samples of two-dimensional materials such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), as well as multilayer heterostructures of such materials. Here we present detailed protocols for the experimental device fabrication of fragments and flakes of novel materials with micron-sized dimensions onto substrate and subsequent measurement in a commercial superconducting magnet, dry helium close-cycle cryostat magnetotransport system at temperatures down to 0.300 K and magnetic fields up to 12 T.

  2. Termination of Safeguards for Accountable Nuclear Materials at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Holzemer; Alan Carvo

    2012-04-01

    Termination of safeguards ends requirements of Nuclear Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) and thereby removes the safeguards basis for applying physical protection requirements for theft and diversion of nuclear material, providing termination requirements are met as described. Department of Energy (DOE) M 470.4 6 (Nuclear Material Control and Accountability [8/26/05]) stipulates: 1. Section A, Chapter I (1)( q) (1): Safeguards can be terminated on nuclear materials provided the following conditions are met: (a) 'If the material is special nuclear material (SNM) or protected as SNM, it must be attractiveness level E and have a measured value.' (b) 'The material has been determined by DOE line management to be of no programmatic value to DOE.' (c) 'The material is transferred to the control of a waste management organization where the material is accounted for and protected in accordance with waste management regulations. The material must not be collocated with other accountable nuclear materials.' Requirements for safeguards termination depend on the safeguards attractiveness levels of the material. For attractiveness level E, approval has been granted from the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) to Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) Safeguards and Security (S&S). In some cases, it may be necessary to dispose of nuclear materials of attractiveness level D or higher. Termination of safeguards for such materials must be approved by the Departmental Element (this is the DOE Headquarters Office of Nuclear Energy) after consultation with the Office of Security.

  3. Laboratory study of subjective perceptions to low temperature heating systems with exhaust ventilation in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Quan; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    Given the global trends of rising energy demand and the increasing utilization of low-grade renewable energy, low-temperature heating systems can play key roles in improving building energy efficiency while providing a comfortable indoor environment. To meet the need to retrofit existing buildings...

  4. Laboratory study of subjective perceptions to low temperature heating systems with exhaust ventilation in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Quan; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    Given the global trends of rising energy demand and the increasing utilization of low-grade renewable energy, low-temperature heating systems can play key roles in improving building energy efficiency while providing a comfortable indoor environment. To meet the need to retrofit existing building...

  5. laboratory study of the effect of temperature changes on mixing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the organic content of the effluent to more sta- ble and less offensive ... The mixing of the pond contents is an im- portant mechanism, which ... the temperature rises to 50‰. When the tem- perature drops to about 15‰, methane pro- ducing bacteria become quite inactive, and. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 30, No. 1.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Low-Temperature Concrete Admixtures for Repairing Blast Holes in Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ambient temperature ranges of −10 to 0°C. 2. use admixtures available through the Army supply system in Afghani- stan (existing supplies in area of...Price: $13.25 Calcium Nitrate Fertilizer Pellets: Atlantis Hydroponics www.atlantishydroponics.com 888.305.4450 Product info: “Calcium

  7. Performance of agricultural residue media in laboratory denitrifying bioreactors at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodchip denitrifying bioreactors can remove a substantial fraction of nitrate from agricultural tile drainage; however, questions about cold springtime performance persist. The objectives of this study were to improve the nitrate removal rate of denitrifying bioreactors at warm and cold temperature...

  8. Development of laboratory test methods to replace the simulated high-temperature grout fluidity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report contains a summary of the research performed to develop a replacement for the high-temperature grout : fluidity (HTGF) test. The HTGF test was employed in the past by FDOT to qualify post-tensioning (PT) grouts for use in : post-tensioned...

  9. Low-temperature alcoholic fermentation by delignified cellulosic material supported cells of kefir yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, I; Boskou, D; Kanellaki, M; Koutinas, A A

    1999-10-01

    A novel system for low-temperature alcoholic fermentation of glucose is described. This system consists of kefir yeast immobilized on delignified cellulosic materials. Batch fermentations were carried out at various pH values, and the effect of temperature on kinetic parameters, in the range of 5-30 degrees C, was examined. At pH 4.7 the shortest fermentation time was obtained. The formation of volatiles indicates that the concentration of amyl alcohols (total content of 2-methylbutanol-1 and 3-methylbutanol-1) is reduced as the temperature becomes lower. Propanol-1 and isobutyl alcohol formation drops significantly below 15 degrees C. The percentage of ethyl acetate increases as the temperature is diminished. At 5 degrees C the content of total volatiles in the product was only 38% of the volatiles formed during fermentation at 30 degrees C.

  10. Studies of low temperature, low flux radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor structural materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    There are several existing research programs which have components pertinent to the issue of low flux/low temperature embrittlement; in particular, examination of the Shippingport shield tank which has been exposed to low flux and relatively low temperature is being performed by ANL, and evaluation of low temperature embrittlement in A508 and A533B steels in support of the HTGR is currently being performed by ORNL. However, these programs are not specifically directed at the broader issue of low flux/low temperature embrittlement in a range of structural steels. Hence, the authors coordinated their effort with these programs so that their investigations were complementary to existing programs, and they focused on a set of materials which expand the data base developed in these programs. In particular, the authors have investigated embrittlement phenomena in steels that are similar to those used in support structure.

  11. Relationships Between Temperature, pH, and Crusting on Mg/Ca Ratios in Laboratory-Grown Neogloboquadrina Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine V.; Fehrenbacher, Jennifer S.; Hill, Tessa M.; Russell, Ann D.; Spero, Howard J.

    2017-11-01

    Mg/Ca ratio paleothermometry in foraminifera is an important tool for the reconstruction and interpretation of past environments. However, existing Mg/Ca:temperature relationships for planktic species inhabiting middle- and high-latitude environments are limited by a lack of information about the development and impact of low-Mg/Ca ratio "crusts" and the influence of the carbonate system on Mg/Ca ratios in these groups. To address this, we cultured individual specimens of Neogloboquadrina incompta and Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in seawater across a range of temperature (6°-12°C) and pH (7.4-8.2). We found by laser ablation inductively couple mass spectrometry analyses of shells that culture-grown crust calcite in N. incompta had a lower Mg/Ca ratio than ontogenetic calcite formed at the same temperature, suggesting that temperature is not responsible for the low-Mg/Ca ratio of neogloboquadrinid crusts. The Mg/Ca:temperature relationship for ontogenetic calcite in N. incompta was consistent with the previously published culture-based relationship, and no significant relationship was found between Mg/Ca ratios and pH in this species. However, the Mg/Ca ratio in laboratory-cultured N. pachyderma was much higher than that reported in previous core top and sediment trap samples, due to lack of crust formation in culture. Application of our ontogenetic calcite-specific Mg/Ca:temperature relationships to fossil N. pachyderma and N. incompta from five intervals in cores from the Santa Barbara Basin and the Bering Sea shows that excluding crust calcite in fossil specimens may improve Mg/Ca-based temperature estimates.

  12. Effect of temperature on coke properties and CO2 reactivity under laboratory conditions and in an experimental blast furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Hilding, Tobias; Kazuberns, Kelli; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Sakurovs, Richard; Björkman, Bo; Wikström, Jan-Olov

    2005-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of coke samples excavated from LKAB's Experimental Blast Furnace (EBF) at MEFOS in Lulea, Sweden were characterized. A thermal annealing study the raw coke used in the EBF was also conducted in a horizontal furnace in a neutral environment at a range of temperatures up to 1650DGC. Carbon crystallite height of the EBF coke and of the cokes treated in the laboratory furnace were measured by XRD while mineral phases were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The CO2 re...

  13. Furnace for testing materials in air at temperatures up to 1850 deg C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V. Y.; Smirnitskiy, A. M.; Satanovskiy, A. V.; Balkevich, V. L.; Mosin, Y. M.

    1986-02-01

    A tubular high-temperature air furnace with a La2(CrO3)3 heater element was developed for testing materials. The electrical resistance of this heater element is 200 ohm at 20 C room temperature and 20 to 30 ohms at the top temperature. The helical heater is surrounded by three cylindrical layers of refractory thermally insulating materials within a cylindrical metal enclusure: a layer of high-density corundum on the inside and a layer of ShLB-0.4 fireclay on the outside with a layer of KL-1.3 plain corundum in between. The heater is energized from a 220 V - 50Hz power line through a thyristor bank. The furnace temperature is controlled by a high-precision regulator around the heater extension above the lining, with a PR(Pt-Rh) 30/6 thermocouple mounted preferably inside rather than outside the heater coil for faster response and better accuracy. The test tube with a specimen is inserted inside the heater coil, where it can remain for more than 50 h at 1850 C and for short periods at 1900 C. The furnace can be cycled at least 50 times in a row by heating at a rate of 20 C/min and then cooling to 20 C. Refractory materials can be tested in this furnace also with air replaced by an oxidizing atmosphere.

  14. Maintaining the structure of templated porous materials for reactive and high-temperature applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Stephen G; Wang, Zhiyong; Stein, Andreas

    2012-05-15

    Nanoporous and nanostructured materials are becoming increasingly important for advanced applications involving, for example, bioactive materials, catalytic materials, energy storage and conversion materials, photonic crystals, membranes, and more. As such, they are exposed to a variety of harsh environments and often experience detrimental morphological changes as a result. This article highlights material limitations and recent advances in porous materials--three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) materials in particular--under reactive or high-temperature conditions. Examples include systems where morphological changes are desired and systems that require an increased retention of structure, surface area, and overall material integrity during synthesis and processing. Structural modifications, changes in composition, and alternate synthesis routes are explored and discussed. Improvements in thermal or structural stability have been achieved by the isolation of nanoparticles in porous structures through spatial separation, by confinement in a more thermally stable host, by the application of a protective surface or an adhesive interlayer, by alloy or solid solution formation, and by doping to induce solute drag.

  15. Review of Mid- to High-Temperature Solar Selective Absorber Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C. E.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the concentrating solar power (CSP) systems using solar absorbers to convert concentrated sunlight to thermal electric power. It is possible to achieve solar absorber surfaces for efficient photothermal conversion having high solar absorptance (a) for solar radiation and a low thermal emittance (e) at the operational temperature. A low reflectance (?'' 0) at wavelengths (?) 3 mm and a high reflectance (?'' 1) at l 3 mm characterize spectrally selective surfaces. The operational temperature ranges of these materials for solar applications can be categorized as low temperature (T< 100 C), mid-temperature (100 C< T< 400 C), and high-temperature (T> 400 C). High- and mid-temperature applications are needed for CSP applications. For CSP applications, the ideal spectrally selective surface would be low-cost and easy to manufacture, chemically and thermally stable in air at elevated operating temperatures (T= 500 C), and have a solar absorptance= 0.98 and a thermal emittance= 0.05 at 500 C.

  16. Laboratory and Field Test of Movable Conduction-Cooled High-Temperature SMES for Power System Stability Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Wen, J.; Wang, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the first movable conduction-cooled high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system developed in China. The SMES is rated at 380 V / 35 kJ / 7 kW, consisting of the high temperature magnet confined in a dewar, the cryogenic unit, the converter......, the monitoring and control unit, and the container, etc. The proposed SMES can be loaded onto a truck to move to a desired location and put into operation with easy connection. Laboratory and field tests have been carried out to investigate the operational characteristics and to demonstrate the SMES......’ effectiveness on improvements of system voltage stability and on the oscillation damping. Test results indicate that the SMES system has the features of fast response and four-quadrant power operation. The accessories for the movability of the SEMS system are well designed. The system is feasible to be used...

  17. Manganese mono-boride, an inexpensive room temperature ferromagnetic hard material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuailing; Bao, Kuo; Tao, Qiang; Zhu, Pinwen; Ma, Teng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yazhou; Cui, Tian

    2017-03-01

    We synthesized orthorhombic FeB-type MnB (space group: Pnma) with high pressure and high temperature method. MnB is a promising soft magnetic material, which is ferromagnetic with Curie temperature as high as 546.3 K, and high magnetization value up to 155.5 emu/g, and comparatively low coercive field. The strong room temperature ferromagnetic properties stem from the positive exchange-correlation between manganese atoms and the large number of unpaired Mn 3d electrons. The asymptotic Vickers hardness (AVH) is 15.7 GPa which is far higher than that of traditional ferromagnetic materials. The high hardness is ascribed to the zigzag boron chains running through manganese lattice, as unraveled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result and first principle calculations. This exploration opens a new class of materials with the integration of superior mechanical properties, lower cost, electrical conductivity, and fantastic soft magnetic properties which will be significant for scientific research and industrial application as advanced structural and functional materials.

  18. Temperature dependence of the elastic constant of Borassus Flabellifier 'BF' material by acoustic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Sushil; Dshrivastava, B.; Dagaonkar, N.; Mishra, Ashutosh

    2012-05-01

    The homogeneous continuous materials are widely used for many structural applications. Migrations of atoms or molecules are the mechanism of mechanical and kinetic processes in materials for their synthesis processing as well as for their structural evolutions. The elastic constant of solids provides valuable information on their mechanical and dynamical properties. In particular, they provide information on the stability and stiffness of materials. In the present study author investigated relation between elastic constant and temperature in Borassus Flabellifier 'BF' wood part. Determination of elastic properties of material is based on the longitudinal wave's velocities via ultrasonic methods. The resonant frequencies of the specimens were measured by Ultrasonic Interferometer (for solids) dual frequency using longitudinal cubic piezoelectric crystal of quartz of frequency 123.62 KHz. The temperature variations from room temperature were done by PID control unit, Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India. Characterization of the samples was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM) Model JEOL JSM5400 at 5.0kvx750, 10 μm.

  19. Manganese mono-boride, an inexpensive room temperature ferromagnetic hard material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuailing; Bao, Kuo; Tao, Qiang; Zhu, Pinwen; Ma, Teng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yazhou; Cui, Tian

    2017-03-06

    We synthesized orthorhombic FeB-type MnB (space group: Pnma) with high pressure and high temperature method. MnB is a promising soft magnetic material, which is ferromagnetic with Curie temperature as high as 546.3 K, and high magnetization value up to 155.5 emu/g, and comparatively low coercive field. The strong room temperature ferromagnetic properties stem from the positive exchange-correlation between manganese atoms and the large number of unpaired Mn 3d electrons. The asymptotic Vickers hardness (AVH) is 15.7 GPa which is far higher than that of traditional ferromagnetic materials. The high hardness is ascribed to the zigzag boron chains running through manganese lattice, as unraveled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result and first principle calculations. This exploration opens a new class of materials with the integration of superior mechanical properties, lower cost, electrical conductivity, and fantastic soft magnetic properties which will be significant for scientific research and industrial application as advanced structural and functional materials.

  20. Organics on Mars : Laboratory studies of organic material under simulated martian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate, Inge Loes ten

    2006-01-01

    The search for organic molecules and traces of life on Mars has been a major topic in planetary science for several decades, and is the future perspective of several missions to Mars. In order to determine where and what those missions should be looking for, laboratory experiments under simulated

  1. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  2. Laboratory and Field Studies of the Acoustics of Multiphase Ocean Bottom Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    environments. The five primary objectives are: 1) Continue our laboratory and field investigations of various artificial and natural multiphase...gas is produced during photosynthesis ) but not the same way for all species. Three photosynthesis - and acoustics-related processes occur. The...diurnal and seasonal dependencies. During winter months, seagrass goes dormant, photosynthesis diminishes, and acoustic attenuation is also at a

  3. A review of advanced metallic and ceramic materials suitable for high temperature use in space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashford, David

    Spacecraft, satellites and launch vehicles require efficient, lightweight structural materials. At present, the structural requirements can be largely met by aluminium alloys and polymeric matrix composites based on carbon fibres. However, increasingly there will be a need to specify materials capable of sustaining operational use at temperatures in excess of 250°C and towards 2000°C. Ambitious spaceplane projects such as Hermes, HOTOL, Sanger, HOPE and NASP have highlighted this need. Within the operational temperature band 250°C to 2000°C various metallic and ceramic materials are appropriate for consideration, either in alloy or composite form. This review paper identifies the status of technology on the following: i) Aluminium and titanium alloys and their composites. ii) Superalloys and their composites. iii) Carbon, glass-ceramic and ceramic matrix composites. The development of more weight efficient and thermally stable metallic and ceramic materials has centred on a number of key areas (1). For metallics, improved alloy composition and grain refinement from Rapidly Solidified Powders have given improvements in strength retention at high temperatures (a). The introduction of reinforcements, either particulate, whisker or continuous fibre, have improved the basic alloys by reducing density, increasing stiffness and strength and extending thermal capabilities. Monolithic ceramics possess thermal stability but are inherently brittle and crack sensitive. The addition of ceramic fibres and whiskers has the effect of modifying fracture characteristics by introducing "pseudo-ductility" to raise apparent toughness. In the foreseeable future the emerging high temperature materials will find uses in: Spaceplane substructures and control surfaces; Thermal protection systems and insulation; Propulsion plants and thruster units; Air breathing engines.

  4. Lauric and myristic acids eutectic mixture as phase change material for low-temperature heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keles, Sadat; Kaygusuz, Kamil [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Trabzon (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Gaziosmanpasa Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Tokat (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    Lauric acid (m.p.: 42.6 deg C) and myristic acid (m.p.: 52.2 deg C) are phase change materials (PCM) having quite high melting points which can limit their use in low-temperature solar applications such as solar space heating and greenhouse heating. However, their melting temperatures can be tailored to appropriate value by preparing a eutectic mixture of lauric acid (LA) and myristic acid (MA). In the present study, the thermal analysis based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique shows that the mixture of 66.0 wt% LA forms a eutectic mixture having melting temperature of 34.2 deg C and the latent heat of fusion of 166.8 J g{sup -1} . This study also considers the experimental establishment of thermal characteristics of the eutectic PCM in a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe heat storage system. Thermal performance of the PCM was evaluated with respect to the effect of inlet temperature and mass flow rate of the heat transfer fluid on those characteristics during the heat charging and discharging processes. The DSC thermal analysis and the experimental results indicate that the LA-MA eutectic PCM can be potential material for low-temperature solar energy storage applications in terms of its thermo-physical and thermal characteristics. (Author)

  5. Laboratory study on the high-temperature capture of HCl gas by dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemwell, B; Levendis, Y A; Simons, G A

    2001-01-01

    This is a laboratory study on the reduction of combustion-generated hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions by in-furnace dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents. HCl is a hazardous gaseous pollutant emitted in significant quantities by municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, and other industrial furnaces. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory furnace at gas temperatures of 600-1000 degrees C. HCl gas diluted with N2, and sorbent powders fluidized in a stream of air were introduced into the furnace concurrently. Chlorination of the sorbents occurred in the hot zone of the furnace at gas residence times approximately 1 s. The sorbents chosen for these experiments were calcium formate (CF), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium propionate (CP), calcium oxide (CX), and calcium carbonate (CC). Upon release of organic volatiles, sorbents calcine to CaO at approximately 700 degrees C, and react with the HCl according to the reaction CaO + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O. At the lowest temperature case examined herein, 600 degrees C, direct reaction of HCl with CaCO3 may also be expected. The effectiveness of the sorbents to capture HCl was interpreted using the "pore tree" mathematical model for heterogeneous diffusion reactions. Results show that the thin-walled, highly porous cenospheres formed from the pyrolysis and calcination of CF, CMA, and CP exhibited high relative calcium utilization at the upper temperatures of this study. Relative utilizations under these conditions reached 80%. The less costly low-porosity sorbents, calcium carbonate and calcium oxide also performed well. Calcium carbonate reached a relative utilization of 54% in the mid-temperature range, while the calcium oxide reached an 80% relative utilization at the lowest temperature examined. The data matched theoretical predictions of sorbent utilization using the mathematical model, with activation energy and pre-exponential factors for the calcination reaction of 17,000 K and 300

  6. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; preparation procedure for aquatic biological material determined for trace metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the chemical preparation of tissue samples that are subsequently analyzed for 22 trace metals is described. The tissue-preparation procedure was tested with three National Institute of Standards and Technology biological standard reference materials and two National Water Quality Laboratory homogenized biological materials. A low-temperature (85 degrees Celsius) nitric acid digestion followed by the careful addition of hydrogen peroxide (30-percent solution) is used to decompose the biological material. The solutions are evaporated to incipient dryness, reconstituted with 5 percent nitric acid, and filtered. After filtration the solutions were diluted to a known volume and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). Many of the metals were determined by both ICP-MS and ICP-AES. This report does not provide a detailed description of the instrumental procedures and conditions used with the three types of instrumentation for the quantitation of trace metals determined in this study. Statistical data regarding recovery, accuracy, and precision for individual trace metals determined in the biological material tested are summarized.

  7. Synthesis of hydrogen-carbon clathrate material and hydrogen evolution therefrom at moderate temperatures and pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueking, Angela [State College, PA; Narayanan, Deepa [Redmond, WA

    2011-03-08

    A process for making a hydrogenated carbon material is provided which includes forming a mixture of a carbon source, particularly a carbonaceous material, and a hydrogen source. The mixture is reacted under reaction conditions such that hydrogen is generated and/or released from the hydrogen source, an amorphous diamond-like carbon is formed, and at least a portion of the generated and/or released hydrogen associates with the amorphous diamond-like carbon, thereby forming a hydrogenated carbon material. A hydrogenated carbon material including a hydrogen carbon clathrate is characterized by evolution of molecular hydrogen at room temperature at atmospheric pressure in particular embodiments of methods and compositions according to the present invention.

  8. Production of advanced materials by methods of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavadze, Giorgi F

    2013-01-01

    This translation from the original Russian book outlines the production of a variety of materials by methods of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The types of materials discussed include: hard, refractory, corrosion and wear-resistant materials, as well as other advanced and speciality materials. The authors address the issue of optimal parameters for SHS reactions occurring during processes involving a preliminary metallothermic reduction stage, and they calculate this using thermodynamic approaches. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this approach, the authors describe experiments focussing on the synthesis of elemental crysalline boron, boron carbides and nitrides. Other parts of this brief include theoretical and experimental results on single-stage production of hard alloys on the basis of titanium and zirconium borides, as well as macrokinetics of degassing and compaciton of SHS-products.This brief is suitable for academics, as well as those working in industrial manufacturing com...

  9. Porous Carbon Materials for Elements in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodarczyk R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The porosity, distribution of pores, shape of pores and specific surface area of carbon materials were investigated. The study of sintered graphite and commercial carbon materials used in low-temperature fuel cells (Graphite Grade FU, Toray Teflon Treated was compared. The study covered measurements of density, microstructural examinations and wettability (contact angle of carbon materials. The main criterion adopted for choosing a particular material for components of fuel cells is their corrosion resistance under operating conditions of hydrogen fuel cells. In order to determine resistance to corrosion in the environment of operation of fuel cells, potentiokinetic curves were registered for synthetic solution 0.1M H2SO4+ 2 ppmF-at 80°C.

  10. Low Temperature Laboratory Measurements of the Centimeter Wavelength Properties of Phosphine under Simulated Outer Planet Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. P.; Steffes, P. G.

    1999-09-01

    We are currently conducting low-temperature measurements of centimeter-wavelength opacity and refractivity of phosphine (PH3) in an H2/He atmosphere. Measurements are being made at 1.5 GHz (20 cm), 2.2 GHz (13.3 cm), 8.3 GHz (3.6 cm), 13.3 GHz (2.3 cm), and 21.6 GHz (1.4 cm) over a range of pressures and at temperatures of 213 K and 173 K. The experimental method is similar to that previously described by DeBoer and Steffes (Astrophys. and Space Sci. 236, 111-124, 1996). Preliminary results indicate that current theories significantly understate the centimeter-wavelength opacity of PH3. Together with our previous room temperature measurements (Hoffman, Steffes, and DeBoer, Icarus August 1999), these data will further elucidate the interpretation of centimeter-wavelength observations from radio telescopes and previous spacecraft (Voyager) radio occultation measurements of the atmospheres of all four Jovian planets with emphasis on Saturn and Neptune. These data will also aid future radio-scientific studies to be conducted by Cassini at Saturn. Further experiments are planned to distinguish between self-broadening and foreign gas broadening by using a test gas mixture with a different mixing ratio of PH3. This will facilitate development of a formalism for accurately determining the expected opacity from phosphine as a function of temperature, pressure, frequency, and mixing ratio. This work is supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under grant NAG5-4190.

  11. A long-term laboratory test on staining susceptibility of esthetic composite resin materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Braut, V.; Gutemberg, D.; Krejci, I.; Dietschi, D.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the color stability of composite resin types designed for esthetic anterior restorations when continuously exposed to various staining agents. Method and Materials: Thirty-six disk-shaped specimens were made of each of 12 composite materials (1 microfilled and 11 hybrid

  12. Best practice: bitumen-emulsion and foamed bitumen materials laboratory processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekwick, SV

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available of these materials, which can include both active and inactive fillers such as lime, cement, fly ash, etc., as well as the bituminous binder and parent material. The complexities of the various chemical reactions and interactions that will occur during the treatment...

  13. Effect of salinity and temperature on marine leech, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis (De Silva) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kua, B C; Choong, F C; Leaw, Y Y

    2014-03-01

    The high prevalence (80-100%) of the marine leech Zeylanicobdella arugamensis (De Silva) on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer (Bloch) led us to investigate the percentage of juvenile leeches hatched from deposited cocoons, survival of juvenile and adult marine leeches at different salinity and temperature. The results showed that the hatching percentage of juvenile leeches was highest at salinity of 30 ppt (32.5 ± 2.8%) followed by 20 ppt (18.0 ± 4.3%) and 10 ppt (12.1 ± 1.4%), respectively. It was found that the adult and juvenile leeches could live up to an average range of 4-7 days at salinity ranging from 10 to 40 ppt. The juvenile leeches were able to hatch at temperature ranging from 25 to 35 °C but unable to hatch at 40 °C. The survival period of adult and juvenile leeches ranged from 11 to 16 days at 25 °C, which was comparatively longer than 5-13 days and 10 h--5 days at 27-30 °C and 35-40 °C, respectively. The study provided the information on the physical parameters of salinity and temperature which are most optimal for the marine leech Z. arugamensis to propagate. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Noe, Susan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the ORNL fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing DOE Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger U.S. and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.

  15. Critical Causes of Degradation in Integrated Laboratory Scale Cells during High Temperature Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S. Sohal; J.E. O' Brien; C.M. Stoots; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; S. Elangovan; J.S. Herring; J.D. Carter; V.I. Sharma; B. Yildiz

    2009-05-01

    An ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory involves generating hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC). This report describes background information about SOECs, the Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) testing of solid-oxide electrolysis stacks, ILS performance degradation, and post-test examination of SOECs by various researchers. The ILS test was a 720- cell, three-module test comprised of 12 stacks of 60 cells each. A peak H2 production rate of 5.7 Nm3/hr was achieved. Initially, the module area-specific resistance ranged from 1.25 Ocm2 to just over 2 Ocm2. Total H2 production rate decreased from 5.7 Nm3/hr to a steady state value of 0.7 Nm3/hr. The decrease was primarily due to cell degradation. Post test examination by Ceramatec showed that the hydrogen electrode appeared to be in good condition. The oxygen evolution electrode does show delamination in operation and an apparent foreign layer deposited at the electrolyte interface. Post test examination by Argonne National Laboratory showed that the O2-electrode delaminated from the electrolyte near the edge. One possible reason for this delamination is excessive pressure buildup with high O2 flow in the over-sintered region. According to post test examination at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the electrochemical reactions have been recognized as one of the prevalent causes of their degradation. Specifically, two important degradation mechanisms were examined: (1) transport of Crcontaining species from steel interconnects into the oxygen electrode and LSC bond layers in SOECs, and (2) cation segregation and phase separation in the bond layer. INL conducted a workshop October 27, 2008 to discuss possible causes of degradation in a SOEC stack. Generally, it was agreed that the following are major degradation issues relating to SOECs: • Delamination of the O2-electrode and bond layer on the steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites

  16. Full-Vector, Low-Temperature Magnetic Measurements of Geologic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, J.; Sølheid, P.; Bowles, J. A.; Jackson, M. J.; Moskowitz, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The magnetic properties of geologic materials offer insights into an enormous range of important geophysical phenomena ranging from core dynamics to paleoclimate. Low-temperature (pulse magnetizers. Used in conjunction with the in-line degausser on the IRM’s pass-through magnetometer, it will ultimately be possible to acquire anhysteretic remanence (ARM) and/or AF demagnetize samples at cryogenic temperatures. The intent of this presentation is to advertise the capabilities of the cryogenic insert and to encourage members of the rock magnetic community to plan on using the instrument to further their own research.

  17. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1987-08-27

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO/sub 3/ + RCHO ..-->.. Ag/sup 0/ + RCOOH and R/sub 3/M ..-->.. M/sup 0/ + 3R, where M = Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high- temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R/sub 3/M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone. 3 tabs.

  18. Effect of water depth and temperature on germination characteristics of rice and barnyard grass in the laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HaghighiKhah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Response of seed germination of a crop to different environmental conditions is one of the most important determination factors to indicate its ability in competition with weeds. In order to evaluate the effects of water depth and temperature on the germination of different varieties of rice and barnyard grass, an experiment was conducted in the Seed Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, as a factorial design based on a Complete Randomized Blocks in four replications of 25 seeds. First factor was water depth in six levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm, second factor was temperature in seven levels (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 oC, and third one was different cultivars (Khazar, Hashemi and Domsiah and barnyard grass. According to the results the best germination characteristics of all rice varieties and barnyard grass obtained at 30 oC. With increasing temperature up to 30oC germination increased. However, temperatures above 30oC reduced the germination. Increasing water depth lead to reduce the speed and percentage of germination in all varieties, But the effect of water depth on the germination of rice varieties was lower than the barnyard grass.

  19. Laboratory Study of the Influence of Substrate Type and Temperature on the Exploratory Tunneling by Formosan Subterranean Termite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal K. Gautam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using two-dimensional foraging arenas, laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effect of soil type, soil moisture level and ambient temperature on the exploratory tunneling by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. In choice arenas consisting of two substrate types having two moisture levels each, and conducted at a constant temperature of 22 °C, a significantly greater proportion of termites aggregated in sand than in sandy loam. Similarly, the length of excavated tunnels was also increased in sand. In a given substrate, termite aggregation or tunnel length did not differ between 5% and 15% moisture levels. In no-choice tests, where three different substrates (sand, sandy loam and silt loam were tested at two temperatures (22 °C and 28 °C, excavations were significantly greater in sand than either sandy loam or silt loam at 22 °C. Fewer primary tunnels were constructed in sandy loam than in sand and fewer branched tunnels than either in sand or silt loam. No significant difference in either tunnel length or number of primary or branched tunnels was found between these two temperatures.

  20. Temperature rise on dentin caused by temporary crown and fixed partial denture materials: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelbach, Paul; Finger, Werner J; Ferger, Paul; Balkenhol, Markus

    2010-12-01

    Temporary crowns and fixed partial denture materials (t-c&b) generate exothermic heat during polymerization. The amount of temperature, reaching the pulp chamber, is dependent on the residual thickness of the prepared dentin as well as the volume of the t-c&b used. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both factors on the temperature rise at the pulpal dentin surface as well as in the bulk of the t-c&b during polymerization. Four t-c&bs (Luxatemp AM Plus, Protemp 3 Garant, Structur Premium, Trim) were used to fabricate flat cylindrical specimens (∅ 15.5mm) of different thicknesses (1, 2 and 4mm) using an over-impression placed on top of dentin discs (thickness 0.5, 1 and 2mm). Temperature was recorded at the pulpal dentin surface as well as inside the t-c&b (n=6). Data was subjected to parametric statistics (α=0.05). Peak temperatures inside the t-c&b varied between 37.0°C and 51.9°C and at the pulpal dentin side between 37.0°C and 50.6°C. The maximum temperatures registered depended significantly on the thickness of the dentin disc and t-c&b, respectively (ANOVA ptemperatures were reached 2-3 min after start of mixing (dimethacrylates) and 6 min (mono-methacrylate), respectively, whereas Trim exhibited significantly higher peak temperatures (ptemperature rise may become critical if the material is not cooled properly. Composite-based t-c&bs showed significant lower curing temperatures than Trim and should therefore be preferred in daily practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Different Denture Base Materials and Changed Mouth Temperature on Dimensional Stability of Complete Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. O. Arafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type of materials used in fabrication of denture base has an effect on dimension during denture base material processing and other factors related to clinical use. Objective. The study aims were to assess the dimensional stability including thermal changes of three different denture base materials. Methods. Ninety patients were selected to construct complete dentures with different denture base materials. They were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, patients with cobalt chrome metallic base; group 2, patients with heat curing acrylic resin fabricated by injection moulding technique; and group 3, patients with denture bases fabricated by conventional heat curing acrylic resin. The dimensional changes were assessed using digital caliper. Results. After the twelfth month, injection moulding acrylic resin had significantly the highest dimensional change followed by the conventional heat curing acrylic resin. There were no significant differences in the dimensions between the three types of denture base materials at normal mouth temperature, while, after hot tea drinking at 45°C, the dimensional change was significantly the highest in cobalt chrome metallic denture base group. Conclusion. Cobalt chrome metallic denture base has stable dimension compared to denture bases fabricated of acrylic resin but it was more affected by altered mouth temperature. The study was registered in the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number (ISRCTN registry with study ID (ISRCTN94238244.

  2. The effect of water temperature on air entrainment, bubble plumes, and surface foam in a laboratory breaking-wave analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, A. H.; Stokes, M. D.; Deane, G. B.

    2014-11-01

    Air-entraining breaking waves form oceanic whitecaps and play a key role in climate regulation through air-sea bubble-mediated gas transfer, and sea spray aerosol production. The effect of varying sea surface temperature on air entrainment, subsurface bubble plume dynamics, and surface foam evolution intrinsic to oceanic whitecaps has not been well studied. By using a breaking wave analog in the laboratory over a range of water temperatures (Tw = 5°C to Tw = 30°C) and different source waters, we have examined changes in air entrainment, subsurface bubble plumes, and surface foam evolution over the course of a breaking event. For filtered seawater, air entrainment was estimated to increase by 6% between Tw = 6°C and Tw = 30°C, driven by increases of about 43% in the measured surface roughness of the plunging water sheet. After active air entrainment, the rate of loss of air through bubble degassing was more rapid at colder water temperatures within the first 0.5 s of plume evolution. Thereafter, the trend reversed and bubbles degassed more quickly in warmer water. The largest observed temperature-dependent differences in subsurface bubble distributions occurred at radii greater than about 700 μm. Temperature-dependent trends observed in the subsurface bubble plume were mirrored in the temporal evolution of the surface whitecap foam area demonstrating the intrinsic link between surface whitecap foam and the subsurface bubble plume. Differences in foam and plume characteristics due to different water sources were greater than the temperature dependencies for the filtered seawater examined.

  3. Wear resistance of four types of vacuum-formed retainer materials: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Taiyub A; Littlewood, Simon J; Munyombwe, Theresa; Bubb, Nigel L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the resistance to wear of four different vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) materials: Essix C+, Essix ACE, Duran, and Tru-Tain. Essix C+ is a polypropylene polymer; the other materials are polyethylene co-polymers. The study was undertaken at the Leeds Dental Institute, Leeds, UK, with 26 samples in each group. The specimens were vacuum-formed according to the manufacturers' guidelines, and a custom-made wear-simulation machine was used to conduct the test. Each specimen was subjected to 1000 cycles of the wear simulation, with steatite balls as the antagonist material. The resistance to wear of the VFR materials was evaluated by measuring the maximum wear depth using noncontact, three-dimensional surface profilometry. The wear depth was given in micrometers. The median wear depth was 63.20 µm for the Essix C+ group, 7.88 µm for the Essix ACE group, 9.75 µm for the Duran group, and 12.08 µm for the Tru-Tain group. The Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the four VFR materials detected a statistically significant difference between the groups (P materials-Essix ACE, Duran, and Tru-Tain-exhibited significantly less wear than the polypropylene material, Essix C+.

  4. Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush, Jr.; Dale T. Peters; Stephen P. Midson; Darryl J. Van Son

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the study, Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency, was to support the Copper Development Association (CDA) in its effort to design, fabricate and demonstrate mold technologies designed to withstand the copper motor rotor die casting environment for an economically acceptable life. The anticipated result from the compiled data and tests were to: (1) identify materials suitable for die casting copper, (2) fabricate motor rotor molds and (3) supply copper rotor motors for testing in actual compressor systems. Compressor manufacturers can apply the results to assess the technical and economical viability of copper rotor motors.

  5. Outward transport of high-temperature materials around the midplane of the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Fred J

    2007-10-26

    The Stardust samples collected from Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicate that large-scale mixing occurred in the solar nebula, carrying materials from the hot inner regions to cooler environments far from the Sun. Similar transport has been inferred from telescopic observations of protoplanetary disks around young stars. Models for protoplanetary disks, however, have difficulty explaining the observed levels of transport. Here I report the results of a new two-dimensional model that shows that outward transport of high-temperature materials in protoplanetary disks is a natural outcome of disk formation and evolution. This outward transport occurs around the midplane of the disk.

  6. Diverse electron-induced optical emissions from space observatory materials at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Evans Jensen, Amberly; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Electron irradiation experiments have investigated the diverse electron-induced optical and electrical signatures observed in ground-based tests of various space observatory materials at low temperature. Three types of light emission were observed: (i); long-duration cathodoluminescence which persisted as long as the electron beam was on (ii) short-duration (fiberglass-epoxy composites, and macroscopically-conductive carbon-loaded polyimides). We conclude that electron-induced optical emissions resulting from interactions between observatory materials and the space environment electron flux can, in specific circumstances, make significant contributions to the stray light background that could possibly adversely affect the performance of space-based observatories.

  7. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Copeman: Effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of two species of North Pacific juvenile gadids: A laboratory feeding study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory study that investigated the effect of temperature and tissue type on fatty acid signatures of Pacific cod and walleye pollock.

  8. Tolerance of nonindigenous cichlid fishes (Cichlasoma urophthalmus, Hemichromis letourneuxi) to low temperature: laboratory and field experiments in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.; Kobza, Robert M.; Cook, Mark I.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    The cold tolerance of two non-native cichlids (Hemichromis letourneuxi and Cichlasoma urophthalmus) that are established in south Florida was tested in the field and laboratory. In the laboratory, fishes were acclimated to two temperatures (24 and 28°C), and three salinities (0, 10, and 35 ppt). Two endpoints were identified: loss of equilibrium (11.5–13.7°C for C. urophthalmus; 10.8–12.5°C for H. letourneuxi), and death (9.5–11.1°C for C. urophthalmus; 9.1–13.3°C for H. letourneuxi). In the field, fishes were caged in several aquatic habitats during two winter cold snaps. Temperatures were lowest (4.0°C) in the shallow marsh, where no fish survived, and warmest in canals and solution-holes. Canals and ditches as shallow as 50 cm provided thermal refuges for these tropical fishes. Because of the effect on survival of different habitat types, simple predictions of ultimate geographic expansion by non-native fishes using latitude and thermal isoclines are insufficient for freshwater fishes.

  9. Laser all-ceramic crown removal and pulpal temperature--a laboratory proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, P; Buu, N C H; Rechmann, B M T; Finzen, F C

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle laboratory pilot study was to evaluate the temperature increase in the pulp chamber in a worst case scenario during Er:YAG laser debonding of all-ceramic crowns. Twenty extracted molars were prepared to receive all-ceramic IPS E.max CAD full contour crowns. The crowns were bonded to the teeth with Ivoclar Multilink Automix. Times for laser debonding and temperature rise in the pulp chamber using micro-thermocouples were measured. The Er:YAG was used with 560 mJ/pulse. The irradiation was applied at a distance of 5 mm from the crown surface. Additional air-water spray for cooling was utilized. Each all-ceramic crown was successfully laser debonded with an average debonding time of 135 ± 35 s. No crown fractured, and no damage to the underlying dentin was detected. The bonding cement deteriorated, but no carbonization at the dentin/cement interface occurred. The temperature rise in the pulp chamber averaged 5.4° ± 2.2 °C. During 8 out of the 20 crown removals, the temperature rise exceeded 5.5 °C, lasting 5 to 43 s (average 18.8 ± 11.6 s). A temperature rise of 11.5 °C occurred only once, while seven times the temperature rise was limited to 6.8 ± 0.5 °C. Temperature rises above 5.5 °C occurred only when the laser was applied from one side and additional cooling from the side opposite the irradiation. Er:YAG laser energy can successfully be used to efficiently debond all-ceramic crowns from natural teeth. Temperature rises exceeding 5.5 °C only occur when an additional air/water cooling from a dental syringe is inaccurately directed. To avoid possible thermal damage and to allow further heat diffusion, clinically temperature-reduced water might be applied.

  10. Reactivity between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte based on industrial and laboratory data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available similar: all contained Na(sub3)AlF(sub6), NaF, CaF(sub2) and NaAl(sub11)O(sub17). Al(sub4)C(sub3), AlN and NaCN were only detected in the spent industrial cathodes. The inability to locate Al(sub4)C(sub3) in the laboratory scale samples could be due...

  11. Temperature Prediction in a Free-Burning Arc and Electrodes for Nanostructured Materials and Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jea; Lee, Jong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Temperature in a free-burning arc used for synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials is generally around 20,000 K just below the cathode, falling to about 15,000 K just above the anode, and decreasing rapidly in the radial direction. Therefore, the electrode erosion is indispensable for these atmospheric plasma systems, as well as for switching devices, due to the high heat flux transferred from high temperature arcs to electrodes, but experimental and theoretical works have not identified the characteristic phenomena because of the complex physical processes. To the previous study, we have focused on the arc self-induced fluid flow in a free-burning arc using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. At this time, our investigation is concerned with the whole region of free-burning high-intensity arcs including the tungsten cathode, the arc plasma and the anode using a unified numerical model for applying synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials practically.

  12. An additive approach to low temperature zero pressure sintering of bismuth antimony telluride thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Glenn C.; Tripathi, Rajesh; Nunes, Geoffrey; Lynch, Philip B.; Jones, Howard D.; Schmitt, Devin C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents an additive-based approach to the formulation of thermoelectric materials suitable for screen printing. Such printing processes are a likely route to such thermoelectric applications as micro-generators for wireless sensor networks and medical devices, but require the development of materials that can be sintered at ambient pressure and low temperatures. Using a rapid screening process, we identify the eutectic combination of antimony and tellurium as an additive for bismuth-antimony-telluride that enables good thermoelectric performance without a high pressure step. An optimized composite of 15 weight percent Sb7.5Te92.5 in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is scaled up and formulated into a screen-printable paste. Samples fabricated from this paste achieve a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 0.74 using a maximum processing temperature of 748 K and a total thermal processing budget of 12 K-hours.

  13. Time resolved quantitative imaging of charring in materials at temperatures above 1000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhrk, Hannah; Jemmali, Raouf

    2016-07-01

    A device is presented allowing for in situ investigation of chemically changing materials by means of X-ray imaging. A representative cork ablator sample, additionally instrumented with thermocouples, is encapsulated in an evacuated cell heating a sample surface with a heat flux of 230 kW/m2. The images show the sample surface and the in-depth progression of the char front dividing the char layer from the virgin material. Correlating the images to thermocouple data allows for the deduction of a reaction temperature. For the representative cork ablator investigated at the present conditions, the progression rate of the pyrolysis layer is determined to 0.0285 mm/s and pyrolysis temperature is 770 or 737 K, depending on the pre-existing conditions. It is found that the novel device is ideally suited for volume process imaging.

  14. Utilizing Proton Resonance Frequency of Isotopes Materials for Ultra-Precise Temperature Measurement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Monis Abdulmanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High energy management in nuclear system and refractory metals productions are equipped with challenging procedures in terms of precise and remote controlling. In order to predict occurrence of contamination and avoidance of huge damages, there are often difficulties to access the equipment during their operation. In addition, estimating the precise and remote nucleation critical temperature of decay and growth of radioactive materials in the nuclear system has also proven to be a great challenge. Other than that, the eutectic crystallization temperature of the refractory metals during production also need to provide a precise estimation. However, it has been understood that the conventional temperature sensors are yet to be applicable to work precisely in such harsh environments. On the other hand, proton resonance frequency thermometry phenomenon have not been utilized or developed to serve as temperature sensors; despite the fact that they are capable to measure temperature in quantum level. Therefore, this article provides a review of the prior art on proton resonance frequency thermometry with its application and reliability, and elaborates on the trajectory of ultra-precise temperature measurement as the latest development.

  15. The stress corrosion resistance and the cryogenic temperature mechanical properties of annealed Nitronic 60 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Ambient and cryogenic temperature mechanical properties and the ambient temperature stress corrosion properties of annealed, straightened, and centerless ground Nitronic 60 stainless steel alloy bar material are presented. The mechanical properties of longitudinal specimens were evaluated at test temperatures from ambient to liquid hydrogen. The tensile test data indicated increasing strength with decreasing temperature to -196 C. Below liquid nitrogen temperature the smooth tensile and notched tensile strengths decreased slightly while the elongation and reduction of area decreased drastically. The Charpy V-notched impact energy decreased steadily with decreasing test temperature. Stress corrosion tests were performed on longitudinal tensile specimens and transverse C-ring specimens exposed to: alternate immersion in a 3.5% NaCl bath; humidity cabinet; and a 5% salt spray atmosphere. The longitudinal tensile specimens experienced no corrosive attack. Approximately 3/4 of the transverse C-rings exposed to alternate immersion and to salt spray experienced a pitting attack on the top and bottom ends. Additional stress corrosion tests were performed on transverse tensile specimens. No failures occurred in the 90% stressed specimens exposed for 90 days in the alternate immersion and salt spray environments

  16. Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.R.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

  17. Effects of ultrafiltration, dialysis, and temperature on gas exchange during hemodiafiltration: a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, J; Novak, I; Rokyta, R; Matejovic, M; Hadravsky, M; Nalos, M; Sramek, V

    2001-12-01

    To study gas exchange in the filter during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), an air-tight heated mixing chamber with adjustable CO2 supply was constructed and connected to a CVVHDF monitor. Bicarbonate-free crystalloid (Part 1) and packed red blood cell (Part 2) solutions were circulated at 150 ml x min(-1). Gas exchange expressed as pre-postfilter difference in CO2 and O2 contents was measured at different CVVHDF settings and temperatures of circulating and dialysis solutions. Ultrafiltration was most efficacious for CO2 removal (at 1,000 ml x h(-1) ultrafiltration CO2 losses reached 13% of prefilter CO2 content). Addition of dialysis (1,000 ml x h(-1)) increased CO2 loss to 17% and at maximal parameters (filtration 3,000 ml x h(-1), dialysis 2,500 ml x h(-1)), the loss of CO2 amounted to 35% of prefilter content. Temperature changes of circulating and/or dialysis fluids had no significant impact on CO2 losses. The O2 exchange during CVVHDF was negligible. Currently used CVVHDF is only marginally effective in CO2 removal. Higher volume ultrafiltration combined with dialysis can be expected to reach clinical significance.

  18. AMSAHTS 1990: Advances in Materials Science and Applications of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Larry H. (Editor); Flom, Yury (Editor); Moorjani, Kishin (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This publication is comprised of abstracts for oral and poster presentations scheduled for AMSAHTS '90. The conference focused on understanding high temperature superconductivity with special emphasis on materials issues and applications. AMSAHTS 90, highlighted the state of the art in fundamental understanding of the nature of high-Tc superconductivity (HTSC) as well as the chemistry, structure, properties, processing and stability of HTSC oxides. As a special feature of the conference, space applications of HTSC were discussed by NASA and Navy specialists.

  19. Research on CdZnTe and Other Novel Room Temperature Gamma Ray Spectrometer Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold Burger; Michael gGoza; Yunlong Cui; Utpal N. Roy; M. Guo

    2007-05-05

    Room temperature gamma-ray spectrometers are being developed for a number of years for national security applications where high sensitivity, low operating power and compactness are indispensable. The technology has matured now to the point where large volume (several cubic centimeters) and high energy resolution (approximately 1% at 660 eV) of gamma photons, are becoming available for their incorporation into portable systems for remote sensing of signatures from nuclear materials.

  20. Utilizing Proton Resonance Frequency of Isotopes Materials for Ultra-Precise Temperature Measurement: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Monis Abdulmanan; Albarody Thar M. Badri; Yusoff Puteri Sri M. Bt Megat

    2017-01-01

    High energy management in nuclear system and refractory metals productions are equipped with challenging procedures in terms of precise and remote controlling. In order to predict occurrence of contamination and avoidance of huge damages, there are often difficulties to access the equipment during their operation. In addition, estimating the precise and remote nucleation critical temperature of decay and growth of radioactive materials in the nuclear system has also proven to be a great chall...

  1. Microscale polymer bottles corked with a phase-change material for temperature-controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Dong Choon; Lu, Ping; Choi, Sang-Il; Jeong, Unyong; Xia, Younan

    2013-09-27

    Keep your wine chilled! Microscale polystyrene (PS) bottles are loaded with dye molecules and then corked with a phase-change material (PCM). When the temperature is raised beyond its melting point, the PCM quickly melts and triggers an instant release of the encapsulated dye. The release profiles can be manipulated by using a binary mixture of PCMs with different melting points. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Thermochemical Storage of Middle Temperature Wasted Heat by Functionalized C/Mg(OH2 Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mastronardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the thermochemical performance implementation of Mg(OH2 as a heat storage medium, several hybrid materials have been investigated. For this study, high-performance hybrid materials have been developed by exploiting the authors’ previous findings. Expanded graphite (EG/carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Mg(OH2 hybrid materials have been prepared through Mg(OH2 deposition-precipitation over functionalized, i.e., oxidized, or un-functionalized EG or CNTs. The heat storage performances of the carbon-based hybrid materials have been investigated through a laboratory-scale experimental simulation of the heat storage/release cycles, carried out by a thermogravimetric apparatus. This study offers a critical evaluation of the thermochemical performances of developed materials through their comparison in terms of heat storage and output capacities per mass and volume unit. It was demonstrated that both EG and CNTs improves the thermochemical performances of the storage medium in terms of reaction rate and conversion with respect to pure Mg(OH2. With functionalized EG/CNTs-Mg(OH2, (i the potential heat storage and output capacities per mass unit of Mg(OH2 have been completely exploited; and (ii higher heat storage and output capacities per volume unit were obtained. That means, for technological applications, as smaller volume at equal stored/released heat.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN’S FUNCTION APPROACH CONSIDERING TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN-OK KO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available About 40% of reactors in the world are being operated beyond design life or are approaching the end of their life cycle. During long-term operation, various degradation mechanisms occur. Fatigue caused by alternating operational stresses in terms of temperature or pressure change is an important damage mechanism in continued operation of nuclear power plants. To monitor the fatigue damage of components, Fatigue Monitoring System (FMS has been installed. Most FMSs have used Green's Function Approach (GFA to calculate the thermal stresses rapidly. However, if temperature-dependent material properties are used in a detailed FEM, there is a maximum peak stress discrepancy between a conventional GFA and a detailed FEM because constant material properties are used in a conventional method. Therefore, if a conventional method is used in the fatigue evaluation, thermal stresses for various operating cycles may be calculated incorrectly and it may lead to an unreliable estimation. So, in this paper, the modified GFA which can consider temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using an artificial neural network and weight factor. To verify the proposed method, thermal stresses by the new method are compared with those by FEM. Finally, pros and cons of the new method as well as technical findings from the assessment are discussed.

  4. Frictional Performance and Temperature Rise of a Mining Nonasbestos Brake Material during Emergency Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By simulating emergency braking conditions of mine hoisters, tribological experiments of a mining nonasbestos brake material sliding on E355CC steel friction disc investigated a pad-on-disc friction tester. It is shown that, under combined influence of braking velocity and pressure, the lubricating film and micro-convex-apices on wear surface would have complex physicochemical reactions which make the instant friction coefficient rise gradually while the instant surface temperature rises first and then falls. With the antifriction effect from lubricating film and the desquamating of composite materials, the mean friction coefficient decreases first, then rises, and decreases again with the increasing of initial braking velocity. And with the existence of micro-convex-apices and variation from increment ratio of load and actual contacting area, it rises first and then falls with the increasing of braking pressure. However, the mean surface temperature rises obviously with the increasing of both initial braking velocity and braking pressure for growth of transformed kinetic energy. It is considered that the friction coefficient cannot be considered as a constant when designing brake devices for mine hoisters. And special attention should be paid to the serious influence of surface temperature on tribological performance of brake material during emergency braking.

  5. Practical reasons for investigating ion transport in high temperature insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonder, E.

    1976-07-01

    Practical problems encountered in a number of advanced technology applications, particularly those related to energy conversion, are discussed. Refractory ionic compounds which are abundant and of high melting point are listed, and technological problems are discussed in terms of specific materials problems. The argument is made that basic information concerning transport properties in refractory compounds is lacking to such an extent that it is difficult to design and assess advanced energy generation systems. Technology applications include (a) ceramic nuclear fuels for high temperature fission reactors, (b) high temperature gas turbine blades, (c) insulators in controlled thermonuclear reactors, and (d) magnetohydrodynamic generators. Some of the difficulties inherent in making transport property measurements at high temperatures are also listed.

  6. Temperature Regulation of Photovoltaic Module Using Phase Change Material: A Numerical Analysis and Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahamudul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work represents an effective design of a temperature regulated PV module by integrating phase change materials for Malaysian weather condition. Through the numerical analysis and experimental investigation it has been shown that if a PCM layer of width 0.02 m of RT 35 is used as a cooling arrangement with a PV module, the surface temperature of the module is reduced by 10°C, which remains constant for a period of 4–6 hours. This reduction of temperature implies the increase in conversion efficiency of the module. Experiment as well as investigation has been carried out considering typical Malaysian weather. Obtained result has been validated by using experimental prototype and comparative analysis.

  7. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.; Loke, W. K.; Li, D. S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Saadsaoud, N.; Tripon-Canseliet, C. [Laboratoire d' Electronique et Electromagnétisme, Pierre and Marie Curie University, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Lampin, J. F.; Decoster, D. [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Chazelas, J. [Thales Airborne Systems, 2 Avenue Gay Lussac, 78852 Elancourt (France)

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} Ω cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 μm, and a carrier lifetime of ∼1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductive switch application.

  8. Effects of pressure and temperature on thermal contact resistance between different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether pressure and temperature can affect thermal contact resistance, we have proposed a new experimental approach for measurement of the thermal contact resistance. Taking the thermal contact resistance between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites, cuprum, and aluminum as the examples, the influence of the thermal contact resistance between specimens under pressure is tested by experiment. Two groups of experiments are performed and then an analysis on influencing factors of the thermal contact resistance is presented in this paper. The experimental results reveal that the thermal contact resistance depends not only on the thermal conductivity coefficient of materials, but on the interfacial temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the thermal contact resistance between cuprum and aluminum is more sensitive to pressure and temperature than that between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites.

  9. High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. F.; Devan, J. H.; Howell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquid temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi2, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi2, are presented.

  10. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  11. MATERIAL DEPENDENCE OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN MULTI-LAYER MULTI-METAL COOKWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMADREZA SEDIGH

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Laminated structure is becoming more popular in cookware markets; however, there seems to be a lack of enough scientific studies to evaluate its pros and cons, and to show that how it functions. A numerical model using a finite element method with temperature-dependent material properties has been performed to investigate material and layer dependence of temperature distribution in multi-layer multi-metal plate exposed to irregular heating. Behavior of two parameters including mean temperature value and uniformity on the inner surface of plate under variations of thermal properties and geometrical conditions have been studied. The results indicate that conductive metals used as first layer in bi-layer plates have better thermal performance than those used in the second layer. In addition, since cookware manufacturers increasingly prefer to use all-clad aluminium plate, recently, this structure is analysed in the present study as well. The results show all-clad copper and aluminum plate possesses lower temperature gradient compared with single layer aluminum and all-clad aluminum core plates.

  12. Evaluation of some nitrification inhibitors at different temperatures under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehmat Ali, Hina Kanwal, Zafar Iqbal, Mohammad Yaqub

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of eight compounds on nitrification of the applied (NH42 SO4 was studied in two soils incubated at high (35°C and moderate (16°C temperatures. The tested compounds included: 1H-benzotriazole; 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole; benzothiazole; 3-methylpyrazole-1-carboxamide; 4-bromo-3-methylpyrazole; pyrazole; lignosulfonic acid, molecular weight 52000, 6% S; and lignosulfonic acid, molecular weight 12000, 2% S. In the absence of inhibitors, nitrification of the applied ammonium was complete within one week at 35°C, whereas it took two to three weeks at 16°C. At 35°C, ATC was the most effective compound causing 44-71% inhibition up to four weeks when applied at 10 mg kg−1. The inhibitory effect of ATC increased with increasing application rate to 30 mg kg−1 (92–94% inhibition for four weeks. Although another compound viz. PZ applied at 10 mg kg−1 was also effective at 35°C, the inhibitory effect persisted up to three weeks (44-48% inhibition. At 16 °C, six of the test compounds (BTr, ATC, BTh, MPC, BMP and PZ effectively inhibited nitrification at least up to four weeks. At 16 °C also, ATC was the most effective compound causing 84-90% inhibition for four weeks when applied at 10 mg kg−1. The results suggested that ATC can be a potential nitrification inhibitor for agricultural use under summer as well as under winter soil temperatures prevailing in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of the South Asia.

  13. DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH-TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterbentz, James; Bayless, Paul; Strydom, Gerhard; Kumar, Akansha; Gougar, Hans

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is an indispensable element of any substantial attempt in reactor simulation validation. The quantification of uncertainties in nuclear engineering has grown more important and the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) initiated in 2012 aims to investigate the various uncertainty quantification methodologies for this type of reactors. The first phase of the CRP is dedicated to the estimation of cell and lattice model uncertainties due to the neutron cross sections co-variances. Phase II is oriented towards the investigation of propagated uncertainties from the lattice to the coupled neutronics/thermal hydraulics core calculations. Nominal results for the prismatic single block (Ex.I-2a) and super cell models (Ex.I-2c) have been obtained using the SCALE 6.1.3 two-dimensional lattice code NEWT coupled to the TRITON sequence for cross section generation. In this work, the TRITON/NEWT-flux-weighted cross sections obtained for Ex.I-2a and various models of Ex.I-2c is utilized to perform a sensitivity analysis of the MHTGR-350 core power densities and eigenvalues. The core solutions are obtained with the INL coupled code PHISICS/RELAP5-3D, utilizing a fixed-temperature feedback for Ex. II-1a.. It is observed that the core power density does not vary significantly in shape, but the magnitude of these variations increases as the moderator-to-fuel ratio increases in the super cell lattice models.

  14. Numerical Model and Analysis of Peak Temperature Reduction in LiFePO4 Battery Packs Using Phase Change Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Numerical model and analysis of peak temperature reduction in LiFePO4 battery packs using phase change materials......Numerical model and analysis of peak temperature reduction in LiFePO4 battery packs using phase change materials...

  15. Carbon materials derived from rice husks at low and high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, G. J. H.; Wang, Z.; Siambun, N. J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-07-01

    Rice husk (RH) can be classified as an agriculture residue, majorly produced from by-product of rice milling industries. However, RHs are only mainly utilized for low value energy resource. A great number of researches and innovations have shown that heat treated RHs can turn into valuable carbon materials. In this study, the RHs were carbonized at 800°C and 2500°C, respectively. Their structure, morphology, elemental composition, and quality were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The carbon materials obtained from low and high temperature carbonization processes showed different characteristics. High purity and crystallinity of carbon materials were obtained from RHs carbonized at 2500°C. Furthermore, from Raman results, RHs carbonized at 2500°C exhibited low D/G ratio. This further reveals that the RHs carbonized at 2500°C possess minimal defects. The unique characteristics of RHs carbonized at high temperature indicate that they could be a promising material to be utilized in particular or various applications.

  16. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  17. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  18. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  19. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  20. Thermal buffering performance of composite phase change materials applied in low-temperature protective garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xueying; Liu, Rangtong; Cao, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is increasingly being applied in the manufacturing of functional thermo-regulated textiles and garments. This paper investigated the thermal buffering performance of different composite PCMs which are suitable for the application in functional low-temperature protective garments. First, according to the criteria selecting PCM for functional textiles/garments, three kinds of pure PCM were selected as samples, which were n-hexadecane, n-octadecane and n-eicosane. To get the adjustable phase change temperature range and higher phase change enthalpy, three kinds of composite PCM were prepared using the above pure PCM. To evaluate the thermal buffering performance of different composite PCM samples, the simulated low-temperature experiments were performed in the climate chamber, and the skin temperature variation curves in three different low temperature conditions were obtained. Finally composite PCM samples’ thermal buffering time, thermal buffering capacity and thermal buffering efficiency were calculated. Results show that the comprehensive thermal buffering performance of n-octadecane and n-eicosane composite PCM is the best.

  1. The sensitivity of new laboratory-based heterogeneous freezing schemes for dust and biological particles to time and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeier, D.; Ervens, B.; Hartmann, S.; Wex, H.; Stratmann, F.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation has been recently described by means of the Soccer ball model that takes into account multiple nucleation sites on individual particles [Niedermeier et al., 2011]. In order to study sensitivities of the implied contact angle distributions, a modified version of the Soccer ball model is implemented into a parcel model that describes in detail heterogeneous ice formation and ice /liquid water partitioning [Ervens and Feingold, 2012]. Soccer ball model parameters (number of surface sites, mean and width of the contact angle distribution) are determined from immersion freezing measurements of mineral dust particles and bacteria performed with the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator [LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011]. While biological particles (e.g., bacteria) are much less frequent in the atmosphere, they can induce droplet freezing already at about -5°C as opposed to dust that shows efficient freezing only at lower temperatures (below -15°C). We will identify updraft regimes, temperature and IN concentration ranges where dust or biological particles, respectively, might dominate the number concentration of frozen droplets in mixed phase clouds. Additional model studies will focus on the importance of time versus temperature dependence and explore the usefulness of alternative descriptions of the freezing behavior that can be derived based on the respective laboratory studies using LACIS. These descriptions include the choice of a single contact angle as opposed to contact angle distributions or time-independent expressions. These results reveal that under selected conditions, it might be a satisfactory approximation to assume singular freezing behavior. Our sensitivity studies will help to refine time-independent freezing parameterizations using laboratory data and help bridging the current divergence between deterministic approaches [e.g., Hoose and Möhler, 2012] and physically-based approaches (classical nucleation theory) that

  2. Effect of Temperature on the Release Rate of Trimedlure Under Laboratory and Field Cage Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Salvador; Campos, Sergio E; Montoya, Pablo; Liedo, Pablo; Malo, Edi A

    2017-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is an exotic pest of economic importance in several parts of the world. Systems for monitoring this pest employ mainly trimedlure (TML), a parapheromone specifically for males. Understanding the performance of these attractants under different conditions should contribute to better design trapping networks, better field data interpretation, and a more efficient use of the products. In this study, the release rate of TML was determined at 15, 25, and 35 °C, through plug weight loss over 80 d in a bioclimatic chamber. The attraction of TML of different ages was determined in field cage tests located in a mango orchard. Our results showed a direct relationship between TML release rate and temperature. Attraction was dependent on release rate. We found that TML storage for >4 yr at 27 °C affected the quantity of the active ingredient available for release. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of these conditions on the efficiency of trapping networks used for the detection of this pest and quality assurance for detection programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Standard guide for qualification of laboratory analysts for the analysis of nuclear fuel cycle materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the qualification of analysts to perform chemical analysis or physical measurements of nuclear fuel cycle materials. The guidance is general in that it is applicable to all analytical methods, but must be applied method by method. Also, the guidance is general in that it may be applied to initial qualification or requalification.

  4. Assessing the Readability of Geoscience Textbooks, Laboratory Manuals, and Supplemental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Reading materials used in undergraduate science classes have not received the same attention in the literature as those used in secondary schools. Additionally, reports critical of college textbooks and their prose are common. To assess both problems and determine the readability of assignments and texts used by geoscience faculty at the…

  5. Laboratory study of the PCB transport from primary sources to building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  6. Organic Materials in the Undergraduate Laboratory: Microscale Synthesis and Investigation of a Donor-Acceptor Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenfus, Ted M.; Schliep, Karl B.; Dissanayake, Anudaththa; Ludden, Trevor; Nieto-Ortega, Belen; Lopez Navarrete, Juan T.; Ruiz Delgado, M. Carmen; Casado, Juan

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments for undergraduate courses (e.g., organic, physical) have been developed in the area of small molecule organic materials. These experiments focus on understanding the electronic and redox properties of a donor-acceptor molecule that is prepared in a convenient one-step microscale reaction. The resulting intensely colored…

  7. Assessment of lidar remote sensing capability of Raman water temperature from laboratory and field experiments (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Damien B.; Hou, Weilin W.; Goode, Wesley; Matt, Silvia C.; Hu, Yongxiang

    2017-05-01

    multispectral capability in both emission (based on an optical parametric oscillator) and detection (optical filters) provide flexibility to measure the polarization signature of both elastic and inelastic scattering. We will present the characteristics of TURBOL and several results from our laboratory and field experiments with an emphasis on temperature profiling capabilities based on vibrational Raman polarization. We will also present other directions of research related to this activity.

  8. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1993 and research proposal for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnbaum, H.K.

    1993-03-01

    The materials research laboratory program is about 30% of total Materials Science and Engineering effort on the Univ. of Illinois campus. Coordinated efforts are being carried out in areas of structural ceramics, grain boundaries, field responsive polymeric and organic materials, molecular structure of solid-liquid interfaces and its relation to corrosion, and x-ray scattering science.

  9. Laboratory Performance of Universal Adhesive Systems for Luting CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Fabiana; Cardenas, Andres Millan; Gutierrez, Mario Felipe; Malaquias, Pâmela; Hass, Viviane; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Perdigão, Jorge

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of several universal adhesive systems applied on five different indirect restorative materials. Five CAD/CAM materials were selected: 1) indirect resin composite (LAV); 2) feldspathic glass ceramic (VTR); 3) leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic (EMP); 4) lithium disilicate ceramic (EMX); 5) yttrium-stabilized zirconium dioxide (CZI). For each material, 15 blocks were cut into 4 rectangular sections (6 × 6 × 6 mm) (n = 60 per group), and processed as recommended by the respective manufacturer. For each indirect material, the following adhesive systems were applied according to the respective manufacturer's instructions: 1) AdheSE Universal [ADU]; 2) All-Bond Universal (ABU); 3) Ambar Universal (AMB); 4) Clearfil Universal (CFU); 5) Futurabond U (FBU); 6) One Coat 7 Universal (OCU); 7) Peak Universal Bond (PUB); 8) Prime&Bond Elect (PBE); 9) Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU); 10) Xeno Select (XEN, negative control). After the application of the adhesive system, cylinder-shaped transparent matrices were filled with a dual-curing resin cement (NX3) and light cured. Specimens were stored in water (37°C for 24 h) and tested in shear mode at 1.0 mm/min (mSBS). The failure pattern and μSBS were statistically evaluated (a = 0.05). LAV, VTR, and EMP showed a greater number of cohesive fractures than EMX and CZI (p adhesive for which the mean μSBS reached the highest ranking of statistical significance for all five substrates. When each adhesive was compared across the five substrates, 8 out of 10 (ADU, ABU, AMB, CFU, OCU, PUB, PBE, and SBU) reached the statistically highest mean μSBS when applied on CZI. The specific chemical composition of universal adhesives was not the decisive factor in the bond strength values measured for different CAD/CAM indirect materials. There was a wide variability in mean μSBS when different universal adhesives were applied to the several CAD/CAM indirect materials. Most universal adhesives

  10. High temperature corrosion of advanced ceramic materials for hot-gas filters and heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupp, E.R.; Trubelja, M.F.; Spear, K.E.; Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Experimental corrosion studies of hot gas filter materials and heat exchanger materials in oxidizing combustion environments have been initiated. Filter materials from 3M Co. and DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc. are being tested over a range of temperatures, times and gas flows. It has been demonstrated that morphological and phase changes due to corrosive effects occur after exposure of the 3M material to a combustion environment for as little as 25 hours at 800{degrees}C. The study of heat exchanger materials has focused on enhancing the corrosion resistance of DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} composite tubes by adding chromium to its surfaces by (1) heat treatments in a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder bed, or (2) infiltrating surface porosity with molten chromium nitrate. Each process is followed by a surface homogenization at 1500{degrees}C. The powder bed method has been most successful, producing continuous Cr-rich layers with thicknesses ranging from 20 to 250 {mu}m. As-received and Cr-modified DuPont Lanxide Dimox{trademark} samples will be reacted with commonly encountered coal-ash slags to determine the Cr effects on corrosion resistance.

  11. Histopathological Effects of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material on Marine Organisms: A Laboratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    material. Evaluations were to be based on technology existing within the two agencies or developed during the six-year life of the program. 3. The...know the difterence between the normal histophysiological changes that occur during the lire cycles of aquatic organisms, and those caused by harmful...where it was 97 percent. In the experiments with N. arenaceodentata, survival was 87 percent or better in all treatments. 53. The worms were fed prawn

  12. A materials perspective on Li-ion batteries at extreme temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Babu, Ganguli; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Kalaga, Kaushik; Sayed, Farheen N.; Kato, Keiko; Joyner, Jarin; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2017-08-01

    With the continuous upsurge in demand for energy storage, batteries are increasingly required to operate under extreme environmental conditions. Although they are at the technological forefront, Li-ion batteries have long been limited to room temperature, as internal phenomena during their operation cause thermal fluctuations. This has been the reason for many battery explosions in recent consumer products. While traditional efforts to address these issues focused on thermal management strategies, the performance and safety of Li-ion batteries at both low (60 °C) temperatures are inherently related to their respective components, such as electrode and electrolyte materials and the so-called solid-electrolyte interphases. This Review examines recent research that considers thermal tolerance of Li-ion batteries from a materials perspective, spanning a wide temperature spectrum (-60 °C to 150 °C). The structural stability of promising cathodes, issues with anode passivation, and the competency of various electrolyte, binder and current collectors are compared for their thermal workability. The possibilities offered by each of these cell components could extend the environmental frontiers of commercial Li-ion batteries.

  13. Characterization of VOC Emission from Materials in Vehicular Environment at Varied Temperatures: Correlation Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yang, Tao; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    The steady state VOC concentration in automobile cabin is taken as a good indicator to characterize the material emission behaviors and evaluate the vehicular air quality. Most studies in this field focus on experimental investigation while theoretical analysis is lacking. In this paper we firstly develop a simplified physical model to describe the VOC emission from automobile materials, and then derive a theoretical correlation between the steady state cabin VOC concentration (Ca) and temperature (T), which indicates that the logarithm of Ca/T0.75 is in a linear relationship with 1/T. Experiments of chemical emissions in three car cabins at different temperatures (24°C, 29°C, 35°C) were conducted. Eight VOCs specified in the Chinese National Standard GB/T 27630–2011 were taken for analysis. The good agreement between the correlation and experimental results from our tests, as well as the data taken from literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the derived correlation. Further study indicates that the slope and intercept of the correlation follows linear association. With the derived correlation, the steady state cabin VOC concentration different from the test conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be helpful for analyzing temperature-dependent emission phenomena in automobiles and predicting associated health risks. PMID:26452146

  14. In Situ Measurements of Spectral Emissivity of Materials for Very High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Cao; S. J. Weber; S. O. Martin; T. L. Malaney; S. R. Slattery; M. H. Anderson; K. Sridharan; T. R. Allen

    2011-08-01

    An experimental facility for in situ measurements of high-temperature spectral emissivity of materials in environments of interest to the gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR) has been developed. The facility is capable of measuring emissivities of seven materials in a single experiment, thereby enhancing the accuracy in measurements due to even minor systemic variations in temperatures and environments. The system consists of a cylindrical silicon carbide (SiC) block with seven sample cavities and a deep blackbody cavity, a detailed optical system, and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The reliability of the facility has been confirmed by comparing measured spectral emissivities of SiC, boron nitride, and alumina (Al2O3) at 600 C against those reported in literature. The spectral emissivities of two candidate alloys for VHTR, INCONEL{reg_sign} alloy 617 (INCONEL is a registered trademark of the Special Metals Corporation group of companies) and SA508 steel, in air environment at 700 C were measured.

  15. Characterization of VOC Emission from Materials in Vehicular Environment at Varied Temperatures: Correlation Development and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yang, Tao; Tan, Jianwei; Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan

    2015-01-01

    The steady state VOC concentration in automobile cabin is taken as a good indicator to characterize the material emission behaviors and evaluate the vehicular air quality. Most studies in this field focus on experimental investigation while theoretical analysis is lacking. In this paper we firstly develop a simplified physical model to describe the VOC emission from automobile materials, and then derive a theoretical correlation between the steady state cabin VOC concentration (Ca) and temperature (T), which indicates that the logarithm of Ca/T0.75 is in a linear relationship with 1/T. Experiments of chemical emissions in three car cabins at different temperatures (24°C, 29°C, 35°C) were conducted. Eight VOCs specified in the Chinese National Standard GB/T 27630-2011 were taken for analysis. The good agreement between the correlation and experimental results from our tests, as well as the data taken from literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the derived correlation. Further study indicates that the slope and intercept of the correlation follows linear association. With the derived correlation, the steady state cabin VOC concentration different from the test conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be helpful for analyzing temperature-dependent emission phenomena in automobiles and predicting associated health risks.

  16. Characterization of VOC Emission from Materials in Vehicular Environment at Varied Temperatures: Correlation Development and Validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Xiong

    Full Text Available The steady state VOC concentration in automobile cabin is taken as a good indicator to characterize the material emission behaviors and evaluate the vehicular air quality. Most studies in this field focus on experimental investigation while theoretical analysis is lacking. In this paper we firstly develop a simplified physical model to describe the VOC emission from automobile materials, and then derive a theoretical correlation between the steady state cabin VOC concentration (Ca and temperature (T, which indicates that the logarithm of Ca/T0.75 is in a linear relationship with 1/T. Experiments of chemical emissions in three car cabins at different temperatures (24°C, 29°C, 35°C were conducted. Eight VOCs specified in the Chinese National Standard GB/T 27630-2011 were taken for analysis. The good agreement between the correlation and experimental results from our tests, as well as the data taken from literature demonstrates the effectiveness of the derived correlation. Further study indicates that the slope and intercept of the correlation follows linear association. With the derived correlation, the steady state cabin VOC concentration different from the test conditions can be conveniently obtained. This study should be helpful for analyzing temperature-dependent emission phenomena in automobiles and predicting associated health risks.

  17. Laboratorial comparison of color stability of resin composites after rebonding with two different adhesive materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Kaviani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Discoloration of resin composites is considered to be the major factor in esthetic restoration failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resin composites after rebonding with two different adhesive materials. Materials and Methods: Forty five composite disc samples were divided into three groups (n=15. The surface of specimens was finished by polishing disc and rubber. In group 1, any additional phase was not performed. In group 2, composite discs were etched by %37 orthophosphoric acid, then Margin- bond was used for rebonding. In group 3, the etching procedure was in the same manner used for group 2, but Permaseal was used after etching. After the first phase of spectrophotometric measurement, the specimens were dipped in coffee mix for 3 weeks for aging the specimens. Then the second phase of spectrophotometric evaluation was performed. Collected data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The mean total color difference (∆E observed in groups 1 to 3 were 1.4±0.34, 5.24±1.51, and 7.44±1.34, respectively. Statistical significant differences were shown between the groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: Rebonding with adhesive materials used in this study did not increase the color stability of composite restorations.

  18. Development of a Low Temperature Irradiation Capsule for Research Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Lee, Cheol Yong; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoon Taek; Park, Seng Jae; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    A new capsule design was prepared and tested at HANARO for a neutron irradiation of core materials of research reactors as a part of the research reactor development project. Irradiation testing of the materials including graphite, beryllium, and zircaloy-4 that are supposed to be used as core materials in research reactors was required for irradiation at up to 8 reactor operation cycles at low temperature (<100 .deg. C). Therefore, three instrumented capsules were designed and fabricated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the core materials (Graphite, Be, Zircaloy-4) of research reactors. The capsules were first designed and fabricated to irradiate materials at low temperature (<100 .deg. C) for a long cycle of 8 irradiation cycles at HANARO. Therefore, the safety of the new designed capsule should be fully checked before irradiation testing. Out-pile performance and endurance testing before HANARO irradiation testing was performed using a capsule under a 110% condition of a reactor coolant flow amount. The structural integrity of the capsule was analyzed in terms of a vibration-induced fatigue cracking of a rod tip of the capsule that is suspected to be the most vulnerable part of a capsule. Another two capsules were irradiated at HANARO for 4 cycles, and one capsule was transferred to a hot cell to examine the integrity of the rod tip of the capsule. After confirming the soundness of the 4 cycle-irradiated capsule, the remaining capsule was irradiated at up to 8 cycles at HANARO. Based on the structural integrity analysis of the capsule, an improved capsule design will be suggested for a longer irradiation test at HANARO.

  19. Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Daniel E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Collaborative Biotechnologies

    2016-08-29

    New materials are needed to significantly improve the efficiencies of energy harnessing, transduction and storage, yet the synthesis of advanced composites and multi-metallic semiconductors with nanostructures optimized for these functions remains poorly understood and even less well controlled. To help address this need, we proposed three goals: (1) to further investigate the hierarchical structure of the biologically synthesized silica comprising the skeletal spicules of sponges that we discovered, to better resolve the role and mechanism of templating by the hierarchically assembled silicatein protein filament; (2) to extend our molecular and genetic analyses and engineering of silicatein, the self-assembling, structure-directing, silica-synthesizing enzyme we discovered and characterized, to better understand and manipulate the catalysis and templating of semiconductor synthesis,; and (3) to further investigate, scale up and harness the biologically inspired, low-temperature, kinetically controlled catalytic synthesis method we developed (based on the mechanism we discovered in silicatein) to investigate the kinetic control of the structure-function relationships in magnetic materials, and develop new materials for energy applications. The bio-inspired catalytic synthesis method we have developed is low-cost, low temperature, and operates without the use of polluting chemicals. In addition to direct applications for improvement of batteries and fuel cells, the broader impact of this research includes a deeper fundamental understanding of the factors governing kinetically controlled synthesis and its control of the emergent nanostructure and performance of a wide range of nanomaterials for energy applications.

  20. Recycling of hazardous solid waste material using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Meier, A.; Wuillemin, D.; Hoffelner, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2003-03-01

    A novel high-temperature solar chemical reactor is proposed for the thermal recycling of hazardous solid waste material using concentrated solar power. A 10 kW solar reactor prototype was designed and tested for the carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). The reactor was subjected to mean solar flux intensities of 2000 kW/m2 and operated in both batch and continuous mode within the temperature range 1120-1400 K. Extraction of up to 99% and 90% of the Zn originally contained in the EAFD was achieved in the residue for the batch and continuous solar experiments, respectively. The condensed off-gas products consisted mainly of Zn, Pb, and Cl. No ZnO was detected when the O{sub 2} concentration remained below 2 vol.-%. The use of concentrated solar energy as the source of process heat offers the possibility of converting hazardous solid waste material into valuable commodities for processes in closed and sustainable material cycles. (author)

  1. Influence of the starting materials on performance of high temperature oxide fuel cells devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Satoshi Miyamaru Seo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs offer an environmentally friendly technology to convert gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas or gasified coal into electricity at high efficiencies. Besides the efficiency, higher than those obtained from the traditional energy conversion systems, a fuel cell provides many other advantages like reliability, modularity, fuel flexibility and very low levels of NOx and SOx emissions. The high operating temperature (950-1000 °C used by the current generation of the solid oxide fuel cells imposes severe constraints on materials selection in order to improve the lifetime of the cell. Besides the good electrical, electrochemical, mechanical and thermal properties, the individual cell components must be stable under the fuel cell operating atmospheres. Each material has to perform not only in its own right but also in conjunction with other system components. For this reason, each cell component must fulfill several different criteria. This paper reviews the materials and the methods used to fabricate the different cell components, such as the cathode, the electrolyte, the anode and the interconnect. Some remarkable results, obtained at IPEN (Nuclear Energy Research Institute in São Paulo, have been presented.

  2. Materials and characterization techniques for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswitha Zeis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFC is critically dependent on the selection of materials and optimization of individual components. A conventional high-temperature membrane electrode assembly (HT-MEA primarily consists of a polybenzimidazole (PBI-type membrane containing phosphoric acid and two gas diffusion electrodes (GDE, the anode and the cathode, attached to the two surfaces of the membrane. This review article provides a survey on the materials implemented in state-of-the-art HT-MEAs. These materials must meet extremely demanding requirements because of the severe operating conditions of HT-PEMFCs. They need to be electrochemically and thermally stable in highly acidic environment. The polymer membranes should exhibit high proton conductivity in low-hydration and even anhydrous states. Of special concern for phosphoric-acid-doped PBI-type membranes is the acid loss and management during operation. The slow oxygen reduction reaction in HT-PEMFCs remains a challenge. Phosphoric acid tends to adsorb onto the surface of the platinum catalyst and therefore hampers the reaction kinetics. Additionally, the binder material plays a key role in regulating the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the catalyst layer. Subsequently, the binder controls the electrode–membrane interface that establishes the triple phase boundary between proton conductive electrolyte, electron conductive catalyst, and reactant gases. Moreover, the elevated operating temperatures promote carbon corrosion and therefore degrade the integrity of the catalyst support. These are only some examples how materials properties affect the stability and performance of HT-PEMFCs. For this reason, materials characterization techniques for HT-PEMFCs, either in situ or ex situ, are highly beneficial. Significant progress has recently been made in this field, which enables us to gain a better understanding of underlying processes

  3. Materials and characterization techniques for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeis, Roswitha

    2015-01-01

    The performance of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFC) is critically dependent on the selection of materials and optimization of individual components. A conventional high-temperature membrane electrode assembly (HT-MEA) primarily consists of a polybenzimidazole (PBI)-type membrane containing phosphoric acid and two gas diffusion electrodes (GDE), the anode and the cathode, attached to the two surfaces of the membrane. This review article provides a survey on the materials implemented in state-of-the-art HT-MEAs. These materials must meet extremely demanding requirements because of the severe operating conditions of HT-PEMFCs. They need to be electrochemically and thermally stable in highly acidic environment. The polymer membranes should exhibit high proton conductivity in low-hydration and even anhydrous states. Of special concern for phosphoric-acid-doped PBI-type membranes is the acid loss and management during operation. The slow oxygen reduction reaction in HT-PEMFCs remains a challenge. Phosphoric acid tends to adsorb onto the surface of the platinum catalyst and therefore hampers the reaction kinetics. Additionally, the binder material plays a key role in regulating the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the catalyst layer. Subsequently, the binder controls the electrode-membrane interface that establishes the triple phase boundary between proton conductive electrolyte, electron conductive catalyst, and reactant gases. Moreover, the elevated operating temperatures promote carbon corrosion and therefore degrade the integrity of the catalyst support. These are only some examples how materials properties affect the stability and performance of HT-PEMFCs. For this reason, materials characterization techniques for HT-PEMFCs, either in situ or ex situ, are highly beneficial. Significant progress has recently been made in this field, which enables us to gain a better understanding of underlying processes occurring during fuel cell

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory summary plan to fabricate mixed oxide lead assemblies for the fissile material disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buksa, J.J.; Eaton, S.L.; Trellue, H.R.; Chidester, K.; Bowidowicz, M.; Morley, R.A.; Barr, M.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes an approach for using existing Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory) mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-fabrication and plutonium processing capabilities to expedite and assure progress in the MOX/Reactor Plutonium Disposition Program. Lead Assembly MOX fabrication is required to provide prototypic fuel for testing in support of fuel qualification and licensing requirements. It is also required to provide a bridge for the full utilization of the European fabrication experience. In part, this bridge helps establish, for the first time since the early 1980s, a US experience base for meeting the safety, licensing, safeguards, security, and materials control and accountability requirements of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In addition, a link is needed between the current research and development program and the production of disposition mission fuel. This link would also help provide a knowledge base for US regulators. Early MOX fabrication and irradiation testing in commercial nuclear reactors would provide a positive demonstration to Russia (and to potential vendors, designers, fabricators, and utilities) that the US has serious intent to proceed with plutonium disposition. This report summarizes an approach to fabricating lead assembly MOX fuel using the existing MOX fuel-fabrication infrastructure at the Laboratory.

  5. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  6. Development of a low temperature phase change material package. [for spacecraft thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P. J.; Suelau, H. J.; Mcintosh, R.

    1977-01-01

    Test data obtained for a low temperature phase change material (PCM) canisters are presented. The canister was designed to provide up to 30 w-hrs of storage capacity at approximately -90 C with an overall thermal conductance which is greater than 8 w/deg C. N-heptane which is an n-paraffin and has a -90.6 C freezing point was used as the working fluid. The canister was fabricated from aluminum and has an aluminum honeycomb core. Its void volume permits service temperatures up to 70 C. Results obtained from component and system's tests indicate well defined melting and freezing points which are repeatable and within 1 C of each other. Subcooling effects are less than 0.5 C and are essentially negligible. Measured storage capacities are within 94 to 88% the theoretical.

  7. A High Temperature Cyclic Oxidation Data Base for Selected Materials Tested at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The cyclic oxidation test results for some 1000 high temperature commercial and experimental alloys have been collected in an EXCEL database. This database represents over thirty years of research at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The data is in the form of a series of runs of specific weight change versus time values for a set of samples tested at a given temperature, cycle time, and exposure time. Included on each run is a set of embedded plots of the critical data. The nature of the data is discussed along with analysis of the cyclic oxidation process. In addition examples are given as to how a set of results can be analyzed. The data is assembled on a read-only compact disk which is available on request from Materials Durability Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  8. Calibration of temperature measurement by infrared pyrometry in microwave heating of powder materials: an exothermic reaction based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S D; Yang, Y F; Schaffer, G B; Qian, M

    2013-01-01

    Accurate temperature measurement remains a challenge for microwave heating of powder materials. We propose a temperature calibration method based on exothermic reactions and the resultant thermal runaway that occurs during microwave heating. The approach was demonstrated on microwave heating of four titanium alloys. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the threshold reaction temperature for each selected titanium alloy. This served as a standard for the microwave heating of these titanium alloys. Infrared pyrometric temperature measurements were then calibrated by comparing the starting temperature of each thermal runaway event with the threshold reaction temperature.

  9. Ag-doped manganite nanoparticles: new materials for temperature-controlled medical hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, O V; Gorbenko, O Yu; Markelova, M N; Kaul, A R; Atsarkin, V A; Demidov, V V; Soto, C; Roy, E J; Odintsov, B M

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to introduce newly synthesized nanomaterials as an alternative to superparamagnetic ironoxide based particles (SPIO) and thus to launch a new platform for highly controllable hyperthermia cancer therapy and imaging. The new material that forms the basis for this article is lanthanum manganite particles with silver ions inserted into the perovskite lattice: La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta). Adjusting the silver doping level, it is possible to control the Curie temperature (T(c)) in the hyperthermia range of interest (41-44 degrees C). A new class of nanoparticles based on silver-doped manganites La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta) is suggested. New nanoparticles are stable, and their properties were not affected by the typical ambient conditions in the living tissue. It is possible to monitor the particle uptake and retention by MRI. When these particles are placed into an alternating magnetic field, their temperature increases to the definite value near T(c) and then remains constant if the magnetic field is maintained. During the hyperthermia procedure, the temperature can be restricted, thereby preventing the necrosis of normal tissue. A new class of nanoparticles based on silver-doped manganites La(1-x)Ag(x)MnO(3+delta) was suggested. Ag-doped perovskite manganites particles clearly demonstrated the effect of adjustable Curie temperature necessary for highly controllable cellular hyperthermia. The magnetic relaxation properties of the particles are comparable with that of SPIO, and so we were able to monitor the particle movement and retention by MRI. Thus, the new material combines the MRI contrast enhancement capability with targeted hyperthermia treatment.

  10. Using a helicon source to simulate atmospheric re-entry plasma densities and temperatures in a laboratory setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, K M; Gallimore, A D; Smith, T B [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48019 (United States)], E-mail: klemmer@umich.edu

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a plasma system capable of reproducing plasma densities found during atmospheric re-entry of a capsule. We developed a 150 mm diameter helicon source at the University of Michigan Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL) and used a Langmuir probe to characterize plasma properties downstream. The helicon source was operated with argon gas at a background pressure of 0.6 mTorr. We used a commercial RF-compensated single Langmuir probe to measure ion number density and electron temperature in the region downstream of the helicon source where we want to create conditions similar to those found during hypersonic flight within the atmosphere. We measured these values with and without the presence of a large 450 mm wide by 550 mm long surface downstream in the horizontal plane to simulate a vehicle surrounded by plasma in order to determine how the downstream body affects plasma properties. We found that the presence of a surface downstream of the helicon source lowers the downstream plasma density range from between 1.7 x 10{sup 17} and 3.3 x 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} down to 0.55 x 10{sup 17} and 1.3 x 10{sup 17} m{sup -3}. In addition, the peak plasma potential decreases from 65 to 55 V, but the electron temperature remains unchanged ranging between 1.5 and 6.5 eV.

  11. Using a helicon source to simulate atmospheric re-entry plasma densities and temperatures in a laboratory setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, K. M.; Gallimore, A. D.; Smith, T. B.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a plasma system capable of reproducing plasma densities found during atmospheric re-entry of a capsule. We developed a 150 mm diameter helicon source at the University of Michigan Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL) and used a Langmuir probe to characterize plasma properties downstream. The helicon source was operated with argon gas at a background pressure of 0.6 mTorr. We used a commercial RF-compensated single Langmuir probe to measure ion number density and electron temperature in the region downstream of the helicon source where we want to create conditions similar to those found during hypersonic flight within the atmosphere. We measured these values with and without the presence of a large 450 mm wide by 550 mm long surface downstream in the horizontal plane to simulate a vehicle surrounded by plasma in order to determine how the downstream body affects plasma properties. We found that the presence of a surface downstream of the helicon source lowers the downstream plasma density range from between 1.7 × 1017 and 3.3 × 1017 m-3 down to 0.55 × 1017 and 1.3 × 1017 m-3. In addition, the peak plasma potential decreases from 65 to 55 V, but the electron temperature remains unchanged ranging between 1.5 and 6.5 eV.

  12. Investigation of salt distribution in porous stone material using paper pulp poultices under laboratory condititions and on site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egartner, Isabel; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The presented investigation is part of a longer-term project which deals with the influence of salt and moisture on weathering of historic stonework. The main investigation object in the field is a part of the 300 hundred year old boundary wall of the Worchester College in Oxford, UK. A range of non-destructive techniques were applied in course of field campaigns, e.g. mapping of weathering phenomena; handheld moisture sensors; and salt sampling by paper pulp poultices. In a second step we investigated the behaviour and distribution of water and salt solution in a porous material, similar to the limestone of the College wall, under laboratory condititions. Limestone cube samples (5x5x5 cm) were soaked first with ultrapure H2O and second with different concentration of saline solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4. During the dehydration process of the stone cubes a multi-method approach including sampling by drilling, paper pulp poultices, handheld moisture sensor, conductivity sensor and Ion Chromatography (IC) were applied to investigate the moisture and salt content and distribution within the samples. The laboratory analyses were carried out at the department of applied geoscience of the Technical University of Graz, Austria. The main aim was to investigate the effectivity of the paper pulp poultices in soaking up salts from the stone samples and to use the results of the laboratory analysis to interpret and calibrate the field work results from the College wall in Oxford. Keywords: Salt weathering, paper pulp poultices, cultural heritage, field work and laboratory investigation

  13. Influence of the temperature on materials electric behaviour: Understanding and students’ learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Carmona

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we defend that in the teaching/learning of the electricity, its contents must be associa ted with contents concerning the structure and behaviour of the matter. Thus, it is possible to understand some electricity topics as the influence of the temperature on electric behaviour of materials. In this sense, we propose a conceptual framework for its teaching, coherent with the Spanish Physics and Chemistry curriculum of Secondary Education. Likewise, we show the results of a research carried out with 60 pupils (age 14-15, about theirs understanding levels and theirs learning difficulties regarding considered topic.

  14. Phase Change Material for Temperature Control of Imager or Sounder on GOES Type Satellites in GEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses phase change material (PCM) in the scan cavity of an imager or sounder on satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO) to maintain the telescope temperature stable. When sunlight enters the scan aperture, solar heating causes the PCM to melt. When sunlight stops entering the scan aperture, the PCM releases the thermal energy stored to keep the components in the telescope warm. It has no moving parts or bimetallic springs. It reduces heater power required to make up the heat lost by radiation to space through the aperture. It is an attractive thermal control option to a radiator with a louver and a sunshade.

  15. Determination of Material Constitutive Laws for Inconel 718 Superalloy Under Different Strain Rates and Working Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, W.; Niesłony, P.; Laskowski, P.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a special procedure for the prediction of parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive material models is proposed based on the experimental data and specially developed MATLAB scripts which allow advanced modeling of complex 3D response surfaces. Experimental investigations concern two various strain rates of 10-3 and 101 1/s and the testing temperature ranging from the ambient up to 700 °C. As a result, a set of mathematical equations which fit the experimental data is determined. The applicability of the experimentally derived constitutive models to the FEM modeling of real machining processes of Inconel 718 alloy is verified.

  16. Magnetic refrigeration at room temperature - from magnetocaloric materials to a prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Pryds, Nini; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2011-01-01

    materials, their shaping and graded composition for technological use. Modelling the performance of a permanent magnet with optimum use of the flux and relatively low weight, and designing and constructing a prototype continuous magnetic refrigeration device have also been major tasks in the project......Based on the magnetocaloric effect, magnetic refrigeration at room temperature has for the past decade been a promising, environmentally friendly new energy technology predicted to have a significantly higher efficiency than the present conventional methods. However, so far only a few prototype...... refrigeration machines have been presented worldwide and there are still many scientific and technological challenges to be overcome. We report here on the MagCool project, which spans all the way from basic materials studies to the construction of a prototype. Emphasis has been on ceramic magnetocaloric...

  17. Numerical Simulation of Temperature Distribution and Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding 2017A Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimouni Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the use of fluid dynamic code, FLUENT to model the flow of metal in the AA2017A case around the welding tool pin (FSW. A standard threaded tool profile is used for the analysis of phenomena during welding such as heat generation and flow of the material are included. The main objective is to gain a better understanding of the flow of material around a tool. The model showed a large number of phenomena similar to those of the real process. The model has also generated a sufficient amount of heat, which leads to a good estimate of the junction temperature. These results were obtained using a viscosity which is near the solidus softening.

  18. OWL: A scalable Monte Carlo simulation suite for finite-temperature study of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying Wai; Yuk, Simuck F.; Cooper, Valentino R.; Eisenbach, Markus; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu

    The OWL suite is a simulation package for performing large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. Its object-oriented, modular design enables it to interface with various external packages for energy evaluations. It is therefore applicable to study the finite-temperature properties for a wide range of systems: from simple classical spin models to materials where the energy is evaluated by ab initio methods. This scheme not only allows for the study of thermodynamic properties based on first-principles statistical mechanics, it also provides a means for massive, multi-level parallelism to fully exploit the capacity of modern heterogeneous computer architectures. We will demonstrate how improved strong and weak scaling is achieved by employing novel, parallel and scalable Monte Carlo algorithms, as well as the applications of OWL to a few selected frontier materials research problems. This research was supported by the Office of Science of the Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  19. Studies on mechanical high-temperature properties of materials with sprayed coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarenko, G.S.; Ljasenko, B.A.; Zygylev, O.V.

    1983-03-01

    The results of studies on the tensile strength, creep behaviour and durability in the temperature range from 1 700 to 2 400 K of surface-coated molybdenum samples for experimental times <=10h. are reported here. Monolayer coatings based on molybdenum disilicide and bilayer coatings consisting of a ground coating of molybdenum disilicide and a cover layer of glass and high-melting oxides are used as protective coatings. The ground coating is formed by a thermodiffusion process and the cover coating formed with the aid of a plasma spaying technique. A suggestion is made for optimizing the properties of the combination basic material/coating by taking as criterium the heat resistance and standard parameters for the properties of the basic material and the coating, together with their adhesion resistance.

  20. Fire victim identification by post-mortem dental CT: Radiologic evaluation of restorative materials after exposure to high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woisetschlaeger, Mischa, E-mail: Mischa.woisetschlager@lio.se [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualisation (CMIV), University Hospital Linkoeping, Linkoeping University, 58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Lussi, Adrian, E-mail: anders.persson@cmiv.lio.se [Department of Preventive, Restorative and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Persson, Anders, E-mail: adrian.lussi@zmk.unibe.ch [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualisation (CMIV), University Hospital Linkoeping, Linkoeping University, 58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Jackowski, Christian, E-mail: christian.jackowski@irm.uzh.ch [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualisation (CMIV), University Hospital Linkoeping, Linkoeping University, 58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of high resolution CT to radiologically define teeth filling material properties in terms of Hounsfield units after high temperature exposure. Methods: 122 human molars with 10 different filling materials at defined filling diameters were examined. The teeth were CT scanned both before and after the exposure to different temperatures. After image reconstruction, the teeth and filling materials were analyzed regarding their morphology and Hounsfield units (HU) using an extended HU scale. Results: The majority of filling materials diminished in size at temperatures {>=}400 deg. C. HU values were stable for all materials up till 200 deg. C, and only slightly changed up to 600 deg. C. Cerec, Dyract and dentin showed only minor changes in HU at all temperatures. The other materials, inclusive enamel, showed specific patterns, either increasing or decreasing in HU with increasing temperatures over 600 deg. C. Conclusions: Over 600 deg. C the filling materials show specific patterns that can be used to discriminate filling materials. Ultra high resolution CT may improve the identification processes in fire victims. Existing 3D visualization presets for the dentition can be used until 600 deg. C and have to be optimized for bodies exposed to higher temperatures.